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1

Design and initial tests of beam current monitoring systems for the APS transport lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-intercepting beam current monitoring systems suitable for a wide range of beam parameters have been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines and high energy transport line. The positron or electron beam pulse in the transport lines will have peak beam currents ranging from 8 mA to 29 A with pulse widths varying from 120

Xucheng Wang; Xucheng

1992-01-01

2

Design and initial tests of beam current monitoring systems for the APS transport lines  

SciTech Connect

The non-intercepting beam current monitoring systems suitable for a wide, range of beam parameters have been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines and high energy transport line. The positron or electron beam pulse in the transport lines wig have peak beam currents ranging from 8 mA to 29 A with pulse widths varying from 120 ps to 30 ns and pulse repetition rates from 2 Hz to 60 Hz. The peak beam current or total beam charge is measured with the fast or integrating current transformer, respectively, manufactured by Bergoz. In-house high speed beam signal processing electronics provide a DC level output proportional to the peak current or total charge for the digitizer input. The prototype systems were tested on the linacs which have beam pulse structures similar to that of the APS transport lines. This paper describes the design of beam signal processing electronics and grounding and shielding methods for current transformers. The results of the initial operations are presented. A short introduction on the preliminary design of current monitoring systems for the APS rings is also included.

Wang, Xucheng.

1992-01-01

3

Design and initial tests of beam current monitoring systems for the APS transport lines  

SciTech Connect

The non-intercepting beam current monitoring systems suitable for a wide, range of beam parameters have been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines and high energy transport line. The positron or electron beam pulse in the transport lines wig have peak beam currents ranging from 8 mA to 29 A with pulse widths varying from 120 ps to 30 ns and pulse repetition rates from 2 Hz to 60 Hz. The peak beam current or total beam charge is measured with the fast or integrating current transformer, respectively, manufactured by Bergoz. In-house high speed beam signal processing electronics provide a DC level output proportional to the peak current or total charge for the digitizer input. The prototype systems were tested on the linacs which have beam pulse structures similar to that of the APS transport lines. This paper describes the design of beam signal processing electronics and grounding and shielding methods for current transformers. The results of the initial operations are presented. A short introduction on the preliminary design of current monitoring systems for the APS rings is also included.

Wang, Xucheng

1992-12-01

4

Diagnostics for the APS undulator test line  

SciTech Connect

One of the research and development thrusts at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is to use an rf gun as a low-emittance electron source for injection into the 100- to 650-MeV linac subsystem and subsequent transport to an undulator test area. This configuration would combine the acceleration capability of the 200-MeV S-band electron linac and the in-line 450-MeV positron linac that normally provide positrons to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). A transport line that bypasses the PAR will bring the electrons to the undulator test area. Characterization techniques will be discussed for the electron beam with a normalized, rms emittance of <10 {pi} mm mrad (l{sigma}) at micropulse charges of up to 350 pC and micropulse durations of {approximately}5 ps (FWHM). Preservation of such beam properties will be critical. The diagnostics planned, with resolutions in parentheses, include the beam position monitors based on stripline pickups (100 {mu}m), current monitors based on a transformer (60 {mu}A), beam profile monitors (25 {mu}m FWHM), and bunch length monitor based on a streak camera (2 ps). Tests proposed include measurement of particle beam transport effects (at one-tenth the storage ring beam rigidity) caused by small undulator field errors.

Lumpkin, A.H.; Ciarlette, D.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Wang, X.

1993-11-01

5

Raising the acceptance of the AP2-line  

SciTech Connect

The 120 GeV Main Ring proton beam collides with the target at the end of the AP-1 line and creates antiprotons and other secondary particles. The AP-2 line transfers the negative particles from the target to the Debuncher. To provide a bigger antiproton stack size in the Accumulator, both the Debuncher as well as the AP-2 line acceptance have to be raised. This is a proposal for the improvement of the AP-2 line acceptance. The first part of the memo presents an acceptance examination of the existing AP-2 line by computer simulation, while the second presents a short proposal for aperture corrections. The computer program TURTLE was used to trace antiprotons through the AP-2 line without taking into account other negative charged particles. Betatron functions were obtained from the output of the SYNCH computer program. The SYNCH program was also used to check the dispersion match between the AP-2 line and the Debuncher. 3 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Trbojevic, D.

1989-04-05

6

High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam curr...

X. Wang M. Knott A. Lumpkin

1994-01-01

7

High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS)

X. Wang; M. Knott; A. Lumpkin

1995-01-01

8

High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS)

X. Wang; M. Knott; A. Lumpkin

1994-01-01

9

Spectral Line Profiles Variations in the roAp Star ? Circini  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse behavior of the line profile variations of the brightest known roAp star ?Circini based on the high-resolution spectra obtained with the HARPS spectrometer. The rapid variations of Nd and Pr line profiles are similar to other roAp stars.

Alentiev, D. V.

10

The AP3 Adaptor Complex Is Essential for Cargo-Selective Transport to the Yeast Vacuole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three distinct adaptor protein (AP) complexes involved in protein trafficking have been identified. AP-1 and AP-2 mediate protein sorting at the trans-Golgi network and plasma membrane, respectively, whereas the function of AP-3 has not been defined. A screen for factors specifically involved in transport of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) from the Golgi to the vacuole\\/lysosome has identified Apl6p and Apl5p of

Christopher R Cowles; Greg Odorizzi; Gregory S Payne; Scott D Emr

1997-01-01

11

Genome-wide Analysis of AP3-dependent Protein Transport in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ,The evolutionarily conserved AP-3 complex mediates cargo-selective transport to lysosomes and lysosome-relatedorganelles. To identify proteins that function in AP-3-mediated transport, we performed a genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiaefor defects in the vacuolar maturation of alkalinephosphatase (ALP), a cargo of the AP-3 pathway. Forty-nine gene deletion strains were identified that accumulated precursor ALP, many with established defects in vacuolar protein

Vikram C. Anand; Lydia Daboussi; Todd C. Lorenz; Gregory S. Payne

2009-01-01

12

Line blanketed model atmospheres of AP stars. IV - UBV colors and effective temperatures of AP stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

UBV data for Ap stars at a distance less than 100 pc from the sun show that hotter stars lie on or close to the main sequence in the two-color diagram, but that stars with B-V not less than +0.05 lie below it. This behavior is confirmed by model atmospheres of standard peculiar and individual peculiar stars. It is shown

K. Stepien; H. Muthsam

1980-01-01

13

Proposed particle-beam characterizations for the APS undulator test line  

SciTech Connect

A research and development effort is underway at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to use an rf gun as a low-emittance electron source for injection into the 100- to 650-MeV linac subsystem and subsequently to an undulator test area. This configuration would combine the acceleration capability of the 200-MeV S-band electron linac and the in-line 450-MeV positron linac that normally provide positrons to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). A transport line that bypasses the PAR will bring the electrons to the undulator test area. Characterization techniques will be discussed for the electron beam with a normalized, rms emittance of <10 {pi} mm mrad (1{sigma}) at micropulse charges of up to 350 pC and micropulse durations of {approximately}5 ps (FWHM). Tests proposed include measurement of particle beam transport effects (at one-tenth the storage ring beam rigidity) caused by small undulator field errors as well as operations intended to produce coherent, short wavelength radiation (<200 nm).

Lumpkin, A.H.; Borland, M.; Milton, S.

1993-09-01

14

High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line  

SciTech Connect

Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real`` beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

1995-05-05

15

High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line  

SciTech Connect

Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real`` beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS.

Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

1994-11-01

16

High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real'' beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS.

Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

1995-05-01

17

Line profile variations in rapidly oscillating Ap stars: resolution of the enigma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out the first survey of the pulsational line profile variability in rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars. We analysed high signal-to-noise ratio time-series observations of 10 sharp-lined roAp stars obtained with the high-resolution spectrographs attached to the Very Large Telescope and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We investigated in detail the variations of PrIII, NdII, NdIII and TbIII lines and discovered a prominent change of the profile variability pattern with height in the atmospheres of all studied roAp stars. We show that, in every investigated star, profile variability of at least one rare-earth ion is characterized by unusual blue-to-red moving features, which we previously discovered in the time-resolved spectra of the roAp star ? Equ. This behaviour is common in rapidly rotating non-radial pulsators but is inexplicable in the framework of the standard oblique pulsator model of slowly rotating roAp stars. Using analysis of the line profile moments and spectrum synthesis calculations, we demonstrate that unusual oscillations in spectral lines of roAp stars arise from the pulsational modulation of linewidths. This variation occurs approximately in quadrature with the radial velocity changes, and its amplitude rapidly increases with height in stellar atmosphere. We propose that the linewidth modulation is a consequence of the periodic expansion and compression of turbulent layers in the upper atmospheres of roAp stars. Thus, the line profile changes observed in slowly rotating magnetic pulsators should be interpreted as a superposition of two types of variability: the usual time-dependent velocity field due to an oblique low-order pulsation mode and an additional linewidth modulation, synchronized with the changes of stellar radius. Our explanation of the line profile variations of roAp stars solves the long-standing observational puzzle and opens new possibilities for constraining geometric and physical properties of the stellar magnetoacoustic pulsations. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (Paranal, La Silla), at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and on data retrieved from the ESO Science Archive. E-mail: oleg@astro.uu.se

Kochukhov, O.; Ryabchikova, T.; Weiss, W. W.; Landstreet, J. D.; Lyashko, D.

2007-04-01

18

Discovery of 17 new sharp-lined Ap stars with magnetically resolved lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically peculiar A stars (Ap) are extreme examples of the interaction of atomic element diffusion processes with magnetic fields in stellar atmospheres. The rapidly oscillating Ap stars provide a means for studying these processes in three dimensions and are at the same time important for studying the pulsation excitation mechanism in A stars. As part of the first comprehensive, uniform,

L. M. Freyhammer; V. G. Elkin; D. W. Kurtz; G. Mathys; P. Martinez

2008-01-01

19

Discovery of 17 new sharp-lined Ap stars with magnetically resolved lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically peculiar A stars (Ap) are extreme examples of the interaction of\\u000aatomic element diffusion processes with magnetic fields in stellar atmospheres.\\u000aThe rapidly oscillating Ap stars provide a means for studying these processes\\u000ain 3D and are at the same time important for studying the pulsation excitation\\u000amechanism in A stars. As part of the first comprehensive, uniform, high

L. M. Freyhammer; V. G. Elkin; D. W. Kurtz; G. Mathys; P. Martinez

2008-01-01

20

Vacuum and beam transport lines: main principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some details of vacuum system designs of beam transport lines are presented. The effect of gas desorption on vacuum equilibrium and stability and ion-induced pressure instability in the beam transport lines are discussed. Main vacuum relationships are also given as a basis for understanding the vacuum system configuration of beam transport lines. Residual gas spectra together with specific outgassing rates

J. Pivar?; K. D. Tumanov

1997-01-01

21

NSLS-II Transport Line Progress  

SciTech Connect

The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

2012-05-20

22

2-D axisymmetric line transport  

SciTech Connect

The methods used in the ALTAIR code for computing the transfer of spectral line radiation in two-dimensional axially-symmetric geometry are described. ALTAIR uses a variable-Eddington-tensor approach, in which the transfer equation of non-coherent line scattering is written in moment form, and the moments are closed with an assumed tensor relating the monochromatic pressure tensor and energy density; this Eddington tensor is obtained self-consistently using an accurate angle-dependent solution of the transfer equation. The finite element method for solving the moment system, and the discontinuous finite element method for solving the S{sub n} equation of transfer are described. Two applications of the method are discussed: line formation in uniform cylinders with different length-diameter ratios, and monochromatic transfer on an irregular x-y mesh (the Mordant test problem). 13 refs., 2 figs.

Castor, J.I.; Dykema, P.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Klein, R.I. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Astronomy)

1990-11-20

23

The NSNS high energy beam transport line  

SciTech Connect

In the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) design, a 180 meter long transport line connects the 1 GeV linac to an accumulator ring. The linac beam has a current of 28 mA, pulse length of 1 ms, and 60 hz rep rate. The high energy transport line consists of sixteen 60{degree} FODO cells, and accommodates a 90{degree} achromatic bend, an energy compressor, collimators, part of the injection system, and enough diagnostic devices to measure the beam quality before injection. To reduce the uncontrolled beam losses, this line has nine beam halo scrapers and very tight tolerances on both transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics under space charge conditions. The design of this line is presented.

Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Weng, W.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). AGS Dept.

1997-07-01

24

The AP3 adaptor is involved in the transport of membrane proteins to acidocalcisomes of Leishmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysosomal function is crucial for the differentiation and infectivity of the parasitic protozoon Leishmania major. To study lysosomal biogenesis, an L. major mutant deficient in the subunit of the adaptor protein 3 (AP3 ) complex was generated. Structure and proteolytic capacity of the lysosomal compartment were apparently unaffected in the AP3-deficient mutant; however, defects were identified in its acidocalcisomes. These

Sébastien Besteiro; Daniela Tonn; Laurence Tetley; Graham H. Coombs; Jeremy C. Mottram

2008-01-01

25

Regulation of the human biotin transporter hSMVT promoter by KLF-4 and AP-2: confirmation of promoter activity in vivo.  

PubMed

The mechanism of biotin uptake in human intestine has been well characterized and involves the human sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (hSMVT), yet little is known about the molecular/transcriptional regulation of the system. Previous investigations cloned the 5' regulatory region of the hSMVT gene and identified the minimal promoter. To expand these investigations, we compared activity of the hSMVT promoter in three human intestinal epithelial cell lines (NCM460, Caco-2, and HuTu-80) and contrasted a renal epithelial cell line (HEK-293). We analyzed the role of putative cis-elements in regulating promoter activity and confirmed activity of the cloned hSMVT promoter in vivo. In vitro studies demonstrated that all cell lines utilized the same minimal promoter region, and mutation of specific cis-regulatory elements [Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF-4) and activator protein-2 (AP-2)] led to a decrease in promoter activity in all intestinal cell types but not in renal cells. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified two specific DNA/protein complexes. Using oligonucleotide competition and antibody supershift analysis, we determined that KLF-4 and AP-2 were involved in forming the complexes. In HEK-293 cells, overexpressing KLF-4 increased the endogenous hSMVT message levels threefold and activated a cotransfected hSMVT promoter-reporter construct. In vivo studies using hSMVT promoter-luciferase transgenic mice established physiological relevance and showed the pattern of hSMVT promoter expression to be similar to endogenous mouse SMVT mRNA expression. The results demonstrate, for the first time, the importance of KLF-4 and AP-2 in regulating the activity of the hSMVT promoter in the intestine and provide direct in vivo confirmation of hSMVT promoter activity. PMID:17135299

Reidling, Jack C; Said, Hamid M

2006-11-29

26

Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Ruland, R.E.

1991-10-01

27

Beam Dynamics Studies in the RACE Project: MH1 transport line --low power regime operation-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical nuclear system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible divergence problem) the MH1 transport line was designed. Beam dynamics studies followed the beam optics ones and we present in this paper the first results of such studies. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.C1.8

Maidana, Carlos; Hunt, Alan; Beller, Denis

2007-05-01

28

Calibrating transport lines using LOCO techniques  

SciTech Connect

With the 12GeV upgrade underway at CEBAF, there is a need to re-characterize the beamlines after the modifications made to it to accommodate running at higher energies. We present a linear perturbation approach to calibrating the optics model of transport lines. This method is adapted from the LOCO method in use for storage rings. We consider the effect of quadrupole errors, dipole construction errors as well as beam position monitors and correctors calibrations. The ideal model is expanded to first order in Taylor series of the quadrupole errors. A set of difference orbits obtained by exciting the correctors along the beamline is taken, yielding the measured response matrix. An iterative procedure is invoked and the quadrupole errors as well as beam position monitors and corrector calibration factors are obtained. Here we present details of the method and results of first measurements at CEBAF in early 2011.

Yves Roblin

2011-09-01

29

On the influence of Stark broadening of Cr I lines in the Cr-rich Ap star beta CrB atmosphere.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the semiclassical perturbation method, electron-, proton-, and ionized helium-impact line widths and shifts for the nine Cr I spectral lines from the 4p7P0-4d7D multiplet, were calculated. The results were used to investigate the influence of Stark broadening effect in the Cr-rich Ap star beta CrB atmosphere.

Dimitrijevi?, Milan S.; Ryabchikova, Tanya; Popovi?, Luka ?.; Shulyak, Denis; Khan, Sergey

30

The SNS Ring to Target Beam Transport line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) line connects the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring to the target, with the required footprint for the accelerator complex. This line also provides four sets of beta collimators to clean any beam halo. This 160 meter long transport line consists of eleven 90 degree FODO cells, beam extraction and a beam spreader

D. Raparia; J. Alessi; Y. Y. Lee; W. T. Weng

1999-01-01

31

The Global Transcriptional Effects of the Human Papillomavirus E6 Protein in Cervical Carcinoma Cell Lines Are Mediated by the E6AP Ubiquitin Ligase†  

PubMed Central

The function of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 protein that is most clearly linked to carcinogenesis is the targeted degradation of p53, which is dependent on the E6AP ubiquitin ligase. Additional functions have been attributed to E6, including the stimulation of telomerase activity and the targeted degradation of other cellular proteins, but in most cases it is unclear whether these activities are also E6AP dependent. While E6 clearly influences the transcriptional program of HPV-positive cell lines through the inactivation of p53, it has been shown that at least a subset of its p53-independent functions are also reflected in the transcriptional program. For this study, we have determined the extent to which E6AP is involved in mediating the set of E6 functions that impact on the global transcriptional program of HPV-positive cell lines. The transcriptional profiles of ?31,000 genes were characterized for three cell lines (HeLa, Caski, and SiHa cells) after small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of E6 or E6AP. We found that E6 and E6AP siRNAs elicited nearly identical alterations in the transcriptional profile of each cell line. Some of the expression alterations were apparent secondary effects of p53 stabilization, while the basis of most other changes was not reconcilable with previously proposed E6 functions. While expression changes of the TERT gene (telomerase catalytic subunit) were not revealed by the array, telomerase repeat amplification protocol assays showed that both E6 and E6AP knockouts resulted in a suppression of telomerase activity. Together, these results suggest that E6AP mediates a broad spectrum of E6 functions, including virtually all functions that impact on the transcriptional program of HPV-positive cell lines.

Kelley, Melissa L.; Keiger, Kerri E.; Lee, Chan Jae; Huibregtse, Jon M.

2005-01-01

32

Transport of the antibacterial agent oxazolidin-2-one and derivatives across intestinal (Caco-2) and renal (MDCK) epithelial cell lines.  

PubMed Central

The transepithelial passage of the orally bioavailable antibacterial agent oxazolidin-2-one (OXa) and 10 derivatives has been studied with human intestinal (Caco-2) and canine renal (MDCK) cell lines grown on polycarbonate filters. The transepithelial passage was assayed in the apical-to-basolateral (AP-to-BL) direction and in the opposite direction (BL to AP) in both cell lines. The observed passage rates of OXa were similar in both directions in the two cell lines, suggesting passive diffusion. This was further confirmed by the fact that transport kinetics were linear as a function of initial concentration. The rates of AP-to-BL passage of OXa and seven of the derivatives in both cell lines were linearly related to lipophilicity, whether expressed as high-passage liquid chromatography retention time or as the logarithm of the n-octanol-water partition coefficient (log P). These data suggest that the lipophilicity of OXa is important for its observed bioavailability after oral administration. Interestingly, three of the derivatives exhibited a higher passage rate than predicted by lipophilicity. Further studies indicated that this transport was saturable, similar in the two directions, and not affected by energy depletion, suggesting the presence of an additional carrier-mediated facilitated-transport mechanism.

Ranaldi, G; Seneci, P; Guba, W; Islam, K; Sambuy, Y

1996-01-01

33

An improved thermionic microwave gun and emittance-preserving transport line  

SciTech Connect

The positron/electron linac for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory can be used to accelerate electrons to 650 MeV. As part of a project to use this linac to test the quality of insertion devices, work has been done to develop a higher-brightness thermionic microwave gun of the SSRL type. The new gun design has smaller emittance by a factor of 3 to 4. The ratio of cathode field to maximum surface field is more than doubled. The new alpha-magnet-based transport line design produces negligible emittance degradation due to chromatic aberrations, in spite of the {plus_minus}5% momentum spread.

Borland, M.

1993-07-01

34

Upregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 gene expression by acetylation of AP-2 alpha in THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line.  

PubMed

Human Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a receptor for a variety of microbial products and mediates activation signals in cells of the innate immune system. Therefore, it is of great interest to investigate the molecular mechanisms that control the expression of TLR2. In this study, using real-time PCR and western blot assays, we show that trichostatin A (TSA), which is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, upregulates the expression of both TLR2 mRNA and protein in the human THP-1 cell line. A luciferase activity analysis of the truncated TLR2 promoter indicated that the region from -230 to -140 in the TLR2 promoter was sensitive to TSA. Moreover, using electrophoresis mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we identified an AP-2 alpha (AP-2?) responsive element at position -184 and found that the binding of AP-2? to this element was enhanced by TSA under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Immunoprecipitation and western blot analyses showed that the levels of acetylated AP-2? were increased in THP-1 cells after TSA treatment, and this increase is consistent with the increased binding affinity to the AP-2? responsive elements. In summary, these data define a mechanism through which AP-2? acetylation and increased promoter access induce the expression of the TLR2 gene. This mechanism may provide insight into a regulatory mode of TLR2 expression and the molecular foundations of certain immunological diseases. PMID:23680675

Li, Miao; Li, Xi; Wang, Enhua; Luo, Enjie

2013-05-13

35

TRANSPORT OF WASTE SIMULANTS IN PJM VENT LINES  

SciTech Connect

The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.

Qureshi, Z

2007-02-21

36

HOPS Interacts with Apl5 at the Vacuole Membrane and Is Required for Consumption of AP3 Transport Vesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT A,daptor Protein complexes,(APs) are evolutionarily conserved,heterotetramers that couple,cargo selection to the formation of highly curved,membranes,during vesicle budding. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AP-3 mediates vesicle traffic from the late Golgi to the vacuolar,lysosome. The HOPS subunit Vps41 is one of the few proteins reported to have a specific role in AP-3 traffic, yet its function remains undefined. We now show that

Cortney G. Angers; Alexey J. Merz

2009-01-01

37

Design of the SLC damping ring to linac transport lines  

SciTech Connect

The first and second order optics for the damping ring to linac transport line are designed to preserve the damped transverse emittance while simultaneously compressing the bunch length of the beam to that length required for reinjection into the linac. This design, including provisions for future control of beam polarization, is described.

Fieguth, T.H.; Murray, J.J.

1983-07-01

38

Transporting hot oil by a new concept in insulated lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy fuel oil, heated to 60°C, is transported to the Porto Tolle power plant, near Ravenna, Italy, through an 8-mi, 22-in. insulated pipe line system. The authors tell how Snamprogetti's patented pipe insulation system was used to connect a man-made island in the Adriatic Sea to the power plant.

R. Matteelli; M. Brambilla; P. Pierangeli

1986-01-01

39

Lithium and the 6Li-7Li isotope ratio in the atmospheres of some sharp-lined roAp stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ? 6708 Å and 6103 Å lithium lines in the high-resolution spectra of some sharp-lined roAp stars are analyzed using three spectral-synthesis codes STARSP, ZEEMAN2, and SYNTHM. The lines from the VALD database were supplemented with lines of rare-earth elements from the DREAM database and new lines calculated using the NIST energy levels. Our synthetic-spectrum calculations take into account magnetic splitting and other line-broadening effects. Lithium overabundances were found in the atmospheres of the stars based on our analysis of both lithium lines, along with high values of the 6Li-7Li isotope ratio (0.2 0.5). This can be explained if lithium is produced in spallation reactions and the surface 6Li and 7Li is preserved by strong magnetic fields in the upper layers of the stellar atmospheres, around the poles of the dipole field. The asymmetry of lithium lines to the red may be due to the action of shocks in the optically thin upper atmosphere, with the shocked material subsequently falling onto the star.

Shavrina, A. V.; Polosukhina, N. S.; Khan, S.; Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Khalack, V. R.; Mikha?litskaya, N. G.; Lyubchik, Yu. P.; Yushchenko, A. V.; Hatzes, A.; Mkrtichian, D. E.; Il'in, I. V.

2006-06-01

40

Expression and activity of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in curly kale in response to sulfate deprivation and re-supply.  

PubMed

Both activity and expression of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in plants are modulated by the sulfur status of the plant. To examine the regulatory mechanisms in curly kale (Brassica oleracea L.), the sulfate supply was manipulated by the transfer of seedlings to sulfate-deprived conditions, which resulted in an up to 3-fold increase in the sulfate uptake capacity by the root, accompanied by an induction of transcript abundances of the Group 1 and 4 sulfate transporters in root and shoot. Upon sulfate re-supply, there was no correlation between the activity and expression of the sulfate transporters. Despite the decrease in the abundance of the sulfate transporter transcripts, especially at the onset of the sulfate re-supply, the sulfate uptake capacity was affected very little for up to 96h. There was no relationship between changes in the sulfate or thiol content and activity and expression of the sulfate transporters. Thus, their significance as regulatory signal compounds remains unresolved. The activity and expression of APS reductase, which was enhanced strongly only in the shoots of sulfate-deprived plants, and rapidly decreased again upon sulfate re-supply, corresponded with changes in thiol content, consistent with this pool having a role as a regulatory signal. PMID:18556087

Koralewska, Aleksandra; Buchner, Peter; Stuiver, C Elisabeth E; Posthumus, Freek S; Kopriva, Stanislav; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; De Kok, Luit J

2008-06-16

41

Transport properties in a line defect superlattice of graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was recently reported that a kind of graphene line defect can be fabricated in a controllable experimental way. In the present work we theoretically investigate the band structure and the electronic transport properties of a graphene superlattice formed by embedding periodically line defects in the graphene lattice. Based on the calculated results, we suggest that such a superlattice can be used as a quantum wire array which can carry much larger current than a single graphene nanoribbon. A remarkable advantage of this superlattice over other quantum wires is that the electronic transport in it is insensitive to scattering effects except that the scattering potential range is smaller than the graphene lattice constant. Moreover, we find that the anisotropy of the Dirac cone presented in this superlattice has a nontrivial influence on the universal minimal conductivity and the sub-Poissonian shot noise of graphene.

Lü, Xiaoling; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

2013-11-01

42

Gibberellin Concentration and Transport in Genetic Lines of Pea 1  

PubMed Central

Effects of the Na and Le loci on gibberellin (GA) content and transport in pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoots were studied. GA1, GA8, GA17, GA19, GA20, GA29, GA44, GA8 catabolite, and GA29 catabolite were identified by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in extracts of expanding and fully expanded tissues of line C79-338 (Na Le). Quantification of GAs by gas chromatography-single-ion monitoring using deuterated internal standards in lines differing at the Na and Le alleles showed that na reduced the contents of GA19, GA20, and GA29 on average to <3% and of GA1 and GA8 to <30% of those in corresponding Na lines. In expanding tissues from Na le lines, GA1 and GA8 concentrations were reduced to approximately 10 and 2%, respectively, and GA29 content increased 2- to 3-fold compared with those in Na Le plants. There was a close correlation between stem length and the concentrations of GA1 or GA8 in shoot apices in all six genotypes investigated. In na/Na grafts, internode length and GA1 concentration of nana scions were normalized, the GA20 content increased slightly, but GA19 levels were unaffected. Movement of labeled GAs applied to leaves on Na rootstocks indicated that GA19 was transported poorly to apices of na scions compared with GA20 and GA1. Our evidence suggests that GA20 is the major transported GA in peas. Images Figure 2

Proebsting, William M.; Hedden, Peter; Lewis, Mervyn J.; Croker, Stephen J.; Proebsting, Lena N.

1992-01-01

43

Erratum: "Hot Methane Line Lists for Exoplanet and Brown Dwarf Atmospheres" (2012, ApJ, 757, 46)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present comprehensive experimental line lists of methane (CH4) at high temperatures obtained by recording Fourier transform infrared emission spectra. Calibrated line lists are presented for the temperatures 300 - 1400 degC at twelve 100 degC intervals spanning the 960 - 5000 cm-1 (2.0 - 10.4 microns) region of the infrared. This range encompasses the dyad, pentad and octad regions, i.e., all fundamental vibrational modes along with a number of combination, overtone and hot bands. Using our CH4 spectra, we have estimated empirical lower state energies (Elow in cm-1) and our values have been incorporated into the line lists along with line positions (cm-1) and calibrated line intensities (S' in cm molecule-1). We expect our hot CH4 line lists to find direct application in the modeling of planetary atmospheres and brown dwarfs.

Hargreaves, Robert J.; Beale, Christopher A.; Michaux, Laurent; Irfan, Melis; Bernath, Peter F.

2013-09-01

44

Bending magnets for the CBA beam-transport line  

SciTech Connect

The beam-transport line from the AGS to CBA requires 68 large bending magnets, consisting of pure dipoles and two types of combined function gradient magnets. All three types were designed with magnetic-field calculation program POISSON, using the same exterior dimensions and coil package. The design goal of +-1% momentum acceptance for the transport line required a wide horizontal aperture, with a much-smaller vertical aperture for economy. Two prototypes of one gradient magnet were built, and a facility constructed to measure them and the later production magnets. Measurements were done using both a long coil and a point coil (Rawson-Lush gaussmeter). Preliminary results show ..delta..B/B < 0.2 x 10/sup -3/, ..delta..G/G < 0.3 x 10/sup -2/, and ..delta..B/sub 2//B < 0.3 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup -2/ over the beam aperture. Due to end effects, the actual gradient differs from the design gradient by 1%, which has been compensated for in the beam-line design.

Thern, R.E.

1983-01-01

45

Mutation in AP3 ? in the mocha Mouse Links Endosomal Transport to Storage Deficiency in Platelets, Melanosomes, and Synaptic Vesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse mutant mocha, a model for the Hermansky-Pudlak storage pool deficiency syndrome, is characterized by defective platelets, coat and eye color dilution, lysosomal abnormalities, inner ear degeneration, and neurological deficits. Here, we show that mocha is a null allele of the ? subunit of the adaptor-like protein complex AP-3, which is associated with coated vesicles budding from the trans-Golgi

Prameela Kantheti; Xiaoxi Qiao; Maria E Diaz; Andrew A Peden; Gary E Meyer; Shannon L Carskadon; David Kapfhamer; Damaris Sufalko; Margaret S Robinson; Jeffrey L Noebels; Margit Burmeister

1998-01-01

46

Transport line from the Linac to the SXLS ring  

SciTech Connect

Design of a transport line with highly restrictive space and beam size requirements and with flexibility in the orientation of the injector is presented. An analytic method, based on symbolic algebra is used to find optimal regions of the design parameters. The fine tuning of the parameter were than performed with standard matrix program. Special interest was paid to the question of dispersion vector matching large angle bend with very small bending radius using non-iron bending magnets with very small gap area. 3 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Bozoki, E.

1991-05-01

47

DEPOSITION: Software to calculate particle penetration through aerosol transport lines  

SciTech Connect

In this report, models are presented for calculating aerosol particle penetration through straight tubes of arbitrary orientation, inlets, and elbows. An expression to calculate effective depositional velocities of particles on tube walls is derived. The concept of maximum penetration'' is introduced, which is the maximum possible penetration through a sampling line connecting any two points in a three-dimensional space. A procedure to predict optimum tube diameter for an existing transport line is developed. An interactive menu driven software entitled DEPOSITION has been developed to perform above said tasks. This code can either be used on a PC or on a mainframe. The use and illustration of the software is described in Appendix A of this report.

Anand, N.K.; McFarland, A.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1991-10-01

48

Erratum: ``The Pure Rotational Line Emission of Ortho-Water Vapor in Comets. I. Radiative Transfer Model'' (ApJ, 615, 531 [2004])  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comet model presented in the paper is based on the radiation transfer code ratran (M. R. Hogerheijde & F. F. S. van der Tak, ApJ, 615, 531 [2004]), an accelerated Monte Carlo code to calculate the line excitation and the emerging line intensities. For a given density profile, ratran determines the level population and, in a second step, calculates the spectral line emission for a given telescope beam, source distance, and velocity resolution. The numerical simulations for water-line emission in cometary coma show that the line excitation varies considerably on radii smaller than the projected telescope beam at the source distance for the models and telescope parameter considered in the paper. Thus, in our calculation, the water excitation in the second step was incorrectly sampled and the emission predictions were inexact, particularly for weak, optically thin lines.4 This problem also resulted from a limitation of the ratran version with respect to the spatial sampling of the intensity distribution for a convolution with a telescope beam. The relevant part of the ratran code was corrected by the authors with the May 2003 release of their software (F. F. S. van der Tak 2006, private communication). To correct this issue, we redid the numerical models presented in the original paper using the May 2003 release of the ratran software and made tests to ensure that the spatial intensity distribution used to calculate the emission detected by a given telescope beam is sampled with a sufficient spatial resolution. The corrected version of the radiation transfer model does not affect the first step, where the level population is calculated; however, the beam-averaged line intensities calculated from the level populations are generally lower than quoted in the original paper. The impact is moderate for the ground-state transitions and for the models with a water production rate of Q29=1 (M1, M6, M7), but can be substantial for the emission in weak comets and the H218O transitions, as detailed below. For a given (measured) line intensity, the corrected model gives a water production rate that is larger than quoted in the original paper. Corrected versions of Figures 5 to 9 and Tables 4, 5, and 6 are given here, and the implications for the relevant sections in the paper are discussed (§ 4, Model for the SWAS Observations of C/1999 T1 McNaught-Hartley § 5, Line Predictions for Future Observatories; § 7, Summary). Along with the model results, we correct a typo in Table 4 (Q29=QH2O/1029 s-1 for models M3 and M5 is 0.01). For the SWAS observations of comet C/1999 T1 (McNaught-Hartley) made on 2001 February 2, the corrected model gives a water production rate of QH2O=(5.72+/-0.85)×1028 s-1 for xne=1.0 and QH2O=(7.36+/-1.15)×1028 s-1 for xne=0.2, where xne is the scaling factor for the electron abundance (see § 2.4 of the original paper). For the average of the data observed between 2001 March 1 and 8, the corrected water production rate is QH2O=(1.69+/-0.45)×1028 s-1 (xne=1.0) and QH2O=(1.99+/-0.55)×1028 s-1 (xne=0.2), respectively. This is larger by 10%-57% than the results quoted in the original paper, but is still within 20%-40% of the water-production rates published in F. Bensch et al. ApJ, 615, 531 [2004], where the model by D. Bockelée-Morvan (ApJ, 615, 531 [2004]) is used. The difference of 20%-40% is of the order of the model accuracy due to the uncertainties in the electron abundance (compare the results for xne=1.0 and xne=0.2). However, this residual discrepancy possibly reflects the different numerical codes used to calculate the line excitation and radiation transfer, an accelerated Monte Carlo in ratran vs. an escape probability formalism in the model by D. Bockelée-Morvan (ApJ, 615, 531 [2004]). The low ratio of the expansion velocity over the local line-width, of a factor of 3, is close to the limit where an escape probability formalism can be applied. Systematic differences are therefore expected for the water-rotational transitions of the most abundant isotopologue, H216O, where optical depths can

Bensch, F.; Bergin, E. A.

2007-04-01

49

Observation and analysis of self-amplified spontaneous emission at the APS low-energy undulator test line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exponential growth of self-amplified spontaneous emission at 530nm was first experimentally observed at the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line in December 1999. Since then, further detailed measurements and analysis of the results have been made. Here, we present the measurements and compare these with calculations based on measured electron beam properties and theoretical expectations.

N. D. Arnold; J. Attig; G. Banks; R. Bechtold; K. Beczek; C. Benson; S. Berg; W. Berg; S. G Biedron; J. A Biggs; M. Borland; K. Boerste; M. Bosek; W. R Brzowski; J. Budz; J. A Carwardine; P. Castro; Y.-C Chae; S. Christensen; C. Clark; M. Conde; E. A Crosbie; G. A Decker; R. J Dejus; H. DeLeon; P. K Den Hartog; B. N Deriy; D. Dohan; P. Dombrowski; D. Donkers; C. L Doose; R. J Dortwegt; G. A Edwards; Y. Eidelman; M. J Erdmann; J. Error; R. Ferry; J. Forrestal; H. Freund; H. Friedsam; J. Gagliano; W. Gai; J. N Galayda; R. Gerig; R. L Gilmore; E. Gluskin; G. A Goeppner; J. Goetzen; C. Gold; A. J Gorski; A. E Grelick; M. W Hahne; S. Hanuska; K. C Harkay; G. Harris; A. L Hillman; R. Hogrefe; J. Hoyt; Z. Huang; J. M Jagger; W. G Jansma; M. Jaski; S. J Jones; R. T Keane; A. L Kelly; C. Keyser; K.-J Kim; S. H Kim; M. Kirshenbaum; J. H Klick; K. Knoerzer; R. J Koldenhoven; M. Knott; S. Labuda; R. Laird; J. Lang; F. Lenkszus; E. S Lessner; J. W Lewellen; Y. Li; R. M Lill; A. H Lumpkin; O. A Makarov; G. M Markovich; M. McDowell; W. P McDowell; P. E McNamara; T. Meier; D. Meyer; W. Michalek; S. V. Milton; H. Moe; E. R Moog; L. Morrison; A. Nassiri; J. R Noonan; R. Otto; J. Pace; S. J Pasky; J. M Penicka; A. F Pietryla; G. Pile; C. Pitts; J. Power; T. Powers; C. C. Putnam; A. J Puttkammer; D. Reigle; L. Reigle; D. Ronzhin; E. R Rotela; E. F Russell; V. Sajaev; S. Sarkar; J. C Scapino; K. Schroeder; R. A Seglem; N. S Sereno; S. K Sharma; J. F Sidarous; O. Singh; T. L Smith; R. Soliday; G. A Sprau; S. J Stein; B. Stejskal; V. Svirtun; L. C Teng; E. Theres; K. Thompson; B. J Tieman; J. A Torres; E. M Trakhtenberg; G. Travish; G. F Trento; J. Vacca; I. B Vasserman; N. A Vinokurov; D. R Walters; J. Wang; X. J Wang; J. Warren; S. Wesling; D. L Weyer; G. Wiemerslage; K. Wilhelmi; R. Wright; D. Wyncott; S. Xu; B.-X. Yang; W. Yoder; R. B Zabel

2001-01-01

50

Observation and analysis of self-amplified spontaneous emission at the APS low-energy undulator test line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exponential growth of self-amplified spontaneous emission at 530nm was first experimentally observed at the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line in December 1999. Since then, further detailed measurements and analysis of the results have been made. Here, we present the measurements and compare these with calculations based on measured electron beam properties and theoretical expectations.

Arnold, N. D.; Attig, J.; Banks, G.; Bechtold, R.; Beczek, K.; Benson, C.; Berg, S.; Berg, W.; Biedron, S. G.; Biggs, J. A.; Borland, M.; Boerste, K.; Bosek, M.; Brzowski, W. R.; Budz, J.; Carwardine, J. A.; Castro, P.; Chae, Y.-C.; Christensen, S.; Clark, C.; Conde, M.; Crosbie, E. A.; Decker, G. A.; Dejus, R. J.; DeLeon, H.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B. N.; Dohan, D.; Dombrowski, P.; Donkers, D.; Doose, C. L.; Dortwegt, R. J.; Edwards, G. A.; Eidelman, Y.; Erdmann, M. J.; Error, J.; Ferry, R.; Flood, R.; Forrestal, J.; Freund, H.; Friedsam, H.; Gagliano, J.; Gai, W.; Galayda, J. N.; Gerig, R.; Gilmore, R. L.; Gluskin, E.; Goeppner, G. A.; Goetzen, J.; Gold, C.; Gorski, A. J.; Grelick, A. E.; Hahne, M. W.; Hanuska, S.; Harkay, K. C.; Harris, G.; Hillman, A. L.; Hogrefe, R.; Hoyt, J.; Huang, Z.; Jagger, J. M.; Jansma, W. G.; Jaski, M.; Jones, S. J.; Keane, R. T.; Kelly, A. L.; Keyser, C.; Kim, K.-J.; Kim, S. H.; Kirshenbaum, M.; Klick, J. H.; Knoerzer, K.; Koldenhoven, R. J.; Knott, M.; Labuda, S.; Laird, R.; Lang, J.; Lenkszus, F.; Lessner, E. S.; Lewellen, J. W.; Li, Y.; Lill, R. M.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Makarov, O. A.; Markovich, G. M.; McDowell, M.; McDowell, W. P.; McNamara, P. E.; Meier, T.; Meyer, D.; Michalek, W.; Milton, S. V.; Moe, H.; Moog, E. R.; Morrison, L.; Nassiri, A.; Noonan, J. R.; Otto, R.; Pace, J.; Pasky, S. J.; Penicka, J. M.; Pietryla, A. F.; Pile, G.; Pitts, C.; Power, J.; Powers, T.; Putnam, C. C.; Puttkammer, A. J.; Reigle, D.; Reigle, L.; Ronzhin, D.; Rotela, E. R.; Russell, E. F.; Sajaev, V.; Sarkar, S.; Scapino, J. C.; Schroeder, K.; Seglem, R. A.; Sereno, N. S.; Sharma, S. K.; Sidarous, J. F.; Singh, O.; Smith, T. L.; Soliday, R.; Sprau, G. A.; Stein, S. J.; Stejskal, B.; Svirtun, V.; Teng, L. C.; Theres, E.; Thompson, K.; Tieman, B. J.; Torres, J. A.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Travish, G.; Trento, G. F.; Vacca, J.; Vasserman, I. B.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Walters, D. R.; Wang, J.; Wang, X. J.; Warren, J.; Wesling, S.; Weyer, D. L.; Wiemerslage, G.; Wilhelmi, K.; Wright, R.; Wyncott, D.; Xu, S.; Yang, B.-X.; Yoder, W.; Zabel, R. B.

2001-12-01

51

Expression of thrombospondin-1 in human hepatocarcinoma cell lines and its regulation by transcription factor Jun\\/AP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a homotrimeric glycoprotein synthesized in a variety of normal and transformed cells, and secreted into the extracellular matrix. Based on its known effects on the tumor and endothelial cells, TSP-1 was implicated in the tumor growth and metastasis. In the present study, we have demonstrated the expression of TSP-1 in the human hepatocarcinoma cell lines. TSP-1 was

Soo-A Kim; Soo Jong Um; Jung-Hoon Kang; Kyong-Ja Hong

2001-01-01

52

Beam transport radiation shielding for branch lines 2-ID-B and 2-ID-C  

SciTech Connect

The x-ray radiation shielding requirements beyond the first optics enclosure have been considered for the beam transport of the 2-ID-B and 2-ID-C branch lines of Sector 2 (SRI-CAT) of the APS. The first three optical components (mirrors) of the 2-ID-B branch are contained within the shielded first optics enclosure. Calculations indicate that scattering of the primary synchrotron beam by beamline components outside the enclosure, such as apertures and monochromators, or by gas particles in case of vacuum failure is within safe limits for this branch. A standard 2.5-inch-diameter stainless steel pipe with 1/16-inch-thick walls provides adequate shielding to reduce the radiation dose equivalent rate to human tissue to below the maximum permissible limit of 0.25 mrem/hr. The 2-ID-C branch requires, between the first optics enclosure where only two mirrors are used and the housing for the third mirror, additional lead shielding (0.75 mm) and a minimum approach distance of 2.6 cm. A direct beam stop consisting of at least 4.5 mm of lead is also required immediately downstream of the third mirror for 2-ID-C. Finally, to stop the direct beam from escaping the experimental station, a beam stop consisting of at least 4-mm or 2.5-mm steel is required for the 2-ID-B or 2-ID-C branches, respectively. This final requirement can be met by the vacuum chambers used to house the experiments for both branch lines.

Feng, Y.P.; Lai, B.; McNulty, I.; Dejus, R.J.; Randall, K.J.; Yun, W.

1995-08-01

53

Lattice design and tolerance analysis of the CBA transport line  

SciTech Connect

The beam transport line from the AGS to CBA is 600 m long and consists of 70 bending magnets and 20 quadrupoles, as well as several special injection components. The beam has to bend 117/sup 0/ horizontally and drop 1.8 m in elevation. To insure that it has momentum acceptance of ..delta..P/P = +-1% and the transverse emittance dilution is within 30%, a detailed tolerance analysis has been carried out on the requirements of the AGS beam properties, magnetic field quality of the transport magnets, and misalignment errors. Field quality tolerances of ..delta..B/sub 0//B less than or equal to 1 x 10/sup -3/ for bending field, ..delta.. G/G less than or equal to 5 x 10/sup -3/ for gradient field, and ..delta..B/sub 2//B less than or equal to 2.5 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup -2/ of the sextupole components in the bending magnets are indicated.

Weng, W.T.

1983-01-01

54

Economic Census, 2002: Transportation and Warehousing, Subject Series. Product Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Transportation and Warehousing sector (sector 48-49) includes industries providing transportation of passengers and cargo, warehousing and storage for goods, scenic and sightseeing transportation, and support activities related to modes of transportat...

2005-01-01

55

Game transport protocol: lightweight reliable transport protocol for massive interactive on-line game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of high-speed access network technologies such as ADSL, increasing numbers of Internet users are participating in various interactive multimedia applications. Among these, the most popular are the massively interactive on-line games, or MMPOGs. In MMPOGs, a large amount of event data is associated with various control objects. This event data has different characteristics from that which is generally used on the Internet. Namely, events occur very frequently with short inter-arrival times and their size is quite small, because they only contain control information. Most commercial MMPOGs use TCP or UDP as the transport protocol for the event data. However, since TCP is such a heavy protocol, due to its complex congestion control algorithm and byte-oriented window scheme, it is difficult to support many concurrent users. On the other hand, UDP is a relatively lightweight protocol, but there are no functions available which permit reliable transmission and session management. In this paper, we propose a new transport protocol, Game Transport Protocol (GTP), which is designed for the transmission of the event data used by MMPOGs. GTP supports several functions designed to meet the various requirements of MMPOGs. Firstly, GTP uses a packet-based window scheme not a byte-based window scheme as in the case of TCP. This scheme is quite simple and suitable for the small size of the event data. Also, GTP performs session management and retransmission using GTP control blocks, and supports an adaptive retransmission scheme that controls the maximum number of retransmissions according to the real-time priority, in order to meet the time constraints of the event data. Although GTP is a specialized transport protocol, optimized for MMPOGs, it could also be utilized as a transport protocol for other interactive multimedia applications.

Pack, Sangheon; Hong, Eunsil; Choi, Yanghee; Park, llkyu; Kim, Jong-Sung; Ko, D.

2002-10-01

56

TF/FVIIa/PAR2 promotes cell proliferation and migration via PKC? and ERK-dependent c-Jun/AP-1 pathway in colon cancer cell line SW620.  

PubMed

Our previous study has demonstrated that tissue factor-factor VIIa (TF/FVIIa) complex promotes the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cell line SW620 through the activation of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). In the current study, the underlying molecular mechanisms of TF/FVIIa/PAR2 signaling in SW620 cells were further explored, with the focus on the role of activator protein-1 (AP-1) subunit c-Jun. The results revealed that PAR2-AP and FVIIa could upregulate c-Jun expression and c-Jun phosphorylation in SW620 cells in a time-dependent manner. The effect of FVIIa was significantly blocked by anti-TF and anti-PAR2 antibodies. Protein kinase C? (PKC?) inhibitor safingol and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor U0126 abrogated the activation of c-Jun. In contrast, Ca(2+) chelators EGTA and thapsigargin, and p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 had no effect. Suppression of c-Jun/AP-1 activation using a natural inhibitor curcumin decreased the expression of caspase-3, MMP-9, and TF, as well as the proliferation and migration of SW620 cells induced by PAR2-AP or FVIIa. Collectively, our findings suggest that c-Jun/AP-1 activation is required for TF/FVIIa/PAR2-induced SW620 cell proliferation and migration. PKC? and ERK1/2 are located upstream of c-Jun/AP-1 in this signaling pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of this pathway might be a novel strategy for colon cancer therapy. PMID:23616010

Hu, Lichao; Xia, Longfei; Zhou, Hong; Wu, Biao; Mu, Yuan; Wu, Ying; Yan, Jinchuan

2013-04-25

57

APS Science 2007.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

Not Available

2008-05-30

58

Field-line transport in stochastic magnetic fields: Percolation, Lévy flights, and non-Gaussian dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of magnetic field lines is studied numerically in the case where strong three-dimensional magnetic fluctuations are superimposed to a uniform average magnetic field. The magnetic percolation of field lines between magnetic islands is found, as well as a non-Gaussian regime where the field lines exhibit Lévy random walks, changing from Lévy flights to trapped motion. Anomalous diffusion laws

G. Zimbardo; P. Veltri

1995-01-01

59

Effects of Escherichia coli Challenge and Transport Stress on Hematology and Serum Chemistry Values of Three Genetic Lines of Turkeys  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Males and females from 3 genetic lines of turkeys were compared for their response to an Escherichia coli airsac challenge followed by transport stress (Transport). The turkey lines were a slow growing line selected for increased egg production (Egg line), a fast growing line selected for increased...

60

The Zinc Transporter ZnT3 Interacts with AP3 and It Is Preferentially Targeted to a Distinct Synaptic Vesicle Subpopulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Synaptic vesicles (SV) are generated by two different mechanisms, one AP-2 dependent and one AP-3 dependent. It has been uncertain, however, whether these mechanisms,generate ,SV that ,differ in molecular composition. ,We explored ,this hypothesis,by analyzing ,the targeting ,of ZnT3 and ,synaptophysin ,both ,to PC12

Gloria Salazar; Rachal Love; Erica Werner; Michele M. Doucette; Su Cheng; Allan Levey; Victor Faundez

2004-01-01

61

The AP stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ap stars are stars with peculiar characteristics which made it difficult to assign them to the stellar types of the conventional classification scheme. Ap stars are frequently observed. Up to 10% Ap stars are found in the case of the concerned spectral types. Attention is given to the spectroscopic properties of the Ap stars, aspects of stellar spectrum and stellar

H. Muthsam

1977-01-01

62

Studies of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam in a solenoid based beam transport line  

SciTech Connect

A self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to study the transport properties of a space-charge-dominated multispecies beam propagating through a solenoid-based low energy beam transport line. The evolution of the beam radius and emittance growth of each species arising due to the nonlinear space-charge forces has been investigated. The self-consistent PIC simulation shows the formation of hollow density profiles of subdominant unwanted species around the primary beam, downstream of the transport line. We have utilized this effect for efficient removal of unwanted species by making use of a slit at a suitable location in the beam line.

Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

2012-11-15

63

An agarose-gel based method for transporting cell lines.  

PubMed

Cryopreserved cells stored in dry ice or liquid nitrogen is the classical method for transporting cells between research laboratories in different cities around the world in order to maintain cell viability. An alternative method is to ship the live cells in flasks filled with cell culture medium. Both methods have limitations of either a requirement on special shipping container or short times for the cells to survive on the shipping process. We have recently developed an agarose gel based method for directly transporting the live adherent cells in cell culture plates or dishes in ambient temperature. This convenient method simplifies the transportation of live cells in long distance that can maintain cells in good viability for several days. PMID:20161836

Yang, Lingzhi; Li, Chufang; Chen, Ling; Li, Zhiyuan

2009-12-16

64

An Agarose-Gel Based Method for Transporting Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Cryopreserved cells stored in dry ice or liquid nitrogen is the classical method for transporting cells between research laboratories in different cities around the world in order to maintain cell viability. An alternative method is to ship the live cells in flasks filled with cell culture medium. Both methods have limitations of either a requirement on special shipping container or short times for the cells to survive on the shipping process. We have recently developed an agarose gel based method for directly transporting the live adherent cells in cell culture plates or dishes in ambient temperature. This convenient method simplifies the transportation of live cells in long distance that can maintain cells in good viability for several days.

Yang, Lingzhi; Li, Chufang; Chen, Ling; Li, Zhiyuan

2009-01-01

65

Adaptor protein complexes AP-4 and AP-5: new players in endosomal trafficking and progressive spastic paraplegia.  

PubMed

The adaptor proteins (APs) are a family of five heterotetrameric complexes with important functions in vesicle trafficking. While the roles of APs 1-3 are broadly established, comparatively little is known about AP-4 and AP-5. Current evidence suggests that AP-4 mediates TGN to endosome transport of specific cargo proteins, such as the amyloid precursor protein APP, and that it is involved in basolateral sorting in polarized cells. Furthermore, several independent studies have reported human patients with mutations in AP-4 genes. AP-4 deficiency causes severe intellectual disability and progressive spastic para- or tetraplegia, supporting an important role for AP-4 in brain function and development. The newly discovered AP-5 complex appears to be involved in endosomal dynamics; its precise localization and function are still unclear. Intriguingly, AP-5 deficiency is also associated with progressive spastic paraplegia, suggesting that AP-5, like AP-4, plays a fundamental role in neuronal development and homeostasis. The unexpected phenotypic parallels between AP-4 and AP-5 patients may in turn suggest a functional relationship of the two APs in vesicle trafficking. PMID:23167973

Hirst, Jennifer; Irving, Carol; Borner, Georg H H

2012-12-07

66

Classification of Ap-Stars HR 830 and 21 CVn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two ambiguously classified Ap stars, HR 830 and 21 CVn, are studied. The observational data are compared with the data for normal stars alpha Del and alpha Lyr. The star HR 830 is classified as Ap of type Si based on the enhanced absorption in the Si lines and photometric variability in UBV. 21 CVn is classified as Ap Si

J. Zverko

1984-01-01

67

Two Novel Glycosides from the Fruits of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) Inhibit AP1 Transactivation and Cell Transformation in the Mouse Epidermal JB6 Cell Line1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni), a plant originally grown in the Hawaiian and Tahitian islands, has long been used by islanders to treat diseases, including cancer. Two novel glycosides, 6-O-(b-D-glucopy- ranosyl)-1-O-octanoyl-b-D-glucopyranose and asperulosidic acid, ex- tracted from the juice of noni fruits, were used to examine their effects on 12-O-tedtradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced AP-1 transactivation

Guangming Liu; Ann Bode; Wei-Ya Ma; Shengmin Sang; Chi-Tang Ho; Zigang Dong

2001-01-01

68

The Global Transcriptional Effects of the Human Papillomavirus E6 Protein in Cervical Carcinoma Cell Lines Are Mediated by the E6AP Ubiquitin Ligase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 protein that is most clearly linked to carcinogenesis is the targeted degradation of p53, which is dependent on the E6AP ubiquitin ligase. Additional functions have been attributed to E6, including the stimulation of telomerase activity and the targeted degradation of other cellular proteins, but in most cases it is unclear whether these

Melissa L. Kelley; Kerri E. Keiger; Chan Jae Lee; Jon M. Huibregtse

2005-01-01

69

Field-line transport in stochastic magnetic fields: Percolation, Levy flights, and non-Gaussian dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The transport of magnetic field lines is studied numerically in the case where strong three-dimensional magnetic fluctuations are superimposed to a uniform average magnetic field. The magnetic percolation of field lines between magnetic islands is found, as well as a non-Gaussian regime where the field lines exhibit Levy random walks, changing from Levy flights to trapped motion. Anomalous diffusion laws [l angle][Delta][ital x][sub [ital i

Zimbardo, G.; Veltri, P. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, I-87030 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy))

1995-02-01

70

New 750 keV H/sup -/ beam transport line for LAMPF  

SciTech Connect

The injector complex at LAMPF consists of three injectors with associated transport lines to deliver H/sup +/, H/sup -/, and P/sup -/ beams to the linac. Early in 1984 the original H/sup -/ injector (circa 1973) was replaced with one capable of producing a peak current of 20-mA, a 100X improvement. The motivation for this upgrade was the addition of a Proton Storage Ring (PSR) for pulsed neutron research. To support the new operating modes associated with the PSR, the H/sup -/ transport line was replaced by one having a different design that required changes to portions of the H/sup +/ and P/sup -/ lines, also. This paper describes the new transport system and reports on the initial performance of the H/sup -/ line.

Butler, H.S.; Browman, A.A.; Hagerman, D.C.; Jakobson, M.J.

1985-01-01

71

Confinement, transport gap, and valley polarization in graphene from two parallel decorated line defects.  

PubMed

Quantum transport calculations show that a transport gap approximately E(g) = 2?v(F)/W can be engineered in graphene using two parallel transport barriers, separated by W, extended along the zigzag direction. The barriers, modeled by chemically decorated observed line defects, create confinement and resonance bands tracing the bands in zigzag nanoribbons. The resonance bands terminate at the dimensional crossover, where the states become boundary-localized, leaving the transport gap. The structure also allows for nearly perfect valley polarization. PMID:23215005

Gunlycke, Daniel; Vasudevan, Smitha; White, Carter T

2012-12-13

72

Fano effects in electron transport through an armchair graphene nanoribbon with one line defect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron transport in an armchair graphene nanoribbon is theoretically investigated by considering the presence of one line defect. It is found that different-property Fano effects occur in electron transport through such a structure, which are determined by the nanoribbon width and the coupling manner between the line defect and the nanoribbon. The spectra of the density of electron states show that the line defect induces some localized quantum states around the Dirac point, and that the different localizations of these states lead to the abundant transport results. By analyzing the influence of the structure parameters, the Fano effects are described in detail. With the obtained results, we consider such a structure to be a promising candidate for nanoswitch.

Han, Yu; Sui, Xiao-Yan; Gong, Wei-Jiang

2013-06-01

73

Experience with NEG strips at the Brookhaven heavy ion transport line  

SciTech Connect

The AGS and the Tandem Van de Graaff, two valuable physics assets, are now joined together by a transport line 700 m in length. To minimize the beam loss due to charge exchange between the partially stripped heaviest ions and residual gas molecules, a vacuum of 10/sup -8/ Torr is required for this transport line. To achieve this vacuum, we have opted to use a combination of small ion pumps and distributed nonevaporable getter strips as pumps. Pressures on the 10/sup -10/ and low 10/sup -9/ Torr ranges have been maintained over the last two years following initial activation of the NEG strips. This paper describes the NEG strip system, and the experience obtained during the installation and operation of this 700 m heavy ion transport line. (AIP)

Hseuh, H.C.; Benjamin, J.; Stattel, P.; Feigenbaum, I.; Manni, M.

1988-09-30

74

Ultrahigh vacuum system of the heavy ion transport line at Brookhaven  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ions with an energy up to 8 MeV/A for S/sup +16/ and 1 MeV/A for Au/sup +34/ from the 16 MV Tandem will be injected into the AGS for further acceleration to less than or equal to 15 GeV/A. A 600-meter beam transport line between the Tandem and the AGS has been designed and is under construction. This paper describes the design of the vacuum system of this transport line and the performance of the prototype vacuum sectors.

Hseuh, H.C.; Feigenbaum, I.; Manni, M.; Stattel, P.; Skelton, R.

1985-01-01

75

Ultrahigh vacuum system of the heavy ion transport line at Brookhaven  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ions with an energy up to 8 MeV/A for S W and 1 MeV/A for Au TU from the 16 MV Tandem will be injected into the AGS for further acceleration to less than or equal to 15 GeV/A. A 600-meter beam transport line between the Tandem and the AGS has been designed and is under construction. This paper describes the design of the vacuum system of this transport line and the performance of the prototype vacuum sectors.

Hseuh, H.C.; Feigenbaum, I.; Manni, M.; Skelton, R.; Stattel, P.

1985-10-01

76

Automatic tuning of the LBL SuperHILAC third-injector transport line  

SciTech Connect

Testing of a new automatic tuning procedure in an LBL SuperHILAC beam transport line has been conducted with the third injector microcomputer control system. This technique is an advance over the sequential station-by-station automatic tuning method developed for the Bevalac transfer line. The computer now performs steering/focusing adjustments simultaneously on a number of quadrupole and dipole magnets comprising multiple-station sections of the injection line. New magnet currents are computed from equations governing beam optics in a real-time simulation of the beam line. The key to this emittance utilizing the same control magnets and beam profile monitors used for manual tuning of the line. This emittance calculation requires high resolution beam profile measurements using multi-wire profile monitors recently installed in the third injector line.

Pines, H.

1983-03-01

77

Generic effluent monitoring system certification for AP-40 exhauster stack  

SciTech Connect

Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as applied to the AP-40 exhauster stack, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/AP-40 system meets all applicable performance criteria. The contaminant mixing tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at the wind tunnel facility, 331-H Building, using a mockup of the actual stack. The particle sample transport tests were conducted by PNNL at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The AP-40 stack is typical of several 10-in. diameter stacks that discharge the filtered ventilation air from tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles. Unrelated to the performance criteria, it was found that the record sample filter holder exhibited symptoms of sample bypass around the particle collection filter. This filter holder should either be modified or replaced with a different type. 10 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

Glissmeyer, J.A.; Davis, W.E.; Bussell, J.H.; Maughan, A.D.

1997-09-01

78

Sintering boat transport system for the SAF line. [Secure Automated Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line will be a remotely operated process for the manufacture of breeder reactor fuel pins. The sintering boat transport system will service the pellet operations. Since the Boat Transport System will be the major link between several subsystem operations, reliability and ease of maintenance are prime requirements for the design. A prototypic version of the Boat Transport System was designed, built and tested to verify the operability of the selected approach. Extensive testing provided valuable input to the final design and substantiated the soundness of the concept.

Egli, W.; Bogart, R.L.

1983-10-01

79

NF-kappaB and AP-1 are required for cyclo-oxygenase 2 gene expression in amnion epithelial cell line (WISH).  

PubMed

Prostaglandins are known to play an important role in human labour and are used clinically to induce labour onset. Cytokines, e.g. interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), are up-regulated in the amniotic fluid late in gestation and can increase prostaglandin production through the expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), the prostaglandin synthetic isoform involved in human labour. We demonstrate in immortalized amnion epithelial (WISH) cells, that IL-1beta causes increased transcription of the COX-2 gene. Luciferase reporter constructs with site-directed mutagenesis of the two NF-kappaB sites and an AP-1 site in the COX-2 promoter showed reduced expression of luciferase in transient transfection studies. This suggests that the binding of transcription factors to these sites is essential for the regulation of COX-2 transcription in IL-1beta-treated WISH cells. PMID:10825375

Allport, V C; Slater, D M; Newton, R; Bennett, P R

2000-06-01

80

Calculation of ion transport beam lines with stepwise change in beam parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diaphragms or slits (to limit the size of the ion beam) and degraders (to reduce the kinetic energy of ions) are often used in beam lines for ion transport. When an ion beam travels through these elements, parameters such as rms sizes, angle, and momentum spread change abruptly. This fact should be taken into account in calculating the subsequent sections of the beam line. Formulas are derived for determining new parameters of the ion beam immediately after its passage through those elements. The results of calculations are given regarding the transport of different kinds of heavy ions in the beam lines of the U400M cyclotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions intended for testing electronic microchips.

Kazarinov, N. Yu.; Kazacha, V. I.

2013-09-01

81

Ion transport in a human lens epithelial cell line exposed to hyposmotic and apoptotic stress.  

PubMed

Membrane transport changes in human lens epithelial (HLE-B3) cells under hyposmotic and apoptotic stress were compared. Cell potassium content, K(i), uptake of the K congener rubidium, Rb(i), and water content were measured after hyposmotic stress induced by hypotonicity, and apoptotic stress by the protein-kinase inhibitor staurosporine (STP). Cell water increased in hyposmotic (150 mOsm) as compared to isosmotic (300 mOsm) balanced salt solution (BSS) by >2-fold at 5 min and decreased within 15 min to baseline values accompanied by a 40% K(i) loss commensurate with cell swelling and subsequent cell shrinkage likely due to regulatory volume decrease (RVD). Loss of K(i), and accompanying water, and Rb(i) uptake in hyposmotic BSS were prevented by clotrimazole (CTZ) suggesting water shifts associated with K and Rb flux via intermediate conductance K (IK) channels, also detected at the mRNA and protein level. In contrast, 2 h after 2 microM STP exposure, the cells lost approximately 40% water and approximately 60% K(i), respectively, consistent with apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Indeed, water and K(i) loss was at least fivefold greater after hyposmotic than after apoptotic stress. High extracellular K and 2 mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) but not CTZ significantly reduced apoptosis. Annexin labeling phosphatidylserine (PS) at 15 min suggested loss of lipid asymmetry. Quantitative PCR revealed significant IK channel expression during prolonged hyposmotic stress. Results suggest in HLE-B3 cells, IK channels likely partook in and were down regulated after RVD, whereas pro-apoptotic STP-activation of 4-AP-sensitive voltage-gated K channels preceded or accompanied PS externalization before subsequent apoptosis. PMID:20049853

Chimote, Ameet A; Adragna, Norma C; Lauf, Peter K

2010-04-01

82

AP and YA?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considers the reasons Advanced Placement (AP) English teachers might give for their literature selections. Suggests eight works for further reading outside the canon for AP and Honors English Teachers. Lists and gives annotations for 10 "new or overlooked" Young Adult books worth reading. (SG)|

Crowe, Chris

2001-01-01

83

Opening AP to All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports on a school's effort to open Advanced Placement (AP) to all by challenging its students to take the leap into AP courses. Samuel W. Wolfson High School, on the south side of Jacksonville, Florida, is one of 27 schools in five cities across the country that chose to participate in a College Board initiative called EXCELerator.…

Gewertz, Catherine

2008-01-01

84

Investigation of oxygen impurity transport using the O4+ visible spectral line in the Aditya tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intense visible lines from Be-like oxygen impurity are routinely observed in the Aditya tokamak. The spatial profile of brightness of a Be-like oxygen spectral line (2p3p 3D3-2p3d 3F4) at 650.024 nm is used to investigate oxygen impurity transport in typical discharges of the Aditya tokamak. A 1.0 m multi-track spectrometer (Czerny-Turner) capable of simultaneous measurements from eight lines of sight is used to obtain the radial profile of brightness of O4+ spectral emission. The emissivity profile of O4+ spectral emission is obtained from the spatial profile of brightness using an Abel-like matrix inversion. The oxygen transport coefficients are determined by reproducing the experimentally measured emissivity profiles of O4+, using a one-dimensional empirical impurity transport code, STRAHL. Much higher values of the diffusion coefficient compared with the neo-classical values are observed in both the high magnetic field edge region (D_inboard^{\\max}\\sim 30\\,m^{2}\\,s^{-1}) and the low magnetic field edge region (D_outboard^{\\max}\\sim 45\\,m^{2}\\,s^{-1}) of typical Aditya ohmic plasmas, which seems to be due to fluctuation-induced transport. The diffusion coefficient at the limiter radius in the low-field (outboard) region is typically ˜ twice as high as that at the limiter radius in the high-field (inboard) region.

Chowdhuri, M. B.; Ghosh, J.; Banerjee, S.; Dey, Ritu; Manchanda, R.; Kumar, Vinay; Vasu, P.; Patel, K. M.; Atrey, P. K.; Shankara Joisa, Y.; Rao, C. V. S.; Tanna, R. L.; Raju, D.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Jha, R.; Gupta, C. N.; Bhatt, S. B.; Saxena, Y. C.; the Aditya Team

2013-02-01

85

Experience with the NEG (nonevaporable getter) strips at the Brookhaven heavy ion transport line  

SciTech Connect

The AGS and the Tandem Van de Graaff, two valuable physics assets, are now jointed together by a transport line of 700 m in length. This line allows heavy ions from the Tandem, up to a fully striped silicon (M = 28) to be injected into the AGS and accelerated to energies of approximately 15 GeVamu. New areas of physics research at very high nuclear densities can now be studied using some of the extensive experimental facilities already existing at the AGS. With the addition of a booster synchrotron between the Tandem and the AGS, all heavier ions up to gold can also be accelerated. To minimize the beam loss due to charge exchange between the partially stripped heaviest ions (i.e. Au + 33 at 1 MeVamu) and the residual gas molecules, a vacuum of 10 /sup /minus/8/ Torr is required for this transport line. To achieve this vacuum, we have opted to use the combination of small ion pumps (20 1s diode type) and simple geometry was implemented which offers low cost (<$200m), easy installation and maintenance. Pressures of 10 /sup /minus/10/ and low 10 /sup /minus/9/ Torr have been maintained over the last two years following the initial activation. This paper describes the NEG strip system, and the experience obtained during the installation and the operation of this 700m heavy ion transport line (HITL).

Hseuh, H.C.; Benjamin, J.; Stattel, P.; Feigenbaum, I.; Manni, M.

1988-01-01

86

D-cycloserine uses an active transport mechanism in the human intestinal cell line Caco 2.  

PubMed Central

In a previous study we have shown that cultured epithelial cell lines can be used to measure the transepithelial passage of antimicrobial agents across the intestine and to obtain information on the mechanisms of transport utilized and predict the bioavailability of the antimicrobial agents after oral administration. In particular, among the drugs investigated, D-cycloserine had been shown to be transported in a polarized manner only in the intestinal cells. In the present work, further characterization of the transport of D-cycloserine in the human intestinal cell line Caco 2 has shown that this occurs in the apical-to-basolateral direction by an active mechanism which is energy dependent but only partially sodium dependent. Competition studies have also indicated that the transport of D-cycloserine occurs via a carrier for imino acids, amino acids with aliphatic side chains (L-Ala, D-Ala, and beta Ala), and L-Trp, L-Tyr, L-Cys, and alpha-amino isobutyric acid. This system may correspond to a proton-dependent system for L-proline and beta-alanine recently described for Caco 2 cells. In contrast with the cephalosporins, which are taken up by the Caco 2 cells via a dipeptide carrier, D-cycloserine transport cannot be inhibited by either cephalexin (a member of the class of cephalosporins) or dipeptides.

Ranaldi, G; Islam, K; Sambuy, Y

1994-01-01

87

The AP3 complex: a coat of many colours  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new adaptor protein complex, termed AP-3, has recently been identified in mammalian cells, and genetic studies in yeast have revealed a functional role for the AP-3 complex in cargo-selective transport via a new alternative trafficking pathway from the Golgi to the vacuole\\/lysosome. Here, the authors review what is currently known about the AP-3 complex and discuss recent insight into

Greg Odorizzi; Christopher R Cowles; Scott D Emr

1998-01-01

88

Ambipolar transport via trapped-electron whistler instability along open magnetic field lines.  

PubMed

An open field line plasma is bounded by a chamber wall which intercepts the magnetic field. Steady state requires an upstream plasma source balancing the particle loss to the boundary. In cases where the electrons have a long mean free path, ambipolarity in parallel transport critically depends on collisionless detrapping of the electrons via wave-particle interaction. The trapped-electron whistler instability, whose nonlinear saturation produces a spectrum of whistler waves that is responsible for the electron detrapping flux, is shown to be an unusually robust kinetic instability, which is essential to the universality of the ambipolar constraint in plasma transport. PMID:23030098

Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu

2012-09-28

89

Sherwood/APS 2006 Conference  

SciTech Connect

The International Sherwood Theory Meeting is a yearly meeting that focuses on the theory of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. There are many topics of common interest in fusion plasma systems and space and astrophysical plasmas. These common topics include such key topics as magnetic reconnection, the dynamo, turbulence and transport and particle heating and acceleration. One of the major participants of the April APS meeting is the APS Division of Astrophysics (DAP). The goal of having the Sherwood Meeting jointly with the April meeting was to promote discussion of topics of common interest in fusion and space and astrophysics. Scientists from the DAP, the Division of Plasma Physics (DPP), the Topical Group on Plasma Astrophysics (GPAP) and Sherwood worked together closely to produce a joint program that addressed areas of common interest. Four sessions of invited talks were sponsored jointly by the DAP, DPP and GPAP on laboratory experiments related to astrophysics. Plasma scientists working in theory and computation play a key role in connecting these laboratory experiments to the very disparate conditions found in fusion and astrophysical systems. Thus, the attendees of the Sherwood Theory meeting were critical to facilitating this effort at cross-disciplinary communication. Noteworthy were the selection of two of the prestigious plenary talks at the joint meeting on plasma topics - one related to the gyrokinetic modeling of turbulence and the other related to the structure of collisionless shocks. It is rare to see even a single plenary talk on plasma physics at the APS April Meeting. There were additional costs associated with hosting a joint meeting. The Office of Fusion Energy Sciences contributed $3000 in partial support of this meeting. This funding covered part of the costs of the poster boards and A. V. equipment that was used in the presentation of nearly 200 scientific papers related to magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The APS waived its indirect costs on this funding as part of their effort to support this joint meeting.

James F. Drake

2009-07-28

90

APS Science 2006.  

SciTech Connect

In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged from work at the APS, to complement the tremendous output of work in basic science, which often has payoff in technology but over decades rather than years. Highlights in this report also reflect the relevance of APS work to Department of Energy missions, for example a route to more efficient fuel cells (page xx mr-88-073113) addresses the energy challenge, and natural approaches to cleaning up the environment.

Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

2007-05-24

91

Broadband Buncher Cavity for Beam Transport Line of HiECR Ion Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly developed rf buncher has been installed in the beam transport line of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, HiECR, at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. The rf buncher is a compact cavity having magnetic alloy (MA) cores and operates in the wide frequency range between 18 and 45 MHz without any tuning systems. Bunched beams of H+, O5+, and Ar8+ ions have been produced successfully and measured using a newly designed Faraday cup with good time resolution. In this paper, the design of the MA-loaded buncher cavity and the results of the beam test are presented. A detailed description of the HiECR beam transport line and the design of the new Faraday cup are also given.

Koseki, Tadashi; Watanabe, Masao; Watanabe, Shin?ichi; Chiba, Yoshiaki; Goto, Akira; Noda, Koji; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu

2006-05-01

92

Classification Criteria for APS  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An international consensus statement on classification criteria for definite APS was published in 1999. A patient with APS\\u000a must meet at least one of the two clinical criteria (vascular thrombosis or pregnancy complications) and at least one of the\\u000a two laboratory criteria (aCL and\\/or LA). Although these criteria have been shown to be specific and sensitive for the classification\\u000a of

Maria Laura Bertolaccini; Oier Ateka-Barrutia; Munther A. Khamashta

93

MPP + toxicity and plasma membrane dopamine transporter: study using cell lines expressing the wild-type and mutant rat dopamine transporters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Parkinsonism-inducing neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) causes specific cell death in dopaminergic neurons after accumulation by the dopamine transporter (DAT). COS cells, a non-neuronal cell line insensitive to high doses of MPP+, becomes sensitive to MPP+ when transfected with the rat DAT cDNA. We analyzed the bi-directional transport of MPP+ and its toxicity in several cell lines expressing wild or mutant

Shigeo Kitayama; Chieko Mitsuhata; Steven Davis; Jia-Bei Wang; Tomoyuki Sato; Katsuya Morita; George R. Uhl; Toshihiro Dohi

1998-01-01

94

Erratum: ``Resolving the Effects of Resonant X-Ray Line Scattering in Centaurus X-3 with Chandra'' (ApJ, 582, 959 [2003])  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An error of a factor of 4? appears three times in our paper. Equation (3) has an extra factor of 4? on the right-hand side. It should be:4?jrec=h?0nZ,z??e2/mc?th?1/h?L?4?s2df/d?d?.(3)In the text that follows, the description of the quantity L?/4?s2 actually applies to the quantity L?/s2. The quantity L?/4?s2 instead should be described as ``the radiation energy per unit area per unit time per unit frequency assuming that the plasma is optically thin....'' The second line of equation (4) is also missing a factor of 1/(4?) on the right-hand side. It should be:=h?0??e2/mcnZ,zdsd??th?L?/4?h?df/d?d?.(4)

Wojdowski, Patrick S.; Liedahl, Duane A.; Sako, Masao; Kahn, Steven M.; Paerels, Frederik

2004-06-01

95

Establishment and characterization of a strial marginal cell line maintaining vectorial electrolyte transport.  

PubMed

E6/E7 genes of human papilloma virus type 16 were used to immortalize a primary culture of marginal cells (MC) from gerbils. One of the cloned lines was selected which demonstrated preservation of the main characteristics of the MC, both morphologically and physiologically. Electron microscopic examination showed well-developed junctional complexes and apical microvilli which suggested its epithelial origin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated the incorporation of E6/E7 genes with the genome. Reverse transcription PCR revealed the existence of mRNA of the IsK channel, a unique marker of MC among the inner ear cells, in this clone. Flow cytometric analysis of this cell line's DNA content was diploid. Numerous large domes formed after confluence of the cell monolayer. Electrophysiologic studies displayed evidence of apical K+ and Na+ channels which were blocked by Ba2+ (2 mM) and amiloride (10(-5) M), respectively. Existence of basolateral Na,K-ATPase and Na+/Cl-/K+ cotransporter was shown by blockage by ouabain (10(-3) M) and bumetanide (50 microM), individually. Injection of the cell line to nude mice failed to induce growth of tumors. This cell line was serum-, density- and anchorage-dependent when cultured in plastic dishes. In conclusion, this cell line shows characteristics of well-differentiated MC maintaining the major ionic transport processes, and provides us a good model to study the possible mechanisms and regulating factors of endolymph production. PMID:9745959

Tu, T Y; Chiu, J H; Yang, W K; Chang, T J; Yang, A H; Shu, C H; Lien, C F

1998-09-01

96

ELECTRON TRANSPORT IN CORONAL LOOPS: THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXPONENTIAL SEPARATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD LINES  

SciTech Connect

Observations by the TRACE spacecraft have shown that coronal emission in the extreme ultraviolet is characterized by filamentary structures within coronal loops, with transverse sizes close to the instrumental resolution. Starting from the observed filament widths and using the concepts of braided magnetic fields, an estimate of the turbulence level in the coronal loops can be obtained. Magnetic turbulence in the presence of a background magnetic field can be strongly anisotropic, and such anisotropy influences the separation of magnetic field lines, as well as the magnetic field line diffusion coefficient. Careful computations of the magnetic field line diffusion coefficient D{sub m} and of the rate of exponential separation of magnetic field lines h, also allowing for the possibility of anisotropic magnetic turbulence, enable computation of the effective perpendicular diffusion coefficient for electrons. When compared with observations this yields magnetic turbulence levels on the order of {delta}B/B {sub 0} = 0.05-0.7, which are larger than previous estimates. These values of the magnetic fluctuation level support the idea that magnetic turbulence can contribute to coronal heating by means of MHD turbulence dissipation. It is also found that field line transport is not governed by the quasilinear regime, but by a nonlinear regime which includes an intermediate and the percolation regimes.

Bitane, R. [Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Laboratoire Cassiopee, Blvd. De l'Observatoire, 06300 Nice (France); Zimbardo, G.; Veltri, P., E-mail: zimbardo@fis.unical.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

2010-08-20

97

Beam Transport of 4 GeV Protons from AGS to the Proton Interrogation Target of the Neutrino Line (Z_line) and Effect of the Air on the Transported Beam  

SciTech Connect

As part of the preparation for the Proton Interrogation Experiment, we have calculated the beam optics for the transport of 4 GeV protons, from the AGS extraction point, to the 'Cross-Section Target Wheel 1' and to the 'Proton Interrogation Target'. In this technical note we present three possible beam-transports each corresponding to a particular Fast Extracted Beam W B setup of the AGS. In addition we present results on the effect of the atmospheric air, (which fills the drift space of the last 100 [m] of the transport line), on the size of the beam, at two locations along the drift space, one location at the middle of the drift space and the other at the end where the 'Proton Interrogation Target' is placed. All the beam transports mentioned above require the removal of the WD1 dipole magnet, which is the first magnet of the W-line, because it acts as a limiting beam aperture, and the magnet is not used in the beam transport. An alternative solution of a beam transport, which does not require the removal of the WD1 magnet, is also presented. In this solution, which models the transport line using the TURTLE computer code[7], the vertical beam sizes at the location of the WD1 magnet is minimized to allow 'lossless' beam transport at the location of the WD1 magnet. A similar solution, but using a MAD model of the line, is also presented.

Tsoupas,N.; Ahrens, L.; Pile, P.; Thieberger, P.; Murray, M.M.

2008-10-01

98

APS News - April 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. -APS Election Results "The American Physiological Society announces the results of the election of officers for 2008." -APS Partners with The Scientist on a Compensation Survey "The Scientist, The Magazine of the Life Sciences, is conducting a major survey of compensation in the life sciences. The survey is open to all life scientists employed in the US, and is sponsored by several major professional societies including The American Physiological Society." -Beijing Physiology 2008 "The APS membership is invited to participate in the October 19-22, 2008 joint physiology meeting in Beijing. The Society is joining with several of our sister societies to sponsor a scientific meeting in Beijing, China. "

2008-04-01

99

Transport of intense ion beams and space charge compensation issues in low energy beam lines (invited).  

PubMed

Over the last few years, the interest of the international scientific community for high power accelerators in the megawatt range has been increasing. For such machines, the ion source has to deliver a beam intensity that ranges from several tens up to a hundred of mA. One of the major challenges is to extract and transport the beam while minimizing the emittance growth and optimizing its injection into the radio frequency quadrupole. Consequently, it is crucial to perform precise simulations and cautious design of the low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. In particular, the beam dynamics calculations have to take into account not only the space charge effects but also the space charge compensation of the beam induced by ionization of the residual gas. The physical phenomena occurring in a high intensity LEBT and their possible effects on the beam are presented, with a particular emphasis on space charge compensation. Then, beam transport issues in different kind of LEBTs are briefly reviewed. The SOLMAXP particle-in-cell code dedicated to the modeling of the transport of charge particles under a space charge compensation regime is described. Finally, beam dynamics simulations results obtained with SOLMAXP are presented in the case of international fusion materials irradiation facility injector. PMID:22380299

Chauvin, N; Delferrière, O; Duperrier, R; Gobin, R; Nghiem, P A P; Uriot, D

2012-02-01

100

Transport of intense ion beams and space charge compensation issues in low energy beam lines (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few years, the interest of the international scientific community for high power accelerators in the megawatt range has been increasing. For such machines, the ion source has to deliver a beam intensity that ranges from several tens up to a hundred of mA. One of the major challenges is to extract and transport the beam while minimizing the emittance growth and optimizing its injection into the radio frequency quadrupole. Consequently, it is crucial to perform precise simulations and cautious design of the low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. In particular, the beam dynamics calculations have to take into account not only the space charge effects but also the space charge compensation of the beam induced by ionization of the residual gas. The physical phenomena occurring in a high intensity LEBT and their possible effects on the beam are presented, with a particular emphasis on space charge compensation. Then, beam transport issues in different kind of LEBTs are briefly reviewed. The SOLMAXP particle-in-cell code dedicated to the modeling of the transport of charge particles under a space charge compensation regime is described. Finally, beam dynamics simulations results obtained with SOLMAXP are presented in the case of international fusion materials irradiation facility injector.

Chauvin, N.; Delferrière, O.; Duperrier, R.; Gobin, R.; Nghiem, P. A. P.; Uriot, D.

2012-02-01

101

DEPOSITION: Software to calculate particle penetration through aerosol transport lines. Draft report for comment  

SciTech Connect

In this report, models are presented for calculating aerosol particle penetration through straight tubes of arbitrary orientation, inlets, and elbows. An expression to calculate effective depositional velocities of particles on tube walls is derived. The concept of ``maximum penetration`` is introduced, which is the maximum possible penetration through a sampling line connecting any two points in a three-dimensional space. A procedure to predict optimum tube diameter for an existing transport line is developed. An interactive menu driven software entitled DEPOSITION has been developed to perform above said tasks. This code can either be used on a PC or on a mainframe. The use and illustration of the software is described in Appendix A of this report.

Anand, N.K.; McFarland, A.R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1991-10-01

102

Design of the low energy beam transport line for the China spallation neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line, which locates between the ion source and the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been completed with the TRACE3D code. The design aims at perfect matching, primary chopping, a small emittance growth and sufficient space for beam diagnostics. The line consists of three solenoids, three vacuum chambers, two steering magnets and a pre-chopper. The total length of LEBT is about 1.74 m. This LEBT is designed to transfer 20 mA of H-pulsed beam from the ion source to the RFQ. An induction cavity is adopted as the pre-chopper. The electrostatic octupole steerer is discussed as a candidate. A four-quadrant aperture for beam scraping and beam position monitoring is designed.

Li, Jin-Hai; Ouyang, Hua-Fu; Fu, Shi-Nian; Zhang, Hua-Shun; He, Wei

2008-03-01

103

The IPNS accelerator 50 MeV and 500 MeV transport lines  

SciTech Connect

The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) accelerator delivers up to 500 MeV protons to a depleted uranium target producing spallation neutrons for material science and other research. A 70-80 ns bunch strikes the target at a rate of 30 Hz with an average beam current of 15 {mu}A. The 50 MeV and 500 MeV beam lines transport protons from the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) to the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) and from the RCS to the Neutron Generating Source (NGS) target, respectively. Through over 15 years of operation, the accelerator has been highly reliable with the 5 billionth pulse on target recorded March 12, 1997. During this time, IPNS operators have discovered tunes for various parts of the DTL/RCS accelerator allowing for continual improvement in average current delivered to the target; however, in numerous cases this has been achieved by moving significantly away from the original design parameters. A new attempt is being made to analyze the lines and develop computer models that can be used to alleviate some of the undesirable features of the present {open_quotes}best tune.{close_quotes} In the 500 MeV line, higher order elements will be included in the modeling with the goal of providing a uniform power density profile at the NGS target. This paper describes features of the present lines, and progress-to-date in analyzing and improving them.

Dooling, J.C.; Brumwell, F.R.; McMichael, G.E.

1997-08-01

104

Noble internal transport barriers and radial subdiffusion of toroidal magnetic lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal transport barriers (ITB's) observed in tokamaks are described by a purely magnetic approach. Magnetic line motion in toroidal geometry with broken magnetic surfaces is studied from a previously derived Hamiltonian map in situation of incomplete chaos. This appears to reproduce in a realistic way the main features of a tokamak, for a given safety factor profile and in terms of a single parameter L representing the amplitude of the magnetic perturbation. New results are given concerning the Shafranov shift as function of L. The phase space (psi ,? ) of the "tokamap" describes the poloidal section of the line trajectories, where psi is the toroidal flux labelling the surfaces. For small values of L, closed magnetic surfaces exist (KAM tori) and island chains begin to appear on rational surfaces for higher values of L, with chaotic zones around hyperbolic points, as expected. Island remnants persist in the chaotic domain for all relevant values of L at the main rational q-values. Single trajectories of magnetic line motion indicate the persistence of a central protected plasma core, surrounded by a chaotic shell enclosed in a double-sided transport barrier: the latter is identified as being composed of two Cantori located on two successive “most-noble” numbers values of the perturbed safety factor, and forming an internal transport barrier (ITB). Magnetic lines which succeed to escape across this barrier begin to wander in a wide chaotic sea extending up to a very robust barrier (as long as Lprecsim 1) which is identified mathematically as a robust KAM surface at the plasma edge. In this case the motion is shown to be intermittent, with long stages of pseudo-trapping in the chaotic shell, or of sticking around island remnants, as expected for a continuous time random walk. For values of Lsucceq 1, above the escape threshold, most magnetic lines succeed to escape out of the external barrier which has become a permeable Cantorus. Statistical analysis of a large number of trajectories, representing the evolution of a bunch of magnetic lines, indicate that the flux variable psi asymptotically grows in a diffusive manner as (L2t) with a L2 scaling as expected, but that the average radial position rm(t) asymptotically grows as (L2t)^{1/4} while the mean square displacement around this average radius asymptotically grows in a subdiffusive manner as (L2t)^{1/2}. This result shows the slower dispersion in the present incomplete chaotic regime, which is different from the usual quasilinear diffusion in completely chaotic situations. For physical times t_{\\varphi } of the order of the escape time defined by xm(t_{\\varphi })sim 1, the motion appears to be superdiffusive, however, but less dangerous than the generally admitted quasi-linear diffusion. The orders of magnitude of the relevant times in Tore Supra are finally discussed. Barrières internes de transport " nobles " et sous-diffusion radiale des lignes magnétiques toroïdales Les barrières internes de transport observées dans les tokamaks sont décrites ici dans une approche purement magnétique. Le mouvement des lignes magnétiques en géométrie toroïdale avec brisure des surfaces magnétiques est étudié à partir d'une application hamiltonienne "tokamap" développée précédemment en situation de chaos incomplet, et dans laquelle le "temps" est représenté par la coordonnée toroïdale. Cette application reproduit de façon réaliste les principales caractéristiques d'un tokamak, pour un profil donné du facteur de sécurité q, et en terme d'un seul paramètre L représentant l'amplitude de la perturbation magnétique. On obtient des résultats nouveaux concernant le déplacement de Shafranov en fonction de L. L'espace des phases (psi,?) du "tokamap" décrit la section poloïdale des trajectoires des lignes, où psisim r^2 est le flux toroïdal caractérisant les surfaces magnétiques (proportionnel au carré du rayon r de cette surface). Pour de faibles valeurs de L, des surfaces magnétiques fermées

Misguich, J. H.; Reuss, J.-D.; Constantinescu, D.; Steinbrecher, G.; Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Weyssow, B.; Balescu, R.

2003-11-01

105

AP Biology Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of experiments and demonstrations presented by biology teachers addressing some of the most difficult-to-understand topics in the AP biology curriculum which include evolutionary traits, genetics, bacterial transformation, antibody diversity, comparative anatomy, photosynthesis, human genetics, protein synthesis, recombinant DNA and RNA polymerase.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;)

2003-06-03

106

APS power supply controls  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications.

Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

1994-03-31

107

Design, modeling and simulations in the RACE project: First study for the development of a transport line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiment (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25 MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible divergence problem) different parameters and models were studied before a final design could be submitted for assembly. This report shows the results obtained from different simulations for different lattices of the transport line optics and dynamics.

Maidana, Carlos O.; Hunt, Alan W.; Beller, Denis; Folkman, Kevin

2006-06-01

108

Design, Modeling and Simulations in the RACE Project: Preliminary study for the development of a transport line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiment (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25 MeV electron beam from a Linear Accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible divergence problem) different parameters and models were studied before a final design could be submitted for assembly. This report shows the first results obtained from different simulations of the transport line optics and dynamics.

Maidana, C. O.; Hunt, A. W.; Beller, D.; Folkman, K.

2007-02-01

109

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy mtDNA mutations disrupt glutamate transport in cybrid cell lines.  

PubMed

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited form of retinal ganglion cell degeneration leading to optic atrophy which is caused by point mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). Three pathogenic mutations (positions 11778/ND4, 3460/ND1 and 14484/ND6) account for the majority of LHON cases and they affect genes that encode for different subunits of mitochondrial complex I. Excitotoxic injury to retinal ganglion cells and the optic nerve has been previously hypothesized, especially given the high susceptibility of this neural cell type to glutamate toxicity. Osteosarcoma-derived cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids) generated from six unrelated LHON patients, two cell lines for each pathogenic mutation, were compared with cybrids obtained from three healthy controls. Molecular and biochemical analyses showed that excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1)/GLAST is the most active glutamate transporter in this cellular model. The glutamate uptake maximal velocity was significantly reduced in all LHON cybrids compared with control cybrids. This reduction was correlated in a mutation-specific fashion with the degree of mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, which is enhanced in LHON cybrids. Our findings support the hypothesis that the genetically determined mitochondrial dysfunction in LHON patients leads to impaired activity of the EAAT1 glutamate transporter. This observation is particularly relevant since EAAT1 is the major means of glutamate removal in the inner retina and this prevents retinal ganglion cells being damaged as a result of excitotoxicity. PMID:15342361

Beretta, Simone; Mattavelli, Laura; Sala, Gessica; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Schapira, Anthony H V; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Carelli, Valerio; Ferrarese, Carlo

2004-09-01

110

Functional Characterization of Folate Transport Proteins in Staten's Seruminstitut Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Purpose The overall objective of this study was to investigate and characterize the expression of folate transport proteins in Staten's Seruminstitut rabbit corneal (SIRC) epithelial cell line. Methods [3H]Folic acid uptake was studied with respect to time, pH, temperature, sodium and chloride ion dependency. Inhibition studies were conducted with structural analogs methyltetrahydro folate (MTF) and methotrexate (MTX), vitamins and metabolic inhibitors. [3H]Folic acid uptake was also determined with varying concentrations of cold folic acid. Uptake kinetics was studied in the presence of various modulators of intracellular regulatory pathways; protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC), protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and calcium-calmodulin modulators. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis were performed to substantiate the expression of folate transport proteins. Ex vivo corneal permeability studies were carried out with [3H]Folic acid in presence and absence of 1mM cold folic acid. Results Linear increase in [3H]Folic acid uptake was observed over 30min. The process followed saturation kinetics with apparent Km of 14.2 nM, Vmax of 1.5*10-5 micro.moles/min/mg protein and Kd of 2.1*10-6 min.-1 Uptake process was found to be dependent on pH, sodium ions, chloride ions, temperature and energy. Uptake was inhibited in the presence of structural analogs (cold folic acid, MTF and MTX) but structurally unrelated vitamins did not show any effect. Membrane transport inhibitors SITS, DIDS, probenecid and endocytic inhibitor, colchicine, significantly inhibited the [3H]Folic acid uptake indicating the involvement of receptor/transporter mediated process. PKA, PTK and Ca2+/calmodulin pathways significantly regulate the process. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of folate receptor-? (FR-alpha) and proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT). Permeability of [3H]Folic acid across rabbit cornea was1.48*10-05 cm/sec, and in the presence of cold folic acid it was 1.08*10-05 cm/sec. Conclusions This work demonstrated the functional and molecular presence of FR-alpha and PCFT in SIRC epithelial cell line. Permeability studies have indicated the existence of folate carrier mediated system across rabbit cornea.

Jwala, J.; Boddu, S.H.S.; Paturi, D.K.; Shah, S.; Smith, S.B.; Pal, D.; Mitra, A. K.

2013-01-01

111

Fano effect and bound state in continuum in electron transport through an armchair graphene nanoribbon with line defect.  

PubMed

: Electron transport properties in an armchair graphene nanoribbon are theoretically investigated by considering the presence of line defect. It is found that the line defect causes the abundant Fano effects and bound state in continuum (BIC) in the electron transport process, which are tightly dependent on the width of the nanoribbon. By plotting the spectra of the density of electron states of the line defect, we see that the line defect induces some localized quantum states around the Dirac point and that the different localizations of these states lead to these two kinds of transport results. Next, the Fano effect and BIC phenomenon are detailedly described via the analysis about the influence of the structure parameters. According to the numerical results, we propose such a structure to be a promising candidate for graphene nanoswitch. PACS: 81.05.Uw, 71.55.-i, 73.23.-b, 73.25.+i. PMID:23870061

Gong, Wei-Jiang; Sui, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yan; Yu, Guo-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Hui

2013-07-22

112

APS Supports 24 Undergraduate Researchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is on page 87 of The Physiologist, June 2012. The American Physiological SocietyÃÂs Undergraduate Summer Research Fellowships (UGSRF) program is sponsored by the APS Career Opportunities in Physiology Committee and funded by the APS Council.

APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

2012-06-01

113

Identification of transport pathways for citric acid cycle intermediates in the human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2  

PubMed Central

Citric acid cycle intermediates are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract through carrier-mediated mechanisms, although the transport pathways have not been clearly identified. This study examines the transport of citric acid cycle intermediates in the Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cell line, often used as a model of small intestine. Inulin was used as an extracellular volume marker instead of mannitol since the apparent volume measured with mannitol changed with time. The results show that Caco-2 cells contain at least three distinct transporters, including the Na+-dependent di- and tricarboxylate transporters, NaDC1 and NaCT, and one or more sodium-independent pathways, possibly involving organic anion transporters. Succinate transport is mediated mostly by Na+-dependent pathways, predominantly by NaDC1, but with some contribution by NaCT. RT-PCR and functional characteristics verified the expression of these transporters in Caco-2 cells. In contrast, citrate transport in Caco-2 cells occurs by a combination of Na+-independent pathways, possibly mediated by an organic anion transporter, and Na+-dependent mechanisms. The non-metabolizable dicarboxylate, methylsuccinate, is also transported by a combination of Na+-dependent and -independent pathways. In conclusion, we find that multiple pathways are involved in the transport of di-and tricarboxylates by Caco-2 cells. Since many of these pathways are not found in human intestine, this model may be best suited for studying Na+-dependent transport of succinate by NaDC1.

Weerachayaphorn, Jittima; Pajor, Ana M.

2008-01-01

114

AP Calculus AB II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education (MITE), seeks to provide âÂÂhigh-quality, multimedia content on general education subjects to high school and college students.â This course, Advanced Placement Calculus AB II, is a continuation on the principles covered in the Advanced Placement Calculus AB I course. It contains study materials, interactive lessons, and textbooks to help students prepare for the College Board AP Calculus AB exam. Each lesson contains objectives, readings, an interactive lesson, and a test with answer key. Students can review the course material in its entirety, or simply choose a lesson that they need to review. The materials provided in this course will definitely help students to prepare for the AP Calculus exam, and can also serve as useful supplementary material for the classroom.

2008-07-11

115

APS: The American Physical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This expansive website features the American Physical Society's (APS) work in advancing and diffusing the knowledge of physics. Visitors will find the latest APS news and releases such as the Report of the APS Study Group on Boost-Phase Intercept Systems for National Missile Defense. Teachers can learn about the APS's work in improving science education. The website features many programs and activities of the APS's outreach Committee on Minorities in Physics (COM). Students can find information on how to prepare for a career in physics from middle school through graduate work. With so much to offer, anyone interested in physics should visit this website.

116

Summary test results of the particle-beam diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) subsystems  

SciTech Connect

During the first half of 1994, a number of the diagnostic systems for measurement of the charged-particle beam parameters throughout the subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been installed and tested. The particle beams eventually will involve 450-MeV to 7-GeV positrons and with different pulse formats. The first test and commissionin results for beam profiles, beam position monitors, loss rate monitors, current monitors, and synchrotron radiation photon monitors hve been obtained using 200- to 350-MeV electron beams injected into the subsystems. Data presented are principally from the transport lines and the positron accumulator ring.

Lumpkin, A.; Wang, X.; Sellyey, W.; Patterson, D.; Kahana, E.

1994-08-01

117

Investigation of a line-focused acoustic levitation for contactless transport of particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate herein an interesting acoustic line-focused levitation mechanism, enabling the simultaneous transportation of the acoustically levitated particles. It is shown that the performance of such a system is strongly dependent on the envelope of geometric parameters of the levitator. To study this dependence systematically, a thorough numerical model using the finite element method is developed. Both rigid and flexural radiating plates are considered. The effect of all important geometric parameters on the resulting acoustic potential patterns is investigated. After successful experimental validation, in which particles of density ca. 1000 times higher than that of their surrounding gas (~1 g/cm3 versus ~10-3 g/cm3) are levitated and translated, the model proves to be reliable in predicting the position as well as the force exerted on the levitated particles.

Foresti, Daniele; Bjelobrk, Nada; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

2011-05-01

118

Addendum: ``Hard X-Rays and Gamma Rays from Type Ia Supernovae'' (ApJ, 492, 228 [1998])  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a subtle error in the normalization of the absolute flux published in our original article (hereafter HWK98), and some minor updates. The normalization problem is related to the post-processing. As a consequence, the reported line fluxes are too large at early times. Note that Figure 1 of P. Höflich (ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]) has been transferred from HWK98. Results of previous papers are not affected (E. Müller, P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]; P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]). For calculating the ?-ray spectra, the ?-ray transport is solved via a Monte Carlo code that produces an output file containing the Eddington flux, the energy input by radioactive decay and escape probability, ?, of ?-ray photons. In a postprocessing step, the spectrum is renormalized and convolved with the instrumental response function of the ?-ray telescope. A two-step procedure is used to obtain the emergent spectra to separate the CPU-intensive Monte Carlo transport calculation from the ``fast'' second step, allowing us to study the influence of the instrument on the observables (e.g., E. Müller, P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998

Höflich, Peter; Wheeler, J. C.

2004-04-01

119

Near-wall velocity structures that drive turbulent transport from a line source at the wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work involves numerical experiments that were conducted in a turbulent channel flow using direct numerical simulation in conjunction with the tracking of thermal markers released from a single instantaneous line source at the wall of the channel. The simulations were conducted at Re? = 300 and for different Prandtl number fluids (Pr = 0.1, 0.7, 6, 20, and 50), in order to investigate the physical mechanism of turbulent transport and the flow structures that promote turbulent transport. The behavior of these heat markers was observed in 12 locations ranging from 1 to 12 half-channel heights downstream from the source. In each of these locations the flow structures that carried thermal markers towards the channel center (i.e., those that transfer heat away from the wall) and flow structures that carried thermal markers towards the channel wall (i.e., those that transfer heat towards the wall) were identified and characterized as a function of the Prandtl number. The characteristic time and length scales were obtained based on the calculation of correlation coefficients for the markers that were captured in each of the downstream locations. The average width of the heat-transferring plumes that have positive vertical velocity fluctuations is larger than the plumes with negative vertical velocity. Even though areas where heat markers are present extend for a long distance downstream, consistent with a sheet-like behavior of thermal plumes, it is found that the eddies associated with these thermal structures are considerably shorter and a synergism among these short eddies, both close and farther away from the wall, is needed in order to transport heat.

Karna, Anjani Kalyan; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.

2012-03-01

120

Serotonin transporter transgenic (SERTcre) mouse line reveals developmental targets of serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).  

PubMed

The serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; synonyms, SERT, 5-HTT) is expressed much more broadly during development than in adulthood. To obtain a full picture of all sites of SERT expression during development we used a new mouse model where Cre recombinase was inserted into the gene encoding the serotonin transporter. Two reporter mouse lines, ROSA26R and the Tau(mGFP), allowed to map all the cells that express SERT at any point during development. Combined LacZ histochemistry and GFP immunolabelling showed neuronal cell bodies and axon fiber tracts. Earliest recombination in embryos was visible in the periphery in the heart and liver by E10.5 followed by recombination in the brain in raphe serotonergic neurons by E12.5. Further, recombination in non-serotonin neurons was visible in the choroid plexus, roof plate, and neural crest derivatives; by E15.5, recombination was found in the dorsal thalamus, cingulate cortex, CA3 field of the hippocampus, retinal ganglion cells, superior olivary nucleus and cochlear nucleus. Postnatally, SERT mediated recombination was visible in the medial prefrontal cortex and layer VI neurons in the isocortex. Recombined cells were co-labelled with Neu-N, but not with GAD67, and were characterized by long range projections (corpus callosum, fornix, thalamocortical). This fate map of serotonin transporter expressing cells emphasizes the broad expression of SERT in non-serotonin neurons during development and clarifies the localization of SERT expression in the hippocampus and limbic cortex. The identification of targets of SSRIs and serotonin releasers during embryonic and early postnatal life helps understanding the very diverse physiological consequences of administration of these drugs during development. PMID:18789954

Narboux-Nême, Nicolas; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Avallone, Luigi; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Gaspar, Patricia

2008-08-26

121

Influx and efflux transport as determinants of melphalan cytotoxicity: Resistance to melphalan in MDR1 overexpressing tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

There is a considerable variation in efficacy of melphalan therapy in multiple myeloma (MM) and other hematopoietic tumors. We hypothesized that this may be due to variations in the expression of influx and efflux transporters of melphalan. We measured the expression of the influx transporters LAT1, LAT2, and TAT1 and the efflux transporters MDR1, MRP1 and BCRP by quantitative RT-PCR and related their expression to the intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of melphalan in 7 MM and 21 non-MM hematopoietic tumor cell lines. Variation in the intracellular accumulation accounted for nearly half of the variation in the cytotoxicity of melphalan in MM cell lines (r(2)=0.47, P=0.04). High expression of the efflux transporter MDR1 was associated with low intracellular accumulation and low cytotoxicity of melphalan (r(2)=0.56, P=0.03 and r(2)=0.62, P=0.02, respectively). The effect was reversed by the MDR1 inhibitor cyclosporine. In addition, the MDR1 overexpressing HL-60 cell line showed 10-fold higher resistance to melphalan than the non-MDR1 expressing one. Again, the resistance was reversed by cyclosporine and by MDR1-specific shRNA. LAT1 was the major influx transporter in tumor cell lines with 4000-fold higher expression than LAT2. Down-regulation of LAT1 by siRNA reduced the melphalan uptake by 58% and toxicity by 3.5-fold, but natural variation in expression between the tumor cell lines was not associated with accumulation or cytotoxicity of melphalan. In conclusion, tumor-specific variations in the expression of the efflux transporter MDR1, but not of the influx transporter LAT1, affect the intracellular accumulation of melphalan and thus determine its cytotoxicity. PMID:19447222

Kühne, Annett; Tzvetkov, Mladen Vassilev; Hagos, Yohannes; Lage, Hermann; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Brockmöller, Jürgen

2009-04-05

122

High current density negative ion source for beam line transport study  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Electron Cooling Program requires a 20-m solenoidal region to interact 8-GeV antiprotons with an escorting beam of 4.3-MeV electrons to improve the phase-space quality of the antiproton beam. The solenoidal section with additional transport lines to take and return a 0.5-A electron beam from an electrostatic accelerator, for energy recovery, must be precisely aligned and adjusted. For the initial setup and study, and later testing of this line, a 12.4-keV H{sup {minus}} beam can be used to simulate the 4.3 MeV electron beam. For this purpose a high-brightness H{sup {minus}} ion source has been developed and tested. The source, a semiplanatron type, with a hollow cathode discharge and spherical cathode focusing of the emitted ions to the emission aperture has given an emission current density up to 0.7 A/cm{sup 2}. Continuous operation of 4 weeks has been demonstrated. Such an optimized source could have many applications for tandem accelerators, ion beam lithography and ion implantation.

Vadim Dudnikov; Charles W Schmidt and James Wendt

2001-07-25

123

Molecular cloning of two Arabidopsis UDP-galactose transporters by complementation of a deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell line.  

PubMed

Nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs) form a family of structurally related transmembrane proteins that transport nucleotide-sugars from the cytoplasm to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi lumen. In these organelles, activated sugars are substrates for various glycosyltransferases involved in oligo- and polysaccharide biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains more than 40 members of this transporter gene family, of which only a few are functionally characterized. In this study, two Arabidopsis UDP-galactose transporter cDNAs (UDP-GalT1 and UDP-GalT2) are isolated by expression cloning using a Chinese hamster ovary cell line (CHO-Lec8) deficient in UDP-galactose transport. The isolated genes show only 21% identity to each other and very limited sequence identity with human and yeast UDP-galactose transporters and other NSTs. Despite this low overall identity, the two proteins clearly belong to the same gene family. Besides complementing Lec8 cells, the two NSTs are shown to transport exclusively UDP-galactose by an in vitro NST assay. The most homologous proteins with known function are plant transporters that locate in the inner chloroplast membrane and transport triose-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate, glucose-6-phosphate, and xylulose 5-phosphate. Also, the latter proteins are members of the same family, which therefore has been named the NST/triose-phosphate transporter family. PMID:15456736

Bakker, Hans; Routier, Françoise; Oelmann, Stefan; Jordi, Wilco; Lommen, Arjen; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Bosch, Dirk

2004-09-29

124

Pharmacological characteristics of the specific transporter for the endogenous cell growth inhibitor agmatine in six tumor cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims. This study examined agmatine transport into six human intestinal tumor cell lines and compared the pharmacological properties of this transporter with those of the agmatine carrier previously characterized in human glioblastoma cells.Methods. Carrier-mediated uptake was determined as specific accumulation of [14C]agmatine in the cells. The changes in intracellular agmatine concentration in the tumor cells after 24 h incubation

A. Heinen; M. Brüss; H. Bönisch; M. Göthert; G. J. Molderings

2003-01-01

125

Characterization of immortalized choroid plexus epithelial cell lines for studies of transport processes across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Two rodent choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines, Z310 and TR-CSFB, were compared with primary rat CP epithelial cells and intact CP tissue with respect to transport protein expression, function and tight junction (TJ) formation. METHODS: For expression profiles of transporters and TJ proteins, qPCR and western blot analysis were used. Uptake assays were performed to study the functional

Juliane Kläs; Hartwig Wolburg; Tetsuya Terasaki; Gert Fricker; Valeska Reichel

2010-01-01

126

AP1 function and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AP-1 (activating protein-1) is a collective term referring to dimeric transcription factors composed of Jun, Fos or ATF (activating transcription factor) subunits that bind to a common DNA site, the AP-1-binding site. As the complexity of our knowledge of AP-1 factors has increased, our understanding of their physiological function has decreased. This trend, however, is beginning to be reversed due

Michael Karin; Zheng-gang Liu; Ebrahim Zandi

1997-01-01

127

The beta-appendages of the four adaptor-protein (AP) complexes: structure and binding properties, and identification of sorting nexin 9 as an accessory protein to AP-2.  

PubMed Central

Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are essential components for the formation of coated vesicles and the recognition of cargo proteins for intracellular transport. Each AP complex exposes two appendage domains with that function to bind regulatory accessory proteins in the cytosol. Secondary structure predictions, sequence alignments and CD spectroscopy were used to relate the beta-appendages of all human AP complexes to the previously published crystal structure of AP-2. The results suggested that the beta-appendages of AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 have similar structures, consisting of two subdomains, whereas that of AP-4 lacks the inner subdomain. Pull-down and overlay assays showed partial overlap in the binding specificities of the beta-appendages of AP-1 and AP-2, whereas the corresponding domain of AP-3 displayed a unique binding pattern. That AP-4 may have a truncated, non-functional domain was indicated by its apparent inability to bind any proteins from cytosol. Of several novel beta-appendage-binding proteins detected, one that had affinity exclusively for AP-2 was identified as sorting nexin 9 (SNX9). SNX9, which contains a phox and an Src homology 3 domain, was found in large complexes and was at least partially associated with AP-2 in the cytosol. SNX9 may function to assist AP-2 in its role at the plasma membrane.

Lundmark, Richard; Carlsson, Sven R

2002-01-01

128

Variability of the Ap Star HD 9996  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here new measurements of the longitudinal magnetic field (Be) in the binary system HD 9996, where the primary companion is an Ap star. Series of 63 Be observations was obtained in years 1994-2011 with the 1-m optical telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Russia). New magnetic data allowed us to refine the long-term magnetic period of HD 9996 to Pmag=21.8 years. Compilation of archival photometric data showed the existence of long-term variations of HD 9996 in time scale of 22-23 yr consistent with Pmag. We identify Pmag with the precession period of the primary Ap star and summarize search for a short-term rotational period and the rotational line broadening in this star.

Bychkov, V. D.; Bychkova, L. V.; Madej, J.; Shatilov, A. V.

2012-09-01

129

APS Archive of Teaching Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a powerpoint presentation from the 2008 APS Science Teaching Forum held in Warrenton, Virginia from July 21-27, 2008. The presentation describes what digital resources are, and how to access these types of materials in the APS Archive.

Amy Feuerstein (The American Physiological Society Education)

2008-06-01

130

AP-42 REVISION: COKE OVENS  

EPA Science Inventory

The document "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors" (AP-42) has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1972. Supplements to AP-42 have been routinely published to add new emission source categories and to update existing emission factor...

131

Localization of the AP3 adaptor complex defines a novel endosomal exit site for lysosomal membrane proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptor protein (AP) 3 adaptor complex has been implicated in the transport of lysosomal membrane proteins, but its precise site of action has remained controversial. Here, we show by immuno-electron microscopy\\u000athat AP-3 is associated with budding profiles evolving from a tubular endosomal compartment that also exhibits\\u000abudding profiles positive for AP-1. AP-3 colocalizes with clathrin, but to a

A. A. Peden; V. Oorschot; B. A. Hesser; C. D. Austin; R. H. Scheller; J. Klumperman

2004-01-01

132

47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. 69.713 Section 69...traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. (a) Scope. This paragraph...traffic-sensitive components of tandem-switched transport services, as described in §§...

2011-10-01

133

47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. 69.713 Section 69...traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. (a) Scope. This paragraph...traffic-sensitive components of tandem-switched transport services, as described in §§...

2012-10-01

134

Contactless transport of matter in the first five resonance modes of a line-focused acoustic manipulator.  

PubMed

The first five resonance modes for transport of matter in a line-focused acoustic levitation system are investigated. Contactless transport was achieved by varying the height between the radiating plate and the reflector. Transport and levitation of droplets in particular involve two limits of the acoustic forces. The lower limit corresponds to the minimum force required to overcome the gravitational force. The upper limit corresponds to the maximum acoustic pressure beyond which atomization of the droplet occurs. As the droplet size increases, the lower limit increases and the upper limit decreases. Therefore to have large droplets levitated, relatively flat radiation pressure amplitude during the translation is needed. In this study, using a finite element model, the Gor'kov potential was calculated for different heights between the reflector and the radiating plate. The application of the Gor'kov potential was extended to study the range of droplet sizes for which the droplets can be levitated and transported without atomization. It was found that the third resonant mode (H(3)-mode) represents the best compromise between high levitation force and smooth pattern transition, and water droplets of millimeter radius can be levitated and transported. The H(3)-mode also allows for three translation lines in parallel. PMID:22352478

Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

2012-02-01

135

Detector line spread functions determined analytically by transport of Compton recoil electrons.  

PubMed

To achieve the maximum benefit of conformal radiation therapy it is necessary to obtain accurate knowledge of radiation beam penumbras based on high-resolution relative dosimetry of beam profiles. For this purpose there is a need to perform high-resolution dosimetry with well-established routine dosimeters, such as ionization chambers or diodes. Profiles measured with these detectors must be corrected for the dosimeter's nonideal response, caused by finite dimensions and, in the case of an ionization chamber, the alteration of electron transport and a contribution of electrons recoiled in the chamber wall and the central electrode. For this purpose the line spread function (LSF) of the detector is needed. The experimental determination of LSFs is cumbersome and restricted to the specific detector and beam energy spectrum used. Therefore, a previously reported analytical model [Med. Phys. 27, 923-934 (2000)] has been extended to determine response profiles of routine dosimeters: shielded diodes and, in particular, ionization chambers, in primary dose slit beams. The model combines Compton scattering of incident photons, the transport of recoiled electrons by Fermi-Eyges small-angle multiple scattering theory, and functions to limit electron transport. It yields the traveling direction and the energy of electrons upon incidence on the detector surface. In the case of ionization chambers, geometrical considerations are then sufficient to calculate the relative amount of ionization in chamber air, i.e., the detector response, as a function of the detector location in the slit beam. In combination with the previously reported slit beam dose profiles, the LSF can then readily be derived by reconstruction techniques. Since the spectral contributions are preserved, the LSF of a dosimeter is defined for any beam for which the effective spectrum is known. The detector response profiles calculated in this study have been verified in a telescopic slit beam geometry, and were found to correspond to experimental profiles within 0.2 and 0.3 mm (full width at half-maximum) for a Wellhoefer IC15 chamber in a 6 and 25 MV-X x-ray beam, respectively. For a shielded diode these figures were found to be 0.2 and 0.1 mm, respectively. It is shown that a shielded diode in a primary beam needs only a small size-based correction of measured profiles. The effect of the LSF of an IC15 chamber on penumbra width has been determined for a set of model penumbras. The LSFs calculated by the application of the analytical model yield a broadening by 2 mm of a 3 mm wide penumbra (20%-80%). This is 0.5 mm (6 MV-X) to 1 mm (25 MV-X) smaller than found with the experimental LSFs. With a spatial correction based on the LSFs that were determined in this study, this broadening of up to 2 mm is eliminated, so that ionization chambers like the IC15 can be used for high-resolution relative dosimetry on a routine basis. PMID:11393468

van't Veld, A A; van Luijk, P; Praamstra, F; van der Hulst, P C

2001-05-01

136

High-resolution mass separator and 60 m beam transport line for the radioactive nuclear beam facility at INS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution on-line isotope separator (ISOL) followed by a long beam transport line is under testing at INS, as a pilot radioactive beam facility for the E-arena of the Japanese Hadron Project. The ISOL has a unique feature in its high-voltage potential configuration; it has two separation stages and both are electrically insulated from the ground. This feature is effective to eliminate impurities as well as to perform high-resolution mass separation while keeping the injection beam velocity to the post accelerator constant. The design concept and present status of performance tests are reported.

Wada, M.; Katayama, I.; Tanaka, J.; Strasser, P.; Jeong, S. C.; Yahata, K.; Tomizawa, Y.; Nomura, T.; Fujioka, M.; Wollnik, H.

1996-04-01

137

APS controls overview  

SciTech Connect

The APS accelerator control system described in this report is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and interfaces to hardware. The operator interface is a UNIX-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The user has the ability to generate and alter control displays and to access the alarm handler, the archiver, interactive control programs, custom code, and other tools. The TCP/EP networking protocol has been selected as the underlying protocol for the control system network. TCP/EP is a commercial standard and readily available from network hardware vendors. Its implementation is independent of the particular network medium selected to implement the controls network. In the development environment copper Ethernet is the network medium; however, in the actual implementation a fiber-based system using hub technology will be utilized. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system.

NONE

1996-02-01

138

Recommendations for Improvement of Green Lines Subway Operations. Report for the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transit lines which have separated rights-of-way on some sections are being increasingly used. Philadelphia has a network of lines with such mixed types of rights-of-way: five streetcar routes, known as Green Lines, operate on streets without any separati...

V. R. Vuchic S. Kikuchi D. Resnick E. Bruun Y. E. Shin

1990-01-01

139

Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

2013-03-01

140

Characterization of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene expression profile in Y79: a retinoblastoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemotherapy failure was reported in treatment of retinoblastoma suggesting a role for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins.\\u000a Little is known about the expression pattern of ABC proteins in this cancer type. We investigated the gene expression profile\\u000a of 47 ABC proteins in the human retinoblastoma cell line Y79 by TaqMan low-density array. Analysis revealed 31 ABC transporter\\u000a genes expressed in this

Doris Hendig; Thomas Langmann; Ralf Zarbock; Gerd Schmitz; Knut Kleesiek; Christian Götting

2009-01-01

141

The APS machine protection system (MPS)  

SciTech Connect

The machine protection system (MPS) that protects the APS storage ring vacuum chamber from x-ray beams, is active. There are over 650 sensors monitored and networked through the MPS system. About the same number of other process variables are monitored by the much slower EPICS control system, which also has an input to the rf abort chain. The MPS network is still growing with the beam position limits detection system coming on-line. The network configuration, along with a limited description of individual subsystems, is presented.

Fuja, R.; Berg, B.; Arnold, N. [and others

1996-08-01

142

In-situ characterization of wastewater flow and transport from at-grade line sources to shallow groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of multidimensional unsaturated and saturated flow and transport under boundary conditions typical of on-site wastewater disposal systems is required to assess the risk to groundwater contamination. The main objective of this research is to characterize in-situ wastewater flow and transport from at-grade line sources on a shallow groundwater conditions. The research site was conducted at Wetaskiwin Rest Stop, Alberta, Canada, where ultraviolet disinfected wastewater has been disposed off to the ground via pressurized at-grade line sources since 2007. The site was characterized for wastewater plume and temporal groundwater fluctuation by using Electromagnetic induction (EM31) and (EM38); and by grid of 74 water table wells, 14 piezometers and 11 transducers. Groundwater was analyzed for selected tracers (pH, EC and Cl) and some microbiology (e.g. E. coli). From the results wastewater plume was identified; and wastewater plume center of mass and average flow direction were estimated. Along the horizontal plume center of mass, 30 monitoring wells in 10 nests and 31 temperature sensors in 5 nests were installed to get vertical resolution of the wastewater plume and to track contaminant transport over time. Results, implications and plans for future investigations will be presented. The research output will benefit future research on contaminant fate and transport and groundwater risk assessment plans. Key words: On-site wastewater treatment/disposal system, Wastewater plume, Groundwater contamination.

Weldeyohannes, A. O.; Kachanoski, R. G.; Dyck, M. F.

2011-12-01

143

Characterization of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene expression profile in Y79: a retinoblastoma cell line.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy failure was reported in treatment of retinoblastoma suggesting a role for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins. Little is known about the expression pattern of ABC proteins in this cancer type. We investigated the gene expression profile of 47 ABC proteins in the human retinoblastoma cell line Y79 by TaqMan low-density array. Analysis revealed 31 ABC transporter genes expressed in this tumor cell line. Y79 cells demonstrate high gene expression of ABCA7, ABCA12, ABCB7, ABCB10, ABCC1, ABCC4, ABCD3, ABCE1, ABCF1, ABCF2, and ABCF3 (more than twofold compared to pooled RNA from different tissues). Moreover, we show that Y79 cells exhibit an active calcein efflux pointing to multidrug resistance protein (MRP)-like transporter activity. In summary, we present for the first time an ABC transporter gene expression profile in cells derived from retinoblastoma. Most of the highly expressed ABC transporter genes are typical markers of cancer cells and might exhibit potential targets for medical treatment of retinoblastoma. PMID:19266166

Hendig, Doris; Langmann, Thomas; Zarbock, Ralf; Schmitz, Gerd; Kleesiek, Knut; Götting, Christian

2009-03-06

144

Enhanced NF?B and AP1 transcriptional activity associated with antiestrogen resistant breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Signaling pathways that converge on two different transcription factor complexes, NF?B and AP-1, have been identified in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers resistant to the antiestrogen, tamoxifen. METHODS: Two cell line models of tamoxifen-resistant ER-positive breast cancer, MCF7\\/HER2 and BT474, showing increased AP-1 and NF?B DNA-binding and transcriptional activities, were studied to compare tamoxifen effects on NF?B and AP-1

Yamei Zhou; Christina Yau; Joe W Gray; Karen Chew; Shanaz H Dairkee; Dan H Moore; Urs Eppenberger; Serenella Eppenberger-Castori; Christopher C Benz

2007-01-01

145

Serotonin Transporter Promoter Gain-of-Function Genotypes Are Linked to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functional serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism, HTTLPR, alters the risk of disease as well as brain morphometry and function. Here, we show that HTTLPR is functionally triallelic. The LG allele, which is the L allele with a common G substitution, creates a functional AP2 transcription-factor binding site. Expression assays in 62 lymphoblastoid cell lines representing the six genotypes and in

Xian-Zhang Hu; Robert H. Lipsky; Guanshan Zhu; Longina A. Akhtar; Julie Taubman; Benjamin D. Greenberg; Ke Xu; Paul D. Arnold; Margaret A. Richter; James L. Kennedy; Dennis L. Murphy; David Goldman

2006-01-01

146

Effective temperatures of AP stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of determination of the effective temperatures of Ap stars is proposed. The method is based on the fact that the slopes of the energy distribution in the Balmer continuum near the Balmer jump for ``normal\\

N. A. Sokolov

1998-01-01

147

Cement-lined pipes for water lubricated transport of heavy oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents different strategies for preventing oil from fouling the walls of core-annular flow pipelines and also for restart from an unexpected pipeline shut-down. The most promising of these strategies is to use cement-lined pipes. Experiments presented here show that hydrated cement-lined pipes are highly oleophobic and therefore resist fouling for long term. A pilot scale cement-lined core-annular flow

Michael S. Arney; Geraldo S. Ribeiro; Emilio Guevara; Runyan Bai; Daniel D. Joseph

1996-01-01

148

Different transporters for tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) in the human choriocarcinoma cell line, JAR.  

PubMed

We investigated transport systems for tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) in the human choriocarcinoma cell line, JAR, using a range of structurally similar compounds to determine whether these thyroid hormones are transported by common or different mechanisms. Saturable T(3) but not saturable T(4) uptake was inhibited by a wide range of aromatic compounds (nitrendipine, nifedipine, verapamil, meclofenamic acid, mefenamic acid, diazepam, phenytoin). Nitrendipine and diazepam were the most effective inhibitors of saturable thyroid hormone uptake. Nitrendipine decreased the K(m) for T(4) uptake from a control value of around 500 nM to around 300 nM (n=6). In contrast, the K(m) for T(3) uptake was increased from a control value of around 300 nM to around 750 nM (n=4). Diazepam had similar effects. This divergent shift in affinity for the uptake of T(3) and T(4) suggested that separate uptake systems exist for these two thyroid hormones. This provides evidence for at least two transporters mediating uptake of T(3) and T(4) in JAR cells: a specific T(4) transporter that does not interact with T(3) or structurally similar compounds; and a shared iodothyronine transporter that interacts with T(3), T(4), nitrendipine and diazepam. PMID:11115776

Powell, K A; Mitchell, A M; Manley, S W; Mortimer, R H; Mortimer, R H

2000-12-01

149

Heat Transport Near the Lambda Line in a Channel Containing He II  

SciTech Connect

We proposed a normalized representation of the thermal conductivity function for heat transport in He II in the previous work. In order to check its validity, steady state heat transport characteristics of He II was investigated near T{lambda}. The temperature profiles along the channels were measured at various pressures of 0.1, 1.0 and 1.5 MPa. The measured temperature profiles were analyzed to get the thermal conductivity function near T{lambda}. The validity of the universal heat transport formula was confirmed up to T / T{lambda} = 0.99.

Maeda, M.; Sato, A.; Dantsuka, T.; Yuyama, M. [TML, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0003 (Japan); Kamioka, Y. [Taiyo Nippon Sanso Co. Ltd., Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 142-8558 (Japan)

2006-04-27

150

Expression of human organic cation transporter 3 in kidney carcinoma cell lines increases chemosensitivity to melphalan, irinotecan, and vincristine.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is usually chemoresistant. This chemoresistance could be overcome if specific cytostatics are applied for which the RCC expresses an uptake transporter. In the present study, we investigated the expression of solute carrier (SLC) transporters in different RCC lines and their ability to interact with chemotherapeutics. We tested five RCC lines for the expression of different SLCs by reverse transcription-PCR and TaqMan real-time PCR. In two of five RCC lines, A498 and 7860, we observed a highly significant expression of SLC22A3 (hOCT3). Uptake of the organic cation [(3)H]MPP (4-methyl-pyridinium iodide) into these cells and also into hOCT3 stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was inhibited by irinotecan, vincristine, and melphalan. The K(i) values [determined from Dixon plots] for irinotecan, vincristine, and melphalan were 1.72 +/- 0.45 micromol/L, 17 +/- 4.81 micromol/L, and 366 +/- 51 micromol/L, respectively. Cytotoxic activities of the selected drugs were tested by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays on CHO-hOCT3, A498 (high expression of hOCT3), and ACHN cell lines (low expression of hOCT3). The growth of CHO-hOCT3 was inhibited by 20% more with irinotecan and by 50% more with vincristine compared with nontransfected CHO cells. Melphalan produced 20% to 30% more inhibition in hOCT3-expressing cells compared with nonexpressing control cells. Similar results were obtained for A498 and ACHN cells. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic treatment depends on the expression of transporter proteins mediating specific drug accumulation into target cells. PMID:19190342

Shnitsar, Volodymyr; Eckardt, Ronny; Gupta, Shivangi; Grottker, Julia; Müller, Gerhard A; Koepsell, Hermann; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Hagos, Yohannes

2009-02-03

151

Bicarbonate-dependent chloride transport drives fluid secretion by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3  

PubMed Central

Anion and fluid secretion are both defective in cystic fibrosis (CF); however, the transport mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Cl? and HCO3? secretion was measured using genetically matched CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient and CFTR-expressing cell lines derived from the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3. Forskolin stimulated the short-circuit current (Isc) across voltage-clamped monolayers, and also increased the equivalent short-circuit current (Ieq) calculated under open-circuit conditions. Isc was equivalent to the HCO3? net flux measured using the pH-stat technique, whereas Ieq was the sum of the Cl? and HCO3? net fluxes. Ieq and HCO3? fluxes were increased by bafilomycin and ZnCl2, suggesting that some secreted HCO3? is neutralized by parallel electrogenic H+ secretion. Ieq and fluid secretion were dependent on the presence of both Na+ and HCO3?. The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide abolished forskolin stimulation of Ieq and HCO3? secretion, suggesting that HCO3? transport under these conditions requires catalysed synthesis of carbonic acid. Cl? was the predominant anion in secretions under all conditions studied and thus drives most of the fluid transport. Nevertheless, 50–70% of Cl? and fluid transport was bumetanide-insensitive, suggesting basolateral Cl? loading by a sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1)-independent mechanism. Imposing a transepithelial HCO3? gradient across basolaterally permeabilized Calu-3 cells sustained a forskolin-stimulated current, which was sensitive to CFTR inhibitors and drastically reduced in CFTR-deficient cells. Net HCO3? secretion was increased by bilateral Cl? removal and therefore did not require apical Cl?/HCO3? exchange. The results suggest a model in which most HCO3? is recycled basolaterally by exchange with Cl?, and the resulting HCO3?-dependent Cl? transport provides an osmotic driving force for fluid secretion.

Shan, Jiajie; Liao, Jie; Huang, Junwei; Robert, Renaud; Palmer, Melissa L; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; O'Grady, Scott M; Hanrahan, John W

2012-01-01

152

Profiling SLCO and SLC22 genes in the NCI-60 cancer cell lines to identify drug uptake transporters  

PubMed Central

Molecular and pharmacological profiling of the NCI-60 cell panel offers the possibility of identifying pathways involved in drug resistance or sensitivity. Of these, decreased uptake of anticancer drugs mediated by efflux transporters represents one of the best studied mechanisms. Previous studies have also shown that uptake transporters can influence cytotoxicity by altering the cellular uptake of anticancer drugs. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured the mRNA expression of two solute carrier (SLC) families, the organic cation/zwitterion transporters (SLC22 family) and the organic anion transporters (SLCO family), totaling 23 genes in normal tissues and the NCI-60 cell panel by quantitative real-time PCR. By correlating the mRNA expression pattern of the SLCO and SLC22 family member gene products with the growth inhibitory profiles of 1,429 anticancer drugs and drug candidate compounds tested on the NCI-60 cell lines, we identified SLC proteins that are likely to play a dominant role in drug sensitivity. To substantiate some of the SLC–drug pairs for which the SLC member was predicted to be sensitizing, follow-up experiments were performed using engineered and characterized cell lines over-expressing SLC22A4 (OCTN1, organic cation/carnitine transporter 1). As predicted by the statistical correlations, expression of SLC22A4 resulted in increased cellular uptake and heightened sensitivity to mitoxantrone and doxorubicin. Our results indicate that the gene expression database can be used to identify SLCO and SLC22 family members that confer sensitivity to cancer cells.

Okabe, Mitsunori; Szakacs, Gergely; Reimers, Mark A.; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hall, Matthew D.; Abe, Takaaki; Weinstein, John N.; Gottesman, Michael M.

2008-01-01

153

Dietary protein composition influences abundance of peptide and amino acid transporter messenger ribonucleic acid in the small intestine of 2 lines of broiler chicks.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of dietary protein composition on mRNA abundance of a peptide transporter (peptide transporter 1, PepT1), amino acid (AA) transporters [Na(+)-independent cationic and zwitterionic AA transporter (b(o,+)AT), excitatory AA transporter 3 (EAAT3), Na(+)-independent cationic and Na(+)-dependent neutral AA transporter 2 (y(+)LAT2), L-type AA transporter 1 (LAT1), and cationic AA transporter 1 (CAT1)], and a digestive enzyme (aminopeptidase N) in 2 lines (A and B) of broilers that differentially express PepT1 mRNA (line B > line A). From d 8 to 15 posthatch, birds were fed 1 of 3 diets. Protein sources included whey protein concentrate, a whey partial hydrolysate (WPH), or a mixture of free AA (AA) identical to the composition of whey. Quantities of mRNA were assayed by real-time PCR in the small intestine of males at d 8, 9, 11, 13, and 15. For all genes except LAT1, abundance of mRNA was greatest in line B birds that consumed the WPH diet (P < 0.006). When mRNA abundance was normalized to beta-actin quantities, this effect disappeared, demonstrating a generalized effect on gene expression in line B birds that consumed the hydrolysate. There was a greater villus height:crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05) in line B birds fed the WPH diet as compared with line A. In conclusion, line B birds, which express greater PepT1, displayed enhanced intestinal mucosal absorptive surface area and differential regulation of PepT1, AA transporters, and aminopeptidase N in response to dietary protein composition. PMID:20634522

Gilbert, E R; Li, H; Emmerson, D A; Webb, K E; Wong, E A

2010-08-01

154

Overview of charged-particle beam diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)  

SciTech Connect

Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e{sup {minus}},e{sup +}) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world`s brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

Lumpkin, A.H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

1992-12-31

155

Charged-particle beam diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)  

SciTech Connect

Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e{sup {minus}}, e{sup +}) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world`s brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

Lumpkin, A.H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

1992-10-01

156

Function and regulation of AP1 subunits in skin physiology and pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse skin has become the model of choice to study the regulation and function of AP-1 subunits in many physiological and pathological processes in vivo and in vitro. Genetically modified mice, in vitro reconstituted skin equivalents and epidermal cell lines were established, in which AP-1-regulated genetic programs of cell proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis can be analysed. Since the epidermis,

Peter Angel; Axel Szabowski; Marina Schorpp-Kistner

2001-01-01

157

Geant4 simulations of proton beam transport through a carbon or beryllium degrader and following a beam line.  

PubMed

Monte Carlo simulations based on the Geant4 simulation toolkit were performed for the carbon wedge degrader used in the beam line at the Center of Proton Therapy of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The simulations are part of the beam line studies for the development and understanding of the GANTRY2 and OPTIS2 treatment facilities at PSI, but can also be applied to other beam lines. The simulated stopping power, momentum distributions at the degrader exit and beam line transmission have been compared to accurate benchmark measurements. Because the beam transport through magnetic elements is not easily modeled using Geant4a connection to the TURTLE beam line simulation program was made. After adjusting the mean ionization potential of the carbon degrader material from 78 eV to 95 eV, we found an accurate match between simulations and benchmark measurements, so that the simulation model could be validated. We found that the degrader does not completely erase the initial beam phase space even at low degraded beam energies. Using the validation results, we present a study of the usability of beryllium as a degrader material (mean ionization potential 63.7 eV). We found an improvement in the transmission of 30-45%, depending on the degraded beam energy, the higher value for the lower energies. PMID:19741273

van Goethem, M J; van der Meer, R; Reist, H W; Schippers, J M

2009-09-09

158

Melanogenesis and evidence for melanosome transport to the plasma membrane in a CD83 teleost leukocyte cell line.  

PubMed

Visceral organs of ectothermic vertebrates harbour melanin-containing leukocytes termed melanomacrophages. These cells are thought to participate in immune reactions and free-radical trapping. In teleosts, the melanin-producing ability of melanomacrophages has hitherto not been confirmed by molecular techniques. Here, a leukocyte marker and the apparatus for melanosome production and transport were investigated in an Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) pronephros-derived mononuclear leukocyte (SHK-1) cell line. The SHK-1 cells expressed transcripts specific for a mammalian CD83 homologue, a standard surface marker for activated or differentiated dendritic cells, and dopachrome tautomerase/tyrosinase-related protein-2, a melanocyte specific enzyme essential for melanin production. Reduction potential of melanin or its precursors was demonstrated histochemically after prolonged cultivation. Ultrastructural investigations revealed tyrosinase and acid phosphate activity in identical organelles and BSA-gold co-localized with multilamellar melanosomes after 2 h internalization. Apparently, melanosomes were transported and released through periodically occurring tubules fusing with the plasma membrane. Video monitoring revealed filopodia and macropinocytosis. These results showed that the SHK-1 cell line is capable of melanogenesis and melanosome secretion. Melanin-producing cells in teleost pronephros may represent a distinct CD83(+) leukocyte population consisting of phylogenetically relict multifunctional cells. This is the first report of a melanin-producing leukocyte cell-line. PMID:16704455

Haugarvoll, Erlend; Thorsen, Jim; Laane, Morten; Huang, Qirong; Koppang, Erling Olaf

2006-06-01

159

An Agent-based Transportation Route Planning Method for Led Fabricating Line and Its Evaluation Using Lagrangian Relaxation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most of Light Emitting Diode (LED) semiconductor fabricating line, AGVs (Automated Guided Vehicles) are used to transport the products between the facilities in order to ensure dust-free operation in the transportation systems. It has been demanded to realize the route planning system which speedily derives a feasible transportation route so that each AGV does not interfere with other AGVs. In this paper, we applied an agent-based optimization method for the route planning problems with multiple AGVs in LED fabricating bay in which the total transportation time is minimized. In the agent-based method, each AGV agent independently searches its candidate of route. The imitated pheromone is effectively used to generate the route which avoids the collision among AGVs. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the lower bound of the original problem is obtained by using the Lagrangian relaxation technique. The performances of the proposed method are evaluated by using the value of duality gap for a large scale problem. The effectiveness of the agent-based optimization method is demonstrated.

Nishi, Tatsushi; Sotobayashi, Ken; Ando, Masakazu; Konishi, Masami

160

Design and commissioning of the photon monitors and optical transport lines for the advanced photon source positron accumulator ring  

SciTech Connect

Two photon monitors have been designed and installed in the positron accumulator ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source. The photon monitors characterize the beam`s transverse profile, bunch length, emittance, and energy spread in a nonintrusive manner. An optical transport line delivers synchrotron light from the PAR out of a high radiation environment. Both charge-coupled device and fast-gated, intensified cameras are used to measure the transverse beam profile (0.11 - 1 mm for damped beam) with a resolution of 0.06 mm. A streak camera ({theta}{sub {tau}} =I ps) is used to measure the bunch length which is in the range of 0.3-1 ns. The design of the various transport components and commissioning results of the photon monitors will be discussed.

Berg, W.; Yang, B.; Lumpkin, A.; Jones, J.

1996-12-31

161

Microarray-based detection and expression analysis of ABC and SLC transporters in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Multiple drug resistance of cancer cells is multifactorial. A microarray technique may provide information about new candidate genes playing a role in drug resistance. Drug membrane transporters from ABC and SLC families play a main role in this phenomenon. This study demonstrates alterations in ABC and SLC gene expression levels in methotrexate, cisplatin, doxorubicin, vincristine, topotecan and paclitaxel-resistant variant of W1 ovarian cancer cell line. Resistant W1 cell lines were derived by stepwise selection of cells in increasing concentration of drugs. Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Human Genome U219 Array Strip was used for hybridizations. Statistical significance was determined by independent sample t-test. The genes having altered expression levels in drug-resistant sublines were selected and filtered by scater plot. Genes up/downregulated more than threefolds were selected and listed. Among ABC genes, seven were upregulated and three were downregulated. Three genes: ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCG2 were upregulated very significantly (over tenfold). One ABCA8 was significantly downregulated. Among 38 SLC genes, 18 were upregulated, 16 were downregulated and four were up- or downregulated dependent on the cell line. Expression of 10 SLC genes was changed very significantly (over tenfold). Four genes were significantly increased: SLC6A1, SLC9A2, SLC12A1, SLC16A6 and six genes were significantly decreased: SLC2A14, SLC7A3, SLC7A8, SLC7A11, SLC16A14, SLC38A9. Based on the expression profiles, our results provide a preliminary insight into the relationship between drug resistance and expression of membrane transporters involved in drug resistance. Correlation of specific drug transporter with drug resistance requires further analysis. PMID:23462296

Januchowski, Rados?aw; Zawierucha, Piotr; Andrzejewska, Ma?gorzata; Ruci?ski, Marcin; Zabel, Maciej

2013-01-01

162

Li-7 and Be-7 de-excitation lines - Probes for accelerated particle transport models in solar flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photon energy spectrum of a spectral feature composed of the 429 and 478 keV gamma-ray lines from Be-7 and Li-7 (produced by interactions of flare-accelerated alpha particles with ambient He in the solar atmosphere) depends on the angular distribution of the interacting accelerated particles. This spectrum is calculated for limb and disk-centered flares using a loop model for the transport of the ions. The resulting spectra are compared with data from the April 27, 1981 limb flare obtained with the gamma-ray spectrometer on SMM, providing convincing evidence for the existence of the (Li-7)-(Be-7) feature in this flare. By comparing the fluence of this feature with that of the 511 keV line, it is shown that the accelerated alpha particle abundance or the ambient He abundance, or both, must be enhanced.

Murphy, R. J.; Hua, X.-M.; Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

1990-03-01

163

In vitro effect of the Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom on cell viability, paracellular barrier function and transcellular transport in cultured cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom (PNV) induces, in rats, local edema as result of an increased vascular permeability, as well as causes blood–brain barrier (BBB) breakdown by altering transendothelial transport routes in hippocampal microvessels. In this work we investigated the in vitro effects of PNV on cell viability and cellular transport routes using three cell lines, the ECV304 endothelial-, the C6

Luciana de Paula Le Sueur; Carla Beatriz Collares-Buzato; Evanguedes Kalapothakis; Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling

2005-01-01

164

The extraction orbit and extraction beam transport line for a 75 MeV racetrack microtron  

Microsoft Academic Search

A beam transport system providing dispersion matching of the beam from the cavity axis of a racetrack microtron to the injection position in an electron storage ring is described. For extraction the last bend in the 10-75 MeV racetrack microtron Eindhoven has been designed to be less than ? rad. This is realised in a three sector dipole field for

R. W. de Leeuw; H. R. M. van Greevenbroek; J. I. M. Botman; G. A. Webers; C. J. Timmermans; H. L. Hagedoorn

1995-01-01

165

Mineralocorticoid versus glucocorticoid receptor occupancy mediating aldosterone-stimulated sodium transport in a novel renal cell line.  

PubMed

Aldosterone controls sodium balance by regulating an epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-mediated sodium transport along the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron, which expresses both mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Mineralocorticoid specificity is ensured by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, which metabolizes cortisol or corticosterone into inactive metabolites that are unable to bind MR and/or GR. The fractional occupancy of MR and GR by aldosterone mediating the sodium transport response in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron cannot be studied in vivo. For answering this question, a novel mouse cortical collecting duct cell line (mCCD(cl1)), which expresses significant levels of MR and GR and a robust aldosterone sodium transport response, was used. Aldosterone elicited a biphasic response: Low doses (K(1/2) = approximately 0.5 nM) induced a transient and early increase of sodium transport (peaking at 3 h), whereas high doses (K(1/2) = approximately 90 nM) entailed an approximately threefold larger, long-lasting response. At 3 h, the corticosterone dose-response curve was shifted to the right compared with that of aldosterone by more than two log concentrations, an effect that was fully reverted in the presence of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 inhibitor carbenoxolone. Low doses of dexamethasone (0.1 to 1 nM) failed to induce an early response, but high doses elicited a long-lasting response (K(1/2) = approximately 8 nM), similar to that observed for high aldosterone concentrations. Equilibrium binding assays showed that both aldosterone and corticosterone bind to a high-affinity, low-capacity site, whereas dexamethasone binds to one site. Within the physiologic range of aldosterone concentrations, sodium transport is predicted to be controlled by MR occupancy during circadian cycles and by MR and GR occupancy during salt restriction or acute stress. PMID:15743993

Gaeggeler, Hans-Peter; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Elena; Jaeger, Nicole Fowler; Loffing-Cueni, Dominique; Norregaard, Rikke; Loffing, Johannes; Horisberger, Jean-Daniel; Rossier, Bernard C

2005-03-02

166

Monolayers of IEC18 cells as an in vitro model for screening the passive transcellular and paracellular transport across the intestinal barrier: comparison of active and passive transport with the human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: previous studies have shown that the rat small intestinal cell line IEC-18 provides a size-selective barrier for paracellularly transported hydrophilic macromolecules. In order to determine the utility of IEC-18 cells as an in vitro model to screen the passive paracellular and transcellular components of the intestinal transport of nutrients and drugs, we have now examined the transport of GlySar

Carolien H. M Versantvoort; Rob C. A Ondrewater; Erwin Duizer; Johannes J. M Van de Sandt; Andries J Gilde; John P Groten

2002-01-01

167

Sustainable Transport, Market Segmentation and Tourism: The Looe Valley Branch Line Railway, Cornwall, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses cluster analysis, a form of a posteriori market segmentation, to understand the attitudes of tourists and the local community towards using the Looe Valley Branch Railway Line. The research revealed five segments of users distinguished by their attitudes towards using the train. Following this, the paper discusses the implications of the survey findings for attracting more people

Jamie Dallen

2007-01-01

168

Sorption and transport of radionuclides by tumbleweeds from two plastic-lined radioactive waste ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has examined the uptake of radionuclides by tumbleweeds growing in contaminated soils, but none has heretofore examined the sorption of radionuclides to tumbleweeds blowing into radioactively contaminated water. Three tumbleweed species; Russian thistle (Salsola kali), Jim Hill mustard (Sisymbrium altissimum) and summer cypress (Kochia scoparia) blow in, and out of, two plastic-lined radioactive wastewater ponds, constructed in 1993

Ronald W Warren

2001-01-01

169

VITAMIN D-INDUCIBLE NET CALCIUM TRANSPORT AND GENE EXPRESSION IN THREE CACO-2 CELL LINES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The parental cell line (P) of Caco-2 cells and two clones, BBe and TC7, were studied at 11 days postconfluence to test the facilitated diffusion model of vitamin D-mediated intestinal calcium absorption (CaTx). Nuclear vitamin D receptor (nVDR) and calbindin D9k (CaBP) were measured by Western blot;...

170

Li-7 and Be-7 Deexcitation Lines: Probes for Accelerated Particle Transport Models in Solar Flares.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The photon energy spectrum of a spectral feature composed of the 429 and 478 keV gamma-ray lines from Li-7 and Be-7 (produced by interactions of flare-accelerated alpha particles with ambient He in the solar atmosphere) depends on the angular distribution...

R. J. Murphy X. Hua B. Kozlovsky R. Ramaty

1989-01-01

171

Anomalous, quasilinear, and percolative regimes for magnetic-field-line transport in axially symmetric turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied a magnetic turbulence axisymmetric around the unperturbed magnetic field for cases having different ratios l||\\/l?. We find, in addition to the fact that a higher fluctuation level deltaB\\/B0 makes the system more stochastic, that by increasing the ratio l||\\/l? at fixed deltaB\\/B0, the stochasticity increases. It appears that the different transport regimes can be organized in terms of

G. Zimbardo; P. Veltri; P. Pommois

2000-01-01

172

AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

Robelen, Erik W.

2012-01-01

173

TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving). Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

174

APS beamline standard components handbook  

SciTech Connect

It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

Kuzay, T.M.

1992-01-01

175

Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a strategic-level examination of the transportation industry - an industry vital to national prosperity and security. Because the defense sector relies on commercial transportation for both peacetime activities and for power projection, senior military leaders must understand the global transportation industry and the environment in which the private sector operates. They must also assess the role of

Peter Hall; Mohammed Al-Adwan; Dennis M. Brogan; William J. Flannery; Gregory L. Gardner; Elizabeth J. Gilleo; Robert A. Hall; Peter C. Hunt; Nathan M. Kathir; Timothy M. McKeithen; Evan M. Miller; E. Mlikan; Ruben Perales; Lawrence J. Pleis; Paul M. Smith; Paul Needham; Steve Ditmeyer

1969-01-01

176

Zinc transporter mRNA expression in the RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human prostate gland undergoes a prominent alteration in Zn+2 homeostasis during the development of prostate cancer. The goal of the present study was to determine if the immortalized\\u000a human prostate cell line (RWPE-1) could serve as a model system to study the role of zinc in prostate cancer. The study examined\\u000a the expression of mRNA for 19 members of

Amy L. Albrecht; Seema Somji; Mary Ann Sens; Donald A. Sens; Scott H. Garrett

2008-01-01

177

Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluid...

S. J. Schneider B. D. Reed

1989-01-01

178

New version of the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT off-line chemical transport model: Intercomparison of stratospheric tracer experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development of a new three-dimensional off-line chemical transport model (CTM). The CTM has been produced by combining the existing, and closely related, TOMCAT and SLIMCAT models. The new CTM (TOMCAT/SLIMCAT) has a flexible vertical coordinate which can use both ?-p and ?-? levels. A novel approach is used for the ?-? coordinate to ensure a smooth transition between levels. The CTM has different options for calculating vertical transport in the stratosphere, depending on the coordinate chosen. The CTM also has different options for other processes such as advection scheme, radiation scheme and meteorological forcing.We have used different configurations of the new CTM to perform tests on stratospheric tracer transport. Using ECMWF ERA-40 analyses, the ?-p coordinate model gives a stratospheric age of air which is much too low, and a tropical tape-recorder signal which propagates vertically too rapidly. Changing the coordinates to ?-? levels, and still using the analyses to calculate the vertical motion, removes spurious vertical mixing and improves the modelled age of air significantly, although it still tends to underestimate the observations. If we use a radiation scheme to calculate the stratospheric diabatic transport in the ?-? model we get a greater age of air, and the best overall agreement with the observations of age of air from in situ data and estimates of the tape-recorder signal from Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 and H2O data. Based on the model results, interannual variability can cause age of air changes of up to ˜1 year in the mid/high-latitude lower stratosphere. Similar differences can be caused by changing to winds from the UK Met Office. For the year 2001, where two sets of ECMWF analyses are available, the operational analyses produce a greater stratospheric age of air than the ERA-40 re-analyses.

Chipperfield, M. P.

2006-04-01

179

Anomalous, quasilinear, and percolative regimes for magnetic-field-line transport in axially symmetric turbulence  

PubMed

We studied a magnetic turbulence axisymmetric around the unperturbed magnetic field for cases having different ratios l( ||)/l( perpendicular). We find, in addition to the fact that a higher fluctuation level deltaB/B(0) makes the system more stochastic, that by increasing the ratio l( ||)/l( perpendicular) at fixed deltaB/B(0), the stochasticity increases. It appears that the different transport regimes can be organized in terms of the Kubo number R=(deltaB/B(0))(l( ||)/l( perpendicular)). The simulation results are compared with the two analytical limits, that is the percolative limit and the quasilinear limit. When R<1 weak chaos, closed magnetic surfaces, and anomalous transport regimes are found. When R approximately 1 the diffusion regime is Gaussian, and the quasilinear scaling of the diffusion coefficient D( perpendicular) approximately (deltaB/B(0))(2) is recovered. Finally, for R>1 the percolation scaling of the diffusion coefficient D( perpendicular) approximately (deltaB/B(0))(0.7) is obtained. PMID:11046480

Zimbardo; Veltri; Pommois

2000-02-01

180

The AP-3 adaptor complex is required for vacuolar function in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Subcellular trafficking is required for a multitude of functions in eukaryotic cells. It involves regulation of cargo sorting, vesicle formation, trafficking and fusion processes at multiple levels. Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are key regulators of cargo sorting into vesicles in yeast and mammals but their existence and function in plants have not been demonstrated. Here we report the identification of the protein-affected trafficking 4 (pat4) mutant defective in the putative ? subunit of the AP-3 complex. pat4 and pat2, a mutant isolated from the same GFP imaging-based forward genetic screen that lacks a functional putative AP-3 ?, as well as dominant negative AP-3 ? transgenic lines display undistinguishable phenotypes characterized by largely normal morphology and development, but strong intracellular accumulation of membrane proteins in aberrant vacuolar structures. All mutants are defective in morphology and function of lytic and protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) but show normal sorting of reserve proteins to PSVs. Immunoprecipitation experiments and genetic studies revealed tight functional and physical associations of putative AP-3 ? and AP-3 ? subunits. Furthermore, both proteins are closely linked with putative AP-3 ? and ? subunits and several components of the clathrin and dynamin machineries. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AP complexes, similar to those in other eukaryotes, exist in plants, and that AP-3 plays a specific role in the regulation of biogenesis and function of vacuoles in plant cells.

Zwiewka, Marta; Feraru, Elena; Moller, Barbara; Hwang, Inhwan; Feraru, Mugurel I; Kleine-Vehn, Jurgen; Weijers, Dolf; Friml, Jiri

2011-01-01

181

Ion Transport in an Immortalized Rat Submandibular Cell Line SMG-C6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immortalized rat submandibular epithelial cell line, SMG-C6, cultured on porous tissue culture supports, forms polarized, tight-junction epithelia facilitating bioelectric characterization in Ussing chambers. The SMG-C6 epithelia generated transepithelial resistances of 956±84 V.cm2 and potential differences (PD) of ?16.9 ± 1.5mV (apical surface negative) with a basal short-circuit current ( Isc )o f 23.9 ± 1.7 µA\\/cm 2 (n =

Robert Castro; Lornell Barlow-Walden; Trudi Woodson; Jay D. Kerecman; Guo H. Zhang; J. Ricardo Martinez

2000-01-01

182

Update on autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes (APS) were initially defined as a multiple endocrine gland insufficiency associated to an autoimmune disease in a patient. Neufeld & Blizzard (1980) suggested a classification of APS, based on clinical criteria only, describing four main types. APS-1 is characterized by presence of chronic candidiasis, chronic hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease. It is a very rare syndrome in- teresting young

Corrado Betterle; Renato Zanchetta

2003-01-01

183

64 FR 27626 - AP600 Design Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10 CFR Part 52 AP600 Design Certification; Proposed Rule Federal...COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 52 RIN 3150-AG23 AP600 Design Certification AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...regulations to certify the AP600 standard plant design under Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52....

1999-05-20

184

64 FR 72002 - AP600 Design Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 52 RIN 3150-AG23 AP600 Design Certification AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...regulations to certify the AP600 standard plant design under Subpart B of 10 CFR part 52. This...intending to construct and operate an AP600 design may do so by referencing this...

1999-12-23

185

71 FR 4464 - AP1000 Design Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10 CFR Part 52 RIN 3150-AH56 AP1000 Design Certification AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...regulations to certify the AP1000 standard plant design. This action is necessary so that applicants...intending to construct and operate an AP1000 design may do so by referencing this...

2006-01-27

186

70 FR 20062 - AP1000 Design Certification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10 CFR Part 52 RIN 3150-AH56 AP1000 Design Certification AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...regulations to certify the AP1000 standard plant design. This action is necessary so that applicants...intending to construct and operate an AP1000 design may do so by referencing the...

2005-04-18

187

The West African Squall Line Observed on 23 June 1981 during COPT 81: Mesoscale Structure and Transports.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Durirg the night of 23/24 June 1981, new Korhogo, Ivory Coast, a squall line passed over the instrumented area of the COPT 81 experiment. Observations were obtained with a dual-Doppler radar system, a sounding station and 22 automatic meteorological surface stations. Data from these instruments and from satellite pictures were analyzed to depict the kinematic and thermodynamic structure of the squall line. Composite analysis techniques were used to obtain a vertical cross section of the reflectivity structure and of the wind field relative to the line. The redistributions of air, moisture and thermodynamic energy by the convection wet calculated through averaged two-dimensional wind fields from a dual-Doppler radar system. The method also allowed the evaluation of the exchanges that were occurring between the convective and the stratiform regions.This squall line had many similarities with tropical squall lines previously described by others. The leading convective part, composed of intense updrafts and downdrafts, and the trailing part, containing weak mesoscale updraft and downdraft, were separated by a reflectivity trough. A notable feature of this line was the presence of a leading anvil induced by intense easterly environmental winds in the upper troposphere. Observations of the evolution of the system at different scales indicated that the mesoalpha-scale (following the classification of Orlanski) and the mosobeta-scale patterns combined to allow the system to have optimum conditions for maximum strength and a maximum lifetime.A rear-to-front flow was found at midlevels in the stratiform region. The flow sloped downward to the surface and took on the characteristics of a density current in the forward half of the squall lice. Entering the convective region, this flow was supplied with cold air by the convective downdrafts and played an important role in forcing upward the less dense monsoon flow entering at the leading edge.Calculations of mass, moisture and energy transports showed the importance of the transfers between the convective and the stratiform regions. Particularly large quantities of condensate and energy were transferred from the convective region toward the anvils and made important contributions to the precipitation budget in the stratiform region, while large quantities of water vapor and latent heat energy were transferred from the stratiform region toward the convective region through the rear-to-front flow. Diabatic heating resulting from condensation in the convective region was also evaluated.

Chalon, J. P.; Jaubert, G.; Lafore, J. P.; Roux, F.

1988-10-01

188

Effect of subdominant species on the evolution of intense primary beam in a low energy beam transport line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam with different distributions has been studied in a solenoid based low energy beam transport line using a particle-in-cell simulation method. Results are presented in wide parameter regimes covering emittance dominated as well as space charge dominated multispecies beams consisting of p, H2+, and H3+ beams. Simulation shows the formation of hollow distribution of H2+ and H3+ beams around the desired proton beam and separation is more distinct as the fraction of proton is increased. The hollow formation is almost independent of combination of H2+ and H3+ beams, once the fraction of proton beam is fixed. The emittance growth of proton is found to increase sharply in the space-charge-dominated regime and is more in the cases where proton fraction is low.

Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

2013-08-01

189

Experiments and Simulations on the Plasma Dynamics in Vacuum Transporting Lines Aimed at the Z-Pinch IFE Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments has been carried out on the S-300 pulsed power machine (3 MA, 0.15 Ohm, 100 ns), devoted to the study of a section of magnetically insulated vacuum transporting line (MITL), by the current flow density up to 500 MA/cm{sup 2}, by the linear current flow density being up to 6 MA/cm. These parameters fairly correspond to those of the Sandia Laboratories' conceptual project of IFE reactor based on the fast Z-pinch. The goals of experiments were as follows: 1) study of the near-electrode plasma and its effect on the energy transfer; 2) testing the 2-temperature MHD code NPINCH modeling the behavior of near-electrode plasmas. As a result, the conditions of plasma formation and reconnection of the MITL gap have been determined.

Kalinin, Yu.; Bakshaev, Yu.; Bartov, A.; Blinov, P.; Chernenko, A.; Danko, S.; Kingsep, A.; Korolev, V.; Mizhititsky, V.; Shashkov, A.; Smirnov, V. [Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', 1 Kurchatov Sq., 123182, Moscow (Russian Federation); Olson, C.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Sasorov, P. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 25 B.Cheremushkinskaya, 117259, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-01-05

190

The Li-7 and Be-7 deexcitation lines: Probes for accelerated particle transport models in solar flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photon energy spectrum of a spectral feature composed of the 429 and 478 keV gamma-ray lines from Li-7 and Be-7 (produced by interactions of flare-accelerated alpha particles with ambient He in the solar atmosphere) depends on the angular distribution of the interacting accelerated particles. This spectrum is calculated for limb and disc-centered flares using a loop model for the transport of the ions. In this model, the flux tube magnetic field is constant in the corona and converges in the chromosphere to the photosphere. Magnetic mirroring and MHD pitch-angle scattering are both taken into account. Comparison of these results with data from other experiments is presented.

Murphy, Ronald J.; Hua, X.-M.; Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

1989-07-01

191

The APS control system network  

SciTech Connect

The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the {open_quotes}Standard Model.{close_quotes} The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions.

Sidorowicz, K.V.; McDowell, W.P.

1995-12-31

192

Effects of Transport Inhibitors on the Cellular Uptake of Carboxylated Polystyrene Nanoparticles in Different Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology is expected to play a vital role in the rapidly developing field of nanomedicine, creating innovative solutions and therapies for currently untreatable diseases, and providing new tools for various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and gene therapy. In order to optimize the efficacy of nanoparticle (NP) delivery to cells, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms by which NPs are internalized by cells, as this will likely determine their ultimate sub-cellular fate and localisation. Here we have used pharmacological inhibitors of some of the major endocytic pathways to investigate nanoparticle uptake mechanisms in a range of representative human cell lines, including HeLa (cervical cancer), A549 (lung carcinoma) and 1321N1 (brain astrocytoma). Chlorpromazine and genistein were used to inhibit clathrin and caveolin mediated endocytosis, respectively. Cytochalasin A and nocodazole were used to inhibit, respectively, the polymerisation of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Uptake experiments were performed systematically across the different cell lines, using carboxylated polystyrene NPs of 40 nm and 200 nm diameters, as model NPs of sizes comparable to typical endocytic cargoes. The results clearly indicated that, in all cases and cell types, NPs entered cells via active energy dependent processes. NP uptake in HeLa and 1321N1 cells was strongly affected by actin depolymerisation, while A549 cells showed a stronger inhibition of NP uptake (in comparison to the other cell types) after microtubule disruption and treatment with genistein. A strong reduction of NP uptake was observed after chlorpromazine treatment only in the case of 1321N1 cells. These outcomes suggested that the same NP might exploit different uptake mechanisms to enter different cell types.

dos Santos, Tiago; Varela, Juan; Lynch, Iseult; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A.

2011-01-01

193

Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasmas along open magnetic field lines: Plasma profile variation  

SciTech Connect

Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along an open magnetic field line is characterized by strong temperature anisotropy, which is driven by two effects. The first is magnetic moment conservation in a non-uniform magnetic field, which can transfer energy between parallel and perpendicular degrees of freedom. The second is decompressional cooling of the parallel temperature due to parallel flow acceleration by conventional presheath electric field which is associated with the sheath condition near the wall surface where the open magnetic field line intercepts the discharge chamber. To the leading order in gyroradius to system gradient length scale expansion, the parallel transport can be understood via the Chew-Goldbeger-Low (CGL) model which retains two components of the parallel heat flux, i.e., q{sub n} associated with the parallel thermal energy and q{sub s} related to perpendicular thermal energy. It is shown that in addition to the effect of magnetic field strength (B) modulation, the two components (q{sub n} and q{sub s}) of the parallel heat flux play decisive roles in the parallel variation of the plasma profile, which includes the plasma density (n), parallel flow (u), parallel and perpendicular temperatures (T{sub Parallel-To} and T{sub Up-Tack }), and the ambipolar potential ({phi}). Both their profile (q{sub n}/B and q{sub s}/B{sup 2}) and the upstream values of the ratio of the conductive and convective thermal flux (q{sub n}/nuT{sub Parallel-To} and q{sub s}/nuT{sub Up-Tack }) provide the controlling physics, in addition to B modulation. The physics described by the CGL model are contrasted with those of the double-adiabatic laws and further elucidated by comparison with the first-principles kinetic simulation for a specific but representative flux expander case.

Guo Zehua; Tang Xianzhu [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-08-15

194

Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasmas along open magnetic field lines: Plasma profile variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along an open magnetic field line is characterized by strong temperature anisotropy, which is driven by two effects. The first is magnetic moment conservation in a non-uniform magnetic field, which can transfer energy between parallel and perpendicular degrees of freedom. The second is decompressional cooling of the parallel temperature due to parallel flow acceleration by conventional presheath electric field which is associated with the sheath condition near the wall surface where the open magnetic field line intercepts the discharge chamber. To the leading order in gyroradius to system gradient length scale expansion, the parallel transport can be understood via the Chew-Goldbeger-Low (CGL) model which retains two components of the parallel heat flux, i.e., qn associated with the parallel thermal energy and qs related to perpendicular thermal energy. It is shown that in addition to the effect of magnetic field strength (B) modulation, the two components (qn and qs) of the parallel heat flux play decisive roles in the parallel variation of the plasma profile, which includes the plasma density (n), parallel flow (u), parallel and perpendicular temperatures (T? and T?), and the ambipolar potential (?). Both their profile (qn/B and qs/B2) and the upstream values of the ratio of the conductive and convective thermal flux (qn/nuT? and qs/nuT?) provide the controlling physics, in addition to B modulation. The physics described by the CGL model are contrasted with those of the double-adiabatic laws and further elucidated by comparison with the first-principles kinetic simulation for a specific but representative flux expander case.

Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu

2012-08-01

195

Erratum: ``An Extensive Collection of Stellar Wind X-Ray Source Region Emission Line Parameters, Temperatures, Velocities, and Their Radial Distributions as Obtained from Chandra Observations of 17 OB Stars'' (ApJ, 668, 456 [2007])  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major objective of the paper was to provide a detailed tabulation of the observed HETGS X-ray emission-line flux ratios. We presented the MEG and HEG He-like f/i line ratios, the H-like to He-like (H/He) line ratios, and the He-like G-ratios. The stellar wind spatial locations of the X-ray sources were derived from the f/i ratios, and their associated X-ray temperatures were obtained from the H/He ratios (THHe). This information was used to verify the correlations between Rfir and R?=1 (Fig. 6) and THHe and Rfir (Fig. 8). However, we have realized that some of our tabulated uncertainties for these line ratios were underestimated, primarily for those lines with low-S/N data. Hence, the primary purpose of this erratum is to provide a tabulation of the corrected line ratios and their uncertainties. The details of our line fitting procedure are discussed in § 3.3. All uncertainties were determined using standard ?2 statistics (e.g., P. R. Bevington, 1969, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences [New York: McGraw-Hill]). First, we would like to clarify a statement in § 3.3 (second paragraph), which states that all parameter uncertainties were determined from 90% confidence regions, but in actuality all uncertainties were established using 68% confidence regions. With regards to the main point of this erratum, we found that our algorithm for determining the ?2 covariance matrix which is used to determine the uncertainties of the fitting parameters had an indexing error in the coding logic which produced errors in some of the off-diagonal terms. From our detailed examination of the code, we found that certain cases were especially vulnerable to this coding error, in particular, those cases where the ?2 normalization ranges were large (i.e., low-S/N data). This code correction has also produced changes in some of the line ratios and their derived quantities (e.g., Rfir and THHe). The algorithm has been corrected and the affected Tables (Tables 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7) have been updated and are given in corrected form in this erratum. We also corrected a few entries that were originally tabulated incorrectly, and some data were removed, as they did not satisfy our S/N criterion, i.e., the HEG S XV f/i data for ? Ori, the MEG S XV f/i data for ? Oph, and the HEG Mg XI and Si XIII f/i data for Cyg OB2 No. 9. As discussed in § 3.1, we stated that if a reasonable flux had been established, these results would be used only for estimating line ratios that provide interesting limits. However, the meaning of a ``reasonable`` flux limit was unclear; the criterion used is that the observed total net counts from all three He-like fir lines must have a S/N>=3. We also need to clarify the significance of blank entries in our tables. The blanks just indicate that the given line ratio has either an unphysical result that produces an anomalously large uncertainty, or did not satisfy our He-like S/N>=3 criterion. An example of an unphysical result is when the fitting procedure predicts an He-like i-line flux that is too small. This occurs primarily in low-S/N high-energy He-like fir lines, where the effects of line overlap can lead to a poor determination of the i-line. In addition, we would like to clarify why the relative uncertainties in Rfir are typically smaller than the corresponding f/i relative uncertainties. As shown in equation (2) of the paper, for ?/?C>1 and ne<

Waldron, W. L.; Cassinelli, J. P.

2008-06-01

196

Characterization of the transport of. cap alpha. -methylaminoisobutyric acid by a human intestinal cell line (HT-29)  

SciTech Connect

Under certain growth conditions, the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 exhibits intestinal enterocyte-like properties. The differentiated cells possess a brush border with the enzyme markers (aminopeptidase and sucrase) normally associated with the intestine. To aid in the characterization of the transport properties of these cells, the uptake of a non-metabolizable amino acid analog, /sup 14/C-..cap alpha..-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) as examined in the HT-29-Al subclone which possesses a brush border. The cells exhibited a time-dependent uptake of MeAIB which was concentrative and sodium-dependent. The pH optimum for uptake was about 7.8. Uptake was inhibited by low temperature, 1 mM ouabain, or 0.5 mM dinitrophenol. A 1 hr-preincubation of the cells in an isotonic KCl solution resulted in a decreased uptake rate, suggesting that a negative membrane potential is important for MeAIB uptake. The rate of 0.5 mM MeABIB uptake was inhibited by 40 to 90% by 5 mM of certain small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Pro, Gly, met but not by acidic or basic amino acids such as Asp, Glu, Arg or Lys. The uptake of MeAIB appears to be mediated by an amino acid transport carrier similar to the A-system described previously for Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Bergin, L.; Dantzig, A.H.

1986-03-01

197

Investigation of liposome formulation effects on rivastigmine transport through human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line (CACO-2).  

PubMed

Transportations of rivastigmine containing liposomes across Caco-2 cells were studied and in vitro test results were compared with in vivo results. MTT test was used for cell viability studies. Series of formulations were prepared containing rivastigmine which is used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Characterization and stability studies for liposome formulations were performed. Encapsulation efficiencies of liposomes were 35.4%, 25.2% and 29.9% for rivastigmine, rivastigmine-sodium taurocholate, rivastigmine-dimethyl-beta-CD liposomes, respectively. In stability studies, particle size and size distribution, zeta potential, rivastigmine amounts were determined and shelf lives of liposomes were calculated. Penetration properties of rivastigmine through Caco-2 cells, dialysis membrane and kinetics of release from liposomes were determined. Permeability coefficients were calculated after diffusion studies. The highest value of % cumulative amount of rivastigmine passed through caco-2 cell cultures was found to be 87.2% for rivastigmine-sodium taurocholate solution and 12.8% for rivastigmine-sodium taurocholate liposome. The highest permeability coefficient value was obtained with sodium taurocholate liposomes for -0.75. Rivastigmine liposomes and solutions were also applied to animals. Acetyl choline esterase (AChE) activity was determined by the Ellman method on mice. %AChE inhibition values were calculated using blood and brain tissue samples. The physical appearances of the brains were investigated by TEM microscope. The highest value of AChE inhibition was observed for rivastigmine and sodium taurocholate liposomes. The histological investigations and observations also supported these results. PMID:20187576

Degim, Z; Mutlu, N B; Yilmaz, S; E?siz, D; Nacar, A

2010-01-01

198

Dynamics of intracellular clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 containing carriers  

PubMed Central

Clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 coated vesicular carriers originate from endosomes and the TGN. We report here the real-time visualization of these structures in living cells reliably tracked by using rapid, three-dimensional imaging with a spinning-disk confocal microscope. We imaged relatively sparse, diffraction-limited, fluorescent objects containing chimeric fluorescent protein (clathrin light chain, ? adaptor subunits or dynamin2) with a spatial precision of up to ~ 30 nm and a temporal resolution of ~ 1 sec. The dynamic characteristics of the intracellular clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 carriers are similar to those of endocytic clathrin/AP2 pits and vesicles; the clathrin/AP1 coats are, on average, slightly shorter-lived than their AP2 and AP3 counterparts. We confirmed that while dynamin2 is recruited as a burst to clathrin/AP2 pits immediately before their budding from the plasma membrane, we found no evidence supporting a similar association of dynamin2 with clathrin/AP1 or clathrin/AP3 carriers at any stage during their lifetime. We found no effects of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function or the K44A dominant negative mutant of dynamin on AP1 and AP3 dynamics. This observation suggests that an alternative budding mechanism, yet to be discovered, is responsible for the scission step of clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 carriers.

Kural, Comert; Tacheva-Grigorova, Silvia K.; Boulant, Steeve; Cocucci, Emanuele; Baust, Thorsten; Duarte, Delfim; Kirchhausen, Tom

2012-01-01

199

Dynamics of intracellular clathrin/AP1- and clathrin/AP3-containing carriers.  

PubMed

Clathrin/AP1- and clathrin/AP3-coated vesicular carriers originate from endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. Here, we report the real-time visualization of these structures in living cells reliably tracked by rapid, three-dimensional imaging with the use of a spinning-disk confocal microscope. We imaged relatively sparse, diffraction-limited, fluorescent objects containing chimeric fluorescent protein (clathrin light chain, ? adaptor subunits, or dynamin2) with a spatial precision of up to ~30 nm and a temporal resolution of ~1 s. The dynamic characteristics of the intracellular clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 carriers are similar to those of endocytic clathrin/AP2 pits and vesicles; the clathrin/AP1 coats are, on average, slightly shorter-lived than their AP2 and AP3 counterparts. We confirmed that although dynamin2 is recruited as a burst to clathrin/AP2 pits immediately before their budding from the plasma membrane, we found no evidence supporting a similar association of dynamin2 with clathrin/AP1 or clathrin/AP3 carriers at any stage during their lifetime. We found no effects of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function or the K44A dominant-negative mutant of dynamin on AP1 and AP3 dynamics. This observation suggests that an alternative budding mechanism, yet to be discovered, is responsible for the scission step of clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 carriers. PMID:23103167

Kural, Comert; Tacheva-Grigorova, Silvia K; Boulant, Steeve; Cocucci, Emanuele; Baust, Thorsten; Duarte, Delfim; Kirchhausen, Tom

2012-10-25

200

An AP-3-dependent mechanism drives synaptic-like microvesicle biogenesis in pancreatic islet ?-cells  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic islet ?-cells contain synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The origin, trafficking, and role of these SLMVs are poorly understood. In neurons, synaptic vesicle (SV) biogenesis is mediated by two different cytosolic adaptor protein complexes, a ubiquitous AP-2 complex and the neuron-specific AP-3B complex. Mice lacking AP-3B subunits exhibit impaired GABAergic (inhibitory) neurotransmission and reduced neuronal vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) content. Since ?-cell maturation and exocytotic function seem to parallel that of the inhibitory synapse, we predicted that AP-3B-associated vesicles would be present in ?-cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that AP-3B is expressed in islets and mediates ?-cell SLMV biogenesis. A secondary aim was to test whether the sedimentation properties of INS-1 ?-cell microvesicles are identical to those of bona fide SLMVs isolated from PC12 cells. Our results show that the two neuron-specific AP-3 subunits ?3B and ?3B are expressed in ?-cells, the first time these proteins have been found to be expressed outside the nervous system. We found that ?-cell SLMVs share the same sedimentation properties as PC12 SLMVs and contain SV proteins that sort specifically to AP-3B-associated vesicles in the brain. Brefeldin A, a drug that interferes with AP-3-mediated SV biogenesis, inhibits the delivery of AP-3 cargoes to ?-cell SLMVs. Consistent with a role for AP-3 in the biogenesis of GABAergic SLMV in ?-cells, INS-1 cell VGAT content decreases upon inhibition of AP-3 ?-subunit expression. Our findings suggest that ?-cells and neurons share molecules and mechanisms important for mediating the neuron-specific membrane trafficking pathways that underlie synaptic vesicle formation.

Suckow, Arthur T.; Craige, Branch; Faundez, Victor; Cain, William J.

2010-01-01

201

Transcriptional regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 in the Human Microvascular Endothelial Cell Line, HMEC-1: Control by the combinatorial actions of AP2, NF-IL-6 and CRE elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-1ß (IL-1) is a potent inducer of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin biosynthesis in many types of cells, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating IL-1 mediated prostanoid biosynthesis in the endothelium of the microvasculature. Therefore, we examined the cis- and trans-acting factors regulating IL-1-induced COX-2 expression in the human microvascular endothelial cell line, HMEC-1. IL-1 enhanced steady state

Kanyawim Kirtikara; Rajendra Raghow; Stanley J. F. Laulederkind; Sarita Goorha; Takuro Kanekura; Leslie R. Ballou

2000-01-01

202

Membrane effects of cytochalasin B. Competitive inhibition of facilitated diffusion processes in rat hepatoma cells and other cell lines and effect on formation of functional transport sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cytochalasin B competitively inhibits the transport of 2-deoxy-d-glucose and thymidine in a number of different cell lines (Novikoff rat hepatoma cells, mouse L, S180 and Ki-MSV-transformed BALB\\/3T3 cells, and human HeLa cells). The apparentKm values for the transport of these substrates as well as the apparentKi values for the inhibition by cytochalasin B are very similar for the various

Peter G. W. Plagemann; J. H. Zylka; John Erbe; Richard D. Estensen

1975-01-01

203

Functional Identification and Characterization of the Brassica Napus Transcription Factor Gene BnAP2, the Ortholog of Arabidopsis Thaliana APETALA2  

PubMed Central

BnAP2, an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, has been isolated from Brassica napus cultivar Zhongshuang 9. The cDNA of BnAP2, with 1, 299 bp in length, encoded a transcription factor comprising of 432 amino acid residues. Results from complementary experiment indicated that BnAP2 was completely capable of restoring the phenotype of Arabidopsis ap2-11 mutant. Together with the sequence and expression data, the complementation data suggested that BnAP2 encodes the ortholog of AtAP2. To address the transcriptional activation of BnAP2, we performed transactivation assays in yeast. Fusion protein of BnAP2 with GAL4 DNA binding domain strongly activated transcription in yeast, and the transactivating activity of BnAP2 was localized to the N-terminal 100 amino acids. To further study the function of BnAP2 involved in the phenotype of B. napus, we used a transgenic approach that involved targeted RNA interference (RNAi) repression induced by ihp-RNA. Floral various phenotype defectives and reduced female fertility were observed in B. napus BnAP2-RNAi lines. Loss of the function of BnAP2 gene also resulted in delayed sepal abscission and senescence with the ethylene-independent pathway. In the strong BnAP2-RNAi lines, seeds showed defects in shape, structure and development and larger size. Strong BnAP2-RNAi and wild-type seeds initially did not display a significant difference in morphology at 10 DAF, but the development of BnAP2-RNAi seeds was slower than that of wild type at 20 DAF, and further at 30 DAF, wild-type seeds were essentially at their final size, whereas BnAP2-RNAi seeds stopped growing and developing and gradually withered.

Xiong, Zhiyong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Lijun; Yu, Jingyin; Lu, Changming; Wei, Wenhui

2012-01-01

204

Tank 241AP104 Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AP-104. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AP-104 required to provide sample material to the Waste Treatment Contractor. Grab samples will be obtained from riser 001 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives and ICD-23. The 222-S Laboratory will receive samples; composite the samples; perform chemical analyses on composite samples; and provide samples to the Waste Treatment Contractor and the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory at the 222-S Laboratory Complex will perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AP-104 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. The Waste Treatment Contractor will perform process verification and waste form qualification tests. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the L & H DQO process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plan (Person 2000) and are not within the scope of this SAP. This report provides the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AP-104.

TEMPLETON, A.M.

2000-11-09

205

R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line  

SciTech Connect

As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

2008-01-01

206

A di-leucine-based motif in the cytoplasmic tail of LIMP-II and tyrosinase mediates selective binding of AP-3.  

PubMed Central

Among the various coats involved in vesicular transport, the clathrin associated coats that contain the adaptor complexes AP-1 and AP-2 are the most extensively characterized. The function of the recently described adaptor complex AP-3, which is similar to AP-1 and AP-2 in protein composition but does not associate with clathrin, is not known. By monitoring surface plasmon resonance we observed that AP-3 is able to interact with the tail of the lysosomal integral membrane protein LIMP-II and that this binding depends on a DEXXXLI sequence in the LIMP-II tail. Furthermore, AP-3 bound to the cytoplasmic tail of the melanosome-associated protein tyrosinase which contains a related EEXXXLL sequence. The tails of LIMP-II and tyrosinase either did not interact, or only interacted poorly, with AP-1 or AP-2. In contrast, the cytoplasmic tails of other membrane proteins containing di-leucine and/or tyrosine-based sorting signals did not bind AP-3, but AP-1 and/or AP-2. This points to a function of AP-3 in intracellular sorting to lysosomes and melanosomes of a subset of cargo proteins via di-leucine-based sorting motifs.

Honing, S; Sandoval, I V; von Figura, K

1998-01-01

207

Glutathione peroxidase-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in human keratinocytes  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we found a role for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. UVA irradiation not only increased AP-2{alpha}, but also caused accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the cell culture media, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself could induce the expression of AP-2{alpha}. By catalyzing the removal of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from cells through over-expression of GPx-1, induction of AP-2{alpha} expression by UVA was abolished. Induction of transcription factor AP-2{alpha} by UVA had been previously shown to be mediated through the second messenger ceramide. We found that not only UVA irradiation, but also H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself caused increases of ceramide in HaCaT cells, and C2-ceramide added to cells induced the AP-2{alpha} signaling pathway. Finally, forced expression of GPx-1 eliminated UVA-induced ceramide accumulation as well as AP-2{alpha} expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that GPx-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression by suppressing the accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

Yu Lei [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Venkataraman, Sujatha [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Coleman, Mitchell C. [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Spitz, Douglas R. [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wertz, Philip W. [Dows Institute for Dental Research, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Domann, Frederick E. [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)]. E-mail: frederick-domann@uiowa.edu

2006-12-29

208

Comparison of mammalian cell lines expressing distinct isoforms of divalent metal transporter 1 in a tetracycline-regulated fashion.  

PubMed

DMT1 (divalent metal transporter; also known as SLC11A2, DCT1 or Nramp2) is responsible for ferrous iron uptake in the duodenum, iron exit from endosomes during the transferrin cycle and some transferrin-independent iron uptake in many cells. Four protein isoforms differ by starting in exon 1A or 2 and ending with alternative peptides encoded by mRNA that contains or lacks an IRE (iron responsive element; +/-IRE). We have compared 1A/+IRE and 2/-IRE DMT1 during regulated ectopic expression. HEK-293-F (human embryonic kidney-293-fast growing variant) cells were stably transfected with each construct expressed from a tetracycline-regulated CMV promoter. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that construct expression responded to doxycycline. Immunofluorescence staining of cells, using antibodies specific for DMT1 isoforms, confirmed an increase in expression in the plasma membrane and cytosolic vesicles after doxycycline treatment, but with isoform specific distributions. Immunoblotting also revealed stimulation of expression. Nevertheless, both DMT1 isoforms performed similarly in assays for functional properties based on 54Mn2+ and 59Fe2+ uptake. Mn incorporation after doxycycline treatment was approximately 10-fold greater than that of untreated cells, while expression in the untreated cells was approximately 5-fold greater than in the untransfected cells. Uptake of Mn depended on addition of doxycycline, with half maximal response at approximately 1 nM doxycycline. Doxycycline-stimulated Mn and Fe uptake was linear with time for 10 min but not over longer periods. Transport exhibited a pH optimum at approximately 5.5 and dependence on incubation temperature and Mn or Fe concentration. The new cell lines should prove useful for research on metal homoeostasis, toxicological studies and efforts to identify distinctive properties of the isoforms. PMID:16737442

Garrick, Michael D; Kuo, Hung-Chieh; Vargas, Farida; Singleton, Steven; Zhao, Lin; Smith, Jaime J; Paradkar, Prasad; Roth, Jerome A; Garrick, Laura M

2006-09-15

209

AP1 activation through endogenous H 2O 2 generation by alveolar macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species released during the respiratory burst are known to participate in cell signaling. Here we demonstrate that hydrogen peroxide produced by the respiratory burst activates AP-1 binding. Stimulation of the macrophage cell line NR8383 with respiratory burst agonists ADP and C5a increased AP-1 binding activity. Importantly, this increase in binding was blocked by catalase, confirming mediation by endogenous

Karen E. Iles; Dale A. Dickinson; Nobuo Watanabe; Takeo Iwamoto; Henry Jay Forman

2002-01-01

210

Comparison of a CCD and an APS for soft X-ray diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare a new CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) to a Princeton Instruments PIXIS-XO: 2048B Charge Coupled Device (CCD) with soft X-rays tested in a synchrotron beam line at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). Despite CCDs being established in the field of scientific imaging, APS are an innovative technology that offers advantages over CCDs. These include faster readout, higher operational

Graeme Stewart; R Bates; A Blue; A Clark; S S Dhesi; D Maneuski; J Marchal; P Steadman; N Tartoni; R Turchetta

2011-01-01

211

ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING OF TANKS 241-AN-102 & 241-AP-107 & 241-AP-108 IN SUPPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the corrosion rates that were measured using electrochemical methods for tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102), 241-AP-107 (AP 107), and 241-AP-108 (AP-108) performed under test plant RPP-PLAN-38215. The steel used as materials of construction for AN and AP tank farms was A537 Class 1. Test coupons of A537 Class 1 carbon steel were used for corrosion testing in the AN-107, AP-107, and AP-108 tank waste. Supernate will be tested from AN-102, AP-107, and Ap-108. Saltcake testing was performed on AP-108 only.

WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

2008-11-20

212

ABC and SLC transporter expression and pot substrate characterization across the human CMEC/D3 blood-brain barrier cell line.  

PubMed

Initial studies indicate that the newly developed hCMEC/D3 cell line may prove to be a useful model for studying the physiology of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium. The purpose of this study was to assess the mRNA expression of several ABC and SLC transporters, with an emphasis on the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter superfamily (POT) transporters in this immortalized BBB cell model. The transport kinetics of POT-substrates was also evaluated. The hCMEC/D3 cell line was maintained in a modified EGM-2 medium in collagenated culture flasks and passaged every 3-4 days at approximately 85%-95% confluence. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of a variety of ABC and SLC transporters was evaluated using qRT-PCR arrays, while additional qRT-PCR primers were designed to assess the expression of POT members. The transport kinetics of mannitol and urea were utilized to quantitatively estimate the intercellular pore radius, while POT substrate transport was also determined to assess the suitability of the cell model from a drug screening perspective. Optimization of the cell line was attempted by culturing with on laminin and fibronectin enhanced collagen and in the presence of excess Ca(2+). hCMEC/D3 cells express both hPHT1 and hPHT2, while little to no expression of either hPepT1 or hPepT2 was observed. The relative expression of other ABC and SLC transporters is discussed. While POT substrate transport does suggest suitability for BBB drug permeation screening, the relative intercellular pore radius was estimated at 19 A, significantly larger than that approximated in vivo. Culturing with extracellular matrix proteins did not alter mannitol permeability. These studies characterized this relevant human hCMEC/D3 BBB cell line with respect to both the relative mRNA expression of various ABC and SLC transporters and its potential utility as an in vitro screening tool for brain permeation. Additional studies are required to adequately determine the potential to establish an in vivo correlation. PMID:20524699

Carl, Stephen M; Lindley, David J; Couraud, Pierre O; Weksler, Babette B; Romero, Ignacio; Mowery, Stephanie A; Knipp, Gregory T

2010-08-01

213

ABC AND SLC TRANSPORTER EXPRESSION AND POT SUBSTRATE CHRACTERIZATION ACROSS THE HUMAN CMEC/D3 BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER CELL LINE  

PubMed Central

Purpose Initial studies indicate that the newly developed hCMEC/D3 cell line may prove to be a useful model for studying the physiology of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium. The purpose of this study was to assess the mRNA expression of several ABC and SLC transporters, with an emphasis on the Proton-Coupled Oligopeptide Transporter Superfamily (POT) transporters in this immortalized BBB cell model. The transport kinetics of POT-substrates was also evaluated. Methods The hCMEC/D3 cell line was maintained in a modified EGM-2 medium in collagenated culture flasks and passaged every 3–4 days at approximately 85%–95% confluence. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of a variety of ABC and SLC transporters was evaluated using qRT-PCR arrays, while additional qRT-PCR primers were designed to assess the expression of POT members. The transport kinetics of mannitol and urea were utilized to quantitatively estimate the intercellular pore radius, while POT substrate transport was also determined to assess the suitability of the cell model from a drug screening perspective. Optimization of the cell line was attempted by culturing with on laminin and fibronectin enhanced collagen and in the presence of excess Ca2+. Results HCMEC/D3 cells express both hPHT1 and hPHT2, while little to no expression of either hPepT1 or hPepT2 was observed. The relative expression of other ABC and SLC transporters is discussed. While POT substrate transport does suggest suitability for BBB drug permeation screening, the relative intercellular pore radius was estimated at 19Å, significantly larger than that approximated in vivo. Culturing with extracellular matrix proteins did not alter mannitol permeability. Conclusion These studies characterized this relevant human hCMEC/D3 BBB cell line with respect to both the relative mRNA expression of various ABC and SLC transporters, and its potential utility as an in vitro screening tool for brain permeation. Additional studies are required to adequately determine the potential to establish an in vivo correlation.

Carl, Stephen M.; Lindley, David J.; Couraud, Pierre O.; Weksler, Babette B.; Romero, Ignacio; Mowery, Stephanie A.; Knipp, Gregory T.

2010-01-01

214

Increased particle transport due t resonant magnetic perturbations modelled with a vacuum field line tracing code and a 2D fluid code  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we compare the pedestal density changes in resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) H-modes at low collisionality with enhanced free streaming due to the creation of open field lines. First, we derive the effective radial transport coefficients by matching an ELMing (edge localized mode) H-mode using SOLPS5. Next, a vacuum field line tracing code, TRIP3D, is employed to calculate free streaming of particles along open field lines inside the traditional 2D axisymmetric separatrix. These coefficients are added to the effective radial transport coefficients from the ELMing H-mode and inserted in SOLPS5 to compute midplane profiles. Finally, we compare the SOLPS5 results with the experimental data from RMP H-modes and find good agreement. This good agreement was achieved not only for one single case, but also for two different experiments, with different triangularities, where the high triangularity case contains two RMP H-modes that give good agreement.

Mordijck, S. [University of California, San Diego; Moyer, R. A. [University of California, San Diego

2010-01-01

215

Design of the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line for the Rare Ion Beam (RIB) project at VECC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a 19 m long MEBT line connecting the accelerator LINAC 2 with LINAC 3 of the VECC-RIB project is presented. The design goal is to achieve a robust solution for the transport of heavy ion beams, emerging from LINAC 2 with a fairly large momentum width and transverse emittance with the mean energy of 289 keV/u and q/A?1/14 so that the beam is well matched both in transverse and longitudinal directions at the entry of the LINAC 3. The limitations of the site necessitate a 90° bending of the beam a few metres downstream of LINAC 2 that adds to the further requirement and complication of dispersion suppression. The skewed position of the RFQ (before LINAC 1) vanes with respect to conventional horizontal and vertical planes complicates the design by requiring the decoupling of the X (horizontal) and Y (vertical) motion before the beam is bent in the 90° dipole after LINAC 2. In the design presented, step-by-step all the requirements, viz, decoupling of X-Y motion, dispersion suppression and transverse and longitudinal beam matching could be effectively met. The robustness of the design with respect to orientation of the initial beam ellipses has also been checked.

Ali, Md. S.; Dechoudhury, S.; Chao, Y. C.; Chauhan, P. S.; Shrivastava, S. C. L.; Bandyopadhyay, Arup; Chakrabarti, A.

2011-04-01

216

Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looking backward from the city of 1982 to the late 1950's, we are struck by the tremendous progress that has taken place in transportation. The most far-reaching changes have occurred in aviation, but equally important has been the changing urban environment which has provided a setting in which ease of movement has at last become a reality. It is this

Wilfred Owen

1957-01-01

217

Down-Regulation of AP-4 Inhibits Proliferation, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Promotes Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background AP-4 belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix leucine-zipper subgroup; it controls target gene expression, regulates growth, development and cell apoptosis and has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Our previous studies indicated that AP-4 was frequently overexpressed in gastric cancers and may be associated with the poor prognosis. The purpose of this study is to examine whether silencing of AP-4 can alter biological characteristics of gastric cancer cells. Methods Two specific siRNAs targeting AP-4 were designed, synthesized, and transfected into gastric cancer cell lines and human normal mucosa cells. AP-4 expression was measured with real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation and chemo-sensitivity were detected by CCK-8 assay. Cell cycle assay and apoptosis assay were performed by flow cytometer, and relative expression of cell cycle regulators were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, expression of the factors involved in the apoptosis pathway were examined in mRNA and protein level. Results The expression of AP-4 was silenced by the siRNAs transfection and the effects of AP-4 knockdown lasted 24 to 96 hrs. The siRNA-mediated silencing of AP-4 suppressed the cellular proliferation, induced apoptosis and sensitized cancer cells to anticancer drugs. In addition, the expression level of p21, p53 and Caspase-9 were increased when AP-4 was knockdown, but the expression of cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was inhibited. It didn't induce cell cycle arrest when AP-4 was knockdown in p53 defect gastric cancer cell line Kato-III. Conclusions These results illustrated that gene silencing of AP-4 can efficiently inhibited cell proliferation, triggered apoptosis and sensitized cancer cells to anticancer drugs in vitro, suggesting that AP-4 siRNAs mediated silencing has a potential value in the treatment of human gastric cancer.

Guo, Yan; Liang, Qi; Wu, Changyao; Wu, Lei; Tao, Kaixiong; Wang, Guobin; Chen, Jianying

2012-01-01

218

Human L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): characterization of function and expression in tumor cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

System L is a major nutrient transport system responsible for the transport of large neutral amino acids including several essential amino acids. We previously identified a transporter (L-type amino acid transporter 1: LAT1) subserving system L in C6 rat glioma cells and demonstrated that LAT1 requires 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) for its functional expression. Since its oncofetal expression was suggested

Osamu Yanagida; Yoshikatsu Kanai; Arthit Chairoungdua; Do Kyung Kim; Hiroko Segawa; Tomoko Nii; Seok Ho Cha; Hirotaka Matsuo; Jun-ichi Fukushima; Yoshiki Fukasawa; Yoshiko Tani; Yutaka Taketani; Hiroshi Uchino; Ju Young Kim; Jun Inatomi; Isao Okayasu; Ken-ichi Miyamoto; Eiji Takeda; Tomoyuki Goya; Hitoshi Endou

2001-01-01

219

Inhibition of the high-affinity glucose transporter GLUT 1 affects the sensitivity to glucose in a hamster-derived pancreatic beta cell line (HIT).  

PubMed

HIT is a hamster-derived beta-cell line which in contrast to normal beta cells that only express the high Km GLUT-2 glucose transporter, also expresses the low Km glucose transporter GLUT 1. In HIT cells the abnormal glucose transport mechanism is associated with a marked shift to the left of the glucose-induced insulin release dose-response curve. We have used this cell model to investigate whether changes in glucose transport affect the glucose-induced insulin release. HIT cells were first incubated with a concentration of cytochalasin B (0.4 mumol/l) that selectively inhibits the GLUT-1 but not the GLUT-2 transporter. The consequences of blocking glucose phosphorylation and insulin release were studied. Exposure to 0.4 mumol/l cytochalasin B for 1 h caused a selective loss of the low Km transport: the calculated Vmax of GLUT 1 was reduced from 1726 +/- 98 to 184 +/- 14 pmol.mg protein-1 5 min-1 (mean +/- SEM, n = 6, p < 0.005), while no major difference in the high Km (GLUT-2) transport was observed. In cytochalasin B exposed HIT cells the glucose phosphorylating activity (due to hexokinase and glucokinase) was unaffected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8270137

Rabuazzo, A M; Buscema, M; Vinci, C; Caltabiano, V; Anello, M; Vigneri, R; Purrello, F

1993-11-01

220

AP3: cooperative, decentralized anonymous communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a cooperative overlay network that provides anonymous communication services for participat - ing users. The Anonymizing Peer-to-Peer Proxy (AP3) sys- tem provides clients with three primitives: (i) anonymous message delivery, (ii) anonymous channels, and (iii) secur e pseudonyms. AP3 is designed to be lightweight, low-cost and provides \\

Alan Mislove; Gaurav Oberoi; Ansley Post; Charles Reis; Peter Druschel; Dan S. Wallach

2004-01-01

221

The status of APS, BESSRC, and NEET.  

SciTech Connect

We present a brief summary of the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and of the facilities at two of the APS sectors operated by the Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotrons Radiation Center (BESSRC). This is followed by a report on recent measurements at BESSRC on the phenomenon of Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition (NEET).

Ahmad, I.; Dunford, R. W.; Esbensen, H.; Gemmell, D. S.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Rutt, U.; Southworth, S. H.

1999-03-10

222

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - WILDLAND FIRES  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is aimed at consolidating, selecting, and disseminating the most appropriate data and methods for estimating air emissions from wildfires and prescribed burns. The product will replace a current section of AP-42, but may not take the precise form of an AP-42 secti...

223

APS Activities with Other Professional Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981, the APS Council issued a statement that opposed ``equal time'' presentation in public school science classes of creationism and evolution. The statement clarified that ``Scientific inquiry and religious beliefs are two distinct elements of the human experience. Attempts to present them in the same context can only lead to misunderstandings of both.'' The APS Council revisited the issue

Francis Slakey

2006-01-01

224

THE APS GAVEL MEETS A NEW BLOCK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a summary on the history of the gavel and the block of the American Pomological Society (APS). In 2001, Dr. David Ferree, Emeritus Professor from the Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio, presented a gavel to the APS. He made this wooden gav...

225

APS News: Limerick Contest Finalists & Winners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from the March 1997 issue of APS News Online contains the finalists and winners of the first APS Physics Limerick Contest. Twenty-five humorous limericks concentrated on classical and modern physics concepts are provided along with a link to view the remaining submissions.

2006-09-29

226

Proteinbinding properties of the putative AP1 and ATF sequences in the feline immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoresis-mobility-shift assays with nuclear extracts from a feline renal cell line and a T- lymphoblastoid cell line revealed that the AP-1 and ATF sites of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) TM2 strain had similar protein-binding properties to those of FIV Petaluma strain and consensus sequences of AP-1 and ATF sites, and that nuclear factors binding to these sites differed between the

Yasuhiro Ikeda; Yasuo Inoshima; Yasushi Kawaguchi; Ken Maeda; Mariko Kohmoto; Chieko Kai; Takayuki Miyazawa; Takeshi Mikami

1998-01-01

227

BioCAT undulator beamline at APS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) project will be an outstanding research facility for biological small angle scattering, non-crystalline diffraction, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Labs. BioCAT operates as an NIH Research Resource under a cooperative agreement with NIH. BioCat has an aggressive program of core and collaborative research, service, and training. Central to the facility is the undulator beam line (designed by G. Rosenbaum, Argonne National Labs) capable of delivering ca. 1013-1014 ph/s to the sample. Focusing optics will allow focal spot ranges from 1.5×3.5 mm to 30×80 micron, independently adjustable in the vertical and horizontal direction. Up to 8 m camera lengths can be accommodated in the 12m experimental enclosure. The accessible beam energy range will be from 3.5-13 keV using the undulator fundamental and 10-40 keV using the third harmonic. Energy resolution will exceed 2×10-4 ?E/E. Detectors will include image plates, CCD detectors and some novel detectors designed to accommodate the high count rates expected at the APS. The multi-element detector will be a very high count-rate (up to 109 ph/s global), one dimensional detector optimized for scattering applications. We are also developing a multilayer analyzer detector which maximizes solid angle of collection with high background rejection for biological spectroscopy applications.

Bunker, G. B.; Irving, T.; Black, E.; Zhang, K.; Fischetti, R.; Wang, S.; Stepanov, S.

1997-07-01

228

The limitations of renal epithelial cell line HK-2 as a model of drug transporter expression and function in the proximal tubule.  

PubMed

Acquiring a mechanistic understanding of the processes underlying the renal clearance of drug molecules in man has been hampered by a lack of robust in vitro models of human proximal tubules. Several human renal epithelial cell lines derived from the renal cortex are available, but few have been characterised in detail in terms of transporter expression. This includes the HK-2 proximal tubule cell line, which has been used extensively as a model of nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of drug transporters in HK-2 cells and their suitability as an in vitro model of the human proximal tubule. qPCR showed no mRNA expression of the SLC22 transporter family (OAT1, OAT3, OCT2) in HK-2 cells compared to renal cortex samples. In contrast, SLC16A1 (MCT1), which is important in the uptake of monocarboxylates, and SLCO4C1 (OATP4C1) were expressed in HK-2 cells. The functional expression of these transporters was confirmed by uptake studies using radiolabelled prototypic substrates DL-lactate and digoxin, respectively. The mRNA expression of apical membrane efflux transporters ABCB1 (MDR1) and several members of the ABCC family (multidrug resistance proteins, MRPs) was shown by qPCR. ABCG1 (BCRP) was not detected. The efflux of Hoechst 33342, a substrate for MDR1, was blocked by MDR1 inhibitor cyclosporin A, suggesting the functional expression of this transporter. Similarly, the efflux of the MRP-specific fluorescent dye glutathione methylfluorescein was inhibited by the MRP inhibitor MK571. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that HK-2 cells are of limited value as an in vitro model of drug transporter expression in the human proximal tubule. PMID:23014881

Jenkinson, Sarah E; Chung, Git W; van Loon, Ellen; Bakar, Nur S; Dalzell, Abigail M; Brown, Colin D A

2012-09-27

229

Residual radiation studies at AP0  

SciTech Connect

The radiation environment at the NuMI experiment has received a lot of attention in the last few years in preparation for project construction. One important issue is the induced radioactivation of the components in the beam line and the shielding materials. This arises from irradiation by hadrons that are generated in the target. Since the level of the residual activity has to be considered when determining access procedures for maintenance during NuMI operation, an understanding of the properties of the remnant radiation is important. To this end, experimental studies were performed in the target vault at AP0 which is similar in design to the NuMI target area. Here 120 GeV protons bombard a target, generating the hadrons that produce the induced radioactivity. Two sets of samples each consisting of three small cylindrical or rectangular solids of iron and steel, one sample of aluminum, and one of concrete were irradiated. One set was hung just below the bottom of a module near the lithium lens (in-vault), and the other was placed on top of the modules downstream of this location (above-vault), just beneath the movable concrete roof of the vault at AP0. Further, four thin activation foils of Au, Au+Cd, In, and Al (along with small disks of the same iron, aluminum, and concrete samples discussed above) were mounted on four 10.2 cm diameter Al disks, one placed on the in-vault module and three at above-vault downstream locations as well. The radioactivity of all these materials on the 10.2 cm Al disks was determined at the Radioisotope Analysis Facility in an attempt to characterize the radionuclides produced during irradiation. The activities of the thin foils were employed in an effort to unfold a spectrum of the neutrons produced during the hadronic cascades in the target. The MARS Monte Carlo code (MO95, MO00) was used to predict and analyze the residual radiation produced during the beam irradiation. New subroutines have been developed for the MARS14 version providing reliable estimation of residual dose rates in arbitrary composite materials for arbitrary irradiation and cooling times (RA01). The results of the simulations have been compared with the measurements in Ref. (RA01) and this comparison will be summarized here.

Alexander J Elwyn et al.

2002-06-19

230

An immortalized human blood-nerve barrier endothelial cell line for in vitro permeability studies.  

PubMed

Solute and macromolecular transport studies may elucidate nutritional requirements and drug effects in healthy and diseased peripheral nerves. Endoneurial endothelial cells are specialized microvascular cells that form the restrictive blood-nerve barrier (BNB). Primary human endoneurial endothelial cells (pHEndECs) are difficult to isolate, limiting their widespread availability for biomedical research. We developed a simian virus-40 large T-antigen (SV40-LTA) immortalized human BNB cell line via stable transfection of low passage pHEndECs and observed continuous growth in culture for >45 population doublings. As observed with pHEndECs, the immortalized BNB endothelial cells were Ulex Europaeus agglutinin-1-positive and endocytosed low density lipoprotein, but lost von Willebrand factor expression. Glucose transporter-1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT), large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1), creatine transporter (CRT), and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1) mRNA expression were retained at all passages with loss of alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression after passages 16-20. Compared with an SV40-LTA immortalized human blood-brain barrier endothelial cell line, there was increased ?-GT protein expression, equivalent expression of organic anion transporting polypeptide-C (OATP-C), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT-3), MCT-1, and LAT-1, and reduced expression of AP, CRT, and P-gp by the BNB cell line at passage 20. Further studies demonstrated lower transendothelial electrical resistance (~181 vs. 191 ? cm(2)), equivalent permeability to fluoresceinated sodium (4.84 vs. 4.39 %), and lower permeability to fluoresceinated high molecular weight (70 kDa) dextran (0.39 vs. 0.52 %) by the BNB cell line. This cell line retained essential molecular and biophysical properties suitable for in vitro peripheral nerve permeability studies. PMID:23104242

Yosef, Nejla; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

2012-10-27

231

GFP–Human High-Affinity Carnitine Transporter OCTN2 Protein: Subcellular Localization and Functional Restoration of Carnitine Uptake in Mutant Cell Lines with the Carnitine Transporter Defect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with the plasmalemmal high-affinity carnitine transporter defect present with progressive infantile-onset carnitine-responsive cardiomyopathy, lipid storage myopathy, recurrent hypoglycemic hypoketotic encephalopathy, and failure to thrive. The carnitine uptake defect (CUD) has been documented in their cultured skin fibroblasts, lymphoblasts, and\\/or myoblasts. The cDNA encoding the high-affinity sodium-dependent human carnitine transporter OCTN2 has recently been cloned. We used the green fluorescent

Anne-Marie Lamhonwah; Ingrid Tein

1999-01-01

232

Glucose regulates both glucose transport and the glucose transporter gene expression in a hamster-derived pancreatic beta-cell line (HIT).  

PubMed

We studied the effect of chronic exposure to high glucose on the glucose transport regulation in hamster pancreatic Beta cells in permanent culture (HIT). Cells were exposed to either 5.5 mmol/l or 16.7 mmol/l glucose for 48 h and then glucose transport was studied by measuring the (3H)-2-deoxyglucose uptake for 5 and 10 min at 37 degrees C. The 2-deoxyglucose uptake was lower in cells pre-exposed to glucose 16.7 mmol/l for 48 h compared to cells pre-exposed to 5.5 (12.0 +/- 1.6 vs 19.1 +/- 1.2 nmol/0.1 mg after 5 min, and 22.2 +/- 2.6 vs 39.0 +/- 2.9 after 10 min respectively, mean +/- SEM, n = 5, p less than 0.01). In order to investigate the mechanism(s) for glucose impairment of glucose transport, we studied the glucose carrier gene expression in the same cells by Northern and slot-blot analysis. When total RNA was extracted from HIT cells cultured at either 5.5 or 16.7 mmol/l glucose and then hybridized to 32P-labelled cDNA probes for the glucose transporter 1, the glucose transporter 2 and beta-actin, a significant reduction of both glucose transporter 1 (-63.9 +/- 4.1%, mean +/- SEM, n = 3) and glucose transporter 2 (-48.9 +/- 3.2%) mRNA was observed in HIT cells cultured with high glucose. In the same experiments no change of beta-actin mRNA was observed, suggesting that the effect of high glucose was specific on the glucose-transporter mRNAs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1713870

Purrello, F; Buscema, M; Vetri, M; Vinci, C; Gatta, C; Forte, F; Rabuazzo, A M; Vigneri, R

1991-05-01

233

Transport Inhibition of Digoxin Using Several Common P-gp Expressing Cell Lines Is Not Necessarily Reporting Only on Inhibitor Binding to P-gp.  

PubMed

We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health), Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown). These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1) bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2) partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3) aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while highly permeable P-gp substrates such as amprenavir, quinidine, ketoconazole and verapamil do not, regardless of whether they actually use the basolateral transporter. PMID:23976943

Lumen, Annie Albin; Li, Libin; Li, Jiben; Ahmed, Zeba; Meng, Zhou; Owen, Albert; Ellens, Harma; Hidalgo, Ismael J; Bentz, Joe

2013-08-16

234

Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples, 7AP-99-1, 7AP-99-3 and 7AP-99-4 analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107) grab samples taken in May 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-107 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999. Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. Interim data were provided earlier to River Protection Project (RPP) personnel, however, the data presented here represent the official results. No notification limits were exceeded.

BELL, K.E.

1999-08-12

235

Measured and simulated transport of 1.9 MeV laser-accelerated proton bunches through an integrated test beam line at 1 Hz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser-driven repetition-rated 1.9 MeV proton beam line composed of permanent quadrupole magnets (PMQs), a radio frequency (rf) phase rotation cavity, and a tunable monochromator is developed to evaluate and to test the simulation of laser-accelerated proton beam transport through an integrated system for the first time. In addition, the proton spectral modulation and focusing behavior of the rf phase rotation cavity device is monitored with input from a PMQ triplet. In the 1.9 MeV region we observe very weak proton defocusing by the phase rotation cavity. The final transmitted bunch duration and transverse profile are well predicted by the PARMILA particle transport code. The transmitted proton beam duration of 6 ns corresponds to an energy spread near 5% for which the transport efficiency is simulated to be 10%. The predictive capability of PARMILA suggests that it can be useful in the design of future higher energy transport beam lines as part of an integrated laser-driven ion accelerator system.

Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Hori, T.; Bolton, P. R.; Ogura, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Yogo, A.; Mori, M.; Orimo, S.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Daito, I.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Kanazawa, S.; Kondo, S.; Shimomura, T.; Tanoue, M.; Nakai, Y.; Sasao, H.; Wakai, D.; Daido, H.; Kondo, K.; Souda, H.; Tongu, H.; Noda, A.; Iseki, Y.; Nagafuchi, T.; Maeda, K.; Hanawa, K.; Yoshiyuki, T.; Shirai, T.

2010-07-01

236

APS storage ring vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components.

R. C. Niemann; R. Benaroya; M. Choi; R. J. Dortwegt; G. A. Goeppner; J. Gonczy; C. Krieger; J. Howell; R. W. Nielsen; B. Roop; R. B. Wehrle

1991-01-01

237

The mean magnetic field modulus of AP stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new measurements of the mean magnetic field modulus of a sample of Ap stars with spectral lines resolved into magnetically split components. We report the discovery of 16 new stars having this property. This brings the total number of such stars known to 42. We have performed more than 750 measurements of the mean field modulus of 40 of these 42 stars, between May 1988 and August 1995. The best of them have an estimated accuracy of 25 - 30 G. The availability of such a large number of measurements allows us to discuss for the first time the distribution of the field modulus intensities. A most intriguing result is the apparent existence of a sharp cutoff at the low end of this distribution, since no star with a field modulus (averaged over the rotation period) smaller than 2.8 kG has been found in this study. For more than one third of the studied stars, enough field determinations well distributed throughout the stellar rotation cycle have been achieved to allow us to characterize at least to some extent the variations of the field modulus. These variations are often significantly anharmonic, and it is not unusual for their extrema not to coincide in phase with the extrema of the longitudinal field (for the few stars for which enough data exist about the latter). This, together with considerations on the distribution of the relative amplitude of variation of the studied stars, supports the recently emerging evidence for markedly non-dipolar geometry and fine structure of the magnetic fields of most Ap stars. New or improved determinations of the rotation periods of 9 Ap stars have been achieved from the analysis of the variations of their mean magnetic field modulus. Tentative values of the period have been derived for 5 additional stars, and lower limits have been established for 10 stars. The shortest definite rotation period of an Ap star with magnetically resolved lines is 3.4 deg, while those stars that rotate slowest appear to have periods in excess of 70 or 75 years. As a result of this study, the number of known Ap stars with rotation periods longer than 30 days is almost doubled. We briefly rediscuss the slow-rotation tail of the period distribution of Ap stars. This study also yielded the discovery of radial velocity variations in 8 stars. There seems to be a deficiency of binaries with short orbital periods among Ap stars with magnetically resolved lines. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile; ESO programmes Nos. 43.7-004, 44.7-012, 49.7-030, 50.7-067, 51.7-041, 52.7-063, 53.7-028, 54.E-0416, and 55.E-0751), at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (Saint-Michel-l'Observatoire, France), at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Tables 2, 3, and 4 are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.

Mathys, G.; Hubrig, S.; Landstreet, J. D.; Lanz, T.; Manfroid, J.

1997-06-01

238

Army Prisoner Population Prediction Study (AP3).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army Prisoner Prediction Study (AP3) consists of the development of a methodology and associated model to provide the Army Correctional System proponent with an analytic managerial tool to assist in the management of the correctional system. The model...

R. M. Miller S. H. Miller

1983-01-01

239

APS Activities with Other Professional Societies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1981, the APS Council issued a statement that opposed ``equal time'' presentation in public school science classes of creationism and evolution. The statement clarified that ``Scientific inquiry and religious beliefs are two distinct elements of the human experience. Attempts to present them in the same context can only lead to misunderstandings of both.'' The APS Council revisited the issue in 1999 when a school board in Kansas attempted to eliminate the Big Bang, among other issues, from the science curriculum. Since that time, the APS has been more directly involved in confronting efforts that would dilute the teaching of science in public school science classes. This talk will review the APS activities and describe a developing multi-science society activity.

Slakey, Francis

2006-03-01

240

APS Forum on Education Newsletter Summer 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The summer 2008 edition of the Forum on Education newsletter includes links to a number of education related talks presented at the 2008 APS March Meeting and 2008 APS April Meeting. In the teacher preparation section, Laurie E. McNeil discusses starting a teacher preparation program at the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill and Laird Kramer details the use of learning communities at Florida International University. Monica Plisch examines the use of teacher preparation to fulfill the NSF's Broader Impact requirement.

2008-09-12

241

APS Council Holds Fall Council Meeting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. The APS Council held their fall meeting at the Scottsdale Marriott at McDowell Mountains, Scottsdale, AZ, November 8-9, 2007. Council received reports from the Publications, Finance, Membership, Education, and other Committees. APS staff members Marsha Matyas, Robert Price, Alice RaÃÂanan, and Margaret Reich joined the meeting to assist with the committee report presentations.

2008-02-01

242

APS Receives Continued Funding from NIDDK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Press Release - BETHESDA, MD (September 22, 2010)ÃÂ The American Physiological Society (APS; www.the-APS.org) has received continued funding from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK) for an additional two years of support effective July 1, 2010. The goal of the project is to encourage highly qualified students from groups underrepresented in the biomedical/behavioral sciences (especially underrepresented minority students) to pursue professional careers in physiological/biomedical sciences.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2010-09-22

243

Effect of radiation on the regulation of sodium-dependent glucose transport in LLC-PK1 epithelial cell line: possible model for gene expression  

SciTech Connect

Low concentrations of glucose induce cultured kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1) to produce hexose transport proteins. We have investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on this induction process in plateau-phase cultures. The induced production of hexose transporters, requiring approximately 6 to 9 days for complete expression, can be inhibited by irradiation during the first 4 days. After the fourth postinduction day, radiation sensitivity decreases with almost no radiation effect on the induction of hexose transport apparent by the sixth day of the induction period. The D0 value associated with the induction block is approximately 25 Gy, a value which is considerably greater than that necessary to inhibit cell replication. Hexose transport, itself resistant to ionizing radiation at doses in excess of 100 Gy, is sensitive to cycloheximide throughout the induction period. The sensitivity to cycloheximide decreases during the last 2 days of the induction period, approximately 1 day after the reduction in radiosensitivity. Based on these properties hexose transport may be a convenient model for the study of radiation effects upon gene expression in this cell line.

Moran, A.; Davis, L.; Hagan, M.

1986-02-01

244

Effect of radiation on the regulation of sodium-dependent glucose transport in LLC-PK/sub 1/ epithelial cell line: possible model for gene expression  

SciTech Connect

Low concentrations of glucose-cultured kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK/sub 1/) to produce hexose-transport proteins. The effects of ionizing radiation were investigated on this induction process in plateau-phase cultures. The induced production of hexose transporters, requiring approximately 6 to 9 days for complete expression, can be inhibited by irradiation during the first 4 days. After the fourth post-induction day, radiation sensitivity decreases with almost no radiation effect on the induction of hexose transport apparent by the sixth day of the induction period. The D/sub o/ value associated with the induction block is approximately 25 Gy, a value which is considerably greater than necessary to inhibit cell replication. Hexose transport, itself resistant to ionizing radiation at doses in excess of 100 Gy, is sensitive to cycloheximide throughout the induction period. The sensitivity to cycloheximide decreases during the last 2 days of the induction period, approximately 1 day after the reduction in radiosensitivity. Based on these properties hexose transport may be a convenient model for the study of radiation effects upon gene expression in this cell line.

Moran, A.; Davis, L.; Hagan, M.

1986-01-01

245

Multiplicity of Rapidly Oscillating Ap Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars have rarely been found in binary or higher order multiple systems. We intend to study the multiplicity of this type of chemically peculiar star, looking for visual companions in the range of angular separation between 0.?05 and 8?. We carried out a survey of 28 roAp stars using diffraction-limited near-infrared imaging with NAOS-CONICA at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Additionally, we observed three non-oscillating magnetic Ap stars. We detected a total of six companion candidates with low chance projection probabilities. Four of these are new detections, the other two are confirmations. An additional 39 companion candidates are very likely to be chance projections. We also found one binary system among the non-oscillating magnetic Ap stars. The detected companion candidates have K magnitudes between 6.?8 and 19.?5 and angular separations ranging from 0.?24 to 8.?9. corresponding to linear projected separations of 30-2000 AU. While our study confirms that roAp stars are indeed not very often members of binary or multiple systems, we have found four new companion candidates, which are likely to be physical companions.

Schöller, M.; Correia, S.; Hubrig, S.; Kurtz, D. W.

2012-09-01

246

Arachidonic acid-induced expression of the organic solute and steroid transporter-beta (Ost-beta) in a cartilaginous fish cell line.  

PubMed

The organic solute and steroid transporter (OST/Ost) is a unique membrane transport protein heterodimer composed of subunits designated alpha and beta, that transports conjugated steroids and prostaglandin E(2) across the plasma membrane. Ost was first identified in the liver of the cartilaginous fish Leucoraja erinacea, the little skate, and subsequently was found in many other species, including humans and rodents. The present study describes the isolation of a new cell line, LEE-1, derived from an early embryo of L. erinacea, and characterizes the expression of Ost in these cells. The mRNA size and amino acid sequence of Ost-beta in LEE-1 were identical to that previously reported for Ost-beta from skate liver, and the primary structure was identical to that of the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) with the exception of a single amino acid. Ost-beta was found both on the plasma membrane and intracellularly in LEE-1 cells, consistent with its localization in other cell types. Interestingly, arachidonic acid, the precursor to eicosanoids, strongly induced Ost-beta expression in LEE-1 cells and a lipid mixture containing arachidonic acid also induced Ost-alpha. Overall, the present study describes the isolation of a novel marine cell line, and shows that this cell line expresses relatively high levels of Ost when cultured in the presence of arachidonic acid. Although the function of this transport protein in embryo-derived cells is unknown, it may play a role in the disposition of eicosanoids or steroid-derived molecules. PMID:18407792

Hwang, Jae-Ho; Parton, Angela; Czechanski, Anne; Ballatori, Nazzareno; Barnes, David

2008-03-12

247

Time-resolved x-ray line emission studies of thermal transport in multiple beam uv-irradiated targets  

SciTech Connect

Thermal transport in spherical targets irradiated with multiple, nanosecond duration laser beams, has been a topic of much discussion recently. Different inferences on the level of thermal flux inhibition have been drawn from plasma velocity and x-ray spectroscopic diagnostics. We present new measurements of thermal transport on spherical targets made through time-resolved x-ray spectroscopic measurements of the progress of the ablation surface through thin layers of material on the surface of the target. These measurements, made with 6 and 12 uv (351 nm) nanosecond beams from OMEGA, will be compared to previous thermal transport measurements. Transparencies of the conference presentation are given.

Jaanimagi, P.A.; Henke, B.L.; Delettrez, J.; Richardson, M.C.

1984-01-01

248

Validation of in vitro cell models used in drug metabolism and transport studies; genotyping of cytochrome P450, phase II enzymes and drug transporter polymorphisms in the human hepatoma (HepG2), ovarian carcinoma (IGROV-1) and colon carcinoma (CaCo-2, LS180) cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Human cell lines are often used for in vitro biotransformation and transport studies of drugs. In vivo, genetic polymorphisms have been identified in drug-metabolizing enzymes and ABC-drug transporters leading to altered enzyme activity, or a change in the inducibility of these enzymes. These genetic polymorphisms could also influence the outcome of studies using human cell lines. Therefore, the aim of our study was to pharmacogenotype four cell lines frequently used in drug metabolism and transport studies, HepG2, IGROV-1, CaCo-2 and LS180, for genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes and drug transporters. The results indicate that, despite the presence of some genetic polymorphisms, no real effects influencing the activity of metabolizing enzymes or drug transporters in the investigated cell lines are expected. However, this characterization will be an aid in the interpretation of the results of biotransformation and transport studies using these in vitro cell models.

Brandon, Esther F.A. [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Bosch, Tessa M. [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deenen, Maarten J.; Levink, Rianne; Wal, Everdina van der; Meerveld, Joyce B.M. van; Bijl, Monique [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Beijnen, Jos H. [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schellens, Jan H.M. [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Department of Medical Oncology and Experimental Therapy, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meijerman, Irma [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: I.Meijerman@pharm.uu.nl

2006-02-15

249

The surface chemistry of the magnetic Ap star HD 147010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HD 147010 is a hot (Teff = 13 000 K), large-field magnetic Ap star that is a member of the Upper Scorpius-Centaurus Association, which means it is a star with a well-defined age (log t = 6.70). We offer a comprehensive analysis of the magnetic field and surface chemistry of HD 147010 based on seven spectra obtained using CFHT's ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter. This data set is sufficient to obtain a first-order model of the magnetic field and obtain the abundance distribution of He, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Sr, La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm. The magnetic field model is a low-order multipole expansion based on the variations of the line of sight and surface magnetic fields with rotation. Spectral synthesis was carried out using ZEEMAN, a program which takes into account the influence of the magnetic field. A simple model of uniform abundance in each of two rings in the observed magnetic hemisphere with equal spans in colatitude was used. The new magnetic field measurements enabled us to re-analyse the rotation period of HD 147010, finding P = 3.9207 ± 0.0003 d. The line of sight and surface magnetic field strengths vary from about -2000 to -5000 G and 11000 to 17000 G, respectively. Our analysis finds large overabundances of Fe-peak and rare-earth elements relative to the solar ratios. In all cases, where strong variability in surface chemistry is observed, abundances are higher near the magnetic equator as compared to the magnetic pole. HD 147010 appears to be an Ap star that is highly rich in rare-earth elements that are of the order of 105 times more abundant than in the Sun. This analysis adds to the growing number of hot Ap stars for which both the magnetic field and abundance distribution have been studied in detail.

Bailey, J. D.; Landstreet, J. D.

2013-06-01

250

Neuronal RNA granule contains ApCPEB1, a novel cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein, in Aplysia sensory neuron  

PubMed Central

The cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE)-binding protein (CPEB) binds to CPE containing mRNAs on their 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs). This RNA binding protein comes out many important tasks, especially in learning and memory, by modifying the translational efficiency of target mRNAs via poly (A) tailing. Overexpressed CPEB has been reported to induce the formation of stress granules (SGs), a sort of RNA granule in mammalian cell lines. RNA granule is considered to be a potentially important factor in learning and memory. However, there is no study about RNA granule in Aplysia. To examine whether an Aplysia CPEB, ApCPEB1, forms RNA granules, we overexpressed ApCPEB1-EGFP in Aplysia sensory neurons. Consistent with the localization of mammalian CPEB, overexpressed ApCPEB1 formed granular structures, and was colocalized with RNAs and another RNA binding protein, ApCPEB, showing that ApCPEB1 positive granules are RNA-protein complexes. In addition, ApCPEB1 has a high turnover rate in RNA granules which were mobile structures. Thus, our results indicate that overexpressed ApCPEB1 is incorporated into RNA granule which is a dynamic structure in Aplysia sensory neuron. We propose that ApCPEB1 granule might modulate translation, as other RNA granules do, and furthermore, influence memory.

Chae, Yeon-Su; Lee, Seung-Hee; Cheang, Ye-Hwang; Lee, Nuribalhae; Rim, Young-Soo; Jang, Deok-Jin

2010-01-01

251

Comparison of a CCD and an APS for soft X-ray diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare a new CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) to a Princeton Instruments PIXIS-XO: 2048B Charge Coupled Device (CCD) with soft X-rays tested in a synchrotron beam line at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). Despite CCDs being established in the field of scientific imaging, APS are an innovative technology that offers advantages over CCDs. These include faster readout, higher operational temperature, in-pixel electronics for advanced image processing and reduced manufacturing cost. The APS employed was the Vanilla sensor designed by the MI3 collaboration and funded by an RCUK Basic technology grant. This sensor has 520 x 520 square pixels, of size 25 ?m on each side. The sensor can operate at a full frame readout of up to 20 Hz. The sensor had been back-thinned, to the epitaxial layer. This was the first time that a back-thinned APS had been demonstrated at a beam line at DLS. In the synchrotron experiment soft X-rays with an energy of approximately 708 eV were used to produce a diffraction pattern from a permalloy sample. The pattern was imaged at a range of integration times with both sensors. The CCD had to be operated at a temperature of -55°C whereas the Vanilla was operated over a temperature range from 20°C to -10°C. We show that the APS detector can operate with frame rates up to two hundred times faster than the CCD, without excessive degradation of image quality. The signal to noise of the APS is shown to be the same as that of the CCD at identical integration times and the response is shown to be linear, with no charge blooming effects. The experiment has allowed a direct comparison of back thinned APS and CCDs in a real soft x-ray synchrotron experiment.

Stewart, Graeme; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Clark, A.; Dhesi, S. S.; Maneuski, D.; Marchal, J.; Steadman, P.; Tartoni, N.; Turchetta, R.

2011-12-01

252

Multiplicity of rapidly oscillating Ap stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars have rarely been found in binary or higher order multiple systems. This might have implications for their origin. Aims: We intend to study the multiplicity of this type of chemically peculiar stars, looking for visual companions in the range of angular separation between 0.05 arcsec and 8''. Methods: We carried out a survey of 28 roAp stars using diffraction-limited near-infrared imaging with NAOS-CONICA at the VLT. Additionally, we observed three non-oscillating magnetic Ap stars. Results: We detected a total of six companion candidates with low chance projection probabilities. Four of these are new detections, the other two are confirmations. An additional 39 companion candidates are very likely chance projections. We also found one binary system among the non-oscillating magnetic Ap stars. The detected companion candidates have apparent K magnitudes between 6.8m and 19.5m and angular separations ranging from 0.23 arcsec to 8.9 arcsec, corresponding to linear projected separations of 30-2400 AU. Conclusions: While our study confirms that roAp stars are indeed not very often members of binary or multiple systems, we have found four new companion candidates that are likely physical companions. A confirmation of their status will help understanding the origin of the roAp stars. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programme Nos. 079.D-0537(A) and 076.C-0170).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Schöller, M.; Correia, S.; Hubrig, S.; Kurtz, D. W.

2012-09-01

253

Design and performance simulations of the bunch compressor for the APS LEUTL FEL.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A magnetic bunch compressor was designed and is being commissioned to provide higher peak current for the Advanced Photon Source's (APS) Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) free-electron laser (FEL) (1). Of great concern is limiting emittance growth du...

M. Borland

2000-01-01

254

Initial characterization of coherent synchrotron radiation effects in the APS bunch compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chicane bunch compressor was recently installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac in support of the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) free-electron laser (FEL) project. As in any magnetic compression system, the use of bending magnets raises concerns about corruption of the emittance by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). In this paper, we present results of an initial characterization

M. Borland; J. Lewellen

2001-01-01

255

Retrograde axonal transport of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the adult nigrostriatal system suggests a trophic role in the adult.  

PubMed Central

The recently cloned, distant member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), has potent trophic actions on fetal mesencephalic dopamine neurons. GDNF also has protective and restorative activity on adult mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and potently protects motoneurons from axotomy-induced cell death. However, evidence for a role for endogenous GDNF as a target-derived trophic factor in adult midbrain dopaminergic circuits requires documentation of specific transport from the sites of synthesis in the target areas to the nerve cell bodies themselves. Here, we demonstrate that GDNF is retrogradely transported by mesencephalic dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway. The pattern of retrograde transport following intrastriatal injections indicates that there may be subpopulations of neurons that are GDNF responsive. Retrograde axonal transport of biologically active 125I-labeled GDNF was inhibited by an excess of unlabeled GDNF but not by an excess of cytochrome c. Specificity was further documented by demonstrating that another TGF-beta family member, TGF-beta 1, did not appear to affect retrograde transport. Retrograde transport was also demonstrated by immunohistochemistry by using intrastriatal injections of unlabeled GDNF. GDNF immunoreactivity was found specifically in dopamine nerve cell bodies of the substantia nigra pars compacta distributed in granules in the soma and proximal dendrites. Our data implicate a specific receptor-mediated uptake mechanism operating in the adult. Taken together, the present findings suggest that GDNF acts endogenously as a target-derived physiological survival/maintenance factor for dopaminergic neurons. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Tomac, A; Widenfalk, J; Lin, L F; Kohno, T; Ebendal, T; Hoffer, B J; Olson, L

1995-01-01

256

AP Powerhouse Creates High Expectations for Dallas Students: Spreading the AP Challenge to Students and Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how veteran teacher Joan Vinson has made Advanced Placement (AP) a "cool thing to do" for minority students. With the help of private funding and a Texas-size enthusiasm, she is also convincing more teachers to take on the AP challenge, with a focus on quality over quantity. (EV)

Nelson, Colleen McCain

2001-01-01

257

Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed.

Steen, F.H.

1997-12-22

258

APS storage ring vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

1990-01-01

259

APS storage ring vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

The advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluninum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The detaileds of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented.

Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States))

1991-08-20

260

OsAP65, a rice aspartic protease, is essential for male fertility and plays a role in pollen germination and pollen tube growth  

PubMed Central

Aspartic proteases (APs) comprise a large proteolytic enzyme family widely distributed in animals, microbes, viruses, and plants. The rice genome encodes 96 APs, of which only a few have been functionally characterized. Here, the identification and characterization of a novel AP gene, OsAP65, which plays an indispensable role in pollen tube growth in rice, is reported. The T-DNA insertion line of OsAP65 caused severe segregation distortion. In the progeny derived from an individual heterozygous for the T-DNA insertion, the wild type and T-DNA-carrying heterozygote segregated at a ratio close to 1:1, while homozygotes of disrupted OsAP65 (OsAP65–/–) were not recovered. Reciprocal crosses between heterozygotes and wild-type plants demonstrated that the mutant alleles could not be transmitted through the male gamete. Examination of the anthers from heterozygous plants revealed that the mutant pollen matured normally, but did not germinate or elongate. OsAP65 was expressed in various tissues and the transcript level in heterozygous plants was about half of the amount measured in the wild-type plants. The subcellular localization showed that OsAP65 is a pre-vacuolar compartment (PVC) protein. These results indicated that OsAP65 was essential for rice pollen germination and tube growth.

Zhang, Qifa

2013-01-01

261

OsAP65, a rice aspartic protease, is essential for male fertility and plays a role in pollen germination and pollen tube growth.  

PubMed

Aspartic proteases (APs) comprise a large proteolytic enzyme family widely distributed in animals, microbes, viruses, and plants. The rice genome encodes 96 APs, of which only a few have been functionally characterized. Here, the identification and characterization of a novel AP gene, OsAP65, which plays an indispensable role in pollen tube growth in rice, is reported. The T-DNA insertion line of OsAP65 caused severe segregation distortion. In the progeny derived from an individual heterozygous for the T-DNA insertion, the wild type and T-DNA-carrying heterozygote segregated at a ratio close to 1:1, while homozygotes of disrupted OsAP65 (OsAP65-/-) were not recovered. Reciprocal crosses between heterozygotes and wild-type plants demonstrated that the mutant alleles could not be transmitted through the male gamete. Examination of the anthers from heterozygous plants revealed that the mutant pollen matured normally, but did not germinate or elongate. OsAP65 was expressed in various tissues and the transcript level in heterozygous plants was about half of the amount measured in the wild-type plants. The subcellular localization showed that OsAP65 is a pre-vacuolar compartment (PVC) protein. These results indicated that OsAP65 was essential for rice pollen germination and tube growth. PMID:23918968

Huang, Jianyan; Zhao, Xiaobo; Cheng, Ke; Jiang, Yunhe; Ouyang, Yidan; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

2013-08-01

262

Off-line algorithm for calculation of vertical tracer transport in the troposphere due to deep convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified cumulus convection parametrisation scheme is presented. This scheme computes the mass of air transported upward in a cumulus cell using conservation of moisture and a detailed distribution of convective precipitation provided by a reanalysis dataset. The representation of vertical transport within the scheme includes entrainment and detrainment processes in convective updrafts and downdrafts. Output from the proposed parametrisation scheme is employed in the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) global chemical transport model driven by JRA-25/JCDAS reanalysis. The simulated convective precipitation rate and mass fluxes are compared with observations and reanalysis data. A simulation of the short-lived tracer 222Rn is used to further evaluate the performance of the cumulus convection scheme. Simulated distributions of 222Rn are evaluated against observations at the surface and in the free troposphere, and compared with output from models that participated in the TransCom-CH4 Transport Model Intercomparison. From this comparison, we demonstrate that the proposed convective scheme in general is consistent with observed and modeled results.

Belikov, D. A.; Maksyutov, S.; Krol, M.; Fraser, A.; Rigby, M.; Bian, H.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; Bergmann, D.; Bousquet, P.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Gloor, E.; Haynes, K.; Hess, P.; Houweling, S.; Kawa, S. R.; Law, R. M.; Loh, Z.; Meng, L.; Palmer, P. I.; Patra, P. K.; Prinn, R. G.; Saito, R.; Wilson, C.

2013-02-01

263

Off-line algorithm for calculation of vertical tracer transport in the troposphere due to deep convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified cumulus convection parametrisation scheme is presented. This scheme computes the mass of air transported upward in a cumulus cell using conservation of moisture and a detailed distribution of convective precipitation provided by a reanalysis dataset. The representation of vertical transport within the scheme includes entrainment and detrainment processes in convective updrafts and downdrafts. Output from the proposed parametrisation scheme is employed in the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) global chemical transport model driven by JRA-25/JCDAS reanalysis. The simulated convective precipitation rate and mass fluxes are compared with observations and reanalysis data. A simulation of the short-lived tracer 222Rn is used to further evaluate the performance of the cumulus convection scheme. Simulated distributions of 222Rn are validated against observations at the surface and in the free troposphere, and compared with output from models that participated in the TransCom-CH4 Transport Model Intercomparison. From this comparison, we demonstrate that the proposed convective scheme can successfully reproduce deep cloud convection.

Belikov, D. A.; Maksyutov, S.; Krol, M.; Fraser, A.; Rigby, M.; Bian, H.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; Bergmann, D.; Bousquet, P.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Gloor, E.; Haynes, K.; Hess, P.; Houweling, S.; Kawa, S. R.; Law, R. M.; Loh, Z.; Meng, L.; Palmer, P. I.; Patra, P. K.; Prinn, R. G.; Saito, R.; Wilson, C.

2012-08-01

264

Reliability analysis for encapsulated interconnect lines under dc and pulsed dc current using a continuum electromigration transport model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins of two types of electromigration failure models are explored starting with the basic transport differential equations including the effects of electromigration-induced mechanical stress. We compare the results of a nucleation model, in which failure is determined by the time required to build up a critical stress or a critical vacancy concentration at a site of atomic flux divergence,

J. J. Clement

1997-01-01

265

Assessment of RELAP5\\/MOD3 off-take model for application to AP600 analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Westinghouse AP600 advanced pressurized water reactor uses a surge-line geometry that differs from that found in existing Westinghouse plants. The off-take is located in the hot leg at a 55-deg angle and has an initial slope of 24 deg. Typical geometries found in other Westinghouse reactors would have the surge line attached to the horizontal run of the hot

M. B. Rubin; A. J. Baratta

1993-01-01

266

Transport and intracellular distribution of MHC class II molecules and associated invariant chain in normal and antigen-processing mutant cell lines.  

PubMed

We have compared the intracellular transport and subcellular distribution of MHC class II-invariant chain complexes in a wild-type HLA-DR3 homozygous cell line and a mutant cell line, T2.DR3. The latter has a defect in antigen processing and accumulates HLA-DR3 molecules associated with an invariant chain-derived peptide (CLIP) rather than the normal complement of peptides derived from endocytosed proteins. We find that in the wild-type cells, CLIP is transiently associated with HLA-DR3 molecules, suggesting that the peptide is a normal class II-associated intermediate generated during proteolysis of the invariant chain. In the mutant cell line proteolysis of the invariant chain is less efficient, and HLA-DR3/CLIP complexes are generated much more slowly. Examination of the mutant cell line by immunoelectronmicroscopy shows that class II-invariant chain complexes accumulate intracellularly in large acidic vesicles which contain lysosomal markers, including beta-hexosaminidase, cathepsin D, and the lysosomal membrane protein CD63. The markers in these vesicles are identical to those seen in the class II-containing vesicles (MIICs) seen in the wild-type cells but the morphology is drastically different. The vesicles in the mutant cells are endocytic, as measured by the internalization of BSA-gold conjugates. The implication of these findings for antigen processing in general and the nature of the mutation in particular are discussed. PMID:8207055

Riberdy, J M; Avva, R R; Geuze, H J; Cresswell, P

1994-06-01

267

The 5' enhancer of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat contains a functional AP-2 element.  

PubMed

The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) retrovirus causes mammary adenocarcinomas in mice by proviral insertion near members of the wnt family of proto-oncogenes, leading to their deregulation and cellular transformation. The 5' end of the MMTV long terminal repeat (LTR) has been implicated in tissue-specific activation of these genes. In this study, we characterize an enhancer element (Ban2; -1075 to -978) at the 5' end of the MMTV LTR. We show that this enhancer is 5-fold more active in a murine mammary carcinoma cell line (34i) than in a fibroblast cell line (NIH3T3), and is inactive in the liver carcinoma cell line HepG2. Mutagenesis of the enhancer reveals four cis-acting elements that are required for maximal activity. DNA-binding proteins that interact with each of the four elements have been identified. One of these factors, designated mp5, is either identical to, or closely related to, the transcription factor AP-2. The mp5/AP-2 DNA binding activity co-migrates with recombinant AP-2 and is supershifted by anti-AP-2 antibodies. We also show that the lack of enhancer activity in HepG2 cells results from the absence of AP-2 protein in these cells. Co-transfection of an AP-2 expression vector restores the activity of this enhancer in HepG2 cells, and requires an intact mp5-binding site. PMID:7989375

Mellentin-Michelotti, J; John, S; Pennie, W D; Williams, T; Hager, G L

1994-12-16

268

Parametric study of the current limit within a single driver-scale transport beam line of an induction linac for heavy ion fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ˜0.2 muC/m) over long pulse durations (4 mus) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K+ ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (?80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

Prost, Lionel Robert

269

Secretory protein targeting in a pituitary cell line: differential transport of foreign secretory proteins to distinct secretory pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse pituitary cell line, AtT-20, packages the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in secretory vesicles and releases it when the cell is stimulated with secretagogues. These cells have the capacity, after transfection with the appropriate DNA, to package heterologous peptide hormones into the regulated secretory vesicles (Moore, H. P. H., M. D. Walker, F. Lee, and R. B. Kelly, 1983, Cell,

HSIAO-PING H. MOORE; REGIS B. KELLY

1985-01-01

270

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - TRANSPORTABILITY FACTORS FOR FUGITIVE DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The product is a table of factors, one for each county in the US, reflecting the portion of fugitive dust removed very close to the source via impaction on vegetation and similar mechanisms. Factors were based on land cover in area (county or grid cell) A praft final product was...

271

Clathrin Assembly Protein AP180 and CALM Differentially Control Axogenesis and Dendrite Outgrowth in Embryonic Hippocampal Neurons  

PubMed Central

Emerging data suggest that, much like epithelial cells, the polarized growth of neurons requires both the secretory and endocytic pathways. The clathrin assembly proteins AP180 and CALM are known to be involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but their roles in mammalian neurons, and, in particular, in developmental processes prior to synaptogenesis, are unknown. Here we provide evidence that AP180 and CALM play critical roles in establishing the polarity and controlling the growth of axons and dendrites in embryonic hippocampal neurons. Knockdown of AP180 primarily impairs axonal development, while reducing CALM levels results in dendritic dystrophy. Conversely, neurons that overexpress AP180 or CALM generate multiple axons. Ultrastructural analysis shows that CALM affiliates with wider range of intracellular trafficking organelles than does AP180. Functional analysis shows that endocytosis is reduced in both AP180-deficient and CALM-deficient neurons. Additionally, CALM-deficient neurons show disrupted secretory transport. Our data demonstrate previously unknown functions for AP180 and CALM in intracellular trafficking that is essential in the growth of neurons.

Bushlin, Ittai; Petralia, Ronald S.; Wu, Fangbai; Harel, Asaff; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Mattson, Mark P.; Yao, Pamela J.

2008-01-01

272

Unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols regulate cholesterol transporter genes in Caco-2 and HepG2 cell lines.  

PubMed

Dietary consumption of phytosterols and certain fatty acids has been shown to reduce cholesterol absorption and plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether phytosterols or fatty acids can alter the expression of cholesterol transporters by functioning as signaling molecules. This study tested the hypothesis that various fatty acids and phytosterols commonly found in the food supply can modulate the expression of transporters including Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and scavenger receptor class B type I and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in the intestine and liver. Caco-2 cells were used as models of enterocytes, and HepG2 cells were used as a model of hepatocytes. The cells were treated for 18 hours with 100 ?mol/L of a fatty acid, or for 24 hours with 10 ?mol/L of 25?-hydroxycholesterol, or 100 ?mol/L of cholesterol, sitosterol, and stigmasterol to measure expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caco-2 cells and sterols in HepG2 cells significantly reduced the messenger RNA expression levels of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, scavenger receptor class B type I, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Importantly, sitosterol and stigmasterol reduced the messenger RNA levels of genes to a similar extent as cholesterol. The data support the hypothesis that unsaturated fatty acid and phytosterols can act as signaling molecules and alter the expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport and metabolism. PMID:23399666

Park, Youngki; Carr, Timothy P

2012-12-27

273

Alaska-US gas line - design considerations for the Alaska segment of ANGTS (Alaska natural gas transportation system)  

SciTech Connect

In 1968, the largest single discovery of oil and natural gas ever found on the North American continent was made at Prudhoe Bay on the North Slope of Alaska. The Prudhoe Bay field contains over 26 tcf of recoverable natural gas, or ca 13% of the proven domestic gas reserves. To bring this natural gas to the market in the Lower 48 states, filings were made with the Federal Power Commission, the predecessor to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, to construct a pipeline transportation system. The gas pipeline project will initially transport ca 2 billion cu ft of gas daily, expandable to 3.2 billion cu ft/day with additional compressor stations. The total ANGTS comprises nearly 4,800 miles of pipeline with diameters ranging from 36 to 56 in., and initially ca 1.4 million hp will be installed to transport 2.0 billion cu ft/day. This presentation concentrates on the Alaska segment of the ANGTS.

Hetland, N.

1982-01-01

274

Tank 241-AP-106, grab samples, 6AP-96-1 through 6AP-96-3 analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. This document presents the analytical results for three samples (6AP-96-1, 6AP-96-2 and 6AP-96-3) taken from riser 1 @ 150{degrees} of tank 241-AP-1 06 on September 12, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1996) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler, 1995).

Esch, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-12-11

275

Luteolin induces apoptosis in multidrug resistant cancer cells without affecting the drug transporter function: involvement of cell line-specific apoptotic mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Bioflavonoids are of considerable interest to human health as these serve as antioxidant and anticancer agents. Although epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that luteolin, a natural bioflavonoid, exhibits chemopreventive properties, its effectiveness as an antiproliferative agent against multidrug resistant (MDR) cancers is unclear. We thus assessed the antiproliferative effects of luteolin and associated molecular mechanisms using two MDR cancer cell lines that express high levels of P-glycoprotein and ABCG2. In this paper, we demonstrate that luteolin induces apoptosis in P-glycoprotein- and ABCG2-expressing MDR cancer cells without affecting the transport functions of these drug transporters. Analysis of various proliferative signaling pathways indicated that luteolin-induced apoptosis involves reactive oxygen species generation, DNA damage, activation of ATR?Chk2?p53 signaling pathway, inhibition of NF-kB signaling pathway, activation of p38 pathway and depletion of anti-apoptotic proteins. Importantly, use of luteolin in these analyses also identified specific molecular characteristics of NCI-ADR/RES and MCF-7/MitoR cells that highlight their different tissue origins. These results suggest that luteolin possesses therapeutic potential to control the proliferation of MDR cancers without affecting the physiological function of drug transporters in the body tissues.

Rao, Prema S.; Satelli, Arun; Moridani, Majid; Jenkins, Marjorie; Rao, U. Subrahmanyeswara

2011-01-01

276

APS Forum on Education Summer 2006 Newsletter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The APS Forum on Education (FEd) Summer 2006 Newsletter's Teacher Preparation Section articles included:The Learning Assistant Model for Teacher Education in Science and Technology by Valerie Otero,Undergraduate Learning Assistants at the University of Arkansas by Gay Stewart, andCreating and Sustaining a Teaching and Learning Professional Community at Seattle Pacific University by Lane Seeley and Stamatis Vokos.

2007-09-07

277

Adrenal insufficiency complicated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).  

PubMed

We describe a 69-year-old woman with bilateral adrenal hemorrhage complicated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). She was hospitalized with nausea and vomiting in September 2003. Laboratory data demonstrated hyponatremia, hypoglycemia and prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Abdominal computed tomography showed bilateral adrenal enlargement. In October 2003, she demonstrated altered mental status with progressive hyponatremia, a high level of ACTH, and a low level of serum cortisol. She also showed thrombocytopenia, anti-cardiolipin IgG antibody, anti-beta2GPI antibody, and lupus anticoagulants. After four months, anti-cardiolipin IgG antibody was still positive. Based on these findings, she was diagnosed as having APS complicated with adrenal insufficiency due to hemorrhagic infarction. After treatment with corticosteroid, a low dose of aspirin and normal saline infusion, her condition quickly improved. Platelet counts and aPTT were also normalized. To our knowledge, this is the second Japanese case of APS complicated with bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. APS should be considered an important underlying cause of adrenal insufficiency. PMID:16974059

Fujishima, Naohito; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Ohyagi, Hideaki; Fujishima, Masumi; Tada, Mitsunori; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Wakui, Hideki; Hirokawa, Makoto; Sawada, Ken-ichi

2006-09-15

278

Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

Keller, Kenneth H.

2012-01-01

279

Building a Robust A-P Axis  

PubMed Central

Since the last common ancestor of Metazoa, animals have evolved complex body plans with specialized cells and spatial organization of tissues and organs. Arguably, one of the most significant innovations during animal evolutionary history was the establishment of a bilateral plane of symmetry on which morphological features (e.g. tissues, organs, appendages, skeleton) could be given specific coordinates within the animal along the anterior-posterior (A-P) and dorsal-ventral (D-V) axes. Hox genes are a known group of eumetazoan transcription factors central to regulating A-P patterning, but less well known and under current investigation is the broader regulatory landscape incorporating these genes, including microRNA (miRNA) regulation. The degree to which evolutionarily conserved targeting of Hox genes by Hox-embedded miRNAs contributes directly to A-P patterning is under investigation, yielding contrasting information dependent on the organism and miRNA of interest. The widespread A-P patterning defects observed in recent miR-196 loss-of-function studies solidifies the importance of miRNA regulation in Hox genetic hierarchies, and elucidating the developmental and evolutionary importance of all Hox-embedded miRNAs remains a challenge for the future.

Heimberg, Alysha; McGlinn, Edwina

2012-01-01

280

Top-up operation experience at APS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV, third-generation synchrotron radiation source. To provide more stable beam for users, in September 1998 the authors began commissioning a new operating mode called 'top-up.' In this mode, the beam current does ...

L. Emery

1999-01-01

281

Boosting Black Academic Achievement and AP Enrollments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Minority students were about 25% of the student population at Central High School in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1995. But the composition of its honors and challenge classes did not reflect this diversity: Few minority students were taking challenge classes as underclassmen and even fewer were taking Advanced Placement (AP) courses as seniors. This…

Saunders, Terrie; Maloney, Kathy

2005-01-01

282

The discovery of 8.0-min radial velocity variations in the strongly magnetic cool Ap star HD154708, a new roAp star  

Microsoft Academic Search

HD154708 has an extraordinarily strong magnetic field of 24.5kG. Using 2.5h of high time resolution Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectra we have discovered this star to be an roAp star with a pulsation period of 8min. The radial velocity amplitudes in the rare earth element lines of NdII, NdIII and PrIII are unusually low - ~60ms-1 - for

D. W. Kurtz; V. G. Elkin; M. S. Cunha; G. Mathys; S. Hubrig; B. Wolff; I. Savanov

2006-01-01

283

Development of Superconducting Combined Function Magnets for the Proton Transport Line for the J-PARC Neutrino Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconducting combined function magnets will be utilized for the 50 GeV, 750 kW proton beam line for the J-PARC neutrino experiment. The magnet is designed to provide a dipole field of 2.6 T combined with a quadrupole field of 19 T\\/m in a coil aperture of 173.4 mm at a nominal current of 7345 A. Two full-scale prototype magnets to

T. Nakamoto; Y. Ajima; Y. Fujii; N. Higashi; A. Ichikawa; N. Kimura; T. Kobayashi; Y. Makida; T. Ogitsu; H. Ohhata; T. Okamura; K. Sasaki; M. Takasaki; K. Tanaka; A. Terashima; T. Tomaru; A. Yamamoto; M. Anerella; G. Ganetis; R. Gupta; M. Harrison; A. Jain; J. Muratore; B. Parker; P. Wanderer; T. Obana; T. Fujii; E. Hashiguchi; T. Kanahara; T. Orikasa

2005-01-01

284

Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils  

SciTech Connect

Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1.

Hirano, Toru [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higa, Shinji [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Arimitsu, Junsuke [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Naka, Tetsuji [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ogata, Atsushi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shima, Yoshihito [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Fujimoto, Minoru [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamadori, Tomoki [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki [Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan); Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kawase, Ichiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshio [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: ttanak@imed3.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

2006-02-03

285

Lysosomal localization of GLUT8 in the testis--the EXXXLL motif of GLUT8 is sufficient for its intracellular sorting via AP1- and AP2-mediated interaction.  

PubMed

The class III sugar transport facilitator GLUT8 co-localizes with the lysosomal protein LAMP1 in heterologous expression systems. GLUT8 carries a [D/E]XXXL[L/I]-type dileucine sorting signal that has been postulated to retain the protein in an endosomal/lysosomal compartment via interactions with clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes. However, contradictory findings have been described regarding the subcellular localization of the endogenous GLUT8 and the adaptor proteins that interact with its dileucine motif. Here we demonstrate that endogenous GLUT8 is localized in a late endosomal/lysosomal compartment of spermatocytes and spermatids, and that the adaptor complexes AP1 and AP2, but not AP3 or AP4, interact with its N-terminal intracellular domain (NICD). In addition, fusion of the GLUT8 NICD to the tailless lumenal domain of the IL-2 receptor alpha chain (TAC) protein (interleukin-2 receptor a chain) targeted the protein to intracellular membranes, indicating that its N-terminal dileucine signal is sufficient for endosomal/lysosomal targeting of the transporter. The localization and targeting of GLUT8 show striking similarities to sorting mechanisms reported for lysosomal proteins. Therefore, we suggest a potential role for GLUT8 in the so far unexplored substrate transport across intracellular membranes. PMID:19523115

Diril, Muhammed Kasim; Schmidt, Stefan; Krauss, Michael; Gawlik, Verena; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schürmann, Annette; Haucke, Volker; Augustin, Robert

2009-06-11

286

Identification and functional characterization of riboflavin transporter in human-derived retinoblastoma cell line (Y-79): mechanisms of cellular uptake and translocation.  

PubMed

Drug delivery to the retina is a challenging task owing to its complex physiology and presence of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), which regulates the permeation of substances from blood into the retina. Transporter-targeted drug delivery has become a clinically significant drug-delivery approach for enhancing the bioavailability of various drugs. Different nutrient transporters have been reported to be expressed on the retina. Riboflavin (vitamin B2), an essential nutritional vitamin for the development and maintenance of the surface structures and functions of epithelial cells of the ocular tissues, must be acquired from retinal or choroidal blood supply. The uptake mechanism, cellular translocation, and major regulatory pathways of riboflavin uptake into retina are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of a riboflavin transporter and delineate uptake and intracellular trafficking of riboflavin in the human-derived retinoblastoma cell line (Y-79), a model for neural retina. Uptake characteristics of [3H]riboflavin in Y-79 cells were found to be (1) linear with time over 10 min of incubation; (2) temperature- and energy-dependent; (3) sodium, chloride-, and pH-independent; (4) concentration dependence with an apparent K(m) of 19.21 +/- 0.37 nM and V(max) of 6.98 +/- 0.30 pmol/min/mg protein; (5) inhibited by the structural analogs (lumiflavin and lumichrome) but not by the structurally unrelated vitamins; and (6) uptake of [3H]riboflavin was trans-stimulated by the intracellular riboflavin. Neither protein kinase C- nor protein tyrosine kinase-mediated pathways were involved in regulating riboflavin uptake. However, protein kinase A pathway activators (IBMX and forskolin) and inhibitors (H-89) and Ca2+/calmodulin pathways appeared to play important roles in the regulation of riboflavin uptake in Y-79 cells through significant reduction in V(max) (39%) and significant increase in K(m) (112%) of the uptake process. These studies demonstrated, for the first time, the existence of a specialized carrier-mediated system for riboflavin uptake in human-derived retinoblastoma cells. The system appears to be regulated by protein kinase A and Ca2+/calmodulin pathways. Being a high-affinity low-capacity transport system, the presence of this transporter on the retina may be suitable for the design of transporter-targeted prodrugs to achieve enhanced permeability for highly potent, but poorly bioavailable, compounds where a small increase in the bioavailability could result in a significant increase in therapeutic response. PMID:16117691

Kansara, Viral; Pal, Dhananjay; Jain, Ritesh; Mitra, Ashim K

2005-08-01

287

Advanced APS (Auxiliary Propulsion System) Impacts on Vehicle Payloads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluid...

S. J. Schneider B. D. Reed

1989-01-01

288

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This project develops emission factors, etc., for residential fireplaces and woodstoves which are incorporated into AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness infor...

289

The transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and AP-2 are required for constitutive matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene expression in astroglioma cells.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that contribute to pathological conditions associated with angiogenesis and tumor invasion. MMP-2 is highly expressed in human astroglioma cells, and contributes to the invasiveness of these cells. The human MMP-2 promoter contains potential cis-acting regulatory elements including cAMP response element-binding protein, AP-1, AP-2, PEA3, C/EBP, and Sp1. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the MMP-2 promoter demonstrates that the Sp1 site at -91 to -84 base pairs and the AP-2 site at -61 to -53 base pairs are critical for constitutive activity of this gene in invasive astroglioma cell lines. Electrophoretic gel shift analysis demonstrates binding of specific DNA-protein complexes to the Sp1 and AP-2 sites: Sp1 and Sp3 bind to the Sp1 site, while the AP-2 transcription factor binds the AP-2 element. Co-transfection expression experiments in Drosophilia SL2 cells lacking endogenous Sp factors demonstrate that Sp1 and Sp3 function as activators of the MMP-2 promoter and synergize for enhanced MMP-2 activation. Overexpression of AP-2 in AP-2-deficient HepG2 cells enhances MMP-2 promoter activation. These findings document the functional importance of Sp1, Sp3, and AP-2 in regulating constitutive expression of MMP-2. Delineation of MMP-2 regulation may have implications for development of new therapeutic strategies to arrest glioma invasion. PMID:10506168

Qin, H; Sun, Y; Benveniste, E N

1999-10-01

290

High energy beam lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

2013-10-01

291

27. WILEY CITY LINE, LOOKING WEST ON HENRYBRO LINE FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. WILEY CITY LINE, LOOKING WEST ON HENRYBRO LINE FROM WIDE HOLLOW JUNCTION; LINE TO WILEY CITY DIVERGING LEFT - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

292

The duality of LysU, a catalyst for both Ap4A and Ap3A formation.  

PubMed

Heat shock inducible lysyl-tRNA synthetase of Escherichia coli (LysU) is known to be a highly efficient diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) synthase. However, we use an ion-exchange HPLC technique to demonstrate that active LysU mixtures actually have a dual catalytic activity, initially producing Ap4A from ATP, before converting that tetraphosphate to a triphosphate. LysU appears to be an effective diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P3-triphosphate (Ap3A) synthase. Mechanistic investigations reveal that Ap3A formation requires: (a) that the second step of Ap4A formation is slightly reversible, thereby leading to a modest reappearance of adenylate intermediate; and (b) that phosphate is present to trap the intermediate (either as inorganic phosphate, as added ADP, or as ADP generated in situ from inorganic phosphate). Ap3A forms readily from Ap4A in the presence of such phosphate-based adenylate traps (via a 'reverse-trap' mechanism). LysU is also clearly demonstrated to exist in a phosphorylated state that is more physically robust as a catalyst of Ap4A formation than the nonphosphorylated state. However, phosphorylated LysU shows only marginally improved catalytic efficiency. We note that Ap3A effects have barely been studied in prokaryotic organisms. By contrast, there is a body of literature that describes Ap3A and Ap4A having substantially different functions in eukaryotic cells. Our data suggest that Ap3A and Ap4A biosynthesis could be linked together through a single prokaryotic dual 'synthase' enzyme. Therefore, in our view there is a need for new research into the effects and impact of Ap3A alone and the intracellular [Ap3A]/[Ap4A] ratio on prokaryotic organisms. PMID:16884494

Wright, Michael; Boonyalai, Nonlawat; Tanner, Julian A; Hindley, Alison D; Miller, Andrew D

2006-08-01

293

APS control system operating system choice  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to set down the reasons and decisions regarding what is an important choice for the APS Control System design staff, namely the choice of an operating system for its principle computer resources. Since the choice also may affect cost estimates and the design handbook, there is a further need to document the process. The descriptions and explanations which follow are intended for reading by other APS technical area managers and will contain a minimum of buzz-words, and where buzz-words are used, they will be explained. The author hopes that it will help in understanding the current trends and developments in the volatile and fast-developing computer field.

Knott, M.; Kraimer, M.; Lenkszus, F.

1990-05-01

294

Dose calculations using MARS for Bremsstrahlung beam stops and collimators in APS beamline stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MARS is used to model the generation of gas bremsstrahlung (GB) radiation from 7-GeV electrons which scatter from residual gas atoms in undulator straight sections within the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Additionally, MARS is employed to model the interactions of the GB radiation with components along the x-ray beamlines and then determine

J. Dooling

2010-01-01

295

APS Storage Ring Monopulse RF BPM Upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron light source in its ninth year of operation. The storage ring monopulse radio frequency (rf) beam position monitor (BPM) was designed to measure single-turn and multi-turn beam positions for operations and machine physics studies. Many of the components used in the original design are obsolete and costly to replace. In this

R. Lill; A. Pietryla; E. Norum; F. Lenkszus

2004-01-01

296

The AN\\/APS6 radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AN\\/APS-6 radar was to scan a 1200 coneshaped volume ahead of the aircraft flight path in selected ranges of five, 25 and 65 miles for radar search, with the maximum range extended to 100 miles for radar beacon. When within one-half mile of a selected target, the set could be switched to the gun aim mode for accurate aim-and-fire

F. G. Suffield

1995-01-01

297

Correction magnet power supplies for APS machine  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source machine requires a number of correction magnets; five kinds for the storage ring, two for the injector synchrotron, and two for the positron accumulator ring. Three types of bipolar power supply will be used for all the correction magnets. This paper describes the design aspects and considerations for correction magnet power supplies for the APS machine. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Kang, Y.G.

1991-01-01

298

Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline  

SciTech Connect

A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm{sup 2} (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented.

Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

1997-09-01

299

HYPERMETHYLATION OF THE HUMAN PROTON-COUPLED FOLATE TRANSPORTER (PCFT, SLC46A1) MINIMAL TRANCRIPTIONAL REGULATORY REGION IN AN ANTIFOLATE-RESISTANT HELA CELL LINE  

PubMed Central

This laboratory recently identified a novel proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) that mediates intestinal folate absorption and transport of folates into the central nervous system. The present study focuses on the definition of the minimum transcriptional regulatory region of this gene in HeLa cells and the mechanism(s) underlying the loss of PCFT expression in the methotrexate-resistant HeLa R1–11 cell line. The PCFT transcriptional regulatory controls were localized between ?42 and +96 bases from the transcriptional start site using a luciferase-reporter gene system. The promoter is a G+C rich region of 139 nucleotides contained in a CpG island. HeLa R1–11 cells have no mutations in the PCFT open-reading-frame and its promoter; the transcription/translation machinery is intact since transient transfections in HeLa R1–11 and wild-type HeLa cells produced similar luciferase activities. Hypermethylation at CpG sites within the minimal transcriptional regulatory region was demonstrated in HeLa R1–11 cells as compared to the parental PCFT-competent HeLa cells, using bisulfite conversion and sequence analysis. Treatment with 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine resulted in a substantial restoration of transport and PCFT mRNA expression and small, but significant decreases in methylation in the promoter region. In vitro methylation of the transfected reporter plasmid inhibited luciferase gene expression. Cytogenetics/FISH indicated a loss of half the PCFT gene copies in HeLa R1–11 as compared to PCFT-competent HeLa cells. Taken together, promoter silencing via methylation and gene copy loss accounted for the loss of PCFT activity in antifolate-resistant HeLa R1–11 cells.

Diop-Bove, Ndeye Khady; Wu, Julia; Zhao, Rongbao; Locker, Joseph; Goldman, I. David

2009-01-01

300

Regulation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase and the Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter in the renal epithelial cell line NBL-1 under osmotic stress.  

PubMed Central

The long-term adaptation of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase to hypertonicity was studied using the bovine renal epithelial cell line NBL-1. Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity measured in intact cells as the ouabain-sensitive fraction of Rb+ uptake was stimulated (40% above controls) after incubating the cells in hypertonic medium. This stimulation was not correlated with significant changes in the amount of Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit protein. Nevertheless, the amount of alpha 1 but not beta 1 subunit mRNA progressively increased after hypertonic shock (3-4-fold above basal values). These results suggest that the alpha 1 subunit gene is modulated by medium osmolarity, although this does not necessarily involve enhanced translation of the mRNA into active alpha 1 protein. Indeed, the increase in the biological activity of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase is abolished when the electrochemical Na+ transmembrane gradient is depleted by monensin, which is consistent with a post-translational effect on the activity of the sodium pump. A furosemide-sensitive component of Rb+ uptake, attributable to Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter activity, was very low when cells were cultured in a regular medium, but was greatly induced after hypertonic shock. This induction could not be blocked by cycloheximide. Colcemide addition slightly reduced the absolute increase in Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter activity, while cytochalasin B significantly potentiated the effect triggered by hypertonic shock. It is concluded: (i) that in NBL-1 cells the alpha 1 but not the beta 1 subunit of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase is encoded by an osmotically sensitive gene, and (ii) that the Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter, although an osmotically sensitive carrier, is induced by a mechanism that is independent of protein synthesis but may rely, in an undetermined manner, on the structure of the cytoskeletal network.

Ferrer-Martinez, A; Casado, F J; Felipe, A; Pastor-Anglada, M

1996-01-01

301

Defects and electronic transport in hydrogenated amorphous SiC films of interest for low dielectric constant back end of the line dielectric systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Back end of line dielectrics with low dielectric constants are needed for current and future integrated circuit technology. However, an understanding of the defects that cause leakage currents and limit reliability in these films is not yet developed. We utilize conventional electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR), and leakage current measurements, complimented by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Rutherford back scattering results, to investigate a-SiC:H dielectrics which have great potential use for back end of line dielectrics. We observe a strong correlation between conventional EPR defect density measurements and leakage currents. There is also a very strong correlation between hydrogen content and both leakage current and EPR defect density. The close correspondence between the EPR results and the leakage currents strongly indicates that the defects observed by EPR are largely responsible for the leakage currents and likely limit the dielectric reliability. Important reliability phenomena in these films are time-dependent dielectric breakdown and stress induced leakage current. Additionally, we have utilized EDMR via spin dependent trap assisted tunneling to investigate the direct link between defects observed in EPR and electrical transport.

Pomorski, T. A.; Bittel, B. C.; Cochrane, C. J.; Lenahan, P. M.; Bielefeld, J.; King, S. W.

2013-08-01

302

Transport properties of Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} meander lines  

SciTech Connect

The authors have measured the electrical transport properties of 10 cm long Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} thin film meander lines in magnetic fields up to 18T. The large resistance of the meander line effectively increased the electric field, or equivalently, resistivity sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. In moderate magnetic fields the critical current density is found to depend only on the component of the magnetic field normal to the ab planes owing to the highly anisotropic nature of the system. The resistivity versus temperature was measured as a function of magnetic field up to 18T. The linear resistivity is found to vanish in a manner consistent with the occurrence of a second order phase transition. The critical exponent v(z-1) is virtually field independent with a value 5.3 {+-}1 consistent with previous measurements of a three dimensional vortex glass transition in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The critical regime is 10-15K wide in agreement with values for Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} at high magnetic field.

Fleshler, S.; Maley, M.P.; Jia, Quanxi; Wu, Xin Di; Lacerda, A.

1995-12-31

303

Characterization of a pituitary-tumor-derived cell line, TtT/GF, that expresses Hoechst efflux ABC transporter subfamily G2 and stem cell antigen 1.  

PubMed

The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is composed of five types of endocrine cells and of non-endocrine folliculo-stellate cells that produce various local signaling molecules. The TtT/GF cell line is derived from pituitary tumors, produces no hormones and has folliculo-stellate cell-like characteristics. The biological function of TtT/GF cells remains elusive but several properties have been postulated (support of endocrine cells, control of cell proliferation, scavenger function). Recently, we observed that TtT/GF cells have high resistance to the antibiotic G418 and low influx for Hoechst 33342, indicating the presence of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that efflux multiple drugs, i.e., a property similar to that of stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, we examine TtT/GF cells for the presence of ABC transporters, for the efflux ability of Hoechst 33342 and for those genes characteristic of TtT/GF cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ABC transporters demonstrated that Abcb1a, Abcb1b and Abcg2, regarded as stem cell markers, were characteristically expressed in TtT/GF cells but not in Tpit/F1 and L?T2 cells. Furthermore, the remarkable low-efflux ability of Hoechst 33342 from TtT/GF cells was confirmed by using inhibitors and contrasted with the abilities of Tpit/F1 and L?T2 cells. The high and specific expression of stem cell antigen 1 (Sca1) in TtT/GF cells was confirmed by real-time PCR. We also demonstrated those genes that are expressed abundantly and characteristically in TtT/GF, suggesting that TtT/GF cells have unique characteristics similar to those of stem/progenitor cells of endothelial or mesenchymal origin. Thus, the present study has revealed an intriguing property of TtT/GF cells, providing a new clue for an understanding of the function of this cell line. PMID:23881407

Mitsuishi, Hideo; Kato, Takako; Chen, Mo; Cai, Li-Yi; Yako, Hideji; Higuchi, Masashi; Yoshida, Saishu; Kanno, Naoko; Ueharu, Hiroki; Kato, Yukio

2013-07-24

304

Wave-particle interaction in parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasmas along open field magnetic field lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tokamak fusion reactor dumps a large amount of heat and particle flux to the divertor through the scrape-off plasma (SOL). Situation exists either by necessity or through deliberate design that the SOL plasma attains long mean-free-path along large segments of the open field lines. The rapid parallel streaming of electrons requires a large parallel electric field to maintain ambipolarity. The confining effect of the parallel electric field on electrons leads to a trap/passing boundary in the velocity space for electrons. In the normal situation where the upstream electron source populates both the trapped and passing region, a mechanism must exist to produce a flux across the electron trap/passing boundary. In a short mean-free-path plasma, this is provided by collisions. For long mean-free-path plasmas, wave-particle interaction is the primary candidate for detrapping the electrons. Here we present simulation results and a theoretical analysis using a model distribution function of trapped electrons. The dominating electromagnetic plasma instability and the associated collisionless scattering, that produces both particle and energy fluxes across the electron trap/passing boundary in velocity space, are discussed.

Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xianzhu

2012-03-01

305

Proactive AP Selection Method Considering the Radio Interference Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the near future, wireless local area networks (WLANs) will overlap to provide continuous coverage over a wide area. In such ubiquitous WLANs, a mobile node (MN) moving freely between multiple access points (APs) requires not only permanent access to the Internet but also continuous communication quality during handover. In order to satisfy these requirements, an MN needs to (1) select an AP with better performance and (2) execute a handover seamlessly. To satisfy requirement (2), we proposed a seamless handover method in a previous study. Moreover, in order to achieve (1), the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is usually employed to measure wireless link quality in a WLAN system. However, in a real environment, especially if APs are densely situated, it is difficult to always select an AP with better performance based on only the RSSI. This is because the RSSI alone cannot detect the degradation of communication quality due to radio interference. Moreover, it is important that AP selection is completed only on an MN, because we can assume that, in ubiquitous WLANs, various organizations or operators will manage APs. Hence, we cannot modify the APs for AP selection. To overcome these difficulties, in the present paper, we propose and implement a proactive AP selection method considering wireless link condition based on the number of frame retransmissions in addition to the RSSI. In the evaluation, we show that the proposed AP selection method can appropriately select an AP with good wireless link quality, i.e., high RSSI and low radio interference.

Taenaka, Yuzo; Kashihara, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Oie, Yuji

306

Cloning and characterisation of hAps1 and hAps2, human diadenosine polyphosphate-metabolising Nudix hydrolases  

PubMed Central

Background The human genome contains at least 18 genes for Nudix hydrolase enzymes. Many have similar functions to one another. In order to understand their roles in cell physiology, these proteins must be characterised. Results We have characterised two novel human gene products, hAps1, encoded by the NUDT11 gene, and hAps2, encoded by the NUDT10 gene. These cytoplasmic proteins are members of the DIPP subfamily of Nudix hydrolases, and differ from each other by a single amino acid. Both metabolise diadenosine-polyphosphates and, weakly, diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. An apparent polymorphism of hAps1 has also been identified, which leads to the point mutation S39N. This has also been characterised. The favoured nucleotides were diadenosine 5',5"'-pentaphosphate (kcat/Km = 11, 8 and 16 × 103M-1s-1 respectively for hAps1, hAps1-39N and hAps2) and diadenosine 5',5"'-hexaphosphate (kcat/Km = 13, 14 and 11 × 103M-1s-1 respectively for hAps1, hAps1-39N and hAps2). Both hAps1 and hAps2 had pH optima of 8.5 and an absolute requirement for divalent cations, with manganese (II) being favoured. Magnesium was not able to activate the enzymes. Therefore, these enzymes could be acutely regulated by manganese fluxes within the cell. Conclusions Recent gene duplication has generated the two Nudix genes, NUDT11 and NUDT10. We have characterised their gene products as the closely related Nudix hydrolases, hAps1 and hAps2. These two gene products complement the activity of previously described members of the DIPP family, and reinforce the concept that Ap5A and Ap6A act as intracellular messengers.

Leslie, Nick R; McLennan, Alexander G; Safrany, Stephen T

2002-01-01

307

The complex interactions of Chs5p, the ChAPs, and the cargo Chs3p  

PubMed Central

The exomer complex is a putative vesicle coat required for the direct transport of a subset of cargoes from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane. Exomer comprises Chs5p and the ChAPs family of proteins (Chs6p, Bud7p, Bch1p, and Bch2p), which are believed to act as cargo receptors. In particular, Chs6p is required for the transport of the chitin synthase Chs3p to the bud neck. However, how the ChAPs associate with Chs5p and recognize cargo is not well understood. Using domain-switch chimeras of Chs6p and Bch2p, we show that four tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) are involved in interaction with Chs5p. Because these roles are conserved among the ChAPs, the TPRs are interchangeable among different ChAP proteins. In contrast, the N-terminal and the central parts of the ChAPs contribute to cargo specificity. Although the entire N-terminal domain of Chs6p is required for Chs3p export at all cell cycle stages, the central part seems to predominantly favor Chs3p export in small-budded cells. The cargo Chs3p probably also uses a complex motif for the interaction with Chs6, as the C-terminus of Chs3p interacts with Chs6p and is necessary, but not sufficient, for TGN export.

Rockenbauch, Uli; Ritz, Alicja M.; Sacristan, Carlos; Roncero, Cesar; Spang, Anne

2012-01-01

308

Design and assessment of the new APS dialyzer (APS-SA series)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dialyzer performance seems to greatly depend on the hollow-fiber membrane performance, the morphology of the hollow-fiber\\u000a membrane bundles (e.g., wave-shaped hollow-fiber membrane bundles), and the design of the dialyzer housing. Consequently,\\u000a we developed the APS dialyzer APS-SA series, equipped with wave-shaped hollow-fiber membrane bundles as an optimal three-dimensional\\u000a morphology along with new housings, to realize enhanced dialysis performance. Incorporation of

Makoto Fukuda; Miwa Miyazaki; Satoshi Uezumi; Makoto Yoshida

2006-01-01

309

RbAp48 is a critical mediator controlling the transforming activity of human papillomavirus type 16 in cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the primary cause of cervical cancer, the molecular mechanism by which HPV induces cervical cancer remains largely unclear. We used two-dimensional electrophoresis with mass spectrometry to study protein expression profiling between HPV16-positive cervical mucosa epithelial H8 cells and cervical cancer Caski cells to identify 18 differentially expressed proteins. Among them, retinoblastoma-binding protein 4 (RbAp48) was selected, and its differentiation expression was verified with both additional cervical cancer-derived cell lines and human tissues of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. Suppression of RbAp48 using small interfering RNA approach in H8 cells significantly stimulated cell proliferation and colony formation and inhibited senescence-like phenotype. Remarkably, H8 cells acquired transforming activity if RpAp48 was suppressed, because H8 cells stably transfected with RbAp48 small interfering RNA led to tumor formation in nude mice. In addition, overexpression of RbAp48 significantly inhibited cell growth and tumor formation. This RbAp48-mediated transformation of HPV16 is probably because of the regulation by RbAp48 of tumor suppressors retinoblastoma and p53, apoptosis-related enzymes caspase-3 and caspase-8, and oncogenic genes, including E6, E7, cyclin D1 (CCND1), and c-MYC. In brief, RbAp48, previously unknown in cervical carcinogenesis, was isolated in a global screen and identified as a critical mediator controlling the transforming activity of HPV16 in cervical cancer. PMID:17616526

Kong, Li; Yu, Xiu-Ping; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Fang; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Wei-Ming; Jia, Ji-Hui; Tang, Wei; Zhou, Ya-Bin; Liu, Chuan-ju

2007-07-06

310

Ozone mitigation tests at the APS  

SciTech Connect

Ozone is generated in the APS experimental stations whenever the x-ray beam has a chance to interact with air. Ozone concentrations in an experimental station have to be below a certain defined limit (current OSHA regulations specify 0.08 ppm as the maximum limit) before an experimenter can reenter the hutch. This limit is said to be currently under study for a downward adjustment. One method of depleting the ozone generated in an experimental station is mitigation through either adsorption or direct destruction. In recent tests, both methods were tried using commercially available units. Test results and some analytical predictions are presented.

Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Wang Zhibi

1996-09-01

311

Review of the APS SR RF systems.  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV full energy storage ring (SR) for generating synchrotron radiation with an injector. The storage ring cavities consist of four groups of four single cells powered by up to four 1-MW klystrons for up to 300-mA operation. A review of the operation of the rf system as well as rf-related beam dynamics is presented. This review includes rf power distribution, low-level feedback, control law, beam loading, beam instabilities, higher-order modes, and beam-induced multipactoring.

Song, J.J.; Cours, A.; Grelick, A.; Harkay, K.; Horan, D.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Nassiri, A.; Pile, G.; Smith, T.L.

1998-03-31

312

Status of the advanced photon source low-energy undulator test line  

SciTech Connect

The low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) is being constructed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Its first purpose is to fully characterize innovative, future generation undulators, some of which may prove difficult or impossible to measure by traditional techniques. Second, LEUTL will act as a test line to investigate the generation of coherent radiation at wavelengths down to a few tens of nanometers. The line will use a high-brightness rf electron gun as its source and the APS linac to accelerate these electrons up to >650 MeV. This beam will then be directed into a new enclosure that is nearly 50 m long and will accommodate beamline components, diagnostics, and undulators. This region is wide enough to house two separate beamlines. In addition, there is an external end station appropriate for housing the equipment necessary to directly study the generated light outside of the radiation environment. At present, the new enclosure and building are complete, the new rf electron gun is installed and operational, and a part of the necessary transport line is installed. An undulator cell prototype, suitable for testing the requirements of single-pass free-electron laser operation, is near completion and will be installed during the winter shutdown of 1997. This paper will describe the LEUTL project and its capability for exploring the self-amplified spontaneous emission process.

Milton, S.V.; Gluskin, E.; Arnold, N.D.; Berg, S.; Dejus, R.J. [and others

1997-11-01

313

Radial velocity variations in pulsating Ap stars. V. 10 Aquilae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used precise stellar radial velocities to study the pulsational motion of the rapidly oscillating Ap star 10 Aql. Observations were made on three separate nights using the high resolution spectrograph of the Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. A high radial velocity precision was achieved by using an iodine gas absorption cell. The integrated radial velocity measurements using the full wavelength region covered by iodine absorption lines (5000-6300 Å) failed to detect any coherent pulsational velocity variations to a level of 2.5-5 m s-1. An analysis over a much narrower wavelength range revealed that pulsational radial velocity variations are indeed present in 10 Aql, but only in 5 spectral lines. The amplitude of these variations ranged from about 100 m s-1 to as high as 398 m s-1 for an unidentified feature at ?5471.40 Å. Other spectral features showing pulsational radial velocity variations are tentatively identified as Sm II and Tm II. Based on observations collected at McDonald Observatory.

Hatzes, A. P.; Mkrtichian, D. E.

2005-01-01

314

Electrophysiological studies of forskolin-induced changes in ion transport in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29 cl.19A: Lack of evidence for a cAMP-activated basolateral K + conductance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Forskolin (i.e, cAMP)-modulation of ion transport pathways in filter-grown monolayers of the Cl?-secreting subclone (19A) of the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29 was studied by combined Ussing chamber and microimpalement experiments.

R. B. Bajnath; C. Augeron; C. L. Laboisse; J. Bijman; H. R. de Jonge; J. A. Groot

1991-01-01

315

Transcription factor AP-2alpha triggers apoptosis in cardiac myocytes.  

PubMed

Idiopathic-dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) is a common primary myocardial disease of unknown etiology associated with apoptosis, cardiac dilatation, progressive heart failure and increased mortality. An elevation of the transcription factor activator protein 2alpha (AP-2alpha) is involved in vertebrate embryonic development and oncogenesis. Here, we show that AP-2alpha protein is expressed in the human heart and increased in human failing myocardium with IDC. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of human AP-2alpha triggered apoptosis and increased mRNA levels of Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bcl-x in rat cardiomyocytes. Immunohistological analysis of human myocardium revealed an increased percentage of AP-2alpha-positive nuclei in IDC and, interestingly, a colocalization of AP-2alpha-positive but not -negative cells with a caspase-cleaved fragment of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase. We suggest AP-2alpha as a novel cardiac regulator implicated in the activation of apoptosis in IDC. PMID:14752511

Müller, F U; Loser, K; Kleideiter, U; Neumann, J; von Wallbrunn, C; Dobner, T; Scheld, H-H; Bantel, H; Engels, I H; Schulze-Osthoff, K; Schmitz, W

2004-05-01

316

The APS control system network upgrade.  

SciTech Connect

When it was installed,the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system network was at the state-of-the-art. Different aspects of the system have been reported at previous meetings [1,2]. As loads on the controls network have increased due to newer and faster workstations and front-end computers, we have found performance of the system declining and have implemented an upgraded network. There have been dramatic advances in networking hardware in the last several years. The upgraded APS controls network replaces the original FDDI backbone and shared Ethernet hubs with redundant gigabit uplinks and fully switched 10/100 Ethernet switches with backplane fabrics in excess of 20 Gbits/s (Gbps). The central collapsed backbone FDDI concentrator has been replaced with a Gigabit Ethernet switch with greater than 30 Gbps backplane fabric. Full redundancy of the system has been maintained. This paper will discuss this upgrade and include performance data and performance comparisons with the original network.

Sidorowicz, K. v.; Leibfritz, D.; McDowell, W. P.

1999-10-22

317

APS Insertion Devices: Recent Developments and Results.  

PubMed

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) now has a total of 23 insertion devices (IDs). Over two-thirds of them are installed on the storage ring. The installed devices include 18, 27 and 55 mm-period undulators; an 85 mm-period wiggler; a 16 cm-period elliptical multipole wiggler; and many 33 mm-period undulators. Most of the IDs occupy storage-ring straight sections equipped with 8 mm vertical-aperture vacuum chambers. All of the IDs were measured magnetically at the APS and, in most cases, underwent a final magnetic tuning in order to minimize variation in the various integrals of the field through the ID over the full gap range. Special shimming techniques to correct magnetic field parameters in appropriate gap-dependent ways were developed and applied. Measurements of the closed-orbit distortion as a function of the ID gap variation have been completed, and results are in a good agreement with magnetic measurements. Spectral diagnostics of the ID radiation, including measurements of the absolute spectral flux, brilliance and polarization, show excellent agreement between calculated and measured results. Studies of the sensitivity of IDs to radiation exposure and measurements of the dose rate received by the IDs are in progress. PMID:15263477

Gluskin, E

1998-05-01

318

The discovery of a new type of upper atmospheric variability in the rapidly oscillating Ap stars with VLT high-resolution spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a high-resolution spectroscopic survey of rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory, we find that almost all stars show significant variation of the radial velocity amplitudes - on a time-scale of a few pulsation cycles - for lines of the rare earth ion PrIII

D. W. Kurtz; V. G. Elkin; G. Mathys

2006-01-01

319

Answers and Questions from the KvAP Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent landmark structures of KvAP, a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel, provide the first high-resolution experimental structural models of this class of proteins. Previous extensive studies of Kv channels provide a means to evaluate and interpret the KvAP structures. In this minireview, we survey different experimental approaches to Kv channels and map these findings to KvAP, showing that the relationship

Bruce E Cohen; Michael Grabe; Lily Yeh Jan

2003-01-01

320

Tank 241-AP-108 grab sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) will identify characterization objectives for sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for tank 241-AP-108 (AP 108). It is written in accordance with the Tank 241-AP-108 Tank Characterization Plan, the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective, the 242-A Evaporator Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Data Quality Objectives, and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program.

Baldwin, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-07

321

Tank 241AP108 grab sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) will identify characterization objectives for sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for tank 241-AP-108 (AP 108). It is written in accordance with the Tank 241-AP-108 Tank Characterization Plan, the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective, the 242-A Evaporator Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Data Quality Objectives, and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank

Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-01-01

322

Roles of AP2 in Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe notion that AP-2 clathrin adaptor is an essential component of an endocytic clathrin coat appears to conflict with recent observations that substantial AP-2 depletion, using RNA interference with synthesis of AP-2 subunits, fails to block uptake of certain ligands known to internalize through a clathrin-based pathway.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe report here the use of in vivo imaging data obtained by spinning-disk

Emmanuel Boucrot; Saveez Saffarian; Rongying Zhang; Tomas Kirchhausen; Richard Steinhardt

2010-01-01

323

NF-?B inhibition significantly upregulates the norepinephrine transporter system, causes apoptosis in pheochromocytoma cell lines and prevents metastasis in an animal model.  

PubMed

Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are specific types of neuroendocrine tumors that originate in the adrenal medulla or sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Although these tumors are intensively studied, a very effective treatment for metastatic PHEO or PGL has not yet been established. Preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for these tumors are very much required. Therefore, in this study we tested the effect of triptolide (TTL), a potent nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) inhibitor, on the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter (NET) system, considered to be the gatekeeper for the radiotherapeutic agent 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). We measured changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NET and correlated them with proapoptotic factors and metastasis inhibition. The study was performed on three different stable PHEO cell lines. We found that blocking NF-?B with TTL or capsaicin increased both NET mRNA and protein levels. Involvement of NF-?B in the upregulation of NET was verified by mRNA silencing of this site and also by using NF-?B antipeptide. Moreover, in vivo treatment with TTL significantly reduced metastatic burden in an animal model of metastatic PHEO. The present study for the first time shows how NF-?B inhibitors could be successfully used in the treatment of metastatic PHEO/PGL by a significant upregulation of NET to increase the efficacy of 131I-MIBG and by the induction of apoptosis. PMID:22407736

Pacak, Karel; Sirova, Marta; Giubellino, Alessio; Lencesova, Lubomira; Csaderova, Lucia; Laukova, Marcela; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

2012-08-20

324

AP endonuclease independent repair of abasic sites in Schizosaccharomyces pombe  

PubMed Central

Abasic (AP) sites are formed spontaneously and are inevitably intermediates during base excision repair of DNA base damages. AP sites are both mutagenic and cytotoxic and key enzymes for their removal are AP endonucleases. However, AP endonuclease independent repair initiated by DNA glycosylases performing ?,?-elimination cleavage of the AP sites has been described in mammalian cells. Here, we describe another AP endonuclease independent repair pathway for removal of AP sites in Schizosaccharomyces pombe that is initiated by a bifunctional DNA glycosylase, Nth1 and followed by cleavage of the baseless sugar residue by tyrosyl phosphodiesterase Tdp1. We propose that repair is completed by the action of a polynucleotide kinase, a DNA polymerase and finally a DNA ligase to seal the gap. A fission yeast double mutant of the major AP endonuclease Apn2 and Tdp1 shows synergistic increase in MMS sensitivity, substantiating that Apn2 and Tdp1 process the same substrate. These results add new knowledge to the complex cellular response to AP sites, which could be exploited in chemotherapy where synthetic lethality is a key strategy of treatment.

Nilsen, Line; Forstr?m, Rune J.; Bj?ras, Magnar; Alseth, Ingrun

2012-01-01

325

Synaptic vesicle recycling at CNS synapses without AP-2  

PubMed Central

Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are composed of ~10 types of transmembrane proteins that must be recycled following exocytosis of neurotransmitter. The mechanisms for resorting these proteins into synaptic vesicles once incorporated into the plasma membrane following exocytosis are poorly understood. The adaptor complex AP-2 is the major clathrin-associated adaptor for cargo recognition at the plasma membrane. Here we have investigated its role in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. shRNA-mediated knockdown of the AP-2 complex results in a ~96% reduction of this protein complex in primary neurons. We used simultaneous expression of shRNA and pHluorin-tagged vesicle components to show that the absence of AP-2 significantly slows, but does not prevent the endocytosis of 4 of the major synaptic vesicle transmembrane proteins. We show that in the absence of AP-2, the AP-1 adaptor complex appears to functionally substitute for AP-2, but results in complex internalization kinetics that are now sensitive to the ARF-GEF inhibitor Brefeldin-A. Simultaneous removal of both AP-2 and AP-1 prevents this compensatory substitution and results in slowed but functional endocytosis. These results demonstrate that in the absence of AP-2 SV proteins still become endocytosed and synaptic vesicle recycling remains operational.

Kim, Sung Hyun; Ryan, Timothy. A.

2009-01-01

326

Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

RIECK, C.A.

1999-02-25

327

Mutagenesis of cysteine 81 prevents dimerization of the APS1 subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and alters diurnal starch turnover in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.  

PubMed

Many plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, retain a substantial portion of their photosynthate in leaves in the form of starch, which is remobilized to support metabolism and growth at night. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyses the first committed step in the pathway of starch synthesis, the production of ADP-glucose. The enzyme is redox-activated in the light and in response to sucrose accumulation, via reversible breakage of an intermolecular cysteine bridge between the two small (APS1) subunits. The biological function of this regulatory mechanism was investigated by complementing an aps1 null mutant (adg1) with a series of constructs containing a full-length APS1 gene encoding either the wild-type APS1 protein or mutated forms in which one of the five cysteine residues was replaced by serine. Substitution of Cys81 by serine prevented APS1 dimerization, whereas mutation of the other cysteines had no effect. Thus, Cys81 is both necessary and sufficient for dimerization of APS1. Compared to control plants, the adg1/APS1(C81S) lines had higher levels of ADP-glucose and maltose, and either increased rates of starch synthesis or a starch-excess phenotype, depending on the daylength. APS1 protein levels were five- to tenfold lower in adg1/APS1(C81S) lines than in control plants. These results show that redox modulation of AGPase contributes to the diurnal regulation of starch turnover, with inappropriate regulation of the enzyme having an unexpected impact on starch breakdown, and that Cys81 may play an important role in the regulation of AGPase turnover. PMID:22098298

Hädrich, Nadja; Hendriks, Janneke H M; Kötting, Oliver; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Feil, Regina; Zeeman, Samuel C; Gibon, Yves; Schulze, Waltraud X; Stitt, Mark; Lunn, John E

2011-12-28

328

Accumulation of True Single Strand Breaks and AP sites in Base Excision Repair Deficient Cells  

PubMed Central

Single strand breaks (SSBs) are one of the most frequent DNA lesions caused by endogenous and exogenous agents. The most utilized alkaline-based assays for SSB detection frequently give false positive results due to the presence of alkali-labile sites that are converted to SSBs. Methoxyamine, an acidic O-hydroxylamine, has been utilized to measure DNA damage in cells. However, the neutralization of methoxyamine is required prior to usage. Here we developed a convenient, specific SSB assay using alkaline gel electrophoresis (AGE) coupled with a neutral O-hydroxylamine, O-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)hydroxylamine (OTX). OTX stabilizes abasic sites (AP sites) to prevent their alkaline incision while still allowing for strong alkaline DNA denaturation. DNA from DT40 and isogenic polymerase ? null cells exposed to methyl methanesulfonate were applied to the OTX-coupled AGE (OTX-AGE) assay. Time-dependent increases in SSBs were detected in each cell line with more extensive SSB formation in the null cells. These findings were supported by an assay that indirectly detects SSBs through measuring NAD(P)H depletion. An ARP-slot blot assay demonstrated a significant time-dependent increase in AP sites in both cell lines by 1 mM MMS compared to control. Furthermore, the Pol ?-null cells displayed greater AP site formation than the parental DT40 cells. OTX use represents a facile approach for assessing SSB formation, whose benefits can also be applied to other established SSB assays.

Luke, April M.; Chastain, Paul D.; Pachkowski, Brian F.; Afonin, Valeriy; Takeda, Shunichi; Kaufman, David G.; Swenberg, James A.; Nakamura, Jun

2010-01-01

329

Antibody to AP1B Adaptor Blocks Biosynthetic and Recycling Routes of Basolateral Proteins at Recycling Endosomes  

PubMed Central

The epithelial-specific adaptor AP1B sorts basolateral plasma membrane (PM) proteins in both biosynthetic and recycling routes, but the site where it carries out this function remains incompletely defined. Here, we have investigated this topic in Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) epithelial cells using an antibody against the medium subunit ?1B. This antibody was suitable for immunofluorescence and blocked the function of AP1B in these cells. The antibody blocked the basolateral recycling of two basolateral PM markers, Transferrin receptor (TfR) and LDL receptor (LDLR), in a perinuclear compartment with marker and functional characteristics of recycling endosomes (RE). Live imaging experiments demonstrated that in the presence of the antibody two newly synthesized GFP-tagged basolateral proteins (vesicular stomatitis virus G [VSVG] protein and TfR) exited the trans-Golgi network (TGN) normally but became blocked at the RE within 3–5 min. By contrast, the antibody did not block trafficking of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LDLR from the TGN to the PM but stopped its recycling after internalization into RE in ?45 min. Our experiments conclusively demonstrate that 1) AP1B functions exclusively at RE; 2) TGN-to-RE transport is very fast and selective and is mediated by adaptors different from AP1B; and 3) the TGN and AP1B-containing RE cooperate in biosynthetic basolateral sorting.

Cancino, Jorge; Torrealba, Carolina; Soza, Andrea; Yuseff, Maria Isabel; Gravotta, Diego; Henklein, Peter; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

2007-01-01

330

Structural basis of the intracellular sorting of the SNARE VAMP7 by the AP3 adaptor complex.  

PubMed

VAMP7 is involved in the fusion of late endocytic compartments with other membranes. One possible mechanism of VAMP7 delivery to these late compartments is via the AP3 trafficking adaptor. We show that the linker of the ?-adaptin subunit of AP3 binds the VAMP7 longin domain and determines the structure of their complex. Mutation of residues on both partners abolishes the interaction in vitro and in vivo. The binding of VAMP7 to ?-adaptin requires the VAMP7 SNARE motif to be engaged in SNARE complex formation and hence AP3 must transport VAMP7 when VAMP7 is part of a cis-SNARE complex. The absence of ?-adaptin causes destabilization of the AP3 complex in mouse mocha fibroblasts and mislocalization of VAMP7. The mislocalization can be rescued by transfection with wild-type ?-adaptin but not by ?-adaptin containing mutations that abolish VAMP7 binding, despite in all cases intact AP3 being present and LAMP1 trafficking being rescued. PMID:22521722

Kent, Helen M; Evans, Philip R; Schäfer, Ingmar B; Gray, Sally R; Sanderson, Christopher M; Luzio, J Paul; Peden, Andrew A; Owen, David J

2012-04-19

331

Structural Basis of the Intracellular Sorting of the SNARE VAMP7 by the AP3 Adaptor Complex  

PubMed Central

Summary VAMP7 is involved in the fusion of late endocytic compartments with other membranes. One possible mechanism of VAMP7 delivery to these late compartments is via the AP3 trafficking adaptor. We show that the linker of the ?-adaptin subunit of AP3 binds the VAMP7 longin domain and determines the structure of their complex. Mutation of residues on both partners abolishes the interaction in vitro and in vivo. The binding of VAMP7 to ?-adaptin requires the VAMP7 SNARE motif to be engaged in SNARE complex formation and hence AP3 must transport VAMP7 when VAMP7 is part of a cis-SNARE complex. The absence of ?-adaptin causes destabilization of the AP3 complex in mouse mocha fibroblasts and mislocalization of VAMP7. The mislocalization can be rescued by transfection with wild-type ?-adaptin but not by ?-adaptin containing mutations that abolish VAMP7 binding, despite in all cases intact AP3 being present and LAMP1 trafficking being rescued.

Kent, Helen M.; Evans, Philip R.; Schafer, Ingmar B.; Gray, Sally R.; Sanderson, Christopher M.; Luzio, J. Paul; Peden, Andrew A.; Owen, David J.

2012-01-01

332

Beam loading effects in the APS booster  

SciTech Connect

Beam loading of the radio-frequency (rf) accelerating cavities is an important consideration in the design and operation of high-current circular particle accelerators and storage rings. The steady-state and transient perturbations of the rf cavity system by the circulating beam can be harmful to the beam and limit the accelerator performance. Transient beam loading effects have been observed soon after injection of the beam into the booster synchrotron of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Data are presented quantifying the responses of both the beam and the rf cavities to beam loading under various conditions. A preliminary discussion addresses the compensation of these beam loading effects. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Harkay, K.; Lumpkin, A.; Milton, S.; Nassiri, A.; Song, J.; Yang, B.

1996-06-01

333

Tank 241-AP-102 Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan  

SciTech Connect

This tank sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the head space of tank 241-AP-102. Sampling will be performed in accordance with ''Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis'' (Air DQO) (Mulkey 1999). The sample results will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications. Samples taken in support of the DQO will consist of SUMMA{trademark} canisters, triple sorbent traps (TSTs), sorbent tube trains (STTs), polyurethane foam (PUF) samples, and particulate filters. Particulate filter samples and tritium traps will be taken for radiation screening to allow the release of the samples for analysis and for analysis of specific radionuclides. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from the vapor samples.

TEMPLETON, A.M.

2001-01-24

334

Action of a mammalian AP-endonuclease on DNAs of defined sequences.  

PubMed Central

An apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) specific endonuclease from mouse plasmacytoma cells (line MPC-11), was observed to cleave apurinic sites in oligonucleotides 9, 11, 12, 39 and 40 nucleotides in length. However, the enzyme failed to cleave AP-sites in two oligonucleotides 7 nucleotides in length. The maximum rates of digestion observed on these short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fragments were approximately 1/30 of the rates observed on double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). In studies using the Maxam-Gilbert DNA sequencing analysis, apurinic sites in purine-rich regions were preferentially cleaved in dsDNA but not in ssDNA, indicating that the enzyme has a sequence preference on dsDNA. These results suggest that some sites on DNA might be more efficiently repaired than others. Images

Haukanes, B I; Helland, D E; Kleppe, K

1989-01-01

335

Catalytic Steam Reforming of Gasifier Tars: On-Line Monitoring of Tars with a Transportable Molecular-Beam Mass Spectrometer; Milestone Completion Report  

SciTech Connect

A method for evaluating catalytic tar decomposition in real time is presented. The effectiveness of two catalysts are compared. A key technical and economic barrier to commercialization of biomass gasification technologies is the removal of tars that are unavoidably formed in this thermochemical process. Tars contain fuel value; however, they are problematic in gas engines (both reciprocating and turbine) because they condense in the fuel delivery system, forming deposits that negatively affect operation and efficiency. These tars also combust with high luminosity, potentially forming soot particles. The conventional technology for tar removal is wet scrubbing. Although this approach has shown some success, there are significant equipment and operating costs associated with it. In order to prevent the generation of toxic wastewater, the tars must be separated and either disposed as hazardous waste or, preferably, combusted in the gasification plant. A conceptually better approach is catalytic steam reforming of the tars to hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO), effectively increasing the gasification efficiency and eliminating the problems mentioned above. In FY2000, Battelle Columbus Laboratories attempted to demonstrate integrated gasification-gas turbine operation using catalytic steam reforming of tars. NREL participated in those tests using the transportable molecular-beam mass spectrometer (TMBMS) to monitor the catalytic reactor's performance on-line [10]. Unfortunately, the pilot plant tests encountered operational problems that prevented conclusive determination of the efficacy of the selected catalyst (Battelle's DN34). In FY2001, NREL performed on-site tar steam reforming tests using a slip-stream of hot pyrolysis gas from the Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU), which was directed to a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor system designed expressly for this purpose. Supporting this effort, the TMBMS was employed to provide on-line analysis of the tar conversion. The gas composition changes were monitored by two identical gas chromatographs (GCs), and modified method 5 sampling was performed to obtain gravimetric conversion data. The combination of these analytical techniques provided definitive catalyst performance data, as well as linkage to previous and on-going work elsewhere. Two catalysts were tested: nickel (Ni) on potassium promoted alumina (Sued-Chemie C11-NK), used commercially for naphtha steam reforming, and alumina (Battelle's DN34) claimed to be effective for gasifier tar decomposition. In addition, sand was tested as an inert reference material.

Carpenter, D.; Ratcliff, M.; Dayton, D.

2002-05-01

336

Prevention of aspiration pneumonia (AP) with oral care  

Microsoft Academic Search

AP is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients, especially frail elderly patients. The aim of this article is to review effect of oral care, including oral hygiene and improvement of oral function, on the prevention of AP among elderly people in hospitals and nursing homes. There is now a substantial body of work studying the effect

Akio Tada; Hiroko Miura

337

Predictive Validity Study of the APS Reading Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In July 1994, College of the Canyons (COC) in California conducted several predictive validity studies of the College Board Assessment and Placement Services (APS) Reading Test. COC began using the 35-question objective format test in spring 1993. Fall 1993 test scores were used in determining the ability of the APS Reading Test to predict student…

College of the Canyons, Santa Clarita, CA.

338

Performance of Project Advance Students on the AP Biology Examination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared performance of Project Advance biology students (N=60) with Advanced Placement (AP) candidates (N=15,947) nationally on College Entrance Examination Board AP biology test. The research, conducted to determine comparability of the program as valid measures of academic achievement, determined that Project Advance students scored above the…

Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

1984-01-01

339

The APS SASE FEL : modeling and code comparison.  

SciTech Connect

A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

Biedron, S. G.

1999-04-20

340

APS for tactical planning in a steel processing company  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The main purpose is to describe and analyse the impact that the implementation of an advanced planning system (APS) has on the tactical planning level at a steel processing company. This is done in terms of analysing changes in the tactical planning processes, effects on company performance, and how the APS is used in a practical planning context.

Martin Rudberg; Ola Cederborg

2011-01-01

341

Tank 241AP104 Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AP-104. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AP-104 required to provide sample material to the Waste Treatment Contractor. Grab samples will be obtained from riser

2000-01-01

342

Development of a superconducting undulator for the APS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the western hemisphere's premier x-ray synchrotron radiation source, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) continues to advance the state of the art in insertion device technology in order to maintain record high brightness, especially in the hard x-ray wavelength region. Due to the unique bunch pattern used for normal APS operations and its ultimate capabilities, the APS has chosen superconducting technology for its future hard x-ray undulator sources. In the last several years, the APS in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics has being developing the technology for planar, small-period superconducting undulators (SCUs). These developments include the design and construction of several prototypes and the construction of the necessary mechanical, vacuum, and cryogenic infrastructure at the APS site. Several prototypes of the SCU magnetic structure have been built and tested. The first SCU is assembled and will be installed in the APS storage ring at the end of 2012. Expected SCU performance in terms of x-ray brightness should noticeably exceed that of existing APS undulators. Immediately after commissioning, the SCU will be used at APS Sector 6 as the radiation source for high-energy x-ray studies.

Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Abliz, M.; Doose, C.; Fuerst, J.; Hasse, Q.; Kasa, M.; Lev, V.; Mezentsev, N.; Syrovatin, V.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Tsukanov, V.; Vasserman, I.; Gluskin, E.

2013-03-01

343

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - RUBBER PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING  

EPA Science Inventory

This project develops emission factors, etc., for the rubber products industry which are appended to AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness information. As res...

344

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - PAVED AND UNPAVED ROAD DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

This project develops emission factors, etc., for paved and unpaved roads which are incorporated into AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness information. As re...

345

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - LANDFILLS (COMBUSTION CONTROLS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This project develops emission factors, etc., for landfills, in particular for combustion devices fed by landfill gas, for incorporation into AP-42. AP-42 is a massive collection of information concerning processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and co...

346

Design and assessment of the new APS dialyzer (APS-SA series).  

PubMed

Dialyzer performance seems to greatly depend on the hollow-fiber membrane performance, the morphology of the hollow-fiber membrane bundles (e.g., wave-shaped hollow-fiber membrane bundles), and the design of the dialyzer housing. Consequently, we developed the APS dialyzer APS-SA series, equipped with wave-shaped hollow-fiber membrane bundles as an optimal three-dimensional morphology along with new housings, to realize enhanced dialysis performance. Incorporation of a new type of housing, including a full baffle structure and a short taper section, and a new type of morphology for the hollow-fiber membrane bundles have been verified to allow the dialysate to diffuse uniformly along the full baffle panel around the circumference and to fully permeate into the core of the hollow-fiber bundle. As a result, the APS-SA series has been proved to have achieved enhanced diffusion performance and increased clearance of small molecule solutes such as urea and creatinine, compared with conventional dialyzers. This series is expected to provide increased Kt/V values and dialysate-saving performance in future clinical use. PMID:16998705

Fukuda, Makoto; Miyazaki, Miwa; Uezumi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Makoto

2006-01-01

347

Association analysis between schizophrenia and the AP-3 complex genes.  

PubMed

A susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, dysbindin, is a component of BLOC-1, which interacts with the adaptor protein (AP)-3 complex. As a direct interaction between dysbindin and AP-3 complex was reported, we examined a possible association between 16 SNPs in the AP3 complex genes and schizophrenia using 432 cases and 656 controls. Nominal association between rs6688 in the AP3M1 gene and schizophrenia (chi(2)=6.33, P=0.012, odds ratio=0.80) was no longer positive after correction for multiple testing (corrected P=0.192). The present results suggest that AP3 complex genes might not play a major role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia in this population. PMID:19481122

Hashimoto, Ryota; Ohi, Kazutaka; Okada, Takeya; Yasuda, Yuka; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Hori, Hiroaki; Hikita, Takao; Taya, Shinichiro; Saitoh, Osamu; Kosuga, Asako; Tatsumi, Masahiko; Kamijima, Kunitoshi; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Takeda, Masatoshi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

2009-05-27

348

The development of beam current monitors in the APS  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source. The precision measurement of beam current is a challenging task in high energy accelerators, such as the APS, with a wide range of beam parameters and complicated noise, radiation, and thermal environments. The beam pulses in the APS injector and storage ring have charge ranging from 50pC to 25nC with pulse durations varying from 30ps to 30ns. A total of nine non- intercepting beam current monitors have been installed in the APS facility (excluding those in the linac) for general current measurement. In addition, several independent current monitors with specially designed redundant interlock electronics are installed for personnel safety and machine protection. This paper documents the design and development of current monitors in the APS,. discusses the commissioning experience in the past year, and presents the results of recent operations.

Wang, X.; Lenkszus, F.; Rotela, E.

1995-07-01

349

On-Line Recognition of Handwritten Whiteboard Notes: A Novel Approach for Script Line Identication And Normalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we use a previously published ap- proach for script line identication of handwritten whiteboard notes in order to perform skew correction and size normalization of the script trajectory. Arbi- trary assignments of sample points to certain script lines are hypothesized and described in a trellis. The normalization is performed by equalizing the script lines and warping the

Joachim Schenk; Johannes Lenz; Gerhard Rigoll

350

Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP) and an 0-AP/HTPB-Based Propellant  

SciTech Connect

A study to characterize the low-temperature reactive processes for o-AP and an AP/HTPB-based propellant (class 1.3) is being conducted in the laboratory using the techniques of simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results presented in this paper are a follow up of the previous work that showed the overall decomposition to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The decomposition is characterized by the occurrence of one major event that consumes up to {approx}35% of the AP, depending upon particle size, and leaves behind a porous agglomerate of AP. The major gaseous products released during this event include H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl. The recent efforts provide further insight into the decomposition processes for o-AP. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates (GFRs) for the products indicate that the major decomposition event consists of three chemical channels. The first and third channels are affected by the pressure in the reaction cell and occur at the surface or in the gas phase above the surface of the AP particles. The second channel is not affected by pressure and accounts for the solid-phase reactions characteristic of o-AP. The third channel involves the interactions of the decomposition products with the surface of the AP. SEM images of partially decomposed o-AP provide insight to how the morphology changes as the decomposition progresses. A conceptual model has been developed, based upon the STMBMS and SEM results, that provides a basic description of the processes. The thermal decomposition characteristics of the propellant are evaluated from the identities of the products and the temporal behaviors of their GFRs. First, the volatile components in the propellant evolve from the propellant as it is heated. Second, the hot AP (and HClO{sub 4}) at the AP-binder interface oxidize the binder through reactions that preferentially strip the hydrogen from the binder and yield HCl and H{sub 2}O with some oxidation of the carbon from the binder. Third, the o-AP in the propellant decomposes in the same manner as in neat o-AP. Finally, AP-derived gaseous products interact with other ingredients in the propellant.

BEHRENS JR.,RICHARD; MINIER,LEANNA M.G.

1999-10-25

351

APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - Monitoring System Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), along with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Pubic Service (APS), is monitoring the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant to determine the costs to produce hydrogen fuels (including 100% hydrogen as well as hydrogen and compressed natural gas blends) for use by fleets and other operators of advanced-technology vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cost data will be used as benchmark data by technology modelers as well as research and development programs. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 18 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen per day by electrolysis. It can store up to 155 kg of hydrogen at various pressures up to 6,000 psi. The dispenser island can fuel vehicles with 100% hydrogen at 5,000 psi and with blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas at 3,600 psi. The monitoring system was designed to track hydrogen delivery to each of the three storage areas and to monitor the use of electricity on all major equipment in the Pilot Plant, including the fuel dispenser island. In addition, water used for the electrolysis process is monitored to allow calculation of the total cost of plant operations and plant efficiencies. The monitoring system at the Pilot Plant will include about 100 sensors when complete (50 are installed to date), allowing for analysis of component, subsystems, and plant-level costs. The monitoring software is mostly off-the-shelve, with a custom interface. The majority of the sensors input to the Programmable Automation Controller as 4- to 20-mA analog signals. The plant can be monitored over of the Internet, but the control functions are restricted to the control room equipment. Using the APS general service plan E32 electric rate of 2.105 cents per kWh, during a recent eight-month period when 1,200 kg of hydrogen was produced and the plant capacity factor was 26%, the electricity cost to produce one kg of hydrogen was $3.43. However, the plant capacity factor has been increasing, with a recent one-month high of 49%. If a plant capacity factor of 70% can be achieved with the present equipment, the cost of electricity would drop to $2.39 per kg of hydrogen. In this report, the power conversion (76.7%), cell stack (53.1%), and reverse osmosis system (7.14%) efficiencies are also calculated, as is the water cost per kg of hydrogen produced ($0.10 per kg). The monitoring system has identified several areas having the potential to lower costs, including using an reverse osmosis system with a higher efficiency, improving the electrolysis power conversion efficiency, and using air cooling to replace some or all chiller cooling. These activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory for the AVTA, which is part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

James Francfort; Dimitri Hochard

2005-07-01

352

A miR-200b/200c/429-Binding Site Polymorphism in the 3? Untranslated Region of the AP-2? Gene Is Associated with Cisplatin Resistance  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor AP-2? functions as a tumor suppressor by regulating various genes that are involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Chemotherapeutic drugs including cisplatin induce post-transcriptionally endogenous AP-2?, which contributes to chemosensitivity by enhancing therapy-induced apoptosis. microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-200b, miR-200c and miR-429 (miR-200b/200c/429) are up-regulated in endometrial and esophageal cancers, and their overexpression correlates with resistance to cisplatin treatment. Using computational programs, we predicted that the 3? untranslated region (UTR) of AP-2? gene contains a potential miRNA response element (MRE) for the miR-200b/200c/429 family, and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site rs1045385 (A or C allele) resided within the predicted MRE. Luciferase assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the miR-200b/200c/429 family recognized the MRE in the 3? UTR of AP-2? gene and negatively regulated the expression of endogenous AP-2? proteins. SNP rs1045385 A>C variation enhanced AP-2? expression by disrupting the binding of the miR-200b/200c/429 family to the 3? UTR of AP-2?. The effects of the two polymorphic variants on cisplatin sensitivity were determined by clonogenic assay. The overexpression of AP-2? with mutant 3? UTR (C allele) in the endometrial cancer cell line HEC-1A, which has high levels of endogenous miR-200b/200c/429 and low levels of AP-2? protein, significantly increased cisplatin sensitivity, but overexpression of A allele of AP-2? has no significant effects, compared with mock transfection. We concluded that miR-200b/200c/429 induced cisplatin resistance by repressing AP-2? expression in endometrial cancer cells. The SNP (rs1045385) A>C variation decreased the binding of miR-200b/200c/429 to the 3? UTR of AP-2?, which upregulated AP-2? protein expression and increased cisplatin sensitivity. Our results suggest that SNP (rs1045385) may be a potential prognostic marker for cisplatin treatment.

Zhuo, Yiming; Ren, Peng; Zhou, Chang; Zhou, Jianlin

2011-01-01

353

A miR-200b/200c/429-binding site polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the AP-2? gene is associated with cisplatin resistance.  

PubMed

The transcription factor AP-2? functions as a tumor suppressor by regulating various genes that are involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Chemotherapeutic drugs including cisplatin induce post-transcriptionally endogenous AP-2?, which contributes to chemosensitivity by enhancing therapy-induced apoptosis. microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-200b, miR-200c and miR-429 (miR-200b/200c/429) are up-regulated in endometrial and esophageal cancers, and their overexpression correlates with resistance to cisplatin treatment. Using computational programs, we predicted that the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of AP-2? gene contains a potential miRNA response element (MRE) for the miR-200b/200c/429 family, and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site rs1045385 (A or C allele) resided within the predicted MRE. Luciferase assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the miR-200b/200c/429 family recognized the MRE in the 3' UTR of AP-2? gene and negatively regulated the expression of endogenous AP-2? proteins. SNP rs1045385 A>C variation enhanced AP-2? expression by disrupting the binding of the miR-200b/200c/429 family to the 3' UTR of AP-2?. The effects of the two polymorphic variants on cisplatin sensitivity were determined by clonogenic assay. The overexpression of AP-2? with mutant 3' UTR (C allele) in the endometrial cancer cell line HEC-1A, which has high levels of endogenous miR-200b/200c/429 and low levels of AP-2? protein, significantly increased cisplatin sensitivity, but overexpression of A allele of AP-2? has no significant effects, compared with mock transfection. We concluded that miR-200b/200c/429 induced cisplatin resistance by repressing AP-2? expression in endometrial cancer cells. The SNP (rs1045385) A>C variation decreased the binding of miR-200b/200c/429 to the 3' UTR of AP-2?, which upregulated AP-2? protein expression and increased cisplatin sensitivity. Our results suggest that SNP (rs1045385) may be a potential prognostic marker for cisplatin treatment. PMID:22194984

Wu, Yuan; Xiao, Yuzhong; Ding, Xiaofeng; Zhuo, Yiming; Ren, Peng; Zhou, Chang; Zhou, Jianlin

2011-12-14

354

APS Position Statements- APS Guiding Principles for the Care and Use of Vertebrate Animals in Research and Training  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Guiding Principles for the Care and Use of Vertebrate Animals in Research and Training are an updated version of a document first adopted by the APS Council in 1953. The Guiding Principles represent a code of ethics for APS members who work with animals. They provide a framework intended to promote the humane treatment of animals and are also used to evaluate research submitted for publication in APS journals. The update is intended to clarify certain elements of the Guiding Principles and make them easier to apply in practical situations. In addition, because the Guiding Principles are based upon U.S. animal welfare requirements, the update adds provisions to address the fact that other countries have different animal welfare requirements. This change was needed because of the increasing number of physiologists from around the world who are joining the APS and submitting articles for publication in APS journals.

2010-07-16

355

d-Glucose uptake in fish hepatocytes: mediated by transporter in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss), but only by diffusion in prespawning lamprey ( Lampetra fluviatilis) and in RTH-149 cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of d-glucose into rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) hepatocytes, as well as into rainbow trout hepatoblastoma cell line RTH-149 was studied using tracer methods. The half-time for d-glucose equilibration was 15 s for rainbow trout. The half-times for the non-metabolizable d-glucose analog, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose equilibration were 8 s, 37 s and 38 s for rainbow

Marika Mannerström; Hanna Tähti; Kirsti Tiihonen; Annika Salama

2003-01-01

356

Discovery of Abundance Evolution in Magnetic Ap Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic peculiar A-type stars (mAp) are characterized by their strong, global magnetic fields (of the order of 1 kG or more) and enhanced abundances of Fe-peak and Rare-Earth elements. Recently, Landstreet et al. (2007, 2008) obtained a significant representation of cluster mAp stars in low to high mass bins and were able to demonstrate that mAp stars exhibit a sharp decline in magnetic field strength during their main sequence evolution. This remarkable discovery leads naturally to questions about how atmospheric chemical abundances of mAp stars may evolve during the main sequence phase from zero-age to terminal-age main sequence (ZAMS to TAMS). We have studied a collection of cluster mAp stars that have well known ages. By restricting the study to all stars in a particular mass bin, we are, to a first approximation, evolving a single mAp star in time from ZAMS to TAMS. This abundance analysis was carried out using spectral synthesis that takes into account the effects of the magnetic field. In the 3-4M bin, we have discovered that the chemical abundances of Ti, Cr, Fe, Pr and Nd elements decreases from ZAMS to TAMS for the mAp stars.

Bailey, Jeffrey; Landstreet, J. D.

2013-01-01

357

KCAT, Xradia, ALS and APS Performance Summary  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of components, subassemblies and assemblies of millimeter-size extent with micrometer-size features (mesoscale). These mesoscale objects include materials that vary widely in composition, density, geometry and embedded features. Characterizing these mesoscale objects is critical for corroborating the physics codes that underlie LLNL's Stockpile Stewardship mission. In this report we present results from our efforts to quantitatively characterize the performance of several x-ray systems in an effort to benchmark existing systems and to determine which systems may have the best potential for our mesoscale imaging needs. Several different x-ray digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT) systems exist that may be applicable to our mesoscale object characterization requirements, including microfocus and synchrotron systems. The systems we have benchmarked include KCAT (LLNL developed) and Xradia {mu}XCT (Xradia, Inc., Concord, CA), both microfocus systems, and Beamline 1-ID at the Advance Photon Source (APS) and the Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), both synchrotron based systems. The ALS Tomography Beamline is a new installation, and the data presented and analyzed here is some of the first to be acquired at the facility. It is important to note that the ALS system had not yet been optimized at the time we acquired data. Results for each of these systems has been independently documented elsewhere. In this report we summarize and compare the characterization results for these systems.

Waters, A; Martz, H; Brown, W

2004-09-30

358

Eastman, AP start on coal unit  

SciTech Connect

Eastman Chemical and Air Products and Chemicals (AP) have started construction of a $214-million, coal-to-methanol demonstration unit at Eastmans site in Kingsport, TN. The project is part of the Department of Energy`s clean coal technology program and is receiving $93 million in federal support. The demonstration unit-which will have a methanol capacity of 260 tons/day-will use novel catalyst technology for converting coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) to methanol. Unlike conventional technology that processes syngas through a fixed bed of dry catalyst particles, the liquid-phase methanol process converts the syngas in a single vessel containing catalysts suspended in mineral oil. The companies say the innovation allows the process to better able handle the gases from coal gasifiers and is more stable and reliable than existing processes. Eastman says it will use the methanol produced by the plant as a chemical feedstock. It currently uses methanol as an intermediate in making acetic anhydride and dimethyl terephthalate. In addition, the companies say the methanol will be evaluated as a feedstock in making methyl tert-butyl ether for reformulated fuels. Eastman also says it will evaluate coproducing dimethyl ether (DME) with the methanol. DME can be used as a fuel additive or blended with methanol for a chemical feedstock, according to Eastman.

NONE

1995-10-25

359

AP helical stability in salt solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein dynamics depends on the environment and the inclusion of salts in the simulation of folding/unfolding becomes extremely necessary when comparing energy barriers or reaction rates with experimental results. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of three sodium salts: NaClO4,NaCl and Na2SO4 on the helical stability of AP, a mainly alanine peptide. The dependence of the peptide helical stability on the environment has been studied using Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics (REMD) simulations, Circular Dichroism (CD) and Ultraviolet Raman Resonance Spectroscopy (UVRS) experiments. It was found that NaClO4 solution strongly stabilizes the helical states and that the order in which sodium salts stabilize the peptide helical states follows a reverse Hofmeister Series (ClO4^- < Cl^- < SO4^2-). Another interesting result found is that ClO4^- ions are attracted to the backbone; Cl^- ions are repelled while SO4^2- ions are attracted to the positive side chains. A thorough investigation of the ion effects on the first and second solvation water along with the Kirkwood-Buff theory for solutions allowed us to explain the physical mechanisms involved in the observed ion specific effects.

Asciutto, Eliana; Xiong, Kan; Asher, Sanford; Madura, Jeffry

2009-03-01

360

Long periods in two Kepler roAp stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse over three years of Kepler photometry for the two roAp stars KIC 10483436 and KIC 10195926. Our aim is to detect possible unexpected low frequencies and to determine the frequency and amplitude variations of the roAp pulsations. Both stars have frequencies close to, but not exactly equal to, half the frequency of rotation with highly variable amplitudes. The origin of this variation is at present not known. In KIC 10483436, the main roAp pulsation is highly variable in frequency, but none of the other modes vary in this way.

Balona, L. A.

2013-09-01

361

The effects of APS star tracker detection sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection sensitivity is an important parameter of star tracker, which can express detecting limit of the weakest detected visual star magnitude. In this paper, the expressions of APS star detected signal and APS noise are given, so signal-noise ratio (SNR) of star tracker can be obtained. And the detection sensitivity model is obtained from SNR criterion of star target detected, star detecting probability is analyzed. Moreover the evaluation modal of the detection sensitivity in star system is deducted. The effects of detection sensitivity of APS star tracker were discussed.

Zhang, Huaxun; Li, Jie

2008-12-01

362

A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices.  

SciTech Connect

A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders.

Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

1999-10-25

363

Magnetic activity of the spotted dwarf AP149 in the ? Persei open cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous photometric and spectroscopic observations of the spotted G dwarf AP149 in the young open cluster ? Persei are analyzed here. We reconstruct the observed light curves with a two-starspot model by means of a light curve modeling technique, and find that the active regions shift oppositely along longitude on a time scale of one day. Combining with the observational data obtained by other groups, we discuss the evolution of spotted regions in the photosphere, and find that its starspots evolve not only on a short time scale but also on a long time scale. The pure chromospheric emissions for Ca IIHK and H? lines are derived by using the spectral subtraction technique. The variation of Ca IIHK lines' excess emission is spatially correlated to the starspot regions. There is no clear rotational modulation for the H? line's excess emission, probably due to the contamination of prominence emission.

Fang, Xiang-Song; Gu, Sheng-Hong; Cheung, Sze-Leung; Hui, Ho-Keung; Kwok, Chi-Tai; Leung, Kam-Cheung

2010-03-01

364

The APETALA-2-Like Transcription Factor OsAP2-39 Controls Key Interactions between Abscisic Acid and Gibberellin in Rice  

PubMed Central

The interaction between phytohormones is an important mechanism which controls growth and developmental processes in plants. Deciphering these interactions is a crucial step in helping to develop crops with enhanced yield and resistance to environmental stresses. Controlling the expression level of OsAP2-39 which includes an APETALA 2 (AP2) domain leads to phenotypic changes in rice. Overexpression of OsAP2-39 leads to a reduction in yield by decreasing the biomass and the number of seeds in the transgenic rice lines. Global transcriptome analysis of the OsAP2-39 overexpression transgenic rice revealed the upregulation of a key Abscisic Acid (ABA) biosynthetic gene OsNCED-I which codes for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and leads to an increase in the endogenous ABA level. In addition to OsNCED-1, the gene expression analysis revealed the upregulation of a gene that codes for the Elongation of Upper most Internode (EUI) protein, an enzyme that catalyzes 16?, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs, which has been shown to deactivate gibberellins (GAs) in rice. The exogenous application of GA restores the wild-type phenotype in the transgenic line and ABA application induces the expression of EUI and suppresses the expression of OsAP2-39 in the wild-type line. These observations clarify the antagonistic relationship between ABA and GA and illustrate a mechanism that leads to homeostasis of these hormones. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that the expression of both OsNCED-1 and EUI are directly controlled by OsAP2-39. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of the ABA/GA balance in rice which is regulated by OsAP2-39 that in turn regulates plant growth and seed production.

Yaish, Mahmoud W.; El-kereamy, Ashraf; Zhu, Tong; Beatty, Perrin H.; Good, Allen G.; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J.

2010-01-01

365

APS storage ring vacuum system development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7-GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The storage ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, RF, and insertion device systems. The vacuum

R. C. Niemann; R. Benaroya; M. Choi; R. J. Dortwegt; R. Ferry; G. A. Goeppner; J. D. Gonczy; C. Krieger; J. Howell; R. W. Nielsen; B. Roop; R. B. Wehrle

1991-01-01

366

Tank 241-AP-102 Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This tank sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the head space of tank 241-AP-102. Sampling will be perf...

A. M. Templeton

2001-01-01

367

Tank characterization report for double shell tank 241-AP-104  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-AP-104. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

Winkelman, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-07

368

Exercise Physiology-Fisiologia del Ejercicio - 2012 APS Video Contest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Viewer's Choice award-winning video from the 2012 APS Video Contest. This video, which is recorded in english with spanish subtitles, describes cardiovasuclar adaptations that occur during exercise.

Facundo Mendes Garrido Abregu (Universidad de Buenos Aires); Sofia Aguirre (Universidad de Buenos Aires)

2012-05-02

369

A Review of AP Calculus Graphing Calculator Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Review material on graphing calculator use from the College Board AP Calculus Course Description. The problems are mostly AB level. The page also contains a brief historical remark about Maria Gaetana Agnesi.

370

Roles of AP-2 in Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis  

PubMed Central

Background The notion that AP-2 clathrin adaptor is an essential component of an endocytic clathrin coat appears to conflict with recent observations that substantial AP-2 depletion, using RNA interference with synthesis of AP-2 subunits, fails to block uptake of certain ligands known to internalize through a clathrin-based pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings We report here the use of in vivo imaging data obtained by spinning-disk confocal microscopy to study the formation of clathrin-coated structures at the plasma membranes of BSC1 and HeLa cells depleted by RNAi of the clathrin adaptor, AP-2. Very few clathrin coats continue to assemble after AP-2 knockdown. Moreover, there is a total absence of clathrin-containing structures completely lacking AP-2 while all the remaining coats still contain a small amount of AP-2. These observations suggest that AP-2 is essential for endocytic coated-pit and coated-vesicle formation. We also find that AP-2 knockdown strongly inhibits light-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-mediated endocytosis, as long as cells are maintained in complete serum and at 37°C. If cells are first incubated with LDL at 4°C, followed by warming, there is little or no decrease in LDL uptake with respect to control cells. LDL uptake at 37°C is also not affected in AP-2 depleted cells first deprived of LDL by incubation with either serum-starved or LDL-starved cells for 24 hr. The LDL-deprived cells display a significant increase in endocytic structures enriched on deeply invaginated tubes that contain LDL and we suggest that under this condition of stress, LDL might enter through this alternative pathway. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that AP-2 is essential for endocytic clathrin coated-pit and coated-vesicle formation. They also indicate that under normal conditions, functional endocytic clathrin coated pits are required for LDL internalization. We also show that under certain conditions of stress, cells can upregulate alternative endocytic structures with the potential to provide compensatory trafficking pathways.

Zhang, Rongying; Kirchhausen, Tomas

2010-01-01

371

Vps41p Function in the Alkaline Phosphatase Pathway Requires Homo-oligomerization and Interaction with AP3 through Two Distinct Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of proteins through the ALP (alkaline phosphatase) pathway to the vacuole requires the function of the AP-3 adaptor complex and Vps41p. However, unlike other adaptor protein- dependent pathways, the ALP pathway has not been shown to require additional accessory proteins or coat proteins, such as membrane recruitment factors or clathrin. Two independent genetic approaches have been used to identify

Tamara Darsow; David J. Katzmann; Christopher R. Cowles; Scott D. Emr

2001-01-01

372

An overview of the APS 352-MHz rf systems  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV full energy positron storage ring for generating synchrotron radiation with an injector. The booster synchrotron rf system consists o a single 1-MW klystron which drives four five-cell cavities at 352 MHz. The storage ring cavities consist of four groups of four single cells powered by two 1-MW klystrons for 100-mA operation. An overview of the operation of the APS 352-MHz rf systems is presented.

Nassiri, A.; Cours, A.; Grelick, A.; Horan, D.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Smith, T.L.; Song, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

1997-08-01

373

Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP)  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary STMBMS and SEM results of the thermal decomposition of AP in the orthorhombic phase are presented. The overall decomposition is shown to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The data show that the physical and chemical processes can be probed and characterized utilizing SEM and STMBMS. The overall decomposition is characterized by three distinguishing features: an induction period, and accelerator period and a deceleratory period. The major decomposition event occurs in the subsurface of the AP particles and propagates towards the center of the particle with time. The amount of total decomposition is dependent upon particle size and increases from 23% for {approximately}50{micro}m-diameter AP to 33% for {approximately}200{micro}m-diameter AP. A conceptual model of the physical processes is presented. Insight into the chemical processes is provided by the gas formation rates that are measured for the gaseous products. To our knowledge, this is the first presentation of data showing that the chemical and physical decomposition processes can be identified from one another, probed and characterized at the level that is required to better understand the thermal decomposition behavior of AP. Future work is planned with the goal of obtaining data that can be used to develop a mathematical description for the thermal decomposition of o-AP.

Behrens, R.; Minier, L.

1999-03-01

374

Parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] lines (Ruffoni+, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ritz wavelengths of the parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] lines reported here were calculated, respectively, from the accurate Co II energy levels reported by Pickering et al. (1998ApJS..117..261P) and the revised accurate V II energy levels measured by Thorne et al. (2013, Cat. J/ApJS/207/13). (4 data files).

Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C.

2013-09-01

375

The Arabidopsis Cell Plate-Associated Dynamin-Like Protein, ADL1Ap, Is Required for Multiple Stages of Plant Growth and Development1  

PubMed Central

Dynamin and dynamin-like proteins are GTP-binding proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. In soybean, a 68-kD dynamin-like protein called phragmoplastin has been shown to be associated with the cell plate in dividing cells (Gu and Verma, 1996). Five ADL1 genes encoding dynamin-like proteins related to phragmoplastin have been identified in the completed Arabidopsis genome. Here we report that ADL1Ap is associated with punctate subcellular structures and with the cell plate in dividing cells. To assess the function of ADL1Ap we utilized a reverse genetic approach to isolate three separate Arabidopsis mutant lines containing T-DNA insertions in ADL1A. Homozygous adl1A seeds were shriveled and mutant seedlings arrested soon after germination, producing only two leaf primordia and severely stunted roots. Immunoblotting revealed that ADL1Ap expression was not detectable in the mutants. Despite the loss of ADL1Ap, the mutants did not display any defects in cytokinesis, and growth of the mutant seedlings could be rescued in tissue culture by the addition of sucrose. Although these sucrose-rescued plants displayed normal vegetative growth and flowered, they set very few seeds. Thus, ADL1Ap is critical for several stages of plant development, including embryogenesis, seedling development, and reproduction. We discuss the putative role of ADL1Ap in vesicular trafficking, cytokinesis, and other aspects of plant growth.

Kang, Byung-Ho; Busse, James S.; Dickey, Carrie; Rancour, David M.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.

2001-01-01

376

Unproportionally high concentrations of diadenosine triphosphate (Ap 3 A) and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap 4 A) in heavy platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platelets from whole blood were separated into five density subpopulations using a discontinuous Percoll gradient. The content of diadenosine triphosphate (Ap3A), diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), ADP and ATP were determined in the subfractions. The dinucleotides were directly measured in neutralized, acid-soluble extracts of human platelets with a bioluminescence method not requiring any chromatographic step. When comparing the nucleotide contents of the

Jürgen Lüthje; Daniela Miller; Adaling Ogilvie

1987-01-01

377

PKA-activated ApAF-ApC/EBP heterodimer is a key downstream effector of ApCREB and is necessary and sufficient for the consolidation of long-term facilitation  

PubMed Central

Long-term memory requires transcriptional regulation by a combination of positive and negative transcription factors. Aplysia activating factor (ApAF) is known to be a positive transcription factor that forms heterodimers with ApC/EBP and ApCREB2. How these heterodimers are regulated and how they participate in the consolidation of long-term facilitation (LTF) has not, however, been characterized. We found that the functional activation of ApAF required phosphorylation of ApAF by PKA on Ser-266. In addition, ApAF lowered the threshold of LTF by forming a heterodimer with ApCREB2. Moreover, once activated by PKA, the ApAF–ApC/EBP heterodimer transactivates enhancer response element–containing genes and can induce LTF in the absence of CRE- and CREB-mediated gene expression. Collectively, these results suggest that PKA-activated ApAF–ApC/EBP heterodimer is a core downstream effector of ApCREB in the consolidation of LTF.

Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Sue-Hyun; Lee, Changhoon; Chang, Deok-Jin; Lee, Yong; Kim, Hyoung; Cheang, Ye-Hwang; Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Lee, Yong-Seok; Jun, Heejung; Bartsch, Dusan; Kandel, Eric R.; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

2006-01-01

378

Interaction of gatifloxacin with efflux transporters: a possible mechanism for drug resistance  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study is to screen the interactions of fourth generation fluoroquinolone-gatifloxacin with efflux pumps i.e. P-gp, MRP2 and BCRP. Mechanism of gatifloxacin interaction with efflux transporters may explain its acquired resistance. Such clarification may lead to the development of strategies to overcome efflux and enhance its bioavailability at target site. This process will aid in the reduction of dose volume, further eliminating the chances of systemic toxicity from topical gatifloxacin eye drops. MDCK cell lines transfected with the targeted efflux transporters were used for this study. [14C] Erythromycin was selected as a model substrate for P-gp and MRP2 whereas Hoechst 33342 was employed as a substrate for BCRP. Uptake and transport studies of these substrates were performed in the presence of gatifloxacin to delineate its interaction with efflux transporters. Further the efflux ratio in the presence of gatifloxacin was calculated from bidirectional transport studies. The concentration of [14C] erythromycin and Hoechst 33342 were measured using scintillation counter and fluorescence plate reader respectively. A concentration dependent inhibition effect in the presence of gatifloxacin was revealed on [14C] erythromycin uptake. The efflux ratio (BL-AP/AP-BL) of substrates was found to approach unity at higher gatifloxacin concentrations. Increased concentration of gatifloxacin did not elevate uptake of Hoechst 33342. All these studies were validated with known inhibitors as positive control. Uptake and transport studies support the hypothesis that gatifloxacin is a substrate for P-gp, MRP2 but not for BCRP. Possible interactions of gatifloxacin with P-gp and MRP2 may be a possible mechanism for acquired resistance of gatifloxacin. This information can be further extended to design prodrugs or formulations in order to prevent development of acquired resistance and improve therapeutic efficacy with its reduction in side effects.

Kwatra, Deep; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

2010-01-01

379

Transcription factor AP2 and monoaminergic functions in the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. In the central nervous system, transcription factor AP-2 family is one of the critical regulatory factors for neural gene expression and neuronal development. Several genes in the monoaminergic systems display AP-2 binding sites in regulatory regions. In addition, brainstem levels of transcription factor AP-2? and AP-2? are positively correlated to monoamine measures in rat forebrain, suggesting a regulatory role

M. Damberg

2005-01-01

380

Ad Hoc Positioning System (APS) Using AOA  

Microsoft Academic Search

AoA(Angle of Arrival) is a well known method used for positioning in providing services such as E911, and for other military and civil radio-location applications, such as sonars and radars. Although devices such as GPS receivers and digital compasses provide good positioning and orientation outdoors, there are many applications re- quiring the same facilities indoors, where line of sight ac-

Dragos Niculescu; B. R. Badrinath

2003-01-01

381

N-(6-Aminohexyl) -5-Chloro-1-Naphthalenesulfonamide (W7) Stimulation of K(+) Transport in a Human Salivary Epithelial Cell Line. (Reannouncementwith New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Treatment of a human salivary epithelial cell line, HSG- PA, with the calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl) -5-chloro-1-naphthalen esulfonamideincreased RB (K+) influx and efflux in a manner similar to that resulting from muscarinic (carbachol; Cch) or c...

L. Patton J. Ship R. Wellner

1991-01-01

382

High glucose-induced, endothelin-dependent fibronectin synthesis is mediated via NF-kappa B and AP-1.  

PubMed

Human endothelial cells cultured under high glucose (HG) conditions were shown before to upregulate several basement membrane proteins, including fibronectin (FN), thus mimicking effects of diabetes. Using human macrovascular (HUVEC) and microvascular (HMEC) endothelial cell lines, we evaluated in the present study some of the key molecular signaling events involved in HG-induced FN overexpression. This expression was shown to be dependent on endogenous endothelin (ET) receptor-mediated signaling. We also examined the roles played by protein kinase C (PKC) and the transcription factors nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activating protein (AP)-1 with respect to such changes. HG, PKC activators, and ETs (ET-1 and ET-3) that increased FN expression also caused activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1. Inhibitors of both NF-kappaB and AP-1 prevented HG- and ET-induced FN production. ET receptor blockade also prevented these HG- and ET-mediated changes. The results of this study indicate that glucose-induced increased FN production in diabetes may be mediated via ET-dependent NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation. PMID:12388107

Chen, Shali; Mukherjee, Suranjana; Chakraborty, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Subrata

2002-09-18

383

Ku proteins interact with activator protein-2 transcription factors and contribute to ERBB2 overexpression in breast cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Introduction Activator protein-2 (AP-2) ? and AP-2? transcription factors contribute to ERBB2 gene overexpression in breast cancer. In order to understand the mechanism by which the ERBB2 gene is overexpressed we searched for novel AP-2 interacting factors that contribute to its activity. Methods Ku proteins were identified as AP-2? interacting proteins by glutathione serine transferase (GST)-pull down followed by mass spectrometry. Transfection of the cells with siRNA, expression vectors and reporter vectors as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were used to ascertain the implication of Ku proteins on ERBB2 expression. Results Nuclear proteins from BT-474 cells overexpressing AP-2? and AP-2? were incubated with GST-AP2 or GST coated beads. Among the proteins retained specifically on GST-AP2 coated beads Ku70 and Ku80 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The contribution of Ku proteins to ERBB2 gene expression in BT-474 and SKBR3 cell lines was investigated by downregulating Ku proteins through the use of specific siRNAs. Depletion of Ku proteins led to downregulation of ERBB2 mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, reduction of Ku80 in HCT116 cell line decreased the AP-2? activity on a reporter vector containing an AP-2 binding site linked to the ERBB2 core promoter, and transfection of Ku80 increased the activity of AP-2? on this promoter. Ku siRNAs also inhibited the activity of this reporter vector in BT-474 and SKBR3 cell lines and the activity of the ERBB2 promoter was further reduced by combining Ku siRNAs with AP-2? and AP-2? siRNAs. ChIP experiments with chromatin extracted from wild type or AP-2? and AP-2? or Ku70 siRNA transfected BT-474 cells demonstrated Ku70 recruitment to the ERBB2 proximal promoter in association with AP-2? and AP-2?. Moreover, Ku70 siRNA like AP-2 siRNAs, greatly reduced PolII recruitment to the ERBB2 proximal promoter. Conclusions Ku proteins in interaction with AP-2 (? and ?) contribute to increased ERBB2 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells.

2009-01-01

384

hPEPT1 is responsible for uptake and transport of Gly-Sar in the human bronchial airway epithelial cell-line Calu-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to investigate the apical uptake and transepithelial transport of Gly-Sar along with the expression\\u000a of the di-\\/tripeptide transporters hPEPT1 and hPEPT2 in human Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells. The apical Gly-Sar uptake\\u000a rate in Calu-3 cells followed Michaelis–Menten kinetics with a K\\u000a m value of 1.3?±?0.3 mM and a V\\u000a max value of 0.60?±?0.06 nmol???cm?2???min?1. Transepithelial apical

Helle Bach Søndergaard; Birger Brodin; Carsten Uhd Nielsen

2008-01-01

385

Functional Analysis of AP-2 ? and ?2 Subunits  

PubMed Central

The AP-2 adaptor complex plays a key role in cargo recognition and clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the plasma membrane. To investigate the functions of individual binding sites and domains of the AP-2 complex in vivo, we have stably transfected HeLa cells with wild-type and mutant small interfering RNA–resistant ? and ?2 subunits and then used siRNA knockdowns to deplete the endogenous proteins. Mutating the PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding site of ?, the phosphorylation site of ?2, or the YXX? binding site of ?2 impairs AP-2 function, as assayed by transferrin uptake. In contrast, removing the C-terminal appendage domain of ?, or mutating the PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding site of ?2, has no apparent effect. However, adding a C-terminal GFP tag to ? renders it completely nonfunctional. These findings demonstrate that there is some functional redundancy in the binding sites of the various AP-2 subunits, because no single mutation totally abolishes function. They also help to explain why GFP-tagged AP-2 never appears to leave the plasma membrane in some live cell imaging studies. Finally, they establish a new model system that can be used both for additional structure-function analyses, and as a way of testing tagged constructs for function in vivo.

Motley, Alison M.; Berg, Nicola; Taylor, Marcus J.; Sahlender, Daniela A.; Hirst, Jennifer; Owen, David J.

2006-01-01

386

CD2AP Regulates SUMOylation of CIN85 in Podocytes  

PubMed Central

Podocytes are highly differentiated and polarized epithelial cells located on the visceral side of the glomerulus. They form an indispensable component of the glomerular filter, the slit diaphragm, formed by several transmembrane proteins and adaptor molecules. Disruption of the slit diaphragm can lead to massive proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome in mice and humans. CD2AP is an adaptor protein that is important for the maintenance of the slit diaphragm. Together with its paralogue, CIN85, CD2AP belongs to a family of adaptor proteins that are primarily described as being involved in endocytosis and downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase activity. We have shown that full-length CIN85 is upregulated in podocytes in the absence of CD2AP, whereas in wild-type cells, full-length CIN85 is not detectable. In this study, we show that full-length CIN85 is postranslationally modified by SUMOylation in wild-type podocytes. We can demonstrate that CIN85 is SUMOylated by SUMO-1, -2, and -3 and that SUMOylation is enhanced in the presence of CD2AP. Conversion of lysine 598 to arginine completely abolishes SUMOylation and leads to increased binding of CIN85 to nephrin. Our results indicate a novel role for CD2AP in regulating posttranslational modification of CIN85.

Niedenthal, Rainer; Klaus, Malte; Teng, Beina; Worthmann, Kirstin; King, Benjamin L.; Peterson, Kevin J.; Haller, Hermann

2012-01-01

387

CD2AP regulates SUMOylation of CIN85 in podocytes.  

PubMed

Podocytes are highly differentiated and polarized epithelial cells located on the visceral side of the glomerulus. They form an indispensable component of the glomerular filter, the slit diaphragm, formed by several transmembrane proteins and adaptor molecules. Disruption of the slit diaphragm can lead to massive proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome in mice and humans. CD2AP is an adaptor protein that is important for the maintenance of the slit diaphragm. Together with its paralogue, CIN85, CD2AP belongs to a family of adaptor proteins that are primarily described as being involved in endocytosis and downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase activity. We have shown that full-length CIN85 is upregulated in podocytes in the absence of CD2AP, whereas in wild-type cells, full-length CIN85 is not detectable. In this study, we show that full-length CIN85 is postranslationally modified by SUMOylation in wild-type podocytes. We can demonstrate that CIN85 is SUMOylated by SUMO-1, -2, and -3 and that SUMOylation is enhanced in the presence of CD2AP. Conversion of lysine 598 to arginine completely abolishes SUMOylation and leads to increased binding of CIN85 to nephrin. Our results indicate a novel role for CD2AP in regulating posttranslational modification of CIN85. PMID:22203040

Tossidou, Irini; Niedenthal, Rainer; Klaus, Malte; Teng, Beina; Worthmann, Kirstin; King, Benjamin L; Peterson, Kevin J; Haller, Hermann; Schiffer, Mario

2011-12-27

388

Multipurpose active pixel sensor (APS)-based microtracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, photon-sensitive, imaging array, the active pixel sensor (APS) has emerged as a competitor to the CCD imager for use in star and target trackers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has undertaken a program to develop a new generation, highly integrated, APS-based, multipurpose tracker: the Programmable Intelligent Microtracker (PIM). The supporting hardware used in the PIM has been carefully selected to enhance the inherent advantages of the APS. Adequate computation power is included to perform star identification, star tracking, attitude determination, space docking, feature tracking, descent imaging for landing control, and target tracking capabilities. Its first version uses a JPL developed 256 X 256-pixel APS and an advanced 32-bit RISC microcontroller. By taking advantage of the unique features of the APS/microcontroller combination, the microtracker will achieve about an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass and power consumption compared to present state-of-the-art star trackers. It will also add the advantage of programmability to enable it to perform a variety of star, other celestial body, and target tracking tasks. The PIM is already proving the usefulness of its design concept for space applications. It is demonstrating the effectiveness of taking such an integrated approach in building a new generation of high performance, general purpose, tracking instruments to be applied to a large variety of future space missions.

Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl C.; Zhu, David Q.

1998-12-01

389

APS insertion devices: Magnetic performance and radiation characteristics  

SciTech Connect

There are 23 insertion devices (IDs) at the APS now, and 17 of them have been installed and commissioned. Most of the IDs are 2.4-meter-long hybrid-type undulators with a 3.3 cm period. Two wigglers are used at the APS, one of them is an elliptical multipole wiggler with an electromagnet that produces alternate horizontal magnetic fields. All APS IDs have undergone fine magnetic tuning in order to minimize various integrals of the field through the ID for the whole range of IDs gaps, including the higher-order integrated multipole moments. Measurements of the particle-beam motion as the field strength of each ID was changed throughout its range found that the closed-orbit distortion agreed well with predictions based on magnetic measurement results. Radiation from the APS undulator has been characterized in terms of absolute spectral flux. Direct measurements of the positron beam emittance have been performed. In addition, the experimentally measured brilliance tuning curves for the APS undulator have been obtained.

Gluskin, E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

1997-07-01

390

The Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Promotes Maturation of the Presynaptic Endocytotic Machinery by Switching Synaptic Vesicle Recycling from Adaptor Protein 3 (AP-3)- to AP-2-Dependent Mechanisms.  

PubMed

Newly formed synapses undergo maturation during ontogenetic development via mechanisms that remain poorly understood. We show that maturation of the presynaptic endocytotic machinery in CNS neurons requires substitution of the adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) with AP-2 at the presynaptic plasma membrane. In mature synapses, AP-2 associates with the intracellular domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). NCAM promotes binding of AP-2 over binding of AP-3 to presynaptic membranes, thus favoring the substitution of AP-3 for AP-2 during formation of mature synapses. The presynaptic endocytotic machinery remains immature in adult NCAM-deficient (NCAM-/-) mice accumulating AP-3 instead of AP-2 and its partner protein AP180 in synaptic membranes and vesicles. NCAM deficiency or disruption of the NCAM/AP-2 complex in wild-type (NCAM+/+) neurons by overexpression of AP-2 binding-defective mutant NCAM interferes with efficient retrieval of the synaptic vesicle v-SNARE synaptobrevin 2. Abnormalities in synaptic vesicle endocytosis and recycling may thus contribute to neurological disorders associated with mutations in NCAM. PMID:24133283

Shetty, Aparna; Sytnyk, Vladimir; Leshchyns'ka, Iryna; Puchkov, Dmytro; Haucke, Volker; Schachner, Melitta

2013-10-16

391

APS storage ring vacuum system development  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, rf and insertion device systems. The vacuum system will operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr and is fabricated from aluminum. The system includes distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. An overview of the vacuum system design and details of selected development program results are presented. 5 refs.

Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Ferry, R.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.D.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

1991-01-01

392

Signal-mediated, AP-1/Clathrin-dependent Sorting of Transmembrane Receptors to the Somatodendritic Domain of Hippocampal Neurons  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Plasma membranes of the somatodendritic and axonal domains of neurons are known to have different protein compositions, but the molecular mechanisms that determine this polarized protein distribution remain poorly understood. Herein we show that somatodendritic sorting of various transmembrane receptors in rat hippocampal neurons is mediated by recognition of signals within the cytosolic domains of the proteins by the µ1A subunit of the adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) complex. This complex, in conjunction with clathrin, functions in the neuronal soma to exclude somatodendritic proteins from axonal transport carriers. Perturbation of this process affects dendritic spine morphology and decreases the number of synapses. These findings highlight the primary recognition event that underlies somatodendritic sorting and contribute to the evolving view of AP-1 as a global regulator of cell polarity.

Farias, Ginny G.; Cuitino, Loreto; Guo, Xiaoli; Ren, Xuefeng; Jarnik, Michal; Mattera, Rafael; Bonifacino, Juan S.

2012-01-01

393

Orion :F rom On-line Interaction to Off-line Delegation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces orion ,ac onversational sys- tem that performs off-line tasks and initiates later contact with au ser at ap re-negotiated time. Orion has two major episodes of activity: the enrollment of new tasks and the execution of pending tasks. The task manager periodically checks the pend- ing tasks and updates their status, sending off requests to other servers

Stephanie Seneff; Chian Chuu; D. Scott Cyphers

2000-01-01

394

Aerosol Polarimeter Sensor (APS) contamination control requirements and implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aerosol Polarimetery Sensor (APS) is a nadir viewing, along-track observing, continuously operating electro-optical polarimeter designed to measure earth and atmosphere scene spectral radiance in the visible (VIS) to short wave infrared (SWIR) spectrum from an altitude of 705 km to permit collection of data for retrieval of operational Environmental Data Records (EDRs). APS performance can be degraded due to light scatter, transmission, or reflectance changes caused by contamination. Molecular films can cause scattering as well as spectrally selective absorption and reflectance degradation. At short wavelengths, the molecular films may also create polarization changes. Raytheon developed and implemented a contamination control program that ensured the APS sensor complied with cleanliness requirements. Representative cleanliness monitoring results and lessons learned from the sensor integrated and tested at Space and Airborne Systems El Segundo and Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS) are also presented.

Elders, Jonathan P.; Azene, Hendekea M.; Betraun, Greg T.; Wilkerson, Kerri J.

2010-08-01

395

Comparative Uptake Studies of Bioadhesive and Non-Bioadhesive Nanoparticles in Human Intestinal Cell Lines and Rats: The Effect of Mucus on Particle Adsorption and Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The interaction of nanoparticles (NP), consisting of hydrophobic polystyrene, bioadhesive chitosan, and stealth PLA-PEG with two human intestinal cell lines, the enterocyte-like Caco-2 and mucus-secreting MTX-E12, was investigated and compared to the in vivo NP uptake in rats.

Isabel Behrens; Ana Isabel Vila Pena; Maria José Alonso; Thomas Kissel

2002-01-01

396

Piping benchmark problems for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant  

SciTech Connect

To satisfy the need for verification of the computer programs and modeling techniques that will be used to perform the final piping analyses for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant, three benchmark problems were developed. The problems are representative piping systems subjected to representative dynamic loads with solutions developed using the methods being proposed for analysis for the AP600 standard design. It will be required that the combined license licensees demonstrate that their solutions to these problems are in agreement with the benchmark problem set.

Bezler, P.; DeGrassi, G.; Braverman, J.; Wang, Y.K.

1997-01-01

397

IGF-1 vs insulin: Respective roles in modulating sodium transport via the PI3 kinase\\/Sgk1 pathway in a cortical collecting duct cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) may play a role in the regulation of sodium balance by increasing basal and aldosterone-stimulated transepithelial sodium transport in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN). As insulin and IGF-1 are capable of binding to each other's receptor with a 50- to 100-fold lower affinity than to their cognate receptor, it is not clear which

E Gonzalez-Rodriguez; H-P Gaeggeler; B C Rossier

2007-01-01

398

Comparative study of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol on intestinal transport and IL-8 secretion in the human cell line Caco-2.  

PubMed

The effects of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15ADON) on human intestinal cell Caco-2 were investigated by the studies of transepithelial transport, gene expression, and cytokine secretion. Permeability across a Caco-2 cell monolayer was evaluated by transport study. Transport rates were ranked as DON, 3ADON<15ADON in apical-basolateral direction. 15ADON showed the highest permeability, induced the highest decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), and prompted significant Lucifer Yellow permeability. These results showed that 15ADON affect paracellular barrier function extremely. In addition, gene expressions induced by toxins were screened by DNA microarray for investigating cellular effect on Caco-2 cell. The most remarkable gene induced by DON and 15ADON was inflammatory chemokine IL-8 and thus mRNA expression and secretion of IL-8 were analyzed by PCR and ELISA. Both DON and acetylated DONs could induce mRNA expression and production of IL-8. In particular, ELISA assay showed that the ability to produce IL-8 was ranked as 3ADON

Kadota, Tomoyuki; Furusawa, Hiroko; Hirano, Satoshi; Tajima, Osamu; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2013-06-20

399

Functional analysis of the two Brassica AP3 genes involved in apetalous and stamen carpelloid phenotypes.  

PubMed

The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) are B genes which encode MADS-box transcription factors and specify petal and stamen identities. In the current study, the stamen carpelloid (SC) mutants, HGMS and AMS, of B. rapa and B. napus were investigated and two types of AP3 genes, B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b, were functional characterized. B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b share high similarity in amino acid sequences except for 8 residues difference located at the C-terminus. Loss of this 8 residues in B.AP3.b led to the change of PI-derived motifs. Meanwhile, B.AP3.a specified petal and stamen development, whereas B.AP3.b only specified stamen development. In B. rapa, the mutations of both genes generated the SC mutant HGMS. In B. napus that contained two B.AP3.a and two B.AP3.b, loss of the two B.AP3.a functions was the key reason for the apetalous mutation, however, the loss-of-function in all four AP3 was related to the SC mutant AMS. We inferred that the 8 residues or the PI-derived motif in AP3 gene probably relates to petal formation. PMID:21738595

Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Xuefang; Zhang, Wenxue; Yu, Fei; Tian, Jianhua; Li, Dianrong; Guo, Aiguang

2011-06-30

400

Bremsstrahlung scattering calculations for the beam stops and collimators in the APS insertion-device beamlines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bremsstrahlung is produced in the APS storage ring by the interaction of positrons with the residual gas molecules in the vacuum chamber of the storage ring. The bremsstrahlung production causes a serious challenge in shielding the insertion-device beamlines because the entire straight section (15 meters) is in the line of sight of the beamline. The radiation emerges in a narrow cone tangential to the beam path with the characteristic emission angle 1/gamma, where gamma is E/mc(exp 2) which is the ratio of the kinetic energy to the rest mass for the positrons. This high-energy gamma radiation has an approximate 1/E spectrum with the maximum energy extending up to the particle energy (7 GeV for the APS). Bremsstrahlung, being high-energy photons, produces an electromagnetic shower when it encounters the beamline elements. A beamline element not thick enough to fully contain an electromagnetic shower can cause considerable scatter of the high-energy bremsstrahlung radiation. The low-energy component of the bremsstrahlung can also be scattered and create high dose rates in the first-optical and white-beam enclosures. The fully developed electromagnetic shower will have a photon spectrum almost independent of the material. The electromagnetic showers in the high-Z materials can also produce photoneutrons. This note reports the summary of EGS4 calculations performed on bremsstrahlung scattering from different beamline components in a typical APS insertion-device beamline. The related recommendations for shielding are also given. The shielding criterion adopted is a total dose rate of 2.5 micro Sv/h (0.25 mrem/h) at 30 cm from the shield.

Job, P. K.; Haeffner, D. R.; Shu, D.

1994-12-01

401

Identification of a functional AP1 element in the rat vasopressin gene promoter.  

PubMed

Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is expressed in paraventricular, supraoptic, and suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus, where transcription of the AVP gene is activated by various forms of stress, such as hyperosmolality, inflammation, and photic stimulation. In vasopressinergic neurons, the expression of the Fos/Jun family proteins is known to be rapidly induced after these stimuli as well. However, it is still unknown whether these proteins actually mediate AVP gene expression. In this study we examined in vitro the role of Fos/Jun protein in transcriptional regulation of the AVP gene using the BE(2)M17 neuroblastoma cell line. We found that 5'-promoter activity of the rat AVP gene (-803/+26) markedly increased when all combinations of the Fos/Jun family proteins were overexpressed. Coexpression of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein-binding protein and steroid receptor coactivator-1a further enhanced the Fos/Jun-mediated transcription. Using site-directed mutagenesis and EMSA techniques, we identified an activation protein 1 (AP1)-like element (-134/-128; TGAATCA) in the AVP gene 5'-promoter region, which is the sole responsible site for the Fos/Jun-mediated transcription. We also found that 12-O-tetradecarbonyl phorbol 13-acetate stimulates AVP gene transcription partly via the AP1 site through the activation of ERK signaling. Together, these results suggest that a variety of Fos/Jun family member proteins stimulate transcription of the AVP gene through the AP1 site we identified. Furthermore, this effect may be activated by both protein kinase A and protein kinase C signaling pathways. PMID:16543367

Yoshida, Masanori; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Asai, Masato; Takayasu, Shinobu; Taguchi, Takafumi; Itoi, Keiichi; Hashimoto, Kozo; Oiso, Yutaka

2006-03-16

402

Magnetic Doppler imaging of the roAp star HD 24712  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We present the first magnetic Doppler images of a rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star. Methods: We deduce information about magnetic field geometry and abundance distributions of a number of chemical elements on the surface of the hitherto best studied roAp star, HD 24712, using the magnetic Doppler imaging (MDI) code, invers10, which allows us to reconstruct simultaneously and consistently the magnetic field geometry and elemental abundance distributions on a stellar surface. For this purpose we analyse time series spectra obtained in Stokes I and V parameters with the SOFIN polarimeter at the Nordic Optical Telescope and recover surface abundance structures of sixteen different chemical elements, respectively ions, including Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, and Dy. For the rare earth elements (REE) Pr and Nd separate maps were obtained using lines of the first and the second ionization stage. Results: We find and confirm a clear dipolar structure of the surface magnetic field and an unexpected correlation of elemental abundance with respect to this field: one group of elements accumulates solely where the positive magnetic pole is visible, whereas the other group avoids this region and is enhanced where the magnetic equatorial region dominates the visible stellar surface. We also observe relative shifts of abundance enhancement- or depletion regions between the various elements exhibiting otherwise similar behaviour. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

Lüftinger, T.; Kochukhov, O.; Ryabchikova, T.; Piskunov, N.; Weiss, W. W.; Ilyin, I.

2010-01-01

403

Transport of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.  

PubMed

In this review on the transport of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), we focus on events that occur in the endoplasmic reticulum after the transfer of GPI to proteins. These events include structural remodeling of both the lipid and glycan moieties of GPI, recruitment of GPI-APs into ER exit sites, association with the cargo receptor, p24 protein complex, and packaging into COPII coated transport vesicles. Similarities with the transport of Wnt proteins are also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Functional and structural diversity of endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:23380706

Kinoshita, Taroh; Maeda, Yusuke; Fujita, Morihisa

2013-02-01

404

AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance  

SciTech Connect

Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABL{sup T315I} mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and preclinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multitargeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABL{sup T315I}-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML.

O’ Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, III, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim; (OHSU- Cancer Instit.); (ARIAD)

2010-09-07

405

AHuman Canalicular Multispecific Organic Anion Transporter (cMOAT) Gene Is Overexpressed in Cisplatin-resistant Human Cancer Cell Lines with Decreased Drug Accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

By targetingthe AlP bindingconserveddomainin three AlP binding cassette superfamily proteins (P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance pro tein, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator), we isolated the cDNA of a new AlP binding cassette superfamily that was specifically enhanced in a cisplatin-resistant human head and neck cancer KB cell line. A human clone homologous to rat cnnalicular multispecific organic anion trans. porter (cMOAT)was found

Ken Taniguchi; Morimasa Wada; Kimitoshi Kohno; Takanori Nakamura; Takeshi Kawabe; Mina Kawakami; Kazuhiro Kagotani; Katsuzumi Okumura; Shin-ichi Akiyama; Michihiko Kuwano

406

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor is expressed in penis of adult rat and retrogradely transported in penile parasympathetic and sensory nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a member of the GDNF family of neurotrophic factors, promotes the survival and function of several neuronal populations in the peripheral and central nervous system. In the present study, expression of GDNF mRNA in the shaft of adult rat penis is demonstrated. In situ hybridization revealed GDNF mRNA expression in cells lying in the

Antti Laurikainen; Jukka O. Hiltunen; Sampsa Vanhatalo; Erik Klinge; Mart Saarma

2000-01-01

407

Retrograde Axonal Transport of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Adult Nigrostriatal System Suggests a Trophic Role in the Adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently cloned, distant member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), has potent trophic actions on fetal mesencephalic dopamine neurons. GDNF also has protective and restorative activity on adult mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and potently protects motoneurons from axotomy-induced cell death. However, evidence for a role for endogenous GDNF as a target-derived trophic

Andreas Tomac; Johan Widenfalk; Leu-Fen H. Lin; Tadahiko Kohno; Ted Ebendal; Barry J. Hoffer; Lars Olson

1995-01-01

408

TRANSPORTATION (1:100,000 SCALE) - PIPE AND TRANSMISSION (NEUSE RIVER BASIN, NC)  

EPA Science Inventory

Pipelines, transmission lines, and miscellaneous transportation features from USGS 100,000-scale Digital Line Graphs (DLG) Transportation for Neuse River Watershed study area. Purpose: To define miscellaneous transportation lines in Neuse River Watershed study area. The ...

409

Expression Cloning of the cDNA for a Polypeptide Associated with Rat Hepatic Sinusoidal Reduced Glutathione Transport: Characteristics and Comparison with the Canalicular Transporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Xenopus oocyte expression system, we previously identified an &ap;4-kb fraction of mRNA from rat liver that expresses sulfobromophthalein reduced glutathione S-conjugate (BSP-GSH)-insensitive and an &ap;2.5-kb fraction expressing BSP-GSH-sensitive reduced glutathione (GSH) transport. From the former, a 4.05-kb cDNA was cloned and characterized as the putative rat canalicular GSH transporter. Starting with a cDNA library constructed from the &ap;2.5-kb

Jian-Ri Yi; Shilun Lu; Jose Fernandez-Checa; Neil Kaplowitz

1995-01-01

410

Comparative potencies of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) analogues as inhibitors of [3H]noradrenaline and [3H]5-HT transport in mammalian cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Illegal ‘ecstasy' tablets frequently contain 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-like compounds of unknown pharmacological activity. Since monoamine transporters are one of the primary targets of MDMA action in the brain, a number of MDMA analogues have been tested for their ability to inhibit [3H]noradrenaline uptake into rat PC12 cells expressing the noradrenaline transporter (NET) and [3H]5-HT uptake into HEK293 cells stably transfected with the 5-HT transporter (SERT). Experimental approach: Concentration–response curves for the following compounds at both NET and SERT were determined under saturating substrate conditions: 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-hydroxyamphetamine (MDOH), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenylethylamine (2CB), 3,4-dimethoxymethamphetamine (DMMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-butanamine (BDB), 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-N-methyl-2-butanamine (MBDB) and 2,3-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (2,3-MDMA). Key results: 2,3-MDMA was significantly less potent than MDMA at SERT, but equipotent with MDMA at NET. 2CB and BDB were both significantly less potent than MDMA at NET, but equipotent with MDMA at SERT. MBDB, DMMA, MDOH and the MDMA metabolites HMA and HMMA, were all significantly less potent than MDMA at both NET and SERT. Conclusions and implications: This study provides an important insight into the structural requirements of MDMA analogue affinity at both NET and SERT. It is anticipated that these results will facilitate understanding of the likely pharmacological actions of structural analogues of MDMA.

Montgomery, T; Buon, C; Eibauer, S; Guiry, P J; Keenan, A K; McBean, G J

2007-01-01

411

The Relationship between AP[R] Exam Performance and College Outcomes. Research Report No. 2009-4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focused on the relationship between students' Advanced Placement Program[R] (AP[R]) performance in AP English Language, Biology, Calculus, and U.S. History, and their subsequent college success. For each AP Exam studied, students were divided into three groups according to their AP Exam performance (no AP Exam taken, score of 1 or 2,…

Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Xiong, Xinhui

2009-01-01

412

Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)|

Physics Today, 1975

1975-01-01

413

A process definition repository based on step AP 213  

SciTech Connect

Over the years, in the context of numerically controlled machined part manufacturing, the loss, misinterpretation, and redundancy of re-inputting manufacturing instructions and data during the evolution of a product design into the finished product has been a resource depleting and costly endeavor. It is the intent of this project to utilize the emerging standards from the International Standards Organization, ISO 10303 Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data, commonly referred to as STEP, to store and retrieve process planning information for a set of production work instructions. The project focuses on the utilization of the 1995 version of the Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 10303-213:1995 (E) Application protocol: Numerical control process plans for machined parts (AP213). This project illustrates the methodologies used to build an object-oriented Process Definition Repository (PDR), describes both the benefits and shortcomings experienced in implementing AP213, and recommends enhancements to AP213 for process planning information. The deliverable will be a Part 21 data file, based on the application-interpreted model for AP213 and integrated with product design data.

Butler, J.W.

1997-09-01

414

Tank 241AP102 Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This tank sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the head space of tank 241-AP-102. Sampling will be performed in accordance with ''Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis'' (Air DQO) (Mulkey 1999). The sample results will

2001-01-01

415

A Highly Flexible Bunch Compressor for the APS LEUTL FEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LEUTL FEL at the APS has achieved gain at 530 nm with peak beam current \\\\~100 A. In an effort to push to 120 nm and beyond, we have designed and are commissioning a bunch compressor to increase the peak current to 600 A or more. The bunch compressor uses a four-dipole chicane at an energy of 100 to

Michael Borland; John Lewellen; Steve Milton

2000-01-01

416

Flexible and telescopic vacuum chambers for the APS bunch compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) bunch compressor was built with the goal of producing electron bunches with high peak current. Vacuum chamber liners were designed to, reduce the interaction of the electron beam with the surrounding chamber walls. The goal was to have the field of the beam encountering chamber walls that are smooth having diametrical changes that are well

D. R. Walters; L. H. Morrison

2001-01-01

417

Validating Placement Rules for the APS Reading Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine how best to use APS Reading Test scores for making English placement recommendations for students at College of the Canyons (COC) in Santa Clarita, California. The primary method used to establish cut scores involves comparing success rates for contrasting groups over a range of scores. The contrasting groups are…

College of the Canyons, Santa Clarita, CA.

418

An ancillary pumping system for the APS vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ancillary pumping system has been designed and installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. This vacuum system has the ability to pump sectors of the storage ring down from room pressure to ultra-high vacuum (UHV). The ancillary system is a “dry” system that uses a combination of turbomolecular pumps and oil-free roughing pumps. The benefits of this

D. Walters; J. Noonan; J. Gagliano; G. Harris; V. Svirtun

1997-01-01

419

Ancillary pumping system for the APS vacuum system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ancillary pumping system has been designed and installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. This vacuum system has the ability to pump sectors of the storage ring down from room pressure to ultra-high vacuum (UHV). The ancillary system i...

D. Walters J. Noonan J. Gagliano

1997-01-01

420

Modelling the light variability of the Ap star ? Ursae Majoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: We simulate the light variability of the Ap star ? UMa using the observed surface distributions of Fe, Cr, Ca, Mn, Mg, Sr, and Ti obtained with the help of the Doppler imaging technique. Methods: Using all photometric data available, we specified light variations of ? UMa modulated by its rotation from far UV to IR. We employed the

D. Shulyak; J. Krticka; Z. Mikulásek; O. Kochukhov; T. Lüftinger

2010-01-01

421

Coupled-bunch instabilities in the APS ring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of coupled bunch instabilities for the APS storage ring is presented. The instabilities are driven by the higher-order modes of the fifteen 352-MHz single-cell RF cavities. These modes are modeled using the 2-D cavity program URMEL. The program ZA...

L. Emery

1991-01-01

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