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1

The APS transfer line from linac to injector synchrotron  

SciTech Connect

This note describes the low-energy-transfer-line designed for the APS. The low energy transfer line constitutes two transport lines. One of these lines runs from linac to the positron accumulator ring, also called ``PAR``, and is 23.7138 m long. The second part of the low energy transport line runs from the ``PAR`` to the injector synchrtoron and is about 30.919 m long. The above length includes two quadrupoles, a bend magnet and a septum magnet in the injector synchrotron.

Koul, R.K.; Crosbie, E.

1991-03-01

2

Velocities of H and metal lines in the roAp star Circini  

E-print Network

(in spots) on the surface of the star (Rice & Wehlau 1991). Despite the name, the Ap stars rangeChapter 5 Velocities of H and metal lines in the roAp star Circini The content of this chapter. Velocities of H and metal lines in Circini 5.1 Introduction Rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars are a sub

Baldry, Ivan K.

3

Discovery of 17 new sharp-lined Ap stars with magnetically resolved lines  

E-print Network

Chemically peculiar A stars (Ap) are extreme examples of the interaction of atomic element diffusion processes with magnetic fields in stellar atmospheres. The rapidly oscillating Ap stars provide a means for studying these processes in 3D and are at the same time important for studying the pulsation excitation mechanism in A stars. As part of the first comprehensive, uniform, high resolution spectroscopic survey of Ap stars, which we are conducting in the southern hemisphere with the Michigan Spectral Catalogues as the basis of target selection, we report here the discovery of 17 new magnetic Ap stars having spectroscopically resolved Zeeman components from which we derive magnetic field moduli in the range 3 - 30 kG. Among these are 1) the current second-strongest known magnetic A star, 2) a double-lined Ap binary with a magnetic component and 3) an A star with particularly peculiar and variable abundances. Polarimetry of these stars is needed to constrain their field geometries and to determine their rotation periods. We have also obtained an additional measurement of the magnetic field of the Ap star HD 92499.

L. M. Freyhammer; V. G. Elkin; D. W. Kurtz; G. Mathys; P. Martinez

2008-06-17

4

High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line  

SciTech Connect

Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real`` beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS.

Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

1994-11-01

5

Accessing, Mining, and Archiving an On-line Database -- The APS Catalog of the POSS I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The APS Catalog of the POSS I is an on-line database of over 100 million stars and galaxies (http://aps.umn.edu). A unique subset of this database with over 218,000 galaxies within 30 degrees of the North Galactic Pole, the MAPS-NGP, is now available at our web site. This diameter--selected catalog (>= 10 arcsec) is the deepest galaxy catalog constructed over such a large area of the sky (3000 sq. degrees). The MAPS-NGP includes many additional parameters for the galaxy images not available in the APS Catalog. Working with members of our computer science department, we have developed a morphological classifier for galaxies that divides our galaxy type into three classes -- early, intermediate, and late. We have applied data mining techniques to identify the most useful image parameters for input into a neural network and decision--tree based classifier pipeline. We are also archiving the APS Catalog for distribution to astronomical data centers including NASA's ADC and SIMBAD at CDS. The extragalactic subset will be integrated into the NASA/IPAC extragalactic database(NED). The MAPS-NGP has already been provided to NED. The APS is supported by NASA's Applied Information Systems Research Program.

Humphreys, R. M.; Cabanela, J. E.; Kriessler, J.

2000-12-01

6

Aperture studies for the AP2 anti-proton Line at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The AP2 beamline transports anti-protons from the production target to the Debuncher ring. For many years the observed aperture has been smaller than that estimated from linear, on-energy optics. We have investigated possible reasons for the aperture restriction and have identified several possible sources, including residual vertical dispersion from alignment errors and chromatic effects due to very large chromatic lattice functions. We discuss the possible sources, suggest some remedies, and propose specific studies, where needed, to evaluate suspected problems.

Reichel, Ina; Zisman, Michael; Placidi, Massimo

2003-12-05

7

Trafficking of the Menkes copper transporter ATP7A is regulated by clathrin-, AP-2-, AP-1-, and Rab22-dependent steps  

PubMed Central

The transporter ATP7A mediates systemic copper absorption and provides cuproenzymes in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) with copper. To regulate metal homeostasis, ATP7A constitutively cycles between the TGN and plasma membrane (PM). ATP7A trafficking to the PM is elevated in response to increased copper load and is reversed when copper concentrations are lowered. Molecular mechanisms underlying this trafficking are poorly understood. We assess the role of clathrin, adaptor complexes, lipid rafts, and Rab22a in an attempt to decipher the regulatory proteins involved in ATP7A cycling. While RNA interference (RNAi)–mediated depletion of caveolin 1/2 or flotillin had no effect on ATP7A localization, clathrin heavy chain depletion or expression of AP180 dominant-negative mutant not only disrupted clathrin-regulated pathways, but also blocked PM-to-TGN internalization of ATP7A. Depletion of the ? subunits of either adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) or AP-1 using RNAi further provides evidence that both clathrin adaptors are important for trafficking of ATP7A from the PM to the TGN. Expression of the GTP-locked Rab22aQ64L mutant caused fragmentation of TGN membrane domains enriched for ATP7A. These appear to be a subdomain of the mammalian TGN, showing only partial overlap with the TGN marker golgin-97. Of importance, ATP7A remained in the Rab22aQ64L-generated structures after copper treatment and washout, suggesting that forward trafficking out of this compartment was blocked. This study provides evidence that multiple membrane-associated factors, including clathrin, AP-2, AP-1, and Rab22, are regulators of ATP7A trafficking. PMID:23596324

Holloway, Zoe G.; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio; Howell, Gareth J.; Levecque, Clotilde; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Sztul, Elizabeth; Monaco, Anthony P.

2013-01-01

8

Aerosol penetration through transport lines  

E-print Network

sokinetic and anisokinetic tube nd bend for various tube diameters flow rates, DEPOSITION code can predict optimum tube diameter for a transport system containing an isokinetic probe and at least one non-vertical tube element for a given flow rate... be operated in two modes: isokinetic, ere the mean velocity across the inlet plane is the same as the free stream velocity in the stack or duct an anisokineti where the probe inlet velocity is different from the &ee stream velocity. Generally, attempts...

Dileep, V.R.

2012-06-07

9

Growth of the Phlebovirus Toscana in a mosquito (Aedes pseudoscutellaris) cell line (AP61): Establishment of a persistent infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Toscana Virus, a sandfly-associatedPhlebovirus, was adapted to grow in culturedAedes pseudoscutellaris (AP-61) mosquito cell line. No evidence of virus growth was seen after primary infection of cell monolayers under maintenance conditions. On the contrary, persistent infections were established by subculturing infected cultures. Cytopathic effect was never observed. Significant titres of virus (103–105 PFU\\/ml), as assayed in Vero cells at

L. Nicoletti; Paola Verani

1985-01-01

10

Calibrating transport lines using LOCO techniques  

SciTech Connect

With the 12GeV upgrade underway at CEBAF, there is a need to re-characterize the beamlines after the modifications made to it to accommodate running at higher energies. We present a linear perturbation approach to calibrating the optics model of transport lines. This method is adapted from the LOCO method in use for storage rings. We consider the effect of quadrupole errors, dipole construction errors as well as beam position monitors and correctors calibrations. The ideal model is expanded to first order in Taylor series of the quadrupole errors. A set of difference orbits obtained by exciting the correctors along the beamline is taken, yielding the measured response matrix. An iterative procedure is invoked and the quadrupole errors as well as beam position monitors and corrector calibration factors are obtained. Here we present details of the method and results of first measurements at CEBAF in early 2011.

Yves Roblin

2011-09-01

11

The SNS Ring to Target Beam Transport line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) line connects the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring to the target, with the required footprint for the accelerator complex. This line also provides four sets of beta collimators to clean any beam halo. This 160 meter long transport line consists of eleven 90 degree FODO cells, beam extraction and a beam spreader

D. Raparia; J. Alessi; Y. Y. Lee; W. T. Weng

1999-01-01

12

An improved thermionic microwave gun and emittance-preserving transport line  

SciTech Connect

The positron/electron linac for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory can be used to accelerate electrons to 650 MeV. As part of a project to use this linac to test the quality of insertion devices, work has been done to develop a higher-brightness thermionic microwave gun of the SSRL type. The new gun design has smaller emittance by a factor of 3 to 4. The ratio of cathode field to maximum surface field is more than doubled. The new alpha-magnet-based transport line design produces negligible emittance degradation due to chromatic aberrations, in spite of the {plus_minus}5% momentum spread.

Borland, M.

1993-07-01

13

Upregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 gene expression by acetylation of AP-2 alpha in THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line.  

PubMed

Human Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a receptor for a variety of microbial products and mediates activation signals in cells of the innate immune system. Therefore, it is of great interest to investigate the molecular mechanisms that control the expression of TLR2. In this study, using real-time PCR and western blot assays, we show that trichostatin A (TSA), which is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, upregulates the expression of both TLR2 mRNA and protein in the human THP-1 cell line. A luciferase activity analysis of the truncated TLR2 promoter indicated that the region from -230 to -140 in the TLR2 promoter was sensitive to TSA. Moreover, using electrophoresis mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we identified an AP-2 alpha (AP-2?) responsive element at position -184 and found that the binding of AP-2? to this element was enhanced by TSA under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Immunoprecipitation and western blot analyses showed that the levels of acetylated AP-2? were increased in THP-1 cells after TSA treatment, and this increase is consistent with the increased binding affinity to the AP-2? responsive elements. In summary, these data define a mechanism through which AP-2? acetylation and increased promoter access induce the expression of the TLR2 gene. This mechanism may provide insight into a regulatory mode of TLR2 expression and the molecular foundations of certain immunological diseases. PMID:23680675

Li, Miao; Li, Xi; Wang, Enhua; Luo, Enjie

2013-08-01

14

Golgi-Dependent Transport of Vacuolar Sorting Receptors Is Regulated by COPII, AP1, and AP4 Protein Complexes in Tobacco[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The cycling of vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs) between early and late secretory pathway compartments is regulated by signals in the cytosolic tail, but the exact pathway is controversial. Here, we show that receptor targeting in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) initially involves a canonical coat protein complex II–dependent endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi bulk flow route and that VSR–ligand interactions in the cis-Golgi play an important role in vacuolar sorting. We also show that a conserved Glu is required but not sufficient for rate-limiting YXX?-mediated receptor trafficking. Protein–protein interaction studies show that the VSR tail interacts with the ?-subunits of plant or mammalian clathrin adaptor complex AP1 and plant AP4 but not that of plant and mammalian AP2. Mutants causing a detour of full-length receptors via the cell surface invariantly cause the secretion of VSR ligands. Therefore, we propose that cycling via the plasma membrane is unlikely to play a role in biosynthetic vacuolar sorting under normal physiological conditions and that the conserved Ile-Met motif is mainly used to recover mistargeted receptors. This occurs via a fundamentally different pathway from the prevacuolar compartment that does not mediate recycling. The role of clathrin and clathrin-independent pathways in vacuolar targeting is discussed. PMID:24642936

Gershlick, David C.; de Marcos Lousa, Carine; Foresti, Ombretta; Lee, Andrew J.; Pereira, Estela A.; daSilva, Luis L.P.; Bottanelli, Francesca; Denecke, Jurgen

2014-01-01

15

Cationicity-Enhanced Analogues of the Antimicrobial Peptides, AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, from the Venom of the Scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, Display Potent Growth Modulation Effects on Human Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The non disulphide-bridged peptides (NDBPs) of scorpion venoms are attracting increased interest due to their structural heterogeneity and broad spectrum of biological activities. Here, two novel peptides, named AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, have been identified in the lyophilised venom of the Arabian scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, through “shotgun” molecular cloning of their biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs. The respective mature peptides, predicted from these cloned cDNAs, were subsequently isolated from the same venom sample using reverse phase HPLC and their identities were confirmed by use of mass spectrometric techniques. Both were found to belong to a family of highly-conserved scorpion venom antimicrobial peptides - a finding confirmed through the biological investigation of synthetic replicates. Analogues of both peptides designed for enhanced cationicity, displayed enhanced potency and spectra of antimicrobial activity but, unlike the native peptides, these also displayed potent growth modulation effects on a range of human cancer cell lines. Thus natural peptide templates from venom peptidomes can provide the basis for rational analogue design to improve both biological potency and spectrum of action. The diversity of such templates from such natural sources undoubtedly provides the pharmaceutical industry with unique lead compounds for drug discovery. PMID:25332684

Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Ge, Lilin; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

2014-01-01

16

Lithium and the 6Li-7Li isotope ratio in the atmospheres of some sharp-lined roAp stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ? 6708 Å and 6103 Å lithium lines in the high-resolution spectra of some sharp-lined roAp stars are analyzed using three spectral-synthesis codes STARSP, ZEEMAN2, and SYNTHM. The lines from the VALD database were supplemented with lines of rare-earth elements from the DREAM database and new lines calculated using the NIST energy levels. Our synthetic-spectrum calculations take into account magnetic splitting and other line-broadening effects. Lithium overabundances were found in the atmospheres of the stars based on our analysis of both lithium lines, along with high values of the 6Li-7Li isotope ratio (0.2 0.5). This can be explained if lithium is produced in spallation reactions and the surface 6Li and 7Li is preserved by strong magnetic fields in the upper layers of the stellar atmospheres, around the poles of the dipole field. The asymmetry of lithium lines to the red may be due to the action of shocks in the optically thin upper atmosphere, with the shocked material subsequently falling onto the star.

Shavrina, A. V.; Polosukhina, N. S.; Khan, S.; Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Khalack, V. R.; Mikha?litskaya, N. G.; Lyubchik, Yu. P.; Yushchenko, A. V.; Hatzes, A.; Mkrtichian, D. E.; Il'in, I. V.

2006-06-01

17

Design of the SLC damping ring to linac transport lines  

SciTech Connect

The first and second order optics for the damping ring to linac transport line are designed to preserve the damped transverse emittance while simultaneously compressing the bunch length of the beam to that length required for reinjection into the linac. This design, including provisions for future control of beam polarization, is described.

Fieguth, T.H.; Murray, J.J.

1983-07-01

18

Autoantibody profiling in APS.  

PubMed

The international consensus for the classification of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) requires clinical and laboratory criteria to be considered at an equal level for diagnosing APS. Thus, detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) being a hallmark of APS has been the object of intensive investigation over the past 40 years. However, appropriate detection of aPL still remains a laboratory challenge due to their heterogeneity comprising autoantibodies reactive to different phospholipid-binding plasma proteins, such as beta-2 glycoprotein I (?2GPI) and prothrombin. The relevance of aPL interacting with phospholipids other than cardiolipin (CL, diphosphatidylglycerol), such as phosphatidylserine (PS), remains elusive with regard to the diagnosis of APS. Recently, the concept of aPL profiling has been introduced to assess the risk of thrombotic complications in patients with APS. New assay techniques, apart from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) recommended by the international consensus for the classification of APS, have been proposed for multiplexing of aPL testing. Line immunoassays (LIAs) employing a novel hydrophobic solid phase for the simultaneous detection of different aPL seem to be an intriguing alternative. We evaluated a novel multiplex LIA employing a hydrophobic membrane coated with different phospholipid (PL)-binding proteins or PLs. The performance characteristics of this new multiplexing assay technique demonstrated its usefulness for aPL profiling. PMID:25228721

Roggenbuck, D; Somma, V; Schierack, P; Borghi, Mo; Meroni, Pl

2014-10-01

19

AnAlternatively Spliced mRNA fromtheAP-2GeneEncodes a Negative Regulator ofTranscriptional Activation byAP-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

AP-2isa retinoic acid-inducible anddevelopmentally regulated activator oftranscription. We havecloned an alternative AP-2transcript (AP-2B) fromthehumanteratocarcinoma cell linePA-1,whichencodes a protein differing intheC terminus fromthepreviously isolated AP-2protein (AP-2A). Thisprotein contains theactivation domainofAP-2andpartoftheDNA binding domainbutlacks thedimerization domainwhich isnecessaryforDNA binding. Analysis ofoverlapping genomic clones spanning theentire AP-2gene proves thatAP-2AandAP-2Btranscripts arealternatively spliced fromthesame gene.Bothtransient andstable transfection experiments showthatAP-2Binhibits AP-2transactivator function, as measured by an AP-2-responsive chloramphenicol

PERRY KANNAN; AXEL IMHOF; REINHARD BAUER; RUDOLF GLOCKSHUBER; MICHAEL W. VAN DYKE; MICHAEL A. TAINSKYl; M. D. Anderson

1993-01-01

20

Gibberellin Concentration and Transport in Genetic Lines of Pea 1  

PubMed Central

Effects of the Na and Le loci on gibberellin (GA) content and transport in pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoots were studied. GA1, GA8, GA17, GA19, GA20, GA29, GA44, GA8 catabolite, and GA29 catabolite were identified by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in extracts of expanding and fully expanded tissues of line C79-338 (Na Le). Quantification of GAs by gas chromatography-single-ion monitoring using deuterated internal standards in lines differing at the Na and Le alleles showed that na reduced the contents of GA19, GA20, and GA29 on average to <3% and of GA1 and GA8 to <30% of those in corresponding Na lines. In expanding tissues from Na le lines, GA1 and GA8 concentrations were reduced to approximately 10 and 2%, respectively, and GA29 content increased 2- to 3-fold compared with those in Na Le plants. There was a close correlation between stem length and the concentrations of GA1 or GA8 in shoot apices in all six genotypes investigated. In na/Na grafts, internode length and GA1 concentration of nana scions were normalized, the GA20 content increased slightly, but GA19 levels were unaffected. Movement of labeled GAs applied to leaves on Na rootstocks indicated that GA19 was transported poorly to apices of na scions compared with GA20 and GA1. Our evidence suggests that GA20 is the major transported GA in peas. Images Figure 2 PMID:16653128

Proebsting, William M.; Hedden, Peter; Lewis, Mervyn J.; Croker, Stephen J.; Proebsting, Lena N.

1992-01-01

21

The Broad-Lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-ray Burst Detection  

E-print Network

We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 +/- 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of 20,000 km/s that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (> 27,000 km/s). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of 2.7 Msolar, a kinetic energy of 1.0x10^{52} erg, and a 56Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 Msolar. Nebular spectra (t > 200d) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [OI] 6300,6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an al...

Milisavljevic, D; Parrent, J T; Soderberg, A M; Fesen, R A; Mazzali, P; Maeda, K; Sanders, N E; Cenko, S B; Silverman, J M; Filippenko, A V; Kamble, A; Chakraborti, S; Drout, M R; Kirshner, R P; Pickering, T E; Kawabata, K; Hattori, T; Hsiao, E Y; Stritzinger, M D; Marion, G H; Vinko, J; Wheeler, J C

2014-01-01

22

Observation and analysis of self-amplified spontaneous emission at the APS low-energy undulator test line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exponential growth of self-amplified spontaneous emission at 530nm was first experimentally observed at the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line in December 1999. Since then, further detailed measurements and analysis of the results have been made. Here, we present the measurements and compare these with calculations based on measured electron beam properties and theoretical expectations.

N. D. Arnold; J. Attig; G. Banks; R. Bechtold; K. Beczek; C. Benson; S. Berg; W. Berg; S. G Biedron; J. A Biggs; M. Borland; K. Boerste; M. Bosek; W. R Brzowski; J. Budz; J. A Carwardine; P. Castro; Y.-C Chae; S. Christensen; C. Clark; M. Conde; E. A Crosbie; G. A Decker; R. J Dejus; H. DeLeon; P. K Den Hartog; B. N Deriy; D. Dohan; P. Dombrowski; D. Donkers; C. L Doose; R. J Dortwegt; G. A Edwards; Y. Eidelman; M. J Erdmann; J. Error; R. Ferry; J. Forrestal; H. Freund; H. Friedsam; J. Gagliano; W. Gai; J. N Galayda; R. Gerig; R. L Gilmore; E. Gluskin; G. A Goeppner; J. Goetzen; C. Gold; A. J Gorski; A. E Grelick; M. W Hahne; S. Hanuska; K. C Harkay; G. Harris; A. L Hillman; R. Hogrefe; J. Hoyt; Z. Huang; J. M Jagger; W. G Jansma; M. Jaski; S. J Jones; R. T Keane; A. L Kelly; C. Keyser; K.-J Kim; S. H Kim; M. Kirshenbaum; J. H Klick; K. Knoerzer; R. J Koldenhoven; M. Knott; S. Labuda; R. Laird; J. Lang; F. Lenkszus; E. S Lessner; J. W Lewellen; Y. Li; R. M Lill; A. H Lumpkin; O. A Makarov; G. M Markovich; M. McDowell; W. P McDowell; P. E McNamara; T. Meier; D. Meyer; W. Michalek; S. V. Milton; H. Moe; E. R Moog; L. Morrison; A. Nassiri; J. R Noonan; R. Otto; J. Pace; S. J Pasky; J. M Penicka; A. F Pietryla; G. Pile; C. Pitts; J. Power; T. Powers; C. C. Putnam; A. J Puttkammer; D. Reigle; L. Reigle; D. Ronzhin; E. R Rotela; E. F Russell; V. Sajaev; S. Sarkar; J. C Scapino; K. Schroeder; R. A Seglem; N. S Sereno; S. K Sharma; J. F Sidarous; O. Singh; T. L Smith; R. Soliday; G. A Sprau; S. J Stein; B. Stejskal; V. Svirtun; L. C Teng; E. Theres; K. Thompson; B. J Tieman; J. A Torres; E. M Trakhtenberg; G. Travish; G. F Trento; J. Vacca; I. B Vasserman; N. A Vinokurov; D. R Walters; J. Wang; X. J Wang; J. Warren; S. Wesling; D. L Weyer; G. Wiemerslage; K. Wilhelmi; R. Wright; D. Wyncott; S. Xu; B.-X. Yang; W. Yoder; R. B Zabel

2001-01-01

23

Observation and analysis of self-amplified spontaneous emission at the APS low-energy undulator test line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exponential growth of self-amplified spontaneous emission at 530 nm was first experimentally observed at the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line in December 1999. Since then, further detailed measurements and analysis of the results have been made. Here, we present the measurements and compare these with calculations based on measured electron beam properties and theoretical expectations.

Arnold, N. D.; Attig, J.; Banks, G.; Bechtold, R.; Beczek, K.; Benson, C.; Berg, S.; Berg, W.; Biedron, S. G.; Biggs, J. A.; Borland, M.; Boerste, K.; Bosek, M.; Brzowski, W. R.; Budz, J.; Carwardine, J. A.; Castro, P.; Chae, Y.-C.; Christensen, S.; Clark, C.; Conde, M.; Crosbie, E. A.; Decker, G. A.; Dejus, R. J.; DeLeon, H.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B. N.; Dohan, D.; Dombrowski, P.; Donkers, D.; Doose, C. L.; Dortwegt, R. J.; Edwards, G. A.; Eidelman, Y.; Erdmann, M. J.; Error, J.; Ferry, R.; Flood, R.; Forrestal, J.; Freund, H.; Friedsam, H.; Gagliano, J.; Gai, W.; Galayda, J. N.; Gerig, R.; Gilmore, R. L.; Gluskin, E.; Goeppner, G. A.; Goetzen, J.; Gold, C.; Gorski, A. J.; Grelick, A. E.; Hahne, M. W.; Hanuska, S.; Harkay, K. C.; Harris, G.; Hillman, A. L.; Hogrefe, R.; Hoyt, J.; Huang, Z.; Jagger, J. M.; Jansma, W. G.; Jaski, M.; Jones, S. J.; Keane, R. T.; Kelly, A. L.; Keyser, C.; Kim, K.-J.; Kim, S. H.; Kirshenbaum, M.; Klick, J. H.; Knoerzer, K.; Koldenhoven, R. J.; Knott, M.; Labuda, S.; Laird, R.; Lang, J.; Lenkszus, F.; Lessner, E. S.; Lewellen, J. W.; Li, Y.; Lill, R. M.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Makarov, O. A.; Markovich, G. M.; McDowell, M.; McDowell, W. P.; McNamara, P. E.; Meier, T.; Meyer, D.; Michalek, W.; Milton, S. V.; Moe, H.; Moog, E. R.; Morrison, L.; Nassiri, A.; Noonan, J. R.; Otto, R.; Pace, J.; Pasky, S. J.; Penicka, J. M.; Pietryla, A. F.; Pile, G.; Pitts, C.; Power, J.; Powers, T.; Putnam, C. C.; Puttkammer, A. J.; Reigle, D.; Reigle, L.; Ronzhin, D.; Rotela, E. R.; Russell, E. F.; Sajaev, V.; Sarkar, S.; Scapino, J. C.; Schroeder, K.; Seglem, R. A.; Sereno, N. S.; Sharma, S. K.; Sidarous, J. F.; Singh, O.; Smith, T. L.; Soliday, R.; Sprau, G. A.; Stein, S. J.; Stejskal, B.; Svirtun, V.; Teng, L. C.; Theres, E.; Thompson, K.; Tieman, B. J.; Torres, J. A.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Travish, G.; Trento, G. F.; Vacca, J.; Vasserman, I. B.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Walters, D. R.; Wang, J.; Wang, X. J.; Warren, J.; Wesling, S.; Weyer, D. L.; Wiemerslage, G.; Wilhelmi, K.; Wright, R.; Wyncott, D.; Xu, S.; Yang, B.-X.; Yoder, W.; Zabel, R. B.

2001-12-01

24

Thermal transport along the dislocation line in silicon carbide.  

PubMed

We elucidate thermal conductivity along the screw dislocation line, which represents a transport direction inaccessible to classical theories. By using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we uncover a Burgers vector dependent thermal conductivity reduction in silicon carbide. The effect is uncorrelated with the classical modeling and originates in the highly deformed core region, which represents a significant source of anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering. High strain reduces the phonon relaxation time, especially in the longitudinal acoustic branches, and creates an effective internal thermal resistance around the dislocation axis. Our results have implications for designing materials useful for high-temperature electronics and thermoelectric applications. PMID:25279633

Ni, Yuxiang; Xiong, Shiyun; Volz, Sebastian; Dumitric, Traian

2014-09-19

25

Thermal Transport Along the Dislocation Line in Silicon Carbide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We elucidate thermal conductivity along the screw dislocation line, which represents a transport direction inaccessible to classical theories. By using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we uncover a Burgers vector dependent thermal conductivity reduction in silicon carbide. The effect is uncorrelated with the classical modeling and originates in the highly deformed core region, which represents a significant source of anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering. High strain reduces the phonon relaxation time, especially in the longitudinal acoustic branches, and creates an effective internal thermal resistance around the dislocation axis. Our results have implications for designing materials useful for high-temperature electronics and thermoelectric applications.

Ni, Yuxiang; Xiong, Shiyun; Volz, Sebastian; Dumitric, Traian

2014-09-01

26

Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magneti... http://www.aps.org/meet/DPP02/baps/abs/S670004.html 1 of 1 3/10/05 10:26 AM  

E-print Network

, for a system periodic in the transverse directions. It follows that if such a static equilibrium is drivenNon-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magneti... http://www.aps.org/meet/DPP02 and Dynamics III. ORAL session, Tuesday morning, November 12 Salon 5-6, Rosen Centre Hotel [FM1.004] Non-Equilibrium

Ng, Chung-Sang

27

TETRAD: an on-line telematic surveillance system for animal transports  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept for on-line surveillance of animal transports is presented, comprising telemetry and wireless data communication. The concept has two major objectives: (1) to improve animal disease prevention and control and (2) to enable monitoring of animal welfare during transport. The system allows on-line collection on the transport lorry of data with respect to animal identification, body temperature and

R Geers; H. W Saatkamp; K Goossens; B Van Camp; J Gorssen; G Rombouts; P Vanthemsche

1998-01-01

28

Reclaiming residual space from elevated transport infrastructure : time, space, and activity under the Chicago Brown Line  

E-print Network

This thesis studies the non-transport functions of the residual space generated by elevated transport infrastructure and its relationship with abutting neighborhoods The space under the Chicago Brown Line, among all other ...

Su, Jing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01

29

APS Science 2007.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

Not Available

2008-05-30

30

Electron Transport Line for Mu2e Calibration System , John Alsterdaa  

E-print Network

1 Electron Transport Line for Mu2e Calibration System Tim Hea , John Alsterdaa , Grace Bluhma to the ground and its z- axis orthogonal to the ground. The transport line elements are aligned with the x and z: George Gollin, g-gollin@illinois.edu, +1 (217) 333-4451. #12;2 Figure 1: Ideal electron trajectory

Gollin, George

31

Studies of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam in a solenoid based beam transport line  

SciTech Connect

A self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to study the transport properties of a space-charge-dominated multispecies beam propagating through a solenoid-based low energy beam transport line. The evolution of the beam radius and emittance growth of each species arising due to the nonlinear space-charge forces has been investigated. The self-consistent PIC simulation shows the formation of hollow density profiles of subdominant unwanted species around the primary beam, downstream of the transport line. We have utilized this effect for efficient removal of unwanted species by making use of a slit at a suitable location in the beam line.

Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

2012-11-15

32

An Agarose-Gel Based Method for Transporting Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Cryopreserved cells stored in dry ice or liquid nitrogen is the classical method for transporting cells between research laboratories in different cities around the world in order to maintain cell viability. An alternative method is to ship the live cells in flasks filled with cell culture medium. Both methods have limitations of either a requirement on special shipping container or short times for the cells to survive on the shipping process. We have recently developed an agarose gel based method for directly transporting the live adherent cells in cell culture plates or dishes in ambient temperature. This convenient method simplifies the transportation of live cells in long distance that can maintain cells in good viability for several days. PMID:20161836

Yang, Lingzhi; Li, Chufang; Chen, Ling; Li, Zhiyuan

2009-01-01

33

8 CFR 241.24 - Notice to transportation line of alien's exclusion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings Commenced Prior to April 1, 1997) § 241.24 Notice to transportation line of alien's exclusion. (a) An excluded alien shall,...

2010-01-01

34

Probabilistic on-line transportation problems with carrying-capacity constraints  

E-print Network

This thesis presents new insights and techniques for the analysis and design of autonomous or technology-assisted ("intelligent") transportation systems. The focus is on cooperative, on-line planning and control, of a fleet ...

Treleaven, Kyle (Kyle Ballantyne)

2014-01-01

35

The t(10;11)(p13;q14) in the U937 cell line results in the fusion of the AF10 gene and CALM, encoding a new member of the AP-3 clathrin assembly protein family.  

PubMed Central

The translocation t(10;11)(p13;q14) is a recurring chromosomal abnormality that has been observed in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia as well as acute myeloid leukemia. We have recently reported that the monocytic cell line U937 has a t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation. Using a combination of positional cloning and candidate gene approach, we cloned the breakpoint and were able to show that AF10 is fused to a novel gene that we named CALM (Clathrin Assembly Lymphoid Myeloid leukemia gene) located at 11q14. AF10, a putative transcription factor, had recently been cloned as one of the fusion partners of MLL. CALM has a very high homology in its N-terminal third to the murine ap-3 gene which is one of the clathrin assembly proteins. The N-terminal region of ap-3 has been shown to bind to clathrin and to have a high-affinity binding site for phosphoinositols. The identification of the CALM/AF10 fusion gene in the widely used U937 cell line will contribute to our understanding of the malignant phenotype of this line. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8643484

Dreyling, M H; Martinez-Climent, J A; Zheng, M; Mao, J; Rowley, J D; Bohlander, S K

1996-01-01

36

Regulation to I Transport in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Like thyroid tissue, lactating breast actively accumulates iodide via the Na+/I- symporter (NIS). Iodide is thus supplied to the nursing newborn in the milk. Iodide transport via NIS has been used successfully for over 60 years to treat thyroid cancer by ...

C. Riedel, N. Carrasco

2002-01-01

37

Bacterial swimming and oxygen transport near contact lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerobic bacteria often live in thin fluid layers near solid-air-water contact lines, in which the biology of chemotaxis, metabolism, and cell-cell signaling is intimately connected to the physics of buoyancy, diffusion, and mixing. Using the geometry of a sessile drop, we demonstrate in suspensions of Bacillus subtilis the self-organized generation of a persistent hydrodynamic vortex that traps cells near the contact line. Arising from upward oxygentaxis and downward gravitational forcing, these dynamics are related to the Boycott effect in sedimentation and are explained quantitatively by a mathematical model consisting of oxygen diffusion and consumption, chemotaxis, and viscous fluid dynamics. The vortex is shown to advectively enhance uptake of oxygen into the suspension, and the wedge geometry leads to a singularity in the chemotactic dynamics near the contact line. bioconvection | chemotaxis | singularity | Bacillus subtilis

Tuval, Idan; Cisneros, Luis; Dombrowski, Christopher; Wolgemuth, Charles W.; Kessler, John O.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

2005-02-01

38

Bacterial swimming and oxygen transport near contact lines  

PubMed Central

Aerobic bacteria often live in thin fluid layers near solid–air–water contact lines, in which the biology of chemotaxis, metabolism, and cell–cell signaling is intimately connected to the physics of buoyancy, diffusion, and mixing. Using the geometry of a sessile drop, we demonstrate in suspensions of Bacillus subtilis the self-organized generation of a persistent hydrodynamic vortex that traps cells near the contact line. Arising from upward oxygentaxis and downward gravitational forcing, these dynamics are related to the Boycott effect in sedimentation and are explained quantitatively by a mathematical model consisting of oxygen diffusion and consumption, chemotaxis, and viscous fluid dynamics. The vortex is shown to advectively enhance uptake of oxygen into the suspension, and the wedge geometry leads to a singularity in the chemotactic dynamics near the contact line. PMID:15699341

Tuval, Idan; Cisneros, Luis; Dombrowski, Christopher; Wolgemuth, Charles W.; Kessler, John O.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

2005-01-01

39

An automated system for measuring the mass flowrate of powders in transport lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new automated particle transport (APT) system has been developed for studying the dissemination of bulk powders into deagglomerated aerosols. It consists of a 1.12-inch ID transport line with a spout-fluidized bed feeder. The particles are transported from an aerated annulus into the transport line and collected in a closed can or bag filter. Two separate feed lines supply the air necessary to operate the transport line and aerate the particles in order that they flow smoothly into the transport line. An IBM PC AT computer clone equipped with a data translation DT 2806 multifunction input-output board and A to D and D to A modules (DTX 311 and 328) is used for both control and data acquisition. A fluid mechanical model of the flow has been developed and the APT system will be used to verify it. Experiments will be conducted to measure the choking velocity, drag coefficient, fluid and particle flowrates, and pressure distribution in the line.

Littman, Howard; Morgan, Morris B., III; Prapas, Demetrios K.; Rubel, Glen O.

1990-08-01

40

Tyrosine transport in a human melanoma cell line as a basis for selective transport of cytotoxic analogues.  

PubMed Central

Tyrosine is an essential amino acid for the initial step of melanin synthesis, yet little is known concerning its transport in melanocytes. As an important first step in the development of new anti-melanoma agents based upon chemical and pharmacological modifications of melanin synthesis, the present study characterized the transport mechanism of tyrosine in vitro using the human melanoma cell line SK-MEL 23. Several tyrosine transport systems may be involved in melanocytes: systems L and T, which transport neutral amino acids with branched or aromatic side chains, and systems A and ASC, which transport neutral amino acids with smaller side chains. In order to determine which system or combination of systems is involved in tyrosine transport in melanoma cells, studies of kinetics, Na(+)-dependence and competitive inhibition were undertaken. The Km and Vmax. for the Na(+)-independent transport system were found to be 0.164 +/- 0.016 mM and 21.6 +/- 1.1 nmol/min per mg of protein respectively. This transport was preferentially inhibited by the system L specific analogue, 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid, the system T substrate tryptophan, and the sulphur homologue of tyrosine, 4-S-cysteinylphenol. Sequential addition of these inhibitors at increasing concentrations indicated that they inhibit the same transporter. Our results suggest that tyrosine transport in SK-MEL 23 melanoma cells is similar to system L transport previously characterized in other cell types. This one transport system appears to supply all the tyrosine required for both cell growth and melanin synthesis. The transport system may be subject to manipulation by melanogenic stimulating factors, making the transport of cytotoxic tyrosine analogues an important area for further study. PMID:1764036

Pankovich, J M; Jimbow, K

1991-01-01

41

New Rail Line for South Africa [Transportation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gauteng Provincial Government of South Africa has signed a $3.3 billion design-build contract with the Bombela Consortium for the 50-mile Rapid Rail Link. The contract calls for the line to be built in two phases. Phase One, which have five stations, start at the Johannesburg International Airport, run northwest to Marlboro and split to go north to Midrand and

Harvey Glickenstein

2007-01-01

42

Natural resource consumption in rail transport: A note analysing two Finnish railway lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eco-efficiency of railway transport is calculated using the Material Input Per Service-unit (MIPS) indicator. Two case railway lines are analysed; a single-track line and a double-track line. The results show that the railway infrastructure is the most significant factor in the consumption of abiotic materials, even at a high traffic density. The impact of the rolling stock was higher

Leena Vihermaa; Michael Lettenmeier; Arto Saari

2006-01-01

43

Neutral lines and azimuthal 'transport' of solar energetic particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examines properties of solar energetic particle (SEP) events observed by both Helios spacecraft in the time period March 1976 to March 1980, in particular, variations of the intensity time profiles with angular distance between the flare and the observer's magnetic footpoint. Emphasis is placed on the neutral lines of the large-scale coronal magnetic field. For individual events, it is shown that sector boundaries can have a strong influence on intensities and time scales of SEP events. Variations of onset and maximum times as well as maximum intensities with angular distance between the flare and the observer's magnetic footpoint for 39 SEP events are discussed. It is found that particles can be observed on both sides of sector boundaries during both impulsive and gradual events. The onset times of about 0.5-MeV electrons can be ordered by the occurrence of sector boundaries.

Kallenrode, May-Britt

1993-04-01

44

n-Butylidenephthalide induced apoptosis in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line by coupled down-regulation of AP-2? and telomerase activity  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the role of hTERT gene expression and AP-2? in n-butylidenephthalide (n-BP)-induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells. Methods: Viability of A549 cells was measured by MTT assay. Protein expression was determined by Western blot. Telomerase activity was measured using the modified telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Xenograft mice were used as a model system to study the cytotoxic effect of n-BP in vivo. The morphology of tumor was examined by immunohistochemical staining. Results: The growth of A549 lung cancer cells treated with n-BP was significantly inhibited. Telomerase activity and hTERT mRNA expression were determined by telomeric repeat amplification protocol and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. n-BP inhibited telomerase activity and hTERT mRNA expression in A549 cells while overexpression of hTERT could abolish BP-induced growth inhibition in the A549 cells. We also showed that hTERT promoter activity in the presence of n-BP was mediated via AP-2?. We saw an inhibition of tumor growth when nude mice carrying A549 subcutaneous xenograft tumors were treated with n-BP. Immunohistochemistry of this tumor tissue also showed a decrease in the expression of hTERT. Conclusion: The antiproliferative effects of n-BP on A549 cells in vitro and in vivo suggest a novel clinical application of this compound in the treatment of lung cancers. PMID:19701232

Wei, Chyou-wei; Lin, Chai-ching; Yu, Yung-luen; Lin, Chai-yi; Lin, Po-cheng; Wu, Min-tze; Chen, Cheng-jueng; Chang, Wenliang; Lin, Shinn-zong; Chen, Yi-lin Sophia; Harn, Horng-jyh

2009-01-01

45

Laa1p, a Conserved AP-1 Accessory Protein Important for AP-1 Localization in Yeast  

PubMed Central

AP-1 and Gga adaptors participate in clathrin-mediated protein transport between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Both adaptors contain homologous domains that act to recruit accessory proteins involved in clathrin-coated vesicle formation, but the spectrum of known adaptor-binding partners is limited. This study describes an evolutionarily conserved protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Laa1p (Yjl207cp), that interacts and functions specifically with AP-1. Deletion of LAA1, when combined with a conditional mutation in clathrin heavy chain or deletion of GGA genes, accentuated growth defects and increased disruption of clathrin-dependent ?-factor maturation and transport of carboxypeptidase Y to the vacuole. In contrast, such genetic interactions were not observed between deletions of LAA1 and AP-1 subunit genes. Laa1p preferentially interacted with AP-1 compared with Gga proteins by glutathione S-transferase-fusion affinity binding and coimmunoprecipitations. Localization of AP-1 and Laa1p, but not Gga proteins, was highly sensitive to brefeldin A, an inhibitor of ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) activation. Importantly, deletion of LAA1 caused mislocalization of AP-1, especially in cells at high density (postdiauxic shift), but it did not affect Gga protein distribution. Our results identify Laa1p as a new determinant of AP-1 localization, suggesting a model in which Laa1p and Arf cooperate to direct stable association of AP-1 with appropriate intracellular membranes. PMID:16687571

Fernandez, G. Esteban

2006-01-01

46

Generic effluent monitoring system certification for AP-40 exhauster stack  

SciTech Connect

Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as applied to the AP-40 exhauster stack, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/AP-40 system meets all applicable performance criteria. The contaminant mixing tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at the wind tunnel facility, 331-H Building, using a mockup of the actual stack. The particle sample transport tests were conducted by PNNL at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The AP-40 stack is typical of several 10-in. diameter stacks that discharge the filtered ventilation air from tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles. Unrelated to the performance criteria, it was found that the record sample filter holder exhibited symptoms of sample bypass around the particle collection filter. This filter holder should either be modified or replaced with a different type. 10 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

Glissmeyer, J.A.; Davis, W.E.; Bussell, J.H.; Maughan, A.D.

1997-09-01

47

Operation of the Intensity Monitors in Beam Transport Lines at Fermilab During Run II  

The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. During Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.

2011-10-01

48

Opening AP to All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a school's effort to open Advanced Placement (AP) to all by challenging its students to take the leap into AP courses. Samuel W. Wolfson High School, on the south side of Jacksonville, Florida, is one of 27 schools in five cities across the country that chose to participate in a College Board initiative called EXCELerator.…

Gewertz, Catherine

2008-01-01

49

Analysis of Traffic Congestion by Considering Merging on Entry Lines in Transportation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a transportation system, a merging control strategy is necessary to avoid collisions between vehicles at a merging section with entry lines. In this study, under the assumption that each entry line is assigned time-independent priority, we analyze traffic congestion with a stochastic model. A quantitative estimation of the congestion is successfully obtained in terms of the average queue length and the average queuing delay. On the basis of analytical results, we propose a control strategy that changes the priority periodically. Using simulation, it is clarified that the proposed control strategy gives an arbitrary values of the queue length and the queuing delay on each line.

Hoshino, Takahiro; Tsuboi, Kazuhiro; Hamamatsu, Yoshio

50

APS Science 2006.  

SciTech Connect

In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged from work at the APS, to complement the tremendous output of work in basic science, which often has payoff in technology but over decades rather than years. Highlights in this report also reflect the relevance of APS work to Department of Energy missions, for example a route to more efficient fuel cells (page xx mr-88-073113) addresses the energy challenge, and natural approaches to cleaning up the environment.

Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

2007-05-24

51

APS: Active Parameter Searching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

APS finds Frequentist confidence limits on high-dimensional parameter spaces by using Gaussian Process interpolation to identify regions of parameter space for which chisquared is less than or equal to some specified limit. The code is written in C++, is robust against multi-modal chisquared functions and converges comparably fast to Monte Carlo methods. Code is also provided to draw Bayesian credible limits using the outputs of APS, though this code does not converge as well. APS requires the linear algebra libraries LAPACK, BLAS, and ARPACK (ascl:1311.010) to run.

Daniel, Scott F.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Schneider, Jeff

2014-08-01

52

Sherwood/APS 2006 Conference  

SciTech Connect

The International Sherwood Theory Meeting is a yearly meeting that focuses on the theory of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. There are many topics of common interest in fusion plasma systems and space and astrophysical plasmas. These common topics include such key topics as magnetic reconnection, the dynamo, turbulence and transport and particle heating and acceleration. One of the major participants of the April APS meeting is the APS Division of Astrophysics (DAP). The goal of having the Sherwood Meeting jointly with the April meeting was to promote discussion of topics of common interest in fusion and space and astrophysics. Scientists from the DAP, the Division of Plasma Physics (DPP), the Topical Group on Plasma Astrophysics (GPAP) and Sherwood worked together closely to produce a joint program that addressed areas of common interest. Four sessions of invited talks were sponsored jointly by the DAP, DPP and GPAP on laboratory experiments related to astrophysics. Plasma scientists working in theory and computation play a key role in connecting these laboratory experiments to the very disparate conditions found in fusion and astrophysical systems. Thus, the attendees of the Sherwood Theory meeting were critical to facilitating this effort at cross-disciplinary communication. Noteworthy were the selection of two of the prestigious plenary talks at the joint meeting on plasma topics - one related to the gyrokinetic modeling of turbulence and the other related to the structure of collisionless shocks. It is rare to see even a single plenary talk on plasma physics at the APS April Meeting. There were additional costs associated with hosting a joint meeting. The Office of Fusion Energy Sciences contributed $3000 in partial support of this meeting. This funding covered part of the costs of the poster boards and A. V. equipment that was used in the presentation of nearly 200 scientific papers related to magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The APS waived its indirect costs on this funding as part of their effort to support this joint meeting.

James F. Drake

2009-07-28

53

APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2012 APS Conferences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is on page 238 of The Physiologist, December 2012. The APS regularly awards Travel Fellowships for underrepresented minority students to attend the APS scientific meetings with funds provided by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). In the final year of support, these Fellowships provided up to $1,800 in expense reimbursement for meeting registration, transportation, meals, and lodging.

APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

2012-12-01

54

APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2008 APS Intersociety Meeting: The Integrative Biology of Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. The APS regularly awards Travel Fellowships for underrepresented minority scientists and students to attend APS scientific meetings with funds provided by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). These fellowships provide funds for registration, transportation, meals, and lodging. Seven fellows attended the APS Intersociety Meeting, ÃÂThe Biology of Exercise VÃÂ in Hilton Head, SC from September 24-27, 2008.

2009-02-01

55

APS Science 2009.  

SciTech Connect

It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report), the challenge of sustainable energy provides an opportunity for expanded involvement with industrial research. We were privileged to recruit several outstanding new leaders at the APS. Linda Young, from Argonne's Chemical Sciences Division, became the new Director of the X-ray Science Division (XSD). Chris Jacobsen (from Stony Brook University) has been added to Linda's team as an XSD Associate Division Director, joining George Srajer. Alexander (Sasha) Zholents (formerly of Berkeley Lab) became Director of the Accelerator Systems Division. Sasha is the inventor of the short-pulse x-ray scheme that we plan to implement in the APS-U to obtain very high average brightness, broadband, 1-ps x-ray pulses. Walter Lowe (formerly of Howard University) has taken a new position as senior advisor for outreach and development of the user community. Walter's role is to increase the diversity of the user community (with diversity read broadly to include users, institutions, and technical disciplines that are underrepresented at APS). Walter is also leading an effort to increase access for industrial users. I am confident that we have in place a great team to help our users and the APS take fullest advantage of the APS-U opportunity. In planning with users for the proposed APS-U, we focused on the need to study 'real materials under real conditions in real time' on spatial and temporal scales unavailable today. Only by studying materials as they are made-or as they perform-in difficult environments can we solve the grand challenge of higher-performance, sustainable materials for energy and health. The proposed APS-U will improve the brightness of penetrating x-rays produced by the APS over 100 times, and support our efforts in developing state-of-the-art instruments to address these challenges.

Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

2010-05-01

56

N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist d-AP5 prevents pertussis toxin-induced alterations in rat spinal cords by inhibiting increase in concentrations of spinal CSF excitatory amino acids and downregulation of glutamate transporters.  

PubMed

Recently, we found that intrathecal (i.t.) pertussis toxin (PTX) injection produces thermal hyperalgesia and is associated with increasing concentrations of excitatory amino acids (EAAs) in spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dialysates; a reduction in the antinociceptive effects of morphine and glutamate transporters (GTs) was also observed. The reduction in the morphine-induced analgesic effects is directly related to increased extracellular EAA levels, which are maintained by GTs at physiological levels. In this study, we aimed to examine the role of GT isoforms in thermal hyperalgesia, determine the EAA concentrations in CSF dialysates, and elucidate the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in PTX-induced reduction in the antinociceptive effects of morphine. Two i.t. catheters and one microdialysis probe were inserted into male Wistar rats: one catheter was used for PTX (1 microg) and morphine (10 microg) injection and the other was connected to an osmotic pump for NMDA receptor antagonist d-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (d-AP5; 2 microg/h for 4 days) continuous infusion. The microdialysis probe was used to collect CSF dialysates for EAA measurements by high-performance liquid chromatography. Intrathecal morphine failed to produce antinociceptive effects in PTX-treated rats, and d-AP5 coinfusion prevented the PTX-induced reduction in the antinociceptive effect and associated downregulation of the GTs. We conclude that NMDA receptor suppression inhibits EAA excitation and reduces the morphine-induced antinociception in PTX-treated rats. PMID:19463918

Wong, Chih-Shung; Wu, Gong-Jhe; Chen, Wu-Fu; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Hung, Ching-Hsien; Lin, Chan-Shing; Huang, Shi-Ying; Wen, Zhi-Hong

2009-08-28

57

Erratum: ``Resolving the Effects of Resonant X-Ray Line Scattering in Centaurus X-3 with Chandra'' (ApJ, 582, 959 [2003])  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An error of a factor of 4? appears three times in our paper. Equation (3) has an extra factor of 4? on the right-hand side. It should be:4?jrec=h?0nZ,z??e2/mc?th?1/h?L?4?s2df/d?d?.(3)In the text that follows, the description of the quantity L?/4?s2 actually applies to the quantity L?/s2. The quantity L?/4?s2 instead should be described as ``the radiation energy per unit area per unit time per unit frequency assuming that the plasma is optically thin....'' The second line of equation (4) is also missing a factor of 1/(4?) on the right-hand side. It should be:=h?0??e2/mcnZ,zdsd??th?L?/4?h?df/d?d?.(4)

Wojdowski, Patrick S.; Liedahl, Duane A.; Sako, Masao; Kahn, Steven M.; Paerels, Frederik

2004-06-01

58

Functional coding variation in recombinant inbred mouse lines reveals multiple serotonin transporter-associated phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology and treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we use naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify multiple phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL\\/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined

Ana M. D. Carneiro; David C. Airey; Brent Thompson; Chong-Bin Zhu; L Lu; E J Chesler; K M Erikson; R. D. Blakely

2009-01-01

59

Predominant role of plasma membrane monoamine transporters in monoamine transport in 1321N1, a human astrocytoma-derived cell line.  

PubMed

Monoamine neurotransmitters should be immediately removed from the synaptic cleft to avoid excessive neuronal activity. Recent studies have shown that astrocytes and neurons are involved in monoamine removal. However, the mechanism of monoamine transport by astrocytes is not entirely clear. We aimed to elucidate the transporters responsible for monoamine transport in 1321N1, a human astrocytoma-derived cell line. First, we confirmed that 1321N1 cells transported dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and histamine in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Kinetics analysis suggested the involvement of low-affinity monoamine transporters, such as organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 and 3 and plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT). Monoamine transport in 1321N1 cells was not Na(+) /Cl(-) dependent but was inhibited by decynium-22, an inhibitor of low-affinity monoamine transporters, which supported the importance of low-affinity transporters. RT-PCR assays revealed that 1321N1 cells expressed OCT3 and PMAT but no other neurotransmitter transporters. Another human astrocytoma-derived cell line, U251MG, and primary human astrocytes also exhibited the same gene expression pattern. Gene-knockdown assays revealed that 1321N1 and primary human astrocytes could transport monoamines predominantly through PMAT and partly through OCT3. These results might indicate that PMAT and OCT3 in human astrocytes are involved in monoamine clearance. PMID:24471494

Naganuma, Fumito; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Nakamura, Tadaho; Iida, Tomomitsu; Harada, Ryuichi; Mohsen, Attayeb S; Miura, Yamato; Yanai, Kazuhiko

2014-05-01

60

Gibberellin concentration and transport in genetic lines of pea : effects of grafting.  

PubMed

Effects of the Na and Le loci on gibberellin (GA) content and transport in pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoots were studied. GA(1), GA(8), GA(17), GA(19), GA(20), GA(29), GA(44), GA(8) catabolite, and GA(29) catabolite were identified by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in extracts of expanding and fully expanded tissues of line C79-338 (Na Le). Quantification of GAs by gas chromatography-single-ion monitoring using deuterated internal standards in lines differing at the Na and Le alleles showed that na reduced the contents of GA(19), GA(20), and GA(29) on average to <3% and of GA(1) and GA(8) to <30% of those in corresponding Na lines. In expanding tissues from Na le lines, GA(1) and GA(8) concentrations were reduced to approximately 10 and 2%, respectively, and GA(29) content increased 2- to 3-fold compared with those in Na Le plants. There was a close correlation between stem length and the concentrations of GA(1) or GA(8) in shoot apices in all six genotypes investigated. In na/Na grafts, internode length and GA(1) concentration of nana scions were normalized, the GA(20) content increased slightly, but GA(19) levels were unaffected. Movement of labeled GAs applied to leaves on Na rootstocks indicated that GA(19) was transported poorly to apices of na scions compared with GA(20) and GA(1). Our evidence suggests that GA(20) is the major transported GA in peas. PMID:16653128

Proebsting, W M; Hedden, P; Lewis, M J; Croker, S J; Proebsting, L N

1992-11-01

61

The OMI AP5 analytical stereoplotter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of a new, high performance, low cost analytical stereoplatter in the 4 micrometer precision range is presented. The O.M.I. AP5 analytical stereoplotter is designed without some of the costly features found on more expensive instruments, making it cost effective for commercial organizations. However, the AP5 still maintains the capabilities and accuracies of higher class instruments including the digital data collection, data file management, on and off line plotting and other features expected of a state-of-the-art photogrammetric instrument.

Harvey, C. E.

62

Constitutive expression of the taurine transporter in a human colon carcinoma cell line.  

PubMed

The human colon carcinoma cell line HT-29, when grown to confluence, was found to take up taurine and accumulate it against a concentration gradient from a NaCl-containing uptake medium. Replacement of NaCl with choline chloride almost totally abolished the uptake. Taurine uptake was dependent not only on Na+ but also on Cl-, because other anions failed to support the uptake in the presence of Na+. The uptake process was specific for beta-amino acids such as taurine, hypotaurine, and beta-alanine. Apparently, a single transport system with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 10.6 +/- 0.3 microM was responsible for the uptake. Stoichiometric analyses revealed that the Na+:taurine coupling ratio was 2:1, whereas the Cl-:taurine coupling ratio was 1:1. Culture of the cells in the presence of taurine caused downregulation of the uptake system. These cells were also capable of accumulating beta-alanine against a concentration gradient in the presence of NaCl. Beta-Alanine uptake occurred via a single transport system with an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of 36 +/- 2 microM. Taurine and beta-alanine exhibited mutual interaction during uptake. Kinetic experiments strongly suggested that a common transporter was responsible for the uptake of these two beta-amino acids. It is concluded that the HT-29 cells constitutively express the taurine transporter and that this cell line may be a suitable model for investigations of intestinal taurine transporter. PMID:1443137

Tiruppathi, C; Brandsch, M; Miyamoto, Y; Ganapathy, V; Leibach, F H

1992-11-01

63

AP Biology Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of experiments and demonstrations presented by biology teachers addressing some of the most difficult-to-understand topics in the AP biology curriculum which include evolutionary traits, genetics, bacterial transformation, antibody diversity, comparative anatomy, photosynthesis, human genetics, protein synthesis, recombinant DNA and RNA polymerase.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;)

2003-06-03

64

APS power supply controls  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications.

Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

1994-03-31

65

Carrier-mediated transport of valproic acid in BeWo cells, a human trophoblast cell line  

E-print Network

The biochemical mechanisms mediating the rapid distribution of valproic acid across placenta are not precisely known. We have characterized valproic acid transport by the human trophoblast using the human choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo. The uptake...

Utoguchi, Naoki; Audus, Kenneth L.

2000-01-01

66

ANL/APS/TB-5 Functional Description of APS Beamline  

E-print Network

ANL/APS/TB-5 Functional Description of APS Beamline Front Ends by Tuncer Kuzay February 1993 Advanced Photon Source & Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 o operated by The University Avenue Argonne, llUnms 60439 AN/APSflB-5 Functional Description of APS Beamline Front Ends by Tuncer

Kemner, Ken

67

Survey and alignment of high energy physics accelerators and transport lines  

SciTech Connect

This talk summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are revisited and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step by step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations.

Ruland, R.E.

1992-11-01

68

Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes  

SciTech Connect

The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

Carneiro, Ana [Vanderbilt University; Airey, David [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Thompson, Brent [Vanderbilt University; Zhu, C [Vanderbilt University; Rinchik, Eugene M [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Erikson, Keith [University of North Carolina; Blakely, Randy [Vanderbilt University

2009-01-01

69

Physics AP B II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education (MITE), seeks to provide âÂÂhigh-quality, multimedia content on general education subjects to high school and college students.â This course, Advanced Placement Physics B II, is part two of a two-semester course and contains study materials, lessons, interactive media, and textbooks to help students prepare for the College Board AP Physics exam. Three course units, containing nineteen chapters in total, cover topics in electrostatics, conductors and capacitors, electric circuits, magnostatics, electromagnetism, wave motion, physical optics, geometric optics, atomics physics and quantum effect, and nuclear physics. Many of the chapters feature multimedia resources that employ a variety of interactive activities to help students absorb information. This is an excellent self-paced tool for students to use while preparing for the AP Physics exam, or as supplementary material for a physics course.

2008-07-08

70

Physics AP B I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education (MITE), seeks to provide âÂÂhigh-quality, multimedia content on general education subjects to high school and college students.â This course, Advanced Placement Physics B I, is part one of a two semester course and contains study materials, lessons, and textbooks to help students prepare for the College Board AP Physics exam. Two course units, containing nine chapters in total, cover topics in Newtonian mechanics, fluid mechanics and thermal physics. Many of the chapters feature multimedia resources that employ a variety of interactive activities to help students absorb information. This is an excellent self-paced tool for students to use while preparing for the AP Physics exam, or as supplementary material for a physics course.

2008-07-08

71

The effects of magnetic fringe fields on beam dynamics in a beam transport line of a terahertz FEL source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport line used in a terahertz FEL device has to transport electron beam through the entire system efficiently and meet the requirements of the beam parameters at the undulator entrance. Due to space limitations, the size of the magnets (five quadrupoles and two bending magnets) employed in the transport line was limited, and some devices were densely packed. In this paper, analyses of the effect of fringe fields and magnetic interference of magnets are presented. 3D models of these magnets are built and their linear optical properties are compared with those obtained by hard edge models. The results indicated that the effects of these factors are significant and they would cause a mismatch of the beam at the exit of the transport line under the preliminary lattice design. To solve this problem, the beam was re-matched using the particle swarm optimization algorithm.

Zeng, Han; Xiong, Yongqian; Pei, Yuanji

2014-11-01

72

Compartmentalization of transport and phosphorylation of glucose in a hepatoma cell line.  

PubMed

The first steps of glucose metabolism are carried out by members of the families of GLUTs (glucose transporters) and HKs (hexokinases). Previous experiments using the inhibitor of glucose transport, CB (cytochalasin B), revealed that compartmentalization of GLUTs and HKs is a major factor in the control of glucose uptake in L6 myotubes [Whitesell, Ardehali, Printz, Beechem, Knobel, Piston, Granner, Van Der Meer, Perriott and May (2003) Biochem. J. 370, 47-56]. In the present paper, we evaluate compartmentalization of GLUTs and HKs in a hepatoma cell line, H4IIE, which is characterized by excess GLUT activity, HKI in a particulate and a cytosolic fraction, and insignificant G6Pase (glucose-6-phosphatase) activity. The measured activity of glucose transport exceeded the rate of phosphorylation approx. 30-fold. Treatment with 25 microM CB (K(i) approximately 3 microM in H4IIE cells) paradoxically increased the excess of GLUTs over phosphorylation (GLUTs are inhibited 80%, while phosphorylation is inhibited 98%). The global relationships of the data could be reconciled most simply by a two-compartment model. In this model, phosphorylation of glucose is carried out by a subset of HK molecules supplied by a subset of GLUTs that are more sensitive to CB than the other GLUTs. The agent, DCC (dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide) caused HKI to translocate from the particulate compartment to the cytosolic compartment and potently inhibited glucose phosphorylation. The particulate compartment may represent the mitochondria, to which the more CB-sensitive GLUTs may control the transport of glucose. PMID:15473866

Whitesell, Richard R; Ardehali, Hossein; Beechem, Joseph M; Powers, Alvin C; Van der Meer, Wieb; Perriott, Laureta M; Granner, Daryl K

2005-03-01

73

Identification of transport pathways for citric acid cycle intermediates in the human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2.  

PubMed

Citric acid cycle intermediates are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract through carrier-mediated mechanisms, although the transport pathways have not been clearly identified. This study examines the transport of citric acid cycle intermediates in the Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cell line, often used as a model of small intestine. Inulin was used as an extracellular volume marker instead of mannitol since the apparent volume measured with mannitol changed with time. The results show that Caco-2 cells contain at least three distinct transporters, including the Na+-dependent di- and tricarboxylate transporters, NaDC1 and NaCT, and one or more sodium-independent pathways, possibly involving organic anion transporters. Succinate transport is mediated mostly by Na+-dependent pathways, predominantly by NaDC1, but with some contribution by NaCT. RT-PCR and functional characteristics verified the expression of these transporters in Caco-2 cells. In contrast, citrate transport in Caco-2 cells occurs by a combination of Na+-independent pathways, possibly mediated by an organic anion transporter, and Na+-dependent mechanisms. The non-metabolizable dicarboxylate, methylsuccinate, is also transported by a combination of Na+-dependent and -independent pathways. In conclusion, we find that multiple pathways are involved in the transport of di- and tricarboxylates by Caco-2 cells. Since many of these pathways are not found in human intestine, this model may be best suited for studying Na+-dependent transport of succinate by NaDC1. PMID:18194662

Weerachayaphorn, Jittima; Pajor, Ana M

2008-04-01

74

Quantitative assessment of direct and indirect landslide risk along transportation lines in southern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative approach for landslide risk assessment along transportation lines is presented and applied to a road and a railway alignment in the Nilgiri hills in southern India. The method allows estimating direct risk affecting the alignments, vehicles and people, and indirect risk resulting from the disruption of economic activities. The data required for the risk estimation were obtained from historical records. A total of 901 landslides were catalogued initiating from cut slopes along the railway and road alignment. The landslides were grouped into three magnitude classes based on the landslide type, volume, scar depth, run-out distance, etc and their probability of occurrence was obtained using frequency-volume distribution. Hazard, for a given return period, expressed as the number of landslides of a given magnitude class per kilometre of cut slopes, was obtained using Gumbel distribution and probability of landslide magnitude. In total 18 specific hazard scenarios were generated using the three magnitude classes and six return periods (1, 3, 5, 15, 25, and 50 years). The assessment of the vulnerability of the road and railway line was based on damage records whereas the vulnerability of different types of vehicles and people was subjectively assessed based on limited historic incidents. Direct specific loss for the alignments (railway line and road), vehicles (train, bus, lorry, car and motorbike) was expressed in monetary value (US), and direct specific loss of life of commuters was expressed in annual probability of death. Indirect specific loss (US) derived from the traffic interruption was evaluated considering alternative driving routes, and includes losses resulting from additional fuel consumption, additional travel cost, loss of income to the local business, and loss of revenue to the railway department. The results indicate that the total loss, including both direct and indirect loss, from 1 to 50 years return period, varies from US 90 840 to US 779 500 and the average annual total loss was estimated as US 35 000. The annual probability of a person most at risk travelling in a bus, lorry, car, motorbike and train is less than 10-4/annum in all the time periods considered. The detailed estimation of direct and indirect risk will facilitate developing landslide risk mitigation and management strategies for transportation lines in the study area.

Jaiswal, P.; van Westen, C. J.; Jetten, V.

2010-06-01

75

Autosomal recessive spastic tetraplegia caused by AP4M1 and AP4B1 gene mutation: expansion of the facial and neuroimaging features.  

PubMed

Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP4) is a component of intracellular transportation of proteins, which is thought to have a unique role in neurons. Recently, mutations affecting all four subunits of AP4 (AP4M1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4B1) have been found to cause similar autosomal recessive phenotype consisting of tetraplegic cerebral palsy and intellectual disability. The aim of this study was analyzing AP4 genes in three new families with this phenotype, and discussing their clinical findings with an emphasis on neuroimaging and facial features. Using homozygosity mapping followed by whole-exome sequencing, we identified two novel homozygous mutations in AP4M1 and a homozygous deletion in AP4B1 in three pairs of siblings. Spastic tetraplegia, microcephaly, severe intellectual disability, limited speech, and stereotypic laughter were common findings in our patients. All patients also had similar facial features consisting of coarse and hypotonic face, bitemporal narrowing, bulbous nose with broad nasal ridge, and short philtrum which were not described in patients with AP4M1 and AP4B1 mutations previously. The patients presented here and previously with AP4M1, AP4B1, and AP4E1 mutations shared brain abnormalities including asymmetrical ventriculomegaly, thin splenium of the corpus callosum, and reduced white matter volume. The patients also had hippocampal globoid formation and thin hippocampus. In conclusion, disorders due to mutations in AP4 complex have similar neurological, facial, and cranial imaging findings. Thus, these four genes encoding AP4 subunits should be screened in patients with autosomal recessive spastic tetraplegic cerebral palsy, severe intellectual disability, and stereotypic laughter, especially with the described facial and cranial MRI features. PMID:24700674

Tüysüz, Beyhan; Bilguvar, Kaya; Koçer, Naci; Yalç?nkaya, Cengiz; Ça?layan, Okay; Gül, Ece; Sahin, Sezgin; Çomu, Sinan; Günel, Murat

2014-07-01

76

Thrombotic risk assessment in APS: the Global APS Score (GAPSS).  

PubMed

Recently, we developed a risk score for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (Global APS Score or GAPSS). This score derived from the combination of independent risk factors for thrombosis and pregnancy loss, taking into account the antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) profile (criteria and non-criteria aPL), the conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and the autoimmune antibodies profile. We demonstrate that risk profile in APS can be successfully assessed, suggesting that GAPSS can be a potential quantitative marker of APS-related clinical manifestations. PMID:25228728

Sciascia, S; Bertolaccini, Ml

2014-10-01

77

Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Blue Line vehicle evaluation. Final report Apr-Oct 79  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the results of engineering tests carried out on a pair of rapid transit cars for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. The tests were performed at the Transportation Test Center, Pueblo, Colorado, from April 1979 through October 1979. The scope of the test program included an evaluation of performance, ride quality, and interior and wayside noise, using standardized test procedures; special engineering tests were made to evaluate energy conservation methods and three types of experimental brake shoes. The tests showed that the vehicles met their design specification requirements with some deficiencies, notably in emergency braking rates. An energy conservation technique was evaluated, in which response characteristics of the vehicle propulsion system were modified to reduce energy needs due to aerodynamic drag at high speeds. Several potential energy-saving configurations were identified, with minimal impact on round-trip times. The experimental brake shoes tested were found to give performance comparable to the original equipment at normal operating speeds for the MBTA Blue Line, but were inferior at higher speeds.

Balaster, A.; Arnold, G.; Simmonds, K.; Francis, K.

1980-07-01

78

Beam transport line with scaling fixed field alternating gradient type magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator provides large momentum acceptance despite the fact that magnetic guiding fields are constant in time. Optical functions are identical over the large momentum range as well. We have designed a straight beam transport line (BTL) using a scaling FFAG type magnet which has a field profile of yk, where y is the horizontal coordinate and k is the magnetic field index. This FFAG-BTL has very large momentum acceptance and optical functions that, practically speaking, do not depend on momentum. We also designed a dispersion suppressor at the end of the line by combining unit cells with a different field index k so that the momentum dependence of orbit location should be eliminated at the exit. An obvious application of this design is the BTL after an FFAG accelerator to a patient in a hadron therapy facility or to a target in general. This could be an alternative to the conventional BTL with solenoids or quadrupoles because of the strong focusing nature of a quadrupole and the large momentum acceptance like a solenoid.

Machida, Shinji; Fenning, Richard

2010-08-01

79

Cascades of Transient Pores in Giant Vesicles: Line Tension and Transport  

PubMed Central

Under ordinary circumstances, the membrane tension of a giant unilamellar vesicle is essentially nil. Using visible light, we stretch the vesicles, increasing the membrane tension until the membrane responds by the sudden opening of a large pore (several micrometers in size). Only a single pore is observed at a time in a given vesicle. However, a cascade of transient pores appear, up to 30–40 in succession, in the same vesicle. These pores are transient: they reseal within a few seconds as the inner liquid leaks out. The membrane tension, which is the driving force for pore opening, is relaxed with the opening of a pore and the leakage of the inner liquid; the line tension of the pore's edge is then able to drive the closure of a pore. We use fluorescent membrane probes and real-time videomicroscopy to study the dynamics of the pores. These can be visualized only if the vesicles are prepared in a viscous solution to slow down the leakout of the internal liquid. From measurements of the closure velocity of the pores, we are able to infer the line tension, 𝒯. We have studied the effect of the shape of inclusion molecules on 𝒯. Cholesterol, which can be modeled as an inverted cone-shaped molecule, increases the line tension when incorporated into the bilayers. Conversely, addition of cone-shaped detergents reduces 𝒯. The effect of some detergents can be dramatic, reducing 𝒯by two orders of magnitude, and increasing pore lifetimes up to several minutes. We give some examples of transport through transient pores and present a rough measurement of the leakout velocity of the inner liquid through a pore. We discuss how our results can be extended to less viscous aqueous solutions which are more relevant for biological systems and biotechnological applications. PMID:12609875

Karatekin, Erdem; Sandre, Olivier; Guitouni, Hicham; Borghi, Nicolas; Puech, Pierre-Henri; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

2003-01-01

80

Calcyon, a mammalian specific NEEP21 family member, interacts with adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) and regulates targeting of AP-3 cargoes.  

PubMed

Calcyon is a neural enriched, single transmembrane protein that interacts with clathrin light chain and stimulates clathrin assembly and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. A similar property is shared by the heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 which recruit cargoes for insertion into clathrin coated transport vesicles. Here we report that AP medium (?) subunits interact with a YXXØ-type tyrosine motif located at residues 133-136 in the cytoplasmic domain of calcyon. Site specific mutagenesis of the critical tyrosine and bulky hydrophobic residues tyrosine 133 and methionine 136 preferentially abrogated binding of the ubiquitous and neuronal isoforms of ?3, and also impacted ?1 and ?2 binding to a lesser degree. The relevance of these interactions was explored in vivo using mice harboring null alleles of calcyon. As seen in the mutagenesis studies, calcyon deletion in mice preferentially altered the subcellular distribution of AP-3 suggesting that calcyon could regulate membrane-bound pools of AP-3 and AP-3 function. To test this hypothesis, we focused on the hilar region of hippocampus, where levels of calcyon, AP-3, and AP-3 cargoes are abundant. We analyzed brain cryosections from control and calcyon null mice for zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), and phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha (PI4KII?), two well-defined AP-3 cargoes. Confocal microscopy indicated that ZnT3 and PI4KII? are significantly reduced in the hippocampal mossy fibers of calcyon knock-out brain, a phenotype previously described in AP-3 deficiencies. Altogether, our data suggest that calcyon directly interacts with ?3A and ?3B, and regulates the subcellular distribution of AP-3 and the targeting of AP-3 cargoes. PMID:22650988

Muthusamy, Nagendran; Faundez, Victor; Bergson, Clare

2012-10-01

81

ABC and SLC transporter expression and proton oligopeptide transporter (POT) mediated permeation across the human blood--brain barrier cell line, hCMEC/D3 [corrected].  

PubMed

Initial studies indicate that the newly developed hCMEC/D3 cell line may prove to be a useful model for studying the physiology of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium. The purpose of this study was to assess the mRNA expression of several ABC and SLC transporters, with an emphasis on the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter superfamily (POT) transporters in this immortalized BBB cell model. The transport kinetics of POT-substrates was also evaluated. The hCMEC/D3 cell line was maintained in a modified EGM-2 medium in collagenated culture flasks and passaged every 3-4 days at approximately 85%-95% confluence. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of a variety of ABC and SLC transporters was evaluated using qRT-PCR arrays, while additional qRT-PCR primers were designed to assess the expression of POT members. The transport kinetics of mannitol and urea were utilized to quantitatively estimate the intercellular pore radius, while POT substrate transport was also determined to assess the suitability of the cell model from a drug screening perspective. Optimization of the cell line was attempted by culturing with on laminin and fibronectin enhanced collagen and in the presence of excess Ca(2+). hCMEC/D3 cells express both hPHT1 and hPHT2, while little to no expression of either hPepT1 or hPepT2 was observed. The relative expression of other ABC and SLC transporters is discussed. While POT substrate transport does suggest suitability for BBB drug permeation screening, the relative intercellular pore radius was estimated at 19 A, significantly larger than that approximated in vivo. Culturing with extracellular matrix proteins did not alter mannitol permeability. These studies characterized this relevant human hCMEC/D3 BBB cell line with respect to both the relative mRNA expression of various ABC and SLC transporters and its potential utility as an in vitro screening tool for brain permeation. Additional studies are required to adequately determine the potential to establish an in vivo correlation. PMID:20524699

Carl, Stephen M; Lindley, David J; Das, Debanjan; Couraud, Pierre O; Weksler, Babette B; Romero, Ignacio; Mowery, Stephanie A; Knipp, Gregory T

2010-08-01

82

AP Calculus BC I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education, this free online course covers all of the material outlined by the College Board as necessary to prepare students to pass the AP Calculus BC exam. This course is divided into two semesters and this unit is the first of those two semesters, it is designed to "acquaint you with calculus principles such as derivatives, integrals, limits, approximation, applications and modeling, and sequences and series." The course is separated into four units, including functions and graphs, limits and continuity, derivatives, and application of the derivative. Each lesson has objectives, readings, multimedia lectures, and assessments with answers. The site is also indexed by subject, which can be browsed alphabetically or sequentially. It is a great place for students to enhance their calculus skills or for educators to find supplementary materials for the classroom.

2008-07-09

83

AP Environmental Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by Hippocampus, a project of The Monterey Institute for Technology and Education, this free online course covers all of the material outlined by the College Board as necessary to prepare students to pass the AP Environmental Science exam and is designed to acquaint visitors with " the physical, ecological, social, and political principles of environmental science." This course contains six units: Earth's Systems; Human Population Dynamics; Natural Resources; Environmental Quality; Global Changes; and Environment and Society. Each unit includes several chapters each with readings, lessons, assignments and assessments with answers. The site also lists all the topics covered, indexed in both alphabetical and sequential order. It's a great place for students to get extra help in Environmental Science and for instructors to find lecture and test materials for the classroom.

2008-07-07

84

Lines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

Mires, Peter B.

2006-01-01

85

An improved thermionic microwave gun and emittance-preserving transport line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positron\\/electron linac for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory can be used to accelerate electrons to 650 MeV. As part of a project, to use this linac to test the quality of insertion devices, work has been done to develop a higher-brightness thermionic microwave gun of the SSRL type. The new gun design has smaller emittance

M. Borland

1993-01-01

86

AP-42 REVISION: COKE OVENS  

EPA Science Inventory

The document "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors" (AP-42) has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1972. Supplements to AP-42 have been routinely published to add new emission source categories and to update existing emission factor...

87

Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction by activator protein 2alpha (AP-2alpha) and the role of p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 in AP-2alpha-mediated growth inhibition.  

PubMed

Activator protein 2alpha (AP-2alpha) is a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factor implicated in differentiation and transformation. In this study, we have made a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus that expresses functional AP-2alpha (Ad-AP2). Cells infected with Ad-AP2 expressed induced levels of AP-2alpha protein, which bound to DNA in a sequence-specific manner and activated the AP-2-specific reporter 3X-AP2. Expression of AP-2alpha from Ad-AP2 inhibited cellular DNA synthesis and induced apoptosis. Ad-AP2 infection resulted in efficient inhibition of growth of cancer cells of six different types. In addition, prior expression of AP-2alpha increased the chemosensitivity of H460, a lung carcinoma cell line, to adriamycin (2.5-fold) and cisplatin (5-fold). Furthermore, the growth inhibition by AP-2alpha was found to be less efficient in the absence of p53 or p21, which correlated with reduced apoptosis in p53 null cells and lack of DNA synthesis inhibition in p21WAF1/CIP1 null cells by AP-2alpha, respectively. These results suggest that AP-2alpha inhibits the growth of cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and that the use of AP-2alpha should be explored as a therapeutic strategy either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. PMID:14551210

Wajapeyee, Narendra; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

2003-12-26

88

Quality control and patient dosimetry in digital radiology. On line system: new features and transportability.  

PubMed

New features have been added to a system (QCONLINE) for auditing patient dosimetric and technical parameters 'on line', working on a digital radiology department and using the information contained in the DICOM header of some modalities. The audit of other parameters than patient doses have been included, setting alarm conditions to alert on malfunction of the X-ray system or bad operation modes, in addition to the evaluation of patient doses. A new module to analyse, collect and process the relevant information transferred by the modality performed procedure step (MPPS) service has been launched. Several examples with the exploitation of the new features are presented. The transportability of the system has been tested in two remote hospitals during several months. The new MPPS module has demonstrated to be a good tool to complement the information existing in the DICOM header. The system allows to help in the optimisation of digital radiology departments managing patient dosimetry and procedure data in real time. PMID:18283057

Vano, E; Ten, J I; Fernandez, J M; Prieto, C; Ordiales, J M; Martinez, D

2008-01-01

89

APS controls overview  

SciTech Connect

The APS accelerator control system described in this report is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and interfaces to hardware. The operator interface is a UNIX-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The user has the ability to generate and alter control displays and to access the alarm handler, the archiver, interactive control programs, custom code, and other tools. The TCP/EP networking protocol has been selected as the underlying protocol for the control system network. TCP/EP is a commercial standard and readily available from network hardware vendors. Its implementation is independent of the particular network medium selected to implement the controls network. In the development environment copper Ethernet is the network medium; however, in the actual implementation a fiber-based system using hub technology will be utilized. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system.

NONE

1996-02-01

90

Metastable states of a flux-line lattice studied by transport and small-angle neutron scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flux-line lattice (FLL) states have been studied using transport measurements and small-angle neutron scattering in low- Tc materials. In Pb-In , the bulk dislocations in the FLL do not influence the transport properties. In Fe -doped NbSe2 , transport properties can differ after a field cooling (FC) or a zero field cooling (ZFC) procedure, as previously reported. The ZFC FLL is found ordered with narrow Bragg peaks and is linked to a linear V(I) curve and to a superficial critical current. The FC FLL pattern exhibits two Bragg peaks and the corresponding V(I) curve shows an S -shape. This can be explained by the coexistence of two ordered FLLs slightly tilted from the applied field direction by different superficial currents. These currents are wiped out when the transport current is increased.

Pautrat, A.; Scola, J.; Simon, Ch.; Mathieu, P.; Brûlet, A.; Goupil, C.; Higgins, M. J.; Bhattacharya, S.

2005-02-01

91

Transport of liquid state nitrogen through long length service lines during thermal/vacuum testing. [in a Nimbus 6 satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical and analytical aspects associated with the transport are presented. Included is a definition of the problems and difficulties imposed by the servicing of a typical solid cryogen system, as well as a discussion of the transport requirements and of the rationale which governed their solution. A successful detailed transport configuration is defined, and the application of established mathematics to the design approach is demonstrated. The significance of head pressure, pressure drop, line friction, heat leak, Reynolds number, and the fundamental equilibrium demands of pressure and temperature were examined as they relate to the achievement of liquid state flow. Performance predictions were made for the transport system, and several analytical quantities are tabulated. These data are analyzed and compared with measured and calculated results obtained while actually servicing a solid cryogen system during thermal/vacuum testing.

Florio, F. A.

1975-01-01

92

APS Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2010 APS Conferences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From The Physiologist. Four travel fellows received funding to attend the 2010 APS Intersociety Meeting, ÃÂGlobal Change and Global Science: Comparative Physiology in a Changing World,ÃÂ from August 4-7, 2010 in Westminster, CO. Four travel fellows received funding to attend the APS Conference, ÃÂInflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease,ÃÂ from August 25-28, 2010 also in Westminster, CO. The application reviews were led by Committee Member, Johana Vallejo-Elias.

2010-12-01

93

Two lepidopteran cell lines stably transformed by the abc transporter gene pdr5 show tolerance to diacetoxyscirpenol.  

PubMed

The pleiotropic drug resistance 5 gene (pdr5) encodes a multidrug membrane transporter and plays a very important role in the efflux of a broad range of chemicals in yeast cells. To study the possible function of pdr5 in insect cells, two stably pdr5-transformed lepidopteran insect cell lines, Sf21 and CF-203, were developed. Transcripts of pdr5 were detected in these two lines using Northern blotting and RT-PCR analysis. When cells were treated with the protein synthesis inhibitor diacetoxyscirpenol, the transformed Sf21 and CF-203 cell lines showed increased tolerance to this chemical. However, unlike in yeast cells, ecdysone agonist RH5992 could not be excluded by PDR5, probably because of low expression levels or imperfect incorporation of the recombinant protein in these transformed cell lines. PMID:16618208

Zhang, D-Y; Krell, P J; Feng, Q-L

2006-01-01

94

SN 2005ap: A Most Brilliant Explosion  

E-print Network

We present unfiltered photometric observations with ROTSE-III and optical spectroscopic follow-up with the HET and Keck of the most luminous supernova yet identified, SN 2005ap. The spectra taken about 3 days before and 6 days after maximum light show narrow emission lines (likely originating in the dwarf host) and absorption lines at a redshift of z=0.2832, which puts the peak unfiltered magnitude at -22.7 +/- 0.1 absolute. Broad P-Cygni features corresponding to H-alpha, CIII, NIII, and OIII, are further detected with a photospheric velocity of ~20,000 km/s. Unlike other highly luminous supernovae such as 2006gy and 2006tf that show slow photometric evolution, the light curve of SN 2005ap indicates a 1-3 week rise to peak followed by a relatively rapid decay. The spectra also lack the distinct emission peaks from moderately broadened (FWHM ~ 2,000 km/s) Balmer lines seen in SN 2006gy and SN 2006tf. We briefly discuss the origin of the extraordinary luminosity from a strong interaction as may be expected from a pair instability eruption or a GRB-like engine encased in a H/He envelope.

Robert M. Quimby; Greg Aldering; J. Craig Wheeler; Peter Höflich; Carl W. Akerlof; Eli S. Rykoff

2007-09-03

95

The APS machine protection system (MPS)  

SciTech Connect

The machine protection system (MPS) that protects the APS storage ring vacuum chamber from x-ray beams, is active. There are over 650 sensors monitored and networked through the MPS system. About the same number of other process variables are monitored by the much slower EPICS control system, which also has an input to the rf abort chain. The MPS network is still growing with the beam position limits detection system coming on-line. The network configuration, along with a limited description of individual subsystems, is presented.

Fuja, R.; Berg, B.; Arnold, N. [and others

1996-08-01

96

Learning about Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS)  

MedlinePLUS

... problems, neurological signs, heart valve disease and certain autoimmune diseases have also been noted in association with APS. ... org] An organization dedicated to the eradication of autoimmune diseases and the alleviation of suffering and the socioeconomic ...

97

47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.713 Common line, traffic-sensitive, and...

2010-10-01

98

In-situ characterization of wastewater flow and transport from at-grade line sources to shallow groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of multidimensional unsaturated and saturated flow and transport under boundary conditions typical of on-site wastewater disposal systems is required to assess the risk to groundwater contamination. The main objective of this research is to characterize in-situ wastewater flow and transport from at-grade line sources on a shallow groundwater conditions. The research site was conducted at Wetaskiwin Rest Stop, Alberta, Canada, where ultraviolet disinfected wastewater has been disposed off to the ground via pressurized at-grade line sources since 2007. The site was characterized for wastewater plume and temporal groundwater fluctuation by using Electromagnetic induction (EM31) and (EM38); and by grid of 74 water table wells, 14 piezometers and 11 transducers. Groundwater was analyzed for selected tracers (pH, EC and Cl) and some microbiology (e.g. E. coli). From the results wastewater plume was identified; and wastewater plume center of mass and average flow direction were estimated. Along the horizontal plume center of mass, 30 monitoring wells in 10 nests and 31 temperature sensors in 5 nests were installed to get vertical resolution of the wastewater plume and to track contaminant transport over time. Results, implications and plans for future investigations will be presented. The research output will benefit future research on contaminant fate and transport and groundwater risk assessment plans. Key words: On-site wastewater treatment/disposal system, Wastewater plume, Groundwater contamination.

Weldeyohannes, A. O.; Kachanoski, R. G.; Dyck, M. F.

2011-12-01

99

Characterization of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene expression profile in Y79: a retinoblastoma cell line.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy failure was reported in treatment of retinoblastoma suggesting a role for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins. Little is known about the expression pattern of ABC proteins in this cancer type. We investigated the gene expression profile of 47 ABC proteins in the human retinoblastoma cell line Y79 by TaqMan low-density array. Analysis revealed 31 ABC transporter genes expressed in this tumor cell line. Y79 cells demonstrate high gene expression of ABCA7, ABCA12, ABCB7, ABCB10, ABCC1, ABCC4, ABCD3, ABCE1, ABCF1, ABCF2, and ABCF3 (more than twofold compared to pooled RNA from different tissues). Moreover, we show that Y79 cells exhibit an active calcein efflux pointing to multidrug resistance protein (MRP)-like transporter activity. In summary, we present for the first time an ABC transporter gene expression profile in cells derived from retinoblastoma. Most of the highly expressed ABC transporter genes are typical markers of cancer cells and might exhibit potential targets for medical treatment of retinoblastoma. PMID:19266166

Hendig, Doris; Langmann, Thomas; Zarbock, Ralf; Schmitz, Gerd; Kleesiek, Knut; Götting, Christian

2009-08-01

100

Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Blue Line vehicle evaluation. Final report Apr-Oct 79  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report presents the results of engineering tests carried out on a pair of rapid transit cars for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. The tests were performed at the Transportation Test Center, Pueblo, Colorado, from April 1979 through October 1979. The scope of the test program included an evaluation of performance, ride quality, and interior and wayside noise, using standardized

A. Balaster; G. Arnold; K. Simmonds; K. Francis

1980-01-01

101

Magnetic field-line wandering and cross-field transport of Solar Energetic Particles in a Parker-field geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unsolved problem of the large longitudinal spread of energetic particles early in a solar event is addressed by solving a Fokker-Planck (FP) type kinetic equation in a Parker spiral field by means of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The importance of including field-line meandering within a FP description has recently been emphasized by Laitinen et al (2013). While they used a uniform background magnetic field, here random walking magnetic field lines are superimposed on a Parker spiral configuration. The new model is compared to the standard heliospheric transport model solution. The longitudinal extent of a Solar Energetic Particle event, as observed at 1 AU from the Sun, is modeled to allow for comparisons to recent multi-spacecraft observations. We conclude that the particle propagation along meandering field lines is of importance for the first hours of a solar energetic particle event.

Effenberger, F.; Laitinen, T. L.; Kopp, A.; Dalla, S.; Marsh, M.

2013-12-01

102

Evidence for a radial magnetic field gradient on the AP star Alpha(2) Canum Venaticorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of the Ap star alpha2 CVn showed a decrease of the value and amplitude of variation of the magnetic field measured from the lines shorter than 3646 Å in comparison with the measurements at longer wavelengths. For another Ap star, beta CrB, no such effect was observed.

I. I. Romanyuk

1984-01-01

103

Evidence for a radial magnetic field gradient on the AP star Alpha(2) Canum Venaticorum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation of the Ap star ?2 CVn showed a decrease of the value and amplitude of variation of the magnetic field measured from the lines shorter than 3646 Å in comparison with the measurements at longer wavelengths. For another Ap star, ? CrB, no such effect was observed.

Romanyuk, I. I.

1984-06-01

104

Serotonin Transporter Promoter Gain-of-Function Genotypes Are Linked to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functional serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism, HTTLPR, alters the risk of disease as well as brain morphometry and function. Here, we show that HTTLPR is functionally triallelic. The LG allele, which is the L allele with a common G substitution, creates a functional AP2 transcription-factor binding site. Expression assays in 62 lymphoblastoid cell lines representing the six genotypes and in

Xian-Zhang Hu; Robert H. Lipsky; Guanshan Zhu; Longina A. Akhtar; Julie Taubman; Benjamin D. Greenberg; Ke Xu; Paul D. Arnold; Margaret A. Richter; James L. Kennedy; Dennis L. Murphy; David Goldman

2006-01-01

105

Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus HARMS extract on drug transport in human intestinal cell line Caco-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acanthopanax senticosus HARMS (AS) is used as a Chinese herbal medicine and as a health supplement in Japan. However, little is known about the interaction\\u000a between AS and other drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of AS extract on intestinal drug transporter (P-glycoprotein,\\u000a or P-gp) and peptide transporter activities in Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 cells were cultured on a

Tsunehisa Takahashi; Tomomi Kaku; Takashi Sato; Kazuhiro Watanabe; Juichi Sato

2010-01-01

106

Adaptor protein complexes and intracellular transport  

PubMed Central

The AP (adaptor protein) complexes are heterotetrameric protein complexes that mediate intracellular membrane trafficking along endocytic and secretory transport pathways. There are five different AP complexes: AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 are clathrin-associated complexes; whereas AP-4 and AP-5 are not. These five AP complexes localize to different intracellular compartments and mediate membrane trafficking in distinct pathways. They recognize and concentrate cargo proteins into vesicular carriers that mediate transport from a donor membrane to a target organellar membrane. AP complexes play important roles in maintaining the normal physiological function of eukaryotic cells. Dysfunction of AP complexes has been implicated in a variety of inherited disorders, including: MEDNIK (mental retardation, enteropathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, ichthyosis and keratodermia) syndrome, Fried syndrome, HPS (Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome) and HSP (hereditary spastic paraplegia). PMID:24975939

Park, Sang Yoon; Guo, Xiaoli

2014-01-01

107

Adaptor protein complexes and intracellular transport.  

PubMed

The AP (adaptor protein) complexes are heterotetrameric protein complexes that mediate intracellular membrane trafficking along endocytic and secretory transport pathways. There are five different AP complexes: AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 are clathrin-associated complexes; whereas AP-4 and AP-5 are not. These five AP complexes localize to different intracellular compartments and mediate membrane trafficking in distinct pathways. They recognize and concentrate cargo proteins into vesicular carriers that mediate transport from a donor membrane to a target organellar membrane. AP complexes play important roles in maintaining the normal physiological function of eukaryotic cells. Dysfunction of AP complexes has been implicated in a variety of inherited disorders, including: MEDNIK (mental retardation, enteropathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, ichthyosis and keratodermia) syndrome, Fried syndrome, HPS (Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome) and HSP (hereditary spastic paraplegia). PMID:24975939

Park, Sang Yoon; Guo, Xiaoli

2014-01-01

108

Bicarbonate-dependent chloride transport drives fluid secretion by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3.  

PubMed

Anion and fluid secretion are both defective in cystic fibrosis (CF); however, the transport mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) secretion was measured using genetically matched CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient and CFTR-expressing cell lines derived from the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3. Forskolin stimulated the short-circuit current (I(sc)) across voltage-clamped monolayers, and also increased the equivalent short-circuit current (I(eq)) calculated under open-circuit conditions. I(sc) was equivalent to the HCO(3)(-) net flux measured using the pH-stat technique, whereas I(eq) was the sum of the Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) net fluxes. I(eq) and HCO(3)(-) fluxes were increased by bafilomycin and ZnCl(2), suggesting that some secreted HCO(3)(-) is neutralized by parallel electrogenic H(+) secretion. I(eq) and fluid secretion were dependent on the presence of both Na(+) and HCO(3)(-). The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide abolished forskolin stimulation of I(eq) and HCO(3)(-) secretion, suggesting that HCO(3)(-) transport under these conditions requires catalysed synthesis of carbonic acid. Cl(-) was the predominant anion in secretions under all conditions studied and thus drives most of the fluid transport. Nevertheless, 50-70% of Cl(-) and fluid transport was bumetanide-insensitive, suggesting basolateral Cl(-) loading by a sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1)-independent mechanism. Imposing a transepithelial HCO(3)(-) gradient across basolaterally permeabilized Calu-3 cells sustained a forskolin-stimulated current, which was sensitive to CFTR inhibitors and drastically reduced in CFTR-deficient cells. Net HCO(3)(-) secretion was increased by bilateral Cl(-) removal and therefore did not require apical Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange. The results suggest a model in which most HCO(3)(-) is recycled basolaterally by exchange with Cl(-), and the resulting HCO(3)(-)-dependent Cl(-) transport provides an osmotic driving force for fluid secretion. PMID:22777674

Shan, Jiajie; Liao, Jie; Huang, Junwei; Robert, Renaud; Palmer, Melissa L; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; O'Grady, Scott M; Hanrahan, John W

2012-11-01

109

A study of misalignment effects of the ANL-APS electron linac focusing system  

SciTech Connect

We present an analytical treatment of quadrupole misalignment effects for the Argonne Advanced Photon Source (APS) 200-MeV electron linac. The results of numerical modeling with TRANSPORT are discussed.

Nassiri, A.; Mavrogenes, G.

1991-01-01

110

AP Human Geography and Success on the AP Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom projects that explore culture and globalization enhance the curriculum and help students see how geography directly connects to their lives. These authors contend that a project-based approach can supplement the teaching of an AP Human Geography course, and visualize this course as an essential tool for students to truly understand how…

Roncone, John; Newhalfen, Nate

2013-01-01

111

Geant4 simulations of proton beam transport through a carbon or beryllium degrader and following a beam line.  

PubMed

Monte Carlo simulations based on the Geant4 simulation toolkit were performed for the carbon wedge degrader used in the beam line at the Center of Proton Therapy of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The simulations are part of the beam line studies for the development and understanding of the GANTRY2 and OPTIS2 treatment facilities at PSI, but can also be applied to other beam lines. The simulated stopping power, momentum distributions at the degrader exit and beam line transmission have been compared to accurate benchmark measurements. Because the beam transport through magnetic elements is not easily modeled using Geant4a connection to the TURTLE beam line simulation program was made. After adjusting the mean ionization potential of the carbon degrader material from 78 eV to 95 eV, we found an accurate match between simulations and benchmark measurements, so that the simulation model could be validated. We found that the degrader does not completely erase the initial beam phase space even at low degraded beam energies. Using the validation results, we present a study of the usability of beryllium as a degrader material (mean ionization potential 63.7 eV). We found an improvement in the transmission of 30-45%, depending on the degraded beam energy, the higher value for the lower energies. PMID:19741273

van Goethem, M J; van der Meer, R; Reist, H W; Schippers, J M

2009-10-01

112

Obesity-Linked Homologues TfAP-2 and Twz Establish Meal Frequency in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

In all animals managing the size of individual meals and frequency of feeding is crucial for metabolic homeostasis. In the current study we demonstrate that the noradrenalin analogue octopamine and the cholecystokinin (CCK) homologue Drosulfakinin (Dsk) function downstream of TfAP-2 and Tiwaz (Twz) to control the number of meals in adult flies. Loss of TfAP-2 or Twz in octopaminergic neurons increased the size of individual meals, while overexpression of TfAP-2 significantly decreased meal size and increased feeding frequency. Of note, our study reveals that TfAP-2 and Twz regulate octopamine signaling to initiate feeding; then octopamine, in a negative feedback loop, induces expression of Dsk to inhibit consummatory behavior. Intriguingly, we found that the mouse TfAP-2 and Twz homologues, AP-2? and Kctd15, co-localize in areas of the brain known to regulate feeding behavior and reward, and a proximity ligation assay (PLA) demonstrated that AP-2? and Kctd15 interact directly in a mouse hypothalamus-derived cell line. Finally, we show that in this mouse hypothalamic cell line AP-2? and Kctd15 directly interact with Ube2i, a mouse sumoylation enzyme, and that AP-2? may itself be sumoylated. Our study reveals how two obesity-linked homologues regulate metabolic homeostasis by modulating consummatory behavior. PMID:25187989

Williams, Michael J.; Goergen, Philip; Rajendran, Jayasimman; Zheleznyakova, Galina; Hagglund, Maria G.; Perland, Emelie; Bagchi, Sonchita; Kalogeropoulou, Argyro; Khan, Zaid; Fredriksson, Robert; Schioth, Helgi B.

2014-01-01

113

Restoration of antigen presentation to the mutant cell line RMA-S by an MHC-linked transporter.  

PubMed

In mammalian cells, short peptides derived from intracellular proteins are displayed on the cell membrane associated with class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The surface presentation of class I-peptide complexes presumably alerts the immune system to intracellular viral protein synthesis. Peptides derived from the cytosol must reach the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum where they are required for the assembly of stable class I molecules, and it has been proposed that the products of the two MHC-encoded ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes function to deliver the peptides across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. This idea is supported by experiments in which transfection of a human cell line defective in class I expression with a complementary DNA of one of these genes restored cell surface expression levels. Here we show that the complete phenotype of the mouse mutant cell line RMA-S, in which lack of surface expression of stable class I molecules correlates with an inability to present viral peptides originating in the cytosol, is repaired by the cDNA of the other transporter gene. These results are consistent with the possibility that the two transporter polypeptides form a heterodimer. PMID:1758495

Powis, S J; Townsend, A R; Deverson, E V; Bastin, J; Butcher, G W; Howard, J C

114

On Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Mag... http://flux.aps.org/meetings/YR9596/BAPSDPP96/abs/S660010.html 1 of 1 3/10/05 11:16 AM  

E-print Network

conditions. It follows that if such a static equilibrium is driven unstable by footpoint motionsOn Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Mag... http - Concourse Level, Adam's Mark [8S.10] On Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magnetic

Ng, Chung-Sang

115

Doppler Line Shapes, Turbulence and Neutral Transport in Tokamak Edge Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

First investigations of the effect of ion temperature fluctuations on Doppler spectral line shapes emitted in tokamak edge plasmas are reported on. It is shown that hot charge exchange neutrals have to be taken into account in the analysis.

Marandet, Y. [PIIM, CNRS-Universite de Provence, Marseille (France); Boerner, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Mertens, Ph.; Reiter, D.; Sergienko, G.; Samm, U. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster (Germany); Dufty, J. W. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118440, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8440 (United States)

2006-11-22

116

47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.713 Common line, traffic-sensitive...paragraph governs requests for pricing flexibility with respect to the following services... (1) To obtain Phase I pricing flexibility, as specified in §...

2013-10-01

117

47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.713 Common line, traffic-sensitive...paragraph governs requests for pricing flexibility with respect to the following services... (1) To obtain Phase I pricing flexibility, as specified in §...

2011-10-01

118

Uptake of the cephalosporin, cephalexin, by a dipeptide transport carrier in the human intestinal cell line, Caco-2.  

PubMed

The transport of the orally absorbed cephalosporin, cephalexin, was examined in the human epithelial cell line, Caco-2 that possesses intestinal enterocyte-like properties when cultured. In sodium-free buffer, the cells accumulated 1 mM D-[9-14C]cephalexin against a concentration gradient and obtained a distribution ratio of 3.5 within 180 min. Drug uptake was maximal when the extracellular pH was 6.0. Uptake was reduced by metabolic inhibitors and by protonophores indicating that uptake was energy- and proton-dependent. Kinetic analysis of the concentration dependence of the rate of cephalexin uptake showed that a non-saturable component (Kd of 0.18 +/- 0.01 nmol/min per mg protein per mM) and a transport system with a Km of 7.5 +/- 2.8 mM and a Vmax of 6.5 +/- 0.9 nmol/min per mg protein were responsible for drug uptake. Uptake was competitively inhibited by dipeptides. The transport carrier exhibited stereospecificity for the L-isomer of cephalexin. Drug uptake was not affected by the presence of amino acids, organic anions, 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid or 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic stilbene. Therefore, Caco-2 cells take up cephalexin by a proton-dependent dipeptide transport carrier that closely resembles the transporter present in the intestine. Caco-2 cells represent a cellular model for future studies of the dipeptide transporter. PMID:2397233

Dantzig, A H; Bergin, L

1990-09-01

119

A role for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and the amino acid transport system xc- in cystine transport by a human pancreatic duct cell line.  

PubMed Central

1. The roles of the gamma-glutamyl cycle and the anionic amino acid transport system xc- in mediating L-cystine uptake were investigated in cultured human pancreatic duct PaTu 8902 cells. This cell line exhibits morphological features of normal pancreatic duct cells and expresses gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT, EC 2.3.2.2), an enzyme involved in the metabolism and regulation of intracellular glutathione (GSH). 2. Uptake of L-cystine (10 microM) was linear for up to 10 min, temperature dependent, Na+ independent, saturable (Michaelis-Menten constant (Km), 86 +/- 25 microM; maximal velocity (Vmax), 109 +/- 33 nmol (mg protein)-1 h-1) and reduced by 80-90% by a 50-fold excess concentration of L-glutamate and L-homocysteic acid, but not L-aspartate. These transport properties resemble those described for system xc-, which exchanges cystine for intracellular glutamate. 3. Acivicin, a known inhibitor of gamma-GT, decreased gamma-GT activity from 2.58 +/- 0.96 to 0.97 +/- 0.11 mU (mg protein)-1 and decreased the initial rates of L-cystine and L-glutamine uptake by 41-55%. Anthglutin (1-gamma-L-glutamyl-2-(2-carboxyphenylhyl)hydrazine), a structurally different inhibitor of gamma-GT, also caused a concentration-dependent (0.01-1 mM) decrease in gamma-GT activity and L-cystine uptake. 4. Neither acivicin nor anthglutin inhibited the uptake of L-glutamate, a poor substrate for gamma-GT. 5. In the presence of a 500-fold excess concentration of glutamate, which should abolish entry of cystine via system xc-, the remaining fraction of cystine transport was inhibited by 50% by acivicin, suggesting that transport is, in part, dependent on the activity of gamma-GT. 6. Cystine transport was also 60-80% inhibited by a series of gamma-glutamyl amino acids (5 mM) including gamma-glutamyl-glutamate, gamma-glutamyl-glutamine and gamma-glutamyl-glycine. alpha-Dipeptides inhibited cystine transport by only 6-22%. 7. These findings demonstrate that in human pancreatic duct PaTu 8902 cells, cystine uptake is mediated by system xc- (50-60%) and the gamma-glutamyl cycle. Our results provide the first evidence linking gamma-GT with cystine transport in human epithelial cells and are of relevance in view of the importance of cystine as a sulphur amino acid source for GSH synthesis in cells exposed to oxidative stress. Images Figure 1 PMID:7658371

Sweiry, J H; Sastre, J; Vina, J; Elsasser, H P; Mann, G E

1995-01-01

120

Regulation of membrane transport and metabolism in the HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line  

SciTech Connect

The effects of insulin on glucose transport and metabolism were examined in cultured HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells. The presence of glucose transporters was verified by D-glucose displaceable ({sup 3}H) cytochalasin B binding. Moreover, two classes of insulin binding sites were detected in radioligand binding experiments. Despite the presence of both glucose transporters and insulin receptors, insulin failed to stimulate glucose transport. However, insulin was found to activate glycolysis. These findings suggest that insulin directly influences substrate utilization through the glycolytic pathway in HT29 cells without activating the glucose transport pathway. A Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport pathway was also detected in HT29 cells using {sup 86}Rb{sup +} as a K{sup +} congener. The identity of this pathway as a Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter has been deduced from the following findings: (1) {sup 86}Rb{sup +} influx was inhibited by loop diuretics, (2) {sup 86}Rb{sup +} influx ceased in the absence of any one of the transported ions, and (3) cotransport exhibited a stoichiometry approaching 1Na{sup +}:1K{sup +}:2Cl{sup {minus}}. Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport was found to be exquisitely sensitive to cellular ATP and cyclic AMP levels. These results suggest that HT29 cells contain a Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport pathway that can be regulated by the second messenger cyclic AMP and is highly sensitive to the metabolic state of the cell. The involvement of protein kinase C in the regulation of Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport was also investigated. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which stimulated protein kinase C activity, produced a transient increase in cotransport followed by a near abolition of cotransport by 2 h.

Franklin, C.C.

1989-01-01

121

The Role of the Clathrin Adaptor AP-1: Polarized Sorting and Beyond.  

PubMed

The selective transport of proteins or lipids by vesicular transport is a fundamental process supporting cellular physiology. The budding process involves cargo sorting and vesicle formation at the donor membrane and constitutes an important process in vesicular transport. This process is particularly important for the polarized sorting in epithelial cells, in which the cargo molecules need to be selectively sorted and transported to two distinct destinations, the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Adaptor protein (AP)-1, a member of the AP complex family, which includes the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A and the epithelium-specific AP-1B, regulates polarized sorting at the trans-Golgi network and/or at the recycling endosomes. A growing body of evidence, especially from studies using model organisms and animals, demonstrates that the AP-1-mediated polarized sorting supports the development and physiology of multi-cellular units as functional organs and tissues (e.g., cell fate determination, inflammation and gut immune homeostasis). Furthermore, a possible involvement of AP-1B in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as Crohn's disease and cancer, is now becoming evident. These data highlight the significant contribution of AP-1 complexes to the physiology of multicellular organisms, as master regulators of polarized sorting in epithelial cells. PMID:25387275

Nakatsu, Fubito; Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

122

Microarray-based detection and expression analysis of ABC and SLC transporters in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Multiple drug resistance of cancer cells is multifactorial. A microarray technique may provide information about new candidate genes playing a role in drug resistance. Drug membrane transporters from ABC and SLC families play a main role in this phenomenon. This study demonstrates alterations in ABC and SLC gene expression levels in methotrexate, cisplatin, doxorubicin, vincristine, topotecan and paclitaxel-resistant variant of W1 ovarian cancer cell line. Resistant W1 cell lines were derived by stepwise selection of cells in increasing concentration of drugs. Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Human Genome U219 Array Strip was used for hybridizations. Statistical significance was determined by independent sample t-test. The genes having altered expression levels in drug-resistant sublines were selected and filtered by scater plot. Genes up/downregulated more than threefolds were selected and listed. Among ABC genes, seven were upregulated and three were downregulated. Three genes: ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCG2 were upregulated very significantly (over tenfold). One ABCA8 was significantly downregulated. Among 38 SLC genes, 18 were upregulated, 16 were downregulated and four were up- or downregulated dependent on the cell line. Expression of 10 SLC genes was changed very significantly (over tenfold). Four genes were significantly increased: SLC6A1, SLC9A2, SLC12A1, SLC16A6 and six genes were significantly decreased: SLC2A14, SLC7A3, SLC7A8, SLC7A11, SLC16A14, SLC38A9. Based on the expression profiles, our results provide a preliminary insight into the relationship between drug resistance and expression of membrane transporters involved in drug resistance. Correlation of specific drug transporter with drug resistance requires further analysis. PMID:23462296

Januchowski, Rados?aw; Zawierucha, Piotr; Andrzejewska, Ma?gorzata; Ruci?ski, Marcin; Zabel, Maciej

2013-04-01

123

Li-7 and Be-7 de-excitation lines - Probes for accelerated particle transport models in solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photon energy spectrum of a spectral feature composed of the 429 and 478 keV gamma-ray lines from Be-7 and Li-7 (produced by interactions of flare-accelerated alpha particles with ambient He in the solar atmosphere) depends on the angular distribution of the interacting accelerated particles. This spectrum is calculated for limb and disk-centered flares using a loop model for the transport of the ions. The resulting spectra are compared with data from the April 27, 1981 limb flare obtained with the gamma-ray spectrometer on SMM, providing convincing evidence for the existence of the (Li-7)-(Be-7) feature in this flare. By comparing the fluence of this feature with that of the 511 keV line, it is shown that the accelerated alpha particle abundance or the ambient He abundance, or both, must be enhanced.

Murphy, R. J.; Hua, X.-M.; Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

1990-01-01

124

APS beamline standard components handbook  

SciTech Connect

It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

Kuzay, T.M.

1992-01-01

125

The Electronic ApJ in Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The on-line edition of the Astrophysical Journal provides the first opportunity for astronomical researchers to interact with the literature in a network context. Other electronic journals will follow. Astronomers will continue to develop ways to take advantage of information on the network, and these will be most effective when ApJ articles, observations from data centers, proposals for telescope time, communications with collaborators, and so on, are meshed. Astronomical literature, as a resource on the Internet, is not unique from the viewpoint of function or management, and astronomers are not unique as scholars in their desire to use the Internet as a tool to advance their work. We need to ensure as a community that all our resources for research --- journals and data --- fit in a global context on an Internet being used by everyone. In other words, we have to be sure that the ApJ fits into all the digital libraries of the future, including the ones we don't build. This paper will present a scenario in which many varied forms of information, astronomical and otherwise, can be catalogued and distributed so that they can be discovered and used by the research community.

Biemesderfer, C. D.

1995-12-01

126

Time resolved spectroscopy of the cool Ap star HD 213637  

E-print Network

We present an analysis of high time resolution spectra of the chemically peculiar Ap star HD 213637. The star shows rapid radial velocity variations with a period close to the photometric pulsation period. Radial velocity pulsation amplitudes vary significantly for different rare earth elements. The highest pulsation amplitudes belong to lines of TbIII ~360 m/s, PrII ~250 m/s and PrIII ~230 m/s . We did not detect any pulsations from spectral lines of EuII and in Halpha, in contrast to many other roAp stars. We also did not find radial velocity pulsations using spectral lines of other chemical elements, including Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba. There are phase shifts between the maxima of pulsation amplitudes of different rare earth elements and ions, which is evidence of an outwardly running magneto-acoustic wave propagating through the upper stellar atmosphere.

Elkin, V G; Mathys, G

2014-01-01

127

AP Central: AP Calculus AB Course Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Educational Testing Service (ETS) and the AP College Board have a number of excellent resources at their disposal, and this site provides a cornucopia of materials about teaching and learning calculus. First up is the information about the actual AP Calculus AB course, which may be most useful to those teaching the course at the high school level. Most visitors will want to take their time looking over the "Classroom Instruction and Resources" area. Here visitors will find special focus materials on approximation and differential equations, along with sample lesson plans and curriculum modules. The modules cover extrema, motion, and reasoning from tabular data. History of mathematics-types shouldn't miss the "History of Calculus" area, as it is quite a pip.

128

Sorption and transport of radionuclides by tumbleweeds from two plastic-lined radioactive waste ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has examined the uptake of radionuclides by tumbleweeds growing in contaminated soils, but none has heretofore examined the sorption of radionuclides to tumbleweeds blowing into radioactively contaminated water. Three tumbleweed species; Russian thistle (Salsola kali), Jim Hill mustard (Sisymbrium altissimum) and summer cypress (Kochia scoparia) blow in, and out of, two plastic-lined radioactive wastewater ponds, constructed in 1993

Ronald W Warren

2001-01-01

129

Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions.  

PubMed

The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H(-) beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree. PMID:24593428

Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Lettry, Jacques; Midttun, Øystein; Scrivens, Richard

2014-02-01

130

Expression of HLA class II-associated peptide transporter and proteasome genes in human placentas and trophoblast cell lines.  

PubMed Central

Expression of HLA class I antigens is closely controlled in the placental trophoblast cells, which interface directly with maternal cells during pregnancy. In this study, the possibility that peptide transporter (TAP-1, TAP-2) or proteasome (LMP7) genes might be involved in regulating antigen expression in these or other cells that comprise placentas was investigated. Analysis by Northern blot hybridization showed that transcripts from all three genes were present in samples of first trimester and term placental RNA. TAP-1 and TAP-2 messages were consistently more abundant in early than in late gestation placentas, whereas the reverse was observed for LMP7 mRNA. Futher experiments were done on two trophoblast cell lines. One line, Jar, is negative for HLA class I, and the second, JEG-3, expresses HLA-G as well as other HLA class I genes. Both Jar and JEG-3 cells contained TAP-1, TAP-2 and LMP7 mRNA. With the exception of LMP7 in JEG-3 cells, message from all three genes was increased by treating the trophoblast cells with interferon-gamma. While no evidence was collected to support the postulate that the HLA class I negative status of some trophoblast cell subpopulations could be related to absent or dysfunctional TAP-1, TAP-2 or LMP7 mRNA, the data are consistent with the postulate that placental cell expression of HLA class I antigens could be influenced by the availability of peptide transporters and proteasome components. Images Figure 1 PMID:7835969

Roby, K F; Fei, K; Yang, Y; Hunt, J S

1994-01-01

131

Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

Whitlock, Kristin

2013-01-01

132

Going below the line: creating transportable brands for Australia's dark market  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate non-point-of-sale cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents. Results: The tobacco industry has continued to market their products despite severe restrictions on legal marketing activity. They made careful plans to circumvent regulation well in advance. In preparation for bans, they chose and strengthened existing brands to enable their continued success in a dark market and prepared the consumer for bans by increasing their spending on below the line activities. Bans reduced the industry's effectiveness and efficiency. After bans new brand launches stopped: instead key existing brands were strengthened via alterations to the product, line extensions, and stretching loopholes in the legislation as far as possible. In line with the general trend towards integrated marketing, a range of activities have been used in combination, including guerrilla marketing, advertising in imported international magazines, altering the pack, sponsorships, brand stretching, event promotions, lifestyle premiums, and the development of corporate websites. Conclusions: The tobacco industry acknowledges that marketing restrictions have an impact, validating their continued use in tobacco control. The industry is extremely creative in circumventing these marketing restrictions, requiring tobacco marketing regulations to be informed by marketing expertise, regularly updated, and to adopt the broadest possible scope. Tobacco control advocates, particularly those communicating with young people, could learn from the creativity of the tobacco industry. PMID:14645953

Carter, S

2003-01-01

133

Line shape modeling for radiation transport investigations in magnetic fusion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen line radiation can be trapped in some spatial regions within magnetic fusion experiments at high density, typically when NH(˜ Ne) ˜ 10 15 cm -3. The corresponding photoexcitation yields a significant additional source of ionization that must be properly characterized by numerical simulations. Kinetic Monte-Carlo codes provide a capability to study this subject; however, these codes require accurate physical models for the reaction rates, including spectral line shapes. In this paper we deal with the Zeeman-Stark model used for the Ly ? transition in the EIRENE code [D. Reiter, M. Baelmans, P. Börner, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47 (2005) 172; www.eirene.de] and we address the influence of ion dynamics, which can affect these line profiles. The impact theory for ions, that we first consider, is shown to be suited for description of the lateral components of the Lorentz triplet. By contrast, comparisons to numerical simulations show that this theory is not well suited for description of the central component, which is significantly affected by incomplete and non-binary collisions. A refinement of the model in the framework of the unified theory is proposed and discussed.

Rosato, J.; Reiter, D.; Kotov, V.; Börner, P.; Capes, H.; Marandet, Y.; Stamm, R.; Ferri, S.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Mossé, C.

2009-06-01

134

The APS control system network  

SciTech Connect

The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the {open_quotes}Standard Model.{close_quotes} The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions.

Sidorowicz, K.V.; McDowell, W.P.

1995-12-31

135

The APS in Public Affairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the American Physical Society was created for the interchange of scientific ideas, the call to the founding meeting included the observation that the organization "could not fail to have an important influence in all matters affecting the interest of physicists". However for most of its history APS did not behave like "just another interest group in American society". Instead, at the beginning, it limited itself to such successful initiatives as the creation of the Bureau of Standards and such unsuccessful ones as adoption of the metric system. After World War II, speaking out on behalf of the freedom of science and scientists, such as Astin, Condon, and Oppenheimer, became important. In the 1970's, pushed by members, the Society became more "political", sponsoring sessions and studies on defense issues, taking a stand for the Equal Rights Amendment and creating the Panel on Public Affairs and the Forum on Physics and Society. Only in the last fifteen years has the APS unabashedly lobbied for the economic interests of physics and physicists. Adopting this new, if unavoidable role may have unintended consequences for the willingness and effectiveness of APS in speaking out on other public issues.

Lustig, Harry

2000-04-01

136

Functional identification of a novel transport system for endogenous and synthetic opioid peptides in the rabbit conjunctival epithelial cell line CJVE  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To investigate whether conjunctival epithelial cells express transport processes for opioid peptides. METHODS We monitored the uptake of [3H]deltorphin II and [3H]DADLE, two hydrolysis-resistant synthetic opioid peptides, in the rabbit conjunctival epithelial cell line CJVE and elucidated the characteristics of the uptake process. RESULTS CJVE cells express robust uptake activity for deltorphin II and DADLE. Both opioid peptides compete with each other for transport. Several endogenous and synthetic opioid peptides, but not non-peptide opioid antagonists, are recognized by the transport process. Though various peptides inhibit the uptake of deltorphin II and DADLE in a similar manner, the uptake of deltorphin II is partly Na+-dependent whereas that of DADLE mostly Na+-independent. The transport process shows high affinity for many endogenous/synthetic opioid peptides. Functional features reveal that this transport process may be distinct from the opioid peptide transport system described in the retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 and also from the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), which are known to transport opioid peptides. CONLCUSIONS CJVE cells express a novel, hitherto unknown transport process for endogenous/synthetic opioid peptides. This new transport process may offer an effective delivery route for opioid peptide drugs to the posterior segment of the eye. PMID:18781380

Ananth, Sudha; Karunakaran, Senthil; Martin, Pamela M.; Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N.; Hooks, John J.; Smith, Sylvia B.; Prasad, Puttur D.; Ganapathy, Vadivel

2013-01-01

137

Filament wound metal lined propellant tanks for future Earth-to-orbit transports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For future Earth-to-orbit transport vehicles, reusability and lighter weights are sought for the main propellant tanks. To achieve this, a filament wound tank with a metal liner and an intermediate layer of foam-filled honeycomb is proposed. A hydrogen tank is used as an example. To accommodate mismatches in the expansion of liner and overwrap a design is proposed wherin the liner is configured so that the extension of the liner under pressure matches the expected contraction of the same liner due to the presence of a cryogen. In operation, the liner is pressurized at a rate such that the pressure strain matches the contraction due to decrease in temperature. As an alternate approach, compressive pre-stress is placed in the liner such that it will not separate from the overwrap. A finite element program is used to show stresses in the liner and overwrap for various tank pressures for the pre-stressed liner concept. A fracture mechanics analysis is made of the liners to determine tank life. The tank concept shown has a similar weight to the Shuttle external hydrogen tank, but the filament wound tank is expected to be reusable. Integration of the propellant tanks into a future transport vehicle is discussed.

Macconochie, Ian O.; Davis, Robert B.; Freeman, William T., Jr.

1988-01-01

138

APS Presents Awards at 2008 ABRCMS Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article in The Physiologist. APS Presents Awards at Annual ABRCMS Conference APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2008 APS Intersociety Meeting: The Integrative Biology of Exercise Education Special Sessions at Experimental Biology 2009 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- APS Presents Awards at Annual ABRCMS Conference The APS presented awards to minority undergraduate researchers and was a major conference sponsor at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS) at DisneyÃÂs Coronado Springs Resort, Lake Buena Vista, FL from November 5-9, 2008.

2009-02-01

139

Membrane transport of thyroid hormone in the human choriocarcinoma cell line, JAR.  

PubMed

We studied uptake of L-triiodothyronine (T3) by the human choriocarcinoma cell line, JAR. Uptake was time dependent with a half-time of 56.2 +/- 7.2 min (mean +/- SEM, n = 4). A non-saturable component accounted for about 24% of total uptake. We found a single saturable uptake mechanism with a calculated Michaelis constant (Km) of 586 +/- 206 nM (n = 9) and a corresponding maximum velocity of 17.0 +/- 5.7 pmol/min per mg protein (n = 9), values similar to those we have described recently in cultured normal human trophoblast cells. Uptake was dependent on temperature and intracellular energy, being reduced at lower temperatures and in the presence of potassium cyanide. It was independent of the Na+ gradient across the cell membrane and the presence of Na+ in the external medium, but was affected by the cell membrane potential. PMID:1446786

Mitchell, A M; Manley, S W; Mortimer, R H

1992-09-01

140

Development and Characterization of a Novel Mouse Line Humanized for the Intestinal Peptide Transporter PEPT1  

PubMed Central

The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, but not colon, of mammals and found to mediate the uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs from the intestinal lumen. However, species differences have been observed in both the expression (and localization) of PEPT1 and its substrate affinity. With this in mind, the objectives of this study were to develop a humanized PEPT1 mouse model (huPEPT1) and to characterize hPEPT1 expression and functional activity in the intestines. Thus, after generating huPEPT1 mice in animals previously nulled for mouse Pept1, phenotypic, PCR, and immunoblot analyses were performed, along with in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies with a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar). Overall, the huPEPT1 mice had normal survival rates, fertility, litter size, gender distribution, and body weight. There was no obvious behavioral or pathological phenotype. The mRNA and protein profiles indicated that huPEPT1 mice had substantial PEPT1 expression in all regions of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) along with low but measurable expression in both proximal and distal segments of the colon. In agreement with PEPT1 expression, the in situ permeability of GlySar in huPEPT1 mice was similar to but lower than wildtype animals in small intestine, and greater than wildtype mice in colon. However, a species difference existed in the in situ transport kinetics of jejunal PEPT1, in which the maximal flux and Michaelis constant of GlySar were reduced 7-fold and 2- to 4-fold, respectively, in huPEPT1 compared to wildtype mice. Still, the in vivo function of intestinal PEPT1 appeared fully restored (compared to Pept1 knockout mice) as indicated by the nearly identical pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration–time profiles following a 5.0 nmol/g oral dose of GlySar to huPEPT1 and wildtype mice. This study reports, for the first time, the development and characterization of mice humanized for PEPT1. This novel transgenic huPEPT1 mouse model should prove useful in examining the role, relevance, and regulation of PEPT1 in diet and disease, and in the drug discovery process.

Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Yehua; Wang, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaomei; Smith, David E.

2014-01-01

141

Development and Characterization of a Novel Mouse Line Humanized for the Intestinal Peptide Transporter PEPT1.  

PubMed

The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, but not colon, of mammals and found to mediate the uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs from the intestinal lumen. However, species differences have been observed in both the expression (and localization) of PEPT1 and its substrate affinity. With this in mind, the objectives of this study were to develop a humanized PEPT1 mouse model (huPEPT1) and to characterize hPEPT1 expression and functional activity in the intestines. Thus, after generating huPEPT1 mice in animals previously nulled for mouse Pept1, phenotypic, PCR, and immunoblot analyses were performed, along with in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies with a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar). Overall, the huPEPT1 mice had normal survival rates, fertility, litter size, gender distribution, and body weight. There was no obvious behavioral or pathological phenotype. The mRNA and protein profiles indicated that huPEPT1 mice had substantial PEPT1 expression in all regions of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) along with low but measurable expression in both proximal and distal segments of the colon. In agreement with PEPT1 expression, the in situ permeability of GlySar in huPEPT1 mice was similar to but lower than wildtype animals in small intestine, and greater than wildtype mice in colon. However, a species difference existed in the in situ transport kinetics of jejunal PEPT1, in which the maximal flux and Michaelis constant of GlySar were reduced 7-fold and 2- to 4-fold, respectively, in huPEPT1 compared to wildtype mice. Still, the in vivo function of intestinal PEPT1 appeared fully restored (compared to Pept1 knockout mice) as indicated by the nearly identical pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration-time profiles following a 5.0 nmol/g oral dose of GlySar to huPEPT1 and wildtype mice. This study reports, for the first time, the development and characterization of mice humanized for PEPT1. This novel transgenic huPEPT1 mouse model should prove useful in examining the role, relevance, and regulation of PEPT1 in diet and disease, and in the drug discovery process. PMID:25148225

Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Yehua; Wang, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaomei; Smith, David E

2014-10-01

142

The Li-7 and Be-7 deexcitation lines: Probes for accelerated particle transport models in solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photon energy spectrum of a spectral feature composed of the 429 and 478 keV gamma-ray lines from Li-7 and Be-7 (produced by interactions of flare-accelerated alpha particles with ambient He in the solar atmosphere) depends on the angular distribution of the interacting accelerated particles. This spectrum is calculated for limb and disc-centered flares using a loop model for the transport of the ions. In this model, the flux tube magnetic field is constant in the corona and converges in the chromosphere to the photosphere. Magnetic mirroring and MHD pitch-angle scattering are both taken into account. Comparison of these results with data from other experiments is presented.

Murphy, Ronald J.; Hua, X.-M.; Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

1989-01-01

143

Effect of subdominant species on the evolution of intense primary beam in a low energy beam transport line  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam with different distributions has been studied in a solenoid based low energy beam transport line using a particle-in-cell simulation method. Results are presented in wide parameter regimes covering emittance dominated as well as space charge dominated multispecies beams consisting of p, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams. Simulation shows the formation of hollow distribution of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams around the desired proton beam and separation is more distinct as the fraction of proton is increased. The hollow formation is almost independent of combination of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams, once the fraction of proton beam is fixed. The emittance growth of proton is found to increase sharply in the space-charge-dominated regime and is more in the cases where proton fraction is low.

Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)] [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

2013-08-15

144

Gas Transport and Density Control in the HYLIFE Heavy-Ion Beam Lines  

SciTech Connect

The effective propagation and focusing of heavy-ion beams in the final-focus magnet region of inertial fusion target chambers require controlling the background gas density and pressure in the beam tubes. Liquid vortexes will coat the inside of the tubes next to the beam ports and will help eliminate the need for mechanical shutters to mitigate the venting of target chamber background gas into the final-focus magnet region. Before the neutralizing region, the beam space charge is high, and ablation and target debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region may cause voltage breakdown. Previous studies focused on evaluating the amount of target chamber debris reaching the entrance of the beam ports. The TSUNAMI code has now been used to assess the density, temperature, and velocity of the vortex debris transported {approx}3 m up the beam tubes and reaching the final-focus magnet region, assuming that the liquid vortexes are perfectly absorbing surfaces. To further mitigate debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region, and prevent voltage breakdown, a 'magnetic shutter' has been envisaged to divert the debris out of the final-focus region. This shutter will prevent the hot ablation debris from reaching the magnet region and, coupled to some ionizing scheme, will conveniently suppress early ingression of debris into the final-focus magnet region.

Debonnel, Christophe S.; Welch, Dale R.; Rose, David V.; Lawrence, Simon S.Yu; Peterson, Per F

2003-05-15

145

A three-channel LED driver with single line transportation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designed a three-channel LED driver, realized the single-wire transmission of cascade signal between the drive IC of LED. Including the MCU digital interface, date register, clock synchronization, PWM grayscale adjustment circuit, as well as high voltage driver circuit for LED, etc… The driver control LED displaying 256 gray. Chip will generate synchronous sampling clock signals according to the received serial signals, when 24 bits dates have been received, the output pin begins to transport the dates followed-up which are automotive shaped to the input of the next chip. When the date receiving becomes low level that represent RESET, the red, green and blue channels will export different signals based on different input dates. Through the external MCU, it is realized the Separate luminance, and by connecting chips in series it achieved the control of outdoor big screen' colorful display. The automatic shaping forward technique makes the number of chips cascading immune to the limitations of signal transmission, but only limited by the refresh speed.

Yu, Caideng; Du, Yiying; Jiang, Qiao; Zhou, Yun; Lv, Jian

2012-10-01

146

A transverse emittance and acceptance measurement system in a low-energy beam transport line.  

PubMed

A transverse beam emittance and acceptance measurement system has been developed to visualize the relationship between the injected beam emittance and the acceptance of a cyclotron. The system is composed of a steering magnet, two pairs of slits to limit the horizontal and vertical phase-space, a beam intensity detector just behind the slits for the emittance measurement, and a beam intensity detector in the cyclotron for the acceptance measurement. The emittance is obtained by scanning the slits and measuring the beam intensity distribution. The acceptance is obtained by measuring the distribution of relative beam transmission by injecting small emittance beams at various positions in a transverse phase-space using the slits. In the acceptance measurement, the beam from an ion source is deflected to the defined region by the slits using the steering magnet so that measurable acceptance area covers a region outside the injection beam emittance. Measurement tests were carried out under the condition of accelerating a beam of (16)O(6+) from 50.2 keV to 160 MeV. The emittance of the injected beam and the acceptance for accelerating and transporting the beam to the entrance of the extraction deflector were successfully measured. The relationship between the emittance and acceptance is visualized by displaying the results in the same phase-plane. PMID:24593469

Kashiwagi, H; Miyawaki, N; Kurashima, S; Okumura, S

2014-02-01

147

Functional Identification and Characterization of the Brassica Napus Transcription Factor Gene BnAP2, the Ortholog of Arabidopsis Thaliana APETALA2  

PubMed Central

BnAP2, an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, has been isolated from Brassica napus cultivar Zhongshuang 9. The cDNA of BnAP2, with 1, 299 bp in length, encoded a transcription factor comprising of 432 amino acid residues. Results from complementary experiment indicated that BnAP2 was completely capable of restoring the phenotype of Arabidopsis ap2-11 mutant. Together with the sequence and expression data, the complementation data suggested that BnAP2 encodes the ortholog of AtAP2. To address the transcriptional activation of BnAP2, we performed transactivation assays in yeast. Fusion protein of BnAP2 with GAL4 DNA binding domain strongly activated transcription in yeast, and the transactivating activity of BnAP2 was localized to the N-terminal 100 amino acids. To further study the function of BnAP2 involved in the phenotype of B. napus, we used a transgenic approach that involved targeted RNA interference (RNAi) repression induced by ihp-RNA. Floral various phenotype defectives and reduced female fertility were observed in B. napus BnAP2-RNAi lines. Loss of the function of BnAP2 gene also resulted in delayed sepal abscission and senescence with the ethylene-independent pathway. In the strong BnAP2-RNAi lines, seeds showed defects in shape, structure and development and larger size. Strong BnAP2-RNAi and wild-type seeds initially did not display a significant difference in morphology at 10 DAF, but the development of BnAP2-RNAi seeds was slower than that of wild type at 20 DAF, and further at 30 DAF, wild-type seeds were essentially at their final size, whereas BnAP2-RNAi seeds stopped growing and developing and gradually withered. PMID:22479468

Xiong, Zhiyong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Lijun; Yu, Jingyin; Lu, Changming; Wei, Wenhui

2012-01-01

148

AP-2? Is a Crucial Transcriptional Regulator of the Posterior Midbrain  

PubMed Central

Ap-2 transcription factors comprise a family of 5 closely related sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that play pivotal and non-redundant roles in embryonic organogenesis. To investigate the function of Ap-2?, w?e analyzed its expression during embryogenesis and generated Ap-2?-deficient mice. In line with the specific expression pattern of Ap-2? in the mesencephalic tectum and the dorsal midbrain, Ap-2?-deficient mice failed to maintain the colliculus inferior, a derivative of the dorsal midbrain, as a consequence of increased apoptotic cell death. To identify specific Ap-2? target genes in cells of the developing dorsal midbrain, we performed whole genome analysis of cDNA expression levels. This approach identified a set of 12 putative target genes being expressed in the developing midbrain, including the transcription factors Pitx2, Mef2c, Bhlhb4 and Pou4f3. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) we showed that some of these genes are direct targets of Ap-2?. Consistently, we demonstrate that Ap-2? occupies and activates the Pou4f3 and Bhlhb4 promoters. In addition, known Pou4f3 target genes were downregulated in the posterior midbrain of Ap-2?-deficient mice. Despite the absence of a central part of the auditory pathway, the presence of neuronal responses to sounds in the neocortex of Ap-2?-deficient mice indicates that auditory information from the brainstem still reaches the neocortex. In summary, our data define Ap-2? as an important transcription factor, specifying gene expression patterns required for the development of the posterior midbrain. PMID:21858141

Kurt, Simone; Buettner, Reinhard; Kirfel, Jutta; Moser, Markus

2011-01-01

149

Glutathione peroxidase-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in human keratinocytes  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we found a role for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. UVA irradiation not only increased AP-2{alpha}, but also caused accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the cell culture media, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself could induce the expression of AP-2{alpha}. By catalyzing the removal of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from cells through over-expression of GPx-1, induction of AP-2{alpha} expression by UVA was abolished. Induction of transcription factor AP-2{alpha} by UVA had been previously shown to be mediated through the second messenger ceramide. We found that not only UVA irradiation, but also H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself caused increases of ceramide in HaCaT cells, and C2-ceramide added to cells induced the AP-2{alpha} signaling pathway. Finally, forced expression of GPx-1 eliminated UVA-induced ceramide accumulation as well as AP-2{alpha} expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that GPx-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression by suppressing the accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

Yu Lei [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Venkataraman, Sujatha [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Coleman, Mitchell C. [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Spitz, Douglas R. [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wertz, Philip W. [Dows Institute for Dental Research, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Domann, Frederick E. [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)]. E-mail: frederick-domann@uiowa.edu

2006-12-29

150

APS high heat load monochromator  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

1993-02-01

151

Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.

FULLER, R.K.

1999-02-23

152

Expression and functional features of NaCT, a sodium-coupled citrate transporter, in human and rat livers and cell lines.  

PubMed

In this article, we report on the expression and function of a Na(+)-coupled transporter for citrate, NaCT, in human and rat liver cell lines and in primary hepatocytes from the rat liver. We also describe the polarized expression of this transporter in human and rat livers. Citrate uptake in human liver cell lines HepG2 and Huh-7 was obligatorily dependent on Na+. The uptake system showed a preference for citrate over other intermediates of the citric acid cycle and exhibited a Michaelis constant of approximately 6 mM for citrate. The transport activity was stimulated by Li+, and the activation was associated with a marked increase in substrate affinity. Citrate uptake in rat liver cell line MH1C1 was also Na+ dependent and showed a preference for citrate. The Michaelis constant for citrate was approximately 10 microM. The transport activity was inhibited by Li+. Primary hepatocytes from the rat liver also showed robust activity for Na+-coupled citrate uptake, with functional features similar to those described in the rat liver cell line. Immunolabeling with a specific anti-NaCT antibody showed exclusive expression of the transporter in the sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes in human and rat livers. This constitutes the first report on the expression and function of NaCT in liver cells. PMID:16973915

Gopal, Elangovan; Miyauchi, Seiji; Martin, Pamela M; Ananth, Sudha; Srinivas, Sonne R; Smith, Sylvia B; Prasad, Puttur D; Ganapathy, Vadivel

2007-01-01

153

"Cumulated Vehicle Acceleration": An Attribute of GPS Probe Vehicle Traces for On-Line Assessment of Vehicle Fuel Consumption in Traffic and Transportation Networks  

E-print Network

To perform a reliable on-line assessment of fuel consumption in vehicles, we introduce "cumulated vehicle acceleration" as an attribute of GPS probe vehicle traces. The objective of the calculation of the attribute "cumulated vehicle acceleration" in the GPS probe vehicle data is to perform a reliable on-line dynamic traffic assignment for the reduction of vehicle consumption in traffic and transportation networks.

Kerner, Boris S

2014-01-01

154

Comparison of a CCD and an APS for soft X-ray diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare a new CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) to a Princeton Instruments PIXIS-XO: 2048B Charge Coupled Device (CCD) with soft X-rays tested in a synchrotron beam line at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). Despite CCDs being established in the field of scientific imaging, APS are an innovative technology that offers advantages over CCDs. These include faster readout, higher operational

Graeme Stewart; R Bates; A Blue; A Clark; S S Dhesi; D Maneuski; J Marchal; P Steadman; N Tartoni; R Turchetta

2011-01-01

155

Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

India, a country over one billion population has been facing serious difficulty of urban congestion and traffic jams since 1970's in her major cities. Public transport system in Mumbai has been overworking three times its capacity. Public transport system in Delhi, Colcutta and Chennai is also under strain. Elevated railway and underground railway could be options to support overworked surface

Makarand Gulawani

156

Submitting to the APS Journals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This session will contain a short presentation of policies, practices and general advice for authors submitting to APS journals. For both the Physical Review and Physical Review Letters, it will focus on such things as the importance of a properly written introduction; our current drive for increased accessibility in the Phys. Rev. journals; how a well written cover letter and how suggesting referees will aid your manuscript in the review process. We shall also discuss responding to referees and offer advice on resubmitting your manuscript. In addition there will be information on technical details such as web submission and the Author Status Information Service (ASIS). The presentation will then be followed by a moderated panel discussion, where editors from PRL, PRB and PRE will answer questions from the audience on author issues.

Hall, Donavan; Johnson, Brant; Kim-Zajonz, Julie; Ucko, Daniel

2006-03-01

157

AP-2beta represses D(1A) dopamine receptor gene transcription in neuro2a cells.  

PubMed

Expression of the D(1A) dopamine receptor in brain is restricted to specific neuronal populations. To investigate the mechanism of this selective expression, we localized a silencer upstream of the human D(1A) gene and identified its binding transcription factor in the D(1A)-negative neural cell line Neuro2a. Using deletion CAT analysis, we narrowed this silencer to the region between nucleotides -561 and -532 relative to the CAP site. This 30-bp region, designated D1AS1, contains a sequence homologous to the AP-2 binding site and binds to a factor that also interacts with the AP-2 consensus sequence. In gel supershift assays, this factor is recognized by anti-AP-2beta antibody. Co-transfection of Neuro2a cells with an AP-2beta expression vector repressed the basal CAT activity of D(1A) promoter-reporter plasmids in a D1AS1-dependent manner. RT-PCR analysis indicated that, among AP-2 family members, Neuro2a cells express only AP-2beta. Furthermore, co-transfection of these cells with decoy oligonucleotides corresponding to the D1AS1 sequence de-repressed the D(1A) gene promoter. Unlike in Neuro2a cells, AP-2beta could not repress the D(1A) promoter in the D(1A)-positive neural cell line, NS20Y. In addition, the expression of AP-2beta in different brain regions does not inversely correlate with that of D(1A) dopamine receptor. These observations taken together indicate that AP-2beta is a repressive transcription factor that acts on the D1AS1 silencer of the D(1A) dopamine receptor gene via some cell-specific mechanism(s) in Neuro2a. PMID:10640692

Takeuchi, S; Imafuku, I; Waragai, M; Roth, C; Kanazawa, I; Buettner, R; Mouradian, M M; Okazawa, H

1999-12-10

158

AP—Animal Production Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype, mechanically ventilated, livestock transport vehicle (for pigs, sheep or cattle) is described. The design complies with current legislation and meets the ‘higher standard’ ventilation requirement for vehicles which are to be used to transport animals for over 8 h.Extraction fans are located at regions of low external pressure on the moving vehicle to optimize performance in transit and

P. J. Kettlewell; R. P. Hoxey; C. J. Hampson; N. R. Green; B. M. Veale; M. A. Mitchell

2001-01-01

159

Down-Regulation of AP-4 Inhibits Proliferation, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Promotes Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background AP-4 belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix leucine-zipper subgroup; it controls target gene expression, regulates growth, development and cell apoptosis and has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Our previous studies indicated that AP-4 was frequently overexpressed in gastric cancers and may be associated with the poor prognosis. The purpose of this study is to examine whether silencing of AP-4 can alter biological characteristics of gastric cancer cells. Methods Two specific siRNAs targeting AP-4 were designed, synthesized, and transfected into gastric cancer cell lines and human normal mucosa cells. AP-4 expression was measured with real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation and chemo-sensitivity were detected by CCK-8 assay. Cell cycle assay and apoptosis assay were performed by flow cytometer, and relative expression of cell cycle regulators were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, expression of the factors involved in the apoptosis pathway were examined in mRNA and protein level. Results The expression of AP-4 was silenced by the siRNAs transfection and the effects of AP-4 knockdown lasted 24 to 96 hrs. The siRNA-mediated silencing of AP-4 suppressed the cellular proliferation, induced apoptosis and sensitized cancer cells to anticancer drugs. In addition, the expression level of p21, p53 and Caspase-9 were increased when AP-4 was knockdown, but the expression of cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was inhibited. It didn't induce cell cycle arrest when AP-4 was knockdown in p53 defect gastric cancer cell line Kato-III. Conclusions These results illustrated that gene silencing of AP-4 can efficiently inhibited cell proliferation, triggered apoptosis and sensitized cancer cells to anticancer drugs in vitro, suggesting that AP-4 siRNAs mediated silencing has a potential value in the treatment of human gastric cancer. PMID:22615908

Guo, Yan; Liang, Qi; Wu, Changyao; Wu, Lei; Tao, Kaixiong; Wang, Guobin; Chen, Jianying

2012-01-01

160

Differential Mitochondrial Electron Transport through the Cyanide-Sensitive and Cyanide-Insensitive Pathways in Isonuclear Lines of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile, Male Fertile, and Restored Petunia1  

PubMed Central

Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida [Hook] Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines. PMID:16667667

Connett, Marie B.; Hanson, Maureen R.

1990-01-01

161

RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS A.P.S. Selvadurai  

E-print Network

nd Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Quebec City, pp.2.154-2.172. 9. Selvadurai, A.P.S., Bauer, G Conference, Quebec City, pp.2.211-2.224. #12;10. Selvadurai, A.P.S. (1979) The flexure of a uniformly loaded

Barthelat, Francois

162

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - WILDLAND FIRES  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is aimed at consolidating, selecting, and disseminating the most appropriate data and methods for estimating air emissions from wildfires and prescribed burns. The product will replace a current section of AP-42, but may not take the precise form of an AP-42 secti...

163

Advanced Placement Program: What's Changing in AP  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The AP Program has recently redesigned several courses in science, history, and world languages in an effort to stay strongly aligned with college credit policies and to prepare students for future learning and career pursuit. This website focuses on informing AP teachers about what's changing in AP, from course scope to exam preparation. The AP Chemistry revision will take effect in Fall, 2013. The change that will impact physics teachers most directly is the replacement of AP Physics B with two new year-long courses: AP Physics 1 Algebra-Based and AP Physics 2 Algebra-Based (scheduled to be deployed Fall, 2014). The changes to each course were guided by National Research Council and National Science Foundation recommendations, following several years of collaborations among university educators and master AP teachers. Especially noteworthy are the changes that integrate science practice as an essential component of the curriculum, along with statements that pair the essential knowledge (learning goal) to the appropriate science practice and articulate specific performance objectives.

2012-12-26

164

Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination and scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

1989-01-01

165

The new Cyclone 18/9 beam transport line at the CNA (Sevilla) for high energy PIXE applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Sevilla, Spain) is commonly used to create short life radioisotopes for PET applications. Besides, an external beam transport line has been recently installed in one of the target ports with two major purposes: to study the effects of 18 MeV protons irradiation on the behaviour of electronic devices for space applications and to complement the analysis of materials using our 3 MV tandem accelerator with the PIXE measurements at high energy. In this work, the main elements of our beamline will be briefly described and the first PIXE application will be presented. The usual PIXE, in the analysis of archaeological metallic objects, using around 3 MeV protons requires having a shiny area. Our purpose is to obtain a deeper determination of the bulk composition bombarding with 18 MeV protons through the corroded samples surfaces, without polishing the ancient object. To check this methodology high energy PIXE has been performed on two fibulae of the Later Bronze Age and First Iron Age, coming from the area around Sevilla.

García López, J.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Morilla, Y.; Ferrero, A.

2008-04-01

166

Observational studies of roAp stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars are high-overtone, low-degree p-mode pulsators that are also chemically peculiar magnetic A stars. Until recently the classical asteroseismic analysis i.e. frequency analysis, of these stars was based on ground and space photometric observations. Significant progress was achieved through access to uninterrupted, ultra-high-precision data from MOST, COROT and Kepler satellites. Over the last ten years the study of roAp stars has been altered drastically from an observational point of view through studies of time-resolved, high-resolution spectra. Their unusual pulsational characteristics, caused by an interplay between the short vertical lengths of the pulsation waves and strong stratification of chemical elements, allow us to examine the upper roAp atmosphere in more detail than is possible for any star except the Sun. In this paper I review the results of recent studies of the pulsations of roAp stars.

Sachkov, M.

2014-11-01

167

ABC AND SLC TRANSPORTER EXPRESSION AND POT SUBSTRATE CHRACTERIZATION ACROSS THE HUMAN CMEC/D3 BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER CELL LINE  

PubMed Central

Purpose Initial studies indicate that the newly developed hCMEC/D3 cell line may prove to be a useful model for studying the physiology of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium. The purpose of this study was to assess the mRNA expression of several ABC and SLC transporters, with an emphasis on the Proton-Coupled Oligopeptide Transporter Superfamily (POT) transporters in this immortalized BBB cell model. The transport kinetics of POT-substrates was also evaluated. Methods The hCMEC/D3 cell line was maintained in a modified EGM-2 medium in collagenated culture flasks and passaged every 3–4 days at approximately 85%–95% confluence. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of a variety of ABC and SLC transporters was evaluated using qRT-PCR arrays, while additional qRT-PCR primers were designed to assess the expression of POT members. The transport kinetics of mannitol and urea were utilized to quantitatively estimate the intercellular pore radius, while POT substrate transport was also determined to assess the suitability of the cell model from a drug screening perspective. Optimization of the cell line was attempted by culturing with on laminin and fibronectin enhanced collagen and in the presence of excess Ca2+. Results HCMEC/D3 cells express both hPHT1 and hPHT2, while little to no expression of either hPepT1 or hPepT2 was observed. The relative expression of other ABC and SLC transporters is discussed. While POT substrate transport does suggest suitability for BBB drug permeation screening, the relative intercellular pore radius was estimated at 19Å, significantly larger than that approximated in vivo. Culturing with extracellular matrix proteins did not alter mannitol permeability. Conclusion These studies characterized this relevant human hCMEC/D3 BBB cell line with respect to both the relative mRNA expression of various ABC and SLC transporters, and its potential utility as an in vitro screening tool for brain permeation. Additional studies are required to adequately determine the potential to establish an in vivo correlation. PMID:20524699

Carl, Stephen M.; Lindley, David J.; Couraud, Pierre O.; Weksler, Babette B.; Romero, Ignacio; Mowery, Stephanie A.; Knipp, Gregory T.

2010-01-01

168

Over-expression of the PaAP1 gene from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

A homologue of SQUAMOSA/APETALA1, designated PaAP1, was isolated from Prunus avium by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full length of PaAP1 cDNA is 753 bp, and it codes for a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PaAP1 belongs to the MADS-box gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAP1 shared the highest identity with SQUA/AP1 homologues from Prunus serrulata. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that PaAP1 was expressed at high levels in petal, sepal, style, and flower buds, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To characterize the functions of PaAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis transformed with 35S::PaAP1. A total of 8 transgenic T(1) lines with an early flowering phenotype were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio of flowering time was observed in the T(2) generation of 4 lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an SQUA/AP1 homolog from P. avium and suggests that PaAP1 is potentially useful for shortening the juvenile period in sweet cherry. PMID:23206932

Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Kaichun

2013-02-15

169

The A&P Professor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kevin Patton is the president emeritus of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) and he is also the brains behind the A&P (Anatomy & Physiology) Professor website. Patton has worked to create this online collection of resources for people teaching human anatomy and physiology, and it's a great counterpart to his blog of the same name. Visitors should start by looking over one of the five tabs at the top of the page, which include Resources, Topics, and How To. The How To contains resources for educators about producing online lectures and various in-class student response systems. The files here are dynamic, and they include interactive sections that make the material quite lively. Moving on, the Resources area includes an online version of an anatomy & physiology textbook created by Patton, along with links to other high-quality resources. Finally, the Lion's Den section of the site contains links to Patton's syllabi, course handouts, and a range of introductory materials for anyone who might be teaching a basic anatomy & physiology course.

Patton, Kevin T.

2012-04-06

170

Overexpression of BpAP1 induces early flowering and produces dwarfism in Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula.  

PubMed

The involvement of APETALA1 (AP1) in the flowering transition has been the focus of much research. Here, we produced Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula (birch) lines that overexpressed BpAP1 using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation; we obtained five independent 35S::BpAP1 transgenic lines. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern, northern and western analyses were used to identify the transformants. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), BpAP1 expression in roots, shoots, leaves and terminal buds of 35S::BpAP1 transgenic lines was significantly higher than that in the wild type (WT, P < 0.01). The average height of 2-year-old 35S::BpAP1 plants was significantly lower (41.17%) than that of non-transgenic plants. In the 35S::BpAP1 lines, inflorescences emerged successively beginning 2 months after transplanting. In addition, the length-diameter ratio of fully developed male and female inflorescences were both significantly less than those of the WT (P < 0.05), i.e. the morphological characteristic was stubby. The male inflorescences emerged early, with empty, draped anthers, and pollen was rarely produced, whereas the female floret structure was not different from WT. The pistils developed normally and could accept pollen, leading to the production of hybrid progeny (F1 ). F1 plants completed flowering within only 1 year after sowing. We demonstrate that BpAP1 can be inherited through sexual reproduction. Overexpression of BpAP1 caused early flowering and dwarfism; these lines had an obviously shortened juvenile phase. These results greatly increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the flowering transition and enhance genetic studies of birch traits, and they open up new possibilities for the breeding of birch and other woody plants. PMID:24200078

Huang, Haijiao; Wang, Shan; Jiang, Jing; Liu, Guifeng; Li, Huiyu; Chen, Su; Xu, Huanwen

2014-08-01

171

AP1S3 Mutations Are Associated with Pustular Psoriasis and Impaired Toll-like Receptor 3 Trafficking  

PubMed Central

Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotetramer that promotes vesicular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes. The knockout of most murine AP-1 complex subunits is embryonically lethal, so the identification of human disease-associated alleles has the unique potential to deliver insights into gene function. Here, we report two founder mutations (c.11T>G [p.Phe4Cys] and c.97C>T [p.Arg33Trp]) in AP1S3, the gene encoding AP-1 complex subunit ?1C, in 15 unrelated individuals with a severe autoinflammatory skin disorder known as pustular psoriasis. Because the variants are predicted to destabilize the 3D structure of the AP-1 complex, we generated AP1S3-knockdown cell lines to investigate the consequences of AP-1 deficiency in skin keratinocytes. We found that AP1S3 silencing disrupted the endosomal translocation of the innate pattern-recognition receptor TLR-3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and resulted in a marked inhibition of downstream signaling. These findings identify pustular psoriasis as an autoinflammatory phenotype caused by defects in vesicular trafficking and demonstrate a requirement of AP-1 for Toll-like receptor homeostasis. PMID:24791904

Setta-Kaffetzi, Niovi; Simpson, Michael A.; Navarini, Alexander A.; Patel, Varsha M.; Lu, Hui-Chun; Allen, Michael H.; Duckworth, Michael; Bachelez, Hervé; Burden, A. David; Choon, Siew-Eng; Griffiths, Christopher E.M.; Kirby, Brian; Kolios, Antonios; Seyger, Marieke M.B.; Prins, Christa; Smahi, Asma; Trembath, Richard C.; Fraternali, Franca; Smith, Catherine H.; Barker, Jonathan N.; Capon, Francesca

2014-01-01

172

Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples, 7AP-99-1, 7AP-99-3 and 7AP-99-4 analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107) grab samples taken in May 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-107 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999. Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. Interim data were provided earlier to River Protection Project (RPP) personnel, however, the data presented here represent the official results. No notification limits were exceeded.

BELL, K.E.

1999-08-12

173

Time-resolved spectroscopy of the rapidly oscillating Ap star KIC 10195926  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an analysis of high time resolution spectra of the chemically peculiar Ap star KIC 10195926 obtained with the Subaru telescope. We find that the star has low overabundances of rare earth elements compared with other rapidly oscillating Ap stars. We found only upper limits for pulsations from spectral lines of rare earth and other chemical elements. Pulsation was found only for the narrow core of the H? line with an amplitude of 171 ± 41 m s-1 and with the frequency corresponding to photometric frequency obtained from Kepler observations.

Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Shibahashi, H.; Saio, H.

2014-10-01

174

APS Activities with Other Professional Societies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1981, the APS Council issued a statement that opposed ``equal time'' presentation in public school science classes of creationism and evolution. The statement clarified that ``Scientific inquiry and religious beliefs are two distinct elements of the human experience. Attempts to present them in the same context can only lead to misunderstandings of both.'' The APS Council revisited the issue in 1999 when a school board in Kansas attempted to eliminate the Big Bang, among other issues, from the science curriculum. Since that time, the APS has been more directly involved in confronting efforts that would dilute the teaching of science in public school science classes. This talk will review the APS activities and describe a developing multi-science society activity.

Slakey, Francis

2006-03-01

175

AP1000 design and construction integration  

SciTech Connect

Construction costs of commercial nuclear generating plants must be reduced in order to expand the future use of nuclear energy. Two of the drivers of plant construction costs are the cost of financing during the construction duration and the substantial amount of skilled craft labor hours needed on site during construction. The application of information technology (IT) has been used to understand and reduce both of these drivers by establishing parallel construction paths using modules and integrating construction sequence review into the design process. In a program sponsored by EPRI, Westinghouse has modeled the construction of AP1000 in '4D' to show its viability, to improve its logic, to improve the plant design for constructibility and overall to reduce time and risk in the construction schedule. The design of most of AP1000 was constrained to be a duplicate of AP600 except where components required expansion for the higher power level. As a result, the construction schedule for AP1000 is as mature and as robust as that for AP600. Two areas important to the construction of AP1000 did require some design work because they could not remain the same as AP1000. First, the turbine building had to be redesigned to accommodate the larger turbine and its support systems. Again, as much of the AP600 design and philosophy as possible was retained. The building required enlargement and the basemat, foundations, steel structure and structural modules required modification. As concrete, steel, and equipment were defined by the designers, they were matched to the original AP600 turbine building schedule. This forced designers to assemble files to be consistent with building assembly activities and to think about constructibility as they defined the final design. Second, the reinforcement structure within the concrete under and supporting the containment vessel required detail design. Westinghouse was fortunate to have the constructor Obayashi of Japan recommend a detailed design of this structure. It then was married to the overall construction plan in '4D' to ensure that the detail design did or did not impact the overall construction duration. With the extensive AP1000 3D design model graphics linked to a construction schedule during the design process, better reviews could be performed. Using '4D' techniques will be integrated more and more into the AP1000 design process as time goes on. (authors)

Winters, James W.; Clelland, Jill A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, P.O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States)

2004-07-01

176

APS Council Holds Fall Council Meeting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. The APS Council held their fall meeting at the Scottsdale Marriott at McDowell Mountains, Scottsdale, AZ, November 8-9, 2007. Council received reports from the Publications, Finance, Membership, Education, and other Committees. APS staff members Marsha Matyas, Robert Price, Alice RaÃÂanan, and Margaret Reich joined the meeting to assist with the committee report presentations.

2008-02-01

177

Simplified SBLOCA Analysis of AP1000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AP1000 is a 1000 MWe advanced nuclear power plant design that uses passive safety features such as a multi-stage, automatic depressurization system (ADS) and gravity-driven, safety injection from core make-up tanks (CMTs) and an in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) to mitigate SBLOCA events. The period of most safety significance for AP1000 during a SBLOCA event is typically associated

William L

2004-01-01

178

Identification and treatment of APS renal involvement.  

PubMed

Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), either primary or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS, includes renal artery stenosis or thrombosis, renal infarction, renal vein thrombosis and a small-vessel vaso-occlusive nephropathy defined as "antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-associated nephropathy." aPL-associated nephropathy is characterized by acute lesions, thrombotic microangiopathy, and chronic lesions such as fibrous intimal hyperplasia, organizing thrombi with or without recanalization, fibrous occlusions of arteries or arterioles and focal cortical atrophy. Systemic hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria (ranging from mild to nephrotic level) and renal insufficiency represent the major clinical manifestations associated with aPL-associated nephropathy. Similar renal histologic and clinical characteristics have been described among all different groups of patients with positive aPL (primary APS, SLE-related APS, catastrophic APS and SLE/non-APS with positive aPL). In patients with aPL-associated nephropathy lesions in the absence of other causes associated with similar histological characteristics, aPL testing needs to be considered. PMID:25228725

Tektonidou, M G

2014-10-01

179

Transporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

in the tumor-bearing mice, and in mice with inflammatory tissue, wereassessedbyimagingwithapositron planarimagingsystem (PPIS). Tissue distributions of tracer radioactivity were also measured. The expression levels of PEPT1 and PEPT2 (PEPTs) proteins in tumor xenografts and inflammatory tissue were examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The messenger RNA expression levels of PEPTs in 58 available cancer cell lines were quantified by means of real-time

Keisuke Mitsuoka; Sosuke Miyoshi; Yukio Kato; Yoshihiro Murakami; Rie Utsumi; Yoshiyuki Kubo; Akihiro Noda; Yukio Nakamura; Shintaro Nishimura; Akira Tsuji

180

Expression of Na+-dependent citrate transport in a strongly metastatic human prostate cancer PC-3M cell line: regulation by voltage-gated Na+ channel activity.  

PubMed

Prostate is a unique organ which synthesizes and releases large amounts of citrate. It has been shown that in metastatic prostate cancer, the amount of citrate in prostatic fluid is significantly reduced, approaching the level normally found in blood. In our previous study, we characterized electrophysiologically the mechanism of citrate transport in a normal prostatic epithelial (PNT2-C2) cell line. It was concluded that the cells expressed a novel transporter carrying 1 citrate3- together with 4 K+, primarily out of cells. In the present study, we aimed similarly to characterize the mechanism(s) of citrate transport in a strongly metastatic human prostate cancer (PC-3M) cell line and to compare this with the previous data. Citrate transport in PC-3M cells was found to be both Na+ and K+ dependent. Intracellular application of citrate produced an outward current that was primarily K+ dependent whilst extracellular citrate elicited an inward current that was mainly Na+ dependent. The electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics of the citrate outward current were similar to the K+-dependent citrate transporter found in the PNT2-C2 cells. On the other hand, the inward citrate current had a markedly different reversal potential, ionic characteristics, inhibitor profile and pH sensitivity. Preincubation of the PC-3M cells (24 or 48 h) with the voltage-gated Na+ channel (VGSC) blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) significantly reduced the Na+ sensitivity of the citrate current, up-regulated VGSC mRNA expression but did not change the partial permeability of the membrane to Na+. It was concluded (a) that PC-3M cells express a K+-dependent transporter (carrying citrate outward), similar to that found in normal prostate epithelial cells, as well as (b) a Na+-dependent transporter (carrying citrate inward). The molecular nature of the latter was investigated by RT-PCR; the three known Na+-dependent citrate/dicarboxylate transporters could not be detected. VGSC activity, which itself has been associated with metastatic prostate cancer, had a differential effect on the two citrate transporters, down-regulating the expression of the Na+-dependent component whilst enhancing the K+-dependent citrate transporter. PMID:15611019

Mycielska, Maria E; Palmer, Christopher P; Brackenbury, William J; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

2005-03-01

181

Expression of Na+-dependent citrate transport in a strongly metastatic human prostate cancer PC-3M cell line: regulation by voltage-gated Na+ channel activity  

PubMed Central

Prostate is a unique organ which synthesizes and releases large amounts of citrate. It has been shown that in metastatic prostate cancer, the amount of citrate in prostatic fluid is significantly reduced, approaching the level normally found in blood. In our previous study, we characterized electrophysiologically the mechanism of citrate transport in a normal prostatic epithelial (PNT2-C2) cell line. It was concluded that the cells expressed a novel transporter carrying 1 citrate3? together with 4 K+, primarily out of cells. In the present study, we aimed similarly to characterize the mechanism(s) of citrate transport in a strongly metastatic human prostate cancer (PC-3M) cell line and to compare this with the previous data. Citrate transport in PC-3M cells was found to be both Na+ and K+ dependent. Intracellular application of citrate produced an outward current that was primarily K+ dependent whilst extracellular citrate elicited an inward current that was mainly Na+ dependent. The electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics of the citrate outward current were similar to the K+-dependent citrate transporter found in the PNT2-C2 cells. On the other hand, the inward citrate current had a markedly different reversal potential, ionic characteristics, inhibitor profile and pH sensitivity. Preincubation of the PC-3M cells (24 or 48 h) with the voltage-gated Na+ channel (VGSC) blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) significantly reduced the Na+ sensitivity of the citrate current, up-regulated VGSC mRNA expression but did not change the partial permeability of the membrane to Na+. It was concluded (a) that PC-3M cells express a K+-dependent transporter (carrying citrate outward), similar to that found in normal prostate epithelial cells, as well as (b) a Na+-dependent transporter (carrying citrate inward). The molecular nature of the latter was investigated by RT-PCR; the three known Na+-dependent citrate/dicarboxylate transporters could not be detected. VGSC activity, which itself has been associated with metastatic prostate cancer, had a differential effect on the two citrate transporters, down-regulating the expression of the Na+-dependent component whilst enhancing the K+-dependent citrate transporter. PMID:15611019

Mycielska, Maria E; Palmer, Christopher P; Brackenbury, William J; Djamgoz, Mustafa BA

2005-01-01

182

Transport inhibition of digoxin using several common P-gp expressing cell lines is not necessarily reporting only on inhibitor binding to P-gp.  

PubMed

We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health), Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown). These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1) bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2) partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3) aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while highly permeable P-gp substrates such as amprenavir, quinidine, ketoconazole and verapamil do not, regardless of whether they actually use the basolateral transporter. PMID:23976943

Lumen, Annie Albin; Li, Libin; Li, Jiben; Ahmed, Zeba; Meng, Zhou; Owen, Albert; Ellens, Harma; Hidalgo, Ismael J; Bentz, Joe

2013-01-01

183

Transport Inhibition of Digoxin Using Several Common P-gp Expressing Cell Lines Is Not Necessarily Reporting Only on Inhibitor Binding to P-gp  

PubMed Central

We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health), Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown). These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1) bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2) partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3) aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while highly permeable P-gp substrates such as amprenavir, quinidine, ketoconazole and verapamil do not, regardless of whether they actually use the basolateral transporter. PMID:23976943

Lumen, Annie Albin; Li, Libin; Li, Jiben; Ahmed, Zeba; Meng, Zhou; Owen, Albert; Ellens, Harma; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Bentz, Joe

2013-01-01

184

Discovery of very low amplitude 9-minute multiperiodic pulsations in the magnetic Ap star HD 75445  

E-print Network

We present our discovery of pulsational radial-velocity variations in the cool Ap star HD 75445, an object spectroscopically similar to the bright, rapidly-oscillating Ap (roAp) star gamma Equ. Based on high-resolution time-series spectroscopy obtained with the HARPS spectrometer at the European Southern Observatory 3.6-m telescope, we detected oscillations in Nd II and Nd III lines with a period close to 9 min and amplitudes of 20-30 m/s. Substantial variation in the pulsational amplitude during our 3.8 h observing run reveals the presence of at least three excited non-radial modes. The detection of extremely low amplitude pulsations in HD 75445 indicates that the roAp excitation mechanism produces variability in the radial velocity amplitude of between a few tens m/s and several km/s. This supports the idea that many, if not all, cool Ap stars occupying the roAp instability strip may harbour non-radial pulsations, which currently remain undetected due to their small photometric and radial-velocity amplitudes.

O. Kochukhov; S. Bagnulo; G. Lo Curto; T. Ryabchikova

2008-12-08

185

Failure in post-transcriptional processing is a possible inactivation mechanism of AP-2 ? in cutaneous melanoma  

PubMed Central

The loss of transcription factor AP-2? expression has been shown to associate with tumourigenicity of melanoma cell lines and poor prognosis in primary cutaneous melanoma. Altogether these findings suggest that the gene encoding AP-2? (TFAP2A) acts as a tumour suppressor in melanoma. To learn more of AP-2?’s down-regulation mechanisms, we compared the immunohistochemical AP-2? protein expression patterns with the corresponding mRNA expression detected by in situ hybridization in 52 primary melanomas. Of the 25 samples with AP-2? protein negative areas, 16 (64%) expressed mRNA throughout the consecutive section. Nine specimens (36%) contained equally mRNA- and protein-negative areas, suggesting that the loss of AP-2? protein associated with lack of the mRNA transcript. The highly AP-2? protein-positive tumours (n = 27) were concordantly mRNA positive in 25 (92.6%) cases. Thirteen primary tumours were further analysed using microsatellite markers D6S470 and D6S263 for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of a locus harbouring TFAP2A. LOHs or chromosome 6 monosomy were found in four out of five (80%) informative AP-2? mRNA- and protein-negative tumour areas, but also within five out of 13 (38%) informative AP-2? mRNA-positive tumour areas. This chromosome region is thus suggestive of harbouring a putative tumour suppressor gene of cutaneous melanoma, but this referring specifically to TFAP2A could not be completely verified in this analysis. We conclude that a failure in post-transcriptional processing of AP-2? is a possible inactivation mechanism of AP-2? in cutaneous melanoma. Copyright 2000 Cancer Research Campaign© 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10864211

Karjalainen, J M; Kellokoski, J K; Mannermaa, A J; Kujala, H E; Moisio, K I; Mitchell, P J; Eskelinen, M J; Alhava, E M; Kosma, V M

2000-01-01

186

Comparison of a CCD and an APS for soft X-ray diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare a new CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) to a Princeton Instruments PIXIS-XO: 2048B Charge Coupled Device (CCD) with soft X-rays tested in a synchrotron beam line at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). Despite CCDs being established in the field of scientific imaging, APS are an innovative technology that offers advantages over CCDs. These include faster readout, higher operational temperature, in-pixel electronics for advanced image processing and reduced manufacturing cost. The APS employed was the Vanilla sensor designed by the MI3 collaboration and funded by an RCUK Basic technology grant. This sensor has 520 x 520 square pixels, of size 25 ?m on each side. The sensor can operate at a full frame readout of up to 20 Hz. The sensor had been back-thinned, to the epitaxial layer. This was the first time that a back-thinned APS had been demonstrated at a beam line at DLS. In the synchrotron experiment soft X-rays with an energy of approximately 708 eV were used to produce a diffraction pattern from a permalloy sample. The pattern was imaged at a range of integration times with both sensors. The CCD had to be operated at a temperature of -55°C whereas the Vanilla was operated over a temperature range from 20°C to -10°C. We show that the APS detector can operate with frame rates up to two hundred times faster than the CCD, without excessive degradation of image quality. The signal to noise of the APS is shown to be the same as that of the CCD at identical integration times and the response is shown to be linear, with no charge blooming effects. The experiment has allowed a direct comparison of back thinned APS and CCDs in a real soft x-ray synchrotron experiment.

Stewart, Graeme; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Clark, A.; Dhesi, S. S.; Maneuski, D.; Marchal, J.; Steadman, P.; Tartoni, N.; Turchetta, R.

2011-12-01

187

The APS optics topography station  

SciTech Connect

An in-house station for topographic testing of x-ray optical elements for the Advanced Photon Source experimental beamlines was set up by the Experimental Facilities Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A new double-crystal x-ray diffractometer was designed and built keeping in mind the need for testing large crystals possibly attached to cooling manifolds and lines. A short description of the new facility is given. The instrument performance fully satisfies imposed requirements, and the machine was successfully used for testing several silicon and diamond crystals.

Krasnicki, S.

1996-01-01

188

Building an AP Social Studies Program with Non-Traditional AP Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Equal access to education, that is to a high quality education, has increasingly come to mean access to an Advanced Placement program. In recent years, there has been steady attention paid to opening access to AP programs. The 9th annual College Board report (2013) stated "students who succeed on an AP Exam during high school typically…

Ashmead, Amanda; Blanchette, Sue

2013-01-01

189

Addendum: ``The Velocity Field of Baryonic Gas in the Universe'' (ApJ, 625, 599 [2005])  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After our work was accepted for publication, we were made aware of the work by S. Matarrese & R. Mohayaee (ApJ, 625, 599 [2005]), in which they propose a stochastic adhesion model for describing structure formation in the IGM. That work was along the same lines as our work. This paper should have been cited and was inadvertently omitted.

Kim, Bryan; He, Ping; Pando, Jesús; Feng, Long-Long; Fang, Li-Zhi

2006-03-01

190

ANL/APS/LS-321 1 Abstract--Research frontiers for future free-electron lasers  

E-print Network

ANL/APS/LS-321 1 Abstract-- Research frontiers for future free-electron lasers are discussed accelerator simultaneously supporting multiple free-electron laser lines. Index Terms--Attosecond, brightness-rays. I. INTRODUCTION free-electron laser (FEL) facility consist of two major components: the FEL itself

Kemner, Ken

191

High-precision magnetic field measurements of Ap and Bp stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a new approach for measuring the mean longitudinal magnetic field and net linear polarization of Ap and Bp stars. As was demonstrated by Wade et al., least-squares deconvolution (LSD; Donati et al.) provides a powerful technique for detecting weak Stokes V, Q and U Zeeman signatures in stellar spectral lines. These signatures have the potential

G. A. Wade; J.-F. Donati; J. D. Landstreet; S. L. S. Shorlin

2000-01-01

192

Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed.

Steen, F.H.

1997-12-22

193

Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

1981-01-01

194

Effect of insulin on cephalexin uptake and transepithelial transport in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether cephalexin transport in Caco-2 cells is regulated by insulin. After the insulin pretreatment, cephalexin uptake, and transport as well as PEPT1 mRNA and protein expression in the cells were measured. Cephalexin uptake was significantly increased by the insulin pretreatment. Insulin significantly increased cephalexin saturable uptake, but had no significant effect on the non-saturable one. PEPT1 protein expression

Kazuhiro Watanabe; Kazuaya Terada; Toshiya Jinriki; Juichi Sato

2004-01-01

195

Transport of thalidomide by the human intestinal caco-2 monolayers.  

PubMed

Studies in patients have indicated that the oral absorption of thalidomide is considerably variable at high doses (>200 mg/day). The aim of this study was to investigate the transport of racemic thalidomide using human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2) monolayers, which have been widely used to investigate drug permeability. A typical 21-day protocol was used to prepare Caco-2 monolayers. Thalidomide was determined by a validated high performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection. The integrity of Caco-2 monolayer was confirmed when the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) exceeded 300 Ohmz . cm2, and the leakage of 14C-manitol was <1% per hour. Uptake of thalidomide by Caco-2 cells was very limited (up to 2.1%). The transport of thalidomide appeared to be linear up to 1 hr. Our study indicated that the permeability coefficients (Papp) of thalidomide at 2.5-300 microM from the apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) and from BL to AP side was 2-6 x 10(-5) cm/sec, with a marked decrease in Papp values from AP to BL at increased thalidomide concentration. The transport of thalidomide was sodium-, temperature- and pH-dependent, as replacement of extracellular sodium chloride or reducing temperature and apical pH can result in significant decreases in the Papp values. Additional data indicated that transport of thalidomide is energy-dependent, as it was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by the ATP inhibitors, sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. In addition, DL-glutamic acid, cytidine, diprodomole, papaverine, quinidine, and cyclophosphamide significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the transport of thalidomide, while the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil and other nucleosides and nucleotides such as thymidine and guanine had no effect. These results indicated that thalidomide was rapidly transported by Caco-2 monolayers, and this might involve a saturable energy-dependent transporter. PMID:16010862

Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Yan; Kestell, Phillip; Schafer, Peter; Chan, Eli; Paxton, James W

2005-01-01

196

Enhancement of the helium resonance lines in the solar atmosphere by suprathermal electron excitation I: non-thermal transport of helium ions  

E-print Network

Models of the solar transition region made from lines other than those of helium cannot account for the strength of the helium lines. However, the collisional excitation rates of the helium resonance lines are unusually sensitive to the energy of the exciting electrons. Non-thermal motions in the transition region could drive slowly-ionizing helium ions rapidly through the steep temperature gradient, exposing them to excitation by electrons characteristic of higher temperatures than those describing their ionization state. We present the results of calculations which use a more physical representation of the lifetimes of the ground states of He I and He II than was adopted in earlier work on this process. New emission measure distributions are used to calculate the temperature variation with height. The results show that non-thermal motions can lead to enhancements of the He I and He II resonance line intensities by factors that are comparable with those required. Excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions would reduce the effects of non-thermal transport. The effects of non-thermal motions are more consistent with the observed spatial distribution of helium emission than are those of excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions alone. In particular, they account better for the observed line intensity ratio I(537.0 A)/I(584.3 A), and its variation with location.

G. R. Smith; C. Jordan

2002-08-16

197

Validation of in vitro cell models used in drug metabolism and transport studies; genotyping of cytochrome P450, phase II enzymes and drug transporter polymorphisms in the human hepatoma (HepG2), ovarian carcinoma (IGROV-1) and colon carcinoma (CaCo-2, LS180) cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Human cell lines are often used for in vitro biotransformation and transport studies of drugs. In vivo, genetic polymorphisms have been identified in drug-metabolizing enzymes and ABC-drug transporters leading to altered enzyme activity, or a change in the inducibility of these enzymes. These genetic polymorphisms could also influence the outcome of studies using human cell lines. Therefore, the aim of our study was to pharmacogenotype four cell lines frequently used in drug metabolism and transport studies, HepG2, IGROV-1, CaCo-2 and LS180, for genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes and drug transporters. The results indicate that, despite the presence of some genetic polymorphisms, no real effects influencing the activity of metabolizing enzymes or drug transporters in the investigated cell lines are expected. However, this characterization will be an aid in the interpretation of the results of biotransformation and transport studies using these in vitro cell models.

Brandon, Esther F.A. [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Bosch, Tessa M. [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deenen, Maarten J.; Levink, Rianne; Wal, Everdina van der; Meerveld, Joyce B.M. van; Bijl, Monique [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Beijnen, Jos H. [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schellens, Jan H.M. [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Department of Medical Oncology and Experimental Therapy, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meijerman, Irma [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: I.Meijerman@pharm.uu.nl

2006-02-15

198

Functional expression of milligram quantities of the synthetic human serotonin transporter gene in a tetracycline-inducible HEK293 cell line.  

PubMed

The serotonin transporter (SERT), a member of the solute carrier 6 family, is responsible for reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) from the synaptic cleft on the neural cells, and a vital target for several antidepressants. To investigate biophysical studies of this pharmacologically relevant transporter, we developed a mammalian expression system with tetracycline-inducible HEK293 cells using synthetic human SERT genes produced by PCR-based self-assembly method. Codon-optimization of this de novo constructed genes and construction of stable cell lines improved expression 3.5-fold and single-step immunoaffinity purification with FLAG-epitope tag yielded around one milligram functional SERT per liter culture medium assessed by [(3)H] imipramine ligand binding. Some characterizations including electrospray ionization MS/MS analysis, subcellular localization and cellular-uptake assay demonstrated that expressed human SERT was properly expressed, folded and fully functional. The long cytosolic N-terminal of SERT was predicted as containing 'intrinsically disordered region (IDR)' (?85 residues) by DISOPRED2 program. We engineered this salient region by step-wise truncation and ligand binding assay determined that dissociation constant for a series of de novo designed truncation constructs was close to the one for full-length wild type SERT. Our expression platform using synthetic codon-optimized gene and mammalian stable cell lines is feasible to produce milligram-scale functional membrane transporter for further biophysical and biochemical studies. PMID:21129485

Takayama, Hidehito; Sugio, Shigetoshi

2011-04-01

199

OsAP65, a rice aspartic protease, is essential for male fertility and plays a role in pollen germination and pollen tube growth.  

PubMed

Aspartic proteases (APs) comprise a large proteolytic enzyme family widely distributed in animals, microbes, viruses, and plants. The rice genome encodes 96 APs, of which only a few have been functionally characterized. Here, the identification and characterization of a novel AP gene, OsAP65, which plays an indispensable role in pollen tube growth in rice, is reported. The T-DNA insertion line of OsAP65 caused severe segregation distortion. In the progeny derived from an individual heterozygous for the T-DNA insertion, the wild type and T-DNA-carrying heterozygote segregated at a ratio close to 1:1, while homozygotes of disrupted OsAP65 (OsAP65-/-) were not recovered. Reciprocal crosses between heterozygotes and wild-type plants demonstrated that the mutant alleles could not be transmitted through the male gamete. Examination of the anthers from heterozygous plants revealed that the mutant pollen matured normally, but did not germinate or elongate. OsAP65 was expressed in various tissues and the transcript level in heterozygous plants was about half of the amount measured in the wild-type plants. The subcellular localization showed that OsAP65 is a pre-vacuolar compartment (PVC) protein. These results indicated that OsAP65 was essential for rice pollen germination and tube growth. PMID:23918968

Huang, Jianyan; Zhao, Xiaobo; Cheng, Ke; Jiang, Yunhe; Ouyang, Yidan; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

2013-08-01

200

OFF-LINE ALGORITHM FOR CALCULATION OF VERTICAL TRACERS TRANSPORT DUE TO DEEP CONVECTION IN THE TROPOSPHERE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IIt has been recognized for long time that transport by deep convection can have a substantial impact on the budgets of tracers in the atmosphere due to the rapid transport in convective updrafts from the surface to the upper troposphere and downdrafts in reverse. The vertical velocity of updrafts is usually about several m/sec, but can sometimes exceed 20-30 m/sec. So deep convection sometimes penetrates the atmosphere to altitudes of the stratosphere on time scales of the order of few hours. Deep convection particularly strongly affects tracers with lifetimes in the range of day to a couple of weeks throughout the troposphere. Global chemistry-transport models and global circulation models generally simulate vertical tracer transport using convective mass fluxes obtained from a deep cumulus convection parameterization. For this purpose many different cumulus parameterizations have been developed which are based on the plume ensemble formulation and the bulk formulation as two widely used approaches for parameterization of tracer transport (Lawrence and Rasch, 2005). In this work we present an explicit method for modeling convective updrafts based on modification of the parameterization scheme described in (Grell, 1993) in which rainfall is determined by the quasi-equilibrium assumption that the column is stabilized by the convection at the same rate that it is destabilized by the large-scale flow. Assuming that most of moisture entering updraft comes down as precipitation, cloud mass flux due to penetrative convection Clmf between lower and upper layers of cloud is estimated from equation: Clmf = Rain/Qmax. Rain denotes the precipitation rate at the surface; Qmax is the maximum value of the absolute humidity within a vertical profile. In our parameterization, instead of using prognostic algorithm for convection intensity, Rain, lower and upper layers of cloud are all supplied by NCEP GFS operational forecast dataset. We performed simulation of Rn222 concentrations using NIES global transport model. Comparison of results obtained by models with our penetrative convection algorithm and without convective parametrization shows significant increase of radon concentration (up to 10-20% of lower tropospheric values) in the tropical upper troposphere, directly below the top of the tropopause. We also present effect of the algorithm application on carbon dioxide transport simulation. 1. Grell G., 1993: Prognostic evaluation of assumptions used by cumulus parameterizations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 764-787. 2. Lawrence M.G. and P.J. Rasch, 2005: Tracer Transport in Deep Convective Updrafts: Plume Ensemble versus Bulk Formulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2880-2894.

Belikov, D. A.; Maksyutov, S. S.

2009-12-01

201

Radiation transport analyses in support of the SNS Target Station Neutron Beam Line Shutters Title I Design  

SciTech Connect

A detailed radiation transport analysis of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) shutters is important for the construction of the SNS because of its impact on conventional facility design, normal operation of the facility, and maintenance operations. Thus far the analysis of the SNS shutter travel gaps has been completed. This analysis was performed using coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations.

Miller, T.M.; Pevey, R.E.; Lillie, R.A.; Johnson, J.O.

2000-12-01

202

Power Saving Control for Battery-Powered Portable WLAN APs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a power saving control function for battery-powered portable wireless LAN (WLAN) access points (APs) to extend the battery life. The IEEE802.11 standard does not support power saving control for APs. To enable a sleep state for an AP, the AP forces the stations (STAs) to refrain from transmitting frames using the network allocation vector (NAV) while the AP is sleeping. Thus the sleep state for the AP can be employed without causing frame loss at the STAs. Numerical analysis and computer simulation reveal that the newly proposed control technique conserves power compared to the conventional control.

Ogawa, Masakatsu; Hiraguri, Takefumi

203

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - TRANSPORTABILITY FACTORS FOR FUGITIVE DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The product is a table of factors, one for each county in the US, reflecting the portion of fugitive dust removed very close to the source via impaction on vegetation and similar mechanisms. Factors were based on land cover in area (county or grid cell) A praft final product was...

204

APS Presents Awards at 2007 ABRCMS Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The APS presented awards to six minority undergraduate researchers for their oral and poster presentations in the physiological sciences at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS) at the Austin Convention Center in Austin, TX from November 7-10, 2007. ABRCMS is a national conference designed to facilitate increased minority involvement in biomedical and behavioral science careers.

APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

2008-02-01

205

AP Biology Investigation #6: Cellular Respiration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Advanced Placement Investigation into cellular respiration (#6). The investigation was developed by the College Board for use in AP Biology classes. Students begin by investigating the question, What factors affect the rate of cellular respiration in multicellular organisms? Later, students investigate one of their own questions that arose during the first investigation. Wisconsin Fast Plants are used as a model organism.

Approach, Ap B.

206

The Promise of AP World History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

2013-01-01

207

Creation of post AP chemistry class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creation of a Post AP Chemistry Class to be taught at the high school level for grade 12 students is discussed. The class is to be taught under the supervision of the University of Texas Pan American professors and taught by an MS Chemistry teacher, in order to better transition students into upper level chemistry courses beyond Chemistry 1401 and 1402.

Medrano, Julian

208

Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan  

SciTech Connect

This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107.

Schreiber, R.D.

1994-12-06

209

APS Presents Awards at 2006 ABRCMS Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An article from The Physiologist. The APS presented awards to minority undergraduate researchers and was a major conference sponsor at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS) at the Anaheim Convention Center and Anaheim Marriott hotel in Anaheim, CA from November 8-11, 2006.

APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

2007-04-01

210

Gateway to Success: AP Prep Application Packet  

E-print Network

materials you'll need. Application Deadline: Tuesday, January 21, 5:00pm, in DUC 150 Application Checklist Complete the AP Prep Volunteer Application You must include all information in order to be considered:30-5:00pm Questions? We'd love to hear from you! Community Service Office k12Connections@wustl.edu or 935

Subramanian, Venkat

211

APS control system operating system choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to set down the reasons and decisions regarding what is an important choice for the APS Control System design staff, namely the choice of an operating system for its principle computer resources. Since the choice also may affect cost estimates and the design handbook, there is a further need to document the process. The

M. Knott; M. Kraimer; F. Lenkszus

1990-01-01

212

Building a Robust A-P Axis  

PubMed Central

Since the last common ancestor of Metazoa, animals have evolved complex body plans with specialized cells and spatial organization of tissues and organs. Arguably, one of the most significant innovations during animal evolutionary history was the establishment of a bilateral plane of symmetry on which morphological features (e.g. tissues, organs, appendages, skeleton) could be given specific coordinates within the animal along the anterior-posterior (A-P) and dorsal-ventral (D-V) axes. Hox genes are a known group of eumetazoan transcription factors central to regulating A-P patterning, but less well known and under current investigation is the broader regulatory landscape incorporating these genes, including microRNA (miRNA) regulation. The degree to which evolutionarily conserved targeting of Hox genes by Hox-embedded miRNAs contributes directly to A-P patterning is under investigation, yielding contrasting information dependent on the organism and miRNA of interest. The widespread A-P patterning defects observed in recent miR-196 loss-of-function studies solidifies the importance of miRNA regulation in Hox genetic hierarchies, and elucidating the developmental and evolutionary importance of all Hox-embedded miRNAs remains a challenge for the future. PMID:23204917

Heimberg, Alysha; McGlinn, Edwina

2012-01-01

213

Structuring the AP Art History Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While AP (Advanced Placement) Art History may be taught within the art department in many schools, social studies teachers are equally capable of teaching the course well. They have the historical background to discuss the reasons for changes in art styles. A teacher's preparation is similar to teaching a course stressing political history,…

Herscher, Walter R.

2013-01-01

214

Transport and intracellular distribution of MHC class II molecules and associated invariant chain in normal and antigen-processing mutant cell lines.  

PubMed

We have compared the intracellular transport and subcellular distribution of MHC class II-invariant chain complexes in a wild-type HLA-DR3 homozygous cell line and a mutant cell line, T2.DR3. The latter has a defect in antigen processing and accumulates HLA-DR3 molecules associated with an invariant chain-derived peptide (CLIP) rather than the normal complement of peptides derived from endocytosed proteins. We find that in the wild-type cells, CLIP is transiently associated with HLA-DR3 molecules, suggesting that the peptide is a normal class II-associated intermediate generated during proteolysis of the invariant chain. In the mutant cell line proteolysis of the invariant chain is less efficient, and HLA-DR3/CLIP complexes are generated much more slowly. Examination of the mutant cell line by immunoelectronmicroscopy shows that class II-invariant chain complexes accumulate intracellularly in large acidic vesicles which contain lysosomal markers, including beta-hexosaminidase, cathepsin D, and the lysosomal membrane protein CD63. The markers in these vesicles are identical to those seen in the class II-containing vesicles (MIICs) seen in the wild-type cells but the morphology is drastically different. The vesicles in the mutant cells are endocytic, as measured by the internalization of BSA-gold conjugates. The implication of these findings for antigen processing in general and the nature of the mutation in particular are discussed. PMID:8207055

Riberdy, J M; Avva, R R; Geuze, H J; Cresswell, P

1994-06-01

215

Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils  

SciTech Connect

Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1.

Hirano, Toru [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higa, Shinji [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Arimitsu, Junsuke [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Naka, Tetsuji [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ogata, Atsushi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shima, Yoshihito [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Fujimoto, Minoru [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamadori, Tomoki [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki [Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan); Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kawase, Ichiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshio [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: ttanak@imed3.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

2006-02-03

216

Parametric study of the current limit within a single driver-scale transport beam line of an induction linac for heavy ion fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ˜0.2 muC/m) over long pulse durations (4 mus) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K+ ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (?80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

Prost, Lionel Robert

217

Molecular determinants in the transport of a bile acid-derived diagnostic agent in tumoral and nontumoral cell lines of human liver.  

PubMed

Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) is a valuable technique for the diagnosis of liver diseases. As gadocoletic acid trisodium salt (B22956/1), a new contrast agent showing high biliary excretion, may be potentially advantageous in hepatobiliary imaging, the aim of the study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of hepatic transport of the B22956 ion in a cellular model of hepatic tumor. B22956 ion uptake was measured in tumoral (HepG2) and nontumoral (Chang liver) hepatic cell lines. Absolute quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses, using cloned PCR products as standards, were performed on total RNA of both cell lines and normal liver to evaluate the transcription of 12 transport genes: SLCO1A2, SLCO2B1, SLCO1B1, SLCO3A1, SLCO4A1, SLCO1B3, SLC22A7, SLC22A8, SLC22A1, SLC10A1, SLC15A1, and SLC15A2. B22956 transport was more efficient in Chang liver than in HepG2 cells and was inhibited by cholecystokinin-8, a specific substrate of OATP1B3. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed different transcription profiles in the tumoral and nontumoral cell lines. Compared with normal liver, the expression of SLCO1B1, SLCO3A1, and SLCO1B3 was greatly repressed in HepG2 cells, whereas SLCO2B1, SLC22A7, and SLC22A8 expression was either maintained or increased. On the contrary, in Chang liver cells, SLC22A7 and SLC22A8 genes were undetectable, whereas the expression of SLCO3A1, SLCO4A1, and SLCO1B3 was similar to normal liver. Transport studies and gene expression analyses indicated that B22956 ion is a good substrate to the liver-specific OATP1B3, reported to be poorly expressed or absent in human liver tumors. Therefore, B22956 may be helpful in detecting hepatic neoplastic lesions by CE-MRI. PMID:16895978

Libra, Antonin; Fernetti, Cristina; Lorusso, Vito; Visigalli, Massimo; Anelli, Pier Lucio; Staud, Frantisek; Tiribelli, Claudio; Pascolo, Lorella

2006-11-01

218

The Cryptosporidium parvum ApiAP2 gene family: insights into the evolution of apicomplexan AP2 regulatory systems  

PubMed Central

We provide the first comprehensive analysis of any transcription factor family in Cryptosporidium, a basal-branching apicomplexan that is the second leading cause of infant diarrhea globally. AP2 domain-containing proteins have evolved to be the major regulatory family in the phylum to the exclusion of canonical regulators. We show that apicomplexan and perkinsid AP2 domains cluster distinctly from other chromalveolate AP2s. Protein-binding specificity assays of C. parvum AP2 domains combined with motif conservation upstream of co-regulated gene clusters allowed the construction of putative AP2 regulons across the in vitro life cycle. Orthologous Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) expression has been rearranged relative to the malaria parasite P. falciparum, suggesting ApiAP2 network rewiring during evolution. C. hominis orthologs of putative C. parvum ApiAP2 proteins and target genes show greater than average variation. C. parvum AP2 domains display reduced binding diversity relative to P. falciparum, with multiple domains binding the 5?-TGCAT-3?, 5?-CACACA-3? and G-box motifs (5?-G[T/C]GGGG-3?). Many overrepresented motifs in C. parvum upstream regions are not AP2 binding motifs. We propose that C. parvum is less reliant on ApiAP2 regulators in part because it utilizes E2F/DP1 transcription factors. C. parvum may provide clues to the ancestral state of apicomplexan transcriptional regulation, pre-AP2 domination. PMID:24957599

Oberstaller, Jenna; Pumpalova, Yoanna; Schieler, Ariel; Llinas, Manuel; Kissinger, Jessica C.

2014-01-01

219

The origin of light variability in Ap stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usual photometric variability detected in Ap stars is that associated with rotation. It has long been surmised that redistribution of rotationally modulated flux in surface abundance spots is the cause of that type of variability. The redistribution is caused by bound-bound (line) and bound-free (continuum) transitions of various elements, in particular helium, silicon, iron, and (obviously) also rare-earth elements. With the availability of detailed abundance maps, complete atomic data, and detailed model atmospheres it has now become possible to simulate reliably the photometric variability due to rotation. This is demonstrated by the example of several CP stars. We generalise these result and discuss the importance of individual elements in terms of their dependence on effective temperature. We emphasise the importance of light curve prediction for testing surface abundance maps and the atomic data.

Krti?ka, J.; Mikulášek Z.; Zverko, J.; Prvák, M.

2014-11-01

220

Single-Bunch Electron Cloud Effects in the GLC/NLC, US-Cold and TESLA Low Emittance Transport Lines  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the severity of the electron cloud effects in the Low Emittance Transport (LET) of linear colliders including the Bunch-Compressor System (BCS) and Beam Delivery System (BDS). We examine the electron cloud effects in the normal-conducting GLC/NLC or X-Band, and the super-conducting US-Cold and TESLA linear collider designs through the use of specially developed computer simulation codes. An estimate of the critical cloud density is given for the BDS and BCS of the X-Band collider.

Bates, D.

2005-04-12

221

A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source.  

PubMed

Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms?molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms?molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of (14)O (71 s), (42)K (12.4 h), (43)K (22.2 h), and (41)Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10(3) particles per second (pps). About 3.2 × 10(3) pps of 1.4 MeV (14)O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future. PMID:23556809

Naik, V; Chakrabarti, A; Bhattacharjee, M; Karmakar, P; Bandyopadhyay, A; Bhattacharjee, S; Dechoudhury, S; Mondal, M; Pandey, H K; Lavanyakumar, D; Mandi, T K; Dutta, D P; Kundu Roy, T; Bhowmick, D; Sanyal, D; Srivastava, S C L; Ray, A; Ali, Md S

2013-03-01

222

A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms/molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms/molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of 14O (71 s), 42K (12.4 h), 43K (22.2 h), and 41Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 103 particles per second (pps). About 3.2 × 103 pps of 1.4 MeV 14O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

Naik, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Karmakar, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Dechoudhury, S.; Mondal, M.; Pandey, H. K.; Lavanyakumar, D.; Mandi, T. K.; Dutta, D. P.; Kundu Roy, T.; Bhowmick, D.; Sanyal, D.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Ray, A.; Ali, Md. S.

2013-03-01

223

CYLD Inhibits Tumorigenesis and Metastasis by Blocking JNK/AP1 Signaling at Multiple Levels  

PubMed Central

CYLD has been recognized as a tumor suppressor due to its dominant genetic linkage to multiple types of epidermal tumors and a range of other cancers. The molecular mechanisms governing CYLD control of skin cancer are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that K14-driven epidermal expression of a patient relevant and catalytically deficient CYLD truncation mutant (CYLDm) sensitized mice to skin tumor development in response to DMBA/TPA-challenge. Tumors developed on transgenic mice were prone to malignant progression and lymph node metastasis, and displayed increased activation of JNK and the downstream c-Jun and c-Fos proteins. Most importantly, topical application of a pharmacological JNK inhibitor significantly reduced tumor development and abolished metastasis in the transgenic mice. Further in line with these animal data, exogenous expression of CYLDm in A431, a human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line, markedly enhanced cell growth, migration and subcutaneous tumor growth in an AP1-depdendent manner. In contrast, expression of the wild type CYLD inhibited SCC tumorigenesis and AP1 function. Most importantly, CYLDm not only increased JNK activation but also induced an upregulation of K63-ubiquitination on both c-Jun and c-Fos, leading to sustained AP1 activation. Our findings uncovered c-Jun and c-Fos as novel CYLD-targets and underscore that CYLD controls epidermal tumorigenesis through blocking the JNK/AP1 signaling pathway at multiple levels. PMID:21478324

de Marval, Paula Miliani; Lutfeali, Shazia; Jin, Jane Y.; Leshin, Benjamin; Selim, M. Angelica; Zhang, Jennifer Y.

2011-01-01

224

Fgfr3 Is a Transcriptional Target of Ap2? and Ash2l-Containing Histone Methyltransferase Complexes  

PubMed Central

Polycomb (PcG) and trithorax (trxG) proteins play important roles in establishing lineage-specific genetic programs through induction of chromatin modifications that lead to gene silencing or activation. Previously, we described an association between the MLL/SET1 complexes and a highly restricted, gene-specific DNA-binding protein Ap2? that is required for recruitment of the MLL/SET1 complex to target Hoxc8 specifically. Here, we reduced levels of Ap2? and Ash2l in the neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro2A, and analyzed their gene expression profiles using whole-genome mouse cDNA microarrays. This analysis yielded 42 genes that are potentially co-regulated by Ap2? and Ash2l, and we have identified evolutionarily conserved Ap2-binding sites in 20 of them. To determine whether some of these were direct targets of the Ap2?-Ash2l complex, we analyzed several promoters for the presence of Ap2? and Ash2l by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Among the targets we screened, we identified Fgfr3 as a direct transcriptional target of the Ap2?-Ash2l complex. Additionally, we found that Ap2? is necessary for the recruitment of Ash2l-containing complexes to this promoter and that this recruitment leads to trimethylation of lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me3). Thus, we have identified several candidate targets of complexes containing Ap2? and Ash2l that can be used to further elucidate their roles during development and showed that Fgfr3 is a novel direct target of these complexes. PMID:20046871

Tan, Cheryl C.; Walsh, Martin J.; Gelb, Bruce D.

2009-01-01

225

Cultural Diversity in AP Art History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching AP Art History is like running on a treadmill that is moving faster than a teacher can run. Many teachers are out of breath before the end of the term and wonder how in the world they can cover every chapter. Because time is short and art from pre-history through to the present, including the non-European traditions, must be covered, this…

Bolte, Frances R.

2006-01-01

226

APS Museum "Dialogues with Darwin" Online Exhibition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Philosophical Society (APS) Museum's "Dialogues with Darwin" exhibition tells the story of Charles Darwinâs theory of evolution and considers the debates about evolution that came both before and after him. The online gallery features all objects, label texts, and wall texts on view in the actual exhibition. The site includes a link to an Educator's Guide which can be downloaded as a pdf file.

American Philosophical Society & Philadelphia Area Center for History of Science

227

Review of the APS SR RF systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV full energy storage ring (SR) for generating synchrotron radiation with an injector. The storage ring cavities consist of four groups of four single cells powered by up to four 1-MW klystrons for up to 300-mA operation. A review of the operation of the rf system as well as rf-related beam dynamics is

J. J. Song; A. Cours; A. Grelick; K. Harkay; D. Horan; Y. W. Kang; R. L. Kustom; A. Nassiri; G. Pile; T. L. Smith

1998-01-01

228

Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report.

Esch, R.A.

1996-04-19

229

High energy beam lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

2014-01-01

230

AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant safety overview for spent fuel cooling  

SciTech Connect

The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and costs. The AP1000 design uses passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as AC power, component cooling water, service water or HVAC. Furthermore, these passive features 'fail safe' during a non-LOCA event such that DC power and instrumentation are not required. The AP1000 also has simple, active, defense-in-depth systems to support normal plant operations. These active systems provide the first level of defense against more probable events and they provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the probabilistic risk assessment. The AP1000 passive safety approach allows the plant to achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of an accident for 72 hours without operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the U.S. Utility Requirement Document and the European Utility Requirements for passive plants. Limited operator actions are required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool via passive means. In line with the AP1000 approach to safety described above, the AP1000 plant design features multiple, diverse lines of defense to ensure spent fuel cooling can be maintained for design-basis events and beyond design-basis accidents. During normal and abnormal conditions, defense-in-depth and other systems provide highly reliable spent fuel pool cooling. They rely on off-site AC power or the on-site standby diesel generators. For unlikely design basis events with an extended loss of AC power (i.e., station blackout) or loss of heat sink or both, spent fuel cooling can still be provided indefinitely: - Passive systems, requiring minimal or no operator actions, are sufficient for at least 72 hours under all possible pool heat load conditions. - After 3 days, several different means are provided to continue spent fuel cooling using installed plant equipment as well as off-site equipment with built-in connections. Even for beyond design basis accidents with postulated pool damage and multiple failures in the passive safety-related systems and in the defense-in-depth active systems, the AP1000 multiple spent fuel pool spray and fill systems provide additional lines of defense to prevent spent fuel damage. (authors)

Gorgemans, J.; Mulhollem, L.; Glavin, J.; Pfister, A.; Conway, L.; Schulz, T.; Oriani, L.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

2012-07-01

231

TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION  

E-print Network

TEXASTRANS TEXAS TRANSPORTATION HALL HONOR OF HALL HONOR OF TEXASTRAN HALL HONOR OF TEXASTRAN HALL HONOR OF Inductees #12;2 TEXAS TRANSPORTATION HALL HONOR OF L NOR OF Texas is recognized as having one in supporting the economic development of the state and in providing Texans a high quality of life. The creation

232

Septin6 and Septin7 GTP Binding Proteins Regulate AP-3- and ESCRT-Dependent Multivesicular Body Biogenesis  

PubMed Central

Septins (SEPTs) form a family of GTP-binding proteins implicated in cytoskeleton and membrane organization, cell division and host/pathogen interactions. The precise function of many family members remains elusive. We show that SEPT6 and SEPT7 complexes bound to F-actin regulate protein sorting during multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis. These complexes bind AP-3, an adapter complex sorting cargos destined to remain in outer membranes of maturing endosomes, modulate AP-3 membrane interactions and the motility of AP-3-positive endosomes. These SEPT-AP interactions also influence the membrane interaction of ESCRT (endosomal-sorting complex required for transport)-I, which selects ubiquitinated cargos for degradation inside MVBs. Whereas our findings demonstrate that SEPT6 and SEPT7 function in the spatial, temporal organization of AP-3- and ESCRT-coated membrane domains, they uncover an unsuspected coordination of these sorting machineries during MVB biogenesis. This requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase LRSAM1, an AP-3 interactor regulating ESCRT-I sorting activity and whose mutations are linked with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. PMID:25380047

Traikov, Sofia; Stange, Christoph; Wassmer, Thomas; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Salamero, Jean; Raposo, Graça; Hoflack, Bernard

2014-01-01

233

Regulation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase and the Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter in the renal epithelial cell line NBL-1 under osmotic stress.  

PubMed

The long-term adaptation of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase to hypertonicity was studied using the bovine renal epithelial cell line NBL-1. Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity measured in intact cells as the ouabain-sensitive fraction of Rb+ uptake was stimulated (40% above controls) after incubating the cells in hypertonic medium. This stimulation was not correlated with significant changes in the amount of Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit protein. Nevertheless, the amount of alpha 1 but not beta 1 subunit mRNA progressively increased after hypertonic shock (3-4-fold above basal values). These results suggest that the alpha 1 subunit gene is modulated by medium osmolarity, although this does not necessarily involve enhanced translation of the mRNA into active alpha 1 protein. Indeed, the increase in the biological activity of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase is abolished when the electrochemical Na+ transmembrane gradient is depleted by monensin, which is consistent with a post-translational effect on the activity of the sodium pump. A furosemide-sensitive component of Rb+ uptake, attributable to Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter activity, was very low when cells were cultured in a regular medium, but was greatly induced after hypertonic shock. This induction could not be blocked by cycloheximide. Colcemide addition slightly reduced the absolute increase in Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter activity, while cytochalasin B significantly potentiated the effect triggered by hypertonic shock. It is concluded: (i) that in NBL-1 cells the alpha 1 but not the beta 1 subunit of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase is encoded by an osmotically sensitive gene, and (ii) that the Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter, although an osmotically sensitive carrier, is induced by a mechanism that is independent of protein synthesis but may rely, in an undetermined manner, on the structure of the cytoskeletal network. PMID:8912665

Ferrer-Martinez, A; Casado, F J; Felipe, A; Pastor-Anglada, M

1996-10-15

234

Rotational Evolution and Magnetic Field of AP Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RESUMO. Prop6e- se qLie 0 campo de estrelas Ap pode ser 9cr ado pelo mecanismo de na base clo envelope c 0 fl V C C t V 0, C t r a ri S p 0 r t a d C) p a r a a S LI p e r f C 1 e p e I a Instabllidade de boiament 0 na ase de Haya hi. Campos cibservados permit em est imar uma perda de momento durante a ase pr -Seque%nC:ia P r ri C: p a I a ci ni p a t V C I C: C) m a s C) b s e r V a nT C 5. E S t r C I a S A normals, que ro t a ao , ria0 most ram camp Os :os superficia; importantes e isto pode ac:oriteaer C LIma protoestrela evolue para Sequencia Principal em passar pela fase de Hayashi. ABSTRACT: It 5 proposed that the ma9netic field o Ap stars may be enerated by the dynamo at the base of the convective envelope, arid transported to the surface b y t h C i ri s t a b iii t y C) f b LI 0 y a n c y i n t h C H a y a s hi p h a s e. Observed surface ma9netic fields allow to estimate a 1055 of an9ular momentum during the pre-Main Sequence phase compatible with the observations. apidIy rotating normal A stars do not shciw important surface magnetic fields and this may occur if a protostar evcilves to Main Sequence skipping the Hayashi phase. Key words: HYDROMAGNETICS - STARS-PECULIAR A

Xiaojun, C.; Matsuura, O. T.

1990-11-01

235

Development of liquid-film tracking models for analysis of AP600 passive containment cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AP-600, an advanced pressurized water reactor, utilizes a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) to remove heat released inside the containment vessel following postulated design-base accidents (DBAS) such as a main-steam-line break or loss-of-coolant accident. The containment vessel consists of a vertical cylindrical shell and is capped at both top and bottom by a dome that is also a body

J. G. Sun; W. T. Sha; Y. S. Chen

1993-01-01

236

Transport properties of Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} meander lines  

SciTech Connect

The authors have measured the electrical transport properties of 10 cm long Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} thin film meander lines in magnetic fields up to 18T. The large resistance of the meander line effectively increased the electric field, or equivalently, resistivity sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. In moderate magnetic fields the critical current density is found to depend only on the component of the magnetic field normal to the ab planes owing to the highly anisotropic nature of the system. The resistivity versus temperature was measured as a function of magnetic field up to 18T. The linear resistivity is found to vanish in a manner consistent with the occurrence of a second order phase transition. The critical exponent v(z-1) is virtually field independent with a value 5.3 {+-}1 consistent with previous measurements of a three dimensional vortex glass transition in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The critical regime is 10-15K wide in agreement with values for Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} at high magnetic field.

Fleshler, S.; Maley, M.P.; Jia, Quanxi; Wu, Xin Di; Lacerda, A.

1995-12-31

237

Comparison of In vitro Nanoparticles Uptake in Various Cell Lines and In vivo Pulmonary Cellular Transport in Intratracheally Dosed Rat Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present study, the potential drug delivery of nanoformulations was validated via the comparison of cellular uptake of nanoparticles in various cell lines and in vivo pulmonary cellular uptake in intratracheally (IT) dosed rat model. Nanoparticles were prepared by a bench scale wet milling device and incubated with a series of cell lines, including Caco-2, RAW, MDCK and MDCK transfected MDR1 cells. IT dosed rats were examined for the pulmonary cellular uptake of nanoparticles. The processes of nanoparticle preparation did not alter the crystalline state of the material. The uptake of nanoparticles was observed most extensively in RAW cells and the least in Caco-2 cells. Efflux transporter P-gp did not prevent cell from nanoparticles uptake. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles was also confirmed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cells and in bronchiolar epithelial cells, type II alveolar epithelial cells in the intratracheally administrated rats. The nanoparticles uptake in MDCK, RAW cells and in vivo lung epithelial cells indicated the potential applications of nanoformulation for poorly soluble compounds. The observed limited direct uptake of nanoparticles in Caco-2 cells suggests that the improvement in oral bioavailability by particle size reduction is via increased dissolution rate rather than direct uptake.

Lai, Yurong; Chiang, Po-Chang; Blom, Jason D.; Li, Na; Shevlin, Kimberly; Brayman, Timothy G.; Hu, Yiding; Selbo, Jon G.; Hu, Liangbiao George

2008-09-01

238

Butyrate produced by commensal bacteria potentiates phorbol esters induced AP-1 response in human intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells. PMID:23300800

Nepelska, Malgorzata; Cultrone, Antonietta; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Vermulugesan; Blottière, Hervé M

2012-01-01

239

Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along open magnetic field lines: Parallel heat flux  

SciTech Connect

In a long mean-free-path plasma where temperature anisotropy can be sustained, the parallel heat flux has two components with one associated with the parallel thermal energy and the other the perpendicular thermal energy. Due to the large deviation of the distribution function from local Maxwellian in an open field line plasma with low collisionality, the conventional perturbative calculation of the parallel heat flux closure in its local or non-local form is no longer applicable. Here, a non-perturbative calculation is presented for a collisionless plasma in a two-dimensional flux expander bounded by absorbing walls. Specifically, closures of previously unfamiliar form are obtained for ions and electrons, which relate two distinct components of the species parallel heat flux to the lower order fluid moments such as density, parallel flow, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, and the field quantities such as the magnetic field strength and the electrostatic potential. The plasma source and boundary condition at the absorbing wall enter explicitly in the closure calculation. Although the closure calculation does not take into account wave-particle interactions, the results based on passing orbits from steady-state collisionless drift-kinetic equation show remarkable agreement with fully kinetic-Maxwell simulations. As an example of the physical implications of the theory, the parallel heat flux closures are found to predict a surprising observation in the kinetic-Maxwell simulation of the 2D magnetic flux expander problem, where the parallel heat flux of the parallel thermal energy flows from low to high parallel temperature region.

Guo Zehua; Tang Xianzhu [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-06-15

240

The complex interactions of Chs5p, the ChAPs, and the cargo Chs3p  

PubMed Central

The exomer complex is a putative vesicle coat required for the direct transport of a subset of cargoes from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane. Exomer comprises Chs5p and the ChAPs family of proteins (Chs6p, Bud7p, Bch1p, and Bch2p), which are believed to act as cargo receptors. In particular, Chs6p is required for the transport of the chitin synthase Chs3p to the bud neck. However, how the ChAPs associate with Chs5p and recognize cargo is not well understood. Using domain-switch chimeras of Chs6p and Bch2p, we show that four tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) are involved in interaction with Chs5p. Because these roles are conserved among the ChAPs, the TPRs are interchangeable among different ChAP proteins. In contrast, the N-terminal and the central parts of the ChAPs contribute to cargo specificity. Although the entire N-terminal domain of Chs6p is required for Chs3p export at all cell cycle stages, the central part seems to predominantly favor Chs3p export in small-budded cells. The cargo Chs3p probably also uses a complex motif for the interaction with Chs6, as the C-terminus of Chs3p interacts with Chs6p and is necessary, but not sufficient, for TGN export. PMID:23015758

Rockenbauch, Uli; Ritz, Alicja M.; Sacristan, Carlos; Roncero, Cesar; Spang, Anne

2012-01-01

241

Review of the APS SR RF systems.  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV full energy storage ring (SR) for generating synchrotron radiation with an injector. The storage ring cavities consist of four groups of four single cells powered by up to four 1-MW klystrons for up to 300-mA operation. A review of the operation of the rf system as well as rf-related beam dynamics is presented. This review includes rf power distribution, low-level feedback, control law, beam loading, beam instabilities, higher-order modes, and beam-induced multipactoring.

Song, J.J.; Cours, A.; Grelick, A.; Harkay, K.; Horan, D.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Nassiri, A.; Pile, G.; Smith, T.L.

1998-03-31

242

Path Deviation Equations in AP-Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, it has been shown that Absolute Parallelism (AP) geometry admits paths that are naturally quantized. These paths have been used to describe the motion of spinning particles in a background gravitational field. In case of a weak static gravitational field limits, the paths are applied successfully to interpret the discrepancy in the motion of thermal neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field (COW-experiment). The aim of the present work is to explore the properties of the deviation equations corresponding to these paths. In the present work the deviation equations are derived and compared to the geodesic deviation equation of the Riemannian geometry.

Wanas, M. I.; Kahil, M. E.

2006-02-01

243

Radial-Velocity Variations of the Rapidly Oscillating Ap Star 33 Lib  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a time series of precise stellar radial velocity measurements of the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star 33 Lib. High speed observations were made approximately every minute continuously for a total of 3 hours using the 2-D coude spectrograph of the 2.7-m telescope at McDonald Observatory. The setup of this prism cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph provided a wavelength coverage of 4800-6900 Å at a resolving power of 60,000. A molecular gas iodine absorption cell placed in the light path just before the spectrograph slit provided a stable wavelength reference for measuring radial velocities to a precision of about 20 m/s per observation. A Fourier analysis of the data clearly shows the 8.2 min pulsation period found previously by photometric investigations and gives a peak-to-peak (2K) amplitude of about 80 m/s. This corresponds to a RV-to-photometric amplitude of 27 km/s/mag in B (based on &Delta B = 3.0 mmag) which is comparable to the value for classical Cepheids. However, we find, like in other roAp stars we have studied, that the RV amplitude depends on the spectral region used for measuring the RV amplitude and is as high as 57 plus or minus 4.7 m/s in the region 5411-5500 Å and as low as 7 plus or minus 3 m/s in the region 5877-5976 A. The amplitude versus wavelength (spectral order) is complicated and is not strictly a decreasing function of increasing wavelength. A detailed line-by-line analysis shows considerable scatter in the RV amplitude derived from individual lines and can be as high as 320 m/s and as low as 7 m/s. There is an overall trend of increasing RV amplitude with decreasing line strength, although there is considerable scatter about the mean curve. This result is similar to what we have found for other roAp stars. We also found that spectral lines due to iron lines have a slightly higher mean RV semi-amplitude (128 plus or minus 44 m/s) than the amplitude for chromium (61 plus or minus 44 m/s) and titanium (98 plus or minus 53 m/s), although this result is somewhat uncertain due to the fewer chromium and titanium lines used for computing the mean RV amplitude. If this result is true, then it is counter to what we have found in the roAp star &gamma Equ. Spectral lines from nickel exhibited the highest RV semi-amplitude (138 plus or minus 68 m/s). We believe that the line strength variations are an indication of vertical atmospheric structure to the pulsations and that the elemental differences are related to the inhomogeneous distribution of elements known to occur on Ap stars. Precise stellar radial velocity studies of roAp stars may be a powerful tool for studying both the spatial (surface) and vertical structure to the pulsational velocity field.

Hatzes, A. P.; Kanaan, A.; Mkrtichian, D.

244

Vacuum chamber thermal protection for the APS (Advanced Photon Source)  

SciTech Connect

The addition of undulators and wigglers into synchrotron storage rings created new problems in terms of protecting the integrity of the ring vacuum chamber. If the photon beam from these devices were missteered into striking an inadequately cooled section of the storage ring vacuum chamber, the structural strength might be reduced sufficiently that the vacuum envelope could be penetrated, resulting in long downtime of the storage ring. The new generation of high-energy synchrotron light sources will produce photon beams of such high power density that cooling of the vacuum chamber will not prevent a potential penetration of the vacuum envelope, and other methods of preventing this occurrence will be required. Since active methods will be used to ensure that the beams are delivered to beam lines for users during normal operation, there is a need for passive protection methods during non-routine operation, such as turning on new beam lines, injection, etc., when the active systems may be disabled. In addition, the passive methods could prevent the problem from arising and provide the rapid time response necessary for the highest power beams, a property that might not be easily and reliably provided by active methods during the early operation of these machines. This paper summarizes the results of a task group that studied the problem and outlines passive methods of protection for the Advanced Photon Source (APS). 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Kramer, S.L.; Crosbie, E.A.; Kim, S.; Wehrle, R.; Yoon, M.

1989-01-01

245

The discovery of high-amplitude 10.9-minute oscillations in the cool magnetic Ap star HD 115226  

E-print Network

We present the discovery of pulsational variations in the cool magnetic Ap star HD 115226 -- the first high-amplitude rapidly oscillating Ap star discovered with time-series spectroscopy. Using high-resolution spectra obtained with the HARPS instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope, we detect radial velocity variations with a period of 10.86 min in Pr III, Nd III, Dy III lines and in the narrow cores of hydrogen lines. Pulsational amplitudes exceed 1 km/s in individual lines of Nd III. The presence of running waves in the stellar atmosphere is inferred from a phase shift between the radial velocity maxima of rare-earth and hydrogen lines. Our abundance analysis demonstrates that HD 115226 exhibits typical roAp spectroscopic signature, notably ionization anomaly of Pr, Nd and Dy. We discuss the discovery of pulsations in HD 115226 in the context of recent spectroscopic studies of roAp stars and point to the existence of correlation between spectroscopic pulsational amplitude and the stellar rotation rate.

O. Kochukhov; T. Ryabchikova; S. Bagnulo; G. Lo Curto

2007-12-20

246

Effects of aminoperimidine on electrolyte transport across amphibian skin.  

PubMed

The effect of aminoperimidine (AP) on transepithelial Na+ transport and Cl- conductance (G(Cl)) of isolated amphibian skin (Bufo viridis and Rana esculenta) was analyzed using transepithelial and intracellular electrophysiological techniques. AP, applied at concentrations between 30 and 100 microM from the mucosal side, stimulated Na+ transport rapidly and reversibly by more than 30% of the control value due to an increase in apical membrane Na+ permeability. Influence of AP on basolateral membrane conductance and effective driving force for Na+ were negligible. Voltage-activated G(Cl) of toad skin, but not the resting, deactivated conductance, as well as spontaneously high G(Cl) in frog skin was rapidly inhibited by AP in a concentration-dependent manner. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 20 microM is the highest hitherto reported inhibitory power for G(Cl) in amphibian skin. The effect of AP on G(Cl) was slowly and incompletely reversible even after brief exposure to the agent. Serosal application of AP had similar, albeit delayed effects on both Na+ and Cl- transport. AP did not interfere with the Cl- pathway after it was opened by 100-300 microM CPT-cAMP, a membrane-permeable, nonhydrolyzed analogue of cAMP. Inhibition of the voltage-activated G(Cl) by AP was attenuated or missing when AP was applied during voltage perturbation to serosa-positive potentials. Since AP is positively charged at physiological pH, it suggests that the affected site is located inside the Cl- pathway at a certain distance from the external surface. AP affects then the Na+ and Cl- transport pathways independent of each other. The nature of chemical interference with AP, which is responsible for the influence on the transport of Na+ and Cl-, remains to be elucidated. PMID:9694348

Nagel, W; Shalitin, Y; Katz, U

1998-01-01

247

A novel adipokine GM2AP impairs insulin signaling.  

PubMed

In an attempt to discover novel adipokines, we performed proteomics analyses using culture medium from differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and first identified GM2AP. The levels of GM2AP mRNA and protein were augmented by adipogenesis in cultured adipocytes and expression in adipose tissue and serum of obese mice or human subjects was found to be significantly higher than in lean counterparts. Exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to GM2AP protein accelerated dissociation of insulin receptor-beta (IR?) from caveolin-1, and interrupted insulin signal transduction. Abrogation of GM2AP function by specific antibodies augmented glucose uptake. Furthermore, treatment of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 NS1 cells with GM2AP impaired NGF signal transduction. Taken together, these results provide novel insights into the physiological functions of GM2AP in obesity. PMID:21036149

Higashi, Kiyoshi; Mikami, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Toru; Kawashima, Hitoshi; Kimura, Toru; Kaneko, Hideo

2010-11-19

248

Adaptor Protein Complexes AP-1 and AP-3 Are Required by the HHV-7 Immunoevasin U21 for Rerouting of Class I MHC Molecules to the Lysosomal Compartment  

PubMed Central

The human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) U21 gene product binds to class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and reroutes them to a lysosomal compartment. Trafficking of integral membrane proteins to lysosomes is mediated through cytoplasmic sorting signals that recruit heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which in turn mediate protein sorting in post-Golgi vesicular transport. Since U21 can mediate rerouting of class I molecules to lysosomes even when lacking its cytoplasmic tail, we hypothesize the existence of a cellular protein that contains the lysosomal sorting information required to escort class I molecules to the lysosomal compartment. If such a protein exists, we expect that it might recruit clathrin adaptor protein complexes as a means of lysosomal sorting. Here we describe experiments demonstrating that the ? adaptins from AP-1 and AP-3 are involved in U21-mediated trafficking of class I molecules to lysosomes. These experiments support the idea that a cellular protein(s) is necessary for U21-mediated lysosomal sorting of class I molecules. We also examine the impact of transient versus chronic knockdown of these adaptor protein complexes, and show that the few remaining ? subunits in the cells are eventually able to reroute class I molecules to lysosomes. PMID:24901711

Kimpler, Lisa A.; Glosson, Nicole L.; Downs, Deanna; Gonyo, Patrick; May, Nathan A.; Hudson, Amy W.

2014-01-01

249

Status of the advanced photon source low-energy undulator test line  

SciTech Connect

The low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) is being constructed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Its first purpose is to fully characterize innovative, future generation undulators, some of which may prove difficult or impossible to measure by traditional techniques. Second, LEUTL will act as a test line to investigate the generation of coherent radiation at wavelengths down to a few tens of nanometers. The line will use a high-brightness rf electron gun as its source and the APS linac to accelerate these electrons up to >650 MeV. This beam will then be directed into a new enclosure that is nearly 50 m long and will accommodate beamline components, diagnostics, and undulators. This region is wide enough to house two separate beamlines. In addition, there is an external end station appropriate for housing the equipment necessary to directly study the generated light outside of the radiation environment. At present, the new enclosure and building are complete, the new rf electron gun is installed and operational, and a part of the necessary transport line is installed. An undulator cell prototype, suitable for testing the requirements of single-pass free-electron laser operation, is near completion and will be installed during the winter shutdown of 1997. This paper will describe the LEUTL project and its capability for exploring the self-amplified spontaneous emission process.

Milton, S.V.; Gluskin, E.; Arnold, N.D.; Berg, S.; Dejus, R.J. [and others

1997-11-01

250

Mutagenesis of cysteine 81 prevents dimerization of the APS1 subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and alters diurnal starch turnover in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.  

PubMed

Many plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, retain a substantial portion of their photosynthate in leaves in the form of starch, which is remobilized to support metabolism and growth at night. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyses the first committed step in the pathway of starch synthesis, the production of ADP-glucose. The enzyme is redox-activated in the light and in response to sucrose accumulation, via reversible breakage of an intermolecular cysteine bridge between the two small (APS1) subunits. The biological function of this regulatory mechanism was investigated by complementing an aps1 null mutant (adg1) with a series of constructs containing a full-length APS1 gene encoding either the wild-type APS1 protein or mutated forms in which one of the five cysteine residues was replaced by serine. Substitution of Cys81 by serine prevented APS1 dimerization, whereas mutation of the other cysteines had no effect. Thus, Cys81 is both necessary and sufficient for dimerization of APS1. Compared to control plants, the adg1/APS1(C81S) lines had higher levels of ADP-glucose and maltose, and either increased rates of starch synthesis or a starch-excess phenotype, depending on the daylength. APS1 protein levels were five- to tenfold lower in adg1/APS1(C81S) lines than in control plants. These results show that redox modulation of AGPase contributes to the diurnal regulation of starch turnover, with inappropriate regulation of the enzyme having an unexpected impact on starch breakdown, and that Cys81 may play an important role in the regulation of AGPase turnover. PMID:22098298

Hädrich, Nadja; Hendriks, Janneke H M; Kötting, Oliver; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Feil, Regina; Zeeman, Samuel C; Gibon, Yves; Schulze, Waltraud X; Stitt, Mark; Lunn, John E

2012-04-01

251

Evaluation of the RBE4 cell line to explore carrier-mediated drug delivery to the CNS via the L-system amino acid transporter at the blood-brain barrier.  

PubMed

The L-system amino acid transporter on the RBE4 cell line, a well established in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was characterised with the aim to evaluate this in vitro BBB model as tool for the systematic exploration of this endogenous carrier system for drug delivery to the CNS. Transport of L-[3H]-leucine in RBE4 cells was rapid, Na+-independent, bidirectional and followed the principles of trans-stimulation. The inhibition profile of L-leucine uptake was consistent with transport mediated by the L-system amino acid carrier with strong inhibition by large neutral amino acids (LNAA) such as L-phenylalanine and 2-aminobicyclo-heptanecarboxylic acid (BCH), whereas small neutral, basic and acidic amino acids had no significant effect. The transport of L-leucine into the RBE4 cells was saturable and followed single carrier Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Km 107 +/- 10 microM. Vmax 9.13 +/- 0.45 nmol/min/mg protein and KD 1.36 +/- 0.13 microl/min/mg protein. The kinetic constants of L-leucine transport, as well as the ranking of the kinetic constants of the transport of other LNAA investigated, correspond to those of the BBB in vivo. The characteristics of the LNAA transport in RBE4 cells suggest that transport is mediated by a system with characteristics similar to the L1 subtype of amino acid transporter, with carrier specificity equivalent to the L1 carrier system at the BBB in vivo. The study shows that the RBE4 cell line is a very suitable tool for the detailed examination of structure-transport relationships with respect to carrier-mediated drug delivery to the CNS via the L-system amino acid carrier at the BBB. The strength of this in vitro BBB model lies in the combination of the advantages of a cell line, being inexpensive, reproducible and easy to maintain, with the brain endothelium-specific expression of transport systems, to produce an efficient assay for the screening of potential neuropharmaceuticals targeted to specific transport routes to enhance CNS drug delivery. PMID:12164376

Reichel, Andreas; Abbott, N Joan; Begley, David J

2002-06-01

252

Tank 241-AP-102 Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan  

SciTech Connect

This tank sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the head space of tank 241-AP-102. Sampling will be performed in accordance with ''Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis'' (Air DQO) (Mulkey 1999). The sample results will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications. Samples taken in support of the DQO will consist of SUMMA{trademark} canisters, triple sorbent traps (TSTs), sorbent tube trains (STTs), polyurethane foam (PUF) samples, and particulate filters. Particulate filter samples and tritium traps will be taken for radiation screening to allow the release of the samples for analysis and for analysis of specific radionuclides. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from the vapor samples.

TEMPLETON, A.M.

2001-01-24

253

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - RUBBER PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING  

EPA Science Inventory

This project develops emission factors, etc., for the rubber products industry which are appended to AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness information. As res...

254

The APS SASE FEL : modeling and code comparison.  

SciTech Connect

A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

Biedron, S. G.

1999-04-20

255

APS/DPP 111207-se 1 University Fusion Association Meeting  

E-print Network

· Grants and Solicitations · ITER · HEDLP Joint Program · Plasma Science · Issues and Plans #12;APS University Funding FY 2007-2008 ($ Millions) Program Element FY 2007 FY 2008 Sept Plan Oct Plan · C has been included in the NNSA program. #12;APS/DPP 111207-se 6 FY2008 CR · The Department is operating

256

The APS SASE FEL: modeling and code comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL

S. G. Biedrou; Y.-C. Chae; R. J. Dejus; B. Faatz; H. P. Freund; S. Milton; H.-D. Nuhn; S. Reiche

1999-01-01

257

APS-2007 Elena Aprile First Results from the  

E-print Network

APS-2007 Elena Aprile First Results from the XENON10 Dark Matter Search at Gran Sasso Elena Aprile Columbia University for the XENON Collaboration #12;APS_2007 Elena Aprile The XENON10 Collaboration Columbia University Elena Aprile (Spokesperson) , Karl-Ludwig Giboni, Maria Elena Monzani, Guillaume Plante

Golwala, Sunil

258

Towards a Strategic Plan: Summary of APS Strategic Planning Meeting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is on pages 113 and 116-120 of the PDF file. This article presents a summary of the APS five year stratigic plan based on membership surveys, financial analysis and observations compiled by an independent consulting firm. The plan contains 12 topics which reflect the direction and improvements APS leadership wishes to see occur.

2011-08-01

259

The development of beam current monitors in the APS  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source. The precision measurement of beam current is a challenging task in high energy accelerators, such as the APS, with a wide range of beam parameters and complicated noise, radiation, and thermal environments. The beam pulses in the APS injector and storage ring have charge ranging from 50pC to 25nC with pulse durations varying from 30ps to 30ns. A total of nine non- intercepting beam current monitors have been installed in the APS facility (excluding those in the linac) for general current measurement. In addition, several independent current monitors with specially designed redundant interlock electronics are installed for personnel safety and machine protection. This paper documents the design and development of current monitors in the APS,. discusses the commissioning experience in the past year, and presents the results of recent operations.

Wang, X.; Lenkszus, F.; Rotela, E.

1995-07-01

260

Trypanosoma brucei AP endonuclease 1 has a major role in the repair of abasic sites and protection against DNA-damaging agents.  

PubMed

DNA repair mechanisms guarantee the maintenance of genome integrity, which is critical for cell viability and proliferation in all organisms. As part of the cellular defenses to DNA damage, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases repair the abasic sites produced by spontaneous hydrolysis, oxidative or alkylation base damage and during base excision repair (BER). Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan pathogen responsible of human sleeping sickness, has a class II AP endonuclease (TBAPE1) with a high degree of homology to human APE1 and bacterial exonuclease III. The purified recombinant enzyme cleaves AP sites and removes 3'-phosphoglycolate groups from 3'-ends. To study its cellular function, we have established TBAPE1-deficient cell lines derived from bloodstream stage trypanosomes, thus confirming that the AP endonuclease is not essential for viability in this cell type under in vitro culture conditions. The role of TBAPE1 in the removal of AP sites is supported by the inverse correlation between the level of AP endonuclease in the cell and the number of endogenously generated abasic sites in its genomic DNA. Furthermore, depletion of TBAPE1 renders cells hypersensitive to AP site and strand break-inducing agents such as methotrexate and phleomycin respectively but not to alkylating agents. Finally, the increased susceptibility that TBAPE1-depleted cells show to nitric oxide suggests an essential role for this DNA repair enzyme in protection against the immune defenses of the mammalian host. PMID:22041024

Charret, Karen S; Requena, Cristina E; Castillo-Acosta, Víctor M; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis M; González-Pacanowska, Dolores; Vidal, Antonio E

2012-01-01

261

~ENVIROIlMENTAli ~PSKHOLOGY 0AP  

E-print Network

experience is transformed into knowing and understanding. This whole process is known as cog- ni tive mapping in wayfinding and navigation, migration, environmental preferences for modes of transport, shopping, recreation

Jacobson, Dan

262

APS Storage Ring Monopulse RF BPM Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron light source in its ninth year of operation. The storage ring monopulse radio frequency (rf) beam position monitor (BPM) was designed to measure single-turn and multi-turn beam positions for operations and machine physics studies. Many of the components used in the original design are obsolete and costly to replace. In this paper we present a proposal to upgrade the monopulse rf BPMs in which the existing system hardware is repartitioned and the aging data acquisition system is replaced. By replacing only the data acquisition system, we will demonstrate a cost-effective approach to improved beam stability, reliability, and enhanced postmortem capabilities. An eight-channel ADC/digitizer VXI board with sampling rate of up to 105 MHz (per channel) and 14-bit resolution coupled with a field-programmable gate array and embedded central processing will provide the flexibility to revitalize this system for another decade of operation. We will discuss the upgrade system specifications, design, and prototype test results.

Lill, R.; Pietryla, A.; Norum, E.; Lenkszus, F.

2004-11-01

263

High Pressure Reverse Flow APS Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design and test demonstration effort was undertaken to evaluate the concept of the reverse flow engine for the APS engine application. The 1500 lb (6672 N) thrust engine was designed to operate on gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen propellants at a mixture ratio of 4 and to achieve the objective performance of 435 sec (4266 Nsec/kg) specific impulse. Superimposed durability requirements called for a million-cycle capability with 50 hours duration. The program was undertaken as a series of tasks including the initial preliminary design, design of critical test components and finally, the design and demonstration of an altitude engine which could be used interchangeably to examine operating parameters as well as to demonstrate the capability of the concept. The program results are reported with data to indicate that all of the program objectives were met or exceeded within the course of testing on the program. The analysis effort undertaken is also reported in detail and supplemented with test data in some cases where prior definitions could not be made. The results are contained of these analyses as well as the test results conducted throughout the course of the program. Finally, the test data and analytical results were combined to allow recommendations for a flight weight design. This preliminary design effort is also detailed.

Senneff, J. M.

1972-01-01

264

AP helical stability in salt solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein dynamics depends on the environment and the inclusion of salts in the simulation of folding/unfolding becomes extremely necessary when comparing energy barriers or reaction rates with experimental results. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of three sodium salts: NaClO4,NaCl and Na2SO4 on the helical stability of AP, a mainly alanine peptide. The dependence of the peptide helical stability on the environment has been studied using Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics (REMD) simulations, Circular Dichroism (CD) and Ultraviolet Raman Resonance Spectroscopy (UVRS) experiments. It was found that NaClO4 solution strongly stabilizes the helical states and that the order in which sodium salts stabilize the peptide helical states follows a reverse Hofmeister Series (ClO4^- < Cl^- < SO4^2-). Another interesting result found is that ClO4^- ions are attracted to the backbone; Cl^- ions are repelled while SO4^2- ions are attracted to the positive side chains. A thorough investigation of the ion effects on the first and second solvation water along with the Kirkwood-Buff theory for solutions allowed us to explain the physical mechanisms involved in the observed ion specific effects.

Asciutto, Eliana; Xiong, Kan; Asher, Sanford; Madura, Jeffry

2009-03-01

265

Enhancing and Archiving the APS Catalog of the POSS I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have worked on two different projects: 1) Archiving the APS Catalog of the POSS I for distribution to NASA's NED at IPAC, SIMBAD in France, and individual astronomers and 2) The automated morphological classification of galaxies. We have completed archiving the Catalog into easily readable binary files. The database together with the software to read it has been distributed on DVD's to the national and international data centers and to individual astronomers. The archived Catalog contains more than 89 million objects in 632 fields in the first epoch Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. Additional image parameters not available in the original on-line version are also included in the archived version. The archived Catalog is also available and can be queried at the APS web site (URL: http://aps.umn.edu) which has been improved with a much faster and more efficient querying system. The Catalog can be downloaded as binary datafiles with the source code for reading it. It is also being integrated into the SkyQuery system which includes the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 2MASS, and the FIRST radio sky survey. We experimented with different classification algorithms to automate the morphological classification of galaxies. This is an especially difficult problem because there are not only a large number of attributes or parameters and measurement uncertainties, but also the added complication of human disagreement about the adopted types. To solve this problem we used 837 galaxy images from nine POSS I fields at the North Galactic Pole classified by two independent astronomers for which they agree on the morphological types. The initial goal was to separate the galaxies into the three broad classes relevant to issues of large scale structure and galaxy formation and evolution: early (ellipticals and lenticulars), spirals, and late (irregulars) with an accuracy or success rate that rivals the best astronomer classifiers. We also needed to identify a set of parameters derived from the digitized images that separate the galaxies by type. The human eye can easily recognize complicated patterns in images such as spiral arms which can be spotty, blotchy affairs that are difficult for automated techniques. A galaxy image can potentially be described by hundreds of parameters, all of which may have some relation to the morphological type. In the set of initial experiments we used 624 such parameters, in two colors, blue and red. These parameters include the surface brightness and color measured at different radii, ratios of these parameters at different radii, concentration indices, Fourier transforms and wavelet decomposition coefficients. We experimented with three different classes of classification algorithms; decision trees, k-nearest neighbors, and support vector machines (SVM). A range of experiments were conducted and we eventually narrowed the parameters to 23 selected parameters. SVM consistently outperformed the other algorithms with both sets of features. By combining the results from the different algorithms in a weighted scheme we achieved an overall classification success of 86%.

Humphreys, Roberta M.

2003-01-01

266

Tank 241-AP-105, cores 208, 209 and 210, analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-AP-105. Push mode core segments were removed from Risers 24 and 28 between July 2, 1997, and July 14, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-AP-105 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1997) and Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, or total organic carbon (TOC) analysis exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP and DQO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group, and are not considered in this report. Appearance and Sample Handling Two cores, each consisting of four segments, were expected from Tank 241-AP-105. Three cores were sampled, and complete cores were not obtained. TSAP states core samples should be transported to the laboratory within three calendar days from the time each segment is removed from the tank. This requirement was not met for all cores. Attachment 1 illustrates subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis and identifies their sources. This reference also relates tank farm identification numbers to their corresponding 222-S Laboratory sample numbers.

Nuzum, J.L.

1997-10-24

267

Parallel heat transport in reversed shear magnetic field configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport in magnetized plasmas is a key problem in controlled fusion, space plasmas, and astrophysics. Three issues make this problem particularly challenging: (i) The extreme anisotropy between the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field), ?, and the perpendicular, ?, conductivities (?/? may exceed 10^10 in fusion plasmas); (ii) Magnetic field lines chaos; and (iii) Nonlocal parallel transport. We have recently developed a Lagrangian Green's function (LG) method to solve the local and non-local parallel (?/?->?) transport equation applicable to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields. footnotetext D. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chac'on, PRL, 106, 195004 (2011); D. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chac'on, Phys. Plasmas, APS Invited paper, submitted (2011). The proposed method overcomes many of the difficulties faced by standard finite different methods related to the three issues mentioned above. Here we apply the LG method to study transport in reversed shear configurations. We focus on the following problems: (i) separatrix reconnection of magnetic islands and transport; (ii) robustness of shearless, q'=0, transport barriers; (iii) leaky barriers and shearless Cantori.

Blazevski, D.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.

2012-03-01

268

Biochemical dissection of AP-1 recruitment onto Golgi membranes  

PubMed Central

Recruitment of the Golgi-specific AP-1 adaptor complex onto Golgi membranes is thought to be a prerequisite for clathrin coat assembly on the TGN. We have used an in vitro assay to examine the translocation of cytosolic AP-1 onto purified Golgi membranes. Association of AP-1 with the membranes required GTP or GTP analogues and was inhibited by the fungal metabolite, brefeldin A. In the presence of GTP gamma S, binding of AP-1 to Golgi membranes was strictly dependent on the concentration of cytosol added to the assay. AP-1 recruitment was also found to be temperature dependent, and relatively rapid at 37 degrees C, following a lag period of 3 to 4 min. Using only an adaptor-enriched fraction from cytosol, purified myristoylated ARF1, and Golgi membranes, the GTP gamma S-dependent recruitment of AP-1 could be reconstituted. Our results show that the association of the AP-1 complex with Golgi membranes, like the coatomer complex, requires ARF, which accounts for the sensitivity of both to brefeldin A. In addition, they provide the basis for a model for the early biochemical events that lead to clathrin-coated vesicle formation on the TGN. PMID:8227126

1993-01-01

269

Epigenetic Activation of AP-1 Promotes Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastasis  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein-1), a heterodimer of the JUN and FOS proteins, promotes the invasive growth and metastasis of various tumors such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), breast cancer and melanoma. AP-1 activity is transcriptionally induced through a positive-feedback loop. We identified the histone demethylase KDM4A (lysine-specific demethylase 4A) as a key epigenetic priming factor in this positive feedback loop. KDM4A contributed to the induction of genes encoding the AP-1 transcription factors and the invasive growth and metastasis of SCC. KDM4A knockdown decreased growth factor-induced mRNA expression and protein abundance of AP-1 family members, including JUN and FOSL1. Mechanistically, histone demethylation by KDM4A facilitated the binding of the AP-1 complex to the promoters of JUN and FOSL1, thereby promoting the positive feedback loop that maintains activation of AP-1. In a mouse model of SCC, KDM4A knockdown inhibited lymph node metastasis. Moreover, the abundance of KDM4A correlated with the abundance of JUN and FOSL1 in human SCC tissues and KDM4A expression was increased in human lymph node metastases. Our studies provide insights into the epigenetic control of AP-1 and tumor invasion, and suggest that KDM4A could be an important therapeutic target for inhibiting invasive SCC growth and metastasis. PMID:23633675

Ding, Xiangming; Pan, Hongya; Li, Jiong; Zhong, Qi; Chen, Xiaohong; Dry, Sarah M.; Wang, Cun-Yu

2014-01-01

270

Transcriptional complexity and roles of Fra-1/AP-1 at the uPA/Plau locus in aggressive breast cancer.  

PubMed

Plau codes for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), critical in cancer metastasis. While the mechanisms driving its overexpression in tumorigenic processes are unknown, it is regulated by the AP-1 transcriptional complex in diverse situations. The AP-1 component Fra-1 being overexpressed in aggressive breast cancers, we have addressed its role in the overexpression of Plau in the highly metastatic breast cancer model cell line MDA-MB231 using ChIP, pharmacological and RNAi approaches. Plau transcription appears controlled by 2 AP-1 enhancers located -1.9 (ABR-1.9) and -4.1 kb (ABR-4.1) upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) of the uPA-coding mRNA, Plau-001, that bind Fra-1. Surprisingly, RNA Pol II is not recruited only at the Plau-001 TSS but also upstream in the ABR-1.9 and ABR-4.1 region. Most Pol II molecules transcribe short and unstable RNAs while tracking down toward the TSS, where there are converted into Plau-001 mRNA-productive species. Moreover, a minority of Pol II molecules transcribes a low abundance mRNA of unknown function called Plau-004 from the ABR-1.9 domain, whose expression is tempered by Fra-1. Thus, we unveil a heretofore-unsuspected transcriptional complexity at Plau in a reference metastatic breast cancer cell line with pleiotropic effects for Fra-1, providing novel information on AP-1 transcriptional action. PMID:25200076

Moquet-Torcy, Gabriel; Tolza, Claire; Piechaczyk, Marc; Jariel-Encontre, Isabelle

2015-01-01

271

A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices.  

SciTech Connect

A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders.

Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

1999-10-25

272

Vertical abundance gradients in Ap-star atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief review of the theoretical and observational studies of abundance stratification in the atmospheres of late A to early B stars is presented. It includes observational evidence of abundance stratification in classical magnetic Ap stars, and a comparison between theory and observations. An important application of chemically stratified atmospheres is the study of pulsations in cool Ap stars (roAp), where different abundance distributions of groups of elements naturally explain the observed distribution of the pulsational amplitudes and phases across the atmosphere. The influence of magnetic fields on creating the abundance distributions seems to be small.

Ryabchikova, T.

2014-11-01

273

AP-3-dependent mechanisms control the targeting of a chloride channel (ClC-3) in neuronal and non-neuronal cells.  

PubMed

Adaptor protein (AP)-2 and AP-3-dependent mechanisms control the sorting of membrane proteins into synaptic vesicles. Mouse models deficient in AP-3, mocha, develop a neurological phenotype of which the central feature is an alteration of the luminal synaptic vesicle composition. This is caused by a severe reduction of vesicular levels of the zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3). It is presently unknown whether this mocha defect is restricted to ZnT3 or encompasses other synaptic vesicle proteins capable of modifying synaptic vesicle contents, such as transporters or channels. In this study, we identified a chloride channel, ClC-3, whose level in synaptic vesicles and hippocampal mossy fiber terminals was reduced in the context of the mocha AP-3 deficiency. In PC-12 cells, ClC-3 was present in transferrin receptor-positive endosomes, where it was targeted to synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMV) by a mechanism sensitive to brefeldin A, a signature of the AP-3-dependent route of SLMV biogenesis. ClC-3 was packed in SLMV along with the AP-3-targeted synaptic vesicle protein ZnT3. Co-segregation of ClC-3 and ZnT3 to common intracellular compartments was functionally significant as revealed by increased vesicular zinc transport with increased ClC3 expression. Our work has identified a synaptic vesicle protein in which trafficking to synaptic vesicles is regulated by AP-3. In addition, our findings indicate that ClC-3 and ZnT3 reside in a common vesicle population where they functionally interact to determine vesicle luminal composition. PMID:15073168

Salazar, Gloria; Love, Rachal; Styers, Melanie L; Werner, Erica; Peden, Andrew; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gearing, Marla; Wainer, Bruce H; Faundez, Victor

2004-06-11

274

Analysis of an AP600 intermediate-size loss-of-coolant accident  

SciTech Connect

A postulated double-ended guillotine break of an AP600 direct-vessel-injection line has been analyzed. This event is characterized as an intermediate-break loss-of-coolant accident. Most of the insights regarding the response of the AP600 safety systems to the postulated accident are derived from calculations performed with the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 code. However, complementary insights derived from a scaled experiment conducted in the ROSA facility, as well as insights based upon calculations by other codes, are also presented. Based upon the calculated and experimental results, the AP600 will not experience a core heat up and will reach a safe shutdown state using only safety-class equipment. Only the early part of the long-term cooling period initiated by In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank injection was evaluated. Thus, the observation that the core is continuously cooled should be verified for the later phase of the long-term cooling period when sump injection and containment cooling processes are important.

Boyack, B.E.; Lime, J.F.

1995-04-01

275

The Radio Evolution of the Ordinary Type Ic SN 2002ap  

E-print Network

We report the discovery and monitoring of radio emission from the Type Ic SN 2002ap ranging in frequency from 1.43 to 22.5 GHz, and in time from 4 to 50 days after the SN explosion. As in most other radio SNe, the radio spectrum of SN 2002ap shows evidence for absorption at low frequencies, usually attributed to synchrotron self-absorption or free-free absorption. While it is difficult to discriminate between these two processes based on a goodness-of-fit, the unabsorbed emission in the free-free model requires an unreasonably large ejecta energy. Therefore, on physical grounds we favor the synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) model. In the SSA framework, at about day 2, the shock speed is approximately 0.3c, the energy in relativistic electrons and magnetic fields is approximately 1.5e45 erg and the inferred progenitor mass loss rate is approximately 5e-7 solar masses per year (assuming a 1,000 km/sec wind). These properties are consistent with a model in which the outer, high velocity supernova ejecta interact with the progenitor wind. The amount of relativistic ejecta in this model is small, so that the presence of broad lines in the spectrum of a Type Ib/c supernova, as observed in SN 2002ap, is not a reliable indicator of a connection to relativistic ejecta and hence gamma-ray emission.

E. Berger; S. R. Kulkarni; R. A. Chevalier

2002-06-12

276

Simultaneous mapping of chemical abundances and magnetic field structure in Ap stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic A stars represent about 5 highly ordered, very stable and often very strong magnetic fields. They frequently show variations in both brightness and spectral line profiles that are synchronised to stellar rotation. Those variations are believed to be produced by atomic diffusion operating in the stellar atmospheres which have become stabilized by multi-kG magnetic fields. In recent years, with the development and application of the Doppler and magnetic-Doppler imaging techniques and the availability of high-precision spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric data, it has became possible to map the chemical abundances and magnetic field structures of Ap stars simultaneously and in increasing detail, based on full Stokes vector observations. I review the state-of-the-art understanding pf Ap star spots and their relation to magnetic fields, the development of Doppler and magnetic-Doppler imaging into one of the most powerful remote sensing methods for astrophysics, and the physics of Ap stars atmospheres that we can deduce from simultaneous mapping of magnetic field structure and chemical abundances.

Lueftinger, T.

2014-11-01

277

BMCC1 is an AP-2 associated endosomal protein in prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

The prostate cancer antigen gene 3 (PCA3) is embedded in an intron of a second gene BMCC1 (Bcl2-/adenovirus E1B nineteen kDa-interacting protein 2 (BNIP-2) and Cdc42GAP homology BCH motif-containing molecule at the carboxyl terminal region 1) which is also upregulated in prostate cancer. BMCC1 was initially annotated as two genes (C9orf65/PRUNE and BNIPXL) on either side of PCA3 but our data suggest that it represents a single gene coding for a high molecular weight protein. Here we demonstrate for the first time the expression of a >300 kDa BMCC1 protein (BMCC1-1) in prostate cancer and melanoma cell lines. This protein was found exclusively in the microsomal fraction and localised to cytoplasmic vesicles. We also observed expression of BMCC1 protein in prostate cancer sections using immunohistology. GST pull down, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry protein interaction studies identified multiple members of the Adaptor Related Complex 2 (AP-2) as BMCC1 interactors. Consistent with a role for BMCC1 as an AP-2 interacting endosomal protein, BMCC1 co-localised with ?-adaptin at the perinuclear region of the cell. BMCC1 also showed partial co-localisation with the early endosome small GTP-ase Rab-5 as well as strong co-localisation with internalised pulse-chase labelled transferrin (Tf), providing evidence that BMCC1 is localised to functional endocytic vesicles. BMCC1 knockdown did not affect Tf uptake and AP-2 knockdown did not disperse BMCC1 vesicular distribution, excluding an essential role for BMCC1 in canonical AP-2 mediated endocytic uptake. Instead, we posit a novel role for BMCC1 in post-endocytic trafficking. This study provides fundamental characterisation of the BMCC1 complex in prostate cancer cells and for the first time implicates it in vesicle trafficking. PMID:24040105

Harris, Janelle L; Richards, Renée S; Chow, Clement W K; Lee, Soon; Kim, Misook; Buck, Marion; Teng, Linda; Clarke, Raymond; Gardiner, Robert A; Lavin, Martin F

2013-01-01

278

APS-3.1.2.1.0 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

E-print Network

................................................................................................1-1 1.2 Advanced Photon Source Facility Description......................................................................................................1-5 1.4 Document Layout.....................................................................................................2-1 3.0 APS FACILITY, SITE AND OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION......................................3-1 3

Kemner, Ken

279

EGGERTJOHANNESSON/AP Iceland's Brarbunga volcano erupted on  

E-print Network

EGGERTJOHANNESSON/AP Iceland's B�r�arbunga volcano erupted on 29 August, spurting lava out of a 1 been emitted. But halfway around the world, the Rabaul volcano in Papua New Guinea spewed ash on 29

Napp, Nils

280

ANL/APS/TB-12 THE INSERTION DEVICE MAGNETIC MEASUREMENT  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................................1 3. FACILITY DESCRIPTION.................................................................................................A1-3 A.2 DESCRIPTION AND DOCUMENTATION OF THE BENCH CONTROL PROGRAM. INTRODUCTION The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a 7-GeV positron Storage Ring, will have as many as 34 straight

Kemner, Ken

281

A Review of AP Calculus Graphing Calculator Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Review material on graphing calculator use from the College Board AP Calculus Course Description. The problems are mostly AB level. The page also contains a brief historical remark about Maria Gaetana Agnesi.

282

Engaging Cuban Physicists Through the APS/CPS Partnership  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In his reflections on Cuban physics, Marcelo Alonso urges APS to take steps to promote interactions between Cuban and US physicists. As an introduction to Marcello's essay, this note will summarize past and current activities.

Lerch, Irving A.; Lerch, Irving A.

283

Tank characterization report for double shell tank 241-AP-104  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-AP-104. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

Winkelman, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-07

284

The APETALA-2-like transcription factor OsAP2-39 controls key interactions between abscisic acid and gibberellin in rice.  

PubMed

The interaction between phytohormones is an important mechanism which controls growth and developmental processes in plants. Deciphering these interactions is a crucial step in helping to develop crops with enhanced yield and resistance to environmental stresses. Controlling the expression level of OsAP2-39 which includes an APETALA 2 (AP2) domain leads to phenotypic changes in rice. Overexpression of OsAP2-39 leads to a reduction in yield by decreasing the biomass and the number of seeds in the transgenic rice lines. Global transcriptome analysis of the OsAP2-39 overexpression transgenic rice revealed the upregulation of a key abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic gene OsNCED-I which codes for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and leads to an increase in the endogenous ABA level. In addition to OsNCED-1, the gene expression analysis revealed the upregulation of a gene that codes for the Elongation of Upper most Internode (EUI) protein, an enzyme that catalyzes 16?, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs, which has been shown to deactivate gibberellins (GAs) in rice. The exogenous application of GA restores the wild-type phenotype in the transgenic line and ABA application induces the expression of EUI and suppresses the expression of OsAP2-39 in the wild-type line. These observations clarify the antagonistic relationship between ABA and GA and illustrate a mechanism that leads to homeostasis of these hormones. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that the expression of both OsNCED-1 and EUI are directly controlled by OsAP2-39. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of the ABA/GA balance in rice which is regulated by OsAP2-39 that in turn regulates plant growth and seed production. PMID:20838584

Yaish, Mahmoud W; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Zhu, Tong; Beatty, Perrin H; Good, Allen G; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

2010-09-01

285

Scintillator and CMOS APS Imager for Radiography Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated X-ray image performance for several scintillators and a CMOS APS imager by both diagnostic radiography and mammography conditions. Commercially available scintillators such as Lanex screen, needle structured CsI (Tl), and fiber optic structured CsI (Tl) were coupled with a CMOS APS imager. The X-ray machines used in this study were fixed tube voltage of 80 kVp and variable

Kwang Hyun Kim; Young Soo Kim

2008-01-01

286

Again, Maryland Ranks #1 in Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a second year in a row, Maryland ranked first nationwide in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP (Advanced Placement) exam. A score of 3 or higher on the 5-point scale is considered mastery of college-level work. Maryland also continues to show strong gains in the number of students taking an AP exam,…

Maryland State Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

287

An overview of the APS 352-MHz rf systems  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV full energy positron storage ring for generating synchrotron radiation with an injector. The booster synchrotron rf system consists o a single 1-MW klystron which drives four five-cell cavities at 352 MHz. The storage ring cavities consist of four groups of four single cells powered by two 1-MW klystrons for 100-mA operation. An overview of the operation of the APS 352-MHz rf systems is presented.

Nassiri, A.; Cours, A.; Grelick, A.; Horan, D.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Smith, T.L.; Song, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

1997-08-01

288

Validation of the new trapped environment AE9/AP9/SPM at low Earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The completion of the international space station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community an ideal proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport codes and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the space transportation system (STS; shuttle) provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code developments by indicating the need for an improved dynamic model of the low Earth orbit (LEO) trapped environment. Additional studies using thermo-luminescent detector (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) area monitors, and computer aided design (CAD) model of earlier ISS configurations, confirmed STS observations that, as input, computational dosimetry requires an environmental model with dynamic and directional (anisotropic) behavior, as well as an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) definition of the vehicle attitude and orientation along the orbit of ISS. At LEO, a vehicle encounters exposure from trapped particles and attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Within the trapped field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensities of the trapped particles during the solar quiet and active times. At active times, solar energetic particles (SEP) generated by solar flare or coronal mass ejection (CME) also contribute to the exposure at high northern and southern latitudes. Among the more established trapped models are the historic and popular AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s, the historic and less popular CRRES electron/proton, dating back to 1990s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. The AE9/AP9/SPM model is a major improvement over the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models. This model is derived from numerous measurements acquired over four solar cycles dating back to the 1970s, roughly representing 40 years of data collection. In contrast, the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models were limited to only a few months of measurements taken during the prior solar minima and maxima. The dual goal of this paper is to first validate the AE8/AP8 and AE9/AP9/SPM trapped models against ISS dosemetric measurements for a silicon based detector, to assess the improvements in the AE9/AP9/SPM model as compared to AE8/AP8 model. The validation is done at selected target points within ISS-6A configuration during its passage through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). For such validation, only the isotropic spectrum of either model is needed. As a second goal, the isotropic spectra of both trapped models are re-casted into anisotropic spectra by modulating them with a measurement derived angular formalism which is applicable to trapped protons. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution, the paper ignores the AE8 and AE9 component of the models and presents the angular validation of AP8 and AP9 against measurements from the compact environment anomaly sensor (CEASE) science instrument package, flown onboard the tri-service experiment-5 (TSX-5) satellite during the period of June 2000-July 2006. The spin stabilized satellite was flown in a 410 × 1710 km, 69° inclination orbit, allowing it to be exposed to a broad range of LEO regime. Particular emphasize is put on the validation of proton flux profiles at differential 40 MeV and integral >40 MeV, in the vicinity of SAA where protons exhibit east-west (EW) anisotropy and have a relatively narrow pitch angle distribution. Within SAA, the EW anisotropy results in different level of exposure to each side of CEASE instrument package, allowing the extraction of anisotropic proton spectra from the measurements. While the magnitude of the EW effect at LEO depends on a multitude of factors such as trapped proton energy, orientation of the spacecraft along the velocity vector and altitude of the spacecraft, for this part, the paper draws quantitative conclusions on t

Badavi, Francis F.

2014-09-01

289

PKA-activated ApAF-ApC/EBP heterodimer is a key downstream effector of ApCREB and is necessary and sufficient for the consolidation of long-term facilitation  

PubMed Central

Long-term memory requires transcriptional regulation by a combination of positive and negative transcription factors. Aplysia activating factor (ApAF) is known to be a positive transcription factor that forms heterodimers with ApC/EBP and ApCREB2. How these heterodimers are regulated and how they participate in the consolidation of long-term facilitation (LTF) has not, however, been characterized. We found that the functional activation of ApAF required phosphorylation of ApAF by PKA on Ser-266. In addition, ApAF lowered the threshold of LTF by forming a heterodimer with ApCREB2. Moreover, once activated by PKA, the ApAF–ApC/EBP heterodimer transactivates enhancer response element–containing genes and can induce LTF in the absence of CRE- and CREB-mediated gene expression. Collectively, these results suggest that PKA-activated ApAF–ApC/EBP heterodimer is a core downstream effector of ApCREB in the consolidation of LTF. PMID:16966424

Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Sue-Hyun; Lee, Changhoon; Chang, Deok-Jin; Lee, Yong; Kim, Hyoung; Cheang, Ye-Hwang; Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Lee, Yong-Seok; Jun, Heejung; Bartsch, Dusan; Kandel, Eric R.; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

2006-01-01

290

Determination of absolute transport efficiencies of Be, Cd, In, Pb and Bi for electrothermal vaporization sample introduction into an inductively coupled plasma using an in-line electrostatic precipitator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel laboratory-constructed electrostatic precipitator for the determination of analyte transport efficiencies from a tube furnace electrothermal vaporization (ETV) sample introduction system is described. This simple experimental set up captures the analyte electrostatically using a negative corona discharge. The absolute transport efficiencies using experimental conditions typical of those applied to real analysis by ETV-ICP-MS were determined for Be, Cd, In, Pb and Bi to be 26±3, 39±8, 35±1, 50±11 and 35±1%, respectively. Pd and NaCl were evaluated as 'carriers' and were found to only marginally increase analyte transport for the elements investigated. Pd enhanced efficiencies 20-50% for all but Bi, which decreased by 17%. The NaCl produced transport enhancements of 10-50% for all five analytes. However, uncertainties in the measurements made several of the individual improvements statistically insignificant. The mean precipitator collection efficiency of the aerosol leaving the ETV for the five elements studied was found to be greater than 90% and was determined using the ICP-MS signal with the in-line precipitator's voltage either on or off. While 30 ETV firings were used for a single efficiency determination, reasonable precision could be obtained with approximately 10 firings while still employing reasonable analyte masses, i.e. approximately 20 ng. The transport results are in good agreement with previous studies using similar ETV design and analyte masses.

Ertas, Gulay; Holcombe, James A.

2003-09-01

291

Past, Present, and Future of AP Chemistry: A Brief History of Course and Exam Alignment Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the Advanced Placement (AP) Program's commitment to continually enhance alignment with current best practices in college-level learning, the AP Program is currently evaluating and redesigning courses and exams, one of which launched during the 2013-2014 academic school year: AP chemistry. The history of the AP chemistry course and…

Magrogan, Serena

2014-01-01

292

Genome-wide analysis of the distribution of AP2/ERF transcription factors reveals duplication and CBFs genes elucidate their potential function in Brassica oleracea  

PubMed Central

Background Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) is one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide. The entire cabbage genome sequence and more than fifty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. However a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between cabbage and Arabidopsis; therefore, Arabidopsis is a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Transcription factors (TFs) are important regulators involved in plant development and physiological processes and the AP2/ERF protein family contains transcriptional factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development, as well as response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. However, no detailed expression profile of AP2/ERF-like genes is available for B. oleracea. Results In the present study, 226 AP2/ERF TFs were identified from B. oleracea based on the available genome sequence. Based on sequence similarity, the AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into five groups (DREB, ERF, AP2, RAV and Soloist) and 15 subgroups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic construction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns and interaction network were then predicted and analyzed. AP2/ERF transcription factor expression levels exhibited differences in response to varying abiotic stresses based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). BoCBF1a, 1b, 2, 3 and 4, which were highly conserved in Arabidopsis and B. rapa CBF/DREB genes families were well characterized. Expression analysis enabled elucidation of the molecular and genetic level expression patterns of cold tolerance (CT) and susceptible lines (CS) of cabbage and indicated that all BoCBF genes responded to abiotic stresses. Conclusions Comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of AP2/ERF superfamily genes and BoCBF family genes in B. oleracea is required to fully elucidate AP2/ERF, which will provide rich resources and opportunities to understand abiotic stress tolerance in crops. PMID:24888752

2014-01-01

293

Advanced photon source low-energy undulator test line  

SciTech Connect

The injector system of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac capable of producing 450-MeV positrons or > 650-MeV electrons, a positron accumulator ring (PAR), and a booster synchrotron designed to accelerate particles to 7 GeV. There are long periods of time when these machines are not required for filling the main storage ring and instead can be used for synchrotron radiation research. We describe here an extension of the linac beam transport called the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL). The LEUTL will have a twofold purpose. The first is to fully characterize innovative, future generation undulators, some of which may prove difficult or impossible to measure by traditional techniques. These might include small-gap and superconducting undulators, very long undulators, undulators with designed-in internal focusing, and helical undulators. This technique also holds the promise of extending the magnetic measurement sensitivity beyond that presently attainable. This line will provide the capability to directly test undulators before their possible insertion into operating storage rings. A second use for the test line will be to investigate the generation of coherent radiation at wavelengths down to a few tens of nanometers.

Milton, S.V.

1997-04-01

294

Mobile docking of REMUS-100 equipped with USBL-APS to an unmanned surface vehicle: A performance feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of this work is to evaluate the ability of homing and docking an unmanned underwater vehicle (Hydroid REMUS 100 UUV) to a moving unmanned surface vehicle (Wave-Adaptive Modular Surface Vehicle USV) using a Hydroid Digital Ultra-Short Baseline (DUSBL) acoustic positioning system (APS), as a primary navigation source. An understanding of how the UUV can rendezvous with a stationary USV first is presented, then followed by a moving USV. Inherently, the DUSBL-APS is susceptible to error due to the physical phenomena of the underwater acoustic channel (e.g. ambient noise, attenuation and ray refraction). The development of an APS model has allowed the authors to forecast the UUV's position and the estimated track line of the USV as determined by the DUSBL acoustic sensor. In this model, focus is placed on three main elements: 1) the acoustic channel and sound ray refraction when propagating in an inhomogeneous medium; 2) the detection component of an ideal DUSBL-APS using the Neyman-Pearson criterion; 3) the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and receiver directivity impact on position estimation. The simulation tool is compared against actual open water homing results in terms of the estimated source position between the simulated and the actual USBL range and bearing information.

Miranda, Mario, II

295

The ap-2 clathrin adaptor mediates endocytosis of an inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptor in human NK cells.  

PubMed

Stable surface expression of human inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) is critical for controlling NK cell function and maintaining NK cell tolerance toward normal MHC class I(+) cells. Our recent experiments, however, have found that Ab-bound KIR3DL1 (3DL1) readily leaves the cell surface and undergoes endocytosis to early/recycling endosomes and subsequently to late endosomes. We found that 3DL1 internalization is at least partially mediated by an interaction between the ?2 subunit of the AP-2 clathrin adaptor complex and ITIM tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic domain of 3DL1. Disruption of the 3DL1/?2 interaction, either by mutation of the ITIM tyrosines in 3DL1 or mutation of ?2, significantly diminished endocytosis and increased surface expression of 3DL1 in human primary NK cells and cell lines. Furthermore, we found that the 3DL1/AP-2 interaction is diminished upon Ab engagement with the receptor, as compared with untreated cells. Thus, we have identified AP-2-mediated endocytosis as a mechanism regulating the surface levels of inhibitory KIRs through their ITIM domains. Based on our results, we propose a model in which nonengaged KIRs are internalized by this mechanism, whereas engagement with MHC class I ligand would diminish AP-2 binding, thereby prolonging stable receptor surface expression and promoting inhibitory function. Furthermore, this ITIM-mediated mechanism may similarly regulate the surface expression of other inhibitory immune receptors. PMID:25238755

Purdy, Amanda K; Alvarez Arias, Diana A; Oshinsky, Jennifer; James, Ashley M; Serebriiskii, Ilya; Campbell, Kerry S

2014-11-01

296

Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership | Prof. Robin Sacks 1 APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership  

E-print Network

Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership | Prof. Robin Sacks 1 APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership Prof. Robin Sacks Course Description This course investigates the cognitive and psychological foundations

Prodiæ, Aleksandar

297

Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware-software combined hybrid approach because of a too limited phase space of a single RFID for any meaningful encryption approach. Furthermore, a useful biological lesson is not to put all eggs in one basket, "if you don't get it all, you can't hack it". According to the Radar physics, we can choose the amplitude, the frequency, the phase, the polarization, and two radiation energy supply principles, the capacitance coupling (~6m) and the inductance coupling (<1m), to code the pair of tags differently. A casual skimmer equipped with single-mode reader can not read all. We consider near-field and mid-field applications each in this paper. The near-field is at check-out counters or the convey-belt inventory involving sensitive and invariant data. The mid-field search & rescue involves not only item/person identification, but also the geo-location. If more RF power becomes cheaper & portable for longer propagation distance in the near future, then a triangulation with pair of secured readers, located at known geo-locations, could interrogate and identify items/persons and their locations in a GPS-blind environment.

Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

2006-04-01

298

Pulsation in the atmosphere of the roAp star HD 24712. I. Spectroscopic observations and radial velocity measurements  

E-print Network

We have investigated the structure of the pulsating atmosphere of one of the best studied rapidly oscillating Ap stars, HD 24712. For this purpose we analyzed spectra collected during 2001-2004. An extensive data set was obtained in 2004 simultaneously with the photometry of the Canadian MOST mini-satellite. This allows us to connect directly atmospheric dynamics observed as radial velocity variations with light variations seen in photometry. We directly derived for the first time and for different chemical elements, respectively ions, phase shifts between photometric and radial velocity pulsation maxima indicating, as we suggest, different line formation depths in the atmosphere. This allowed us to estimate for the first time the propagation velocity of a pulsation wave in the outer stellar atmosphere of a roAp star to be slightly lower than the sound speed. We confirm large pulsation amplitudes (150-400 m/s) for REE lines and the Halpha core, while spectral lines of the other elements (Mg, Si, Ca, and Fe-peak elements) have nearly constant velocities. We did not find different pulsation amplitudes and phases for the lines of rare-earth elements before and after the Balmer jump, which supports the hypothesis of REE concentration in the upper atmosphere above the hydrogen line-forming layers. We also discuss radial velocity amplitudes and phases measured for individual spectral lines as tools for a 3D tomography of the atmosphere of HD 24712.

T. Ryabchikova; M. Sachkov; W. W. Weiss; T. Kallinger; O. Kochukhov; S. Bagnulo; I. Ilyin; J. D. Landstreet; F. Leone; G. Lo Curto; T. Luftinger; D. Lyashko; A. Magazzu

2006-11-28

299

Cultured Mammary epithelial Monolayers (BME-UV) Express Functional Organic Anion and Cation Transporters  

PubMed Central

There is ongoing concern about the potential adverse effects of xenobiotic residues in cows' milk to the human consumer. Although drugs that are intentionally administered to lactating dairy cattle are rigorously regulated to prevent harmful residues, there are numerous other potential sources of exposure that are not as easily controlled. For example, cattle may be exposed to mycotoxins, pesticides and/or persistent organic pollutants through feed, water and inhalation of polluted air. Accurate estimates of the rate and extent of excretion of these compounds into milk is important to assess the risk of exposure through cows' milk. In the present study, the expression of carrier mediated transport processes in cultured mono layers of an immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV*) was determined using a flow-through diffusion cell system, selective substrates and inhibitors of organic cation transporters (OCT†) and organic anion transporters (OAT‡). The basal to apical (BL-to-Ap§) flux of tetraethylammonium (TEA**) and estrone sulfate (ES††) significantly exceeded their flux in the opposite direction. The addition of selective inhibitors to the donor compartment significantly decreased the BL-to-Ap flux of either selective substrate. These results suggest that both OCT and OAT are functionally expressed by BME-UV cells. PMID:19754907

Al-Bataineh, Mohammad M.; Merwe, Deon van der; Schultz, Bruce D.; Gehring, Ronette

2009-01-01

300

Design and realization of linear APS-based sun sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear APS-based sun sensor is a kind of sun sensor based on a linear array Active Pixel Sensor (APS) with low power consumption, small size, and small mass. It is integrated with optical, mechanical and electronic technologies. The main function of linear APS-based sun sensor is to realize two-axis measurement of solar aspect angle, determining the attitude of spacecraft. The image of the solar is projected on the linear image sensor through an N-shape aperture in front of it. By comparing the position shift of solar image projection on linear array APS, we can obtain the position of the sun relative to sensor. This paper analyzes the sources of system error and some specific solutions are proposed. The error compensation algorithm in the software designed makes the sun senor meet the accuracy requirements. The performance characteristics are as follows: FOV is +/-64°x+/-64° the accuracy of ?-axis is better than 0.02° (3?) in the FOV of less than 45°, and better than 0.03° (3?) in other FOV; the accuracy of ?-axis is better than 0.03° (3?) in the whole FOV. Linear APS-based sun sensor was successfully carried by satellite on orbit in October 2012. On-orbit testing showed that it operates normally and the data curves prove the accuracy meets requirements.

Liang, He; Zhang, Jianfu; Lv, Zhengxin; Yu, Chengwu; Jia, Jinzhong

2013-10-01

301

Increased expression of AP2 and Sp1 transcription factors in human thyroid tumors: a role in NIS expression regulation?  

PubMed Central

Background Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is a key protein in iodide transport by thyroid cells and this activity is a prerequisite for effective radioiodide treatment of thyroid cancer. In the majority of thyroid cancers, however, iodide uptake is reduced, probably as a result of decreased NIS protein expression. Methods To identify the mechanisms that negatively affect NIS expression in thyroid tumors, we performed electrophoresis mobility shift assays and immunoblot analysis of nuclear protein extracts from normal and tumoral thyroid tissues from 14 unrelated patients. Results Two proteins closely related to the transcription factors AP2 and Sp1 were identified in the nuclear extracts. Expression of both AP2 and Sp1 in nuclear extracts from thyroid tumors was significantly higher than that observed in corresponding normal tissues. Conclusion These observations raise the possibility that NIS expression, and subsequently iodide transport, are reduced in thyroid tumors at least in part owing to alterations in the binding activity of AP2 and Sp1 transcription factors to NIS promoter. PMID:12475396

Chiefari, Eusebio; Brunetti, Antonio; Arturi, Franco; Bidart, Jean-Michel; Russo, Diego; Schlumberger, Martin; Filetti, Sebastiano

2002-01-01

302

Magnetic fields of Ap stars from full Stokes spectropolarimetric observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current knowledge about stellar magnetic fields relies almost entirely on observations of circular polarization. Few objects have been observed in all four Stokes parameters. The magnetic Ap star HD 24712 (DO Eri, HR 1217) was recently observed in the Stokes IQUV parameters with the HARPSpol instrument at the 3.6-m ESO telescope as part of our project at investigating Ap stars in all four Stokes parameters. The resulting spectra have dense phase coverage, resolving power > 10^5, and S/N ratio of 300-600. These are the highest quality full Stokes observations obtained for any star other than the Sun. We present preliminary results from magnetic Doppler imaging of HD 24712. This analysis is the first step towards obtaining detailed 3-D maps of magnetic fields and abundance structures for HD 24712 and for other Ap stars that we are currently observing with HARPSpol.

Rusomarov, N.; Kochukhov, O.; Piskunov, N.

2014-11-01

303

Ground vibration model studies for APS storage ring  

SciTech Connect

An analytical ground vibration model is developed for study of the vibration effects on the beam motion in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The different physical parameters associated with the wave characteristics and the vibration modes needed for the study are taken from the vibration studies carried out at the APS site. The implementation has been carried out using Mathematica{trademark}. The study is carried out for the frequency range 1--35 Hz, with a number of sources changing from one through ten. The program written in Mathematica{trademark}, calculates orbit distortion, beta wave change, tune change, dispersion change, and chromaticity change. However, the main parameter studied for the APS storage ring has been the orbit distortion. The merit factor associated with different modes excited by the vibrations has been calculated.

Koul, R.K.

1994-07-01

304

Turbulence Transport and Dissipation in the Lower Solar Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new improvements to our three-dimensional global two-temperature model of the solar corona that includes the transition region and upper chromosphere. In our previous study, we focused on the wave-energy injection, transmission and dissipation [I.V. Sokolov et al., submitted to Ap.J. (2012)]. We have now also included the wave reflection due to large-scale plasma inhomogeneities. This reflection leads to low-frequency cascade of Alfvén waves due to small-scale nonlinearities. In closed field line regions, the dissipation is enhanced since different wave polarities (Elsässer energy densities) can meet with equal amplitude, resulting in elevated temperatures. The electron heat conduction can subsequently transport this excess of energy deposition down to the chromosphere. We discuss the theoretical framework and contrast the resulting simulated multi-wavelength EUV images with the SDO/AIA observations for Carrington rotation 2107.

van der Holst, B.; Sokolov, I.; Gombosi, T. I.

2012-12-01

305

Piping benchmark problems for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant  

SciTech Connect

To satisfy the need for verification of the computer programs and modeling techniques that will be used to perform the final piping analyses for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant, three benchmark problems were developed. The problems are representative piping systems subjected to representative dynamic loads with solutions developed using the methods being proposed for analysis for the AP600 standard design. It will be required that the combined license licensees demonstrate that their solutions to these problems are in agreement with the benchmark problem set.

Bezler, P.; DeGrassi, G.; Braverman, J.; Wang, Y.K.

1997-01-01

306

Magnetic fields in A stars besides Ap stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I review ongoing efforts to understand the incidence of magnetism in intermediate-mass stars that are different from the magnetic Ap stars. This includes the search for magnetic fields in chemically peculiar stars of the Am and HgMn types as well as in normal A and late-B stars. I discuss different techniques for detecting weak stellar magnetic fields, and present a critical evaluation of recent magnetic detections in non-Ap stars. Special attention is given to the magnetic status of HgMn stars and to the discovery of weak polarization signatures in Sirius and Vega.

Kochukhov, O.

2014-11-01

307

A Proton-mediated Conformational Shift Identifies a Mobile Pore-lining Cysteine Residue (Cys-561) in Human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter 3*  

PubMed Central

The concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) protein family in humans is represented by three members, hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3. Belonging to a CNT subfamily phylogenetically distinct from hCNT1/2, hCNT3 mediates transport of a broad range of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleoside drugs, whereas hCNT1 and hCNT2 are pyrimidine and purine nucleoside-selective, respectively. All three hCNTs are Na+-coupled. Unlike hCNT1/2, however, hCNT3 is also capable of H+-mediated nucleoside cotransport. Using site-directed mutagenesis in combination with heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes, we have identified a C-terminal intramembranous cysteine residue of hCNT3 (Cys-561) that reversibly binds the hydrophilic thiol-reactive reagent p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (PCMBS). Access of this membrane-impermeant probe to Cys-561, as determined by inhibition of hCNT3 transport activity, required H+, but not Na+, and was blocked by extracellular uridine. Although this cysteine residue is also present in hCNT1 and hCNT2, neither transporter was affected by PCMBS. We conclude that Cys-561 is located in the translocation pore in a mobile region within or closely adjacent to the nucleoside binding pocket and that access of PCMBS to this residue reports a specific H+-induced conformational state of the protein. PMID:18199742

Slugoski, Melissa D.; Ng, Amy M. L.; Yao, Sylvia Y. M.; Smith, Kyla M.; Lin, Colin C.; Zhang, Jing; Karpinski, Edward; Cass, Carol E.; Baldwin, Stephen A.; Young, James D.

2008-01-01

308

Functional Analysis of the Two Brassica AP3 Genes Involved in Apetalous and Stamen Carpelloid Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) are B genes which encode MADS-box transcription factors and specify petal and stamen identities. In the current study, the stamen carpelloid (SC) mutants, HGMS and AMS, of B. rapa and B. napus were investigated and two types of AP3 genes, B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b, were functional characterized. B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b share high similarity in amino acid sequences except for 8 residues difference located at the C-terminus. Loss of this 8 residues in B.AP3.b led to the change of PI-derived motifs. Meanwhile, B.AP3.a specified petal and stamen development, whereas B.AP3.b only specified stamen development. In B. rapa, the mutations of both genes generated the SC mutant HGMS. In B. napus that contained two B.AP3.a and two B.AP3.b, loss of the two B.AP3.a functions was the key reason for the apetalous mutation, however, the loss-of-function in all four AP3 was related to the SC mutant AMS. We inferred that the 8 residues or the PI-derived motif in AP3 gene probably relates to petal formation. PMID:21738595

Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Xuefang; Zhang, Wenxue; Yu, Fei; Tian, Jianhua; Li, Dianrong; Guo, Aiguang

2011-01-01

309

Heparin (GAG-hed) inhibits LCR activity of Human Papillomavirus type 18 by decreasing AP1 binding  

PubMed Central

Background High risk HPVs are causative agents of anogenital cancers. Viral E6 and E7 genes are continuously expressed and are largely responsible for the oncogenic activity of these viruses. Transcription of the E6 and E7 genes is controlled by the viral Long Control Region (LCR), plus several cellular transcription factors including AP1 and the viral protein E2. Within the LCR, the binding and activity of the transcription factor AP1 represents a key regulatory event in maintaining E6/E7 gene expression and uncontrolled cell proliferation. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparin, can inhibit tumour growth; they have also shown antiviral effects and inhibition of AP1 transcriptional activity. The purpose of this study was to test the heparinoid GAG-hed, as a possible antiviral and antitumoral agent in an HPV18 positive HeLa cell line. Methods Using in vivo and in vitro approaches we tested GAG-hed effects on HeLa tumour cell growth, cell proliferation and on the expression of HPV18 E6/E7 oncogenes. GAG-hed effects on AP1 binding to HPV18-LCR-DNA were tested by EMSA. Results We were able to record the antitumoral effect of GAG-hed in vivo by using as a model tumours induced by injection of HeLa cells into athymic female mice. The antiviral effect of GAG-hed resulted in the inhibition of LCR activity and, consequently, the inhibition of E6 and E7 transcription. A specific diminishing of cell proliferation rates was observed in HeLa but not in HPV-free colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Treated HeLa cells did not undergo apoptosis but the percentage of cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle was increased. We also detected that GAG-hed prevents the binding of the transcription factor AP1 to the LCR. Conclusion Direct interaction of GAG-hed with the components of the AP1 complex and subsequent interference with its ability to correctly bind specific sites within the viral LCR may contribute to the inhibition of E6/E7 transcription and cell proliferation. Our data suggest that GAG-hed could have antitumoral and antiviral activity mainly by inhibiting AP1 binding to the HPV18-LCR. PMID:16945153

Villanueva, Rita; Morales-Peza, Nestor; Castelan-Sanchez, Irma; Garcia-Villa, Enrique; Tapia, Rocio; Cid-Arregui, Angel; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther; Gariglio, Patricio

2006-01-01

310

The AP2-like gene OitaAP2 is alternatively spliced and differentially expressed in inflorescence and vegetative tissues of the orchid Orchis italica.  

PubMed

The AP2/ERF proteins are plant-specific transcription factors involved in multiple regulatory pathways, from plant organ development to response to various environmental stresses. One of the mechanisms that regulates the AP2-like genes involves the microRNA miR172, which controls their activity at the post-transcriptional level. Extensive studies on AP2-like genes are available in many different species; however, in orchids, one of the largest plant families, studies are restricted to a few species, all belonging to the Epidendroideae subfamily. In the present study, we report the isolation of an AP2-like gene in the Mediterranean orchid Orchis italica (Orchidoideae). The OitaAP2 locus includes 10 exons and 9 introns, and its transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in the long OitaAP2 and the short OitaAP2_ISO isoforms, with the latter skipping exon 9. Both isoforms contain the conserved target site for miR172, whose action is demonstrated by the presence of cleaved OitaAP2 mRNA. The OitaAP2 and OitaAP2_ISO mRNAs are present in the tepals and lip before and after anthesis at different expression levels. In addition, the OitaAP2_ISO isoform is expressed in the ovary before pollination and in the root and stem. The isoform-specific expression pattern suggests a functional differentiation of the OitaAP2 alternatively spliced transcripts. The expression profile of miR172 is complementary to that of the OitaAP2 isoforms in inflorescence tissues before anthesis, whereas after anthesis and in ovary tissue before and after pollination, this relationship disappears, suggesting the existence of OitaAP2 inhibitory mechanisms in these tissues that differ from that involving miR172. PMID:24204832

Salemme, Marinella; Sica, Maria; Iazzetti, Giovanni; Gaudio, Luciano; Aceto, Serena

2013-01-01

311

Work plan, AP102 mixer pump removal and pump replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work plan is to plan the steps and estimate the costs required to remove the failed AP-102 mixer pump, and to plan and estimate the cost of the necessary design and specification work required to order a new, but modified, mixer pump including the pump and pump pit energy absorbing design. The main hardware required for

1994-01-01

312

Fabrication of the APS storage ring radio frequency accelerating cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specification, heat treatment, strength, and fatigue life of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Storage Ring 352-MHz radio frequency (RF) accelerating cavity copper is discussed. Heat transfer studies, including finite element analysis, and configuration of water cooling is described. Requirements for and techniques of machining are considered. Braze and electron beam joint designs are compared. Vacuum considerations during fabrication are discussed

K. Primdahl; J. Bridges; F. DePaola; R. Kustom; D. Snee

1993-01-01

313

Accepted by ApJ. Periodicities in Solar Flare Occurrence  

E-print Network

Accepted by ApJ. Periodicities in Solar Flare Occurrence: Analysis of Cycles 19­23 T. Bai Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 bai@quake.stanford.edu ABSTRACT Mid-range periodicities in solar flare spectra of major flare occurrence times for the time intervals analyzed by Ozguc & Atac and Bai, strongest

Bai, Taeil

314

C-A/AP/#245 Electron gun for RHIC EBIS  

E-print Network

C-A/AP/#245 July 2006 Electron gun for RHIC EBIS Alexander Pikin Collider-Accelerator Department Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY 11973 #12;Electron gun for RHIC EBIS Alexander Pikin 1. Introduction The method of forming the electron beam in a new gun for RHIC EBIS is the same as is being used for a Test

315

Administration Policy Admin-FinAffairs-AP-01  

E-print Network

Individual: Any person or corporation including but not limited to: a member of the Board of Governors and-FinAffairs-AP-01 Reasonable cost: deemed to be based on sound judgment and moderation, reflecting consideration Authority Board of Governors and sub-committee members Board Secretariat President Chair or Vice

Haykin, Simon

316

76 FR 82079 - AP1000 Design Certification Amendment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...seek departures from the current AP1000 design in as much...closure logic for system motor- operated containment...inside containment and a motor operated butterfly valve...not during the DCR's current term, then no later...burn-up limit. (8) Motor-operated and...

2011-12-30

317

8 | NewScientist | 28 January 2012 RALPHWILSON/AP  

E-print Network

8 | NewScientist | 28 January 2012 RALPHWILSON/AP Fracking is causing a furore in the US and Europe is scarce DRILLING INTO THE UNKNOWN SPECIALREPORT/FRACKING #12;28 January 2012 | NewScientist | 9 "Neighbours of new fracking operations complain of breathing difficulties and nausea" 100s of metres 1000s

Jackson, Robert B.

318

Mechanistic studies of the ClpAP protease/  

E-print Network

CIpA, a member of the Hspl00/Clp subset of the AAA+ superfamily, is an energy-dependent chaperone, disassembling and remodeling its protein substrates. CIpA also serves as the ATPase component of the ClpAP protease, where ...

Farbman, Mary E

2008-01-01

319

Content Analysis for Proactive Intelligence: Marshaling Frame Evidence AP Sanfilippo  

E-print Network

Content Analysis for Proactive Intelligence: Marshaling Frame Evidence AP Sanfilippo , AJ Cowell , SC Tratz , AM Boek , AK Cowell , C Posse , LC Pouchard Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 {antonio.sanfilippo, andrew.cowell, stephen.tratz, annie.boek, amanda.cowell, christian

Pouchard, Line

320

Approximate entropy (ApEn) as a complexity measure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximate entropy (ApEn) is a recently developed statistic quantifying regularity and complexity, which appears to have potential application to a wide variety of relatively short (greater than 100 points) and noisy time-series data. The development of ApEn was motivated by data length constraints commonly encountered, e.g., in heart rate, EEG, and endocrine hormone secretion data sets. We describe ApEn implementation and interpretation, indicating its utility to distinguish correlated stochastic processes, and composite deterministic/ stochastic models. We discuss the key technical idea that motivates ApEn, that one need not fully reconstruct an attractor to discriminate in a statistically valid manner—marginal probability distributions often suffice for this purpose. Finally, we discuss why algorithms to compute, e.g., correlation dimension and the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy, often work well for true dynamical systems, yet sometimes operationally confound for general models, with the aid of visual representations of reconstructed dynamics for two contrasting processes.

Pincus, Steve

1995-03-01

321

APS Represented at the National Association of Biology Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. "Margaret Shain and Tonya Smith, both current Mentor/Instructors for the 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Fellowship for science teachers, assisted Education Office members, Scarletta Whitsett and Mel Limson, and represented the APS at the National Association of Biology Teachers 2007 Professional Development Conference at the end of November in Atlanta, GA."

2008-02-01

322

ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED TRIVALENT ARSENICALS. Z Drobna1, I Jaspers2, D J Thomas3 and M Styblo1. 1Department of Pediatrics; 2Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3US EPA, RTP, NC, USA....

323

The Nexus of Energy & Water APS, Berkeley, CA  

E-print Network

increasing water-intensity of energy and energy-intensity of water 4. There are different policy actions that can help · Policy engagement on energy/water nexus is warranted #12;Michael E. Webber, Ph.D. EnergyThe Nexus of Energy & Water APS, Berkeley, CA Michael E. Webber, Ph.D. March 5, 2011 #12;Michael E

Kammen, Daniel M.

324

C-A/AP/#244 Pepper Pot Emittance Meter  

E-print Network

C-A/AP/#244 July 2006 Pepper Pot Emittance Meter A. Pikin, A. Kponou, J. Ritter, V. Zajic Collider-Accelerator Department Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY 11973 #12;Pepper pot emittance meter A. Pikin, A. Kponou, J. Ritter, V. Zajic BNL C-AD Technote 1. Introduction To measure the emittance of the ion beam

325

The accretion of interplanetary dust by Ap and Am stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accretion of interplanetary dust and comets by A-type stars is investigated to see whether this process can explain the overabundances of heavy elements in Ap and Am stars. The dust particles spiral in by the Poynting-Robertson effect and evaporate above the star. This process is evaluated by considering the evolution of silicate and graphite particles in the radiation field of Alpha Leo (B7 V). It is found that graphite particles evaporate above 20 stellar radii and silicate dust grains above 50 stellar radii. The evaporated atoms will be quickly ionized. In the case of Am stars the ions will wander off and not reach the photosphere, but in the case of Ap stars they can be trapped by the magnetic field of the star and reach the surface. The magnetosphere of a typical Ap star is modeled, and the fate of the ions is studied. The efficiency of accretion from the magnetosphere is sensitive to the presence of any plasma in the magnetosphere. The comet impact process is found capable of producing the abundance anomalies in Ap as well as Am stars, assuming that the comet impact rate is 0.03/yr, nearly the same as in the solar system.

Kumar, C. Krishna; Davila, Joseph M.; Rajan, R. Sundar

1989-01-01

326

APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellowship Awards Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is on page 48 of The Physiologist, April 2012. Since its inception in 1987, the APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellowship Program has awarded more than 810 travel fellowships to over 555 undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral students and to faculty members at minority institutions.

APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

2012-04-01

327

APS undulator and wiggler sources: Monte-Carlo simulation  

SciTech Connect

Standard insertion devices will be provided to each sector by the Advanced Photon Source. It is important to define the radiation characteristics of these general purpose devices. In this document,results of Monte-Carlo simulation are presented. These results, based on the SHADOW program, include the APS Undulator A (UA), Wiggler A (WA), and Wiggler B (WB).

Xu, S.L.; Lai, B.; Viccaro, P.J.

1992-02-01

328

Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

Prilliman, Stephen G.

2014-01-01

329

The New AP Chemistry Exam: Its Rationale, Content, and Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2013-2014 academic year marks the rollout of the redesigned advanced placement (AP) chemistry course and exam. There have been many questions as to why the course was redesigned and how the new examination will differ from its legacy version. In this article we give a brief overview of the legacy course and examine why a redesign occurred in…

Price, Paul D.; Kugel, Roger W.

2014-01-01

330

The AP Course Audit Syllabus Review Process: Methodological Explanation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The AP Course Audit utilizes a criterion-based professional judgment method of analysis within a nested multi-step review process. The overall goal of the methodology is to yield a final judgment on each syllabus that is ultimately valid. While reviewer consistency is an important consideration, the most important goal is to reach a final judgment…

Conley, David T.

2007-01-01

331

Fabrication of the APS Storage Ring radio frequency accelerating cavities  

SciTech Connect

Specification, heat treatment, strength, and fatigue life of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Storage Ring 352-MHz radio frequency (RF) accelerating cavity copper is discussed. Heat transfer studies, including finite element analysis, and configuration of water cooling is described. Requirements for and techniques of machining are considered. Braze and electron beam joint designs are compared. Vacuum considerations during fabrication are discussed.

Primdahl, K.; Bridges, J.; DePaola, F.; Kustom, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Snee, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (US)

1993-07-01

332

Genetic and phenotypic analysis of the mouse mutant mh2J, an Ap3d allele caused by IAP element insertion.  

PubMed

Mocha (mh), a mouse model for Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), is characterized by platelet storage pool deficiency, pigment dilution, and deafness as well as neurological abnormalities. The trans-Golgi/endosome adaptor-related complex AP-3 is missing in mh mice owing to a deletion in the gene encoding the delta subunit. Mice mutant for a second allele, mh(2J), are as hyperactive as mh, and display both spike wave absence and generalized tonic clonic seizures, but have less coat color dilution, no hearing loss, and no hypersynchronized EEG. Here we show that the mh(2J) mutation is due to an IAP element insertion in the Ap3d gene leading to a C-terminally truncated protein. Despite correct assembly of the AP-3 complex and localization to the trans-Golgi network and endosomes, AP-3 function in neurons remains impaired. While mh mice show a severe reduction of vesicular zinc (TIMM staining) owing to mislocalization and degradation of the Zinc transporter ZnT-3, the TIMM and ZnT-3 staining patterns in mh(2J) varies, with normal expression in hippocampal mossy fibers, but abnormal patterns in neocortex. These results indicate that the N-terminal portion of the delta subunit is sufficient for AP-3 complex assembly and subcellular localization to the TGN/endosomes, while subsequent function is regulated in part by cell-specific interactions with the C-terminal portion. PMID:12647238

Kantheti, Prameela; Diaz, Maria E; Peden, Andrew E; Seong, Eunju E; Dolan, David F; Robinson, Margaret S; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Burmeister, Margit L

2003-03-01

333

Comparative study of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol on intestinal transport and IL-8 secretion in the human cell line Caco-2.  

PubMed

The effects of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15ADON) on human intestinal cell Caco-2 were investigated by the studies of transepithelial transport, gene expression, and cytokine secretion. Permeability across a Caco-2 cell monolayer was evaluated by transport study. Transport rates were ranked as DON, 3ADON<15ADON in apical-basolateral direction. 15ADON showed the highest permeability, induced the highest decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), and prompted significant Lucifer Yellow permeability. These results showed that 15ADON affect paracellular barrier function extremely. In addition, gene expressions induced by toxins were screened by DNA microarray for investigating cellular effect on Caco-2 cell. The most remarkable gene induced by DON and 15ADON was inflammatory chemokine IL-8 and thus mRNA expression and secretion of IL-8 were analyzed by PCR and ELISA. Both DON and acetylated DONs could induce mRNA expression and production of IL-8. In particular, ELISA assay showed that the ability to produce IL-8 was ranked as 3ADON

Kadota, Tomoyuki; Furusawa, Hiroko; Hirano, Satoshi; Tajima, Osamu; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2013-09-01

334

AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance  

SciTech Connect

Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABL{sup T315I} mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and preclinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multitargeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABL{sup T315I}-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML.

O’ Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, III, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim; (OHSU- Cancer Instit.); (ARIAD)

2010-09-07

335

APS beamline standard components handbook. Version 1.1  

SciTech Connect

It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

Kuzay, T.M.

1992-01-01

336

AP4 is required for mitogen- and c-MYC-induced cell cycle progression.  

PubMed

AP4 represents a c-MYC-inducible bHLH-LZ transcription factor, which displays elevated expression in many types of tumors. We found that serum-starved AP4-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were unable to resume proliferation and showed a delayed S-phase entry after restimulation. Furthermore, they accumulated as tetraploid cells due to a cytokinesis defect. In addition, AP4 was required for c-MYC-induced cell cycle re-entry. AP4-deficient MEFs displayed decreased expression of CDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2), which we characterized as a conserved and direct AP4 target. Activation of an AP4 estrogen receptor fusion protein (AP4-ER) enhanced proliferation of human diploid fibroblasts in a CDK2-dependent manner. However, in contrast to c-MYC-ER, AP4-ER activation was not sufficient to induce cell cycle re-entry or apoptosis in serum-starved MEFs. AP4-deficiency was accompanied by increased spontaneous and c-MYC-induced DNA damage in MEFs. Furthermore, c-MYC-induced apoptosis was decreased in AP4-deficient MEFs, suggesting that induction of apoptosis by c-MYC is linked to its ability to activate AP4 and thereby cell cycle progression. Taken together, these results indicate that AP4 is a central mediator and coordinator of cell cycle progression in response to mitogenic signals and c-MYC activation. Therefore, inhibition of AP4 function may represent a therapeutic approach to block tumor cell proliferation. PMID:25261373

Jackstadt, Rene; Hermeking, Heiko

2014-09-15

337

AP4 is required for mitogen- and c-MYC-induced cell cycle progression  

PubMed Central

AP4 represents a c-MYC-inducible bHLH-LZ transcription factor, which displays elevated expression in many types of tumors. We found that serum-starved AP4-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were unable to resume proliferation and showed a delayed S-phase entry after restimulation. Furthermore, they accumulated as tetraploid cells due to a cytokinesis defect. In addition, AP4 was required for c-MYC-induced cell cycle re-entry. AP4-deficient MEFs displayed decreased expression of CDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2), which we characterized as a conserved and direct AP4 target. Activation of an AP4 estrogen receptor fusion protein (AP4-ER) enhanced proliferation of human diploid fibroblasts in a CDK2-dependent manner. However, in contrast to c-MYC-ER, AP4-ER activation was not sufficient to induce cell cycle re-entry or apoptosis in serum-starved MEFs. AP4-deficiency was accompanied by increased spontaneous and c-MYC-induced DNA damage in MEFs. Furthermore, c-MYC-induced apoptosis was decreased in AP4-deficient MEFs, suggesting that induction of apoptosis by c-MYC is linked to its ability to activate AP4 and thereby cell cycle progression. Taken together, these results indicate that AP4 is a central mediator and coordinator of cell cycle progression in response to mitogenic signals and c-MYC activation. Therefore, inhibition of AP4 function may represent a therapeutic approach to block tumor cell proliferation. PMID:25261373

Jackstadt, Rene; Hermeking, Heiko

2014-01-01

338

Exploring Mars: the Ares Payload Service (APS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the design notably an improved re-entry cooling system and fueling stability analysis were done this year. More technical detail and a proposed international consortium to develop the SSTO is presented in another session of this year's Mars convention. We believe that there will be no human exploration of Mars based on the Shuttle or Expendable launch vehicles, and no resources available except for a cooperative international program. However, just as the world is learning to cooperate in peacekeeping, we hold out the hope that similar cooperation will develop for Mars exploration. With that in mind, this year we asked the question- "How will the human mission get to Mars if it has to use the SsTO for transportation?"

Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

1999-01-01

339

JNK/AP-1 pathway is involved in tumor necrosis factor-? induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in MCF7 cells  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in breast tumor angiogenesis. And tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a positive regulator of VEGF. This study was aimed to identify the signalling pathway of TNF-? in VEGF expression regulation in breast cancer cell line MCF7. Using luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that TNF-? significantly increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional activity in the MCF7 cells. The expression of the AP-1 family members c-Jun, c-Fos and JunB and phosphorylation levels of c-Jun were upregulated by TNF-?, whereas other AP-1 family members Fra-1, Fra-2, and JunD were unaffected. The activation of AP-1 was associated with the formation of p-c-Jun-c-Jun and p-c-Jun-JunB homodimers. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not P38 and ERK were elevated by TNF-? in MCF7 cells. TNF-? potently upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of VEGF, which were significantly reversed by JNK inhibitor SP600125. Finally using chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assays, we found that p-c-Jun bound to the VEGF promoter and regulated VEGF transcription directly. These data suggest that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? is a critical regulator of VEGF expression in breast cancer cells, at least partially via a JNK and AP-1 dependent pathway. PMID:19553068

Yin, Yongmei; Wang, Shui; Sun, Yujie; Matt, Young; Colburn, Nancy H.; Shu, Yongqian; Han, Xiao

2012-01-01

340

Polarity of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in a human intestinal cell line (CACO-2)  

SciTech Connect

Free fatty acids (ffa) can enter the intestinal cell via the apical (AP) or basolateral (BL) membrane. The authors are using the Caco-2 intestinal cell line to examine the polarity of ffa uptake and metabolism in the enterocyte. Cells are grown on permeable polycarbonate Transwell filters in order to obtain access to both AP and BL compartments. Differentiated Caco-2 cells form tight polarized monolayers which express small intestine-specific enzymes and are impermeable to the fluid phase marker Lucifer Yellow. Submicellar concentrations of {sup 3}H-palmitic acid (2uM) were added to AP or BL sides of Caco-2 monolayers at 37{degrees}C and cells were incubated for various times between 2 and 120 minutes. Total AP and BL uptake is similar; however, when relative membrane surface areas are accounted for, AP uptake is about 2-fold higher. The metabolism of AP and BL ffa is not significantly different: triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine account for most of the metabolites (32{plus minus}4 and 24{plus minus}2% respectively at 5 minutes). Little ffa oxidation is observed. Preincubation with albumin-bound 2-monoolein (100uM) and palmitate (50uM) increases the level of TG metabolites. The results suggest that in this cell line the uptake of AP ffa may be greater than BL ffa, but that AP (dietary) ffa and BL (plasma) ffa are metabolized similarly.

Trotter, P.J.; Storch, J. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))

1990-02-26

341

APS Presents Awards for the Best Physiology Project at Local Summer Science Camp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is on page 174-175 of The Physiologist, October 2012. APS members continue to judge and present Science Fair Awards on behalf of the APS at local and regional science fairs for precollege students across the nation.

APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

2012-10-01

342

Synaptic and genomic responses to JNK and AP-1 signaling in Drosophilaneurons  

E-print Network

Background: The transcription factor AP-1 positively controls synaptic plasticity at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Although in motor neurons, JNK has been shown to activate AP-1, a positive regulator of growth and ...

Narayanan, Radhakrishnan

343

On the benefits of photometry for roAp theory: MOST observations of ? Equulei (HD 201601)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the potential of space photometry for rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars. In reference to the MOST observations of ?Equulei (Gruberbauer et al., 2008), we show that several aspects of the roAp phenomenon demand longer observational time bases and better time sampling than those currently feasible using spectroscopy. We conclude that, in order to improve our understanding of roAp stars, photometry is still an important tool which should not be neglected.

Gruberbauer, M.; Weiss, W. W.

2008-04-01

344

Doppler mapping of four roAp stars with anomalous lithium abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first results from Doppler Imaging of two roAp stars, HD 12098 and HD 60435, that show strong and variable Li lines in their spectra. High-resolution spectra were obtained with the Russian 6-m BTA telescope, and with the HARPS and VLT/UVES instruments at ESO. We derived the surface abundance distribution of Li and Pr and analysed the correlation between the positions of the Li-abundance spots and magnetic field. We compare our results with Doppler Imaging mapping previously obtained for two CP2 stars, HD 83668 and HD 3980, and discuss the common properties of the locations of the ``Li spots'' on the surfaces of magnetic chemically peculiar A-type stars.

Polosukhina, N.; Shulyak, D.; Shavrina, A.; Lyashko, D.; Drake, N.; Glagolevsky, Y.; Kudryavtsev, D.; Smirnova, M.

2014-11-01

345

[Effect of diadenosine oligophosphates (Ap4A and Ap3A) and their phosphonate analogs on catalytic properties of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli].  

PubMed

The influence of P1,P3-bis(5'-adenosyl)triphosphate (Ap3A), P1,P4-bis(5'-adenosyl)tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and its analogues, containing a residue of methylenediphosphonic acid in various positions of the oligophosphate chain, on the reactions catalysed by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli MRE-600 has been studied. The compounds do not affect significantly the rate of ATP-[32P]PPi-exchange nor maintain this reaction in the absence of ATP. The diadenosineoligophosphates are shown to be noncompetitive inhibitors of ATP in the tRNA aminoacylation by phenylalanine (for Ap4A Ki = 1,45.10(-3) M). The phosphonate analogues of Ap4A inhibit the synthesis of Ap3A depending on their structure. The conclusion is thus drawn that the E. coli MRE-600 phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase does not interact property with Ap4A and its phosphonate analogues. PMID:3322289

Biriukov, A P; Zakharova, O D; Lavrik, O I

1987-09-01

346

77 FR 35308 - Proposed Amendment of Restricted Area R-6601; Fort A.P. Hill, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restricted Area R-6601; Fort A.P. Hill, VA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...restricted area R-6601, Fort A.P. Hill, VA. The U. S. Army requested this...U.S. Army Garrison, Fort A.P. Hill, VA 22427; telephone: (804)...

2012-06-13

347

78 FR 21817 - Amendment of Restricted Area R-6601; Fort A.P. Hill, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restricted Area R-6601; Fort A.P. Hill, VA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...restricted area R-6601, Fort A.P. Hill, VA. The U.S. Army requested this...restricted area R-6601, Fort A.P. Hill, VA, (77 FR 35308, June 13,...

2013-04-12

348

E6AP ubiquitin ligase mediates ubiquitin-dependent degradation of peroxiredoxin 1.  

PubMed

E6-associated protein (E6AP) is a cellular ubiquitin protein ligase that mediates ubiquitylation and degradation of tumor suppressor p53 in conjunction with the high-risk human papillomavirus E6 protein. We previously reported that E6AP targets annexin A1 protein for ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. To gain a better understanding of the physiological function of E6AP, we have been seeking to identify novel substrates of E6AP. Here, we identified peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) as a novel E6AP-binding protein using a tandem affinity purification procedure coupled with mass spectrometry. Prx1 is a 25-kDa member of the Prx family, a ubiquitous family of antioxidant peroxidases that regulate many cellular processes through intracellular oxidative signal transduction pathways. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that E6AP binds Prx1 in vivo. Pull-down experiments showed that E6AP binds Prx1 in vitro. Ectopic expression of E6AP enhanced the degradation of Prx1 in vivo. In vivo and in vitro ubiquitylation assays revealed that E6AP promoted polyubiquitylation of Prx1. RNAi-mediated downregulation of endogenous E6AP increased the level of endogenous Prx1 protein. Taken together, our data suggest that E6AP mediates the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of Prx1. Our findings raise a possibility that E6AP may play a role in regulating Prx1-dependent intracellular oxidative signal transduction pathways. PMID:20589759

Nasu, Junichi; Murakami, Kyoko; Miyagawa, Shoji; Yamashita, Ryosuke; Ichimura, Tohru; Wakita, Takaji; Hotta, Hak; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Satoh, Tazuko; Shoji, Ikuo

2010-10-15

349

APS: 125 Years of Progress of Physiology as a Scientific Discipline and a Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, CA, included events to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the founding of the American Physiological Society (APS) and reflect on the recent accomplishments of the society. Most of the APS activities in the past quarter century were guided by a series of strategic plans. Membership in the APS

Carroll, Robert G.; Frank, Martin; Ra'anan, Alice; Matyas, Marsha L.

2013-01-01

350

The U.S. Government's Assistance to the AP's World-Wide Expansion: 1912-1948.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the extent of the diplomatic and commercial assistance provided by the United States government to the Associated Press (AP) from 1912 to 1948 shows AP's manager, Kent Cooper, to be less a champion of the free press than an efficient captain of industry in expanding AP influence across the globe. Early in the twentieth century, British,…

Renaud-Komiya, Jean-Luc

351

APS Admission Criteria updated 4/7/2011 MILLERSVILLE UNIVERSITY CRITERIA OVERVIEW FOR  

E-print Network

PROFESSIONAL STUDIES (APS) ADMISSION and RETENTION The Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) has of 2.8 at the time of student teaching (* A GPA below 3.0 will require higher scores on Praxis II, Millersville University has developed criteria for admission to and retention in APS courses. APS standing

Hardy, Christopher R.

352

AP STAR AWARDS Who is the shining star in your department?  

E-print Network

AP STAR AWARDS Who is the shining star in your department? Give them the honor they deserve! Deadline for application is February 4, 2011 The AP Stars award was created to express appreciation professionals on campus? Previous AP Stars recipients are not eligible to win again for two (2) years after

353

CSU, FULLERTON CREDIT FOR EXTERNAL EXAMS (AP, IB, CLEP) ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAMS (AP) SCORE UNITS COURSE CREDIT GEN EDUC BEGIN DATE END DATE  

E-print Network

) SCORE UNITS COURSE CREDIT GEN EDUC BEGIN DATE END DATE AP ITALIAN LANGUAGE & CULTURE 3-5 5 ITAL 101 GE CHINESE LANGUAGE & CULTURE 3-5 5 CHIN 101 GE III.B.2 5 CHIN 102 GE III.B.2 AP COMPUTER SCIENCE A 3-5 3 III.B.2 (Exam discontinued Fall 2009) 5 ITAL 102 GE III.B.2 AP JAPANESE LANGUAGE & CULTURE 3-5 5 JAPN

de Lijser, Peter

354

Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has directed the DOE to concentrate ear-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of issues (Conway 1993). The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process; Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.`` This document satisfies that requirement for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107).

Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-01-20

355

Real-time orbit feedback at the APS.  

SciTech Connect

A real-time orbit feedback system has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source in order to meet the stringent orbit stability requirements. The system reduces global orbit motion below 30Hz by a factor of four to below 5{micro}m rms horizontally and 2{micro}m rms vertically. This paper focuses on dynamic orbit stability and describes the all-digital orbit feedback system that has been implemented at the APS. Implementation of the global orbit feedback system is described and its latest performance is presented. Ultimately, the system will provide local feedback at each x-ray source point using installed photon BPMs to measure x-ray beam position and angle directly. Technical challenges associated with local feedback and with dynamics of the associated corrector magnets are described. The unique diagnostic capabilities provided by the APS system are discussed with reference to their use in identifying sources of the underlying orbit motion.

Carwardine, J.

1998-06-18

356

The APS booster synchrotron: Commissioning and operational experience  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) was constructed to provide a large user community with intense and high brightness synchrotron radiation at x-ray wavelengths. A 7-GeV positron beam is used to generate this light. Acceleration of the beam from 450 MeV to 7 GeV is accomplished at a 2-Hz repetition rate by the booster synchrotron. Commissioning of the booster began in the second quarter of 1994 and continued on into early 1995. The booster is now routinely used to provide beam for the commissioning of the APS storage ring. Reported here are our commissioning and operational experiences with the booster synchrotron.

Milton, S.V.

1995-07-01

357

Measurements of ground motion and magnet vibrations at the APS  

SciTech Connect

This article presents results of ground motion and magnet vibrations measurements at the Advanced Photon Source. The experiments were done over a wide, frequency range (0-05-100 Hz) with the use of SM-3KV-type seismic probes from the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russia). Spectral power densities of vertical and horizontal motions of the APS hall floor and quadrupoles on regular supports were obtained. Also investigated were magnet vibrations induced by designed cooling water flow and spectral characteristics of spatial correlation of the quadrupole vibrations at different sectors of the ring. The influence of personnel activity in the hall and traffic under the ring on the slow motion of storage ring elements were observed. Amplitudes of vibrations at the APS are compared with results of seismic measurements at some other accelerators.

Shiltsev, V. [Budker INP, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

1996-09-01

358

HD 12098 - A new norhtern hemisphere roAp star  

E-print Network

We present the analysis of 65 hours of high speed photometric observations of HD 12098 taken from State Observatory, Naini Tal and Gurushikhar Observatory, Mt.Abu on sixteen nights spanning from November 1999 to November 2000. HD 12098 is the first rapidly oscillating Ap star discovered from the `Naini Tal-Cape survey for northern hemisphere roAp stars'. It is the 32nd in the complete list. HD 12098 exhibits one predominant mode of oscillation at nu_1 = 2.1738 mHz. The second-most significant frequency in our data is at nu_2 = 2.1641 mHz with a 1 cycle/day alias ambiguity. We argue that nu_2 is a rotational sidelobe of nu_1, rather than an independent pulsation mode. Evidence for the presence of two other frequencies at 2.1807 and 2.3056 mHz is also presented.

V. Girish; S. Seetha; P. Martinez; S. Joshi; B. N. Ashoka; D. W. Kurtz; U. S. Chaubey; S. K. Gupta; Ram Sagar

2001-08-23

359

HD 12098 - A new norhtern hemisphere roAp star  

E-print Network

We present the analysis of 65 hours of high speed photometric observations of HD 12098 taken from State Observatory, Naini Tal and Gurushikhar Observatory, Mt.Abu on sixteen nights spanning from November 1999 to November 2000. HD 12098 is the first rapidly oscillating Ap star discovered from the `Naini Tal-Cape survey for northern hemisphere roAp stars'. It is the 32nd in the complete list. HD 12098 exhibits one predominant mode of oscillation at nu_1 = 2.1738 mHz. The second-most significant frequency in our data is at nu_2 = 2.1641 mHz with a 1 cycle/day alias ambiguity. We argue that nu_2 is a rotational sidelobe of nu_1, rather than an independent pulsation mode. Evidence for the presence of two other frequencies at 2.1807 and 2.3056 mHz is also presented.

Girish, V; Martínez, P; Joshi, S; Ashoka, B N; Kurtz, D W; Chaubey, U S; Gupta, S K; Sagar, R; Sagar, Ram

2001-01-01

360

Lining up your service lines.  

PubMed

Steps in implementing a service line approach include: Defining the service line. Allocating service line revenue and expense. Analyzing service line contribution margin and profitability. Determining the value of other factors. Creating standards for investment decisions, benchmarking, and ranking. PMID:17687972

Bilsky, Steven D; Aber, Jeffrey M

2007-07-01

361

The magnetic fields of Ap stars from high resolution Stokes IQUV spectropolarimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we describe the acquisition of high resolution time resolved spectropolarimetric observations of 7 (bright and well understood) Ap stars in Stokes IQUV using the ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the 2m Telescope Bernard Lyot at Pic du Midi Observatory. We compare these observations with those obtained a decade earlier using the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter to confirm consistency with the older data and provide evidence that both ESPaDOnS and Narval perform as expected in all Stokes parameters. We demonstrate that our refined longitudinal magnetic field and linear polarisation measurements for these 7 stars are of much greater quality than was previously obtained with MuSiCoS and that the global magnetic properties of these stars are stable over a long timescale. The ultimate aim of these new data is to provide a basis from which mapping of both the magnetic field and abundance structures can be performed on our target stars. We then describe magnetic field mapping of the Ap star alpha 2 CVn using these data. This mapping is achieved with the use of tomographic inversion of Doppler-broadened Stokes IQUV profiles of a large variety of spectral lines using the INVERS10 Magnetic Doppler imaging code. We show that not only are the new magnetic field maps of alpha 2 CVn consistent with a previous generation of maps of alpha 2 CVn, but that the same magnetic field topology can be derived from a variety of atomic line sets. This indicates that the magnetic field we derive for alpha2 CVn is a realistic representation of the star's true magnetic topology. Finally we investigate surface abundance structures for alpha 2 CVn for various chemical elements. We investigate the correlation between the location of these abundance features and the magnetic field of alpha 2 CVn. We will demonstrate that whilst the magnetic field plays a role in the formation of abundance structures, the current theoretical framework does not fully explain what we find from our maps. Ultimately this work motivates future mapping of Ap stars by confirming the reliability of both the instrument and associated data and the mapping technique itself.

Silvester, James

362

Diffusion and Settling in Ap/Bp Stars  

E-print Network

Ap/Bp stars are magnetic chemically peculiar early A and late B type stars of the main sequence. They exhibit peculiar surface abundance anomalies that are thought to be the result of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. The physics of diffusion in these stars are reviewed briefly and some model predictions are discussed. While models reproduce some observations reasonably well, more work is needed before the behavior of diffusing elements in a complex magnetic field is fully understood.

S. Turcotte

2003-04-23

363

Architecture of the APS real-time orbit feedback system.  

SciTech Connect

The APS Real-Time Orbit Feedback System is designed to stabilize the orbit of the stored positron beam against low-frequency sources such as mechanical vibration and power supply ripple. A distributed array of digital signal processors is used to measure the orbit and compute corrections at a 1kHz rate. The system also provides extensive beam diagnostic tools. This paper describes the architectural aspects of the system and describes how the orbit correction algorithms are implemented.

Carwardine, J. A.; Lenkszus, F. R.

1997-11-21

364

Infrared imaging of AP\\/HTPB laminate propellant flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of ammonium perchlorate (AP), hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) two-dimensional laminate propellants is investigated using simultaneous infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) emission imaging at 1–50 atm. The IR (3300–3900 nm) measurements sense flame presence nominally via HCl rovibrational excitation and the UV (310 nm) measurements via OH electronic excitation, although continuum emission is also present. The following findings are made.

R. P. Fitzgerald; M. Q. Brewster

2008-01-01

365

Higher-order modes in the APS storage ring waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve higher-order modes (HOMs) in the single-cell accelerating cavities for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring were calculated to have complex impedances that will cause coupled-bunched instabilities near or below the 300 mA positron current which is the design goal. Some of these modes couple, through the coupling loop, from the storage ring cavity into the waveguide. This study

S. O. Brauer; R. L. Kustom

1993-01-01

366

Work plan, AP-102 mixer pump removal and pump replacement  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work plan is to plan the steps and estimate the costs required to remove the failed AP-102 mixer pump, and to plan and estimate the cost of the necessary design and specification work required to order a new, but modified, mixer pump including the pump and pump pit energy absorbing design. The main hardware required for the removal of the mixer is as follows: a flexible receiver and blast shield; a metal container for the pulled mixer pump; and a trailer and strongback to haul and manipulate the container. Additionally: a gamma scanning device will be needed to detect the radioactivity emanating from the mixer as it is pulled from the tank; a water spray system will be required to remove tank waste from the surface of the mixer as it is pulled from the AP-102 tank; and a lifting yoke to lift the mixer from the pump pit (the SY-101 Mixer Lifting Yoke will be used). A ``green house`` will have to be erected over the AP-102 pump pit and an experienced Hoisting and Rigging crew must be assembled and trained in mixer pump removal methods before the actual removal is undertaken.

Jimenez, R.F.

1994-09-01

367

JUNB/AP-1 controls IFN-? during inflammatory liver disease  

PubMed Central

Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of inflammatory liver disease is essential to design efficient therapeutic approaches. In hepatocytes, the dimeric transcription factor c-JUN/AP-1 is a major mediator of cell survival during hepatitis, although functions for other JUN proteins in liver disease are less defined. Here, we found that JUNB was specifically expressed in human and murine immune cells during acute liver injury. We analyzed the molecular function of JUNB in experimental models of hepatitis, including administration of concanavalin A (ConA) or ?-galactosyl-ceramide, which induce liver inflammation and injury. Mice specifically lacking JUNB in hepatocytes displayed a mild increase in ConA-induced liver damage. However, targeted deletion of Junb in immune cells and hepatocytes protected against hepatitis in experimental models that involved NK/NKT cells. The absence of JUNB in immune cells decreased IFN-? expression and secretion from NK and NKT cells, leading to reduced STAT1 pathway activation. Systemic IFN-? treatment or adenovirus-based IRF1 delivery to Junb-deficient mice restored hepatotoxicity, and we demonstrate that Ifng is a direct transcriptional target of JUNB. These findings demonstrate that JUNB/AP-1 promotes cell death during acute hepatitis by regulating IFN-? production in NK and NKT cells and thus functionally antagonizes the hepatoprotective function of c-JUN/AP-1 in hepatocytes. PMID:24200694

Thomsen, Martin K.; Bakiri, Latifa; Hasenfuss, Sebastian C.; Hamacher, Rainer; Martinez, Lola; Wagner, Erwin F.

2013-01-01

368

Margin Assessment of AP1000 Loss of Flow Transient  

SciTech Connect

The Reactor Coolant System (RCS) of the AP1000 plant consists of two circulating loops. Each loop contains two canned motor Reactor Coolant (RC) pumps that have a rotating inertia to provide RCS flow coast-down if power to the pumps is lost. Westinghouse analysis of the complete loss of flow (CLOF) accident in support of the AP1000 design certification was based on the USNRC-approved traditional methodology applied to operating plants. The RCS response during the transient was predicted using the LOFTRAN code based on a reactivity insertion curve highly skewed to the bottom of the reactor core, but the calculation of Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) was performed assuming a top-skewed axial power profile. A more realistic margin assessment can be made by using an improved method similar to Westinghouse RAVE methodology recently approved by the USNRC. The improved method uses the three-dimensional kinetic nodal code SPNOVA coupled with the reactor core thermal-hydraulic code VIPRE-W for predicting the reactor core response during the CLOF transient. The improved method significantly improves margin predictions by generating core power distributions consistent with the trip reactivity changes for the DNBR calculation. The margin assessment showed that the improved method resulted in a 19% DNBR increase as compared to the traditional method for the AP1000 CLOF transient. (authors)

Carlin, Edward L.; Hilton, Peter A.; Yixing Sung [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC (United States)

2006-07-01

369

Use of a wire scanner for monitoring residual gas ionization in Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility 20 keV/u proton/deuteron low energy beam transport beam line  

SciTech Connect

The ion source end of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility accelerator consists of a proton/deuteron ECR ion source and a low energy beam transport (LEBT) beam line. An observed reduction of the radio frequency quadrupole transmission with increase of the LEBT current prompted additional study of the LEBT beam properties. Numerous measurements have been made with the LEBT bream profiler wire biased by a variable voltage. Current-voltage characteristics in presence of the proton beam were measured even when the wire was far out of the beam. The current-voltage characteristic in this case strongly resembles an asymmetric diodelike characteristic, which is typical of Langmuir probes monitoring plasma. The measurement of biased wire currents, outside the beam, enables us to estimate the effective charge density in vacuum.

Vainas, B.; Eliyahu, I.; Weissman, L.; Berkovits, D. [SARAF, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel)

2012-02-15

370

Use of a wire scanner for monitoring residual gas ionization in Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility 20 keV?u proton?deuteron low energy beam transport beam line.  

PubMed

The ion source end of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility accelerator consists of a proton?deuteron ECR ion source and a low energy beam transport (LEBT) beam line. An observed reduction of the radio frequency quadrupole transmission with increase of the LEBT current prompted additional study of the LEBT beam properties. Numerous measurements have been made with the LEBT bream profiler wire biased by a variable voltage. Current-voltage characteristics in presence of the proton beam were measured even when the wire was far out of the beam. The current-voltage characteristic in this case strongly resembles an asymmetric diodelike characteristic, which is typical of Langmuir probes monitoring plasma. The measurement of biased wire currents, outside the beam, enables us to estimate the effective charge density in vacuum. PMID:22380317

Vainas, B; Eliyahu, I; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D

2012-02-01

371

Dual Regulatory Roles of Human AP-Endonuclease (APE1/Ref-1) in CDKN1A/p21 Expression  

PubMed Central

The human AP-endonuclease (APE1/Ref-1), an essential multifunctional protein involved in repair of oxidative DNA damage as well as in transcriptional regulation, is often overexpressed in tumor cells. APE1 was earlier shown to stimulate p53’s DNA binding and its transactivation function in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A) gene. Here, we show APE1’s stable binding to p53 cis elements which are required for p53-mediated activation of p21 in p53-expressing wild type HCT116 cells. However, surprisingly, we observed APE1-dependent repression of p21 in isogenic p53-null HCT116 cells. Ectopic expression of p53 in the p53-null cells abrogated this repression suggesting that APE1’s negative regulatory role in p21 expression is dependent on the p53 status. We then identified APE1’s another binding site in p21’s proximal promoter region containing cis elements for AP4, a repressor of p21. Interestingly, APE1 and AP4 showed mutual dependence for p21 repression. Moreover, ectopic p53 in p53-null cells inhibited AP4’s association with APE1, their binding to the promoter and p21 repression. These results together establish APE1’s role as a co-activator or co-repressor of p21 gene, dependent on p53 status. It is thus likely that APE1 overexpression and inactivation of p53, often observed in tumor cells, promote tumor cell proliferation by constitutively downregulating p21 expression. PMID:23874636

Sengupta, Shiladitya; Mitra, Sankar; Bhakat, Kishor K.

2013-01-01

372

Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1  

SciTech Connect

Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partner and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.

Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa; San Filippo, Joseph San; Wiese, Claudia; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Begovic, Sead; Schild, David; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott; Sung, Patrick

2010-11-05

373

Measure Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measu

Crissman, Sally

2011-01-01

374

AP2 Gene Determines the Identity of Perianth Organs in Flowers of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed Central

We have examined the floral morphology and ontogeny of three mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, Ap2-5, Ap2-6, and Ap2-7, that exhibit homeotic changes of the perianth organs because of single recessive mutations in the AP2 gene. Homeotic conversions observed are: sepals to carpels in all three mutants, petals to stamens in Ap2-5, and petals to carpels in Ap2-6. Our analysis of these mutants suggests that the AP2 gene is required early in floral development to direct primordia of the first and second whorls to develop as perianth rather than as reproductive organs. In addition, our results support one of the two conflicting hypotheses concerning the structures of the calyx and the gynoecium in the Brassicaceae. PMID:12359889

Kunst, L.; Klenz, J. E.; Martinez-Zapater, J.; Haughn, G. W.

1989-01-01

375

NF-?B/AP-1-Targeted Inhibition of Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Depigmenting Compound AP736 Derived from Natural 1,3-Diphenylpropane Skeleton  

PubMed Central

AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO)/prostaglandin (PG) E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264.7 cells. AP736 was found to strongly inhibit the production of both NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AP736 strongly inhibited both LPS-induced morphological changes and FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake. Furthermore, AP736 also downregulated the expression of multiple inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, and interleukin- (IL-) 1? in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Transcription factor analysis, including upstream signalling events, revealed that both NF-?B and AP-1 were targeted by AP736 via inhibition of the IKK/I?B? and IRAK1/TAK1 pathways. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that AP736 is a potential anti-inflammatory drug due to its suppression of NF-?B-IKK/I?B? and AP-1-IRAK1/TAK1 signalling, which may make AP736 useful for the treatment of macrophage-mediated skin inflammation. PMID:25386046

Ha, Van Thai; Beak, Heung Soo; Kim, Eunji; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Hossen, Muhammad Jahangir; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Yong; Joo, Yung Hyup; Lee, Chang Seok; Choi, Joonho; Shin, Hong-Ju; Hong, Sungyoul; Shin, Song Seok

2014-01-01

376

Irreversibility line in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin films: Correlation of transport and magnetic behavior  

SciTech Connect

Using magnetic and magnetotransport measurements, we show that a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin-film sample has a single irreversibility line (IRL), which is the same as the vortex-glass-transition phase boundary. Results suggest that the effects of pinning persist above the glass-transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital g}}, and that it is the loss of critical-current density {ital J}{sub {ital c}} rather than an onset of reversible magnetic behavior that characterizes the vortex-glass transition. Measurements of dc magnetization are shown to confirm a theoretical model that explains why the determination of {ital T}{sub {ital g}} requires that field-cooled data be collected on cooling (FCC) rather than on warming (FCW), as is frequently done. The use of the ac susceptibility response for measuring {ital T}{sub {ital g}} is shown to be a valid measure only at low frequency. This is because both the fundamental-frequency and third-harmonic ac susceptibilities measure the onset of ac flux penetration rather than the onset of irreversibility. The frequency dependence of the onset temperature of ac flux penetration ({ital T}{sub on}) is shown to follow the vortex-glass-model dependence {ital T}{sub on}={ital C}(2{pi}{ital f}){sup {l_brace}1/[({ital z}{minus}1){nu}]{r_brace}}+{ital T}{sub {ital g}}, with values of {ital z} and {nu} consistent with those determined from scaling of the magnetotransport data.

Deak, J.; McElfresh, M. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Clem, J.R.; Hao, Z. [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Konczykowski, M. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)] [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Muenchausen, R.; Foltyn, S.; Dye, R. [Superconductivity Technology Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Superconductivity Technology Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1994-03-01

377

X Linkage of AP3A, a Homolog of the Y-Linked MADS-Box Gene AP3Y in Silene latifolia and S. dioica  

PubMed Central

Background The duplication of autosomal genes onto the Y chromosome may be an important element in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.A previous cytological study reported on a putative example of such a duplication event in a dioecious tribe of Silene (Caryophyllaceae): it was inferred that the Y-linked MADS-box gene AP3Y originated from a duplication of the reportedly autosomal orthologAP3A. However, a recent study, also using cytological methods, indicated that AP3A is X-linked in Silenelatifolia. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we hybridized S. latifolia and S. dioicato investigate whether the pattern of X linkage is consistent among distinct populations, occurs in both species, and is robust to genetic methods. We found inheritance patterns indicative of X linkage of AP3A in widely distributed populations of both species. Conclusions/Significance X linkage ofAP3A and Y linkage of AP3Yin both species indicates that the genes' ancestral progenitor resided on the autosomes that gave rise to the sex chromosomesand that neither gene has moved between chromosomes since species divergence.Consequently, our results do not support the contention that inter-chromosomal gene transfer occurred in the evolution of SlAP3Y from SlAP3A. PMID:21533056

Penny, Rebecca H.; Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Delph, Lynda F.

2011-01-01

378

Implementation and Initial Validation of the APS English Test [and] The APS English-Writing Test at Golden West College: Evidence for Predictive Validity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 1991, Golden West College (California) conducted a validation study of the English portion of the Assessment and Placement Services for Community Colleges (APS), followed by a predictive validity study in July 1991. The initial study was designed to aid in the implementation of the new test at GWC by comparing data on APS use at other…

Isonio, Steven

379

Line bisection in left neglect: The importance of starting right  

E-print Network

, but less important in the distortion account. To test these predictions, we asked participants to setLine bisection in left neglect: The importance of starting right Marika Urbanski1,2 and Paolo Department of Neurology, AP-HP, IFR 70, Hôpital de la Salpêtrière; Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6

380

46 CFR 171.015 - Location of margin line.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the margin line must be a parabolic curve with the following characteristics: (1) The parabolic curve must be at least 3 inches (7.6 cm...at the FP and AP. (2) The parabolic curve must be at least the distance given...

2010-10-01

381

46 CFR 171.015 - Location of margin line.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING...margin line must be a parabolic curve with the following characteristics: (1) The parabolic curve must be at least 3 inches...and AP. (2) The parabolic curve must be at least the...

2012-10-01

382

46 CFR 171.015 - Location of margin line.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING...margin line must be a parabolic curve with the following characteristics: (1) The parabolic curve must be at least 3 inches...and AP. (2) The parabolic curve must be at least the...

2011-10-01

383

46 CFR 171.015 - Location of margin line.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING...margin line must be a parabolic curve with the following characteristics: (1) The parabolic curve must be at least 3 inches...and AP. (2) The parabolic curve must be at least the...

2013-10-01

384

Structural characterization of the hemophore HasAp from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: NMR spectroscopy reveals protein-protein interactions between holo-HasAp and hemoglobin†,‡  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes a 205 residue long hemophore (full-length HasAp) that is subsequently cleaved at the C’-terminal domain to produce mainly a 184 residue long truncated HasAp that scavenges heme [Letoffé, S., Redeker, V., and Wandersman, C. (1998) Mol. Microbiol. 28, 1223–1234]. HasAp has been characterized by X-ray crystallography and in solution by NMR spectroscopy. The X-ray crystal structure of truncated HasAp revealed a polypeptide ?? fold and a ferriheme coordinated axially by His32 and Tyr75, with the side chain of His83 poised to accept a hydrogen bond from the Tyr75 phenolic acid group. NMR investigations conducted with full-length HasAp showed that the carboxyl terminal tail (21 residues) is disordered and conformationally flexible. NMR spectroscopic investigations aimed at studying a complex between apo-HasAp and human met-hemoglobin were stymied by the rapid heme capture by the hemophore. In an effort to circumvent this problem NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the titration of 15N-labeled holo-HasAp with hemoglobin. These studies allowed identification of a specific area on the surface of truncated HasAp, encompassing the axial ligand His32 loop that serves as a transient site of interaction with hemoglobin. These findings are discussed in the context of a putative encounter complex between apo-HasAp and hemoglobin that leads to efficient hemoglobin-heme capture by the hemophore. Similar experiments conducted with full-length 15N-labeled HasAp and hemoglobin revealed a transient interaction site in full-length HasAp similar to that observed in the truncated hemophore. The spectral perturbations observed while investigating these interactions, however, are weaker than those observed for the interactions between hemoglobin and truncated HasAp, suggesting that the disordered tail in the full-length HasAp must be proteolyzed in the extracellular milieu to make HasAp a more efficient hemophore. PMID:19072037

Alontaga, Aileen Y.; Rodriguez, Juan Carlos; Schonbrunn, Ernst; Becker, Andreas; Funke, Todd; Yukl, Erik T.; Hayashi, Takahiro; Stobaugh, Jordan; Moenne-Loccoz, Pierre; Rivera, Mario

2009-01-01

385

Heavy element abundances in AP stars from ultraviolet data. I. The bright reference stars. cap alpha. Lyrae and. cap alpha. Canis Majoris A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curve-of-growth andlysis is used to derive chemical abundances in ..cap alpha.. Lyr and ..cap alpha.. CMa, based on ultraviolet spectra obtained with Copernicus. This analysis is the first step in a program to study the abundances of the heavy elements mercury and platinum and the short-lived element technetium in the atmospheres of Ap and Am stars. Ultraviolet Fe II lines

A. A. Boyarchuk; T. P. Jr. Snow

1978-01-01

386

Heavy element abundances in AP stars from ultraviolet data. I - The bright reference stars Alpha Lyrae and Alpha Canis Majoris A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curve-of-growth analysis is used to derive chemical abundances in Alpha Lyr and Alpha CMa, based on ultraviolet spectra obtained with Copernicus. This analysis is part of a program to study the abundances of the heavy elements mercury and platinum and the short-lived element technetium in the atmospheres of Ap and Am stars. Ultraviolet Fe II lines are used to establish

A. A. Boiarchuk; T. P. Snow Jr.

1978-01-01

387

The FUS3 MAPK signaling pathway of the citrus pathogen Alternaria alternata functions independently or cooperatively with the fungal redox-responsive AP1 regulator for diverse developmental, physiological and pathogenic processes.  

PubMed

Alternaria alternata, the fungus that causes citrus brown spot, invades its hosts primarily through the production and action of a host-selective ACT toxin that kills citrus cells prior to invasion. In this study, we show that, in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated signaling pathway governs a number of biological functions, either separately or in a cooperative manner, with the AaAP1 gene encoding a transcription regulator. The reported MAPK is encoded by the AaFUS3 gene, which we show to be necessary for conidial development, resistance to copper fungicides, melanin biosynthesis, and particularly, for elaboration of the penetration process. In contrast, AaFUS3 negatively controls salt tolerance and production of several hydrolytic enzymes. AaFUS3 has no apparent role in the biosynthesis of host-selective toxin or in resistance to oxidative stress. Both AaAP1 and AaFUS3 are required for fungal resistance to 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), 2-chloro-5-hydroxypyridine (CHP), diethyl maleate (DEM), and many pyridine-containing compounds. A strain with mutations in both AaAP1 and AaFUS3 displayed an increased sensitivity to these compounds. Expression of the AaAP1 and AaFUS3 genes and phosphorylation of AaFUS3 were also induced by CHP, DEM, or TIBA. Expression of two genes coding for a putative MFS transporter was coordinately regulated by AaAP1 and AaFUS3. The AaAP1::sGFP (synthetic green fluorescent protein) fusion protein became localized in the nucleus in response to CHP or TIBA. Inactivation of the AaAP1 gene, however, promoted phosphorylation of AaFUS3. Taken together, our results indicate that A. alternata utilizes specialized or synergistic regulatory interactions between the AP1 and MAPK signaling pathways for diverse physiological functions. PMID:20036749

Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Yang, Siwy Ling; Wang, Nan-Yi; Chung, Kuang-Ren

2010-04-01

388

Multiplicity among chemically peculiar stars. II. Cool magnetic Ap stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new orbits for sixteen Ap spectroscopic binaries, four of which might in fact be Am stars, and give their orbital elements. Four of them are SB2 systems: HD 5550, HD 22128, HD 56495 and HD 98088. The twelve other stars are: HD 9996, HD 12288, HD 40711, HD 54908, HD 65339, HD 73709, HD 105680, HD 138426, HD 184471, HD 188854, HD 200405 and HD 216533. Rough estimates of the individual masses of the components of HD 65339 (53 Cam) are given, combining our radial velocities with the results of speckle interferometry and with Hipparcos parallaxes. Considering the mass functions of 74 spectroscopic binaries from this work and from the literature, we conclude that the distribution of the mass ratio is the same for cool Ap stars and for normal G dwarfs. Therefore, the only differences between binaries with normal stars and those hosting an Ap star lie in the period distribution: except for the case of HD 200405, all orbital periods are longer than (or equal to) 3 days. A consequence of this peculiar distribution is a deficit of null eccentricities. There is no indication that the secondary has a special nature, like e.g. a white dwarf. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France. Tables 1 to 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/394/151 Appendix B is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Carrier, F.; North, P.; Udry, S.; Babel, J.

2002-10-01

389

RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51  

SciTech Connect

Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

2006-07-25

390

Operation of the APS photoinjector drive laser system.  

SciTech Connect

The APS photoinjector drive laser system has been in operation since 1999 and is achieving a performance level exceeding the requirement of stable operation of the LEUTL FEL system. One remarkable number is the UV energy stability of better than 2% rms, sometimes less than 1% rms. This report summarizes the operation experience of the laser system and the improvements made along the way. We also outline the route of upgrade of the system and some frontier laser research and development opportunities in ultrabright electron beam generation.

Li, Y.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

2008-08-04

391

24 APS STEP-UP Fellows Present Research at NIH  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is on page 174-175 of The Physiologist, October 2012. The 24 APS NIDDK STEP-UP Fellows recently finished their eight-12-week laboratory research experience and traveled to Bethesda, MD to participate in the STEP-UP Research Symposium held at the DoubleTree Bethesda Hotel and at NIH. They were joined by the other 62 NIDDK STEP-UP fellows from the other four Coordinating Centers (ChildrenÃÂs Hospital, Los Angeles; Pennsylvania State Univ.; Univ. of Maryland,Baltimore County; and Virginia Commonwealth Univ.).

APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

2012-10-01

392

Higher-order modes in the APS storage ring waveguides  

SciTech Connect

Twelve higher-order modes (HOMs) in the single-cell accelerating cavities for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring were calculated to have complex impedances that will cause coupled-bunched instabilities near or below the 300mA positron current which is the design goal. Some of these modes couple, through the coupling loop, from the storage ring cavity into the waveguide. This study investigates the transmission of these modes from the cavity into the waveguide. The standing wave ratio (VSWR) of a WR2300 hybrid waveguide component has been measured at each HOM frequency, and its effect on the transmitted modes in the waveguide is studied.

Brauer, S.O.; Kustom, R.L.

1993-07-01

393

The E6AP E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates the cellular response to oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The E6AP E3 ubiquitin ligase has been linked to the regulation of cell growth and to the cellular stress response. However, the specific stress conditions that are controlled by E6AP have not been defined. An important stress condition that controls cell growth is oxidative stress, where the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate the appropriate cellular response. Here, we describe a novel role for E6AP in the control of oxidative stress response. Cells lacking E6AP expression have reduced capacity to accumulate ROS, and oxidative DNA damage, in response to 20% cell culture oxygen levels, treatment with hydrogen peroxide and expression of oncogenic RAS. This effect of E6AP is associated with the regulation of the anti-oxidant enzyme, Prx1, a previously identified target of E6AP, and can be corrected by downregulation of Prx1 or by reconstitution of E6AP expression. Consequently, cells with compromised E6AP have impaired senescent and apoptotic response to sub-lethal and lethal doses of oxidative stress, respectively. In a xenograft model, downregulation of E6AP renders transplanted tumours refractory to growth-suppressive effects of hydrogen peroxide. Our results provide the first demonstration that E6AP is an important regulator of ROS-mediated cellular senescence and cell death. PMID:22986523

Wolyniec, K; Levav-Cohen, Y; Jiang, Y-H; Haupt, S; Haupt, Y

2013-07-25

394

Phenelzine treatment increases transcription factor AP-2 levels in rat brain  

PubMed Central

Background The elevations of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels in response to acute serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) exposure are not consistent with the time course for the therapeutic action of these antidepressants. Thus, neuronal adaptations are needed for the therapeutic effect to arise. Transcription factor Activating Protein –2 (AP-2) is critical for mammalian neural gene expression. Several genes involved in brainstem CNS transmitter systems, especially the monoamines, have AP-2 binding sites in their regulatory regions. We have previously shown that treatment with citalopram and imipramin resulted in a decrease in AP-2? and AP-2? levels in rat brain. We have also reported an association between a specific genotype of AP-2? to personality traits, binge-eating disorder and platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. Results Subchronic administration (10 days) of phenelzine (PLZ) increased the levels of AP-2?, AP-2? and the DNA binding activity of AP-2 in nuclear extracts prepared from rat whole brain when compared with sham treated animals. Conclusion These data suggest that AP-2 is not involved in the theraputic effect of antidepressants. Rather, the effects of antidepressants seen on the levels of AP-2 might be involved in the expression of side-effects during the lag-period. PMID:12943557

Damberg, Mattias; Berggard, Cecilia; Oreland, Lars

2003-01-01

395

Silencing the ap65 gene reduces adherence to vaginal epithelial cells by Trichomonas vaginalis.  

PubMed

Host parasitism by Trichomonas vaginalis is complex and in part mediated by adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (VECs). Four trichomonad surface proteins bind VECs as adhesins, and AP65 is a major adhesin with sequence identity to an enzyme of the hydrogenosome organelle that is involved in energy generation. In order to perform genetic analysis and assess the role of AP65 in T. vaginalis adherence, we silenced expression of ap65 using antisense RNA. The gene for ap65 was inserted into the vector pBS-neo in sense and antisense orientations to generate plasmids pBS-neoS (S) and pBS-neoAS (AS), respectively. Trichomonads were then transfected with S and AS plasmids for selection of stable transfectants using Geneticin, and the presence of plasmid in transfectants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction of the neo gene. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis showed decreased amounts of ap65 transcript in AS transfected parasites. Growth kinetics of the antisense-transfected and wild type organisms were similar, suggesting that silencing AP65 did not affect overall energy generation for growth. Immunoblot analysis using monoclonal antibody (mAb) to AP65 of AS transfectants showed decreased amounts of AP65 when compared to wild type or S transfectants. Not unexpectedly, this corresponded to decreased amounts of AP65 bound to VECs in a functional ligand assay. Reduction in parasite surface expression of AP65 was related to lower levels of adherence to VECs by AS-transfectants compared to control organisms. Antisense silencing of ap65 was not alleviated by growth of trichomonads in high iron, which up-regulates transcription of ap65. Our work reaffirms the role for AP65 as an adhesin, and in addition, we demonstrate antisense RNA gene silencing in T. vaginalis to study the contribution of specific genes in pathogenesis. PMID:15306014

Mundodi, V; Kucknoor, A S; Klumpp, D J; Chang, T-H; Alderete, J F

2004-08-01

396

Stimulation with the Aureobasidium pullulans-produced ?-glucan effectively induces interferon stimulated genes in macrophage-like cell lines  

PubMed Central

A ?-(1,3),(1,6)-D-glucan produced by A. pullulans (AP-PG) is known to be an immune stimulating agent. In this study, we demonstrate that the stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces the interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs) in macrophage-like cell lines. The ISGs, Mx1, ISG15, and viperin mRNAs were significantly increased in RAW264.7 cells after stimulation with AP-PG. The stimulation with AP-PG transiently induced IFN-? mRNA. However, the expression of viperin mRNA was also increased after stimulation with AP-PG even when new protein synthesis was completely blocked by treatment with cycloheximide. Further, in IFN-? receptor knockdown RAW264.7 cells, AP-PG stimulation more effectively induced viperin mRNA compared with that of IFN-? stimulation. The phosphorylation of Ser 727 in STAT1 involved in the enhancement of STAT1 activation was immediately increased after stimulation with AP-PG. In addition, viperin mRNA expression induced after stimulation with IFN-? was significantly increased by combined stimulation with AP-PG. These results suggest that stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces the ISGs through the induction of IFN and the enhancement of STAT1-mediated transcriptional activation. PMID:24759061

Muramatsu, Daisuke; Kawata, Koji; Aoki, Shiho; Uchiyama, Hirofumi; Okabe, Mitsuyasu; Miyazaki, Tadaaki; Kida, Hiroshi; Iwai, Atsushi

2014-01-01

397

A New lncRNA, APTR, Associates with and Represses the CDKN1A/p21 Promoter by Recruiting Polycomb Proteins  

PubMed Central

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as a major regulator of cell physiology, but many of which have no known function. CDKN1A/p21 is an important inhibitor of the cell-cycle, regulator of the DNA damage response and effector of the tumor suppressor p53, playing a crucial role in tumor development and prevention. In order to identify a regulator for tumor progression, we performed an siRNA screen of human lncRNAs required for cell proliferation, and identified a novel lncRNA, APTR, that acts in trans to repress the CDKN1A/p21 promoter independent of p53 to promote cell proliferation. APTR associates with the promoter of CDKN1A/p21 and this association requires a complementary-Alu sequence encoded in APTR. A different module of APTR associates with and recruits the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to epigenetically repress the p21 promoter. A decrease in APTR is necessary for the induction of p21 after heat stress and DNA damage by doxorubicin, and the levels of APTR and p21 are anti-correlated in human glioblastomas. Our data identify a new regulator of the cell-cycle inhibitor CDKN1A/p21 that acts as a proliferative factor in cancer cell lines and in glioblastomas and demonstrate that Alu elements present in lncRNAs can contribute to targeting regulatory lncRNAs to promoters. PMID:24748121

Negishi, Masamitsu; Wongpalee, Somsakul P.; Sarkar, Sukumar; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Kyung Yong; Shibata, Yoshiyuki; Reon, Brian J.; Abounader, Roger; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Dutta, Anindya

2014-01-01

398

EK Eridani: the tip of the iceberg of giants which have evolved from magnetic Ap stars  

E-print Network

We observe the slowly-rotating, active, single giant, EK Eri, to study and infer the nature of its magnetic field directly. We used the spectropolarimeter NARVAL at the Telescope Bernard Lyot, Pic du Midi Observatory, and the Least Square Deconvolution method to create high signal-to-noise ratio Stokes V profiles. We fitted the Stokes V profiles with a model of the large-scale magnetic field. We studied the classical activity indicators, the CaII H and K lines, the CaII infrared triplet, and H\\alpha line. We detected the Stokes V signal of EK Eri securely and measured the longitudinal magnetic field Bl for seven individual dates spanning 60% of the rotational period. The measured longitudinal magnetic field of EK Eri reached about 100 G and was as strong as fields observed in RSCVn or FK Com type stars: this was found to be extraordinary when compared with the weak fields observed at the surfaces of slowly-rotating MS stars or any single red giant previously observed with NARVAL. From our modeling, we infer that the mean surface magnetic field is about 270 G, and that the large scale magnetic field is dominated by a poloidal component. This is compatible with expectations for the descendant of a strongly magnetic Ap star.

M. Aurière; R. Konstantinova-Antova; P. Petit; C. Charbonnel; B. Dintrans; F. Lignières; T. Roudier; E. Alecian; J. F. Donati; J. D. Landstreet; G. A. Wade

2008-10-13

399

Light Curve Photometry of NEA (159402) 1999 AP10. (Italian Title: Fotometria dellíasteroide NEA (159402)1999 AP10)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NEA (159402) 1999 AP10 was observed over fifteen nights in 2009, September-October, from several observatories with filtered and non filtered systems. The resulting synodic period is 7.908 ± 0.001 h with an amplitude A = 0.36 ± 0.02 mag. The V-R color index is 0.46 ± 0.02 mag, while the absolute visual magnitude is 16.6 ± 0.3 mag. This suggests an S-type asteroid with a diameter of 1.4 ± 0.3 km.

Franco, L.; Carbognani, A.; Wiggins, P.: Koehn, B. W.: Schmidt, R.

2011-12-01

400

APS Archive Collaborative: Building Tools for Library Partnerships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a poster from the 2008 NSDL annual meeting held in Washington, DC from September 30-October 2, 2008. The American Physiological Society (APS) Archive of Teaching Resources launched in April 2002 as a venue for colleague-to-colleague sharing. Since then, the Archive has grown into a collaborative digital library with resources catalogued by APS and three partners (HAPS, SDB, and NAHSEP). All partners used a common set of review and cataloging tools. In 2008, the Archive is being redesigned with new features for partner customization, expanded partnerships, and easier user access. New administration features allow partners to customize and handle their own submissions and reviews, including automatic email notifications. New submission features include partner-specific disciplines, keywords, special fields, and customized pages. New review features include partner-specific review criteria and forms. New search functions allow database searching via keyword (all text fields and vocabulary lists), advanced search (specific partner libraries and specific vocabularies), and browse (by disciplines, learning resource type and grade level). The personalized ÃÂMy ArchiveÃÂ retains previous functions (saving searches, saving resources to folders, sharing of folders) while also providing a listing of usersÃÂ submissions and allowing users to track submissions through the review process. The new Archive will be open to Google searches; Login for the system will be required only for submissions and ÃÂMy ArchiveÃÂ features.

PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education); Amy Feuerstein (The American Physiological Society Education); Yang Yang (The American Physiological Society Education)

2009-09-29

401

Large break LOCA calculations for the AP600 design  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the application of RELAP5 to the calculation of a Large Break (200% doubled-ended rupture) Loss-of-Colant-Accident (LBLOCA) at the reactor vessel inlet for the proposed Westinghouse AP600 design. A parametric calculation was also performed to determine effects of loss of a complete Emergency Core Cooling system (ECCS) train. These calculations were performed over the core blowdown, refill, and reflood phases of the LBLOCA and did not address long term cooling. RELAP5 was shown to be adequate for system response calculation over the period of interest. The passive safety systems were predicted to effectively mitigate the consequences of LBLOCAs; the calculations showed less severe thermal responses than for a current generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. The two primary differences between the AP600 design and a current generation plant that affect LBLOCA response are the lower core thermal power, which results in lower temperatures during the blowdown phase, and the long duration accumulator injection, which provides ample core inventory makeup for final quenching.

Fisher, J.E.

1992-08-01

402

Large break LOCA calculations for the AP600 design  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the application of RELAP5 to the calculation of a Large Break (200% doubled-ended rupture) Loss-of-Colant-Accident (LBLOCA) at the reactor vessel inlet for the proposed Westinghouse AP600 design. A parametric calculation was also performed to determine effects of loss of a complete Emergency Core Cooling system (ECCS) train. These calculations were performed over the core blowdown, refill, and reflood phases of the LBLOCA and did not address long term cooling. RELAP5 was shown to be adequate for system response calculation over the period of interest. The passive safety systems were predicted to effectively mitigate the consequences of LBLOCAs; the calculations showed less severe thermal responses than for a current generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. The two primary differences between the AP600 design and a current generation plant that affect LBLOCA response are the lower core thermal power, which results in lower temperatures during the blowdown phase, and the long duration accumulator injection, which provides ample core inventory makeup for final quenching.

Fisher, J.E.

1992-01-01

403

Observing Home Wireless Experience through WiFi APs  

E-print Network

We present a measurement study of wireless experience in a diverse set of home environments by deploying an infrastructure, we call WiSe. Our infrastructure consists of OpenWrt-based Access Points (APs) that have been given away to residents for free to be installed as their primary wireless access mechanism. These APs are configured with our specialized measurement and monitoring software that communicates with our measurement controller through an open API. We have collected wireless performance traces from 30 homes for a period in excess of 6 months. To analyze the characteristics of these home wireless environments, we have also developed a simple metric that estimates the likely TCP throughput different clients can expect based on current channel and environmental conditions. With this infrastructure, we provide multiple quantitative observations, some of which are anecdotally understood in our community. For example, while a majority of links performed well most of the time, we observed cases of poor client experience about 2.1 % of the total time.

Ashish Patro; Srinivas Govindan; Suman Banerjee

404

Masas de agujeros negros en Narrow Line Seyfert 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe two of the ways to estimate black hole masses in AGN, and then we estimate the black hole masses of 13 Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies with the two methods: virial masses, using the correlation found by Greene & Ho (2005, ApJ, 630, 122); and the correlation found by Tremaine et al. (2002, ApJ, 574, 740). For this work we analyzed the optical spectroscopy data we obtained from CASLEO (San Juan). We compare the results obtained through both methods. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Schmidt, E.; Ferreiro, D.; Oio, G.; Vega, L.; Donoso, L.

405

Zip Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a device to carry a Ping-Pong ball from the top of a zip line to the bottom in four seconds (or less!). Learners follow the design process to build the carrier that slides quickly down a zip line string, figure out how to keep something balanced, and identify ways to reduce friction.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

406

Differentiation of Zebrafish Melanophores Depends on Transcription Factors AP2 Alpha and AP2 Epsilon  

PubMed Central

A model of the gene-regulatory-network (GRN), governing growth, survival, and differentiation of melanocytes, has emerged from studies of mouse coat color mutants and melanoma cell lines. In this model, Transcription Factor Activator Protein 2 alpha (TFAP2A) contributes to melanocyte development by activating expression of the gene encoding the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit. Next, ligand-bound Kit stimulates a pathway activating transcription factor Microphthalmia (Mitf), which promotes differentiation and survival of melanocytes by activating expression of Tyrosinase family members, Bcl2, and other genes. The model predicts that in both Tfap2a and Kit null mutants there will be a phenotype of reduced melanocytes and that, because Tfap2a acts upstream of Kit, this phenotype will be more severe, or at least as severe as, in Tfap2a null mutants in comparison to Kit null mutants. Unexpectedly, this is not the case in zebrafish or mouse. Because many Tfap2 family members have identical DNA–binding specificity, we reasoned that another Tfap2 family member may work redundantly with Tfap2a in promoting Kit expression. We report that tfap2e is expressed in melanoblasts and melanophores in zebrafish embryos and that its orthologue, TFAP2E, is expressed in human melanocytes. We provide evidence that Tfap2e functions redundantly with Tfap2a to maintain kita expression in zebrafish embryonic melanophores. Further, we show that, in contrast to in kita mutants where embryonic melanophores appear to differentiate normally, in tfap2a/e doubly-deficient embryonic melanophores are small and under-melanized, although they retain expression of mitfa. Interestingly, forcing expression of mitfa in tfap2a/e doubly-deficient embryos partially restores melanophore differentiation. These findings reveal that Tfap2 activity, mediated redundantly by Tfap2a and Tfap2e, promotes melanophore differentiation in parallel with Mitf by an effector other than Kit. This work illustrates how analysis of single-gene mutants may fail to identify steps in a GRN that are affected by the redundant activity of related proteins. PMID:20862309

Bonde, Gregory; Day, Kristopher M.; Hsu, Mei-Yu; Cornell, Robert A.

2010-01-01

407

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection of a resistant tomato line with a silenced sucrose transporter gene LeHT1 results in inhibition of growth, enhanced virus spread, and necrosis.  

PubMed

To identify genes involved in resistance of tomato to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), cDNA libraries from lines resistant (R) and susceptible (S) to the virus were compared. The hexose transporter LeHT1 was found to be expressed preferentially in R tomato plants. The role of LeHT1 in the establishment of TYLCV resistance was studied in R plants where LeHT1 has been silenced using Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (TRV VIGS). Following TYLCV inoculation, LeHT1-silenced R plants showed inhibition of growth and enhanced virus accumulation and spread. In addition, a necrotic response was observed along the stem and petioles of infected LeHT1-silenced R plants, but not on infected not-silenced R plants. This response was specific of R plants since it was absent in infected LeHT1-silenced S plants. Necrosis had several characteristics of programmed cell death (PCD): DNA from necrotic tissues presented a PCD-characteristic ladder pattern, the amount of a JNK analogue increased, and production of reactive oxygen was identified by DAB staining. A similar necrotic reaction along stem and petioles was observed in LeHT1-silenced R plants infected with the DNA virus Bean dwarf mosaic virus and the RNA viruses Cucumber mosaic virus and Tobacco mosaic virus. These results constitute the first evidence for a necrotic response backing natural resistance to TYLCV in tomato, confirming that plant defense is organized in multiple layers. They demonstrate that the hexose transporter LeHT1 is essential for the expression of natural resistance against TYLCV and its expression correlates with inhibition of virus replication and movement. PMID:19946703

Eybishtz, Assaf; Peretz, Yuval; Sade, Dagan; Gorovits, Rena; Czosnek, Henryk

2010-02-01

408

Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity of AamAP1-Lysine, a Novel Synthetic Peptide Analog Derived from the Scorpion Venom Peptide AamAP1  

PubMed Central

There is great interest in the development of antimicrobial peptides as a potentially novel class of antimicrobial agents. Several structural determinants are responsible for the antimicrobial and cytolytic activity of antimicrobial peptides. In our study, a new synthetic peptide analog, AamAP1-Lysine from the naturally occurring scorpion venom antimicrobial peptide AamAP1, was designed by modifying the parent peptide in order to increase the positive charge and optimize other physico-chemical parameters involved in antimicrobial activity. AamAP1-Lysine displayed potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was in the range of 5 to 15 µM with a 10 fold increase in potency over the parent peptide. The hemolytic and antiproliferative activity of AamAP1-Lysine against eukaryotic mammalian cells was minimal at the concentration range needed to inhibit bacterial growth. The antibacterial mechanism analysis indicated that AamAP1-Lysine is probably inducing bacterial cell death through membrane damage and permeabilization determined by the release of ?-galactosidase enzyme from peptide treated E. coli cells. DNA binding studies revealed that AamAP1-Lysine caused complete retardation of DNA migration and could display intracellular activities in addition to the membrane permeabilization mode of action reported earlier. In conclusion, AamAP1-Lysine could prove to be a potential candidate for antimicrobial drug development in future studies. PMID:24776889

Almaaytah, Ammar; Tarazi, Shadi; Abu-Alhaijaa, Ahmad; Altall, Yara; Alshar'i, Nizar; Bodoor, Khaldon; Al-Balas, Qosay

2014-01-01

409

Value-Based Elicitation of Product Line Variability: An Experience Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding and modeling the variability of an existing system is a highly critical and challenging task when adopting a product line approach. Only little guidance is available for identifying the variable ele- ments in a complex system and for choosing the ap- propriate level of granularity for modeling. Also, product line engineers have to find a balance between the technically

Rick Rabiser; Deepak Dhungana; Paul Grünbacher; Benedikt Burgstaller

2008-01-01

410

Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.  

PubMed

The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development. PMID:24566692

Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

2014-07-01

411

Emission-factor documentation for AP-42 Section 2. 5, sewage-sludge incineration  

SciTech Connect

The report documents information used in the development of AP-42 Section 2.5, 'Sewage Sludge Incineration.' The document 'Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors,' more commonly known as AP-42, has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency since 1972 to provide emission factors for sources of criteria pollutant emissions. Documentation of AP-42 Section 2.5 describes the sewage sludge incineration process, discusses emissions data collected for this industry, details the development of pollutant emission factors for sewage sludge incineration, and presents the AP-42 Section.

Not Available

1990-08-01

412

Aurora-A Interacts with AP-2? and Down Regulates Its Transcription Activity  

PubMed Central

Aurora-A is a serine/threonine protein kinase and plays an important role in the control of mitotic progression. Dysregulated expression of Aurora-A impairs centrosome separation and maturation, which lead to disrupted cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanism by which Aurora-A causes cell malignant transformation remains to be further defined. In this report, using transcription factors array and mRNA expression profiling array, we found that overexpression of Aurora-A suppressed transcription activity of AP-2?, a tumor suppressor that is often downregulated in variety of tumors, and inhibited expression of AP-2?-regulated downstream genes. These array-based observations were further confirmed by microwell colorimetric TF assay and luciferase reporter assay. Downregulated transcription activity of AP-2? by Aurora-A was found to be associated with reduced AP-2? protein stability, which appeared to be mediated by Aurora-A enhanced ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of AP-2? protein. Interestingly, Aurora-A-mediated AP-2? degradation was likely dependent Aurora-A kinase activity since inhibition of Aurora-A kinase activity was able to rescue Aurora-A-induced degradation of AP-2?. Moreover, we defined a physical interaction between Aurora-A and AP-2?, and such interaction might bridge the suppressive effect of Aurora-A on AP-2? protein stability. These findings provide new insights into molecular mechanism by which Aurora-A acts as an oncogenic molecule in tumor occurrence and malignant development. PMID:21829699

Zou, Lihui; Sun, Yimin; Wang, Mingrong; Zhan, Qimin

2011-01-01

413

Discharge and Corrosion Performance of AP65 Magnesium Alloy in Simulated Seawater: Effect of Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discharge and corrosion performance of AP65 magnesium alloy in simulated seawater with different temperatures is investigated by electrochemical techniques and corrosion morphology observation. The results indicate that AP65 alloy can hardly be activated at a large current density in the 0 °C simulated seawater, whereas the activation time is shortened, and the potential exhibits a significantly negative shift in the 35 °C simulated seawater. However, the increase in temperature promotes the localized corrosion and thus is detrimental to the anode efficiency of AP65 alloy. Moreover, the effect of seawater temperature and current density on the surface morphology of AP65 alloy during the discharge process is also analyzed.

Wang, Naiguang; Wang, Richu; Peng, Chaoqun; Peng, Bing; Feng, Yan; Hu, Chengwang

2014-09-01

414

?2AP mediated myofibroblast formation and the development of renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction.  

PubMed

Renal fibrosis is the final common pathway of a wide variety of chronic kidney diseases. Myofibroblast formation via the differentiation of from tissue-resident fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to play a pivotal role in the development of renal fibrosis. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. We herein investigated the role of alpha 2-antiplasmin (?2AP) in myofibroblast formation and the development of renal fibrosis. We observed the development of renal fibrosis using unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). ?2AP had accumulated in the UUO-induced obstructed kidneys and ?2AP deficiency attenuated UUO-induced renal fibrosis in mice. The degree of myofibroblast formation in the obstructed kidneys of ?2AP(-/-) mice was less than that in ?2AP(+/+) mice. In vitro, ?2AP induced myofibroblast formation in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs), renal fibrosblasts, and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). ?2AP also induced the production of TGF-?, which is known to be a key regulator of myofibroblast formation and fibrosis. ?2AP-induced the TGF-? production was significantly reduced by SP600125, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) specific inhibitor. Our findings suggest that ?2AP induces myofibroblast formation in the obstructed kidneys, and mediates the development of renal fibrosis. PMID:25095732

Kanno, Yosuke; Kawashita, Eri; Kokado, Akiko; Kuretake, Hiromi; Ikeda, Kanako; Okada, Kiyotaka; Seishima, Mariko; Ueshima, Shigeru; Matsuo, Osamu; Matsuno, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

415

World lines.  

PubMed

In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas, decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting, the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation, visualization and computational steering into a single unified system that is capable of dealing with the extended solution space. World Lines represent simulation runs as causally connected tracks that share a common time axis. This setup enables users to interfere and add new information quickly. A World Line is introduced as a visual combination of user events and their effects in order to present a possible future. To quickly find the most attractive outcome, we suggest World Lines as the governing component in a system of multiple linked views and a simulation component. World Lines employ linking and brushing to enable comparative visual analysis of multiple simulations in linked views. Analysis results can be mapped to various visual variables that World Lines provide in order to highlight the most compelling solutions. To demonstrate this technique we present a flooding scenario and show the usefulness of the integrated approach to support informed decision making. PMID:20975187

Waser, Jürgen; Fuchs, Raphael; Ribici?, Hrvoje; Schindler, Benjamin; Blöschl, Günther; Gröller, Eduard

2010-01-01

416

The flame structure of AP/HTPB sandwiches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet emission imaging experiments have been used to study the combustion of sandwiches of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) in nitrogen at pressures up to 32 atm, with binder layers from 50 to 450 mum in thickness. An ICCD camera system has been used to image the flame emission near 310 nm, and a backlighting technique has been developed that allows determination of the corresponding surface shape during combustion. The results indicate the AP/HTPB interface regression rate of IPDI cured samples undergoing low power (100W) laser-assisted deflagration is nearly independent of the binder thickness for binders thicker than 100 mum. The pressure exponent of the regression rate is 0.31 up to 15 atm, increasing with pressure from 15 to 32 atm. Two primary regimes of flame behavior have been identified: a split flame base regime which occurs with high Peclet and Damkohler numbers, and a merged flame base regime which occurs with low Peclet and Damkohler numbers. A secondary regime, exhibiting a "lifted" flame, occurs with low Damkohler numbers and high Peclet numbers. The ultraviolet flame emissions observed in the experiments show a correspondence with the fuel-rich region of the flame, as determined with a Schvab-Zeldovich model. This is reasonable since the primary sources of ultraviolet emission in the 305--315 nm region, electronically excited OH and the CO + O reaction, are dependent on fuel related species. The growth of the fuel-rich region with increasing Peclet number, predicted by the model, is qualitatively matched by the experimental results. The predicted shrinkage of the fuel-rich region when the binder layer is diluted with fine AP is also qualitatively matched by the experiments. Comparison of the experimental results with a single-reaction model with finite rate kinetics shows a weak qualitative agreement on the influence of Damkohler number. A large increase in Damkohler number (factor of 20) leads to a strong splitting of the calculated reaction zone and a splitting of the base of the high temperature region. This seems to correspond to the splitting of the ultraviolet emission flame base observed in the experiments.

Chorpening, Benjamin Todd

2000-10-01

417

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor inhibit ferrous iron influx via divalent metal transporter 1 and iron regulatory protein 1 regulation in ventral mesencephalic neurons.  

PubMed

Iron accumulation is observed in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease. However, it is unknown whether neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) participate in the modulation of neuronal iron metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of BDNF and GDNF on the iron influx process in primary cultured ventral mesencephalic neurons. 6-hydroxydopamine-induced enhanced ferrous iron influx via improper up-regulation of divalent metal transporter 1 with iron responsive element (DMT1+IRE) was consistently relieved by BDNF and GDNF. Both the mRNA and protein levels of DMT1+IRE were down-regulated by BDNF or GDNF treatment alone. We further demonstrated the involvement of iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) in BDNF- and GDNF-induced DMT1+IRE expression. Extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt were activated and participated in these processes. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation abolished the down-regulation of IRP1 and DMT1+IRE induced by BDNF and GDNF. Taken together, these results show that BDNF and GDNF ameliorate iron accumulation via the ERK/Akt pathway, followed by inhibition of IRP1 and DMT1+IRE expression, which may provide new targets for the neuroprotective effects of these neurotrophic factors. PMID:25239763

Zhang, Hao-Yun; Song, Ning; Jiang, Hong; Bi, Ming-Xia; Xie, Jun-Xia

2014-12-01

418