Science.gov

Sample records for aps transport lines

  1. AP stars with resolved magnetically split lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, G.; Lanz, T.

    1992-03-01

    New high-resolution spectroscopic observations of Ap stars with resolved magnetically split spectral lines are presented. Six new such stars have been discovered: HD 2453, HD 9996, HD 18078, HD 50169, HD 137949, and HD 192678. This raises the total number of known Ap stars with resolved magnetically split lines to 21. The spectral line profiles observed in two more stars, HD 111133 and HD 147010, are strongly affected by the magnetic field, but they are not fully resolved, due to nonnegligible rotational Doppler effect. Observations of fairly sharp-lined Ap stars whose lines are unresolved are also presented. The relative difference between the equivalent widths of the Fe II lines 6147.7 A and 6149.2 A is shown to increase with the mean magnetic field modulus. The existence of a simple, unambiguous correlation between the mean magnetic field modulus and the index Z of Geneva photometry, which had previously been advocated, is not confirmed. At most, stars with large negative values of Z may be more prone to have strong magnetic fields, but the evidence for this is not statistically strong.

  2. Raising the acceptance of the AP2-line

    SciTech Connect

    Trbojevic, D.

    1989-04-05

    The 120 GeV Main Ring proton beam collides with the target at the end of the AP-1 line and creates antiprotons and other secondary particles. The AP-2 line transfers the negative particles from the target to the Debuncher. To provide a bigger antiproton stack size in the Accumulator, both the Debuncher as well as the AP-2 line acceptance have to be raised. This is a proposal for the improvement of the AP-2 line acceptance. The first part of the memo presents an acceptance examination of the existing AP-2 line by computer simulation, while the second presents a short proposal for aperture corrections. The computer program TURTLE was used to trace antiprotons through the AP-2 line without taking into account other negative charged particles. Betatron functions were obtained from the output of the SYNCH computer program. The SYNCH program was also used to check the dispersion match between the AP-2 line and the Debuncher. 3 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Basolateral sorting of the Mg? transporter CNNM4 requires interaction with AP-1A and AP-1B.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yusuke; Funato, Yosuke; Miki, Hiroaki

    2014-12-12

    Ancient conserved domain protein/cyclin M (CNNM) 4 is an evolutionarily conserved Mg(2+) transporter that localizes at the basolateral membrane of the intestinal epithelia. Here, we show the complementary importance of clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1A and AP-1B in basolateral sorting of CNNM4. We first confirmed the basolateral localization of both endogenous and ectopically expressed CNNM4 in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells, which form highly polarized epithelia in culture. Single knockdown of ?1B, a cargo-recognition subunit of AP-1B, did not affect basolateral localization, but simultaneous knockdown of the ?1A subunit of AP-1A abrogated localization. Mutational analyses showed the importance of three conserved dileucine motifs in CNNM4 for both basolateral sorting and interaction with ?1A and ?1B. These results imply that CNNM4 is sorted to the basolateral membrane by the complementary function of AP-1A and AP-1B. PMID:25449265

  4. Aberrant trafficking of the high-affinity choline transporter in AP-3-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Hidemi; Fujigaya, Hirofumi; Nishimura, Takashi; Moriwaki, Yasuhiro; Okuda, Takashi; Kawashima, Koichiro; Nakata, Kazuko; Ruggiero, Alicia M; Blakely, Randy D; Nakatsu, Fubito; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    The high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is expressed in cholinergic neurons and efficiently transported to axon terminals where it controls the rate-limiting step in acetylcholine synthesis. Recent studies have shown that the majority of CHT is unexpectedly localized on synaptic vesicles (SV) rather than the presynaptic plasma membrane, establishing vesicular CHT trafficking as a basis for activity-dependent CHT regulation. Here, we analyse the intracellular distribution of CHT in the adaptor protein-3 (AP-3)-deficient mouse model mocha. In the mocha mouse, granular structures in cell bodies are intensely labelled with CHT antibody, indicating possible deficits in CHT trafficking from the cell body to the axon terminal. Western blot analyses reveal that CHT on SV in mocha mice is decreased by 30% compared with wild-type mice. However, no significant difference in synaptosomal choline uptake activity is detected, consistent with the existence of a large reservoir pool for CHT. To further characterize CHT trafficking, we established a PC12D-CHT cell line. In this line, CHT is found associated with a subpopulation of synaptophysin-positive synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMV). The amounts of CHT detected on SLMV are greatly reduced by treating the cell with agents that halt AP-dependent membrane trafficking. These results demonstrate that APs have important functions for CHT trafficking in neuronal cells. PMID:18554297

  5. H-beta line variability in magnetic Ap stars. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madej, J.; Jahn, K.; Stepien, K.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results of photometric measurements of H-beta in several Ap stars are presented. Periodic variations are found certainly in Theta Aur and Alpha (2) CVn, and possibly in Phi Dra. For the other stars upper limits for variations of H-beta are determined. Observed amplitudes are transformed into variations of equivalent width assuming specific profile variations. The results show that variations of equivalent width of H-beta in the stars investigated are of the order of 10 percent or less.

  6. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

    1994-11-01

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real`` beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS.

  7. Genome-wide Analysis of AP-3–dependent Protein Transport in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vikram C.; Daboussi, Lydia; Lorenz, Todd C.

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex mediates cargo-selective transport to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. To identify proteins that function in AP-3–mediated transport, we performed a genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for defects in the vacuolar maturation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a cargo of the AP-3 pathway. Forty-nine gene deletion strains were identified that accumulated precursor ALP, many with established defects in vacuolar protein transport. Maturation of a vacuolar membrane protein delivered via a separate, clathrin-dependent pathway, was affected in all strains except those with deletions of YCK3, encoding a vacuolar type I casein kinase; SVP26, encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export receptor for ALP; and AP-3 subunit genes. Subcellular fractionation and fluorescence microscopy revealed ALP transport defects in yck3Δ cells. Characterization of svp26Δ cells revealed a role for Svp26p in ER export of only a subset of type II membrane proteins. Finally, ALP maturation kinetics in vac8Δ and vac17Δ cells suggests that vacuole inheritance is important for rapid generation of proteolytically active vacuolar compartments in daughter cells. We propose that the cargo-selective nature of the AP-3 pathway in yeast is achieved by AP-3 and Yck3p functioning in concert with machinery shared by other vacuolar transport pathways. PMID:19116312

  8. Proton-dependent glutamine uptake by aphid bacteriocyte amino acid transporter ApGLNT1.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel R G; Wilson, Alex C C; Luetje, Charles W

    2015-10-01

    Aphids house large populations of the gammaproteobacterial symbiont Buchnera aphidicola in specialized bacteriocyte cells. The combined biosynthetic capability of the holobiont (Acyrthosiphon pisum and Buchnera) is sufficient for biosynthesis of all twenty protein coding amino acids, including amino acids that animals alone cannot synthesize; and that are present at low concentrations in A. pisum's plant phloem sap diet. Collaborative holobiont amino acid biosynthesis depends on glutamine import into bacteriocytes, which serves as a nitrogen-rich amino donor for biosynthesis of other amino acids. Recently, we characterized A. pisum glutamine transporter 1 (ApGLNT1), a member of the amino acid/auxin permease family, as the dominant bacteriocyte plasma membrane glutamine transporter. Here we show ApGLNT1 to be structurally and functionally related to mammalian proton-dependent amino acid transporters (PATs 1-4). Using functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, combined with two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology we demonstrate that ApGLNT1 is electrogenic and that glutamine induces large inward currents. ApGLNT1 glutamine induced currents are dependent on external glutamine concentration, proton (H+) gradient across the membrane, and membrane potential. Based on these transport properties, ApGLNT1-mediated glutamine uptake into A. pisum bacteriocytes can be regulated by changes in either proton gradients across the plasma membrane or membrane potential. PMID:26028424

  9. NSLS-II Transport Line Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

    2012-05-20

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

  10. Optical observations of the broad-lined type Ic supernova SN 2012ap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Xu-Lin; Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Chen, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The optical observations of the type Ic supernova (SN Ic) SN 2012ap in NGC 1729 are presented. A comparison with other SNe Ic indicates that SN 2012ap is highly reddened (with E(B — V)host~0.8 mag) and may represent one of the most luminous SNe Ic ever observed, with an absolute V-band peak magnitude of ~ -19.3±0.5 mag after extinction correction. The near-maximum-light spectrum shows wide spectral features that are typical of broad-lined SNe Ic. One interesting feature in the spectrum is the appearance of some narrow absorption features that can be attributed to the diffuse interstellar bands, consistent with the large reddening inferred from the photometric method. Based on the light curves and the spectral data, we estimate that SN 2012ap produced a 56Ni mass of ~ 0.3 ± 0.1Msolar 1 in the explosion, with an ejecta mass of 2.4-0.7+0.7Msolar and a kinetic energy of EK = 1.1-0.4+0.4 × 1052 erg. The properties of its progenitor are also briefly discussed.

  11. Aperture studies for the Fermilab AP2 anti-proton line

    SciTech Connect

    Reichel, Ina; Placidi, Massimo; Zisman, Mike; Gollwitzer, Keith; Werkema, Steve

    2004-06-23

    The AP2 beamline transports anti-protons from the production target to the Debuncher ring. The observed aperture is smaller than that estimated from linear, on-energy optics. We have investigated possible reasons for the aperture limitation and have identified possible sources,including residual vertical dispersion from alignment errors and chromatic effects due to very large chromatic lattice functions. Some experiments have already been performed to study these effects. We present results of the experimental and theoretical studies and possible remedies.

  12. Aperture studies for the AP2 anti-proton Line at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Reichel, Ina; Zisman, Michael; Placidi, Massimo

    2003-12-05

    The AP2 beamline transports anti-protons from the production target to the Debuncher ring. For many years the observed aperture has been smaller than that estimated from linear, on-energy optics. We have investigated possible reasons for the aperture restriction and have identified several possible sources, including residual vertical dispersion from alignment errors and chromatic effects due to very large chromatic lattice functions. We discuss the possible sources, suggest some remedies, and propose specific studies, where needed, to evaluate suspected problems.

  13. Beam chopper For the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) in the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.; Wang, J.; Milton, S.; Teng, L.

    1997-08-01

    The low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) is being built and will be tested with a short beam pulse from an rf gun in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory. In the LEUTL a beam chopper is used after the rf gun to deflect the unwanted beam to a beam dump. The beam chopper consists of a permanent magnet and an electric deflector that can compensate for the magnetic deflection. A 30-kV pulsed power supply is used for the electric deflector. The chopper subsystem was assembled and tested for beamline installation. The electrical and beam properties of the chopper assembly are presented.

  14. 2-D axisymmetric line transport

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J.I.; Dykema, P.G. ); Klein, R.I. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Astronomy)

    1990-11-20

    The methods used in the ALTAIR code for computing the transfer of spectral line radiation in two-dimensional axially-symmetric geometry are described. ALTAIR uses a variable-Eddington-tensor approach, in which the transfer equation of non-coherent line scattering is written in moment form, and the moments are closed with an assumed tensor relating the monochromatic pressure tensor and energy density; this Eddington tensor is obtained self-consistently using an accurate angle-dependent solution of the transfer equation. The finite element method for solving the moment system, and the discontinuous finite element method for solving the S{sub n} equation of transfer are described. Two applications of the method are discussed: line formation in uniform cylinders with different length-diameter ratios, and monochromatic transfer on an irregular x-y mesh (the Mordant test problem). 13 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Moisture Transport Through Sprayed Concrete Tunnel Linings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar; Geving, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Waterproofing of permanent sprayed concrete tunnel linings with sprayed membranes in a continuous sandwich structure has been attempted since 2000 and has seen increased use in some countries. The main function of a sprayed membrane from a waterproofing perspective is to provide crack bridging and hence prevent flow of liquid water into the tunnel through cracks and imperfections in the concrete material. However, moisture can migrate through the concrete and EVA-based membrane materials by capillary and vapor diffusion mechanisms. These moisture transport mechanisms can have an influence on the degree of saturation, and may influence the pore pressures in the concrete material as well as risk of freeze-thaw damage of the concrete and membrane. The paper describes a detailed study of moisture transport material parameters, moisture condition in tunnel linings and climatic conditions tunnels in hard rock in Norway. These data have been included in a hygrothermal simulation model in the software WUFI for moisture transport to substantiate moisture transport and long-term effects on saturation of the concrete and membrane material. The findings suggest that EVA-based membranes exhibit significant water absorption and vapor transport properties although they are impermeable to liquid water flow. State-of-the-art sprayed concrete material applied with the wet mix method exhibits very low hydraulic conductivities, lower than 10-14 m/s, thus saturated conductive water flow is a very unlikely dominant transport mechanism. Moisture transport through the lining structure by capillary flow and vapor diffusion are calculated to approximately 3 cm3/m2 per day for lining thicknesses in the range of 25-35 cm and seasonal Nordic climate variations. The calculated moisture contents in the tunnel linings from the hygrothermal simulations are largely in agreement with the measured moisture contents in the tunnel linings. The findings also indicate that the concrete material exhibits a reduction of saturation on the immediate inside of the membrane. Near the location of the waterproofing membrane on either side, the concrete material exhibits degrees of capillary saturation between 85 and 95 %. Moisture content in the membrane is found to be consistently in the range of 12-17 % by weight, corresponding to a degree of saturation of 30-35 %. Possible effects of such moisture contents are lower risk of freezing degradation, higher tensile bonding strengths at the membrane interfaces, and a reduced risk of pore pressure in the concrete material.

  16. Trafficking of the Menkes copper transporter ATP7A is regulated by clathrin-, AP-2, AP-1, and Rab22-dependent steps

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Zoe G.; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio; Howell, Gareth J.; Levecque, Clotilde; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Sztul, Elizabeth; Monaco, Anthony P.

    2013-01-01

    The transporter ATP7A mediates systemic copper absorption and provides cuproenzymes in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) with copper. To regulate metal homeostasis, ATP7A constitutively cycles between the TGN and plasma membrane (PM). ATP7A trafficking to the PM is elevated in response to increased copper load and is reversed when copper concentrations are lowered. Molecular mechanisms underlying this trafficking are poorly understood. We assess the role of clathrin, adaptor complexes, lipid rafts, and Rab22a in an attempt to decipher the regulatory proteins involved in ATP7A cycling. While RNA interference (RNAi)mediated depletion of caveolin 1/2 or flotillin had no effect on ATP7A localization, clathrin heavy chain depletion or expression of AP180 dominant-negative mutant not only disrupted clathrin-regulated pathways, but also blocked PM-to-TGN internalization of ATP7A. Depletion of the ? subunits of either adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) or AP-1 using RNAi further provides evidence that both clathrin adaptors are important for trafficking of ATP7A from the PM to the TGN. Expression of the GTP-locked Rab22aQ64L mutant caused fragmentation of TGN membrane domains enriched for ATP7A. These appear to be a subdomain of the mammalian TGN, showing only partial overlap with the TGN marker golgin-97. Of importance, ATP7A remained in the Rab22aQ64L-generated structures after copper treatment and washout, suggesting that forward trafficking out of this compartment was blocked. This study provides evidence that multiple membrane-associated factors, including clathrin, AP-2, AP-1, and Rab22, are regulators of ATP7A trafficking. PMID:23596324

  17. Septin 7 forms a complex with CD2AP and nephrin and regulates glucose transporter trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Wasik, Anita A.; Polianskyte-Prause, Zydrune; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Shaw, Andrey S.; Yates, John R.; Farquhar, Marilyn G.; Lehtonen, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    Podocytes are insulin-sensitive and take up glucose in response to insulin. This requires nephrin, which interacts with vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) on GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) and facilitates their fusion with the plasma membrane. In this paper, we show that the filament-forming GTPase septin 7 is expressed in podocytes and associates with CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) and nephrin, both essential for glomerular ultrafiltration. In addition, septin 7 coimmunoprecipitates with VAMP2. Subcellular fractionation of cultured podocytes revealed that septin 7 is found in both cytoplasmic and membrane fractions, and immunofluorescence microscopy showed that septin 7 is expressed in a filamentous pattern and is also found on vesicles and the plasma membrane. The filamentous localization of septin 7 depends on CD2AP and intact actin organization. A 2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake assay indicates that depletion of septin 7 by small interfering RNA or alteration of septin assembly by forchlorfenuron facilitates glucose uptake into cells and further, knockdown of septin 7 increased the interaction of VAMP2 with nephrin and syntaxin 4. The data indicate that septin 7 hinders GSV trafficking and further, the interaction of septin 7 with nephrin in glomeruli suggests that septin 7 may participate in the regulation of glucose transport in podocytes. PMID:22809625

  18. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Transport of the cholera toxin B-subunit from recycling endosomes to the Golgi requires clathrin and AP-1.

    PubMed

    Matsudaira, Tatsuyuki; Niki, Takahiro; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-15

    The retrograde pathway is defined by the transport of proteins and lipids from the plasma membrane through endosomes to the Golgi complex, and is essential for a variety of cellular activities. Recycling endosomes are important sorting stations for some retrograde cargo. SMAP2, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Arf1 with a putative clathrin-binding domain, has previously been shown to participate in the retrograde transport of the cholera toxin B-subunit (CTxB) from recycling endosomes. Here, we found that clathrin, a vesicle coat protein, and clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) were present at recycling endosomes and were needed for the retrograde transport of CTxB from recycling endosomes to the Golgi, but not from the plasma membrane to recycling endosomes. SMAP2 immunoprecipitated clathrin and AP-1 through a putative clathrin-binding domain and a CALM-binding domain, and SMAP2 mutants that did not interact with clathrin or AP-1 could not localize to recycling endosomes. Moreover, knockdown of Arf1 suppressed the retrograde transport of CTxB from recycling endosomes to the Golgi. These findings suggest that retrograde transport is mediated by clathrin-coated vesicles from recycling endosomes and that the role of the coat proteins is in the recruitment of Arf GAP to transport vesicles. PMID:26136365

  20. Calibrating transport lines using LOCO techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yves Roblin

    2011-09-01

    With the 12GeV upgrade underway at CEBAF, there is a need to re-characterize the beamlines after the modifications made to it to accommodate running at higher energies. We present a linear perturbation approach to calibrating the optics model of transport lines. This method is adapted from the LOCO method in use for storage rings. We consider the effect of quadrupole errors, dipole construction errors as well as beam position monitors and correctors calibrations. The ideal model is expanded to first order in Taylor series of the quadrupole errors. A set of difference orbits obtained by exciting the correctors along the beamline is taken, yielding the measured response matrix. An iterative procedure is invoked and the quadrupole errors as well as beam position monitors and corrector calibration factors are obtained. Here we present details of the method and results of first measurements at CEBAF in early 2011.

  1. An improved thermionic microwave gun and emittance-preserving transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.

    1993-07-01

    The positron/electron linac for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory can be used to accelerate electrons to 650 MeV. As part of a project to use this linac to test the quality of insertion devices, work has been done to develop a higher-brightness thermionic microwave gun of the SSRL type. The new gun design has smaller emittance by a factor of 3 to 4. The ratio of cathode field to maximum surface field is more than doubled. The new alpha-magnet-based transport line design produces negligible emittance degradation due to chromatic aberrations, in spite of the {plus_minus}5% momentum spread.

  2. FROM THE CURRENT LITERATURE: Radiation transport in spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyshev, A. E.; Preobrazhenskiĭ, N. G.; Suvorov, A. E.

    1988-09-01

    We review a number of the important results of the theory of radiation transport of resonance radiation obtained mainly during the past decade. Situations are stressed in which the traditional hypothesis of complete frequency redistribution of quanta is not fulfilled in the process of reemission. A quite general approach to the problem of radiation transport is presented that assumes small frequency shifts in the scattering event. Results are presented pertaining to the rate of deexcitation in Doppler, Stark, and natural mechanisms of line broadening. The transport of polarized radiation is discussed, including the application to experiments on interference of atomic states (the Hanle effect, etc.). The problem is discussed of transport of high-intensity radiation, in particular as applied to the problem of radiation trapping in lines of hydrogen-like ions. The connection is discussed of the physical mechanisms of radiation transport in spectral lines and in a recombination continuum.

  3. Preliminary tests of the optical diagnostics for the APS low-energy undulator test line particle beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Berg, W.J.; Yang, B.X.; White, M.

    1997-08-01

    An alternate configuration of the injector linacs (low-energy undulator test line) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) combined with a thermionic rf gun is projected to provide low, normalized emittance electron beams ({var_epsilon}{sub n} {approximately} 5% mm mrad). By using the electron linac and the inline, rephased positron linac, beam energies from 250 to 650 MeV with bunch lengths sigma {sigma}{sub t} {approximately} 1 ps are possible. In order to characterize such beams, the present intercepting Chromox screens with limited spatial resolution and temporal response are being complemented by optical transition radiation (OTR) screens at selected positions in the beamline to provide sub-100 {micro}m spatial resolution and sub-ps response times. Initial OTR images have been obtained from a beam at 650 MeV using the conventional thermionic gun to generate a 30-ns-long macropulse. Micropulse bunch lengths as short as 3 to 4 ps ({sigma}) were also measured using a C5680 streak camera. Additionally, coherent transition radiation (CTR) and diffraction radiation (DR) based techniques will be evaluated. These beam characterizations will support self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) scaling experiments.

  4. Interaction Between the Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova 2012ap and Carriers of Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Sanders, Nathan E.; Drout, Maria R.; Kamble, Atish; Cenko, S. Bradley

    2014-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption features observed in optical and near-infrared spectra that are thought to be associated with carbon-rich polyatomic molecules in interstellar gas. However, because the central wavelengths of these bands do not correspond with electronic transitions of any known atomic or molecular species, their nature has remained uncertain since their discovery almost a century ago. Here we report on unusually strong DIBs in optical spectra of the broad- lined Type Ic supernova SN2012ap that exhibit changes in equivalent width over short (. 30 days) timescales. The 4428 A and 6283 A DIB features get weaker with time, whereas the 5780 A feature shows a marginal increase. These nonuniform changes suggest that the supernova is interacting with a nearby source of the DIBs and that the DIB carriers possess high ionization potentials, such as small cations or charged fullerenes. We conclude that moderate-resolution spectra of supernovae with DIB absorptions obtained within weeks of outburst could reveal unique information about the mass-loss environment of their progenitor systems and provide new constraints on the properties of DIB carriers.

  5. Interaction between the Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova 2012ap and Carriers of Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Sanders, Nathan E.; Drout, Maria R.; Kamble, Atish; Chakraborti, Sayan; Pickering, Timothy E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Mazzali, Paolo; Maeda, Keiichi; Marion, G. H. Howie; Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2014-02-01

    Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption features observed in optical and near-infrared spectra that are thought to be associated with carbon-rich polyatomic molecules in interstellar gas. However, because the central wavelengths of these bands do not correspond to electronic transitions of any known atomic or molecular species, their nature has remained uncertain since their discovery almost a century ago. Here we report on unusually strong DIBs in optical spectra of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN 2012ap that exhibit changes in equivalent width over short (lsim 30 days) timescales. The 4428 Å and 6283 Å DIB features get weaker with time, whereas the 5780 Å feature shows a marginal increase. These nonuniform changes suggest that the supernova is interacting with a nearby source of DIBs and that the DIB carriers possess high ionization potentials, such as small cations or charged fullerenes. We conclude that moderate-resolution spectra of supernovae with DIB absorptions obtained within weeks of outburst could reveal unique information about the mass-loss environment of their progenitor systems and provide new constraints on the properties of DIB carriers.

  6. TRANSPORT OF WASTE SIMULANTS IN PJM VENT LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Z

    2007-02-21

    The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.

  7. Assessment of costimulation and coinhibition in a triple parameter T cell reporter line: Simultaneous measurement of NF-?B, NFAT and AP-1.

    PubMed

    Jutz, Sabrina; Leitner, Judith; Schmetterer, Klaus; Doel-Perez, Iago; Majdic, Otto; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina; Paster, Wolfgang; Huppa, Johannes B; Steinberger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Engagement of the T cell receptor complex reprograms T cells for proliferation, cytokine production and differentiation towards effector cells. This process depends on activating costimulatory signals and is counteracted by coinhibitory molecules. Three transcription factors, namely NF-?B, NFAT and AP-1, have a major role in inducing the transcriptional program that is required for T cell activation and differentiation. Here we describe the generation of a triple parameter reporter based on the human Jurkat T cell line, where response elements for NF-?B, NFAT and AP-1 drive the expression of the fluorescent proteins CFP, eGFP and mCherry, respectively. The emission spectra of these proteins allow simultaneous assessment of NF-?B, NFAT and AP-1 activity in response to stimulation. Ligation of the TCR complex induced moderate reporter activity, which was strongly enhanced upon coengagement of the costimulatory receptors CD2 or CD28. Moreover, we have generated and tested triple parameter reporter cells that harbor costimulatory and inhibitory receptors not endogenously expressed in the Jurkat cells. In these experiments we could show that engagement of the costimulatory molecule 4-1BB enhances NF-?B and AP-1 activity, whereas coinhibition via PD-1 or BTLA strongly reduced the activation of NF-?B and NFAT. Engagement of BTLA significantly inhibited AP-1, whereas PD-1 had little effect on the activation of this transcription factor. Our triple parameter reporter T cell line is an excellent tool to assess the effect of costimulatory and coinhibitory receptors on NF-?B, NFAT and AP-1 activity and has a wide range of applications beyond the evaluation of costimulatory pathways. PMID:26780292

  8. Golgi-Dependent Transport of Vacuolar Sorting Receptors Is Regulated by COPII, AP1, and AP4 Protein Complexes in Tobacco[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gershlick, David C.; de Marcos Lousa, Carine; Foresti, Ombretta; Lee, Andrew J.; Pereira, Estela A.; daSilva, Luis L.P.; Bottanelli, Francesca; Denecke, Jurgen

    2014-01-01

    The cycling of vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs) between early and late secretory pathway compartments is regulated by signals in the cytosolic tail, but the exact pathway is controversial. Here, we show that receptor targeting in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) initially involves a canonical coat protein complex II–dependent endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi bulk flow route and that VSR–ligand interactions in the cis-Golgi play an important role in vacuolar sorting. We also show that a conserved Glu is required but not sufficient for rate-limiting YXXɸ-mediated receptor trafficking. Protein–protein interaction studies show that the VSR tail interacts with the μ-subunits of plant or mammalian clathrin adaptor complex AP1 and plant AP4 but not that of plant and mammalian AP2. Mutants causing a detour of full-length receptors via the cell surface invariantly cause the secretion of VSR ligands. Therefore, we propose that cycling via the plasma membrane is unlikely to play a role in biosynthetic vacuolar sorting under normal physiological conditions and that the conserved Ile-Met motif is mainly used to recover mistargeted receptors. This occurs via a fundamentally different pathway from the prevacuolar compartment that does not mediate recycling. The role of clathrin and clathrin-independent pathways in vacuolar targeting is discussed. PMID:24642936

  9. Automatic tuning of the LBL superhilac third injector transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Pines, H.

    1983-08-01

    Testing of a new automatic tuning procedure in an LBL SuperHILAC beam transport line has been conducted with the third injector microcomputer control system. This technique is an advance over the sequential station-by-station automatic tuning method developed for the Bevalac transfer line. The computer now performs steering/focusing adjustments simultaneously on a number of quadrupole and dipole magnets comprising multiple-station sections of the injection line. New magnet currents are computed from equations governing beam optics in a real-time simulation of the beam line. The key to this technique is the calculation of beam transverse emittance utilizing the same control magnets and beam profile monitors used for manual tuning of the line. This emittance calculation requires high resolution beam profile measurements using multi-wire profile monitors recently installed in the third injector line.

  10. Generalized emittance measurements in a beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Skelly, J.; Gardner, C.; Luccio, A.; Kponou, A.; Reece, K.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by the need to commission 3 beam transport lines for the new AGS Booster project, we have developed a generalized emittance-measurement program; beam line specifics are entirely resident in data tables, not in program code. For instrumentation, the program requires one or more multi-wire profile monitors; one or multiple profiles are acquired from each monitor, corresponding to one or multiple tunes of the transport line. Emittances and Twiss parameters are calculated using generalized algorithms. The required matix descriptions of the beam optics are constructed by an on-line general beam modeling program. Design of the program, its algorithms, and initial experience with it will be described. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Investigation of Rare-Earth Elements in the Atmosphere of the roAp Star HD 134214: Nd II, Nd III, and Gd II Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailytskaya, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution spectra are used to investigate the abundance of rare-earth elements (REE) in the atmosphere of the magnetic, rapidly oscillating, chemically peculiar (roAp) star HD134214. The neodymium abundance is investigated using the lines of neodymium in the first and second ionization states. Disruption of ionization equilibrium REE (mismatch of the contents determined according to the lines of singly and doubly ionized atoms) is found in the atmosphere of the roAp star. Excess abundance of the rare-earth elements (relative to the Sun) is found. The results of an abundance analysis of REE and some other elements are presented. The modulus and the components Br /Bm of the magnetic field are determined.

  12. Transporting hot oil by a new concept in insulated lines

    SciTech Connect

    Matteelli, R.; Brambilla, M.; Pierangeli, P.

    1986-07-01

    Heavy fuel oil, heated to 60/sup 0/C, is transported to the Porto Tolle power plant, near Ravenna, Italy, through an 8-mi, 22-in. insulated pipe line system. The authors tell how Snamprogetti's patented pipe insulation system was used to connect a man-made island in the Adriatic Sea to the power plant.

  13. Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B.

    1997-06-01

    This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

  14. Cationicity-enhanced analogues of the antimicrobial peptides, AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, from the venom of the scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, display potent growth modulation effects on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Ge, Lilin; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The non disulphide-bridged peptides (NDBPs) of scorpion venoms are attracting increased interest due to their structural heterogeneity and broad spectrum of biological activities. Here, two novel peptides, named AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, have been identified in the lyophilised venom of the Arabian scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, through "shotgun" molecular cloning of their biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs. The respective mature peptides, predicted from these cloned cDNAs, were subsequently isolated from the same venom sample using reverse phase HPLC and their identities were confirmed by use of mass spectrometric techniques. Both were found to belong to a family of highly-conserved scorpion venom antimicrobial peptides - a finding confirmed through the biological investigation of synthetic replicates. Analogues of both peptides designed for enhanced cationicity, displayed enhanced potency and spectra of antimicrobial activity but, unlike the native peptides, these also displayed potent growth modulation effects on a range of human cancer cell lines. Thus natural peptide templates from venom peptidomes can provide the basis for rational analogue design to improve both biological potency and spectrum of action. The diversity of such templates from such natural sources undoubtedly provides the pharmaceutical industry with unique lead compounds for drug discovery. PMID:25332684

  15. Cationicity-Enhanced Analogues of the Antimicrobial Peptides, AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, from the Venom of the Scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, Display Potent Growth Modulation Effects on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Ge, Lilin; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The non disulphide-bridged peptides (NDBPs) of scorpion venoms are attracting increased interest due to their structural heterogeneity and broad spectrum of biological activities. Here, two novel peptides, named AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, have been identified in the lyophilised venom of the Arabian scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, through “shotgun” molecular cloning of their biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs. The respective mature peptides, predicted from these cloned cDNAs, were subsequently isolated from the same venom sample using reverse phase HPLC and their identities were confirmed by use of mass spectrometric techniques. Both were found to belong to a family of highly-conserved scorpion venom antimicrobial peptides - a finding confirmed through the biological investigation of synthetic replicates. Analogues of both peptides designed for enhanced cationicity, displayed enhanced potency and spectra of antimicrobial activity but, unlike the native peptides, these also displayed potent growth modulation effects on a range of human cancer cell lines. Thus natural peptide templates from venom peptidomes can provide the basis for rational analogue design to improve both biological potency and spectrum of action. The diversity of such templates from such natural sources undoubtedly provides the pharmaceutical industry with unique lead compounds for drug discovery. PMID:25332684

  16. Lithium and the 6Li-7Li isotope ratio in the atmospheres of some sharp-lined roAp stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavrina, A. V.; Polosukhina, N. S.; Khan, S.; Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Khalack, V. R.; Mikhaĭlitskaya, N. G.; Lyubchik, Yu. P.; Yushchenko, A. V.; Hatzes, A.; Mkrtichian, D. E.; Il'in, I. V.

    2006-06-01

    The λ 6708 Å and 6103 Å lithium lines in the high-resolution spectra of some sharp-lined roAp stars are analyzed using three spectral-synthesis codes STARSP, ZEEMAN2, and SYNTHM. The lines from the VALD database were supplemented with lines of rare-earth elements from the DREAM database and new lines calculated using the NIST energy levels. Our synthetic-spectrum calculations take into account magnetic splitting and other line-broadening effects. Lithium overabundances were found in the atmospheres of the stars based on our analysis of both lithium lines, along with high values of the 6Li-7Li isotope ratio (0.2 0.5). This can be explained if lithium is produced in spallation reactions and the surface 6Li and 7Li is preserved by strong magnetic fields in the upper layers of the stellar atmospheres, around the poles of the dipole field. The asymmetry of lithium lines to the red may be due to the action of shocks in the optically thin upper atmosphere, with the shocked material subsequently falling onto the star.

  17. Gibberellin Concentration and Transport in Genetic Lines of Pea 1

    PubMed Central

    Proebsting, William M.; Hedden, Peter; Lewis, Mervyn J.; Croker, Stephen J.; Proebsting, Lena N.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of the Na and Le loci on gibberellin (GA) content and transport in pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoots were studied. GA1, GA8, GA17, GA19, GA20, GA29, GA44, GA8 catabolite, and GA29 catabolite were identified by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in extracts of expanding and fully expanded tissues of line C79-338 (Na Le). Quantification of GAs by gas chromatography-single-ion monitoring using deuterated internal standards in lines differing at the Na and Le alleles showed that na reduced the contents of GA19, GA20, and GA29 on average to <3% and of GA1 and GA8 to <30% of those in corresponding Na lines. In expanding tissues from Na le lines, GA1 and GA8 concentrations were reduced to approximately 10 and 2%, respectively, and GA29 content increased 2- to 3-fold compared with those in Na Le plants. There was a close correlation between stem length and the concentrations of GA1 or GA8 in shoot apices in all six genotypes investigated. In na/Na grafts, internode length and GA1 concentration of nana scions were normalized, the GA20 content increased slightly, but GA19 levels were unaffected. Movement of labeled GAs applied to leaves on Na rootstocks indicated that GA19 was transported poorly to apices of na scions compared with GA20 and GA1. Our evidence suggests that GA20 is the major transported GA in peas. Images Figure 2 PMID:16653128

  18. Bending magnets for the CBA beam-transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Thern, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The beam-transport line from the AGS to CBA requires 68 large bending magnets, consisting of pure dipoles and two types of combined function gradient magnets. All three types were designed with magnetic-field calculation program POISSON, using the same exterior dimensions and coil package. The design goal of +-1% momentum acceptance for the transport line required a wide horizontal aperture, with a much-smaller vertical aperture for economy. Two prototypes of one gradient magnet were built, and a facility constructed to measure them and the later production magnets. Measurements were done using both a long coil and a point coil (Rawson-Lush gaussmeter). Preliminary results show ..delta..B/B < 0.2 x 10/sup -3/, ..delta..G/G < 0.3 x 10/sup -2/, and ..delta..B/sub 2//B < 0.3 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup -2/ over the beam aperture. Due to end effects, the actual gradient differs from the design gradient by 1%, which has been compensated for in the beam-line design.

  19. Line-by-line transport calculations for Jupiter entry probes. [of radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.; Cooper, D. M.; Park, C.; Prakash, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations of the radiative transport for a condition near peak heating for entry of the Galileo probe into the Jovian atmosphere are described. The discussion includes a thorough specification of the atomic and molecular input data used in the calculations that could be useful to others working in the field. The results show that the use of spectrally averaged cross sections for diatomic absorbers such as CO and C2 in the boundary layer can lead to an underestimation (by as much as 29%) of the spectral flux at the stagnation point. On the other hand, for the turbulent region near the cone frustum on the probe, the flow tends to be optically thin, and the spectrally averaged results commonly used in coupled radiative transport-flow field calculations are in good agreement with the present line-by-line results. It is recommended that these results be taken into account in sizing the final thickness of the Galileo's heat shield.

  20. The AP-3 adaptor complex mediates sorting of yeast and mammalian PQ-loop-family basic amino acid transporters to the vacuolar/lysosomal membrane

    PubMed Central

    Llinares, Elisa; Barry, Abdoulaye Oury; André, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The limiting membrane of lysosomes in animal cells and that of the vacuole in yeast include a wide variety of transporters, but little is known about how these proteins reach their destination membrane. The mammalian PQLC2 protein catalyzes efflux of basic amino acids from the lysosome, and the similar Ypq1, −2, and −3 proteins of yeast perform an equivalent function at the vacuole. We here show that the Ypq proteins are delivered to the vacuolar membrane via the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) trafficking pathway, which requires the AP-3 adaptor complex. When traffic via this pathway is deficient, the Ypq proteins pass through endosomes from where Ypq1 and Ypq2 properly reach the vacuolar membrane whereas Ypq3 is missorted to the vacuolar lumen via the multivesicular body pathway. When produced in yeast, PQLC2 also reaches the vacuolar membrane via the ALP pathway, but tends to sort to the vacuolar lumen if AP-3 is defective. Finally, in HeLa cells, inhibiting the synthesis of an AP-3 subunit also impairs sorting of PQLC2 to lysosomes. Our results suggest the existence of a conserved AP-3-dependent trafficking pathway for proper delivery of basic amino acid exporters to the yeast vacuole and to lysosomes of human cells. PMID:26577948

  1. Transport mechanisms of the large neutral amino acid L-phenylalanine in the human intestinal epithelial caco-2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Berger, V; Larondelle, Y; Trouet, A; Schneider, Y J

    2000-11-01

    The transepithelial transport and the intracellular accumulation of the large neutral amino acid L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) were studied in monolayers of Caco-2 cells, cultivated in a bicameral insert system, to characterize the mechanisms involved in the absorption of this essential amino acid by the human intestinal mucosa. In our model, L-Phe was transported selectively in the apical (AP)-to-basolateral (BL) direction. AP-to-BL transport of L-Phe was temperature dependent and Na(+) independent, increased in the absence of protein synthesis and showed competition with large neutral and cationic amino acids. By contrast, transport in the BL-to-AP direction mainly resulted from passive movement (probably paracellular passage and transcellular diffusion). L-Phe accumulation into Caco-2 cells was higher from the BL pole than from the AP pole and characterized by the incorporation of most of the accumulated molecules into newly synthesized proteins. In addition, L-Phe accumulation was Na(+) dependent from both poles, whereas only accumulation from the AP pole was sensitive to inhibition by both large neutral and cationic amino acids. These results suggest that the processes involved in AP-to-BL transport and AP accumulation of this amino acid are very different from those involved in BL-to-AP transport and BL accumulation. PMID:11053521

  2. The combination of Steel factor and GM-CSF blocks apoptosis induced by retinoic acid and upregulates AP-1 in a human growth factor-dependent cell line.

    PubMed

    Horie, M; Broxmeyer, H E

    1995-02-01

    The effects of hematopoietic growth factors were examined on the cellular action of retinoic acid (RA) using the human factor-dependent cell line, MO7e. Treatment of cells with Steel factor (SLF) plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) synergistically stimulated cell proliferation compared to that with each factor alone. This synergism was even greater in the presence of RA than in its absence. Treatment of cells with RA resulted in apoptotic cell death associated with internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the presence of either SLF or GM-CSF. RA-induced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were completely blocked by treating cells with SLF plus GM-CSF. Northern analysis showed that the inhibition of RA effects on MO7e cells by SLF plus GM-CSF treatment occurred without modulation of expression of RA receptor-alpha (RAR-alpha) gene. Furthermore, a higher amount of AP-1 complex was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assays in a nuclear extract prepared from cells treated with SLF plus GM-CSF compared to those treated with each factor alone, while the level of RAR-complex remained similar in cells treated with SLF and/or GM-CSF. These data suggest an interaction in signaling pathways among different types of receptors that might be associated with the AP-1 complex. PMID:7530213

  3. Observation and analysis of self-amplified spontaneous emission at the APS low-energy undulator test line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, N. D.; Attig, J.; Banks, G.; Bechtold, R.; Beczek, K.; Benson, C.; Berg, S.; Berg, W.; Biedron, S. G.; Biggs, J. A.; Borland, M.; Boerste, K.; Bosek, M.; Brzowski, W. R.; Budz, J.; Carwardine, J. A.; Castro, P.; Chae, Y.-C.; Christensen, S.; Clark, C.; Conde, M.; Crosbie, E. A.; Decker, G. A.; Dejus, R. J.; DeLeon, H.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B. N.; Dohan, D.; Dombrowski, P.; Donkers, D.; Doose, C. L.; Dortwegt, R. J.; Edwards, G. A.; Eidelman, Y.; Erdmann, M. J.; Error, J.; Ferry, R.; Flood, R.; Forrestal, J.; Freund, H.; Friedsam, H.; Gagliano, J.; Gai, W.; Galayda, J. N.; Gerig, R.; Gilmore, R. L.; Gluskin, E.; Goeppner, G. A.; Goetzen, J.; Gold, C.; Gorski, A. J.; Grelick, A. E.; Hahne, M. W.; Hanuska, S.; Harkay, K. C.; Harris, G.; Hillman, A. L.; Hogrefe, R.; Hoyt, J.; Huang, Z.; Jagger, J. M.; Jansma, W. G.; Jaski, M.; Jones, S. J.; Keane, R. T.; Kelly, A. L.; Keyser, C.; Kim, K.-J.; Kim, S. H.; Kirshenbaum, M.; Klick, J. H.; Knoerzer, K.; Koldenhoven, R. J.; Knott, M.; Labuda, S.; Laird, R.; Lang, J.; Lenkszus, F.; Lessner, E. S.; Lewellen, J. W.; Li, Y.; Lill, R. M.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Makarov, O. A.; Markovich, G. M.; McDowell, M.; McDowell, W. P.; McNamara, P. E.; Meier, T.; Meyer, D.; Michalek, W.; Milton, S. V.; Moe, H.; Moog, E. R.; Morrison, L.; Nassiri, A.; Noonan, J. R.; Otto, R.; Pace, J.; Pasky, S. J.; Penicka, J. M.; Pietryla, A. F.; Pile, G.; Pitts, C.; Power, J.; Powers, T.; Putnam, C. C.; Puttkammer, A. J.; Reigle, D.; Reigle, L.; Ronzhin, D.; Rotela, E. R.; Russell, E. F.; Sajaev, V.; Sarkar, S.; Scapino, J. C.; Schroeder, K.; Seglem, R. A.; Sereno, N. S.; Sharma, S. K.; Sidarous, J. F.; Singh, O.; Smith, T. L.; Soliday, R.; Sprau, G. A.; Stein, S. J.; Stejskal, B.; Svirtun, V.; Teng, L. C.; Theres, E.; Thompson, K.; Tieman, B. J.; Torres, J. A.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Travish, G.; Trento, G. F.; Vacca, J.; Vasserman, I. B.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Walters, D. R.; Wang, J.; Wang, X. J.; Warren, J.; Wesling, S.; Weyer, D. L.; Wiemerslage, G.; Wilhelmi, K.; Wright, R.; Wyncott, D.; Xu, S.; Yang, B.-X.; Yoder, W.; Zabel, R. B.

    2001-12-01

    Exponential growth of self-amplified spontaneous emission at 530 nm was first experimentally observed at the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line in December 1999. Since then, further detailed measurements and analysis of the results have been made. Here, we present the measurements and compare these with calculations based on measured electron beam properties and theoretical expectations.

  4. The Broad-lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-Ray Burst Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Sanders, N. E.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Pickering, T. E.; Kawabata, K.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Marion, G. H.; Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ≈ 20,000 km s-1 that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v >~ 27,000 km s-1). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ~2.7 M ⊙, a kinetic energy of ~1.0 × 1052 erg, and a 56Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M ⊙. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] λλ6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z >~ Z ⊙, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B - V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  5. The Broad-Lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-Ray Burst Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Sanders, N. E.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 +/- 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v approx. 20,000 km s(exp. -1) that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v approx. greater than 27,000 km s(exp. -1)). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of 2.7 Solar mass, a kinetic energy of 1.0×1052 erg, and a (56)Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 Solar mass. Nebular spectra (t > 200 d) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] lambda lambda 6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN2012ap joins SN2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black-hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable properties including above-average environmental metallicities of Z approx. greater than Solar Z, moderate to high levels of host-galaxy extinction (E(B -V ) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] > 1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  6. THE BROAD-LINED Type Ic SN 2012ap AND THE NATURE OF RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVAE LACKING A GAMMA-RAY BURST DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Sanders, N. E.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Pickering, T. E.; Kawabata, K.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Stritzinger, M. D.; and others

    2015-01-20

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from –13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of –17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ≈ 20,000 km s{sup –1} that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v ≳ 27,000 km s{sup –1}). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ∼2.7 M {sub ☉}, a kinetic energy of ∼1.0 × 10{sup 52} erg, and a {sup 56}Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M {sub ☉}. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] λλ6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z ≳ Z {sub ☉}, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B – V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  7. Establishment and characterization of cetuximab resistant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines: focus on the contribution of the AP-1 transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Boeckx, Carolien; Blockx, Lina; de Beeck, Ken Op; Limame, Ridha; Camp, Guy Van; Peeters, Marc; Vermorken, Jan B; Specenier, Pol; Wouters, An; Baay, Marc; Lardon, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Background: After an initial response to EGFR targeted therapy, secondary resistance almost invariably ensues, thereby limiting the clinical benefit of the drug. Hence, it has been recognized that the successful implementation of targeted therapy in the treatment of HNSCC cancer is very much dependent on predictive biomarkers for patient selection. Methods: We generated an in vitro model of acquired cetuximab resistance by chronically exposing three HNSCC cell lines to increasing cetuximab doses. Gene expression profiles of sensitive parental cells and resistant daughter cells were compared using microarray analysis. Growth inhibitory experiments were performed with an HB-EGF antibody and the MMP inhibitor, both in combination with cetuximab. Characteristics of EMT were analyzed using migration and invasion assays, immunofluorescent vimentin staining and qRT-PCR for several genes involved in this process. The function of the transcription factor AP-1 was investigated using qRT-PCR for several genes upregulated or downregulated in cetuximab resistant cells. Furthermore, anchorage-independent growth was investigated using the soft agar assay. Results: Gene expression profiling shows that cetuximab resistant cells upregulate several genes, including interleukin 8, the EGFR ligand HB-EGF and the metalloproteinase ADAM19. Cytotoxicity experiments with neutralizing HB-EGF antibody could not induce any growth inhibition, whereas an MMP inhibitor inhibited cell growth in cetuximab resistant cells. However, no synergetic effects combined with cetuximab could be observed. Cetuximab resistant cells showed traits of EMT, as witnessed by increased migratory potential, increased invasive potential, increased vimentine expression and increased expression of several genes involved in EMT. Furthermore, expression of upregulated genes could be repressed by the treatment with apigenin. The cetuximab resistant LICR-HN2 R10.3 cells tend to behave differently in cell culture, forming spheres. Therefore, soft agar assay was performed and showed more and larger colonies when challenged with cetuximab compared to PBS challenged cells. Conclusions: In summary, our results indicate that increased expression of the ligand HB-EGF could contribute to resistance towards cetuximab in our cetuximab resistant HNSCC cells. Furthermore, several genes upregulated or downregulated in cetuximab resistant cells are under control of the AP-1 transcription factor. However, more studies are warranted to further unravel the role of AP-1 in cetuximab resistance. PMID:26269754

  8. Thyroid hormone transport in a human glioma cell line.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, E; Lakshmanan, M; Pontecorvi, A; Robbins, J

    1990-03-01

    The uptake of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) was studied in human glioma cells (Hs 683) and compared with that in several other neural cell lines. At 25 degrees C or 37 degrees C, total cell uptake rose rapidly and reached equilibrium within 60 min. The glioma cells had the highest uptake: 47.6 fmol of L-T3 and 43.4 fmol of L-T4 per 10(6) cells at 37 degrees C. These were inhibited 77% and 72%, respectively, by excess unlabeled hormone. Uptake in the nuclei reached equilibrium between 90 and 120 min and was also highest in glioma cells: 1.46 fmol of L-T3 and 0.49 fmol of L-T4 per 10(6) cells. When expressed as percent of total cell uptake, however, glioma cells had the lowest values (3.1% for L-T3 and 1.1% for L-T4). Also in contrast to other cell lines, glioma cells transported L-T4 almost as effectively as L-T3. D-T3 and D-T4 total cell uptake was 86% and 96% lower than that of the respective L-isomers, and the nuclear uptake as a fraction of the cell uptake was similar. Kinetic analysis of the initial rate of cell uptake gave Vmax values for D-T3 and D-T4 that were 97% and 98% lower than for the L-isomers. Antimycin and monodansylcadaverine decreased the Vmax as well as the equilibrium cell and nuclear uptake of the L-isomers. The apparent nuclear affinity constant for L-T4 in intact cells was inhibited 90% in the presence of antimycin, whereas no effect was observed in isolated nuclei.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2328825

  9. Targeting mitochondrial citrate transport in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ali Burak; Ak, Handan; Atay, Sevcan; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Lipogenesis is considered to be a very important aspect of cancer metabolism and targeting de novo lipid synthesis or related pathways are among novel approaches to treat cancer. Many targets of the pathway including ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase have been evaluated for their potential in cancer treatment. However the role of citrate transport protein (CTP), another important component of lipogenesis pathway, is not well known for cancer metabolism and cell survival. Here we report that while chemical inhibition of CTP reduces cytoplasmic citrate levels and limits breast cancer cell viability effectively, siRNA based inhibition had little effect on both. We also compared the effects of CTP inhibition with ACLY and found that the inhibition of ACLY reduced cytoplasmic citrate levels and limited cell viability more effectively than CTP inhibition. Finally we have demonstrated that neither cell cycle arrest nor autophagy was induced in cells treated with CTP or ACLY siRNA. Inhibitions triggered apoptosis but only slightly. Growth inhibitory effects do not occur in normal mammary epithelial MCF-10A cell line. PMID:25511512

  10. Erratum: ``A Grid of Non-LTE Line-blanketed Model Atmospheres of O-Type Stars'' (ApJS, 146, 417 [2003])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, Thierry; Hubeny, Ivan

    2003-07-01

    We have constructed a comprehensive grid of 680 metal line-blanketed, non-LTE, plane-parallel, hydrostatic model atmospheres for the basic parameters appropriate to O-type stars. The OSTAR2002 grid considers 12 values of effective temperatures, 27,500K<=Teff<=55,000 K with 2500 K steps, eight surface gravities, 3.0<=logg<=4.75 with 0.25 dex steps, and 10 chemical compositions, from metal-rich relative to the Sun to metal-free. The lower limit of logg for a given effective temperature is set by an approximate location of the Eddington limit. The selected chemical compositions have been chosen to cover a number of typical environments of massive stars: the Galactic center, the Magellanic Clouds, blue compact dwarf galaxies like I Zw 18, and galaxies at high redshifts. The paper contains a description of the OSTAR2002 grid and some illustrative examples and comparisons. The complete OSTAR2002 grid is available at our Web site at ApJS, 146, 417 [2003]. Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 681, Greenbelt, MD 20771.

  11. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice and request for comments....

  12. Effects of Escherichia coli Challenge and Transport Stress on Hematology and Serum Chemistry Values of Three Genetic Lines of Turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Males and females from 3 genetic lines of turkeys were compared for their response to an Escherichia coli airsac challenge followed by transport stress (Transport). The turkey lines were a slow growing line selected for increased egg production (Egg line), a fast growing line selected for increased...

  13. Studies of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam in a solenoid based beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

    2012-11-15

    A self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to study the transport properties of a space-charge-dominated multispecies beam propagating through a solenoid-based low energy beam transport line. The evolution of the beam radius and emittance growth of each species arising due to the nonlinear space-charge forces has been investigated. The self-consistent PIC simulation shows the formation of hollow density profiles of subdominant unwanted species around the primary beam, downstream of the transport line. We have utilized this effect for efficient removal of unwanted species by making use of a slit at a suitable location in the beam line.

  14. 8 CFR 233.2 - Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LINES § 233.2 Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous territory or adjacent islands. Form I-420 shall be signed in duplicate and forwarded to the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation lines bringing aliens to...

  15. 8 CFR 233.2 - Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LINES § 233.2 Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous territory or adjacent islands. Form I-420 shall be signed in duplicate and forwarded to the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation lines bringing aliens to...

  16. 8 CFR 233.2 - Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LINES § 233.2 Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous territory or adjacent islands. Form I-420 shall be signed in duplicate and forwarded to the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transportation lines bringing aliens to...

  17. 8 CFR 233.2 - Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LINES § 233.2 Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous territory or adjacent islands. Form I-420 shall be signed in duplicate and forwarded to the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transportation lines bringing aliens to...

  18. 8 CFR 233.2 - Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LINES § 233.2 Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous territory or adjacent islands. Form I-420 shall be signed in duplicate and forwarded to the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation lines bringing aliens to...

  19. APS Science 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-30

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

  20. The Mechanical Design for the DARHT-II Downstream Beam Transport Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westenskow, Glen

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-msec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The down-stream beam transport line is approximately 20-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 15 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several speciality magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and to the beam dumps. There are two high power beam dumps, which are designed to absorb 80-kJ per pulse during accelerator start-up and operation. Aspects of the mechanical design of these elements are presented.

  1. Spin- and valley-polarized transport across line defects in monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkin, Artem; Yazyev, Oleg V.

    2016-01-01

    We address the ballistic transmission of charge carriers across ordered line defects in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides. Our study reveals the presence of a transport gap driven by spin-orbit interactions, spin and valley filtering, both stemming from a simple picture of spin and momentum conservation, as well as the electron-hole asymmetry of charge-carrier transmission. Electronic transport properties of experimentally observed ordered line defects in monolayer MoS2, in particular, the vacancy lines and inversion domain boundaries, are further investigated using first-principles Green's function methodology. Our calculations demonstrate the possibility of achieving nearly complete spin polarization of charge carriers in nanoelectronic devices based on engineered periodic line defects in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, thus suggesting a practical scheme for all-electric control of spin transport.

  2. Design of post linac to driver linac transport beam line in rare isotope accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the design of a beam transport line connecting the post linac to the driver linac (P2DT) in the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RAON). P2DT beam line is designed by 180° bending scheme to send the radioactive isotope separation on-line (ISOL) beams accelerated in the Linac-3 to Linac-2. The beam line is designed as a 180° bend for the transport of a multi-charge state 132Sn+45,+46,+47 beam. We used the TRACE 3-D, TRACK, and ORBIT codes to design the optics system, which also includes two bunchers and ten sextupole magnets for chromaticity compensation. The transverse emittance growth is minimized by adopting mirror symmetric optics and by correcting second-order aberrations using sextupoles. We report on the multi-charge state beam transport performance of the designed beam line. The main characteristics of the P2DT line are to minimize beam loss and the growth of emittance, and for charge stripping. Beam optics for P2DT is optimized for reducing beam loss and charge stripping. As Linac-3 may accelerate the stable beam and radioactive beam simultaneously, P2DT line also transports the stable beam and radioactive beam simultaneously. Thus, we need a RF switchyard to send the stable beam to the ISOL target and the radioactive beam to the high-energy experimental area in Linac-2 end.

  3. Automatic tuning of the LBL SuperHILAC third-injector transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Pines, H.

    1983-03-01

    Testing of a new automatic tuning procedure in an LBL SuperHILAC beam transport line has been conducted with the third injector microcomputer control system. This technique is an advance over the sequential station-by-station automatic tuning method developed for the Bevalac transfer line. The computer now performs steering/focusing adjustments simultaneously on a number of quadrupole and dipole magnets comprising multiple-station sections of the injection line. New magnet currents are computed from equations governing beam optics in a real-time simulation of the beam line. The key to this emittance utilizing the same control magnets and beam profile monitors used for manual tuning of the line. This emittance calculation requires high resolution beam profile measurements using multi-wire profile monitors recently installed in the third injector line.

  4. The t(10;11)(p13;q14) in the U937 cell line results in the fusion of the AF10 gene and CALM, encoding a new member of the AP-3 clathrin assembly protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Dreyling, M H; Martinez-Climent, J A; Zheng, M; Mao, J; Rowley, J D; Bohlander, S K

    1996-01-01

    The translocation t(10;11)(p13;q14) is a recurring chromosomal abnormality that has been observed in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia as well as acute myeloid leukemia. We have recently reported that the monocytic cell line U937 has a t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation. Using a combination of positional cloning and candidate gene approach, we cloned the breakpoint and were able to show that AF10 is fused to a novel gene that we named CALM (Clathrin Assembly Lymphoid Myeloid leukemia gene) located at 11q14. AF10, a putative transcription factor, had recently been cloned as one of the fusion partners of MLL. CALM has a very high homology in its N-terminal third to the murine ap-3 gene which is one of the clathrin assembly proteins. The N-terminal region of ap-3 has been shown to bind to clathrin and to have a high-affinity binding site for phosphoinositols. The identification of the CALM/AF10 fusion gene in the widely used U937 cell line will contribute to our understanding of the malignant phenotype of this line. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8643484

  5. On-line coupling of volcanic ash and aerosols transport with multiscale meteorological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Alejandro; Folch, Arnau; Jorba, Oriol

    2014-05-01

    Large explosive volcanic eruptions can inject significant amounts of tephra and aerosols (e.g. SO2) into the atmosphere inducing a multi-scale array of physical, chemical and biological feedbacks within the environment. Effective coupled Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models capable to forecast on-line the spatial and temporal distribution of volcanic ash and aerosols are necessary to assess the magnitude of these feedback effects. However, due to several limitations (users from different communities, operational constrains, computational power, etc.), tephra transport models and NWP models have evolved independently. Within the framework of NEMOH(an Initial Training Network of the European Commission FP7 Program), we aim to quantify the feedback effects of volcanic ash clouds and aerosols emitted during large-magnitude eruptions on regional meteorology. As a first step, we have focused on the differences between the off-line hypothesis, currently assumed by tephra transport models (e.g. FALL3D), and the on-line approach, where transport and sedimentation of volcanic ash is coupled on-line to the NMMB (Non-hydrostatic Multiscale Meteorological model on a B grid) meteorological model; the evolution of the WRF-NMME meteorological model. We compared the spatiotemporal transport of volcanic ash particles simulated with the on-line coupled FALL3D-NMMB/BSC-CTM model with those from the off-line FALL3D model, by using the 2011 Cordón-Caulle eruption as a test-case and validating results against satellite data. Additionally, this presentation introduces the forthcoming steps to implement a sulfate aerosol module within the chemical transport module of the FALL3D-NMMB/BSC-CTM model, in order to quantify the feedback effects on the atmospheric radiative budget, particularly during large-magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions. Keywords: volcanic ash, SO2, FALL3D, NMMB, meteorology, on-line coupling, NEMOH.

  6. THE BOOSTER APPLICATION FACILITY (BAF) BEAM TRANSPORT LINE OF BNL-AGS BOOSTER.

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS,N.; BROWN,K.A.; CULLEN,J.R.; LEE,Y.Y.; MCNERNEY,A.J.; PILE,P.H.; ROSER,T.; SOUKAS,A.; TUOZZOLO,J.E.

    1999-03-29

    An experimental facility, to irradiate materials with energetic ion beams, has been proposed to be built at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The BAF facility will mainly consist of the AGS-Booster slow extraction, of a beam transport line, and a target room. The beam transport line will transport the slow extracted beam of the AGS-Booster to the target location for the irradiation of various materials and specimens. A variety of ion beams like (p, {sup 28}Si, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 197}Au) in the energy range of 0.04 to 3.07 GeV/nucleon will be transported by the BAF line which is designed to provide variable beam spot sizes on the BAF target with sizes varying from 2.0 cm to 20.0 cm in diameter. The beam spot sizes will include 95% of the beam intensity with the beam distributed normally (Gaussian) on the target area. It is also possible by introducing magnetic octupoles at specified locations along the beam transport line, to modify the distribution on the BAF target and provide well confined beams with rectangular cross section and with uniform distribution on the target.

  7. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II¹

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M. A.

    2011-10-06

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. With Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  8. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M. A.

    2011-10-06

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. With Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  9. Sintering boat transport system for the SAF line. [Secure Automated Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Egli, W.; Bogart, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line will be a remotely operated process for the manufacture of breeder reactor fuel pins. The sintering boat transport system will service the pellet operations. Since the Boat Transport System will be the major link between several subsystem operations, reliability and ease of maintenance are prime requirements for the design. A prototypic version of the Boat Transport System was designed, built and tested to verify the operability of the selected approach. Extensive testing provided valuable input to the final design and substantiated the soundness of the concept.

  10. Choline transport via choline transporter-like protein 1 in conditionally immortalized rat syncytiotrophoblast cell lines TR-TBT.

    PubMed

    Lee, N-Y; Choi, H-M; Kang, Y-S

    2009-04-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for phospholipids and acetylcholine biosynthesis in normal development of fetus. In the present study, we investigated the functional characteristics of choline transport system and inhibitory effect of cationic drugs on choline transport in rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT). Choline transport was weakly Na(+) dependent and significantly influenced by extracellular pH and by membrane depolarization. The transport process of choline is saturable with Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m)) of 68microM and 130microM in TR-TBT 18d-1 and TR-TBT 18d-2 respectively. Choline uptake in the cells was inhibited by unlabeled choline and hemicholinium-3 as well as various organic cations including guanidine, amiloride and acetylcholine. However, the prototypical organic cation tetraethylammonium and cimetidine showed very little inhibitory effect of choline uptake in TR-TBT cells. RT-PCR revealed that choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) are expressed in TR-TBT cells. The transport properties of choline in TR-TBT cells were similar or identical to that of CTL1 but not OCT2. CTL1 was also detected in human placenta. In addition, several cationic drugs such as diphenhydramine and verapamil competitively inhibited choline uptake in TR-TBT 18d-1 with K(i) of 115microM and 55microM, respectively. Our results suggest that choline transport system, which has intermediate affinity and weakly Na(+) dependent, in TR-TBT seems to occur through a CTL1 and this system may have relevance with the uptake of pharmacologically important organic cation drugs. PMID:19246089

  11. Differential sensitivities to lactate transport inhibitors of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Morais-Santos, Filipa; Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Pinheiro, Sílvia; Vieira, André F; Paredes, Joana; Schmitt, Fernando C; Baltazar, Fátima; Pinheiro, Céline

    2014-02-01

    The tumour microenvironment is known to be acidic due to high glycolytic rates of tumour cells. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) play a role in extracellular acidification, which is widely known to be involved in tumour progression. Recently, we have described the upregulation of MCT1 in breast carcinomas and its association with poor prognostic variables. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of lactate transport inhibition in human breast cancer cell lines. The effects of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, quercetin and lonidamine on cell viability, metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were assessed in a panel of different breast cancer cell lines. MCT1, MCT4 and CD147 were differently expressed among the breast cancer cell lines and, as expected, different sensitivities were observed for the three inhibitors. Interestingly, in the most sensitive cell lines, lactate transport inhibition induced a decrease in cell proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as an increase in cell death. Results were validated by silencing MCT1 expression using siRNA. The results obtained here support targeting of lactate transport as a strategy to treat breast cancer, with a special emphasis on the basal-like subtype, which so far does not have a specific molecular therapy. PMID:24174370

  12. RISK ASSESSMENT ANALYSES USING EPA'S ON-LINE SITE-SPECIFIC TRANSPORT MODELS AND FIELD DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators and transport models to aid in risk assessment for subsurface contamination. The calculators (www.epa.gov/athens/onsite) provide several levels of tools and data. These include tools for generating commonly-used model input param...

  13. 8 CFR 241.24 - Notice to transportation line of alien's exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice to transportation line of alien's exclusion. 241.24 Section 241.24 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for...

  14. 8 CFR 241.9 - Notice to transportation line of alien's removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice to transportation line of alien's removal. 241.9 Section 241.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  15. Focused transport of energetic particles along magnetic field lines draped around a coronal mass ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Lee, M. A.; Klecker, B.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Evidence is presented for focused transport of energetic particles along magnetic field lines draped around a coronal mass ejection. This evidence was obtained with the University of Maryland/Max-Planck-Institute experiment on the ISEE-3 spacecraft during the decay phase of the June 6, 1979, solar particle event. During the early portion of the decay phase of this event, interplanetary magnetic field lines were apparently draped around a coronal mass ejection, leading to a small focusing length on the western flank where ISEE 3 was located. A period of very slow decrease of particle intensity was observed, along with large sunward anisotropy in the solar wind frame, which is inconsistent with predictions of the standard Fokker-Planck equation models for diffusive transport. It was found possible to fit the observations, assuming that focused transport dominates and that the particle pitch angle scattering is isotropic.

  16. Operation of the APS rf gun.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1998-09-11

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has a thermionic-cathode rf gun system capable of providing beam to the APS linac. The gun system consists of a 1.6-cell thermionic-cathode rf gun, a fast kicker for beam current control, and an alpha magnet for bunch compression and injection into the APS linac line. This system is intended for use both as an injector for positron creation, and as a first beam source for the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) project [1]. The first measured performance characteristics of the gun are presented.

  17. Transport and dosimetric solutions for the ELIMED laser-driven beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amato, A.; Candiano, G.; Cuttone, G.; Giove, D.; Korn, G.; Krasa, J.; Leanza, R.; Manna, R.; Maggiore, M.; Marchese, V.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Sabini, M. G.; Schillaci, F.; Tramontana, A.; Valastro, L.; Velyhan, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within 2017, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) transport beam-line and dosimetric systems for laser-generated beams will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), inside the ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser-Ion Acceleration) interaction room. The beam-line will be composed of two sections: one in vacuum, devoted to the collecting, focusing and energy selection of the primary beam and the second in air, where the ELIMED beam-line dosimetric devices will be located. This paper briefly describes the transport solutions that will be adopted together with the main dosimetric approaches. In particular, the description of an innovative Faraday Cup detector with its preliminary experimental tests will be reported.

  18. Transport characteristics of zolmitriptan in a human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lushan; Zeng, Su

    2007-05-01

    The intestinal absorption characteristics and the efflux mechanisms of zolmitriptan, a new generation and highly selective 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist used in the acute oral treatment of migraine, were investigated. A human intestinal cell line, Caco-2, was used as an in-vitro model of the intestinal mucosa to assess transepithelial transport of zolmitriptan. In the Caco-2 cells, the absorptive transport of zolmitriptan was pH dependent and the transport was enhanced at weakly alkali pH on the apical side. No concentration dependence and saturation were observed for the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical transport of zolmitriptan at a concentration of 0.1-10 mM. The permeability ratio value was about 1.5-2.6 at a concentration of 0.1-2.0 mM. Inhibition experiments using verapamil, nifedipine and nimodipine as inhibitors were studied and indicated that P-glycoprotein participated in the transport of zolmitriptan. Inhibition of the Na+-H+ exchanger with amiloride resulted in a significant increase in absorption and a slight inhibition in secretion. This suggests that the Na+-H+ exchanger may be involved in the transport of zolmitriptan. The results indicated that the transport of zolmitriptan was mediated by both passive diffusion and active transport. A series of drug-drug interaction experiments were carried out between zolmitriptan and some drugs that may be co-administrated with zolmitriptan in the clinic. The results indicated that flunarizine, cetirizine, propranolol and atenolol potently decreased both the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical transport rate of zolmitriptan. Cimetidine and aspirin slightly inhibited the apical-to-basolateral transport of zolmitriptan, but significantly decreased the basolateral-to-apical transport of zolmitriptan. Thus, the absorption drug-drug interactions should be considered when these drugs are co-administrated with zolmitriptan in the clinic. PMID:17524230

  19. Linings with optimum heat-emission surfaces for cars receiving and transporting incandescent coke

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlyar, B.D.; Pleshkov, P.I.; Gadyatskii, V.G.

    1992-12-31

    The least reliable components of the cars which receive and transport incandescent coke are the lining plates. This applies to both the quenching cars used for wet quenching and the hot-coke cars used in the dry cooling process. Technical advances have been described whereby the life of car linings is prolonged by increasing heat emission from the lining plate surfaces. As the heat emission level is enhanced the mean plate temperature is lowered and the lining life thereby prolonged; moreover, the between-servicings period is prolonged. This involves providing fins on the non-working (outer) plate surfaces. The problem of optimizing the size and shape of the fins with reference to heat emission remains unsolved: the requirement is maximum heat emission from plates of a given weight, or conversely minimum plate weight for a given heat emission level. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  20. The mechanical design for the second axis beam transport line for the DARHT facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolini, L R; Alford, O J; Paul, A C; Shang, C C; Westenkow, G A

    1999-03-23

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) facility. The DARHT II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL, and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-µsec pulse length linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The downstream beam transport line is an 18-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 17 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several specialty magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and beam dumps. There is a high power beam dump, which is designed to absorb the 80-kJ of beam energy during accelerator start-up and operation. The beamline vacuum chamber has an 8-cm diameter aperture and operates at an average pressure of 10-7 Torr.

  1. Experience with the NEG (nonevaporable getter) strips at the Brookhaven heavy ion transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H.C.; Benjamin, J.; Stattel, P.; Feigenbaum, I.; Manni, M.

    1988-01-01

    The AGS and the Tandem Van de Graaff, two valuable physics assets, are now jointed together by a transport line of 700 m in length. This line allows heavy ions from the Tandem, up to a fully striped silicon (M = 28) to be injected into the AGS and accelerated to energies of approximately 15 GeVamu. New areas of physics research at very high nuclear densities can now be studied using some of the extensive experimental facilities already existing at the AGS. With the addition of a booster synchrotron between the Tandem and the AGS, all heavier ions up to gold can also be accelerated. To minimize the beam loss due to charge exchange between the partially stripped heaviest ions (i.e. Au + 33 at 1 MeVamu) and the residual gas molecules, a vacuum of 10 /sup /minus/8/ Torr is required for this transport line. To achieve this vacuum, we have opted to use the combination of small ion pumps (20 1s diode type) and simple geometry was implemented which offers low cost (<$200m), easy installation and maintenance. Pressures of 10 /sup /minus/10/ and low 10 /sup /minus/9/ Torr have been maintained over the last two years following the initial activation. This paper describes the NEG strip system, and the experience obtained during the installation and the operation of this 700m heavy ion transport line (HITL).

  2. A Central Role for JNK/AP-1 Pathway in the Pro-Oxidant Effect of Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate through Superoxide Dismutase 1 Gene Repression and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hematopoietic Human Cancer Cell Line U937

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Pascal; Lomri, Abderrahim

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) known as antioxidant and specific inhibitor of NF-κB was also described as pro-oxidant by inducing cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in cancer. However, the mechanism by which PDTC indices its pro-oxidant effect is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of PDTC on the human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene transcription in hematopoietic human cancer cell line U937. We herein show for the first time that PDTC decreases SOD1 transcripts, protein and promoter activity. Furthermore, SOD1 repression by PDTC was associated with an increase in oxidative stress as evidenced by ROS production. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (EMSA) show that PDTC increased binding of activating protein-1 (AP-1) in dose dependent-manner suggesting that the MAPkinase up-stream of AP-1 is involved. Ectopic NF-κB p65 subunit overexpression had no effect on SOD1 transcription. In contrast, in the presence of JNK inhibitor (SP600125), p65 induced a marked increase of SOD1 promoter, suggesting that JNK pathway is up-stream of NF-κB signaling and controls negatively its activity. Indeed, using JNK deficient cells, PDTC effect was not observed nether on SOD1 transcription or enzymatic activity, nor on ROS production. Finally, PDTC represses SOD1 in U937 cells through JNK/c-Jun phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that PDTC acts as pro-oxidant compound in JNK/AP-1 dependent-manner by repressing the superoxide dismutase 1 gene leading to intracellular ROS accumulation. PMID:25996379

  3. Detailed Vibrational-Chemical Kinetics and Transport Properties in a Non-Equilibrium Stagnation Line Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsini, A.; Rini, P.; Taviani, V.; Fletcher, D.; Kustova, E. V.; Nagnibeda, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    A self-consistent model of fluid dynamics and non-equilibrium vibrational-chemical kinetics in a high temperature viscous N2/N mixture flow along the stagnation line is proposed. The model takes into account detailed state-to-state kinetics and state dependent transport phenomena; the state-to-state kinetic and transport terms are properly coupled to fluid dynamics equations. The sensitivity of the macroscopic flow parameters and heat transfer to the accuracy of fluid dynamics equations, to the scheme of chemical reactions and vibrational transitions, and to the rates of non-equilibrium processes is evaluated.

  4. Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheng-wu; Qi, Rui; Li, Xiao-fang; Liu, Zhi-xiong

    2014-10-25

    Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum. PMID:25149019

  5. Transport line for a multi-staged laser-plasma acceleration: DACTOMUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chancé, Antoine; Delferrière, Olivier; Schwindling, Jérôme; Bruni, Christelle; Delerue, Nicolas; Specka, Arnd; Cros, Brgitte; Maynard, Gillies; Paradkar, Bhooshan S.; Mora, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Laser-plasma acceleration is one of the most promising techniques to reach very high acceleration gradients up to a few hundreds of GeV/m. In order to push this acceleration scheme in the domain of the very high energies, the CILEX project was launched with the laser APOLLON. One of the main topics of this project is to study multi-staged acceleration. It consists in generating and pre-accelerating electrons in a first laser-plasma stage, to transport them up to a second stage where the electrons are accelerated again thanks to another laser pulse. The DACTOMUS project, based on a collaboration CEA-IRFU, CEA-IRAMIS, LAL, LPGP, LULI and LLR, aims at the study and realization of such a transfer line between these two stages. Firstly, a prototype will be developed and tested by the groups of CEA-IRAMIS-SPAM, LPGP, and LULI on the UHI100 facility (CEA-SPAM). This collaboration must enable to realize the first acceleration stage. For the transport line prototype, the main difficulties are to realize a very compact and energy accepting line with diagnostics to characterize the electron beam. We will present here the optics of this line, its performances and the inserted diagnostics.

  6. Fluorescence-Based Transport Assays Revisited in a Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Caetano-Pinto, Pedro; Janssen, Manoe J; Gijzen, Linda; Verscheijden, Laurens; Wilmer, Martijn J G; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2016-03-01

    Apical transport is key in renal function, and the activity of efflux transporters and receptor-mediated endocytosis is pivotal in this process. The conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line (ciPTEC) endogenously expresses these systems. Here, we used ciPTEC to investigate the activity of three major efflux transporters, viz., breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as well as protein uptake through receptor-mediated endocytosis, using a fluorescence-based setup for transport assays. To this end, cells were exposed to Hoechst33342, chloromethylfluorescein-diacetate (CMFDA), and calcein-AM in the presence or absence of model inhibitors for BCRP (KO143), P-gp (PSC833), or MRPs (MK571). Overexpression cell lines MDCKII-BCRP and MDCKII-P-gp were used as positive controls, and membrane vesicles overexpressing one transporter were used to determine substrate and inhibitor specificities. Receptor-mediated endocytosis was investigated by determining the intracellular accumulation of fluorescently labeled receptor-associated protein (RAP-GST). In ciPTEC, BCRP and P-gp showed similar expressions and activities, whereas MRP4 was more abundantly expressed. Hoechst33342, GS-MF, and calcein are retained in the presence of KO143, MK571, and PSC833, showing clearly redundancy between the transporters. Noteworthy is the fact that both KO143 and MK571 can block BCRP, P-gp, and MRPs, whereas PSC833 appears to be a potent inhibitor for BCRP and P-gp but not the MRPs. Furthermore, ciPTEC accumulates RAP-GST in intracellular vesicles in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was reduced in megalin-deficient cells. In conclusion, fluorescent-probe-based assays are fast and reproducible in determining apical transport mechanisms, in vitro. We demonstrate that typical substrates and inhibitors are not specific for the designated transporters, reflecting the complex interactions that can take place in vivo. The set of tools we describe are also compatible with innovative kidney culture models and allows studying transport mechanisms that are central to drug absorption, disposition, and detoxification. PMID:26871298

  7. Organelle transport in cultured Drosophila cells: S2 cell line and primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Del Castillo, Urko; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila S2 cells plated on a coverslip in the presence of any actin-depolymerizing drug form long unbranched processes filled with uniformly polarized microtubules. Organelles move along these processes by microtubule motors. Easy maintenance, high sensitivity to RNAi-mediated protein knock-down and efficient procedure for creating stable cell lines make Drosophila S2 cells an ideal model system to study cargo transport by live imaging. The results obtained with S2 cells can be further applied to a more physiologically relevant system: axonal transport in primary neurons cultured from dissociated Drosophila embryos. Cultured neurons grow long neurites filled with bundled microtubules, very similar to S2 processes. Like in S2 cells, organelles in cultured neurons can be visualized by either organelle-specific fluorescent dyes or by using fluorescent organelle markers encoded by DNA injected into early embryos or expressed in transgenic flies. Therefore, organelle transport can be easily recorded in neurons cultured on glass coverslips using living imaging. Here we describe procedures for culturing and visualizing cargo transport in Drosophila S2 cells and primary neurons. We believe that these protocols make both systems accessible for labs studying cargo transport. PMID:24300413

  8. Generic effluent monitoring system certification for AP-40 exhauster stack

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Davis, W.E.; Bussell, J.H.; Maughan, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as applied to the AP-40 exhauster stack, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/AP-40 system meets all applicable performance criteria. The contaminant mixing tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at the wind tunnel facility, 331-H Building, using a mockup of the actual stack. The particle sample transport tests were conducted by PNNL at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The AP-40 stack is typical of several 10-in. diameter stacks that discharge the filtered ventilation air from tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles. Unrelated to the performance criteria, it was found that the record sample filter holder exhibited symptoms of sample bypass around the particle collection filter. This filter holder should either be modified or replaced with a different type. 10 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Mitochondrial and plasma membrane lactate transporter and lactate dehydrogenase isoform expression in breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Hussien, Rajaa

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that dysregulation of lactate/pyruvate (monocarboxylate) transporters (MCT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoforms contribute to the Warburg effect in cancer. Therefore, we assayed for the expression levels and the localizations of MCT (1, 2, and 4), and LDH (A and B) isoforms in breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and compared results with those from a control, untransformed primary breast cell line, HMEC 184. Remarkably, MCT1 is not expressed in MDA-MB-231, but MCT1 is expressed in MCF-7 cells, where its abundance is less than in control HMEC 184 cells. When present in HMEC 184 and MCF-7 cells, MCT1 is localized to the plasma membrane. MCT2 and MCT4 were expressed in all the cell lines studied. MCT4 expression was higher in MDA-MB-231 compared with MCF-7 and HMEC 184 cells, whereas MCT2 abundance was higher in MCF-7 compared with MDA-MB-231 and HMEC 184 cells. Unlike MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 were localized in mitochondria in addition to the plasma membrane. LDHA and LDHB were expressed in all the cell-lines, but abundances were higher in the two cancer cell lines than in the control cells. MCF-7 cells expressed mainly LDHB, while MDA-MB-231 and control cells expressed mainly LDHA. LDH isoforms were localized in mitochondria in addition to the cytosol. These localization patterns were the same in cancerous and control cell lines. In conclusion, MCT and LDH isoforms have distinct expression patterns in two breast cancer cell lines. These differences may contribute to divergent lactate dynamics and oxidative capacities in these cells, and offer possibilities for targeting cancer cells. PMID:21177384

  10. The experimental chemotherapeutic N6-furfuryladenosine (kinetin-riboside) induces rapid ATP depletion, genotoxic stress, and CDKN1A(p21) upregulation in human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Christopher M; Bair, Warner B; Ley, Stephanie; Lamore, Sarah D; Azimian, Sara; Wondrak, Georg T

    2009-04-01

    Cytokinins and cytokinin nucleosides are purine derivatives with potential anticancer activity. N(6)-furfuryladenosine (FAdo, kinetin-riboside) displays anti-proliferative and apoptogenic activity against various human cancer cell lines, and FAdo has recently been shown to suppress tumor growth in murine xenograft models of human leukemia and melanoma. In this study, FAdo-induced genotoxicity, stress response gene expression, and cellular ATP depletion were examined as early molecular consequences of FAdo exposure in MiaPaCa-2 pancreas carcinoma, A375 melanoma, and other human cancer cell lines. FAdo, but not adenosine or N(6)-furfuryladenine (FA), displayed potent anti-proliferative activity that was also observed in human primary fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Remarkably, massive ATP depletion and induction of genotoxic stress as assessed by the alkaline comet assay occurred within 60-180min of exposure to low micromolar concentrations of FAdo. This was followed by rapid upregulation of CDKN1A and other DNA damage/stress response genes (HMOX1, DDIT3, and GADD45A) as revealed by expression array and Western analysis. Pharmacological and siRNA-based genetic inhibition of adenosine kinase (ADK) suppressed FAdo cytotoxicity and also prevented ATP depletion and p21 upregulation suggesting the importance of bioconversion of FAdo into the nucleotide form required for drug action. Taken together our data suggest that early induction of genotoxicity and energy crisis are important causative factors involved in FAdo cytotoxicity. PMID:19186174

  11. AP-Gate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    In May 2001, students in the author's Advanced Placement (AP) United States History class were embroiled in a controversy surrounding the AP exam, in particular, having access to the exam's Document Based Question (DBQ) and free response portion prior to the test's administration. Prior to the exam, the College Board had provided a fifty-year time…

  12. Overexpression of the ABC transporter TAP in multidrug-resistant human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, M. A.; Neefjes, J. J.; Mathari, A. E.; Flens, M. J.; Scheffer, G. L.; Scheper, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to anti-cancer drugs has been associated with the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), both being members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. We investigated whether in addition to P-gp and MRP, another ABC transporter, the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), is associated with MDR. TAP plays a major role in MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation by mediating peptide translocation over the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. TAP1 and P-gp share a significant degree of homology among their transmembrane domains, which are thought to be the primary determinants of substrate specificity, and both can apparently mediate the translocation of peptides. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blot, TAP was overexpressed in parallel with MHC class I in several MDR human cancer cell lines. TAP was overexpressed more frequently in MRP-positive MDR cell lines (three out of three) than in P-gp positive MDR cells (two out of five). Reversal of resistance resulted in a decrease in TAP levels. Transfection of the TAP genes into TAP-deficient lymphoblastoid T2 cells conferred mild resistance to etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin (2- to 2.5-fold). Furthermore, etoposide and vincristine inhibited TAP-dependent peptide translocation to the endoplasmic reticulum. Collectively, our results suggest that TAP may modestly contribute to the MDR phenotype, in particular in MRP- overexpressing MDR cells. Further insight into the role of TAP in MDR will require the study of other transfectants, as well as the investigation of TAP expression in P-gp and MRP-negative MDR cancer cell lines. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8980397

  13. A new optical design for the BNL isotope production transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Raparia, D.; Mapes, M.; Tsoupas, N.

    1996-10-01

    The 200 MeV linac at BNL has recently been upgraded. As a result, 2.5 times more average beam current can be delivered to the Brookhaven Isotope Resource Center (BIRC), formerly called BLIP, a facility which produces radionuclides and radiopharmaceutical for the medical community, and also supports a research program seeking more effective diagnostic and therapeutic agents. The optics of the beam transport line to BIRC was redesigned to (a) reduce transverse fluctuations of the beam at the target due to any linac energy fluctuations, (b) produce a flat beam distribution at the target, in order to avoid melting certain target materials, and (c) handle the higher beam intensity while keeping radiation levels low. A profile monitor was also modified to monitor the flatness of the beam using the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). The above improvements will be described, and results of the commissioning of the line during the 1996 running period will be discussed.

  14. Transport of intense ion beams and space charge compensation issues in low energy beam lines (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.; Duperrier, R.; Gobin, R.; Nghiem, P. A. P.; Uriot, D.

    2012-02-15

    Over the last few years, the interest of the international scientific community for high power accelerators in the megawatt range has been increasing. For such machines, the ion source has to deliver a beam intensity that ranges from several tens up to a hundred of mA. One of the major challenges is to extract and transport the beam while minimizing the emittance growth and optimizing its injection into the radio frequency quadrupole. Consequently, it is crucial to perform precise simulations and cautious design of the low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. In particular, the beam dynamics calculations have to take into account not only the space charge effects but also the space charge compensation of the beam induced by ionization of the residual gas. The physical phenomena occurring in a high intensity LEBT and their possible effects on the beam are presented, with a particular emphasis on space charge compensation. Then, beam transport issues in different kind of LEBTs are briefly reviewed. The SOLMAXP particle-in-cell code dedicated to the modeling of the transport of charge particles under a space charge compensation regime is described. Finally, beam dynamics simulations results obtained with SOLMAXP are presented in the case of international fusion materials irradiation facility injector.

  15. Transport of tetraethylammonium by a kidney cell line (LLC-PK sub 1 )

    SciTech Connect

    Fauth, C.; Rossier, B.; Roch-Ramel, F. )

    1988-03-01

    The authors investigated whether the LLC-PK{sub 1} epithelial cell lines (which shows many characteristics of proximal tubular cells) also is capable of transporting an organic ion. Suspended LLC-PK{sub 1} cells accumulated tetraethylammonium (TEA). The uptake showed characteristics of a facilitated mechanism; TEA uptake was saturable and temperature-dependent and was inhibited by other organic cations. Quinine and mepiperphenidol were the most potent inhibitors, whereas N{sup 1}-methylnicotinamide and morphine inhibited the transport system only slightly at doses of 10{sup {minus}3} M. Basolateral-to-apical TEA flux through LLC-PK{sub 1} monolayers was five to six times larger than that of mannitol, a nontransported compound, whereas apical-to-basolateral TEA and mannitol fluxes were equal. Only the basolateral-to-apical TEA flux was inhibited by quinine. Under similar experimental conditions, no transport of p-aminohippuric acid was observed. It is concluded that LLC-PK{sub 1} cells are able to transport TEA, as do cells of the proximal tubule.

  16. Transmission line model for strained quantum well lasers including carrier transport and carrier heating effects.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mingjun; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports a new model for strained quantum well lasers, which are based on the quantum well transmission line modeling method where effects of both carrier transport and carrier heating have been included. We have applied this new model and studied the effect of carrier transport on the output waveform of a strained quantum well laser both in time and frequency domains. It has been found that the carrier transport increases the turn-on, turn-off delay times and damping of the quantum well laser transient response. Also, analysis in the frequency domain indicates that the carrier transport causes the output spectrum of the quantum well laser in steady state to exhibit a redshift which has a narrower bandwidth and lower magnitude. The simulation results of turning-on transients obtained by the proposed model are compared with those obtained by the rate equation laser model. The new model has also been used to study the effects of pump current spikes on the laser output waveforms properties, and it was found that the presence of current spikes causes (i) wavelength blueshift, (ii) larger bandwidth, and (iii) reduces the magnitude and decreases the side-lobe suppression ratio of the laser output spectrum. Analysis in both frequency and time domains confirms that the new proposed model can accurately predict the temporal and spectral behaviors of strained quantum well lasers. PMID:26974607

  17. Involvement of polyamines in iron(III) transport in human intestinal Caco-2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lescoat, Gérard; Gouffier, Lucie; Cannie, Isabelle; Lowe, Olive; Morel, Isabelle; Lepage, Sylvie; Ropert, Martine; Loréal, Olivier; Brissot, Pierre; Gaboriau, François

    2013-06-01

    Natural polyamines such as putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm), which are present in the human diet in large amounts, associated with their active transporter, are assumed to play a role in non-heme iron uptake and iron bioavailability from nutrients. Enterocytes and hepatocytes play pivotal roles in the regulation of body iron homeostasis. In this study, we report the effects of natural polyamines on iron transport in the Caco-2 cell line. In enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, polyamines did not significantly modulate the transepithelial iron flux across the cell monolayer cultured on permeable membranes. In contrast, Spd, Spm, and to a lesser extent, Put were shown to activate Caco-2 cell iron uptake and to induce an increase in the ferritin level. This iron co-transport in enterocytes, which involved an interaction between iron and polyamine then cell uptake of the polyamine-iron complexes by the polyamine transport system, was more pronounced in proliferating than in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Moreover, it was observed at physiological concentrations of both polyamines and iron. It could thus play a role in the rapid renewal of enterocytes. These data suggest the involvement of polyamines as components of the pool of transferrin-independent iron-chelating vectors. Further investigations are needed to demonstrate their biological relevance in physiological situations. PMID:23494528

  18. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Ana; Airey, David; Thompson, Brent; Zhu, C; Rinchik, Eugene M; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Erikson, Keith; Blakely, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  19. Functional coding variation in recombinant inbred mouse lines reveals multiple serotonin transporter-associated phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ana M. D.; Airey, David C.; Thompson, Brent; Zhu, Chong-Bin; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J.; Erikson, Keith M.; Blakely, Randy D.

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology and treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we use naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify multiple phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by 2 nonsynonymous coding variants [Gly-39 and Lys-152 (GK)]. At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode, respectively, Glu-39 and Arg-152 (ER haplotype), amino acids found also in hSERT. Ex vivo synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant, a finding confirmed by in vitro heterologous expression studies. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57BL/6J × DBA/2J = BXD) identify multiple anatomical, biochemical, and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are several traits associated with alcohol consumption and multiple traits associated with dopamine signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates iron-regulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide an example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo, and in silico approaches using mouse RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation. PMID:19179283

  20. Beam Transport of 4 GeV Protons from AGS to the Proton Interrogation Target of the Neutrino Line (Z_line) and Effect of the Air on the Transported Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; Ahrens, L.; Pile, P.; Thieberger, P.; Murray, M.M.

    2008-10-01

    As part of the preparation for the Proton Interrogation Experiment, we have calculated the beam optics for the transport of 4 GeV protons, from the AGS extraction point, to the 'Cross-Section Target Wheel 1' and to the 'Proton Interrogation Target'. In this technical note we present three possible beam-transports each corresponding to a particular Fast Extracted Beam W B setup of the AGS. In addition we present results on the effect of the atmospheric air, (which fills the drift space of the last 100 [m] of the transport line), on the size of the beam, at two locations along the drift space, one location at the middle of the drift space and the other at the end where the 'Proton Interrogation Target' is placed. All the beam transports mentioned above require the removal of the WD1 dipole magnet, which is the first magnet of the W-line, because it acts as a limiting beam aperture, and the magnet is not used in the beam transport. An alternative solution of a beam transport, which does not require the removal of the WD1 magnet, is also presented. In this solution, which models the transport line using the TURTLE computer code[7], the vertical beam sizes at the location of the WD1 magnet is minimized to allow 'lossless' beam transport at the location of the WD1 magnet. A similar solution, but using a MAD model of the line, is also presented.

  1. APS Science 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

    2007-05-24

    In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged from work at the APS, to complement the tremendous output of work in basic science, which often has payoff in technology but over decades rather than years. Highlights in this report also reflect the relevance of APS work to Department of Energy missions, for example a route to more efficient fuel cells (page xx mr-88-073113) addresses the energy challenge, and natural approaches to cleaning up the environment.

  2. An alternatively spliced mRNA from the AP-2 gene encodes a negative regulator of transcriptional activation by AP-2.

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, R; Kannan, P; Imhof, A; Bauer, R; Yim, S O; Glockshuber, R; Van Dyke, M W; Tainsky, M A

    1993-01-01

    AP-2 is a retinoic acid-inducible and developmentally regulated activator of transcription. We have cloned an alternative AP-2 transcript (AP-2B) from the human teratocarcinoma cell line PA-1, which encodes a protein differing in the C terminus from the previously isolated AP-2 protein (AP-2A). This protein contains the activation domain of AP-2 and part of the DNA binding domain but lacks the dimerization domain which is necessary for DNA binding. Analysis of overlapping genomic clones spanning the entire AP-2 gene proves that AP-2A and AP-2B transcripts are alternatively spliced from the same gene. Both transient and stable transfection experiments show that AP-2B inhibits AP-2 transactivator function, as measured by an AP-2-responsive chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter plasmid. Furthermore, constitutive AP-2B expression in PA-1 cells causes a retinoic acid-resistant phenotype, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and tumorigenicity in nude mice, in a fashion similar to transformation of these cells by oncogenes. To determine the mechanism by which AP-2B exerts its inhibitory function, we purified bacterially expressed AP-2A and AP-2B proteins. While bacterial AP-2B does not bind an AP-2 consensus site, it strongly inhibits binding of the endogenous AP-2 present in PA-1 cell nuclear extracts. However, DNA sequence-specific binding of bacterially expressed AP-2A cannot be inhibited by bacterially expressed AP-2B. Therefore, inhibition of AP-2 activity by the protein AP-2B may require an additional factor or modification supplied by nuclear extracts. Images PMID:8321221

  3. Optimization of solenoid based low energy beam transport line for high current H+ beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, R.; Singh, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Roy, S.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2015-02-01

    A 20 MeV, 30 mA CW proton linac is being developed at BARC, Mumbai. This linac will consist of an ECR ion source followed by a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and Drift tube Linac (DTL). The low energy beam transport (LEBT) line is used to match the beam from the ion source to the RFQ with minimum beam loss and increase in emittance. The LEBT is also used to eliminate the unwanted ions like H2+ and H3+ from entering the RFQ. In addition, space charge compensation is required for transportation of such high beam currents. All this requires careful design and optimization. Detailed beam dynamics simulations have been done to optimize the design of the LEBT using the Particle-in-cell code TRACEWIN. We find that with careful optimization it is possible to transport a 30 mA CW proton beam through the LEBT with 100% transmission and minimal emittance blow up, while at the same time suppressing unwanted species H2+ and H3+ to less than 3.3% of the total beam current.

  4. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy mtDNA mutations disrupt glutamate transport in cybrid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Simone; Mattavelli, Laura; Sala, Gessica; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Schapira, Anthony H V; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Carelli, Valerio; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2004-10-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited form of retinal ganglion cell degeneration leading to optic atrophy which is caused by point mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). Three pathogenic mutations (positions 11778/ND4, 3460/ND1 and 14484/ND6) account for the majority of LHON cases and they affect genes that encode for different subunits of mitochondrial complex I. Excitotoxic injury to retinal ganglion cells and the optic nerve has been previously hypothesized, especially given the high susceptibility of this neural cell type to glutamate toxicity. Osteosarcoma-derived cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids) generated from six unrelated LHON patients, two cell lines for each pathogenic mutation, were compared with cybrids obtained from three healthy controls. Molecular and biochemical analyses showed that excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1)/GLAST is the most active glutamate transporter in this cellular model. The glutamate uptake maximal velocity was significantly reduced in all LHON cybrids compared with control cybrids. This reduction was correlated in a mutation-specific fashion with the degree of mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, which is enhanced in LHON cybrids. Our findings support the hypothesis that the genetically determined mitochondrial dysfunction in LHON patients leads to impaired activity of the EAAT1 glutamate transporter. This observation is particularly relevant since EAAT1 is the major means of glutamate removal in the inner retina and this prevents retinal ganglion cells being damaged as a result of excitotoxicity. PMID:15342361

  5. APS Science 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

    2010-05-01

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report), the challenge of sustainable energy provides an opportunity for expanded involvement with industrial research. We were privileged to recruit several outstanding new leaders at the APS. Linda Young, from Argonne's Chemical Sciences Division, became the new Director of the X-ray Science Division (XSD). Chris Jacobsen (from Stony Brook University) has been added to Linda's team as an XSD Associate Division Director, joining George Srajer. Alexander (Sasha) Zholents (formerly of Berkeley Lab) became Director of the Accelerator Systems Division. Sasha is the inventor of the short-pulse x-ray scheme that we plan to implement in the APS-U to obtain very high average brightness, broadband, 1-ps x-ray pulses. Walter Lowe (formerly of Howard University) has taken a new position as senior advisor for outreach and development of the user community. Walter's role is to increase the diversity of the user community (with diversity read broadly to include users, institutions, and technical disciplines that are underrepresented at APS). Walter is also leading an effort to increase access for industrial users. I am confident that we have in place a great team to help our users and the APS take fullest advantage of the APS-U opportunity. In planning with users for the proposed APS-U, we focused on the need to study 'real materials under real conditions in real time' on spatial and temporal scales unavailable today. Only by studying materials as they are made-or as they perform-in difficult environments can we solve the grand challenge of higher-performance, sustainable materials for energy and health. The proposed APS-U will improve the brightness of penetrating x-rays produced by the APS over 100 times, and support our efforts in developing state-of-the-art instruments to address these challenges.

  6. Fano effect and bound state in continuum in electron transport through an armchair graphene nanoribbon with line defect

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Electron transport properties in an armchair graphene nanoribbon are theoretically investigated by considering the presence of line defect. It is found that the line defect causes the abundant Fano effects and bound state in continuum (BIC) in the electron transport process, which are tightly dependent on the width of the nanoribbon. By plotting the spectra of the density of electron states of the line defect, we see that the line defect induces some localized quantum states around the Dirac point and that the different localizations of these states lead to these two kinds of transport results. Next, the Fano effect and BIC phenomenon are detailedly described via the analysis about the influence of the structure parameters. According to the numerical results, we propose such a structure to be a promising candidate for graphene nanoswitch. PACS 81.05.Uw, 71.55.-i, 73.23.-b, 73.25.+i PMID:23870061

  7. Compartmentalization of transport and phosphorylation of glucose in a hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The first steps of glucose metabolism are carried out by members of the families of GLUTs (glucose transporters) and HKs (hexokinases). Previous experiments using the inhibitor of glucose transport, CB (cytochalasin B), revealed that compartmentalization of GLUTs and HKs is a major factor in the control of glucose uptake in L6 myotubes [Whitesell, Ardehali, Printz, Beechem, Knobel, Piston, Granner, Van Der Meer, Perriott and May (2003) Biochem. J. 370, 47–56]. In the present paper, we evaluate compartmentalization of GLUTs and HKs in a hepatoma cell line, H4IIE, which is characterized by excess GLUT activity, HKI in a particulate and a cytosolic fraction, and insignificant G6Pase (glucose-6-phosphatase) activity. The measured activity of glucose transport exceeded the rate of phosphorylation approx. 30-fold. Treatment with 25 μM CB (Ki∼3 μM in H4IIE cells) paradoxically increased the excess of GLUTs over phosphorylation (GLUTs are inhibited 80%, while phosphorylation is inhibited 98%). The global relationships of the data could be reconciled most simply by a two-compartment model. In this model, phosphorylation of glucose is carried out by a subset of HK molecules supplied by a subset of GLUTs that are more sensitive to CB than the other GLUTs. The agent, DCC (dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide) caused HKI to translocate from the particulate compartment to the cytosolic compartment and potently inhibited glucose phosphorylation. The particulate compartment may represent the mitochondria, to which the more CB-sensitive GLUTs may control the transport of glucose. PMID:15473866

  8. Citrate transport in the human prostate epithelial PNT2-C2 cell line: electrophysiological analyses

    PubMed Central

    Mycielska, Maria E; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2004-01-01

    Although prostate synthesizes and releases large amounts of citrate, the mechanism of the release is not well understood. Most known citrate transporters mediate uptake of citrate from extracellular space and, consequently, are driven by the transmembrane Na+ gradient, which would not be appropriate for prostatic function. In the present study, we investigated citrate transport in a normal human prostate cell line, PNT2-C2, using mainly electrophysiological methods. Intracellular application of citrate through the patch pipette in the whole-cell recording mode induced an outward current whilst in response to extracellular citrate an inward current was recorded. Membrane currents induced by citrate were bigger than those elicited by other (equimolar) Krebs cycle intermediates. Both inward and outward citrate-induced currents had the same ionic dependence, inhibitor profile and reversal potential. In particular, the currents were strongly dependent on the transmembrane K+ gradient. Uptake and release of citrate and their K+ dependence were confirmed by spectrophotometric enzyme analyses. Citrate-induced membrane currents were also sensitive to pH, consistent with the transporter preferring the trivalent form. Application of intracellular Zn2+ generated an outward current which had the same quantitative K+ dependence as the citrate-induced currents. Extracellular application of a membrane-permeant Zn2+ chelator generated an inward current. These experiments suggested that m-aconitase was tonically active in PNT2-C2 cells. Determination of ‘forward’ and ‘reverse’ K+ stoichiometry both suggested a citrate: K+ ratio of 1 : 4. We conclude that normal prostatic epithelial cells possess an electrogenic citrate transporter which mediates the cotransfer of 1 trivalent citrate anion alongside 4 K+ out of cells and thus generates a net outward current. PMID:15254154

  9. Hydrogen transport diagnostics by atomic and molecular emission line profiles simultaneously measured for large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Shikama, T.; Hasuo, M.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.

    2013-01-15

    We observe the Balmer-{alpha}, -{beta}, and -{gamma} lines of hydrogen atoms and Q branches of the Fulcher-{alpha} band of hydrogen molecules simultaneously with their polarization resolved for large helical device. From the fit including the line splits and the polarization dependences by the Zeeman effect, the emission locations, intensities, and the temperatures of the atoms and molecules are determined. The emission locations of the hydrogen atoms are determined outside but close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS). The results are consistent with a previous work (Phys. Plasmas 12, 042501 (2005)). On the other hand, the emission locations of the molecules are determined to be in the divertor legs, which is farer from those of the atoms. The kinetic energy of the atoms is 1 {approx} 20 eV, while the rotational temperature of molecules is {approx}0.04 eV. Additionally, substantial wings, which originate from high velocity atoms and are not reproduced by the conventional spectral analysis, are observed in the Balmer line profiles. We develop a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of the atoms and molecules. The model reproduces the differences of the emission locations of the atoms and molecules when their initial temperatures are assumed to be 3 eV and 0.04 eV, respectively. From the model, the wings of the Balmer-{alpha} line is attributed to the high velocity atoms exist deep inside the LCFS, which are generated by the charge exchange collisions with hot protons there.

  10. Quantitative assessment of direct and indirect landslide risk along transportation lines in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, P.; van Westen, C. J.; Jetten, V.

    2010-06-01

    A quantitative approach for landslide risk assessment along transportation lines is presented and applied to a road and a railway alignment in the Nilgiri hills in southern India. The method allows estimating direct risk affecting the alignments, vehicles and people, and indirect risk resulting from the disruption of economic activities. The data required for the risk estimation were obtained from historical records. A total of 901 landslides were catalogued initiating from cut slopes along the railway and road alignment. The landslides were grouped into three magnitude classes based on the landslide type, volume, scar depth, run-out distance, etc and their probability of occurrence was obtained using frequency-volume distribution. Hazard, for a given return period, expressed as the number of landslides of a given magnitude class per kilometre of cut slopes, was obtained using Gumbel distribution and probability of landslide magnitude. In total 18 specific hazard scenarios were generated using the three magnitude classes and six return periods (1, 3, 5, 15, 25, and 50 years). The assessment of the vulnerability of the road and railway line was based on damage records whereas the vulnerability of different types of vehicles and people was subjectively assessed based on limited historic incidents. Direct specific loss for the alignments (railway line and road), vehicles (train, bus, lorry, car and motorbike) was expressed in monetary value (US), and direct specific loss of life of commuters was expressed in annual probability of death. Indirect specific loss (US) derived from the traffic interruption was evaluated considering alternative driving routes, and includes losses resulting from additional fuel consumption, additional travel cost, loss of income to the local business, and loss of revenue to the railway department. The results indicate that the total loss, including both direct and indirect loss, from 1 to 50 years return period, varies from US 90 840 to US 779 500 and the average annual total loss was estimated as US 35 000. The annual probability of a person most at risk travelling in a bus, lorry, car, motorbike and train is less than 10-4/annum in all the time periods considered. The detailed estimation of direct and indirect risk will facilitate developing landslide risk mitigation and management strategies for transportation lines in the study area.

  11. A new medium energy beam transport line for the proton injector of AGS-RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Briscoe, B.; Fite, J.; LoDestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2010-09-12

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a 750 keV medium energy beam transport line between the 201 MHz 750 keV proton RFQ and the 200 MeV Alvarez DTL is being modified to get a better transmission of the beam. Within a tight space, high field gradient quadrupoles (65 Tm) and newly designed steering magnets (6.5 mm in length) will be installed considering the cross-talk effects. Also a new half wave length 200 MHz buncher is being prepared. The beam commissioning will be done in this year. To enhance the performance of the proton linacs, the MEBT is being modified. New quadrupole magnets, steering magnets and a half wave length buncher as shown in Figure 7 will be installed and be commissioned soon.

  12. Characterization of multidrug transporter-mediated efflux of avermectins in human and mouse neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Abigail M; Mistry, Pratibha; Wright, Jayne; Williams, Faith M; Brown, Colin D A

    2015-06-15

    ABC transporters play an important role in the disposition of avermectins in several animal species. In this study the interactions of three key avermectins, abamectin, emamectin and ivermectin, with human and mouse homologues of MDR1 (ABCB1/Abcb1a) and MRP (ABCC/Abcc), transporters endogenously expressed by human SH-SY5Y and mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells were investigated. In both cell lines, retention of the fluorescent dye H33342 was found to be significantly increased in the presence of avermectins and cyclosporin A. These effects were shown to be unresponsive to the BCRP inhibitor Ko-143 and therefore MDR1/Mdr1-dependent. Avermectins inhibited MDR1/Mdr1a-mediated H33342 dye efflux, with apparent Ki values of 0.24±0.08 and 0.18±0.02μM (ivermectin); 0.60±0.07 and 0.56±0.02μM (emamectin) and 0.95±0.08 and 0.77±0.25μM (abamectin) in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, respectively. There were some apparent affinity differences for MDR1 and Mdr1a within each cell line (affinity for ivermectin>emamectin≥abamectin, P<0.05 by One-Way ANOVA), but importantly, the Ki values for individual avermectins for human MDR1 or mouse Mdr1a were not significantly different. MK571-sensitive retention of GSMF confirmed the expression of MRP/Mrp efflux transporters in both cell lines. Avermectins inhibited MRP/Mrp-mediated dye efflux with IC50 values of 1.58±0.51 and 1.94±0.72μM (ivermectin); 1.87±0.57 and 2.74±1.01μM (emamectin) and 2.25±0.01 and 1.68±0.63μM (abamectin) in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, respectively. There were no significant differences in IC50 values between individual avermectins or between human MRP and mouse Mrp. Kinetic data for endogenous human MDR1/MRP isoforms in SH-SY5Y cells and mouse Mdr1a/b/Mrp isoforms in N2a cells are comparable for the selected avermectins. All are effluxed at concentrations well above 0.05-0.1μM ivermectin detected in plasma (Ottesen and Campbell, 1994; Ottesen and Campbell, 1994) This is an important finding in the light of toxicity seen in the Mdr1-deficient animal models CF-1 mice, Mdr1ab (-/-) double knockout mice and Collie dogs. We also confirm MRP/Mrp-mediated avermectin transport in both N2a and SH-SY5Y cell lines. PMID:25865432

  13. On the universality of asymptotic limits in the theory of field line diffusion and perpendicular transport of energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalchi, A.

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the random walk of magnetic field lines in astrophysical plasmas. Based on the standard theory of field line diffusion we show that there are two asymptotic limits. In these limits field line wandering is universal because in both regimes the field line diffusion coefficient depends only on fundamental length scales and absolute magnetic field strengths. As examples we discuss the field line diffusion coefficient for different prominent turbulence models namely the slab model, the two-dimensional model, and the Goldreich-Sridhar model. We show that the field line diffusion coefficient for the latter model agrees with the results obtained for slab and two-dimensional turbulence in limiting cases. We also discuss the transport of energetic particles perpendicular with respect to the mean magnetic field. Based on the unified nonlinear transport theory we consider again asymptotic limits. It is shown that one can identify four different regimes in which the transport is again universal. In all four cases perpendicular transport only depends on fundamental length scales of turbulence, magnetic field values, and the parallel diffusion coefficient.

  14. Magnetophoretic Transport Line System for Rapid On-Chip Attomole Protein Detection.

    PubMed

    Bejhed, Rebecca S; Tian, Bo; Eriksson, Kristofer; Brucas, Rimantas; Oscarsson, Sven; Strömberg, Mattias; Svedlindh, Peter; Gunnarsson, Klas

    2015-09-22

    A lab-on-a-chip traveling wave magnetophoresis approach for sensitive and rapid protein detection is reported. In this method, a chip-based magnetic microarray comprising lines of micrometer-sized thin film magnetic elements was used to control the movement of magnetic beads (MBs). The MBs and the chip were functionalized, forming a sandwich-type assay. The MBs were transported across a detection area, and the presence of target molecules resulted in the immobilization of MBs within this area. Target quantification was accomplished by MB counting in the detection area using an optical microscope. In order to demonstrate the versatility of the microarray, biotinylated antiavidin was selected as the target protein. In this case, avidin-functionalized MBs and an avidin-functionalized detection area were used. With a total assay time of 1 to 1.5 h (depending on the labeling approach used), a limit of detection in the attomole range was achieved. Compared to on-chip surface plasmon resonance biodetection systems, our method has a larger dynamic range and is about a factor of 500 times more sensitive. Furthermore, our MB transportation system can operate in any chip-based biosensor platform, thereby significantly improving traditional biosensors. PMID:26309059

  15. High current density negative ion source for beam line transport study

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim Dudnikov; Charles W Schmidt and James Wendt

    2001-07-25

    The Fermilab Electron Cooling Program requires a 20-m solenoidal region to interact 8-GeV antiprotons with an escorting beam of 4.3-MeV electrons to improve the phase-space quality of the antiproton beam. The solenoidal section with additional transport lines to take and return a 0.5-A electron beam from an electrostatic accelerator, for energy recovery, must be precisely aligned and adjusted. For the initial setup and study, and later testing of this line, a 12.4-keV H{sup {minus}} beam can be used to simulate the 4.3 MeV electron beam. For this purpose a high-brightness H{sup {minus}} ion source has been developed and tested. The source, a semiplanatron type, with a hollow cathode discharge and spherical cathode focusing of the emitted ions to the emission aperture has given an emission current density up to 0.7 A/cm{sup 2}. Continuous operation of 4 weeks has been demonstrated. Such an optimized source could have many applications for tandem accelerators, ion beam lithography and ion implantation.

  16. Field line reconstruction for edge transport modeling in non-axisymmetric tokamaks configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frerichs, Heinke; Schmitz, Oliver; Waters, Ian; Evans, Todd; Feng, Yuhe; Soukhanovskii, Vlad

    2015-11-01

    Symmetry breaking effects such as resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) present a challenge for the numerical analysis of divertor operation, because they require three dimensional models. One such model is provided by the EMC3-EIRENE code, which is based on a finite flux tube grid for field line reconstruction that allows to account for realistic, three dimensional configurations. We present the Field Line Analysis and Reconstruction Environment (FLARE) - a collection of tools for the analysis of the magnetic field structure. It includes a flexible grid generator which allows to set up plasma transport simulations for single and double null configurations (both disconnected and connected). This includes the ``snowflake minus'' topology, and we present an application for a ``near-exact snowflake'' configuration at NSTX-U. Recent edge plasma simulations for DIII-D and ITER include plasma response effects as calculated by the M3D-C1 code, and it is found that these configurations require a local adjustment of radial/poloidal resolution in order to maintain a reasonable level of magnetic flux conservation. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under DE-SC0012315 and DE-FC02-04ER54698, and by Start-Up Funds of the University of Wisconsin - Madison.

  17. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  18. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)

  19. The inhibitory effects of fluoroquinolones on L-carnitine transport in placental cell line BeWo.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takeshi; Yasuda, Satoru; Osaka, Yuki; Asari, Masaru; Kobayashi, Masaki; Itagaki, Shirou; Iseki, Ken

    2008-03-01

    L-Carnitine plays an important role in lipid metabolism by facilitating the transport of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial inner membrane followed by fatty acid beta-oxidation. It is known that members of the OCTN family play an important role in L-carnitine transport in the placenta. Investigation of drug-drug or drug-nutrient interaction in the placenta is important for establishment of safety drug medication during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of fluoroquinolones, inhibitors of OCTN2, on L-carnitine transport in the placenta which is known to have a high expression level of OCTN2. We investigated the inhibitory effect of five fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin (CPFX), gatifloxacin (GFLX), ofloxacin (OFLX), levofloxacin (LVFX) and grepafloxacin (GPFX), on L-carnitine transport mediated by OCTN2 in placental cell line BeWo cells. We found that all of the fluoroquinolones inhibited L-carnitine transport, GPFX being the strongest inhibitor. We also found that the inhibitory effects of LVFX and GPFX depended on their existence ratio of zwitterionic forms as, we reported previously. Furthermore, we elucidated the LVFX transport mechanism in BeWo cells. LVFX was transported actively by transporters. However, we found that LVFX transport was Na+-independent and l-carnitine had no inhibitory effect on LVFX transport, suggesting that LVFX acts as inhibitor of OCTN2, not as a substrate for OCTN2. PMID:17977676

  20. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scisciò, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Antici, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.

  1. Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Mustapha, B.; Savard, G.

    2015-01-09

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×10{sup 5} as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS.

  2. Quality control and patient dosimetry in digital radiology. On line system: new features and transportability.

    PubMed

    Vano, E; Ten, J I; Fernandez, J M; Prieto, C; Ordiales, J M; Martinez, D

    2008-01-01

    New features have been added to a system (QCONLINE) for auditing patient dosimetric and technical parameters 'on line', working on a digital radiology department and using the information contained in the DICOM header of some modalities. The audit of other parameters than patient doses have been included, setting alarm conditions to alert on malfunction of the X-ray system or bad operation modes, in addition to the evaluation of patient doses. A new module to analyse, collect and process the relevant information transferred by the modality performed procedure step (MPPS) service has been launched. Several examples with the exploitation of the new features are presented. The transportability of the system has been tested in two remote hospitals during several months. The new MPPS module has demonstrated to be a good tool to complement the information existing in the DICOM header. The system allows to help in the optimisation of digital radiology departments managing patient dosimetry and procedure data in real time. PMID:18283057

  3. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  4. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, L. Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria ; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell'università 2, 35020 Legnaro ; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  5. Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Mustapha, B.; Savard, G.

    2015-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×105 as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS.

  6. Effects of line defects on spin-dependent electronic transport of zigzag MoS2 nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin-Mei; Long, Meng-Qiu; Cui, Li-Ling; Yang, Kai-Wei; Zhang, Dan; Ding, Jia-Feng; Xu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear spin-dependent transport properties in zigzag molybdenum-disulfide nanoribbons (ZMNRs) with line defects are investigated systematically using nonequilibrium Green's function method combined with density functional theory. The results show that the line defects can enhance the electronic transfer ability of ZMNRs. The types and locations of the line defects are found critical in determining the spin polarization and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the line defected ZMNRs. For the same defect type, the total currents of the ribbons with the line defects in the centers are lager than those on the edges. And for the same location, the total currents of the systems with the sulfur (S) line defect are larger than the according systems with the molybdenum (Mo) line defect. All the considered systems present magnetism properties. And in the S line defected systems, the spin reversal behaviors can be observed. In both the spin-up and spin-down states of the Mo line defected systems, there are obvious negative differential resistance behaviors. The mechanisms are proposed for these phenomena.

  7. Noble internal transport barriers and radial subdiffusion of toroidal magnetic lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misguich, J. H.; Reuss, J.-D.; Constantinescu, D.; Steinbrecher, G.; Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Weyssow, B.; Balescu, R.

    2003-11-01

    Internal transport barriers (ITB's) observed in tokamaks are described by a purely magnetic approach. Magnetic line motion in toroidal geometry with broken magnetic surfaces is studied from a previously derived Hamiltonian map in situation of incomplete chaos. This appears to reproduce in a realistic way the main features of a tokamak, for a given safety factor profile and in terms of a single parameter L representing the amplitude of the magnetic perturbation. New results are given concerning the Shafranov shift as function of L. The phase space (psi ,θ ) of the "tokamap" describes the poloidal section of the line trajectories, where psi is the toroidal flux labelling the surfaces. For small values of L, closed magnetic surfaces exist (KAM tori) and island chains begin to appear on rational surfaces for higher values of L, with chaotic zones around hyperbolic points, as expected. Island remnants persist in the chaotic domain for all relevant values of L at the main rational q-values. Single trajectories of magnetic line motion indicate the persistence of a central protected plasma core, surrounded by a chaotic shell enclosed in a double-sided transport barrier: the latter is identified as being composed of two Cantori located on two successive “most-noble” numbers values of the perturbed safety factor, and forming an internal transport barrier (ITB). Magnetic lines which succeed to escape across this barrier begin to wander in a wide chaotic sea extending up to a very robust barrier (as long as Lprecsim 1) which is identified mathematically as a robust KAM surface at the plasma edge. In this case the motion is shown to be intermittent, with long stages of pseudo-trapping in the chaotic shell, or of sticking around island remnants, as expected for a continuous time random walk. For values of Lsucceq 1, above the escape threshold, most magnetic lines succeed to escape out of the external barrier which has become a permeable Cantorus. Statistical analysis of a large number of trajectories, representing the evolution of a bunch of magnetic lines, indicate that the flux variable psi asymptotically grows in a diffusive manner as (L2t) with a L2 scaling as expected, but that the average radial position rm(t) asymptotically grows as (L2t)^{1/4} while the mean square displacement around this average radius asymptotically grows in a subdiffusive manner as (L2t)^{1/2}. This result shows the slower dispersion in the present incomplete chaotic regime, which is different from the usual quasilinear diffusion in completely chaotic situations. For physical times t_{\\varphi } of the order of the escape time defined by xm(t_{\\varphi })sim 1, the motion appears to be superdiffusive, however, but less dangerous than the generally admitted quasi-linear diffusion. The orders of magnitude of the relevant times in Tore Supra are finally discussed. Barrières internes de transport " nobles " et sous-diffusion radiale des lignes magnétiques toroïdales Les barrières internes de transport observées dans les tokamaks sont décrites ici dans une approche purement magnétique. Le mouvement des lignes magnétiques en géométrie toroïdale avec brisure des surfaces magnétiques est étudié à partir d'une application hamiltonienne "tokamap" développée précédemment en situation de chaos incomplet, et dans laquelle le "temps" est représenté par la coordonnée toroïdale. Cette application reproduit de façon réaliste les principales caractéristiques d'un tokamak, pour un profil donné du facteur de sécurité q, et en terme d'un seul paramètre L représentant l'amplitude de la perturbation magnétique. On obtient des résultats nouveaux concernant le déplacement de Shafranov en fonction de L. L'espace des phases (psi,θ) du "tokamap" décrit la section poloïdale des trajectoires des lignes, où psisim r^2 est le flux toroïdal caractérisant les surfaces magnétiques (proportionnel au carré du rayon r de cette surface). Pour de faibles valeurs de L, des surfaces magnétiques fermées existent (tores de KAM) et des chaînes d'îlots commencent à apparaître sur les surfaces rationnelles pour des valeurs de L supérieures, avec, comme attendu, des zones chaotiques autour des points hyperboliques. Des résidus d'îlots magnétiques persistent dans le domaine chaotique pour toutes les valeurs de L, sur les surfaces caractérisées par les principales valeurs rationnelles de q. Des trajectoires individuelles de ligne magnétique indiquent la persistance d'un cœur protégé au sein du plasma, entouré d'une couche chaotique, incluse dans une double barrière de transport : celle-ci est composée de deux Cantori situés sur deux valeurs successives du facteur de sécurité perturbé que l'on a pu identifier comme étant les nombres "les plus nobles", formant ainsi une barrière de transport interne. Les lignes magnétiques qui réussissent à s'échapper à travers cette barrière commencent à voyager dans une vaste mer chaotique qui s'étend jusqu'à une barrière très robuste (tant que Lprecsim 1) qui a été identifiée mathématiquement comme étant une surface KAM robuste au bord du plasma. Dans ce cas le mouvement observé est intermittent, avec de longues périodes de pseudo-piégeage dans la couche chaotique, ou du collage (sticking) autour des îlots résiduels, comme attendu pour une marche aléatoire en temps continu. Pour des valeurs de Lsucceq 1, au-dessus du seuil d'échappement, la plupart des lignes magnétiques parviennent à s'échapper à travers la barrière externe qui est devenue un Cantorus perméable. L'analyse statistique d'un grand nombre de trajectoires, représentant l'évolution d'un faisceau de lignes magnétiques, indique qu'en moyenne la variable de flux psi croît asymptotiquement de manière diffusive (comme L^2t) avec une loi d'échelle en L^2 comme attendu, mais avec une position radiale moyenne r_m(t) croissant asymptotiquement comme (L^2t)^{1/4}, tandis que le déplacement quadratique moyen autour de ce rayon moyen croît asymptotiquement de manière sous-diffusive comme (L^2t)^{1/2}. Ce résultat indique une dispersion plus lente dans le cas étudié d'un régime de chaos incomplet, qui est différente de la diffusion quasi-linéaire en situation de chaos complet. Pour des temps physiques t_{\\varphi} de l'ordre du temps d'échappement, défini par r_m(t_{\\varphi}) sim 1, le mouvement apparaît comme super-diffusif, mais cependant moins " dangereux " que la diffusion quasi-linéaire généralement admise. On discute finalement les ordres de grandeur des temps caractéristiques dans le tokamak TORE SUPRA.

  8. Transport of liquid state nitrogen through long length service lines during thermal/vacuum testing. [in a Nimbus 6 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florio, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and analytical aspects associated with the transport are presented. Included is a definition of the problems and difficulties imposed by the servicing of a typical solid cryogen system, as well as a discussion of the transport requirements and of the rationale which governed their solution. A successful detailed transport configuration is defined, and the application of established mathematics to the design approach is demonstrated. The significance of head pressure, pressure drop, line friction, heat leak, Reynolds number, and the fundamental equilibrium demands of pressure and temperature were examined as they relate to the achievement of liquid state flow. Performance predictions were made for the transport system, and several analytical quantities are tabulated. These data are analyzed and compared with measured and calculated results obtained while actually servicing a solid cryogen system during thermal/vacuum testing.

  9. Bending of protonema cells in a plastid glycolate/glycerate transporter knockout line of Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Jin; Takechi, Katsuaki; Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Moriyama, Yasuko; Sato, Hiroshi; Takio, Susumu; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis LrgB (synonym PLGG1) is a plastid glycolate/glycerate transporter associated with recycling of 2-phosphoglycolate generated via the oxygenase activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). We isolated two homologous genes (PpLrgB1 and B2) from the moss Physcomitrella patens. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PpLrgB1 was monophyletic with LrgB proteins of land plants, whereas PpLrgB2 was divergent from the green plant lineage. Experiments with PpLrgB-GFP fusion proteins suggested that both PpLrgB1 and B2 proteins were located in chloroplasts. We generated PpLrgB single (∆B1 and ∆B2) and double (∆B1/∆B2)-knockout lines using gene targeting of P. patens. The ∆B1 plants showed decreases in growth and photosynthetic activity, and their protonema cells were bent and accumulated glycolate. However, because ∆B2 and ∆B1/∆B2 plants showed no obvious phenotypic change relative to the wild-type or ∆B1 plants, respectively, the function of PpLrgB2 remains unclear. Arabidopsis LrgB could complement the ∆B1 phenotype, suggesting that the function of PpLrgB1 is the same as that of AtLrgB. When ∆B1 was grown under high-CO2 conditions, all novel phenotypes were suppressed. Moreover, protonema cells of wild-type plants exhibited a bending phenotype when cultured on media containing glycolate or glycerate, suggesting that accumulation of photorespiratory metabolites caused P. patens cells to bend. PMID:25793376

  10. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-switched transport services. 69.713 Section 69.713 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION..., traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. (a) Scope. This paragraph governs requests for...)(2) of this chapter. (3) The traffic-sensitive components of tandem-switched transport services,...

  11. Lattice design and beam dynamics studies of the high energy beam transport line in the RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Jeon, Dong-O.

    2015-12-01

    In RAON heavy ion accelerator, beams generated by superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS) or Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) system are accelerated by lower energy superconducting linac and high energy superconducting linac. The accelerated beams are used in the high energy experimental hall which includes bio-medical and muon-SR facilities, after passing through the high energy beam transport lines. At the targets of those two facilities, the stable and small beams meeting the requirements rigorously are required in the transverse plane. Therefore the beams must be safely sent to the targets and simultaneously satisfy the two requirements, the achromatic condition and the mid-plane symmetric condition, of the targets. For this reason, the lattice design of the high energy beam transport lines in which the long deflecting sections are included is considered as a significant issue in the RAON accelerator. In this paper, we will describe the calculated beam optics satisfying the conditions and present the result of particle tracking simulations with the designed lattice of the high energy beam transport lines in the RAON accelerator. Also, the orbit distortion caused by the machine imperfections and the orbit correction with correctors will be discussed.

  12. Transport of levofloxacin in a kidney epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1: interaction with organic cation transporters in apical and basolateral membranes.

    PubMed

    Ohtomo, T; Saito, H; Inotsume, N; Yasuhara, M; Inui, K I

    1996-03-01

    The interactions of levofloxacin, a pyridonecarboxylic acid antibacterial drug, with the organic cation transport systems expressed in a pig kidney epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1, were examined. The transcellular transport of tetraethylammonium was remarkably inhibited by levofloxacin, accompanied by a marked increase in the cellular accumulation of tetraethylammonium in the LLC-PK1, monolayers grown on collagen-coated membrane filters. The results obtained by efflux and uptake of tetraethylammonium revealed that levofloxacin drastically inhibited the apical transport activity rather than the basolateral uptake of tetraethylammonium. Under conditions in which the apical efflux of tetraethylammonium was blocked by pretreatment with p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate, levofloxacin showed a moderate inhibitory effect against the basolateral uptake of tetraethylammonium. Transepithelial flux of levofloxacin from the basolateral side to the apical side was much greater than the flux in the opposite direction. The flux of levofloxacin was influenced by the apical side pH, resulting in a decreased cellular accumulation by lowering pH. The basal-to-apical transport and cellular accumulation of levofloxacin were not inhibited by either tetraethylammonium or cimetidine. These results suggested that levofloxacin interacts with the apical H+/organic cation antiport system to a greater extent than with the basolateral system. However, transcellular transport of levofloxacin would be mediated by the transport systems which are distinct from the systems for tetraethylammonium in LLC-PK1 cells. PMID:8786545

  13. A demonstration of a transportable radio interferometric surveying system with 3-cm accuracy on a 307-m base line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, K. M.; Macdoran, P. F.; Thomas, J. B.; Fliegel, H. F.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Batelaan, P. D.; Paine, S. R.; Newsted, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    A precision geodetic measurement system (Aries, for Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying) based on the technique of very long base line interferometry has been designed and implemented through the use of a 9-m transportable antenna and the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Communications Complex at Goldstone, California. A series of experiments designed to demonstrate the inherent accuracy of a transportable interferometer was performed on a 307-m base line during the period from December 1973 to June 1974. This short base line was chosen in order to obtain a comparison with a conventional survey with a few-centimeter accuracy and to minimize Aries errors due to transmission media effects, source locations, and earth orientation parameters. The base-line vector derived from a weighted average of the measurements, representing approximately 24 h of data, possessed a formal uncertainty of about 3 cm in all components. This average interferometry base-line vector was in good agreement with the conventional survey vector within the statistical range allowed by the combined uncertainties (3-4 cm) of the two techniques.

  14. Supercomputing and AP stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stift, M. J.

    1998-04-01

    Certain problems in the field of stellar atmospheres, polarised radiative transfer and magnetic field diagnostics cannot be addressed by means of traditional sequential programming techniques because CPU times become prohibitive on even the fastest single processor machines when realistic physics and accurate numerical methods are employed. This contribution discusses the question of what kind of supercomputing approach is best suited for the modelling of Ap stars, pointing out the superiority of parallel computing with Ada95 over High Performance Fortran in all of the above-mentioned fields.

  15. Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

  16. Lysosomal Targeting of Cystinosin Requires AP-3.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, Zuzanna; Névo, Nathalie; Thomas, Lucie; Bailleux, Anne; Chauvet, Véronique; Benmerah, Alexandre; Antignac, Corinne

    2015-07-01

    Cystinosin is a lysosomal cystine transporter defective in cystinosis, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. It is composed of seven transmembrane (TM) domains and contains two lysosomal targeting motifs: a tyrosine-based signal (GYDQL) in its C-terminal tail and a non-classical motif in its fifth inter-TM loop. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we showed that the GYDQL motif specifically interacted with the μ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3). Moreover, cell surface biotinylation and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that cystinosin was partially mislocalized to the plasma membrane (PM) in AP-3-depleted cells. We generated a chimeric CD63 protein to specifically analyze the function of the GYDQL motif. This chimeric protein was targeted to lysosomes in a manner similar to cystinosin and was partially mislocalized to the PM in AP-3 knockdown cells where it also accumulated in the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes. Together with the fact that the surface levels of cystinosin and of the CD63-GYDQL chimeric protein were not increased when clathrin-mediated endocytosis was impaired, our data show that the tyrosine-based motif of cystinosin is a 'strong' AP-3 interacting motif responsible for lysosomal targeting of cystinosin by a direct intracellular pathway. PMID:25753619

  17. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. (a) Scope. This paragraph governs requests for... §§ 69.152, 69.153, and 69.154. (2) Services in the traffic-sensitive basket, as described in § 61.42(d)(2) of this chapter. (3) The traffic-sensitive components of tandem-switched transport services,...

  18. Addendum: ``Hard X-Rays and Gamma Rays from Type Ia Supernovae'' (ApJ, 492, 228 [1998])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Peter; Wheeler, J. C.

    2004-04-01

    We report a subtle error in the normalization of the absolute flux published in our original article (hereafter HWK98), and some minor updates. The normalization problem is related to the post-processing. As a consequence, the reported line fluxes are too large at early times. Note that Figure 1 of P. Höflich (ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]) has been transferred from HWK98. Results of previous papers are not affected (E. Müller, P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]; P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]). For calculating the γ-ray spectra, the γ-ray transport is solved via a Monte Carlo code that produces an output file containing the Eddington flux, the energy input by radioactive decay and escape probability, ζ, of γ-ray photons. In a postprocessing step, the spectrum is renormalized and convolved with the instrumental response function of the γ-ray telescope. A two-step procedure is used to obtain the emergent spectra to separate the CPU-intensive Monte Carlo transport calculation from the ``fast'' second step, allowing us to study the influence of the instrument on the observables (e.g., E. Müller, P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998

  19. Percolation, tie-lines, and the microstructural determinants of charge transport in semicrystalline conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spakowitz, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Semiconducting polymers play an important role in a wide range of optical and electronic material applications. It is widely accepted that the polymer ordering impacts charge transport in such devices. However, the connection between molecular ordering and device performance is difficult to predict due to the current need for a mathematical theory of the physics that dictates charge transport in semiconducting polymers. Here, we present a new analytical and computational description in which the morphology of individual polymer chains is dictated by well-known statistical models and the electronic coupling between units is determined using Marcus theory. This effort combines our research group's modeling efforts in polymer conformational properties and reaction-diffusion phenomena to address the multiscale dynamics of charge transport in a heterogeneous material. The resulting model is capable of bridging molecular-level charge transport mechanisms to large scale transport behavior, thus facilitating direct comparison with experiments. The multiscale transport of charges in these materials (high mobility at short length scales, low mobility at long length scales) is naturally described with our framework. Additionally, the dependence of mobility with electric field and temperature is explained in terms of conformational variability and spatial correlation. Our model offers a predictive approach to connecting processing conditions with transport behavior.

  20. Influence of a hot and humid environment on thermal transport across the interface between a Ag thin-film line and a substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Noguchi, Kyohei; Saka, Masumi

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the reliability of Ag thin-film lines for a wide range of applications in electronic devices, knowledge of the thermal transport across the interface between the line and the underlying substrate is of great importance. This is because such thermal transport significantly affects the temperature distribution in the line, the electrical performance of the line and the service life of the device the line is installed on. In this work, we examine the influence of a hot and humid environment on the thermal transport across the interface between a Ag thin-film line and a substrate. By performing a series of current-stressing experiments using the four-point probe method at atmospheric conditions (296 K and 30 RH%) on a Ag thin-film line for different durations of exposure to a hot and humid environment (323 K and 90 RH%), the electrical resistivity was found to increase with the exposure duration. Such an increase is believed to be the result of a decrease in the interfacial thermal conductance, which indicates less thermal transport from the line to the substrate. Moreover, by observing the surface morphology changes in the line and conducting a one-dimensional electro-thermal analysis, such variations can be attributed to the generation and growth of voids within the line, which hinder heat transfer from the line to the substrate through the interface.

  1. The AP-1 transcription factor homolog Pf-AP-1 activates transcription of multiple biomineral proteins and potentially participates in Pinctada fucata biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiangnan; Cheng, Minzhang; Xiang, Liang; Liang, Jian; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important bZIP transcription factor that regulates a series of physiological processes by specifically activating transcription of several genes, and one of its well-chartered functions in mammals is participating in bone mineralization. We isolated and cloned the complete cDNA of a Jun/AP-1 homolog from Pinctada fucata and called it Pf-AP-1. Pf-AP-1 had a highly conserved bZIP region and phosphorylation sites compared with those from mammals. A tissue distribution analysis showed that Pf-AP-1 was ubiquitously expressed in P. fucata and the mRNA level of Pf-AP-1 is extremely high in mantle. Pf-AP-1 expression was positively associated with multiple biomineral proteins in the mantle. The luciferase reporter assay in a mammalian cell line showed that Pf-AP-1 significantly up-regulates the transcriptional activity of the promoters of KRMP, Pearlin, and Prisilkin39. Inhibiting the activity of Pf-AP-1 depressed the expression of multiple matrix proteins. Pf-AP-1 showed a unique expression pattern during shell regeneration and pearl sac development, which was similar to the pattern observed for biomineral proteins. These results suggest that the Pf-AP-1 AP-1 homolog is an important transcription factor that regulates transcription of several biomineral proteins simultaneously and plays a role in P. fucata biomineralization, particularly during pearl and shell formation. PMID:26404494

  2. Functional description of APS beamline front ends

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.

    1993-02-01

    Traditional synchrotron sources were designed to produce bending magnet radiation and have proven to be an essential scientific tool. Currently, a new generation of synchrotron sources is being built that will be able to accommodate a large number of insertion device (ID) and high quality bending magnet (BM) sources. One example is the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. The research and development effort at the APS is designed to fully develop the potential of this new generation of synchrotron sources. Of the 40 straight sections in the APS storage ring, 34 will be available for IDs. The remaining six sections are reserved for the storage ring hardware and diagnostics. Although the ring incorporates 80 BMs, only 40 of them can be used to extract radiation. The accelerator hardware shadows five of these 40 bending magnets, so the maximum number of BM sources on the lattice is 35. Generally, a photon beamline consists of four functional sections. The first section is the ID or the BM, which provides the radiation source. The second section, which is immediately outside the storage ring but inside a concrete shielding tunnel, is the front end, which is designed to control, define, and/or confine the x-ray beam. In the case of the APS, the front ends are designed to confine the photon beam. The third section, just outside the concrete shielding tunnel and on the experimental floor, is the first optics enclosure, which contains optics to filter and monochromatize the photon beam. The fourth section of a beamline consists of beam transports, additional optics, and experiment stations to do the scientific investigations. This document describes only the front ends of the APS beamlines.

  3. Doppler Line Shapes, Turbulence and Neutral Transport in Tokamak Edge Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Marandet, Y.; Boerner, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Mertens, Ph.; Reiter, D.; Sergienko, G.; Samm, U.; Dufty, J. W.

    2006-11-22

    First investigations of the effect of ion temperature fluctuations on Doppler spectral line shapes emitted in tokamak edge plasmas are reported on. It is shown that hot charge exchange neutrals have to be taken into account in the analysis.

  4. Bidirectional FcRn-dependent IgG transport in a polarized human intestinal epithelial cell line

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Bonny L.; Badizadegan, Kamran; Wu, Zhen; Ahouse, Jeremy C.; Zhu, Xiaoping; Simister, Neil E.; Blumberg, Richard S.; Lencer, Wayne I.

    1999-01-01

    The MHC class I–related Fc receptor, FcRn, mediates the intestinal absorption of maternal IgG in neonatal rodents and the transplacental transport of maternal IgG in humans by receptor-mediated transcytosis. In mice and rats, expression of FcRn in intestinal epithelial cells is limited to the suckling period. We have recently observed, however, clear expression of FcRn in the adult human intestine, suggesting a function for FcRn in intestinal IgG transport beyond neonatal life in humans. We tested this hypothesis using the polarized human intestinal T84 cell line as a model epithelium. Immunocytochemical data show that FcRn is present in T84 cells in a punctate apical pattern similar to that found in human small intestinal enterocytes. Solute flux studies show that FcRn transports IgG across T84 monolayers by receptor-mediated transcytosis. Transport is bidirectional, specific for FcRn, and dependent upon endosomal acidification. These data define a novel bidirectional mechanism of IgG transport across epithelial barriers that predicts an important effect of FcRn on IgG function in immune surveillance and host defense at mucosal surfaces. PMID:10510331

  5. Numerical and experimental study of atomic transport and Balmer line intensity in Linac4 negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, T. Nishida, K.; Hatayama, A.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.

    2015-04-08

    Time structure of Balmer H{sub α} line intensity in Linac4 RF plasma has been analyzed by the combined simulation model of atomic transport and Collisional-Radiative models. As a preliminary result, time variation of the line intensity in the ignition phase of RF plasma is calculated and compared with the experimental results by photometry. For the comparison, spatial distribution of the local H{sub α} photon emission rate at each time is calculated from the numerical model. The contribution of the local photon emission rates to the observed line intensity via optical viewing port is also investigated by application of the mock-up of the optical viewing port and the known light source. It has been clarified from the analyses that the higher and the lower peaks of the H{sub α} line intensity observed during 1 RF cycle is mainly due to the different spatial distributions in the electron energy distribution function and the resultant local photon emission rate. These results support previous suggestion that the existence of the capacitive electric field in axial direction leads to the higher/lower peaks of the line intensity.

  6. Autosomal recessive spastic tetraplegia caused by AP4M1 and AP4B1 gene mutation: expansion of the facial and neuroimaging features.

    PubMed

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Bilguvar, Kaya; Koçer, Naci; Yalçınkaya, Cengiz; Çağlayan, Okay; Gül, Ece; Sahin, Sezgin; Çomu, Sinan; Günel, Murat

    2014-07-01

    Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP4) is a component of intracellular transportation of proteins, which is thought to have a unique role in neurons. Recently, mutations affecting all four subunits of AP4 (AP4M1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4B1) have been found to cause similar autosomal recessive phenotype consisting of tetraplegic cerebral palsy and intellectual disability. The aim of this study was analyzing AP4 genes in three new families with this phenotype, and discussing their clinical findings with an emphasis on neuroimaging and facial features. Using homozygosity mapping followed by whole-exome sequencing, we identified two novel homozygous mutations in AP4M1 and a homozygous deletion in AP4B1 in three pairs of siblings. Spastic tetraplegia, microcephaly, severe intellectual disability, limited speech, and stereotypic laughter were common findings in our patients. All patients also had similar facial features consisting of coarse and hypotonic face, bitemporal narrowing, bulbous nose with broad nasal ridge, and short philtrum which were not described in patients with AP4M1 and AP4B1 mutations previously. The patients presented here and previously with AP4M1, AP4B1, and AP4E1 mutations shared brain abnormalities including asymmetrical ventriculomegaly, thin splenium of the corpus callosum, and reduced white matter volume. The patients also had hippocampal globoid formation and thin hippocampus. In conclusion, disorders due to mutations in AP4 complex have similar neurological, facial, and cranial imaging findings. Thus, these four genes encoding AP4 subunits should be screened in patients with autosomal recessive spastic tetraplegic cerebral palsy, severe intellectual disability, and stereotypic laughter, especially with the described facial and cranial MRI features. PMID:24700674

  7. Lagrangian transport near perturbed periodic lines in three-dimensional unsteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speetjens, Michel

    2015-11-01

    Periodic lines formed by continuous strings of periodic points are key organizing entities in the Lagrangian flow topology of certain three-dimensional (3D) time-periodic flows. Such lines generically consist of elliptic and/or hyperbolic points and thus give rise to 3D flow topologies made up of families of concentric closed trajectories embedded in chaotic regions. Weak perturbation destroys the periodic lines and causes said trajectories to coalesce into families of concentric tubes. However, emergence of isolated periodic points near the disintegrating periodic lines and/or partitioning of the original lines into elliptic and hyperbolic segments interrupt the tube formation. This yields incomplete tubes that interact with the (chaotic) environment through their open ends, resulting in intricate and essentially 3D flow topologies These phenomena have been observed in various realistic flows yet the underlying mechanisms are to date only partially understood. This study deepens insight into the (perturbed) Lagrangian dynamics of these flows by way of a linearized representation of the equations of motion near the periodic lines. Predictions on the basis of this investigation are in full (qualitative) agreement with observed behavior in the actual flows

  8. Bicarbonate-dependent chloride transport drives fluid secretion by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jiajie; Liao, Jie; Huang, Junwei; Robert, Renaud; Palmer, Melissa L; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; O'Grady, Scott M; Hanrahan, John W

    2012-01-01

    Anion and fluid secretion are both defective in cystic fibrosis (CF); however, the transport mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Cl− and HCO3− secretion was measured using genetically matched CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient and CFTR-expressing cell lines derived from the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3. Forskolin stimulated the short-circuit current (Isc) across voltage-clamped monolayers, and also increased the equivalent short-circuit current (Ieq) calculated under open-circuit conditions. Isc was equivalent to the HCO3− net flux measured using the pH-stat technique, whereas Ieq was the sum of the Cl− and HCO3− net fluxes. Ieq and HCO3− fluxes were increased by bafilomycin and ZnCl2, suggesting that some secreted HCO3− is neutralized by parallel electrogenic H+ secretion. Ieq and fluid secretion were dependent on the presence of both Na+ and HCO3−. The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide abolished forskolin stimulation of Ieq and HCO3− secretion, suggesting that HCO3− transport under these conditions requires catalysed synthesis of carbonic acid. Cl− was the predominant anion in secretions under all conditions studied and thus drives most of the fluid transport. Nevertheless, 50–70% of Cl− and fluid transport was bumetanide-insensitive, suggesting basolateral Cl− loading by a sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1)-independent mechanism. Imposing a transepithelial HCO3− gradient across basolaterally permeabilized Calu-3 cells sustained a forskolin-stimulated current, which was sensitive to CFTR inhibitors and drastically reduced in CFTR-deficient cells. Net HCO3− secretion was increased by bilateral Cl− removal and therefore did not require apical Cl−/HCO3− exchange. The results suggest a model in which most HCO3− is recycled basolaterally by exchange with Cl−, and the resulting HCO3−-dependent Cl− transport provides an osmotic driving force for fluid secretion. PMID:22777674

  9. AP-42 REVISION: COKE OVENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors" (AP-42) has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1972. Supplements to AP-42 have been routinely published to add new emission source categories and to update existing emission factor...

  10. AP1000 Design for Security

    SciTech Connect

    Long, L.B.; Cummins, W.E.; Winters, J.W.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are protected from potential security threats through a combination of robust structures around the primary system and other vital equipment, security systems and equipment, and defensive strategy. The overall objective for nuclear power plant security is to protect public health and safety by ensuring that attacks or sabotage do not challenge the ability to safely shutdown the plant or protect from radiological releases. In addition, plants have systems, features and operational strategies to cope with external conditions, such as loss of offsite power, which could be created as part of an attack. Westinghouse considered potential security threats during design of the AP1000 PWR. The differences in plant configuration, safety system design, and safe shutdown equipment between existing plants and AP1000 affect potential vulnerabilities. This paper provides an evaluation of AP1000 with respect to vulnerabilities to security threats. The AP1000 design differs from the design of operating PWRs in the US in the configuration and the functional requirements for safety systems. These differences are intentional departures from conventional PWR designs which simplify plant design and enhance overall safety. The differences between the AP1000 PWR and conventional PWRs can impact vulnerabilities to security threats. The NRC addressed security concerns as part of their reviews for AP1000 Design Certification, and did not identify any security issues of concern. However, much of the detailed security design information for the AP1000 was deferred to the combined Construction and Operating License (COL) phase as many of the security issues are site-specific. Therefore, NRC review of security issues related to the AP1000 is not necessarily complete. Further, since the AP1000 plant design differs from existing PWRs, it is not obvious that the analyses and assessments prepared for existing plants also apply to the AP1000. We conclude that, overall, the AP1000 is less vulnerable to security threats such as malevolent use of vehicles (land, water or air), than are conventional PWRs. Further, the AP1000 is less vulnerable to external events (e.g., loss of transmission) than conventional PWRs. For some of the threats evaluated the AP1000 is comparable to conventional PWRs, while for other threats the AP1000 is inherently less vulnerable. (authors)

  11. NOS1AP in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Brzustowicz, Linda M

    2008-04-01

    NOS1AP is an attractive candidate gene for schizophrenia susceptibility. Linkage and association studies from multiple samples drawn from different populations indicate that a schizophrenia susceptibility gene is located in the region of chromosome 1 containing NOS1AP. Increased NOS1AP expression is observed in postmortem samples from individuals with schizophrenia. NOS1AP binds to neuronal nitric oxide synthase and synapsin, other candidate genes for schizophrenia, and may disrupt signal transduction through the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor complex, leading to hypofunctioning of that system. In this review, I present the evidence supporting NOS1AP as a schizophrenia susceptibility gene, with a focus on explaining the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence obtained from each type of study that has been conducted. PMID:18474209

  12. Calcyon, a mammalian specific NEEP21 family member, interacts with adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) and regulates targeting of AP-3 cargoes.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Nagendran; Faundez, Victor; Bergson, Clare

    2012-10-01

    Calcyon is a neural enriched, single transmembrane protein that interacts with clathrin light chain and stimulates clathrin assembly and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. A similar property is shared by the heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 which recruit cargoes for insertion into clathrin coated transport vesicles. Here we report that AP medium (μ) subunits interact with a YXXØ-type tyrosine motif located at residues 133-136 in the cytoplasmic domain of calcyon. Site specific mutagenesis of the critical tyrosine and bulky hydrophobic residues tyrosine 133 and methionine 136 preferentially abrogated binding of the ubiquitous and neuronal isoforms of μ3, and also impacted μ1 and μ2 binding to a lesser degree. The relevance of these interactions was explored in vivo using mice harboring null alleles of calcyon. As seen in the mutagenesis studies, calcyon deletion in mice preferentially altered the subcellular distribution of AP-3 suggesting that calcyon could regulate membrane-bound pools of AP-3 and AP-3 function. To test this hypothesis, we focused on the hilar region of hippocampus, where levels of calcyon, AP-3, and AP-3 cargoes are abundant. We analyzed brain cryosections from control and calcyon null mice for zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), and phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha (PI4KIIα), two well-defined AP-3 cargoes. Confocal microscopy indicated that ZnT3 and PI4KIIα are significantly reduced in the hippocampal mossy fibers of calcyon knock-out brain, a phenotype previously described in AP-3 deficiencies. Altogether, our data suggest that calcyon directly interacts with μ3A and μ3B, and regulates the subcellular distribution of AP-3 and the targeting of AP-3 cargoes. PMID:22650988

  13. APS controls overview

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The APS accelerator control system described in this report is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and interfaces to hardware. The operator interface is a UNIX-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The user has the ability to generate and alter control displays and to access the alarm handler, the archiver, interactive control programs, custom code, and other tools. The TCP/EP networking protocol has been selected as the underlying protocol for the control system network. TCP/EP is a commercial standard and readily available from network hardware vendors. Its implementation is independent of the particular network medium selected to implement the controls network. In the development environment copper Ethernet is the network medium; however, in the actual implementation a fiber-based system using hub technology will be utilized. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system.

  14. Experimental investigation of beam generation, acceleration, transport and extraction in the RADLAC-II pulsed transmission line linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Leifeste, G.T.; Shope, S.L.; Frost, C.A.; Freeman, J.R.; Poukey, J.W.; Stygar, W.A.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Smith, D.L.; Johnson, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated the generation, acceleration, transport, and extraction of intense, high-voltage, relativistic electron beams with the RADLAC-II accelerator. A 40-kA, electron beam was produced by a foilless diode injector, which was immersed in, and accurately aligned with, the magnetic axis of a 17-kG solenoidal guide field. The solenoidal field guides the beam through the accelerator, which includes a number of post-accelerating gaps designed to provide radial force balance to suppress radial oscillations. Furthermore, the accelerating cavities have a very low Q and small transverse shunt impedance to suppress beam breakup instabilities. A 70% to 90% transport efficiency was observed, depending on the precision of the beam line alignment. Finally, the beam was extracted, without significant losses, and propagated into a magnetic field-free, air-filled region.

  15. Design and commissioning of the photon monitors and optical transport lines for the advanced photon source positron accumulator ring

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, W.; Yang, B.; Lumpkin, A.; Jones, J.

    1996-12-31

    Two photon monitors have been designed and installed in the positron accumulator ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source. The photon monitors characterize the beam`s transverse profile, bunch length, emittance, and energy spread in a nonintrusive manner. An optical transport line delivers synchrotron light from the PAR out of a high radiation environment. Both charge-coupled device and fast-gated, intensified cameras are used to measure the transverse beam profile (0.11 - 1 mm for damped beam) with a resolution of 0.06 mm. A streak camera ({theta}{sub {tau}} =I ps) is used to measure the bunch length which is in the range of 0.3-1 ns. The design of the various transport components and commissioning results of the photon monitors will be discussed.

  16. Cortical depth and differential transport of vegetally localized dorsal and germ line determinants in the zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Welch, Elaine; Pelegri, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In zebrafish embryos, factors involved in both axis induction and primordial germ cell (PGC) development are localized to the vegetal pole of the egg. However, upon egg activation axis induction factors experience an asymmetric off-center shift whereas PGC factors undergo symmetric animally-directed movement. We examined the spatial relationship between the proposed dorsal genes wnt8a and grip2a and the PGC factor dazl at the vegetal cortex. We find that RNAs for these genes localize to different cortical depths, with the RNA for the PGC factor dazl at a deeper cortical level than those for axis-inducing factors. In addition, and in contrast to the role of microtubules in the long-range transport of dorsal determinants, we find that germ line determinant transport depends on the actin cytoskeleton. Our results support a model in which vegetal cortex differential RNA transport behavior is facilitated by RNA localization along cortical depth and differential coupling to cortical transport. PMID:26528729

  17. Cortical depth and differential transport of vegetally localized dorsal and germ line determinants in the zebrafish embryo

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Elaine; Pelegri, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In zebrafish embryos, factors involved in both axis induction and primordial germ cell (PGC) development are localized to the vegetal pole of the egg. However, upon egg activation axis induction factors experience an asymmetric off-center shift whereas PGC factors undergo symmetric animally-directed movement. We examined the spatial relationship between the proposed dorsal genes wnt8a and grip2a and the PGC factor dazl at the vegetal cortex. We find that RNAs for these genes localize to different cortical depths, with the RNA for the PGC factor dazl at a deeper cortical level than those for axis-inducing factors. In addition, and in contrast to the role of microtubules in the long-range transport of dorsal determinants, we find that germ line determinant transport depends on the actin cytoskeleton. Our results support a model in which vegetal cortex differential RNA transport behavior is facilitated by RNA localization along cortical depth and differential coupling to cortical transport. PMID:26528729

  18. A generalized framework for in-line energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Griesheimer, D. P.; Stedry, M. H.

    2013-07-01

    A rigorous treatment of energy deposition in a Monte Carlo transport calculation, including coupled transport of all secondary and tertiary radiations, increases the computational cost of a simulation dramatically, making fully-coupled heating impractical for many large calculations, such as 3-D analysis of nuclear reactor cores. However, in some cases, the added benefit from a full-fidelity energy-deposition treatment is negligible, especially considering the increased simulation run time. In this paper we present a generalized framework for the in-line calculation of energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo transport simulations. This framework gives users the ability to select among several energy-deposition approximations with varying levels of fidelity. The paper describes the computational framework, along with derivations of four energy-deposition treatments. Each treatment uses a unique set of self-consistent approximations, which ensure that energy balance is preserved over the entire problem. By providing several energy-deposition treatments, each with different approximations for neglecting the energy transport of certain secondary radiations, the proposed framework provides users the flexibility to choose between accuracy and computational efficiency. Numerical results are presented, comparing heating results among the four energy-deposition treatments for a simple reactor/compound shielding problem. The results illustrate the limitations and computational expense of each of the four energy-deposition treatments. (authors)

  19. The phytoestrogen genistein enhances multidrug resistance in breast cancer cell lines by translational regulation of ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Tocchetti, Guillermo Nicolás; Arana, Maite Rocío; Villanueva, Silvina Stella Maris; Catania, Viviana Alicia; Theile, Dirk; Ruiz, María Laura; Weiss, Johanna

    2016-06-28

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy in women. Multidrug resistance due to overexpression of ABC drug transporters is a common cause of chemotherapy failure and disease recurrence. Genistein (GNT) is a phytoestrogen present in soybeans and hormone supplements. We investigated the effect of GNT on the expression and function of ABC transporters in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Results demonstrated an induction at the protein level of ABCC1 and ABCG2 and of ABCC1 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively. MCF-7 cells showed a concomitant increase in doxorubicin and mitoxantrone efflux and resistance, dependent on ABCG2 activity. ABCC1 induction by GNT in MDA-MB-231 cells modified neither drug efflux nor chemoresistance due to simultaneous acute inhibition of the transporter activity by GNT. All inductions took place at the translational level, as no increment in mRNA was observed and protein increase was prevented by cycloheximide. miR-181a, already demonstrated to inhibit ABCG2 translation, was down-regulated by GNT, explaining translational induction. Effects were independent of classical estrogen receptors. Results suggest potential nutrient-drug interactions that could threaten chemotherapy efficacy, especially in ABCG2-expressing tumors treated with substrates of this transporter. PMID:27033456

  20. An Agent-based Transportation Route Planning Method for Led Fabricating Line and Its Evaluation Using Lagrangian Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Tatsushi; Sotobayashi, Ken; Ando, Masakazu; Konishi, Masami

    In most of Light Emitting Diode (LED) semiconductor fabricating line, AGVs (Automated Guided Vehicles) are used to transport the products between the facilities in order to ensure dust-free operation in the transportation systems. It has been demanded to realize the route planning system which speedily derives a feasible transportation route so that each AGV does not interfere with other AGVs. In this paper, we applied an agent-based optimization method for the route planning problems with multiple AGVs in LED fabricating bay in which the total transportation time is minimized. In the agent-based method, each AGV agent independently searches its candidate of route. The imitated pheromone is effectively used to generate the route which avoids the collision among AGVs. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the lower bound of the original problem is obtained by using the Lagrangian relaxation technique. The performances of the proposed method are evaluated by using the value of duality gap for a large scale problem. The effectiveness of the agent-based optimization method is demonstrated.

  1. Different Behavioral and Physiological Response in two Genetic Lines of Laying Hens Following Transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological and behavioral response to transportation stress were examined in chickens selected for high group productivity and survivability (HGPS) resulting from reduced cannibalism and flightiness in colony cages and in chickens from Dekalb XL (DXL) commercial strain. At 13 wks of age, 96 pulle...

  2. Structural model of FeoB, the iron transporter from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, predicts a cysteine lined, GTP-gated pore.

    PubMed

    Seyedmohammad, Saeed; Fuentealba, Natalia Alveal; Marriott, Robert A J; Goetze, Tom A; Edwardson, J Michael; Barrera, Nelson P; Venter, Henrietta

    2016-04-01

    Iron is essential for the survival and virulence of pathogenic bacteria. The FeoB transporter allows the bacterial cell to acquire ferrous iron from its environment, making it an excellent drug target in intractable pathogens. The protein consists of an N-terminal GTP-binding domain and a C-terminal membrane domain. Despite the availability of X-ray crystal structures of the N-terminal domain, many aspects of the structure and function of FeoB remain unclear, such as the structure of the membrane domain, the oligomeric state of the protein, the molecular mechanism of iron transport, and how this is coupled to GTP hydrolysis at the N-terminal domain. In the present study, we describe the first homology model of FeoB. Due to the lack of sequence homology between FeoB and other transporters, the structures of four different proteins were used as templates to generate the homology model of full-length FeoB, which predicts a trimeric structure. We confirmed this trimeric structure by both blue-native-PAGE (BN-PAGE) and AFM. According to our model, the membrane domain of the trimeric protein forms a central pore lined by highly conserved cysteine residues. This pore aligns with a central pore in the N-terminal GTPase domain (G-domain) lined by aspartate residues. Biochemical analysis of FeoB from Pseudomonas aeruginosa further reveals a putative iron sensor domain that could connect GTP binding/hydrolysis to the opening of the pore. These results indicate that FeoB might not act as a transporter, but rather as a GTP-gated channel. PMID:26934982

  3. Structural model of FeoB, the iron transporter from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, predicts a cysteine lined, GTP-gated pore

    PubMed Central

    Seyedmohammad, Saeed; Fuentealba, Natalia Alveal; Marriott, Robert A.J.; Goetze, Tom A.; Edwardson, J. Michael; Barrera, Nelson P.; Venter, Henrietta

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for the survival and virulence of pathogenic bacteria. The FeoB transporter allows the bacterial cell to acquire ferrous iron from its environment, making it an excellent drug target in intractable pathogens. The protein consists of an N-terminal GTP-binding domain and a C-terminal membrane domain. Despite the availability of X-ray crystal structures of the N-terminal domain, many aspects of the structure and function of FeoB remain unclear, such as the structure of the membrane domain, the oligomeric state of the protein, the molecular mechanism of iron transport, and how this is coupled to GTP hydrolysis at the N-terminal domain. In the present study, we describe the first homology model of FeoB. Due to the lack of sequence homology between FeoB and other transporters, the structures of four different proteins were used as templates to generate the homology model of full-length FeoB, which predicts a trimeric structure. We confirmed this trimeric structure by both blue-native-PAGE (BN-PAGE) and AFM. According to our model, the membrane domain of the trimeric protein forms a central pore lined by highly conserved cysteine residues. This pore aligns with a central pore in the N-terminal GTPase domain (G-domain) lined by aspartate residues. Biochemical analysis of FeoB from Pseudomonas aeruginosa further reveals a putative iron sensor domain that could connect GTP binding/hydrolysis to the opening of the pore. These results indicate that FeoB might not act as a transporter, but rather as a GTP-gated channel. PMID:26934982

  4. Paracellular Transport through Healthy and Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cell Lines – Do We Have a Proper Model?

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Nelly; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Günzel, Dorothee; Schillers, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported recently that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) besides transcellular chloride transport, also controls the paracellular permeability of bronchial epithelium. The aim of this study was to test whether overexpressing wtCFTR solely regulates paracellular permeability of cell monolayers. To answer this question we used a CFBE41o– cell line transfected with wtCFTR or mutant F508del-CFTR and compered them with parental line and healthy 16HBE14o– cells. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular fluorescein flux were measured under control and CFTR-stimulating conditions. CFTR stimulation significant decreased TER in 16HBE14o– and also in CFBE41o– cells transfected with wtCFTR. In contrast, TER increased upon stimulation in CFBE41o– cells and CFBE41o– cells transfected with F508del-CFTR. Under non-stimulated conditions, all four cell lines had similar paracellular fluorescein flux. Stimulation increased only the paracellular permeability of the 16HBE14o– cell monolayers. We observed that 16HBE14o– cells were significantly smaller and showed a different structure of cell-cell contacts than CFBE41o– and its overexpressing clones. Consequently, 16HBE14o– cells have about 80% more cell-cell contacts through which electrical current and solutes can leak. Also tight junction protein composition is different in ‘healthy’ 16HBE14o– cells compared to ‘cystic fibrosis’ CFBE41o– cells. We found that claudin-3 expression was considerably stronger in 16HBE14o– cells than in the three CFBE41o– cell clones and thus independent of the presence of functional CFTR. Together, CFBE41o– cell line transfection with wtCFTR modifies transcellular conductance, but not the paracellular permeability. We conclude that CFTR overexpression is not sufficient to fully reconstitute transport in CF bronchial epithelium. Hence, it is not recommended to use those cell lines to study CFTR-dependent epithelial transport. PMID:24945658

  5. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A.; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Midttun, Øystein; University of Oslo, Oslo

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  6. Line shape modeling for radiation transport investigations in magnetic fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosato, J.; Reiter, D.; Kotov, V.; Börner, P.; Capes, H.; Marandet, Y.; Stamm, R.; Ferri, S.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Mossé, C.

    2009-06-01

    Hydrogen line radiation can be trapped in some spatial regions within magnetic fusion experiments at high density, typically when NH(˜ Ne) ˜ 10 15 cm -3. The corresponding photoexcitation yields a significant additional source of ionization that must be properly characterized by numerical simulations. Kinetic Monte-Carlo codes provide a capability to study this subject; however, these codes require accurate physical models for the reaction rates, including spectral line shapes. In this paper we deal with the Zeeman-Stark model used for the Ly α transition in the EIRENE code [D. Reiter, M. Baelmans, P. Börner, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47 (2005) 172; www.eirene.de] and we address the influence of ion dynamics, which can affect these line profiles. The impact theory for ions, that we first consider, is shown to be suited for description of the lateral components of the Lorentz triplet. By contrast, comparisons to numerical simulations show that this theory is not well suited for description of the central component, which is significantly affected by incomplete and non-binary collisions. A refinement of the model in the framework of the unified theory is proposed and discussed.

  7. The APS machine protection system (MPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fuja, R.; Berg, B.; Arnold, N.

    1996-08-01

    The machine protection system (MPS) that protects the APS storage ring vacuum chamber from x-ray beams, is active. There are over 650 sensors monitored and networked through the MPS system. About the same number of other process variables are monitored by the much slower EPICS control system, which also has an input to the rf abort chain. The MPS network is still growing with the beam position limits detection system coming on-line. The network configuration, along with a limited description of individual subsystems, is presented.

  8. Anomalous, quasilinear, and percolative regimes for magnetic-field-line transport in axially symmetric turbulence

    PubMed

    Zimbardo; Veltri; Pommois

    2000-02-01

    We studied a magnetic turbulence axisymmetric around the unperturbed magnetic field for cases having different ratios l( ||)/l( perpendicular). We find, in addition to the fact that a higher fluctuation level deltaB/B(0) makes the system more stochastic, that by increasing the ratio l( ||)/l( perpendicular) at fixed deltaB/B(0), the stochasticity increases. It appears that the different transport regimes can be organized in terms of the Kubo number R=(deltaB/B(0))(l( ||)/l( perpendicular)). The simulation results are compared with the two analytical limits, that is the percolative limit and the quasilinear limit. When R<1 weak chaos, closed magnetic surfaces, and anomalous transport regimes are found. When R approximately 1 the diffusion regime is Gaussian, and the quasilinear scaling of the diffusion coefficient D( perpendicular) approximately (deltaB/B(0))(2) is recovered. Finally, for R>1 the percolation scaling of the diffusion coefficient D( perpendicular) approximately (deltaB/B(0))(0.7) is obtained. PMID:11046480

  9. Filament wound metal lined propellant tanks for future Earth-to-orbit transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O.; Davis, Robert B.; Freeman, William T., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    For future Earth-to-orbit transport vehicles, reusability and lighter weights are sought for the main propellant tanks. To achieve this, a filament wound tank with a metal liner and an intermediate layer of foam-filled honeycomb is proposed. A hydrogen tank is used as an example. To accommodate mismatches in the expansion of liner and overwrap a design is proposed wherin the liner is configured so that the extension of the liner under pressure matches the expected contraction of the same liner due to the presence of a cryogen. In operation, the liner is pressurized at a rate such that the pressure strain matches the contraction due to decrease in temperature. As an alternate approach, compressive pre-stress is placed in the liner such that it will not separate from the overwrap. A finite element program is used to show stresses in the liner and overwrap for various tank pressures for the pre-stressed liner concept. A fracture mechanics analysis is made of the liners to determine tank life. The tank concept shown has a similar weight to the Shuttle external hydrogen tank, but the filament wound tank is expected to be reusable. Integration of the propellant tanks into a future transport vehicle is discussed.

  10. Quantitative Kα line spectroscopy for energy transport in ultra-intense laser plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Nishimura, H.; Fujioka, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Nakai, M.; Chen, H.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Ozaki, T.; Shiraga, H.; Kojima, S.; Johzaki, T.; Sunahara, A.; Miyanaga, N.; Kawanaka, J.; Nakata, Y.; Jitsuno, T.; Azechi, H.

    2016-03-01

    Absolute Ka line spectroscopy is proposed for studying laser-plasma interactions taking place in the cone-guided fast ignition targets. X-ray spectra ranging from 20 to 100 keV were quantitatively measured with a Laue spectrometer. The absolute sensitivities of the Laue spectrometer system were calibrated using pre-characterized laser-produced x-ray sources and radioisotopes. The integrated reflectivity for the crystal is in good agreement with predictions by an open code for x-ray diffraction. The energy transfer efficiency from incident laser beams to hot electrons, as the energy transfer agency, is derived as a consequence of this work. The absolute yield of Au and Ta Ka lines were measured in the fast ignition experimental campaign performed at Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. Applying the hot electron spectrum information from the electron spectrometer, an energy transfer efficiency of the incident LFEX [1], a kJ-class PW laser, to hot electrons was derived for a planar and cone-guided geometry.

  11. The GEANT4 toolkit capability in the hadron therapy field: simulation of a transport beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Di Rosa, F.; Raffaele, L.; Russo, G.; Guatelli, S.; Pia, M. G.

    2006-01-01

    At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare of Catania (Sicily, Italy), the first Italian hadron therapy facility named CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia ed Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) has been realized. Inside CATANA 62 MeV proton beams, accelerated by a superconducting cyclotron, are used for the radiotherapeutic treatments of some types of ocular tumours. Therapy with hadron beams still represents a pioneer technique, and only a few centers worldwide can provide this advanced specialized cancer treatment. On the basis of the experience so far gained, and considering the future hadron-therapy facilities to be developed (Rinecker, Munich Germany, Heidelberg/GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, PSI Villigen, Switzerland, CNAO, Pavia, Italy, Centro di Adroterapia, Catania, Italy) we decided to develop a Monte Carlo application based on the GEANT4 toolkit, for the design, the realization and the optimization of a proton-therapy beam line. Another feature of our project is to provide a general tool able to study the interactions of hadrons with the human tissue and to test the analytical-based treatment planning systems actually used in the routine practice. All the typical elements of a hadron-therapy line, such as diffusers, range shifters, collimators and detectors were modelled. In particular, we simulated the Markus type ionization chamber and a Gaf Chromic film as dosimeters to reconstruct the depth (Bragg peak and Spread Out Bragg Peak) and lateral dose distributions, respectively. We validated our simulated detectors comparing the results with the experimental data available in our facility.

  12. Control units for APS power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Despe, O.D.; Saunders, C.; McGhee, D.G.

    1993-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) accelerator facility is made up of five major subsystems in addition to the linac: the positron accumulator ring (PAR), low energy transport (LET), booster synchrotron (SYNCH), high energy transport (HET), the storage ring (SR). Each subsystem has multiple magnet power supply combinations, some requiring multiple of operation. These magnet and power supply combinations computer controlled and monitored. The power supply control unit (PSCU) is the first layer of hardware and software above the power supply itself and is described in this paper. The description includes the basic philosophy for each of operation and how it influences the topology and of implementing control. The design of the analog reference blocks (ARBs) influenced the design of other custom functions well as the feedback controls for vibration and other dynamic corrections. The command set supported by the PSCU is discussed.

  13. Development and Characterization of a Novel Mouse Line Humanized for the Intestinal Peptide Transporter PEPT1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, but not colon, of mammals and found to mediate the uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs from the intestinal lumen. However, species differences have been observed in both the expression (and localization) of PEPT1 and its substrate affinity. With this in mind, the objectives of this study were to develop a humanized PEPT1 mouse model (huPEPT1) and to characterize hPEPT1 expression and functional activity in the intestines. Thus, after generating huPEPT1 mice in animals previously nulled for mouse Pept1, phenotypic, PCR, and immunoblot analyses were performed, along with in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies with a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar). Overall, the huPEPT1 mice had normal survival rates, fertility, litter size, gender distribution, and body weight. There was no obvious behavioral or pathological phenotype. The mRNA and protein profiles indicated that huPEPT1 mice had substantial PEPT1 expression in all regions of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) along with low but measurable expression in both proximal and distal segments of the colon. In agreement with PEPT1 expression, the in situ permeability of GlySar in huPEPT1 mice was similar to but lower than wildtype animals in small intestine, and greater than wildtype mice in colon. However, a species difference existed in the in situ transport kinetics of jejunal PEPT1, in which the maximal flux and Michaelis constant of GlySar were reduced 7-fold and 2- to 4-fold, respectively, in huPEPT1 compared to wildtype mice. Still, the in vivo function of intestinal PEPT1 appeared fully restored (compared to Pept1 knockout mice) as indicated by the nearly identical pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration–time profiles following a 5.0 nmol/g oral dose of GlySar to huPEPT1 and wildtype mice. This study reports, for the first time, the development and characterization of mice humanized for PEPT1. This novel transgenic huPEPT1 mouse model should prove useful in examining the role, relevance, and regulation of PEPT1 in diet and disease, and in the drug discovery process. PMID:25148225

  14. Development and characterization of a novel mouse line humanized for the intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Yehua; Wang, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaomei; Smith, David E

    2014-10-01

    The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, but not colon, of mammals and found to mediate the uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs from the intestinal lumen. However, species differences have been observed in both the expression (and localization) of PEPT1 and its substrate affinity. With this in mind, the objectives of this study were to develop a humanized PEPT1 mouse model (huPEPT1) and to characterize hPEPT1 expression and functional activity in the intestines. Thus, after generating huPEPT1 mice in animals previously nulled for mouse Pept1, phenotypic, PCR, and immunoblot analyses were performed, along with in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies with a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar). Overall, the huPEPT1 mice had normal survival rates, fertility, litter size, gender distribution, and body weight. There was no obvious behavioral or pathological phenotype. The mRNA and protein profiles indicated that huPEPT1 mice had substantial PEPT1 expression in all regions of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) along with low but measurable expression in both proximal and distal segments of the colon. In agreement with PEPT1 expression, the in situ permeability of GlySar in huPEPT1 mice was similar to but lower than wildtype animals in small intestine, and greater than wildtype mice in colon. However, a species difference existed in the in situ transport kinetics of jejunal PEPT1, in which the maximal flux and Michaelis constant of GlySar were reduced 7-fold and 2- to 4-fold, respectively, in huPEPT1 compared to wildtype mice. Still, the in vivo function of intestinal PEPT1 appeared fully restored (compared to Pept1 knockout mice) as indicated by the nearly identical pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration-time profiles following a 5.0 nmol/g oral dose of GlySar to huPEPT1 and wildtype mice. This study reports, for the first time, the development and characterization of mice humanized for PEPT1. This novel transgenic huPEPT1 mouse model should prove useful in examining the role, relevance, and regulation of PEPT1 in diet and disease, and in the drug discovery process. PMID:25148225

  15. Effect of subdominant species on the evolution of intense primary beam in a low energy beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

    2013-08-15

    The dynamics of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam with different distributions has been studied in a solenoid based low energy beam transport line using a particle-in-cell simulation method. Results are presented in wide parameter regimes covering emittance dominated as well as space charge dominated multispecies beams consisting of p, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams. Simulation shows the formation of hollow distribution of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams around the desired proton beam and separation is more distinct as the fraction of proton is increased. The hollow formation is almost independent of combination of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams, once the fraction of proton beam is fixed. The emittance growth of proton is found to increase sharply in the space-charge-dominated regime and is more in the cases where proton fraction is low.

  16. The Li-7 and Be-7 deexcitation lines: Probes for accelerated particle transport models in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Ronald J.; Hua, X.-M.; Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

    1989-01-01

    The photon energy spectrum of a spectral feature composed of the 429 and 478 keV gamma-ray lines from Li-7 and Be-7 (produced by interactions of flare-accelerated alpha particles with ambient He in the solar atmosphere) depends on the angular distribution of the interacting accelerated particles. This spectrum is calculated for limb and disc-centered flares using a loop model for the transport of the ions. In this model, the flux tube magnetic field is constant in the corona and converges in the chromosphere to the photosphere. Magnetic mirroring and MHD pitch-angle scattering are both taken into account. Comparison of these results with data from other experiments is presented.

  17. Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasmas along open magnetic field lines: Plasma profile variation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Zehua; Tang Xianzhu

    2012-08-15

    Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along an open magnetic field line is characterized by strong temperature anisotropy, which is driven by two effects. The first is magnetic moment conservation in a non-uniform magnetic field, which can transfer energy between parallel and perpendicular degrees of freedom. The second is decompressional cooling of the parallel temperature due to parallel flow acceleration by conventional presheath electric field which is associated with the sheath condition near the wall surface where the open magnetic field line intercepts the discharge chamber. To the leading order in gyroradius to system gradient length scale expansion, the parallel transport can be understood via the Chew-Goldbeger-Low (CGL) model which retains two components of the parallel heat flux, i.e., q{sub n} associated with the parallel thermal energy and q{sub s} related to perpendicular thermal energy. It is shown that in addition to the effect of magnetic field strength (B) modulation, the two components (q{sub n} and q{sub s}) of the parallel heat flux play decisive roles in the parallel variation of the plasma profile, which includes the plasma density (n), parallel flow (u), parallel and perpendicular temperatures (T{sub Parallel-To} and T{sub Up-Tack }), and the ambipolar potential ({phi}). Both their profile (q{sub n}/B and q{sub s}/B{sup 2}) and the upstream values of the ratio of the conductive and convective thermal flux (q{sub n}/nuT{sub Parallel-To} and q{sub s}/nuT{sub Up-Tack }) provide the controlling physics, in addition to B modulation. The physics described by the CGL model are contrasted with those of the double-adiabatic laws and further elucidated by comparison with the first-principles kinetic simulation for a specific but representative flux expander case.

  18. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  19. Theoretical insights on the electro-thermal transport properties of monolayer MoS2 with line defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Dipankar; Mahapatra, Santanu

    2016-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) materials demonstrate several novel electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties which are quite distinctive to those of their bulk form. Among many others, one important potential application of the 2D material is its use in the field of energy harvesting. Owing to that, here we present a detailed study on electrical as well as thermal transport of monolayer MoS2, in quasi ballistic regime. Besides the perfect monolayer in its pristine form, we also consider various line defects which have been experimentally observed in mechanically exfoliated MoS2 samples. For calculating various parameters related to the electrical transmission, we employ the non-equilibrium Green's function-density functional theory combination. However, to obtain the phonon transmission, we take help of the parametrized Stillinger-Weber potential which can accurately delineate the inter-atomic interactions for the monolayer MoS2. Due to the presence of line defects, we observed significant reductions in both the charge carrier and the phonon transmissions through a monolayer MoS2 flake. Moreover, we also report a comparative analysis showing the temperature dependency of the thermoelectric figure of merit values, as obtained for the perfect as well as the other defective 2D samples.

  20. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  1. Effects of ionophore A23187 on base-line and vasopressin-stimulated sodium transport in the toad bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Wiesmann, W; Sinha, S; Klahr, S

    1977-01-01

    The cation specific ionophore A23187 (Io) is a useful tool for studying the role of intracellular Ca++ (Ca++)i in physiologic processes. The present studies explore the role of (Ca++)i on Na transport in the toad bladder. Scraped bladder cells exposed to 1 muM Io for 60 min took up 100% more 45Ca than control cells. Io, 1 muM, added to the serosal side of bladders incubated in standard Ringers containing 2.5 mM Ca++ inhibited short circuit current (SCC) values by a mean of 30% at 60 min and 50% at 90 min. Io did not inhibit SCC significantly in bladders incubated in Ringers containing 0.2 mM Ca++. These data indicate that the effects of Io on SCC depend on the levels of external Ca++ and suggest that entry of Ca++ into cells mediates the inhibition of base-line SCC. PReincubation of the bladders with either lanthanum chloride or pentobarbital prevented the increased 45Ca uptake produced by ionophore as well as theinhibition of SCC caused by the antibiotic. Vasopressin, antidiuretic hormone (ADH). 10 MU/ml, increased peak SCC by 247% in bladders preincubated for 1 h in Ringers with 2.5 mM Ca++ and 1 muM Io and by 318% in control bladders (P less than 0.01). Bladders exposed to 1 muM Io in Ringers with 0.2 mM Ca++ had an increase in SCC after ADH comparable to that observed in controls. Since the effects of ADH on SCC are mediated by cyclic AMP, we tested the effects of Io on cAMP production by scraped toad bladder cells. ADH increased cAMP from 8 to 30 pmol/mg protein in controls but it did not increase cAMP over base-line values in the presence of Io when the Ringers contained 2.5 mM Ca++. Io did not inhibit cAMP production in response to ADH when the Ca++ in the Ringers was 0.2 mM. The results indicate that Io inhibits baseline and ADH stimulated SCC by increasing (Ca++)i or Ca++ bound to the cell membrane. It is suggested that: ()( (Ca++)i or membrane-bound Ca++ plays a key role in base-line and ADH stimulated Na transport in the toad bladder; (2) inhibition of ADH stimulated SCC may be due inpart to decreased cAMP generation in response to ADH when (Ca++)i or membrane-bound Ca++ levels are increased. PMID:190265

  2. AP Human Geography and Success on the AP Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncone, John; Newhalfen, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Classroom projects that explore culture and globalization enhance the curriculum and help students see how geography directly connects to their lives. These authors contend that a project-based approach can supplement the teaching of an AP Human Geography course, and visualize this course as an essential tool for students to truly understand how…

  3. Influence of overexpression of efflux proteins on the function and gene expression of endogenous peptide transporters in MDR-transfected MDCKII cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiying; Pal, Dhananjay; Patel, Ashaben; Kwatra, Deep; Mitra, Ashim K

    2013-01-30

    The objective of this study is to delineate whether overexpression of human efflux transporters (P-gp, MRP2, and BCRP) in transfected MDCK cells affect the functional activities, and gene and protein expression of endogenous influx peptide transporter system (PepT). Real-time PCR, immunoblotting, uptake and permeability studies of [(3)H]Gly-Sar were conducted on transfected MDCKII and wild-type cells to investigate functional differences. Cellular [(3)H]Gly-Sar accumulation was significantly lower in transfected MDCKII cell lines compared to wild-type cells. Transport efficiency of apical peptide transporters was markedly reduced to around 25%, 30%, and 40% in P-gp-, MRP2-, and BCRP-overexpressed MDCK cell lines, respectively. With ascending cell-passage, transport efficiency was enhanced. A significantly higher Gly-Sar permeability was observed across parental cell-monolayers over transfected cells at all pHs. Levels of mRNA for both canine PepT1 and PepT2 were substantially reduced when efflux transporters overexpressed but enhanced when mRNA-levels of efflux genes diminished with ascending cell-passage of transfected cells. An inverse correlation was evident between endogenous PepT and exogenous efflux transporters in transfected MDCKII cells. Results of protein expression also supported these findings. Overexpression of MDR genes can affect endogenous PepT function which might be due to the phenomenon of transporter-compensation resulting in down-regulation of endogenous genes. PMID:23262422

  4. Influence of overexpression of efflux proteins on the function and gene expression of endogenous peptide transporters in MDR-transfected MDCKII cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiying; Pal, Dhananjay; Patel, Ashaben; Kwatra, Deep; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to delineate whether overexpression of human efflux transporters (P-gp, MRP2, and BCRP) in transfected MDCK cells affect the functional activities, and gene and protein expression of endogenous influx peptide transporter system (PepT). Real-time PCR, immunoblotting, uptake and permeability studies of [3H]Gly-Sar were conducted on transfected MDCKII and wild-type cells to investigate functional differences. Cellular [3H]Gly-Sar accumulation was significantly lower in transfected MDCKII cell lines compared to wild-type cells. Transport efficiency of apical peptide transporters was markedly reduced to around 25%, 30%, and 40% in P-gp-, MRP2-, and BCRP-overexpressed MDCK cell lines, respectively. With ascending cell-passage, transport efficiency was enhanced. A significantly higher Gly-Sar permeability was observed across parental cell-monolayers over transfected cells at all pHs. Levels of mRNA for both canine PepT1 and PepT2 were substantially reduced when efflux transporters overexpressed but enhanced when mRNA-levels of efflux genes diminished with ascending cell-passage of transfected cells. An inverse correlation was evident between endogenous PepT and exogenous efflux transporters in transfected MDCKII cells. Results of protein expression also supported these findings. Overexpression of MDR genes can affect endogenous PepT function which might be due to the phenomenon of transporter-compensation resulting in down-regulation of endogenous genes. PMID:23262422

  5. On the abundance of Europium. [in Ap and Am stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartoog, M. R.; Cowley, C. R.; Adelman, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    The inclusion of the effects of hyperfine splitting can significantly lower the abundance estimate of Eu from singly ionized lines which lie on the flat portion of the curve of growth. In the 21 cool Ap stars studied by Adelman and the five Am stars studied by Smith, the Eu abundance was reduced by 0.4 dex on the average. In individual cases, the reductions were as great as 0.9 dex. This makes the Eu abundance comparable to that of its neighboring rare earths Sm and Gd in the Ap stars and less than Sm and Gd in the Am stars, but still substantially overabundant with respect to solar values.

  6. R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

  7. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  8. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any

  9. Adaptor protein complexes and intracellular transport

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Yoon; Guo, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    The AP (adaptor protein) complexes are heterotetrameric protein complexes that mediate intracellular membrane trafficking along endocytic and secretory transport pathways. There are five different AP complexes: AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 are clathrin-associated complexes; whereas AP-4 and AP-5 are not. These five AP complexes localize to different intracellular compartments and mediate membrane trafficking in distinct pathways. They recognize and concentrate cargo proteins into vesicular carriers that mediate transport from a donor membrane to a target organellar membrane. AP complexes play important roles in maintaining the normal physiological function of eukaryotic cells. Dysfunction of AP complexes has been implicated in a variety of inherited disorders, including: MEDNIK (mental retardation, enteropathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, ichthyosis and keratodermia) syndrome, Fried syndrome, HPS (Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome) and HSP (hereditary spastic paraplegia). PMID:24975939

  10. Low Earth orbit assessment of proton anisotropy using AP8 and AP9 trapped proton models.

    PubMed

    Badavi, Francis F; Walker, Steven A; Santos Koos, Lindsey M

    2015-04-01

    The completion of the International Space Station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community with an ideal evaluation and testing facility for future long duration human activities in space. Ionized and secondary neutral particles radiation measurements inside ISS form the ideal tool for validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear reaction cross sections and transport codes. Studies using thermo-luminescent detectors (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TPEC), and computer aided design (CAD) models of early ISS configurations confirmed that, as input, computational dosimetry at low Earth orbit (LEO) requires an environmental model with directional (anisotropic) capability to properly describe the exposure of trapped protons within ISS. At LEO, ISS encounters exposure from trapped electrons, protons and geomagnetically attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). For short duration studies at LEO, one can ignore trapped electrons and ever present GCR exposure contributions during quiet times. However, within the trapped proton field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of proton exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensity of trapped particles. Among the established trapped models are the historic AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution to ISS, this work ignores the AE8 and AE9 components of the models and couples a measurement derived anisotropic trapped proton formalism to omnidirectional output from the AP8 and AP9 models, allowing the assessment of the differences between the two proton models. The assessment is done at a target point within the ISS-11A configuration (circa 2003) crew quarter (CQ) of Russian Zvezda service module (SM), during its ascending and descending nodes passes through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). The anisotropic formalism incorporates the contributions of proton narrow pitch angle (PA) and east-west (EW) effects. Within SAA, the EW anisotropy results in different level of exposure to each side of the ISS Zvezda SM, allowing angular evaluation of the anisotropic proton spectrum. While the combined magnitude of PA and EW effects at LEO depends on a multitude of factors such as trapped proton energy, orientation and altitude of the spacecraft along the velocity vector, this paper draws quantitative conclusions on the combined anisotropic magnitude differences within ISS SM target point between AP8 and AP9 models. PMID:26177846

  11. Expression of AP-2 alpha in SV40 immortalized human lung fibroblasts is associated with a distinct pattern of cytosine methylation in the AP-2 alpha promoter.

    PubMed

    Zhu, C H; Huang, Y; Broman, M T; Domann, F E

    2001-05-28

    Activator protein-2 alpha (AP-2 alpha) is a cell type-specific, developmentally regulated, transcription factor that has been implicated as a critical regulator of gene expression during vertebrate development and carcinogenesis. We found that AP-2 alpha was differentially expressed in the normal human lung fibroblast cell strains WI38, MRC-5 and their respective SV40-transformed cell counterparts WI38-VA, MRC-5VA. Since CpG methylation within genetic regulatory regions has been implicated as a mechanism of gene regulation, we investigated the CpG methylation status of the AP-2 alpha gene promoter in these cells. High resolution mapping of methylated cytosines revealed that differential expression of the AP-2 alpha gene in normal human lung fibroblasts and their SV40-transformed counterparts was associated with distinct patterns of cytosine methylation in the AP-2 alpha promoter just 5' to the transcription initiation site. Site-specific methylation was positively correlated with increased AP-2 alpha gene expression in both transformed cell lines investigated. Interestingly, one of the two major centers of hypermethylation in the transformed cells encompassed the cis-element for the AP-2 repressing transcription factor AP-2rep (KLF12). Finally, a sequence variation in human lung fibroblasts relative to the published sequence revealed a previously unidentified AP-2 binding site at position -528 with respect to the transcription initiation site that overlapped the AP-2rep site. Our results suggest that transcriptional activation of AP-2 alpha in the SV40-transformed cells is mediated, at least in part, by site-specific methylation of a negative regulatory cis-element in the AP-2 alpha promoter. PMID:11406275

  12. Obesity-Linked Homologues TfAP-2 and Twz Establish Meal Frequency in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael J.; Goergen, Philip; Rajendran, Jayasimman; Zheleznyakova, Galina; Hägglund, Maria G.; Perland, Emelie; Bagchi, Sonchita; Kalogeropoulou, Argyro; Khan, Zaid; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2014-01-01

    In all animals managing the size of individual meals and frequency of feeding is crucial for metabolic homeostasis. In the current study we demonstrate that the noradrenalin analogue octopamine and the cholecystokinin (CCK) homologue Drosulfakinin (Dsk) function downstream of TfAP-2 and Tiwaz (Twz) to control the number of meals in adult flies. Loss of TfAP-2 or Twz in octopaminergic neurons increased the size of individual meals, while overexpression of TfAP-2 significantly decreased meal size and increased feeding frequency. Of note, our study reveals that TfAP-2 and Twz regulate octopamine signaling to initiate feeding; then octopamine, in a negative feedback loop, induces expression of Dsk to inhibit consummatory behavior. Intriguingly, we found that the mouse TfAP-2 and Twz homologues, AP-2β and Kctd15, co-localize in areas of the brain known to regulate feeding behavior and reward, and a proximity ligation assay (PLA) demonstrated that AP-2β and Kctd15 interact directly in a mouse hypothalamus-derived cell line. Finally, we show that in this mouse hypothalamic cell line AP-2β and Kctd15 directly interact with Ube2i, a mouse sumoylation enzyme, and that AP-2β may itself be sumoylated. Our study reveals how two obesity-linked homologues regulate metabolic homeostasis by modulating consummatory behavior. PMID:25187989

  13. Time resolved spectroscopy of the cool Ap star HD 213637*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present an analysis of high time resolution spectra of the chemically peculiar Ap star HD 213637. The star shows rapid radial velocity variations with a period close to the photometric pulsation period. Radial velocity pulsation amplitudes vary significantly for different rare earth elements. The highest pulsation amplitudes belong to lines of Tb III (˜360 m s-1), Pr II (˜250 m s-1) and Pr III (˜230 m s-1). We did not detect any pulsations from spectral lines of Eu II and in Hα, in contrast to many other roAp stars. We also did not find radial velocity pulsations using spectral lines of other chemical elements, including Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba. There are phase shifts between the maxima of pulsation amplitudes of different rare earth elements and ions, which is evidence of an outwardly running magneto-acoustic wave propagating through the upper stellar atmosphere.

  14. The Clathrin Adaptor Complex AP-1 Binds HIV-1 and MLV Gag and Facilitates Their Budding

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Grgory; Segura-Morales, Carolina; Molle, Dorothee; Lopez-Vergs, Sandra; Begon-Pescia, Christina; Cazevieille, Chantal; Schu, Peter; Bertrand, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    Retroviral assembly is driven by Gag, and nascent viral particles escape cells by recruiting the machinery that forms intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies. In this study, we show that the clathrin adaptor complex AP-1 is involved in retroviral release. The absence of AP-1? obtained by genetic knock-out or by RNA interference reduces budding of murine leukemia virus (MLV) and HIV-1, leading to a delay of viral propagation in cell culture. In contrast, overexpression of AP-1? enhances release of HIV-1 Gag. We show that the AP-1 complex facilitates retroviral budding through a direct interaction between the matrix and AP-1?. Less MLV Gag is found associated with late endosomes in cells lacking AP-1, and our results suggest that AP-1 and AP-3 could function on the same pathway that leads to Gag release. In addition, we find that AP-1 interacts with Tsg101 and Nedd4.1, two cellular proteins known to be involved in HIV-1 and MLV budding. We propose that AP-1 promotes Gag release by transporting it to intracellular sites of active budding, and/or by facilitating its interactions with other cellular partners. PMID:17538020

  15. Generation of a cre recombinase-conditional Nos1ap over-expression transgenic mouse

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Dallas R.; Sysa-Shah, Polina; Bedja, Djahida; Simmers, Jessica L.; Pak, Evgenia; Dutra, Amalia; Cohn, Ronald; Gabrielson, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphic non-coding variants at the NOS1AP locus have been associated with the common cardiac, metabolic and neurological traits and diseases. Although, in vitro gene targeting-based cellular and biochemical studies have shed some light on NOS1AP function in cardiac and neuronal tissue, to enhance our understanding of NOS1AP function in mammalian physiology and disease, we report the generation of cre recombinase-conditional Nos1ap over-expression transgenic mice (Nos1apTg). Conditional transgenic mice were generated by the pronuclear injection method and three independent, single-site, multiple copies integration event-based founder lines were selected. For heart-restricted over-expression, Nos1apTg mice were crossed with Mlc2v-cre and Nos1ap transcript over-expression was observed in left ventricles from Nos1apTg; Mlc2v-cre F1 mice. We believe that with the potential of conditional over-expression, Nos1apTg mice will be a useful resource in studying NOS1AP function in various tissues under physiological and disease states. PMID:24563304

  16. Discoveries in the Atmospheres of roAp Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Freyhammer, L. M.; Elkin, V. G.; Mathys, G.

    2007-11-01

    We have obtained a large amount of data on over 40 roAp stars and potential roAp stars with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on the VLT with time resolution typically around 1 min and radial velocity precision as high as 1 m s-1. Abundance stratification caused by atomic diffusion in the presence of strong global magnetic fields gives promise of three-dimensional maps of the pulsation amplitude and phase, and of the abundance distributions of many ions that may provide the strongest observational tests of atomic diffusion theory. Studies of individual spectral lines and of line profile variability sample the observable atmospheres of roAp stars from continuum optical depth τ5000~1 to as high as τ5000~10-5, revealing fascinating new pulsational behaviour not observed in other types of pulsating stars, including, inter alia, line profile variability in rare earth elements lines interpreted by as evidence for shock waves in the high atmosphere of these stars, an intriguing range of line bisector shapes, and a new pulsational diagnostic for resolved Zeeman components for the most strongly magnetic stars.

  17. Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with transportation and energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the implication of energy usage as it applies to the area of transportation. Some topics covered are efficiencies of various transportation…

  18. Optimization of the 8 GeV AP3-P1 Lattice for Antiproton Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Dave

    2001-01-22

    During 8 GeV antiproton transfers between the Accumulator to the Main Injector, the antiprotons must travel through four separate beam lines, AP3, AP1, P2, and P1. This note describes the optimization of a single lattice that describes these beam lines for 8 GeV antiproton transfers from the Accumulator to the Main Injector and 8 GeV proton transfers from the Main Injector to the Accumulator.

  19. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1) is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1) was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha. PMID:27168978

  20. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1) is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1) was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha. PMID:27168978

  1. The Role of the Clathrin Adaptor AP-1: Polarized Sorting and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The selective transport of proteins or lipids by vesicular transport is a fundamental process supporting cellular physiology. The budding process involves cargo sorting and vesicle formation at the donor membrane and constitutes an important process in vesicular transport. This process is particularly important for the polarized sorting in epithelial cells, in which the cargo molecules need to be selectively sorted and transported to two distinct destinations, the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Adaptor protein (AP)-1, a member of the AP complex family, which includes the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A and the epithelium-specific AP-1B, regulates polarized sorting at the trans-Golgi network and/or at the recycling endosomes. A growing body of evidence, especially from studies using model organisms and animals, demonstrates that the AP-1-mediated polarized sorting supports the development and physiology of multi-cellular units as functional organs and tissues (e.g., cell fate determination, inflammation and gut immune homeostasis). Furthermore, a possible involvement of AP-1B in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and cancer, is now becoming evident. These data highlight the significant contribution of AP-1 complexes to the physiology of multicellular organisms, as master regulators of polarized sorting in epithelial cells. PMID:25387275

  2. Design of a high-current low-energy beam transport line for an intense D-T/D-D neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Wang, Junrun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jianyi; Xia, Li; Zhang, Jie; Ding, Yanyan; Jiang, Bing; Huang, Zhiwu; Ma, Zhanwen; Wei, Zheng; Qian, Xiangping; Xu, Dapeng; Lan, Changlin; Yao, Zeen

    2016-03-01

    An intense D-T/D-D neutron generator is currently being developed at the Lanzhou University. The Cockcroft-Walton accelerator, as a part of the neutron generator, will be used to accelerate and transport the high-current low-energy beam from the duoplasmatron ion source to the rotating target. The design of a high-current low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line and the dynamics simulations of the mixed beam were carried out using the TRACK code. The results illustrate that the designed beam line facilitates smooth transportation of a deuteron beam of 40 mA, and the number of undesired ions can be reduced effectively using two apertures.

  3. Characterization of a protein phosphatase 2A holoenzyme that dephosphorylates the clathrin adaptors AP-1 and AP-2.

    PubMed

    Ricotta, Doris; Hansen, Jens; Preiss, Carolin; Teichert, Dominic; Höning, Stefan

    2008-02-29

    The AP-2 complex is a key factor in the formation of endocytic clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). AP-2 sorts and packages cargo membrane proteins into CCVs, binds the coat protein clathrin, and recruits numerous other factors to the site of vesicle formation. Structural information on the AP-2 complex and biochemical work have allowed understanding its function on the molecular level, and recent studies showed that cycles of phosphorylation are key steps in the regulation of AP-2 function. The complex is phosphorylated on both large subunits (alpha- and beta2-adaptins) as well as at a single threonine residue (Thr-156) of the medium subunit mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 is necessary for efficient cargo recruitment, whereas the functional context of the large subunit phosphorylation is unknown. Here, we show that the subunit phosphorylation of AP-2 exhibits striking differences, with calculated half-lives of <1 min for mu2, approximately 25 min for beta2, and approximately 70 min for alpha. We were also able to purify a phosphatase that dephosphorylates the mu2 subunit. The enzyme is a member of the protein phosphatase 2A family and composed of a catalytic Cbeta subunit, a scaffolding Abeta subunit, and a regulatory Balpha subunit. RNA interference knock down of the latter subunit in HeLa cells resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated adaptors and altered endocytosis, showing that a specific PP2A holoenzyme is an important regulatory enzyme in CCV-mediated transport. PMID:18158287

  4. The Adaptor Complex AP-4 Regulates Vacuolar Protein Sorting at the trans-Golgi Network by Interacting with VACUOLAR SORTING RECEPTOR1.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kentaro; Shirakawa, Makoto; Shimono, Yuki; Kunieda, Tadashi; Fukao, Yoichiro; Koumoto, Yasuko; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Shimada, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes play critical roles in protein sorting among different post-Golgi pathways by recognizing specific cargo protein motifs. Among the five AP complexes (AP-1-AP-5) in plants, AP-4 is one of the most poorly understood; the AP-4 components, AP-4 cargo motifs, and AP-4 functional mechanism are not known. Here, we identify the AP-4 components and show that the AP-4 complex regulates receptor-mediated vacuolar protein sorting by recognizing VACUOLAR SORTING RECEPTOR1 (VSR1), which was originally identified as a sorting receptor for seed storage proteins to target protein storage vacuoles in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). From the vacuolar sorting mutant library GREEN FLUORESCENT SEED (GFS), we isolated three gfs mutants that accumulate abnormally high levels of VSR1 in seeds and designated them as gfs4, gfs5, and gfs6. Their responsible genes encode three (AP4B, AP4M, and AP4S) of the four subunits of the AP-4 complex, respectively, and an Arabidopsis mutant (ap4e) lacking the fourth subunit, AP4E, also had the same phenotype. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that these four proteins form a complex in vivo. The four mutants showed defects in the vacuolar sorting of the major storage protein 12S globulins, indicating a role for the AP-4 complex in vacuolar protein transport. AP4M bound to the tyrosine-based motif of VSR1. AP4M localized at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) subdomain that is distinct from the AP-1-localized TGN subdomain. This study provides a novel function for the AP-4 complex in VSR1-mediated vacuolar protein sorting at the specialized domain of the TGN. PMID:26546666

  5. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  6. An AP Calculus Classroom Amusement Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the school year, AP Calculus teachers strive to teach course content comprehensively and swiftly in an effort to finish all required material before the AP Calculus exam. As early May approaches and the AP Calculus test looms, students and teachers nervously complete lessons, assignments, and assessments to ensure student preparation.…

  7. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World

  8. BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 Proteins Function in Concert with Rab38 and Rab32 Proteins to Mediate Protein Trafficking to Lysosome-related Organelles*

    PubMed Central

    Bultema, Jarred J.; Ambrosio, Andrea L.; Burek, Carolyn L.; Di Pietro, Santiago M.

    2012-01-01

    Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) are synthesized in specialized cell types where they largely coexist with conventional lysosomes. Most of the known cellular transport machinery involved in biogenesis are ubiquitously expressed and shared between lysosomes and LROs. Examples of common components are the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelle complex (BLOC)-2. These protein complexes control sorting and transport of newly synthesized integral membrane proteins from early endosomes to both lysosomes and LROs such as the melanosome. However, it is unknown what factors cooperate with the ubiquitous transport machinery to mediate transport to LROs in specialized cells. Focusing on the melanosome, we show that the ubiquitous machinery interacts with cell type-specific Rab proteins, Rab38 and Rab32, to facilitate transport to the maturing organelle. BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 coimmunoprecipitated with Rab38 and Rab32 from MNT-1 melanocytic cell extracts. BLOC-2, AP-3, AP-1, and clathrin partially colocalized with Rab38 and Rab32 by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy in MNT-1 cells. Rab38- and Rab32-deficient MNT-1 cells displayed abnormal trafficking and steady state levels of known cargoes of the BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 pathways, the melanin-synthesizing enzymes tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1. These observations support the idea that Rab38 and Rab32 are the specific factors that direct the ubiquitous machinery to mediate transport from early endosomes to maturing LROs. Additionally, analysis of tyrosinase-related protein-2 and total melanin production indicates that Rab32 has unique functions that cannot be carried out by Rab38 in melanosome biogenesis. PMID:22511774

  9. Variability of Balmer Profiles in Magnetic Ap/Bp Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyavin, G.; Lee, B.-C.; Shulyak, D.; Han, I.; Kochukhov, O.; Khang, D.-I.; Kim, K.-M.

    2007-06-01

    A set of high precision measurements of weak variations of hydrogen lines in spectra of seven magnetic Ap/Bp stars was carried out using the BOES echelle spectrograph of the Bohuynsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (South Korea). A weak (1-2 %) periodic variability of the Balmer line wings has been detected in the spectra of 2 program stars. Upper limits of possible variations are presented for the remaining 5 objects. We discuss the discovered variability in the framework of model atmospheres with magnetic force terms included. The periodic changes in the Balmer profiles are caused by perturbations in atmospheres of Ap/Bp stars due to their rotationally modulated non-force-free magnetic fields.

  10. AP reclamation and reuse in RSRM propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miks, Kathryn F.; Harris, Stacey A.

    1995-01-01

    A solid propellant ingredient reclamation pilot plant has been evaluated at the Strategic Operations of Thiokol Corporation, located in Brigham City, Utah. The plant produces AP wet cake (95 percent AP, 5 percent water) for recycling at AP vendors. AP has been obtained from two standard propellant binder systems (PBAN and HTPB). Analytical work conducted at Thiokol indicates that the vendor-recrystallized AP meets Space Shuttle propellant specification requirements. Thiokol has processed 1-, 5-, and 600-gallon propellant mixes with the recrystallized AP. Processing, cast, cure, ballistic, mechanical, and safety properties have been evaluated. Phillips Laboratory static-test-fired 70-pound and 800-pound BATES motors. The data indicate that propellant processed with reclaimed AP has nominal properties.

  11. Jumbo battery-powered cargo transporter begins work at flying tigers: latest in growing line of heavy-duty electric vehicles for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    A first-of-its-kind lead battery-powered cargo transporter has been placed in service by Flying Tigers Line, Inc., temporarily for test in Chicago. The jumbo electric transporter, being used by Flying Tigers to more economically and efficiently load and unload its planes is described. The recent introducing of this 31,000-lb. gross weight (including batteries) tractor-flatbed roller combination electric vehicle is the latest in a growing number of heavy-duty electrics coming into wide-spread use in the airline, ocean shipping, mining, agricultural, manufacturing, and other industries.

  12. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D. Cole, D.; Machicoane, G.; Tobos, L.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

  13. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer.

    PubMed

    Winklehner, D; Leitner, D; Cole, D; Machicoane, G; Tobos, L

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations. PMID:24593473

  14. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  15. Mutations in AP3D1 associated with immunodeficiency and seizures define a new type of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Sandra; Schulz, Ansgar; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Dieckmann, Nele M G; Niethammer, Klaus; Fuchs, Sebastian; Eckl, Katja Martina; Plank, Roswitha; Werner, Roland; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Bank, Julia; Strauss, Anne; von Bernuth, Horst; Zur Stadt, Udo; Grieve, Samantha; Griffiths, Gillian M; Lehmberg, Kai; Hennies, Hans Christian; Ehl, Stephan

    2016-02-25

    Genetic disorders affecting biogenesis and transport of lysosome-related organelles are heterogeneous diseases frequently associated with albinism. We studied a patient with albinism, neutropenia, immunodeficiency, neurodevelopmental delay, generalized seizures, and impaired hearing but with no mutation in genes so far associated with albinism and immunodeficiency. Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous mutation in AP3D1 that leads to destabilization of the adaptor protein 3 (AP3) complex. AP3 complex formation and the degranulation defect in patient T cells were restored by retroviral reconstitution. A previously described hypopigmented mouse mutant with an Ap3d1 null mutation (mocha strain) shares the neurologic phenotype with our patient and shows a platelet storage pool deficiency characteristic of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) that was not studied in our patient because of a lack of bleeding. HPS2 caused by mutations in AP3B1A leads to a highly overlapping phenotype without the neurologic symptoms. The AP3 complex exists in a ubiquitous and a neuronal form. AP3D1 codes for the AP3δ subunit of the complex, which is essential for both forms. In contrast, the AP3β3A subunit, affected in HPS2 patients, is substituted by AP3β3B in the neuron-specific heterotetramer. AP3δ deficiency thus causes a severe neurologic disorder with immunodeficiency and albinism that we propose to classify as HPS10. PMID:26744459

  16. Transport Inhibition of Digoxin Using Several Common P-gp Expressing Cell Lines Is Not Necessarily Reporting Only on Inhibitor Binding to P-gp

    PubMed Central

    Lumen, Annie Albin; Li, Libin; Li, Jiben; Ahmed, Zeba; Meng, Zhou; Owen, Albert; Ellens, Harma; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Bentz, Joe

    2013-01-01

    We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health), Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown). These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1) bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2) partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3) aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while highly permeable P-gp substrates such as amprenavir, quinidine, ketoconazole and verapamil do not, regardless of whether they actually use the basolateral transporter. PMID:23976943

  17. Sorting of Pmel17 to melanosomes through the plasma membrane by AP1 and AP2: evidence for the polarized nature of melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Julio C.; Watabe, Hidenori; Chi, An; Rouzaud, Francois; Chen, Kevin G.; Vieira, Wilfred D.; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Berens, Werner; Nagashima, Kunio; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Appella, Ettore; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adaptor proteins (AP) play important roles in the sorting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network, but how they function in the sorting of various melanosome-specific proteins such as Pmel17, an essential structural component of melanosomes, in melanocytes is unknown. We characterized the processing and trafficking of Pmel17 via adaptor protein complexes within melanocytic cells. Proteomics analysis detected Pmel17, AP1 and AP2, but not AP3 or AP4 in early melanosomes. Real-time PCR, immunolabeling and tissue in-situ hybridization confirmed the coexpression of AP1 isoforms μ1A and μ1B (expressed only in polarized cells) in melanocytes and keratinocytes, but expression of μ1B is missing in some melanoma cell lines. Transfection with AP1 isoforms (μ1A or μ1B) showed two distinct distribution patterns that involved Pmel17, and only μ1B was able to restore the sorting of Pmel17 to the plasma membrane in cells lacking μ1B expression. Finally, we established that expression of μ1B is regulated physiologically in melanocytes by UV radiation or DKK1. These results show that Pmel17 is sorted to melanosomes by various intracellular routes, directly or indirectly through the plasma membrane, and the presence of basolateral elements in melanocytes suggests their polarized nature. PMID:16492709

  18. Measured and simulated transport of 1.9 MeV laser-accelerated proton bunches through an integrated test beam line at 1 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Hori, T.; Bolton, P. R.; Ogura, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Yogo, A.; Mori, M.; Orimo, S.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Daito, I.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Kanazawa, S.; Kondo, S.; Shimomura, T.; Tanoue, M.; Nakai, Y.; Sasao, H.; Wakai, D.; Daido, H.; Kondo, K.; Souda, H.; Tongu, H.; Noda, A.; Iseki, Y.; Nagafuchi, T.; Maeda, K.; Hanawa, K.; Yoshiyuki, T.; Shirai, T.

    2010-07-01

    A laser-driven repetition-rated 1.9 MeV proton beam line composed of permanent quadrupole magnets (PMQs), a radio frequency (rf) phase rotation cavity, and a tunable monochromator is developed to evaluate and to test the simulation of laser-accelerated proton beam transport through an integrated system for the first time. In addition, the proton spectral modulation and focusing behavior of the rf phase rotation cavity device is monitored with input from a PMQ triplet. In the 1.9 MeV region we observe very weak proton defocusing by the phase rotation cavity. The final transmitted bunch duration and transverse profile are well predicted by the PARMILA particle transport code. The transmitted proton beam duration of 6 ns corresponds to an energy spread near 5% for which the transport efficiency is simulated to be 10%. The predictive capability of PARMILA suggests that it can be useful in the design of future higher energy transport beam lines as part of an integrated laser-driven ion accelerator system.

  19. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-23

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.

  20. Inhibition of AP-1 transcriptional activity blocks the migration, invasion, and experimental metastasis of murine osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Leaner, Virna D; Chick, Jeffrey F; Donninger, Howard; Linniola, Ilona; Mendoza, Arnulfo; Khanna, Chand; Birrer, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    A well-characterized murine osteosarcoma model for metastasis and invasion was used in this study to determine the role of AP-1 in the progression of this disease. We analyzed K12 and K7M2 cells, two clonally related murine osteosarcoma cell lines that have been characterized as low metastatic or high metastatic, respectively, for AP-1 components and activity. AP-1 DNA binding was similar between the two cell lines; however AP-1 transcriptional activity was enhanced by 3- to 5-fold in K7M2 cells relative to that in K12 cells. The AP-1 complexes in K12 and K7M2 cells was composed primarily of cJun, JunD, FosB, Fra1, and Fra2, with the contribution of individual components in the complex varying between the two cell lines. In addition, an increase in phosphorylated cJun, JNK activity, and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was associated with the more metastatic osteosarcoma phenotype. The significance of AP-1 activation was confirmed by conditional expression of TAM67, a dominant negative mutant of cJun. Under conditions where TAM67 inhibited AP-1 activity in K7M2 cells, migration and invasion potential was significantly blocked. Tam67 expression in aggressive osteosarcoma cells decreased long-term in vivo experimental metastasis and increased survival of mice. This study shows that differences in metastatic activity can be due to AP-1 activation. The inhibition of AP-1 activity may serve as a therapeutic tool in the management of osteosarcoma. PMID:19074613

  1. Spectral Line Variations in the Ap Star HD 42536

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, G. S. D.; Jayakumr, K.; Velu, C.; Sujatha, S.

    2003-03-01

    The Sr-Cr type chemically peculiar star HD 42536 (= HR 2195) was observed with the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope. Kavalur during the period of November 1998 to April 1999. A total of 46 spectrograms were obtained in the wavelength region of 3900 Å to 4300 Å at a linear dispersion of 0.65 Å per pixel. The equivalent widths of Sr (4077) and Cr (4172) have been found to be varying with a period of 0.58 ± 0.02 day, the amplitudes being about 100 mÅ and 60 mÅ respectively. This period is a resonance value of the peroid given by Manfroid and Mathys (1985).

  2. APS: Lighting up the future

    SciTech Connect

    Potent, V.J.

    1993-09-01

    Work on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) involves the construction and supporting research and development for a national user facility for synchrotron radiation research in the x-ray region. The facility, when operational in 1997, will provide super-intense x-ray beams for many areas of basic research and will serve the entire US x-ray research community of several thousand users. This paper describes the pertinent features of the design, construction and planned operation of the facility; and the impact quality has had in these areas. In addition, the introduction of several quality management techniques such as total quality management, reliability/availability planning, and user interface are discussed concerning their status and success.

  3. The Assembly of AP-3 Adaptor Complex-containing Clathrin-coated Vesicles on Synthetic Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Matthew T.; Zhu, Yunxiang; Kornfeld, Stuart

    2000-01-01

    The heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP-3 has been shown to function in the sorting of proteins to the endosomal/lysosomal system. However, the mechanism of AP-3 recruitment onto membranes is poorly understood, and it is still uncertain whether AP-3 nucleates clathrin-coated vesicles. Using purified components, we show that AP-3 and clathrin are recruited onto protein-free liposomes and Golgi-enriched membranes by a process that requires ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and GTP but no other proteins or nucleotides. The efficiency of recruitment onto the two sources of membranes is comparable and independent of the composition of the liposomes. Clathrin binding occurred in a cooperative manner as a function of the membrane concentration of AP-3. Thin-section electron microscopy of liposomes and Golgi-enriched membranes that had been incubated with AP-3, clathrin, and ARF·GTP showed the presence of clathrin-coated buds and vesicles. These results establish that AP-3–containing clathrin-coated vesicles form in vitro and are consistent with AP-3–dependent protein transport being mediated by clathrin-coated vesicles. PMID:11071902

  4. Functional Identification and Characterization of the Brassica Napus Transcription Factor Gene BnAP2, the Ortholog of Arabidopsis Thaliana APETALA2

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Zhiyong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Lijun; Yu, Jingyin; Lu, Changming; Wei, Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    BnAP2, an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, has been isolated from Brassica napus cultivar Zhongshuang 9. The cDNA of BnAP2, with 1, 299 bp in length, encoded a transcription factor comprising of 432 amino acid residues. Results from complementary experiment indicated that BnAP2 was completely capable of restoring the phenotype of Arabidopsis ap2-11 mutant. Together with the sequence and expression data, the complementation data suggested that BnAP2 encodes the ortholog of AtAP2. To address the transcriptional activation of BnAP2, we performed transactivation assays in yeast. Fusion protein of BnAP2 with GAL4 DNA binding domain strongly activated transcription in yeast, and the transactivating activity of BnAP2 was localized to the N-terminal 100 amino acids. To further study the function of BnAP2 involved in the phenotype of B. napus, we used a transgenic approach that involved targeted RNA interference (RNAi) repression induced by ihp-RNA. Floral various phenotype defectives and reduced female fertility were observed in B. napus BnAP2-RNAi lines. Loss of the function of BnAP2 gene also resulted in delayed sepal abscission and senescence with the ethylene-independent pathway. In the strong BnAP2-RNAi lines, seeds showed defects in shape, structure and development and larger size. Strong BnAP2-RNAi and wild-type seeds initially did not display a significant difference in morphology at 10 DAF, but the development of BnAP2-RNAi seeds was slower than that of wild type at 20 DAF, and further at 30 DAF, wild-type seeds were essentially at their final size, whereas BnAP2-RNAi seeds stopped growing and developing and gradually withered. PMID:22479468

  5. Glutathione peroxidase-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Lei; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Coleman, Mitchell C.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Wertz, Philip W.; Domann, Frederick E. . E-mail: frederick-domann@uiowa.edu

    2006-12-29

    In this study, we found a role for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. UVA irradiation not only increased AP-2{alpha}, but also caused accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the cell culture media, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself could induce the expression of AP-2{alpha}. By catalyzing the removal of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from cells through over-expression of GPx-1, induction of AP-2{alpha} expression by UVA was abolished. Induction of transcription factor AP-2{alpha} by UVA had been previously shown to be mediated through the second messenger ceramide. We found that not only UVA irradiation, but also H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself caused increases of ceramide in HaCaT cells, and C2-ceramide added to cells induced the AP-2{alpha} signaling pathway. Finally, forced expression of GPx-1 eliminated UVA-induced ceramide accumulation as well as AP-2{alpha} expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that GPx-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression by suppressing the accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  6. Search for chromospheric MG II emission in Ap-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seggewiss, W.

    1990-03-01

    Observations of the Mg II h and k line resonance doublet in the spectra of 10 of the latest Ap-type stars show no sign of emission cores in the broad absorption lines. Thus, the Mg II lines give no evidence for chromospheric activity in peculiar A-type stars; the present observations sharpen the boarder between active and non-active stars. This fact is discussed in connection with the problem of the onset of chromospheres and transition zones in A- and F-type main-sequence stars. Special attention is paid to the question of Alfvenic heating in the atmospheres of rapidly oscillating Ap-type stars.

  7. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING OF TANKS 241-AN-102 & 241-AP-107 & 241-AP-108 IN SUPPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

    2008-11-20

    This report presents the results of the corrosion rates that were measured using electrochemical methods for tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102), 241-AP-107 (AP 107), and 241-AP-108 (AP-108) performed under test plant RPP-PLAN-38215. The steel used as materials of construction for AN and AP tank farms was A537 Class 1. Test coupons of A537 Class 1 carbon steel were used for corrosion testing in the AN-107, AP-107, and AP-108 tank waste. Supernate will be tested from AN-102, AP-107, and Ap-108. Saltcake testing was performed on AP-108 only.

  8. Coaching Strategies for AP: Building a Successful AP European History Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The October 2013 special issue of "Social Education" dealt with almost all AP social studies subjects, but omitted AP European History. This is one of the most fascinating AP subjects for students and teachers alike. In this article, the author shares his experiences since hewas given the responsibility of building his school's…

  9. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in AP4S1 cause mild fever-sensitive seizures, developmental delay and spastic paraplegia through loss of AP-4 complex assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hardies, Katia; May, Patrick; Djémié, Tania; Tarta-Arsene, Oana; Deconinck, Tine; Craiu, Dana; Helbig, Ingo; Suls, Arvid; Balling, Rudy; Weckhuysen, Sarah; De Jonghe, Peter; Hirst, Jennifer; Afawi, Zaid; Barisic, Nina; Baulac, Stéphanie; Caglayan, Hande; Depienne, Christel; De Kovel, Carolien G.F.; Dimova, Petia; Guerrero-López, Rosa; Guerrini, Renzo; Hjalgrim, Helle; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Jahn, Johanna; Klein, Karl Martin; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Leguern, Eric; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Lemke, Johannes; Lerche, Holger; Marini, Carla; Muhle, Hiltrud; Rosenow, Felix; Serratosa, Jose M.; Møller, Rikke S.; Stephani, Ulrich; Striano, Pasquale; Talvik, Tiina; Von Spiczak, Sarah; Weber, Yvonne; Zara, Federico

    2015-01-01

    We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole-genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene, encoding the σ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). The effect of the predicted loss-of-function variants (p.Gln46Profs*9 and p.Arg97*) was further investigated in a patient's fibroblast cell line. We show that the premature stop mutations in AP4S1 result in a reduction of all AP-4 subunits and loss of AP-4 complex assembly. Recruitment of the AP-4 accessory protein tepsin, to the membrane was also abolished. In retrospect, the clinical phenotype in the family is consistent with previous reports of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. Our study reports the second family with mutations in AP4S1 and describes the first two patients with loss of AP4S1 and seizures. We further discuss seizure phenotypes in reported patients, highlighting that seizures are part of the clinical manifestation of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. We also hypothesize that endosomal trafficking is a common theme between heritable spastic paraplegia and some inherited epilepsies. PMID:25552650

  10. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in AP4S1 cause mild fever-sensitive seizures, developmental delay and spastic paraplegia through loss of AP-4 complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Hardies, Katia; May, Patrick; Djémié, Tania; Tarta-Arsene, Oana; Deconinck, Tine; Craiu, Dana; Helbig, Ingo; Suls, Arvid; Balling, Rudy; Weckhuysen, Sarah; De Jonghe, Peter; Hirst, Jennifer

    2015-04-15

    We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole-genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene, encoding the σ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). The effect of the predicted loss-of-function variants (p.Gln46Profs*9 and p.Arg97*) was further investigated in a patient's fibroblast cell line. We show that the premature stop mutations in AP4S1 result in a reduction of all AP-4 subunits and loss of AP-4 complex assembly. Recruitment of the AP-4 accessory protein tepsin, to the membrane was also abolished. In retrospect, the clinical phenotype in the family is consistent with previous reports of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. Our study reports the second family with mutations in AP4S1 and describes the first two patients with loss of AP4S1 and seizures. We further discuss seizure phenotypes in reported patients, highlighting that seizures are part of the clinical manifestation of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. We also hypothesize that endosomal trafficking is a common theme between heritable spastic paraplegia and some inherited epilepsies. PMID:25552650

  11. AP Music Theory in Your School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucia, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that an Advanced Placement (AP) course in music theory offers student musicians opportunities to gain new insight into melody, harmony, and structure. Describes content and teaching methods used in an AP music theory program. Discusses necessary teacher characteristics and maintains that both students and teachers benefit from the course.…

  12. The status of APS, BESSRC, and NEET.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Dunford, R. W.; Esbensen, H.; Gemmell, D. S.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Rutt, U.; Southworth, S. H.

    1999-03-10

    We present a brief summary of the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and of the facilities at two of the APS sectors operated by the Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotrons Radiation Center (BESSRC). This is followed by a report on recent measurements at BESSRC on the phenomenon of Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition (NEET).

  13. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - WILDLAND FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is aimed at consolidating, selecting, and disseminating the most appropriate data and methods for estimating air emissions from wildfires and prescribed burns. The product will replace a current section of AP-42, but may not take the precise form of an AP-42 secti...

  14. APS-DPP Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Donald

    1998-11-01

    Through its membership and their respectful institutions, the APS-DPP continues to be recognized for its education and outreach efforts. Each year starting with the 1988 DPP annual meeting, DPP and the APS Office of Education have jointly sponsored a "Science Teachers' Day." Beginning in 1994, a companion "Plasma Physics Expo" has been held during the same week of the November meeting. Both events continue to receive uniformly enthusiastic responses from teachers and students who participate. These two events are not only supported financially by APS and APS-DPP but also by APS-DPP member contributions and by contributions of the major plasma physics and fusion research institutions. Recently, the DPP Interdivisional and Public Affairs Committee was re-named the DPP Science Education Committee (see DPP Newsletter, Spring 1998) to reflect the importance that the DPP puts on education and outreach. Nevertheless, as Andrew Sessler, APS President, said in the Education Outreach special insert of the January APS News "We have many education and outreach activities in the areas of K -12 education . . . but very few APS members are aware of what we are doing . . . ." This paper is an attempt to communicate to the DPP members who have not participated in DPP's education and outreach activities a summary of what is being accomplished in this area, what is being planned for the future, and how does one participate in these activities.

  15. Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination and scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  16. AP Courses Get Audited for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Ellie

    2007-01-01

    As the college admissions process has gotten much more competitive, the number of high school students taking Advanced Placement (AP) courses has soared. At the same time, policymakers and education leaders seek to get more minorities and students not on the college track to sign up for AP and other rigorous classes. But as high schools have…

  17. Lysosomal localization of GLUT8 in the testis the EXXXLL motif of GLUT8 is sufficient for its intracellular sorting via AP1- and AP2-mediated interaction

    PubMed Central

    Diril, Muhammed Kasim; Schmidt, Stefan; Krau, Michael; Gawlik, Verena; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schrmann, Annette; Haucke, Volker; Augustin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The class III sugar transport facilitator GLUT8 co-localizes with the lysosomal protein LAMP1 in heterologous expression systems. GLUT8 carries a [D/E]XXXL[L/I]-type dileucine sorting signal that has been postulated to retain the protein in an endosomal/lysosomal compartment via interactions with clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes. However, contradictory findings have been described regarding the subcellular localization of the endogenous GLUT8 and the adaptor proteins that interact with its dileucine motif. Here we demonstrate that endogenous GLUT8 is localized in a late endosomal/lysosomal compartment of spermatocytes and spermatids, and that the adaptor complexes AP1 and AP2, but not AP3 or AP4, interact with its N-terminal intracellular domain (NICD). In addition, fusion of the GLUT8 NICD to the tailless lumenal domain of the IL-2 receptor alpha chain (TAC) protein (interleukin-2 receptor ? chain) targeted the protein to intracellular membranes, indicating that its N-terminal dileucine signal is sufficient for endosomal/lysosomal targeting of the transporter. The localization and targeting of GLUT8 show striking similarities to sorting mechanisms reported for lysosomal proteins. Therefore, we suggest a potential role for GLUT8 in the so far unexplored substrate transport across intracellular membranes. Structured digital abstract MINT-7035377: GLUT8 (uniprotkb:Q9JIF3) physically interacts (MI:0915) with AP2 (uniprotkb:P62944) by pull down (MI:0096) MINT-7035218: GLUT8 (uniprotkb:Q9JIF3) physically interacts (MI:0915) with AP1 (uniprotkb:O43747) by pull down (MI:0096) MINT-7035273: GLUT8 (uniprotkb:Q9JIF3) physically interacts (MI:0915) with AP1 (uniprotkb:P22892) by pull down (MI:0096) MINT-7035235: GLUT8 (uniprotkb:Q9JIF3) physically interacts (MI:0915) with AP1 (uniprotkb:Q8R525) by pull down (MI:0096) MINT-7035360: GLUT8 (uniprotkb:Q9JIF3) physically interacts (MI:0915) with AP2 (uniprotkb:Q9DBG3) by pull down (MI:0096) MINT-7035789, MINT-7035807: lamp1 (uniprotkb:P11438) and GLUT8 (uniprotkb:Q9JIF3) colocalize (MI:0403) by fluorescence microscopy (MI:0416) MINT-7039929, MINT-7039945: lamp2 (uniprotkb:P17047) and GLUT8 (uniprotkb:Q9JIF3) colocalize (MI:0403) by fluorescence microscopy (MI:0416) PMID:19523115

  18. Radiation transport analyses in support of the SNS Target Station Neutron Beam Line Shutters Title I Design

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.M.; Pevey, R.E.; Lillie, R.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    2000-12-01

    A detailed radiation transport analysis of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) shutters is important for the construction of the SNS because of its impact on conventional facility design, normal operation of the facility, and maintenance operations. Thus far the analysis of the SNS shutter travel gaps has been completed. This analysis was performed using coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations.

  19. Transport and intracellular distribution of MHC class II molecules and associated invariant chain in normal and antigen-processing mutant cell lines.

    PubMed

    Riberdy, J M; Avva, R R; Geuze, H J; Cresswell, P

    1994-06-01

    We have compared the intracellular transport and subcellular distribution of MHC class II-invariant chain complexes in a wild-type HLA-DR3 homozygous cell line and a mutant cell line, T2.DR3. The latter has a defect in antigen processing and accumulates HLA-DR3 molecules associated with an invariant chain-derived peptide (CLIP) rather than the normal complement of peptides derived from endocytosed proteins. We find that in the wild-type cells, CLIP is transiently associated with HLA-DR3 molecules, suggesting that the peptide is a normal class II-associated intermediate generated during proteolysis of the invariant chain. In the mutant cell line proteolysis of the invariant chain is less efficient, and HLA-DR3/CLIP complexes are generated much more slowly. Examination of the mutant cell line by immunoelectronmicroscopy shows that class II-invariant chain complexes accumulate intracellularly in large acidic vesicles which contain lysosomal markers, including beta-hexosaminidase, cathepsin D, and the lysosomal membrane protein CD63. The markers in these vesicles are identical to those seen in the class II-containing vesicles (MIICs) seen in the wild-type cells but the morphology is drastically different. The vesicles in the mutant cells are endocytic, as measured by the internalization of BSA-gold conjugates. The implication of these findings for antigen processing in general and the nature of the mutation in particular are discussed. PMID:8207055

  20. Organic anion transporter 2 transcript variant 1 shows broad ligand selectivity when expressed in multiple cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Hotchkiss, Adam G.; Berrigan, Liam; Pelis, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2) is likely important for renal and hepatic drug elimination. Three variants of the OAT2 peptide sequence have been described – OAT2 transcript variant 1 (OAT2-tv1), OAT2 transcript variant 2 (OAT2-tv2), and OAT2 transcript variant 3 (OAT2-tv3). Early studies helping to define the ligand selectivity of OAT2 failed to identify the variant used, and the studies used several heterologous expression systems. In preliminary studies using OAT2-tv1, we failed to observe transport of several previously identified substrates, leading us to speculate that ligand selectivity of OAT2 differs with variant and/or heterologous expression system. The purpose was to further investigate the ligand selectivity of the OAT2 variants expressed in multiple cell types. We cloned OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2, but were unsuccessful at amplifying mRNA for OAT2-tv3 from human kidney. OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2 were individually expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK), Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. mRNA for OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2 was demonstrated in each cell type transfected with the respective construct, indicating their expression. OAT2-tv1 trafficked to the plasma membrane of all three cell types, but OAT2-tv2 did not. OAT2-tv1 transported penciclovir in all three cell types, but failed to transport para-aminohippurate, succinate, glutarate, estrone-3-sulfate, paclitaxel or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate – previously identified substrates of OAT2-tv2. Not surprising given its lack of plasma membrane expression, OAT2-tv2 failed to transport any of the organic solutes examined, including penciclovir. Penciclovir transport by OAT2-tv1 was sensitive to large (e.g., cyclosporine A) and small (e.g., allopurinol) organic compounds, as well as organic anions, cations and neutral compounds, highlighting the multiselectivity of OAT2-tv1. The potencies with which indomethacin, furosemide, cyclosporine A and cimetidine inhibited OAT2-tv1 are in good agreement with previous studies using this variant, but inconsistent with studies using OAT2 with an unidentified sequence. This study shows that organic molecules with diverse physicochemical properties interact with OAT2-tv1, making it a likely site of drug interactions. Many previously identified substrates of OAT2 are not transported by OAT2-tv1, suggesting that variant and/or expression system may contribute. Future work should establish the expression pattern and ligand selectivity of OAT2-tv3. PMID:26500550

  1. Emittance Growth Due to Steering Errors for the 8 GeV AP3-P1 Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Dave

    2001-01-23

    During 8 GeV antiproton transfers between the Accumulator to the Main Injector, the antiprotons must travel through four separate beam lines, AP3, AP1, P2, and P1. The AP1, P1, and P2 transfer lines are also used for 120 GeV antiproton production so that many of the magnet strings must accommodate a large range of excitation current. This note will quantify the relationship between emittance dilution for 8 GeV antiprotons injected into the Main Injector and variations in the excitation currents of the bending magnets.

  2. AP-1A controls secretory granule biogenesis and trafficking of membrane secretory granule proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bonnemaison, Mathilde; Bäck, Nils; Lin, Yimo; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Mains, Richard; Eipper, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The adaptor protein 1A complex (AP-1A) transports cargo between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In professional secretory cells, AP-1A also retrieves material from immature secretory granules (SGs). The role of AP-1A in SG biogenesis was explored using AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells expressing reduced levels of the AP-1A μ1A subunit. A two-fold reduction in μ1A resulted in a decrease in TGN cisternae and immature SGs and the appearance of regulated secretory pathway components in non-condensing SGs. Although basal secretion of endogenous SG proteins was unaffected, secretagogue-stimulated release was halved. The reduced μ1A levels interfered with the normal trafficking of carboxypeptidase D (CPD) and peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase-1 (PAM-1), integral membrane enzymes that enter immature SGs. The non-condensing SGs contained POMC products and PAM-1, but not CPD. Based on metabolic labeling and secretion experiments, the cleavage of newly synthesized PAM-1 into PHM was unaltered, but PHM basal secretion was increased in sh-μ1A PAM-1 cells. Despite lacking a canonical AP-1A binding motif, yeast two-hybrid studies demonstrated an interaction between the PAM-1 cytosolic domain and AP-1A. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments with PAM-1 mutants revealed an influence of the luminal domains of PAM-1 on this interaction. Thus, AP-1A is crucial for normal SG biogenesis, function and composition. PMID:25040637

  3. Development of the AP Technology Through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmier, F.; Martin, O.; Gariepy, R.

    2015-02-01

    This article presents the historical development of the AP Technology (Aluval, Voreppe, France) pot series starting with the AP13 in the 1960s, followed by the AP18 and the AP30 in the 1980s and 1990s. For most of the modern-era technology, from the late 1970s on, development has been based on a three-stage pattern, the first one being the pot modeling, followed by the pot prototype stage, and then the industrial stage, which fully validated the technology. This development pattern has proven to be successful since it has led to the very robust AP Technology pot design generation and a large number of greenfield smelters built in the 1990-2010 selected the AP Technology design. AP60 is the latest of this series: The development at the prototype level was initiated in the 1990s and is presented in the article. It is now followed by the first industrial realization at Jonquière with the startup in late 2013 and the full validation of the technology in mid-2014. The development of APXe, which aims at very low energy consumption, uses many common elements pertaining to the AP60 design and is presented in the article. AP Technology has also addressed the need for continuous and fast improvement of pot performances adapted to each existing client or site specifics; for this purpose, a new development methodology has recently emerged thanks to the very high modeling capabilities. This methodology, based on the validation of "technology bricks" and their integration in the final design following a strict process, is presented in the last section of this article.

  4. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples, 7AP-99-1, 7AP-99-3 and 7AP-99-4 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    BELL, K.E.

    1999-08-12

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107) grab samples taken in May 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-107 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999. Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. Interim data were provided earlier to River Protection Project (RPP) personnel, however, the data presented here represent the official results. No notification limits were exceeded.

  5. Search for chromospheric MG II emission in Ap-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seggewiss, W.

    1986-09-01

    The 1985 microfiche edition of the low-dispersion IUE spectra has been searched for emission in the Mg II h,k resonance lines of peculiar A-type stars (Ap, Am, ? Boo). All published spectra show the Mg II h,k lines in absorption. The absence of emission is confirmed by comparison with 53 high-dispersion spectra available from the IUE archives. Moreover, high-dispersion spectra reveal no sign of a chromosphere for three Ap stars for which weak X-ray emission has been reported.

  6. Over-expression of the PaAP1 gene from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Kaichun

    2013-02-15

    A homologue of SQUAMOSA/APETALA1, designated PaAP1, was isolated from Prunus avium by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full length of PaAP1 cDNA is 753 bp, and it codes for a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PaAP1 belongs to the MADS-box gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAP1 shared the highest identity with SQUA/AP1 homologues from Prunus serrulata. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that PaAP1 was expressed at high levels in petal, sepal, style, and flower buds, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To characterize the functions of PaAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis transformed with 35S::PaAP1. A total of 8 transgenic T(1) lines with an early flowering phenotype were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio of flowering time was observed in the T(2) generation of 4 lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an SQUA/AP1 homolog from P. avium and suggests that PaAP1 is potentially useful for shortening the juvenile period in sweet cherry. PMID:23206932

  7. A Semi-automated Abundance Survey of Ap Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Martin P.; Kurtz, Don; Elkin, Vladimir; Bruntt, Hans

    2015-08-01

    We have carried out an abundance analysis on the high-resolution spectra of approximately 350 Ap stars collected between 2007 and 2010 on the FEROS Echelle (Fibre-led, Extended Range, Echelle ) spectrograph housed at the 2.2-m telescope at European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile. We employed the VWA package (vsin I, wavelength shift, abundance analysis) for preliminary selection of spectral lines, and a semi-automated set of routines which we developed in the programming language IDL, to calculate the equivalent widths and abundances of ions of Iron and the rare earth elements Neodymium and Praseodymium using the WIDTH program and NEMO model atmospheres. Initial results are presented, which reinforce the correlation between iron abundance and effective temperature, from an over-abundance in the late Bp stars, to under-abundant in the early F stars. Results also suggest that the disequilibrium in abundances of the first and second ionisation stages of these ions in the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars may a consequence of the relatively cool temperatures of those stars, rather than a signature of pulsation.

  8. Overexpression of BpAP1 induces early flowering and produces dwarfism in Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haijiao; Wang, Shan; Jiang, Jing; Liu, Guifeng; Li, Huiyu; Chen, Su; Xu, Huanwen

    2014-08-01

    The involvement of APETALA1 (AP1) in the flowering transition has been the focus of much research. Here, we produced Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula (birch) lines that overexpressed BpAP1 using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation; we obtained five independent 35S::BpAP1 transgenic lines. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern, northern and western analyses were used to identify the transformants. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), BpAP1 expression in roots, shoots, leaves and terminal buds of 35S::BpAP1 transgenic lines was significantly higher than that in the wild type (WT, P < 0.01). The average height of 2-year-old 35S::BpAP1 plants was significantly lower (41.17%) than that of non-transgenic plants. In the 35S::BpAP1 lines, inflorescences emerged successively beginning 2 months after transplanting. In addition, the length-diameter ratio of fully developed male and female inflorescences were both significantly less than those of the WT (P < 0.05), i.e. the morphological characteristic was stubby. The male inflorescences emerged early, with empty, draped anthers, and pollen was rarely produced, whereas the female floret structure was not different from WT. The pistils developed normally and could accept pollen, leading to the production of hybrid progeny (F1 ). F1 plants completed flowering within only 1 year after sowing. We demonstrate that BpAP1 can be inherited through sexual reproduction. Overexpression of BpAP1 caused early flowering and dwarfism; these lines had an obviously shortened juvenile phase. These results greatly increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the flowering transition and enhance genetic studies of birch traits, and they open up new possibilities for the breeding of birch and other woody plants. PMID:24200078

  9. Electron stripping processes of H- ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganic, I. N.

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H- Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H- ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H- beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H- ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H- ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  10. Electron stripping processes of H(-) ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE.

    PubMed

    Draganic, I N

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H(-) Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H(-) ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H(-) beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H(-) ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H(-) ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line. PMID:26931993

  11. Knockdown of CDK2AP1 in primary human fibroblasts induces p53 dependent senescence.

    PubMed

    Alsayegh, Khaled N; Gadepalli, Venkat S; Iyer, Shilpa; Rao, Raj R

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin Dependent Kinase-2 Associated Protein-1 (CDK2AP1) is known to be a tumor suppressor that plays a role in cell cycle regulation by sequestering monomeric CDK2, and targeting it for proteolysis. A reduction of CDK2AP1 expression is considered to be a negative prognostic indicator in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and also associated with increased invasion in human gastric cancer tissue. CDK2AP1 overexpression was shown to inhibit growth, reduce invasion and increase apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effect of CDK2AP1 downregulation in primary human dermal fibroblasts. Using a short-hairpin RNA to reduce its expression, we found that knockdown of CDK2AP1 in primary human fibroblasts resulted in reduced proliferation and in the induction of senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage of cells in the S phase and an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Immunocytochemical analysis also revealed that the CDK2AP1 knockdown significantly increased the percentage of cells that exhibited γ-H2AX foci, which could indicate presence of DNA damage. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in increased mRNA levels of p53, p21, BAX and PUMA and p53 protein levels. In primary human fibroblasts in which p53 and CDK2AP1 were simultaneously downregulated, there was: (a) no increase in senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity, (b) decrease in the number of cells in the G1-phase and increase in number of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, and (c) decrease in the mRNA levels of p21, BAX and PUMA when compared with CDK2AP1 knockdown only fibroblasts. Taken together, this suggests that the observed phenotype is p53 dependent. We also observed a prominent increase in the levels of ARF protein in the CDK2AP1 knockdown cells, which suggests a possible role of ARF in p53 stabilization following CDK2AP1 knockdown. Altogether, our results show that knockdown of CDK2AP1 in primary human fibroblasts reduced proliferation and induced premature senescence, with the observed phenotype being p53 dependent. PMID:25785833

  12. Analysis of large scale tests for AP-600 passive containment cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, W.T.; Chien, T.H.; Sun, J.G.; Chao, B.T.

    1997-07-01

    One unique feature of the AP-600 is its passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which is designed to maintain containment pressure below the design limit for 72 hours without action by the reactor operator. During a design-basis accident, i.e., either a loss-of-coolant or a main steam-line break accident, steam escapes and comes in contact with the much cooler containment vessel wall. Heat is transferred to the inside surface of the steel containment wall by convection and condensation of steam and through the containment steel wall by conduction. Heat is then transferred from the outside of the containment surface by heating and evaporation of a thin liquid film that is formed by applying water at the top of the containment vessel dome. Air in the annual space is heated by both convection and injection of steam from the evaporating liquid film. The heated air and vapor rise as a result of natural circulation and exit the shield building through the outlets above the containment shell. All of the analytical models that are developed for and used in the COMMIX-ID code for predicting performance of the PCCS will be described. These models cover governing conservation equations for multicomponents single phase flow, transport equations for the {kappa}-{epsilon} two-equation turbulence model, auxiliary equations, liquid-film tracking model for both inside (condensate) and outside (evaporating liquid film) surfaces of the containment vessel wall, thermal coupling between flow domains inside and outside the containment vessel, and heat and mass transfer models. Various key parameters of the COMMIX-ID results and corresponding AP-600 PCCS experimental data are compared and the agreement is good. Significant findings from this study are summarized.

  13. APS Activities with Other Professional Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slakey, Francis

    2006-03-01

    In 1981, the APS Council issued a statement that opposed ``equal time'' presentation in public school science classes of creationism and evolution. The statement clarified that ``Scientific inquiry and religious beliefs are two distinct elements of the human experience. Attempts to present them in the same context can only lead to misunderstandings of both.'' The APS Council revisited the issue in 1999 when a school board in Kansas attempted to eliminate the Big Bang, among other issues, from the science curriculum. Since that time, the APS has been more directly involved in confronting efforts that would dilute the teaching of science in public school science classes. This talk will review the APS activities and describe a developing multi-science society activity.

  14. Meet the APS Editors Coffee Break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    The APS Journal Editors invite you to join them for conversation and light refreshments. The Editors will be available to answer questions, discuss your ideas, and listen to your comments about the journals. All are welcome to attend.

  15. Cytotoxic activity of the titanium alkoxide (OPy)2Ti(4AP)2 against cancer colony forming cells

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Elizabeth A.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Raymond, Rebecca; Farrington, Jacqueline; Verschraegen, Claire; Shaheen, Montaser; Hromas, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Summary A novel family of titanium alkoxides with two stable pyridinemethoxide moieties bound to a titanium metal center were synthesized and tested for cytotoxic activity on a variety of cancer cell lines using colony formation assays. One compound, (OPy)2Ti(4AP)2, where OPy is NC5H5CH2O , and 4AP is 4-aminophenoxide (−OC6H5(NH2)-4), demonstrated increased cytotoxicity in breast, colon, and pancreatic cancer cell lines at 100 nanomolar levels with only short exposures. Further, (OPy)2Ti(4AP)2 had activity in colon and pancreatic cancer cell lines that are usually resistant to chemotherapy. This demonstrates that these titanium compounds may have a role in anti-cancer therapy, similar to platinum-based compounds, and the (OPy)2Ti(4AP)2 compound specifically deserves further investigation as an anti-cancer agent in chemo-resistant solid tumors. PMID:20820908

  16. Spiroepoxytriazoles Are Fumagillin-like Irreversible Inhibitors of MetAP2 with Potent Cellular Activity.

    PubMed

    Morgen, Michael; Jöst, Christian; Malz, Mona; Janowski, Robert; Niessing, Dierk; Klein, Christian D; Gunkel, Nikolas; Miller, Aubry K

    2016-04-15

    Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) are responsible for the cotranslational cleavage of initiator methionines from nascent proteins. The MetAP2 subtype is up-regulated in many cancers, and selective inhibition of MetAP2 suppresses both vascularization and growth of tumors in animal models. The natural product fumagillin is a selective and potent irreversible inhibitor of MetAP2, and semisynthetic derivatives of fumagillin have shown promise in clinical studies for the treatment of cancer, and, more recently, for obesity. Further development of fumagillin derivatives has been complicated, however, by their generally poor pharmacokinetics. In an attempt to overcome these limitations, we developed an easily diversifiable synthesis of a novel class of MetAP2 inhibitors that were designed to mimic fumagillin's molecular scaffold but have improved pharmacological profiles. These substances were found to be potent and selective inhibitors of MetAP2, as demonstrated in biochemical enzymatic assays against three MetAP isoforms. Inhibitors with the same relative and absolute stereoconfiguration as fumagillin displayed significantly higher activity than their diastereomeric and enantiomeric isomers. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the inhibitors covalently modify His231 in the MetAP2 active site via ring-opening of a spiroepoxide. Biochemically active substances inhibited the growth of endothelial cells and a MetAP2-sensitive cancer cell line, while closely related inactive isomers had little effect on the proliferation of either cell type. These effects correlated with altered N-terminal processing of the protein 14-3-3-γ. Finally, selected substances were found to have improved stabilities in mouse plasma and microsomes relative to the clinically investigated fumagillin derivative beloranib. PMID:26686773

  17. Single-Bunch Electron Cloud Effects in the GLC/NLC, US-Cold and TESLA Low Emittance Transport Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, D.

    2005-04-12

    This paper examines the severity of the electron cloud effects in the Low Emittance Transport (LET) of linear colliders including the Bunch-Compressor System (BCS) and Beam Delivery System (BDS). We examine the electron cloud effects in the normal-conducting GLC/NLC or X-Band, and the super-conducting US-Cold and TESLA linear collider designs through the use of specially developed computer simulation codes. An estimate of the critical cloud density is given for the BDS and BCS of the X-Band collider.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERCONDUCTING COMBINED FUNCTION MAGNETS FOR THE PROTON TRANSPORT LINE FOR THE J-PARC NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    NAKAMOTO, T.; AJIMA, Y.; FUJII, Y.; HIGASHI, N.; ICHIKAWA, A.; KIMURA, N.; KOBAYASHI, T.; MAKIDA, Y.; OGITSU, T.; OHHATA, H.; OKAMURA, T.; SASAKI, K.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Superconducting combined function magnets will be utilized for the 50 GeV, 750 kW proton beam line for the J-PARC neutrino experiment. The magnet is designed to provide a dipole field of 2.6 T combined with a quadrupole field of 19 T/m in a coil aperture of 173.4 mm at a nominal current of 7345 A. Two full-scale prototype magnets to verify the magnet performance were successfully developed. The first prototype experienced no training quench during the excitation test and good field quality was confirmed.

  19. AP1S3 mutations are associated with pustular psoriasis and impaired Toll-like receptor 3 trafficking.

    PubMed

    Setta-Kaffetzi, Niovi; Simpson, Michael A; Navarini, Alexander A; Patel, Varsha M; Lu, Hui-Chun; Allen, Michael H; Duckworth, Michael; Bachelez, Hervé; Burden, A David; Choon, Siew-Eng; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Kirby, Brian; Kolios, Antonios; Seyger, Marieke M B; Prins, Christa; Smahi, Asma; Trembath, Richard C; Fraternali, Franca; Smith, Catherine H; Barker, Jonathan N; Capon, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotetramer that promotes vesicular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes. The knockout of most murine AP-1 complex subunits is embryonically lethal, so the identification of human disease-associated alleles has the unique potential to deliver insights into gene function. Here, we report two founder mutations (c.11T>G [p.Phe4Cys] and c.97C>T [p.Arg33Trp]) in AP1S3, the gene encoding AP-1 complex subunit σ1C, in 15 unrelated individuals with a severe autoinflammatory skin disorder known as pustular psoriasis. Because the variants are predicted to destabilize the 3D structure of the AP-1 complex, we generated AP1S3-knockdown cell lines to investigate the consequences of AP-1 deficiency in skin keratinocytes. We found that AP1S3 silencing disrupted the endosomal translocation of the innate pattern-recognition receptor TLR-3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and resulted in a marked inhibition of downstream signaling. These findings identify pustular psoriasis as an autoinflammatory phenotype caused by defects in vesicular trafficking and demonstrate a requirement of AP-1 for Toll-like receptor homeostasis. PMID:24791904

  20. AP1S3 Mutations Are Associated with Pustular Psoriasis and Impaired Toll-like Receptor 3 Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Setta-Kaffetzi, Niovi; Simpson, MichaelA.; Navarini, AlexanderA.; Patel, VarshaM.; Lu, Hui-Chun; Allen, MichaelH.; Duckworth, Michael; Bachelez, Herv; Burden, A.David; Choon, Siew-Eng; Griffiths, ChristopherE.M.; Kirby, Brian; Kolios, Antonios; Seyger, MariekeM.B.; Prins, Christa; Smahi, Asma; Trembath, RichardC.; Fraternali, Franca; Smith, CatherineH.; Barker, JonathanN.; Capon, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotetramer that promotes vesicular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes. The knockout of most murine AP-1 complex subunits is embryonically lethal, so the identification of human disease-associated alleles has the unique potential to deliver insights into gene function. Here, we report two founder mutations (c.11T>G [p.Phe4Cys] and c.97C>T [p.Arg33Trp]) in AP1S3, the gene encoding AP-1 complex subunit ?1C, in 15 unrelated individuals with a severe autoinflammatory skin disorder known as pustular psoriasis. Because the variants are predicted to destabilize the 3D structure of the AP-1 complex, we generated AP1S3-knockdown cell lines to investigate the consequences of AP-1 deficiency in skin keratinocytes. We found that AP1S3 silencing disrupted the endosomal translocation of the innate pattern-recognition receptor TLR-3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and resulted in a marked inhibition of downstream signaling. These findings identify pustular psoriasis as an autoinflammatory phenotype caused by defects in vesicular trafficking and demonstrate a requirement of AP-1 for Toll-like receptor homeostasis. PMID:24791904

  1. A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Karmakar, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Dechoudhury, S.; Mondal, M.; Pandey, H. K.; Lavanyakumar, D.; Mandi, T. K.; Dutta, D. P.; Kundu Roy, T.; Bhowmick, D.; Sanyal, D.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Ray, A.; Ali, Md. S.; Bhattacharjee, S.

    2013-03-15

    Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms/molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms/molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of {sup 14}O (71 s), {sup 42}K (12.4 h), {sup 43}K (22.2 h), and {sup 41}Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10{sup 3} particles per second (pps). About 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} pps of 1.4 MeV {sup 14}O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

  2. A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source.

    PubMed

    Naik, V; Chakrabarti, A; Bhattacharjee, M; Karmakar, P; Bandyopadhyay, A; Bhattacharjee, S; Dechoudhury, S; Mondal, M; Pandey, H K; Lavanyakumar, D; Mandi, T K; Dutta, D P; Kundu Roy, T; Bhowmick, D; Sanyal, D; Srivastava, S C L; Ray, A; Ali, Md S

    2013-03-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms∕molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms∕molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of (14)O (71 s), (42)K (12.4 h), (43)K (22.2 h), and (41)Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10(3) particles per second (pps). About 3.2 × 10(3) pps of 1.4 MeV (14)O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future. PMID:23556809

  3. A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Karmakar, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Dechoudhury, S.; Mondal, M.; Pandey, H. K.; Lavanyakumar, D.; Mandi, T. K.; Dutta, D. P.; Kundu Roy, T.; Bhowmick, D.; Sanyal, D.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Ray, A.; Ali, Md. S.

    2013-03-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms/molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms/molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of 14O (71 s), 42K (12.4 h), 43K (22.2 h), and 41Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 103 particles per second (pps). About 3.2 × 103 pps of 1.4 MeV 14O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

  4. Loss of AP-5 results in accumulation of aberrant endolysosomes: defining a new type of lysosomal storage disease.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Jennifer; Edgar, James R; Esteves, Typhaine; Darios, Frédéric; Madeo, Marianna; Chang, Jaerak; Roda, Ricardo H; Dürr, Alexandra; Anheim, Mathieu; Gellera, Cinzia; Li, Jun; Züchner, Stephan; Mariotti, Caterina; Stevanin, Giovanni; Blackstone, Craig; Kruer, Michael C; Robinson, Margaret S

    2015-09-01

    Adaptor proteins (AP 1-5) are heterotetrameric complexes that facilitate specialized cargo sorting in vesicular-mediated trafficking. Mutations in AP5Z1, encoding a subunit of the AP-5 complex, have been reported to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), although their impact at the cellular level has not been assessed. Here we characterize three independent fibroblast lines derived from skin biopsies of patients harbouring nonsense mutations in AP5Z1 and presenting with spastic paraplegia accompanied by neuropathy, parkinsonism and/or cognitive impairment. In all three patient-derived lines, we show that there is complete loss of AP-5 ζ protein and a reduction in the associated AP-5 µ5 protein. Using ultrastructural analysis, we show that these patient-derived lines consistently exhibit abundant multilamellar structures that are positive for markers of endolysosomes and are filled with aberrant storage material organized as exaggerated multilamellar whorls, striated belts and 'fingerprint bodies'. This phenotype can be replicated in a HeLa cell culture model by siRNA knockdown of AP-5 ζ. The cellular phenotype bears striking resemblance to features described in a number of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Collectively, these findings reveal an emerging picture of the role of AP-5 in endosomal and lysosomal homeostasis, illuminates a potential pathomechanism that is relevant to the role of AP-5 in neurons and expands the understanding of recessive HSPs. Moreover, the resulting accumulation of storage material in endolysosomes leads us to propose that AP-5 deficiency represents a new type of LSDs. PMID:26085577

  5. Supplementation of 2-Ap, Zn and La Improves 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline Concentrations in Detached Aromatic Rice Panicles In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Mo, Zhaowen; Huang, Jinxia; Xiao, Di; Ashraf, Umair; Duan, Meiyang; Pan, Shenggang; Tian, Hua; Xiao, Lizhong; Zhong, Keyou; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic rice is highly prized by consumers worldwide due to its special aromatic character. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) is considered to be the single most important volatile compound responsible for aroma in aromatic rice. The present study demonstrated the effects of 2-AP, zinc (Zn) and lanthanum (La) on the 2-AP concentration of detached aromatic rice panicles in vitro. Detached panicles from three well-known aromatic cultivars, Guixiangzhan, Pin14, and Pin 15, were cultured separately in basic culture medium supplemented with 2-AP, Zn and La, and 2-AP concentrations were assessed at 7 and 14 days after culture (DAC). The results show that supplementation of 2-AP, Zn and La in the basic culture medium significantly increases the accumulation of proline. 2-AP concentration and the activity of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) were also increased in rice grains. Zn concentrations were also found to be higher when Zn was added to the basic culture medium, and La concentrations in grains were too low to be measured. Additionally, grain 2-AP concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with proline concentrations, ProDH activities in grains and 2-AP in culture medium. In summary, higher grain 2-AP concentrations might be due to Zn- and La-induced increases in proline concentrations and ProDH activities, as well as the direct uptake and transportation of 2-AP from the culture medium. Furthermore, application of both Zn and La might be helpful for improving aroma formation in rice. However, interactions of both these elements with the complex process of 2-AP formation remain to be explored. PMID:26910246

  6. Supplementation of 2-Ap, Zn and La Improves 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline Concentrations in Detached Aromatic Rice Panicles In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Meiyang; Pan, Shenggang; Tian, Hua; Xiao, Lizhong; Zhong, Keyou; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic rice is highly prized by consumers worldwide due to its special aromatic character. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) is considered to be the single most important volatile compound responsible for aroma in aromatic rice. The present study demonstrated the effects of 2-AP, zinc (Zn) and lanthanum (La) on the 2-AP concentration of detached aromatic rice panicles in vitro. Detached panicles from three well-known aromatic cultivars, Guixiangzhan, Pin14, and Pin 15, were cultured separately in basic culture medium supplemented with 2-AP, Zn and La, and 2-AP concentrations were assessed at 7 and 14 days after culture (DAC). The results show that supplementation of 2-AP, Zn and La in the basic culture medium significantly increases the accumulation of proline. 2-AP concentration and the activity of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) were also increased in rice grains. Zn concentrations were also found to be higher when Zn was added to the basic culture medium, and La concentrations in grains were too low to be measured. Additionally, grain 2-AP concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with proline concentrations, ProDH activities in grains and 2-AP in culture medium. In summary, higher grain 2-AP concentrations might be due to Zn- and La-induced increases in proline concentrations and ProDH activities, as well as the direct uptake and transportation of 2-AP from the culture medium. Furthermore, application of both Zn and La might be helpful for improving aroma formation in rice. However, interactions of both these elements with the complex process of 2-AP formation remain to be explored. PMID:26910246

  7. Auxin Transport and Ribosome Biogenesis Mutant/Reporter Lines to Study Plant Cell Growth and Proliferation under Altered Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valbuena, Miguel A.; Manzano, Ana I.; van Loon, Jack JWA.; Saez-Vasquez, Julio; Carnero-Diaz, Eugenie; Herranz, Raul; Medina, F. J.

    2013-02-01

    We tested different Arabidopsis thaliana strains to check their availability for space use in the International Space Station (ISS). We used mutants and reporter gene strains affecting factors of cell proliferation and cell growth, to check variations induced by an altered gravity vector. Seedlings were grown either in a Random Positioning Machine (RPM), under simulated microgravity (μg), or in a Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC), under hypergravity (2g). A combination of the two devices (μgRPM+LDC) was also used. Under all gravity alterations, seedling roots were longer than in control 1g conditions, while the levels of the nucleolar protein nucleolin were depleted. Alterations in the pattern of expression of PIN2, an auxin transporter, and of cyclin B1, a cell cycle regulator, were shown. All these alterations are compatible with previous space data, so the use of these strains will be useful in the next experiments in ISS, under real microgravity.

  8. Identification and functional characterization of riboflavin transporter in human-derived retinoblastoma cell line (Y-79): mechanisms of cellular uptake and translocation.

    PubMed

    Kansara, Viral; Pal, Dhananjay; Jain, Ritesh; Mitra, Ashim K

    2005-08-01

    Drug delivery to the retina is a challenging task owing to its complex physiology and presence of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), which regulates the permeation of substances from blood into the retina. Transporter-targeted drug delivery has become a clinically significant drug-delivery approach for enhancing the bioavailability of various drugs. Different nutrient transporters have been reported to be expressed on the retina. Riboflavin (vitamin B2), an essential nutritional vitamin for the development and maintenance of the surface structures and functions of epithelial cells of the ocular tissues, must be acquired from retinal or choroidal blood supply. The uptake mechanism, cellular translocation, and major regulatory pathways of riboflavin uptake into retina are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of a riboflavin transporter and delineate uptake and intracellular trafficking of riboflavin in the human-derived retinoblastoma cell line (Y-79), a model for neural retina. Uptake characteristics of [3H]riboflavin in Y-79 cells were found to be (1) linear with time over 10 min of incubation; (2) temperature- and energy-dependent; (3) sodium, chloride-, and pH-independent; (4) concentration dependence with an apparent K(m) of 19.21 +/- 0.37 nM and V(max) of 6.98 +/- 0.30 pmol/min/mg protein; (5) inhibited by the structural analogs (lumiflavin and lumichrome) but not by the structurally unrelated vitamins; and (6) uptake of [3H]riboflavin was trans-stimulated by the intracellular riboflavin. Neither protein kinase C- nor protein tyrosine kinase-mediated pathways were involved in regulating riboflavin uptake. However, protein kinase A pathway activators (IBMX and forskolin) and inhibitors (H-89) and Ca2+/calmodulin pathways appeared to play important roles in the regulation of riboflavin uptake in Y-79 cells through significant reduction in V(max) (39%) and significant increase in K(m) (112%) of the uptake process. These studies demonstrated, for the first time, the existence of a specialized carrier-mediated system for riboflavin uptake in human-derived retinoblastoma cells. The system appears to be regulated by protein kinase A and Ca2+/calmodulin pathways. Being a high-affinity low-capacity transport system, the presence of this transporter on the retina may be suitable for the design of transporter-targeted prodrugs to achieve enhanced permeability for highly potent, but poorly bioavailable, compounds where a small increase in the bioavailability could result in a significant increase in therapeutic response. PMID:16117691

  9. APS storage ring vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. The Role of Monocarboxylate Transporters and Their Chaperone CD147 in Lactate Efflux Inhibition and the Anticancer Effects of Terminalia chebula in Neuroblastoma Cell Line N2-A

    PubMed Central

    Messeha, S. S.; Zarmouh, N. O.; Taka, E.; Gendy, S. G.; Shokry, G. R.; Kolta, M. G.; Soliman, K. F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims In the presence of oxygen, most of the synthesized pyruvate during glycolysis in the cancer cell of solid tumors is released away from the mitochondria to form lactate (Warburg Effect). To maintain cell homeostasis, lactate is transported across the cell membrane by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The major aim of the current investigation is to identify novel compounds that inhibit lactate efflux that may lead to identifying effective targets for cancer treatment. Study Design In this study, 900 ethanol plant extracts were screened for their lactate efflux inhibition using neuroblastoma (N2-A) cell line. Additionally, we investigated the mechanism of inhibition for the most potent plant extract regarding monocarboxylate transporters expression, and consequences effects on viability, growth, and apoptosis. Methodology The potency of lactate efflux inhibition of ethanol plant extracts was evaluated in N2-A cells by measuring extracellular lactate levels. Caspase 3- activity and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining were performed to assess the apoptotic effect. The antiproliferative effect was measured using WST assay. Western blotting was performed to quantify protein expression of MCTs and their chaperone CD147 in treated cells lysates. Results Terminalia chebula plant extract was the most potent lactate efflux inhibitor in N2-A cells among the 900 - tested plant extracts. The results obtained show that extract of Terminalia chebula fruits (TCE) significantly (P = 0.05) reduced the expression of the MCT1, MCT3, MCT4 and the chaperone CD147. The plant extract was more potent (IC50 of 3.59 ± 0.26 μg/ml) than the MCT standard inhibitor phloretin (IC50 76.54 ± 3.19 μg/ml). The extract also showed more potency and selective cytotoxicity in cancer cells than DI-TNC1 primary cell line (IC50 7.37 ± 0.28 vs. 17.35 ± 0.19 μg/ml). Moreover, TCE Inhibited N2-A cell growth (IG50 = 5.20 ± 0.30 μg/ml) and induced apoptosis at the 7.5 μg/ml concentration. Conclusion Out of the 900 plant extracts screened, Terminalia chebula ethanol extract was found to be the most potent lactate efflux inhibitor with the ability to inhibit chaperone CD147 expression and impact the function of monocarboxylate transporters. Furthermore, TCE was found to have growth inhibition and apoptotic effects. The results obtained indicate that Terminalia chebula constituent(s) may contain promising compounds that can be useful in the management of neuroblastoma cancer. PMID:27158628

  11. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  12. Regulation of Aggression by Obesity-Linked Genes TfAP-2 and Twz Through Octopamine Signaling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael J.; Goergen, Philip; Rajendran, Jayasimman; Klockars, Anica; Kasagiannis, Anna; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2014-01-01

    In Drosophila, the monoamine octopamine, through mechanisms that are not completely understood, regulates both aggression and mating behavior. Interestingly, our study demonstrates that the Drosophila obesity-linked homologs Transcription factor AP-2 (TfAP-2; TFAP2B in humans) and Tiwaz (Twz; KCTD15 in humans) interact to modify male behavior by controlling the expression of Tyramine β-hydroxylase and Vesicular monanime transporter, genes necessary for octopamine production and secretion. Furthermore, we reveal that octopamine in turn regulates aggression through the Drosophila cholecystokinin satiation hormone homolog Drosulfakinin (Dsk). Finally, we establish that TfAP-2 is expressed in octopaminergic neurons known to control aggressive behavior and that TfAP-2 requires functional Twz for its activity. We conclude that genetically manipulating the obesity-linked homologs TfAP-2 and Twz is sufficient to affect octopamine signaling, which in turn modulates Drosophila male behavior through the regulation of the satiation hormone Dsk. PMID:24142897

  13. AP1000 Design Basis Event Simulation at the APEX-1000 Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Richard F.; Groome, John

    2004-07-01

    The AP1000 is a 1000 MWe advanced nuclear power plant that uses passive safety features to enhance plant safety and to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 relies heavily on the 600 MWe AP600 which received design certification in 1999. A critical part of the AP600 design certification process involved the testing of the passive safety systems. A one-fourth height, one-fourth pressure test facility, APEX-600, was constructed at the Oregon State University to study design basis events, and to provide a body of data to be used to validate the computer models used to analyze the AP600. This facility was extensively modified to reflect the design changes for AP1000 including higher power in the electrically heated rods representing the reactor core, and changes in the size of the pressurizer, core makeup tanks and automatic depressurization system. Several design basis events are being simulated at APEX-1000 including a double-ended direct vessel injection (DEDVI) line break and a 2-inch cold leg break. These tests show that the core remains covered with ample margin until gravity injection is established regardless of the initiating event. The tests also show that liquid entrainment from the upper plenum which is proportional to the reactor power does not impact the ability of the passive core cooling system to keep the core covered. (authors)

  14. 78 FR 21817 - Amendment of Restricted Area R-6601; Fort A.P. Hill, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... limits and increase the time of designation of restricted area R-6601, Fort A.P. Hill, VA, (77 FR 35308... ``significant rule'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  15. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

  16. Simplified SBLOCA Analysis of AP1000

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William L.

    2004-07-01

    The AP1000 is a 1000 MWe advanced nuclear power plant design that uses passive safety features such as a multi-stage, automatic depressurization system (ADS) and gravity-driven, safety injection from core make-up tanks (CMTs) and an in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) to mitigate SBLOCA events. The period of most safety significance for AP1000 during a SBLOCA event is typically associated with the actuation of the fourth stage of the ADS and subsequent transition from CMT to IRWST safety injection. As this period of a SBLOCA is generally of a quasi-steady nature, the integral performance of the AP1000 can be understood and evaluated with a simplified model of the reactor vessel, ADS, and safety injection from the CMTs and IRWST. The simplified model of the AP1000 consists of a series of steady state simulations that uses drift flux in the core region and homogeneous treatment of the core exit region including the ADS flow paths to generate a family of core flow demand curves as a function of system pressure (i.e. mass flow required to satisfy core cooling). These core flow demand curves are plotted against passive safety system supply curves from the CMTs and IRWST to demonstrate the adequacy of the integral performance of the AP1000 during the most important phase of a SBLOCA. (author)

  17. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, F.H.

    1997-12-22

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed.

  18. Application of CMOS APS in star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi; Wang, Yefan; Yang, Jingyi; Hao, Zhihang

    2002-09-01

    Small satellites are now capable of performing missions that require accurate attitude determination and control. However, low weight, size, power, and cost requirements limit the types of attitude sensors that can be used on a small craft, making attitude estimation difficult. In particular, star trackers -- often the attitude sensors of choice for spacecraft, ballistic missile etc., are not practical for small satellites, and CMOS APS is a good substitute for attitude sensors. Some of the technical advantages of CMOS APS are no blooming, low power consumption, direct digital output, small size and little support circuitry, simple to design, etc. This paper discusses the application probability of CMOS APS technology in star tracker for use in small satellites. A ground-based prototype vision system based on CMOS APS has been built to demonstrate the advantages of using CMOS APS in star tracker. Resolving capability, noise, radiation hardening and some other characteristics are discussed in detail. CMOS image sensor is sure to be a potential replacement of CCD in the field of attitude sensors.

  19. Survey and alignment report on the primary control network for the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Zhao, S.

    1993-02-01

    During November 1992 the survey and alignment team measured the entire primary control network for the APS. This task had to be finished before the enclosure of the EAA and the RF buildings were put in place, inhibiting several lines of sight necessary for the determination of the monument locations.

  20. Building an AP Social Studies Program with Non-Traditional AP Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmead, Amanda; Blanchette, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Equal access to education, that is to a high quality education, has increasingly come to mean access to an Advanced Placement program. In recent years, there has been steady attention paid to opening access to AP programs. The 9th annual College Board report (2013) stated "students who succeed on an AP Exam during high school typically…

  1. Resveratrol rescues cAMP-dependent anionic transport in the cystic fibrosis pancreatic cell line CFPAC1

    PubMed Central

    Hamdaoui, Nabila; Baudoin-Legros, Maryvonne; Kelly, Mairead; Aissat, Abdel; Moriceau, Sandra; Vieu, Diane-Lore; Colas, Julien; Fritsch, Janine; Edelman, Aleksander; Planelles, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-dependent chloride channel in the plasma membrane of epithelia whose mutation is the cause of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). The most frequent CFTR mutation is deletion of Phe508 and this mutant protein (delF508CFTR) does not readily translocate to the plasma membrane and is rapidly degraded within the cell. We hypothesized that treating epithelial cells with resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic, phyto-ooestrogenic compound from grapes, could modulate both the expression and localization of CFTR. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cells endogenously expressing CFTR (MDCK1 and CAPAN1 cells) or delF508CFTR (CFPAC1 and airway epithelial cells, deriving from human bronchial biopsies) were treated with resveratrol for 2 or 18 h. The effect of this treatment on CFTR and delF508CFTR expression and localization was evaluated using RT-PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Halide efflux was measured with a fluorescent dye and with halide-sensitive electrodes. Production of interleukin-8 by these cells was assayed by ELISA. KEY RESULTS Resveratrol treatment increased CFTR expression or maturation in immunoblotting experiments in MDCK1 cells or in CFPAC1 cells. Indirect immunofluorescence experiments showed a shift of delF508CFTR localization towards the (peri)-membrane area in CFPAC1 cells and in human airway epithelial cells. A cAMP-dependent increase in membrane permeability to halide was detected in resveratrol-treated CFPAC1 cells, and was inhibited by a selective inhibitor of CFTR. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These results show that resveratrol modulated CFTR expression and localization and could rescue cAMP-dependent chloride transport in delF508CFTR cells. PMID:21366549

  2. Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along open magnetic field lines: Parallel heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Zehua; Tang Xianzhu

    2012-06-15

    In a long mean-free-path plasma where temperature anisotropy can be sustained, the parallel heat flux has two components with one associated with the parallel thermal energy and the other the perpendicular thermal energy. Due to the large deviation of the distribution function from local Maxwellian in an open field line plasma with low collisionality, the conventional perturbative calculation of the parallel heat flux closure in its local or non-local form is no longer applicable. Here, a non-perturbative calculation is presented for a collisionless plasma in a two-dimensional flux expander bounded by absorbing walls. Specifically, closures of previously unfamiliar form are obtained for ions and electrons, which relate two distinct components of the species parallel heat flux to the lower order fluid moments such as density, parallel flow, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, and the field quantities such as the magnetic field strength and the electrostatic potential. The plasma source and boundary condition at the absorbing wall enter explicitly in the closure calculation. Although the closure calculation does not take into account wave-particle interactions, the results based on passing orbits from steady-state collisionless drift-kinetic equation show remarkable agreement with fully kinetic-Maxwell simulations. As an example of the physical implications of the theory, the parallel heat flux closures are found to predict a surprising observation in the kinetic-Maxwell simulation of the 2D magnetic flux expander problem, where the parallel heat flux of the parallel thermal energy flows from low to high parallel temperature region.

  3. Use of On-Line Tracers as a Diagnostic Tool in General Circulation Model Development. 2; Transport Between the Troposphere and Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David H.; Lerner, Jean; Shah, Kathy; Suozzo, Robert

    1999-01-01

    A key component of climate/chemistry modeling is how to handle the influx into (and egress from) the troposphere. This is especially important when considering tropospheric ozone, and its precursors (e.g., NO(x) from aircraft). A study has been conducted with various GISS models to determine the minimum requirements necessary for producing realistic troposphere-stratosphere exchange. Four on-line tracers are employed: CFC-11 and SF6 for mixing from the troposphere into the stratosphere, Rn222 for vertical mixing within the troposphere, and 14C for mixing from the stratosphere into the troposphere. Four standard models are tested, with varying vertical resolution, gravity wave drag and location of the model top, and additional subsidiary models are employed to examine specific features. The results show that proper vertical transport between the troposphere and stratosphere in the GISS models requires lifting the top of the model considerably out of the stratosphere, and including gravity wave drag in the lower stratosphere. Increased vertical resolution without these aspects does not improve troposphere-stratosphere exchange. The transport appears to be driven largely by the residual circulation within the stratosphere; associated E-P flux convergences require both realistic upward propagating energy from the troposphere, and realistic pass-through possibilities. A 23 layer version with a top at the mesopause and incorporating gravity wave drag appears to have reasonable stratospheric-tropospheric exchange, in terms of both the resulting tracer distributions and atmospheric mass fluxes.

  4. Comparison of In vitro Nanoparticles Uptake in Various Cell Lines and In vivo Pulmonary Cellular Transport in Intratracheally Dosed Rat Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yurong; Chiang, Po-Chang; Blom, Jason D.; Li, Na; Shevlin, Kimberly; Brayman, Timothy G.; Hu, Yiding; Selbo, Jon G.; Hu, Liangbiao George

    2008-09-01

    In present study, the potential drug delivery of nanoformulations was validated via the comparison of cellular uptake of nanoparticles in various cell lines and in vivo pulmonary cellular uptake in intratracheally (IT) dosed rat model. Nanoparticles were prepared by a bench scale wet milling device and incubated with a series of cell lines, including Caco-2, RAW, MDCK and MDCK transfected MDR1 cells. IT dosed rats were examined for the pulmonary cellular uptake of nanoparticles. The processes of nanoparticle preparation did not alter the crystalline state of the material. The uptake of nanoparticles was observed most extensively in RAW cells and the least in Caco-2 cells. Efflux transporter P-gp did not prevent cell from nanoparticles uptake. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles was also confirmed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cells and in bronchiolar epithelial cells, type II alveolar epithelial cells in the intratracheally administrated rats. The nanoparticles uptake in MDCK, RAW cells and in vivo lung epithelial cells indicated the potential applications of nanoformulation for poorly soluble compounds. The observed limited direct uptake of nanoparticles in Caco-2 cells suggests that the improvement in oral bioavailability by particle size reduction is via increased dissolution rate rather than direct uptake.

  5. Endosomal and AP-3-Dependent Vacuolar Trafficking Routes Make Additive Contributions to Candida albicans Hyphal Growth and Pathogenesis▿†

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Glen E.

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans mutants deficient in vacuolar biogenesis are defective in polarized hyphal growth and virulence. However, the specific vacuolar trafficking routes required for hyphal growth and virulence are unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two trafficking routes deliver material from the Golgi apparatus to the vacuole. One occurs via the late endosome and is dependent upon Vps21p, while the second bypasses the endosome and requires the AP-3 complex, including Aps3p. To determine the significance of these pathways in C. albicans hyphal growth and virulence, aps3Δ/Δ, vps21Δ/Δ, and aps3Δ/Δ vps21Δ/Δ mutant strains were constructed. Analysis of vacuolar morphology and localization of the vacuolar protein Mlt1p suggests that C. albicans Aps3p and Vps21p mediate two distinct transport pathways. The vps21Δ/Δ mutant has a minor reduction in hyphal elongation, while the aps3Δ/Δ mutant has no defect in hyphal growth. Interestingly, the aps3Δ/Δ vps21Δ/Δ double mutant has dramatically reduced hyphal growth. Overexpression of the Ume6p transcriptional activator resulted in constitutive hyphal growth of wild-type, aps3Δ/Δ, and vps21Δ/Δ strains and formation of highly vacuolated subapical compartments. Thus, Ume6p-dependent transcriptional responses are sufficient to induce subapical vacuolation. However, the aps3Δ/Δ vps21Δ/Δ mutant formed mainly pseudohyphae that lacked vacuolated compartments. The aps3Δ/Δ strain was virulent in a mouse model of disseminated infection; the vps21Δ/Δ mutant failed to kill mice but persisted within kidney tissue, while the double mutant was avirulent and cleared from the kidneys. These results suggest that while the AP-3 pathway alone has little impact on hyphal growth or virulence, it is much more significant when endosomal trafficking is disrupted. PMID:20870878

  6. Plyler Prize and APS Fellow Introductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathanson, Gilbert

    2014-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Physics is delighted to announce the 2013 APS Fellows sponsored by DCP and to honor the 2014 Earl K. Plyler Prize Award winner. The new APS Fellows are: Ilan Benjamin, Hua Guo, Manos Mavrikakis, Josef Paldus, Joern Siepmann, Hans-Peter Steinrueck, Douglas Tobias, Angela Wilson, and Yijing Yan. The citations for each awardee will be read out loud. I will also introduce Prof. Lai-Sheng Wang of the Department of Chemistry at Brown University, who was awarded the 2014 Plyler Prize for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics. Please come learn about these extraordinary scientists during this prize session. Prof. Wang's Plyler Prize talk will follow immediately after this introduction. For more information, see http://www.aps.org/units/dcp/.

  7. E6-AP/UBE3A Protein Acts as a Ubiquitin Ligase toward SOX9 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Takako; Kishino, Tetsuya; Stephen, Shelley; Eberspaecher, Heidi; Maki, Sayumi; Takigawa, Masaharu; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Yasuda, Hideyo

    2013-01-01

    SOX9 is a transcription factor that acts as a key regulator at various stages of cartilage differentiation. There is ample evidence that intracellular SOX9 protein levels are tightly regulated both by sumoylation and by degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Using a proteomics approach, here we report the identification of a SOX9-binding protein, E6-AP/UBE3A, that may act as a ubiquitin ligase toward Sox9. E6-AP bound SOX9 through the region consisting mostly of its high mobility group domain in vitro. In nuclear lysates, FLAG-tagged E6-AP coprecipitated with Sox9 and its high mobility group domain. This finding was estimated using nuclear lysates from a chondrocytic cell line that endogenously expresses E6-AP and SOX9. Accordingly, ectopically expressed E6-AP and SOX9 colocalized in the nucleus. We show that E6-AP ubiquitinates SOX9 in vitro and in vivo and that SOX9 levels are enhanced after addition of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Similar, siRNA knockdown of E6-AP and the E2 ligase Ubc9 increased cellular SOX9 amounts, supporting the notion that SOX9 may be ubiquitinated in hypertrophic chondrocytes by E6-AP and degraded by proteasomes. This is in accordance with the distribution of SOX9 levels, which are high in proliferating and prehypertrophic chondrocytes but low in hypertrophic chondrocytes, whereas E6-AP levels are high in hypertrophic chondrocytes and low in prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Furthermore, E6-AP-deficient mice showed SOX9 accumulation in chondrocytes and the brain. These findings support the concept that E6-AP regulates SOX9 levels in developing cartilage by acting as a ubiquitin ligase. PMID:24155239

  8. On the periodic variations of geomagnetic activity indices Ap and ap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1998-05-01

    Yearly averages of geomagnetic activity indices Ap for the years 1967-1984 are compared to the respective averages of 2·Bs, where v is the solar wind velocity and Bs is the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component. The correlation of both quantities is known to be rather good. Comparing the averages of Ap with 2 and Bs separately we find that, during the declining phase of the solar cycle, 2 and during the ascending phase Bs have more influence on Ap. According to this observation (using Fourier spectral analysis) the semiannual and 27 days, Ap variations for the years 1932-1993 were analysed separately for years before and after sunspot minima. Only those time-intervals before sunspot minima with a significant 27-day recurrent period of the IMF sector structure and those intervals after sunspot minima with a significant 28-28.5-day recurrent period of the sector structure were used. The averaged spectra of the two Ap data sets clearly show a period of 27 days before and a period of 28-29 days after sunspot minimum. Moreover, the phase of the average semiannual wave of Ap is significantly different for the two groups of data: the Ap variation maximizes near the equinoxes during the declining phase of the sunspot cycle and near the beginning of April and October during the ascending phase of the sunspot cycle, as predicted by the Russell-McPherron (R-M) mechanism. Analysing the daily variation of ap in an analogue manner, the same equinoctial and R-M mechanisms are seen, suggesting that during phases of the solar cycle, when ap depends more on the IMF-Bs component, the R-M mechanism is predominant, whereas during phases when ap increases as v increases the equinoctial mechanism is more likely to be effective.

  9. Mutations in ap1b1 Cause Mistargeting of the Na+/K+-ATPase Pump in Sensory Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Clemens Grisham, Rachel; Kindt, Katie; Finger-Baier, Karin; Schmid, Bettina; Nicolson, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The hair cells of the inner ear are polarized epithelial cells with a specialized structure at the apical surface, the mechanosensitive hair bundle. Mechanotransduction occurs within the hair bundle, whereas synaptic transmission takes place at the basolateral membrane. The molecular basis of the development and maintenance of the apical and basal compartments in sensory hair cells is poorly understood. Here we describe auditory/vestibular mutants isolated from forward genetic screens in zebrafish with lesions in the adaptor protein 1 beta subunit 1 (ap1b1) gene. Ap1b1 is a subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1, which has been implicated in the targeting of basolateral membrane proteins. In ap1b1 mutants we observed that although the overall development of the inner ear and lateral-line organ appeared normal, the sensory epithelium showed progressive signs of degeneration. Mechanically-evoked calcium transients were reduced in mutant hair cells, indicating that mechanotransduction was also compromised. To gain insight into the cellular and molecular defects in ap1b1 mutants, we examined the localization of basolateral membrane proteins in hair cells. We observed that the Na+/K+-ATPase pump (NKA) was less abundant in the basolateral membrane and was mislocalized to apical bundles in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Accordingly, intracellular Na+ levels were increased in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Our results suggest that Ap1b1 is essential for maintaining integrity and ion homeostasis in hair cells. PMID:23593334

  10. Neuronal RNA granule contains ApCPEB1, a novel cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein, in Aplysia sensory neuron.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yeon-Su; Lee, Seung-Hee; Cheang, Ye-Hwang; Lee, Nuribalhae; Rim, Young-Soo; Jang, Deok-Jin; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2010-01-31

    The cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE)-binding protein (CPEB) binds to CPE containing mRNAs on their 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs). This RNA binding protein comes out many important tasks, especially in learning and memory, by modifying the translational efficiency of target mRNAs via poly (A) tailing. Overexpressed CPEB has been reported to induce the formation of stress granules (SGs), a sort of RNA granule in mammalian cell lines. RNA granule is considered to be a potentially important factor in learning and memory. However, there is no study about RNA granule in Aplysia. To examine whether an Aplysia CPEB, ApCPEB1, forms RNA granules, we overexpressed ApCPEB1-EGFP in Aplysia sensory neurons. Consistent with the localization of mammalian CPEB, overexpressed ApCPEB1 formed granular structures, and was colocalized with RNAs and another RNA binding protein, ApCPEB, showing that ApCPEB1 positive granules are RNA-protein complexes. In addition, ApCPEB1 has a high turnover rate in RNA granules which were mobile structures. Thus, our results indicate that overexpressed ApCPEB1 is incorporated into RNA granule which is a dynamic structure in Aplysia sensory neuron. We propose that ApCPEB1 granule might modulate translation, as other RNA granules do, and furthermore, influence memory. PMID:19887896

  11. Project W-519 CDR supplement: Raw water and electrical services for privatization contractor, AP tank farm operations

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-07-31

    This supplement to the Project W-519 Conceptual Design will identify a means to provide RW and Electrical services to serve the needs of the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) at AP Tank Farm as directed by DOE-RL. The RW will serve the fire suppression and untreated process water requirements for the PC. The purpose of this CDR supplement is to identify Raw Water (RW) and Electrical service line routes to the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) feed delivery tanks, AP-106 and/or AP-108, and establish associated cost impacts to the Project W-519 baseline.

  12. 76 FR 6328 - Official Release of the January 2011 AP-42 Method for Estimating Re-Entrained Road Dust From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... emissions model for SIPs and regional conformity purposes (75 FR 9411) and of the MOVES2010a and EMFAC models for transportation conformity hot-spot analyses (75 FR 79370). The January 2011 AP-42 method... grace period in the preamble to the 1993 transportation conformity rule (58 FR 62211): EPA and DOT...

  13. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during

  14. Boosting Black Academic Achievement and AP Enrollments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Terrie; Maloney, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Minority students were about 25% of the student population at Central High School in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1995. But the composition of its honors and challenge classes did not reflect this diversity: Few minority students were taking challenge classes as underclassmen and even fewer were taking Advanced Placement (AP) courses as seniors. This paper…

  15. Teaching Journalistic Style with the "AP Stylebook."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNicola, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Argues for exposing journalism students to a standard stylebook like the "AP Stylebook." Notes that, besides covering aspects of style, the stylebook is a source of useful information and may stimulate worthwhile discussion as it addresses issues of "political correctness." (SR)

  16. The Demographic Wave: Rethinking Hispanic AP Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Las Vegas, NV in July 2013. This presentation reviews new research examining the AP® experience of Hispanic graduates over the past decade. Topics include an in-depth look at the AP Spanish Language and Culture gateway hypothesis and trends in family characteristics such as parent…

  17. Structuring the AP Art History Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herscher, Walter R.

    2013-01-01

    While AP (Advanced Placement) Art History may be taught within the art department in many schools, social studies teachers are equally capable of teaching the course well. They have the historical background to discuss the reasons for changes in art styles. A teacher's preparation is similar to teaching a course stressing political history,…

  18. APS deposition facility upgrades and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Ray; Shi, Bing; Erdmann, Mark; Izzo, Scott; Assoufid, Lahsen; Goetze, Kurt; Mooney, Tim; Lauer, Kenneth

    2014-09-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has recently invested resources to upgrade or replace aging deposition systems with modern equipment. Of the three existing deposition systems, one will receive an upgrade, while two are being replaced. A design which adds a three-substrate planetary for the APS rotary deposition system is almost complete. The replacement for the APS large deposition system, dubbed the "Modular Deposition System", has been conceptually designed and is in the procurement process. Eight cathodes will sputter horizontally on mirrors up to 1.5 meters in length. This new instrument is designed to interface with ion-milling instruments and various metrology equipment for ion-beam figuring. A third linear machine, called the APS Profile Coating System, has two cathodes and is designed to accept substrates up to 200mm in length. While this machine is primarily intended for fabrication of figured KB mirrors using the profile-coating technique, it has also been used to produce multilayer monochromators for beamline use.

  19. The Promise of AP World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  20. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

  1. Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and…

  2. The Promise of AP World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaa, Cristbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign

  3. Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and

  4. The clathrin adaptor AP-1A mediates basolateral polarity.

    PubMed

    Gravotta, Diego; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Mattera, Rafael; Deborde, Sylvie; Banfelder, Jason R; Bonifacino, Juan S; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2012-04-17

    Clathrin and the epithelial-specific clathrin adaptor AP-1B mediate basolateral trafficking in epithelia. However, several epithelia lack AP-1B, and mice knocked out for AP-1B are viable, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms that control basolateral polarity. Here, we demonstrate a distinct role of the ubiquitous clathrin adaptor AP-1A in basolateral protein sorting. Knockdown of AP-1A causes missorting of basolateral proteins in MDCK cells, but only after knockdown of AP-1B, suggesting that AP-1B can compensate for lack of AP-1A. AP-1A localizes predominantly to the TGN, and its knockdown promotes spillover of basolateral proteins into common recycling endosomes, the site of function of AP-1B, suggesting complementary roles of both adaptors in basolateral sorting. Yeast two-hybrid assays detect interactions between the basolateral signal of transferrin receptor and the medium subunits of both AP-1A and AP-1B. The basolateral sorting function of AP-1A reported here establishes AP-1 as a major regulator of epithelial polarity. PMID:22516199

  5. The Clathrin Adaptor AP-1A Mediates Basolateral Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Gravotta, Diego; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Mattera, Rafael; Deborde, Sylvie; Banfelder, Jason R.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Summary Clathrin and the epithelial-specific clathrin adaptor AP-1B mediate basolateral trafficking in epithelia. However, several epithelia lack AP-1B and mice knocked-out for AP-1B are viable, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms that control basolateral polarity. Here, we demonstrate a distinct role of the ubiquitous clathrin adaptor AP-1A in basolateral protein sorting. Knock-down of AP-1A causes missorting of basolateral proteins in MDCK cells but only after knock-down of AP-1B, suggesting that AP-1B can compensate for lack of AP-1A. AP-1A localizes predominantly to the TGN and its knock-down promotes spillover of basolateral proteins into common recycling endosomes, the site of function of AP-1B, suggesting complementary roles of both adaptors in basolateral sorting. Yeast two-hybrid assays detect interactions between the basolateral signal of TfR and the medium subunits of both AP-1A and AP-1B. The basolateral sorting function of AP-1A reported here establishes AP-1 as a major regulator of epithelial polarity. PMID:22516199

  6. Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Toru; Higa, Shinji; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Naka, Tetsuji; Ogata, Atsushi; Shima, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Minoru; Yamadori, Tomoki; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio . E-mail: ttanak@imed3.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2006-02-03

    Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1.

  7. Tank 241-AP-106, grab samples, 6AP-96-1 through 6AP-96-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. This document presents the analytical results for three samples (6AP-96-1, 6AP-96-2 and 6AP-96-3) taken from riser 1 @ 150{degrees} of tank 241-AP-1 06 on September 12, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1996) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler, 1995).

  8. Glucose-Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Metal Vapour Synthesis Are Electively Internalized in a Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cell Line Expressing GLUT1 Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Evangelisti, Claudio; Vitulli, Giovanni; Schiavi, Eleonora; Marzano, Cristina; Ferretti, Anna M.; Salvadori, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) can have a variety of biomedical applications due to their visualization properties through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and heating with radio frequency or alternating magnetic fields. In the oncological field, coating IONP with organic compounds to provide specific features and to achieve the ability of binding specific molecular targets appears to be very promising. To take advantage of the high avidity of tumor cells for glucose, we report the development of very small glucose-coated IONP (glc-IONP) by employing an innovative technique, Metal Vapor Synthesis (MVS). Moreover, we tested the internalization of our gl-IONP on a tumor line, BxPC3, over-expressing GLUT 1 transporter. Both glc-IONP and polyvinylpyrrolidone-IONP (PVP-IONP), as control, were prepared with MVS and were tested on BxPC3 at various concentrations. To evaluate the role of GLUT-1 transporter, we also investigated the effect of adding a polyclonal anti-GLUT1 antibody. After proper treatment, the iron value was assessed by atomic absorption spectrometer, reported in mcg/L and expressed in mg of protein. Our IONP prepared with MVS were very small and homogeneously distributed in a narrow range (1.75-3.75 nm) with an average size of 2.7 nm and were super-paramagnetic. Glc-IONP were internalized by BxPC3 cells in a larger amount than PVP-IONP. After 6h of treatment with 50 mcg/mL of IONPs, the content of Fe was 1.5 times higher in glc-IONP-treated cells compared with PVP-IONP-treated cells. After 1h pre-treatment with anti-GLUT1, a reduction of 41% cellular accumulation of glc-IONP was observed. Conversely, the uptake of PVP-IONPs was reduced only by 14% with antibody pretreatment. In conclusion, MVS allowed us to prepare small, homogeneous, super-paramagnetic glc-IONP, which are electively internalized by a tumor line over-expressing GLUT1. Our glc-IONP appear to have many requisites for in vivo use. PMID:25874906

  9. OsAP65, a rice aspartic protease, is essential for male fertility and plays a role in pollen germination and pollen tube growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qifa

    2013-01-01

    Aspartic proteases (APs) comprise a large proteolytic enzyme family widely distributed in animals, microbes, viruses, and plants. The rice genome encodes 96 APs, of which only a few have been functionally characterized. Here, the identification and characterization of a novel AP gene, OsAP65, which plays an indispensable role in pollen tube growth in rice, is reported. The T-DNA insertion line of OsAP65 caused severe segregation distortion. In the progeny derived from an individual heterozygous for the T-DNA insertion, the wild type and T-DNA-carrying heterozygote segregated at a ratio close to 1:1, while homozygotes of disrupted OsAP65 (OsAP65–/–) were not recovered. Reciprocal crosses between heterozygotes and wild-type plants demonstrated that the mutant alleles could not be transmitted through the male gamete. Examination of the anthers from heterozygous plants revealed that the mutant pollen matured normally, but did not germinate or elongate. OsAP65 was expressed in various tissues and the transcript level in heterozygous plants was about half of the amount measured in the wild-type plants. The subcellular localization showed that OsAP65 is a pre-vacuolar compartment (PVC) protein. These results indicated that OsAP65 was essential for rice pollen germination and tube growth. PMID:23918968

  10. Power Saving Control for Battery-Powered Portable WLAN APs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Masakatsu; Hiraguri, Takefumi

    This paper proposes a power saving control function for battery-powered portable wireless LAN (WLAN) access points (APs) to extend the battery life. The IEEE802.11 standard does not support power saving control for APs. To enable a sleep state for an AP, the AP forces the stations (STAs) to refrain from transmitting frames using the network allocation vector (NAV) while the AP is sleeping. Thus the sleep state for the AP can be employed without causing frame loss at the STAs. Numerical analysis and computer simulation reveal that the newly proposed control technique conserves power compared to the conventional control.

  11. A Novel GLP1 Receptor Interacting Protein ATP6ap2 Regulates Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Feihan F; Bhattacharjee, Alpana; Liu, Ying; Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinye Serena; Huang, Xinyi; Luu, Lemieux; Zhu, Dan; Gaisano, Herbert; Wheeler, Michael B

    2015-10-01

    GLP1 activates its receptor, GLP1R, to enhance insulin secretion. The activation and transduction of GLP1R requires complex interactions with a host of accessory proteins, most of which remain largely unknown. In this study, we used membrane-based split ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid assays to identify novel GLP1R interactors in both mouse and human islets. Among these, ATP6ap2 (ATPase H(+)-transporting lysosomal accessory protein 2) was identified in both mouse and human islet screens. ATP6ap2 was shown to be abundant in islets including both alpha and beta cells. When GLP1R and ATP6ap2 were co-expressed in beta cells, GLP1R was shown to directly interact with ATP6ap2, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. In INS-1 cells, overexpression of ATP6ap2 did not affect insulin secretion; however, siRNA knockdown decreased both glucose-stimulated and GLP1-induced insulin secretion. Decreases in GLP1-induced insulin secretion were accompanied by attenuated GLP1 stimulated cAMP accumulation. Because ATP6ap2 is a subunit required for V-ATPase assembly of insulin granules, it has been reported to be involved in granule acidification. In accordance with this, we observed impaired insulin granule acidification upon ATP6ap2 knockdown but paradoxically increased proinsulin secretion. Importantly, as a GLP1R interactor, ATP6ap2 was required for GLP1-induced Ca(2+) influx, in part explaining decreased insulin secretion in ATP6ap2 knockdown cells. Taken together, our findings identify a group of proteins that interact with the GLP1R. We further show that one interactor, ATP6ap2, plays a novel dual role in beta cells, modulating both GLP1R signaling and insulin processing to affect insulin secretion. PMID:26272612

  12. Greenhouse evaluation of Bacillus subtilis AP-01 and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 in controlling tobacco diseases

    PubMed Central

    Maketon, Monchan; Apisitsantikul, Jirasak; Siriraweekul, Chatchai

    2008-01-01

    Two biological control agents, Bacillus subtilis AP-01 (Larminar™) and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 (Trisan™) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (Pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora nicotiana). Tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. Bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed with the biological control agents and for comparison purposes, two chemical fungicides. But for frogeye leaf spot, which is an airborne fungus, a spraying procedure for every treatment including a chemical fungicide was applied instead of drenching. Results showed that neither B. subtilis AP-01 nor T harzianum AP-001 alone could control the bacterial wilt, but when combined, their controlling capabilities were as effective as a chemical treatment. These results were also similar for damping-off disease when used in combination. In addition, the combined B. subtilis AP-01 and T. harzianum AP-001 resulted in a good frogeye leaf spot control, which was not significantly different from the chemical treatment. PMID:24031219

  13. Sorting of the Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid Precursor Protein Mediated by the AP-4 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Burgos, Patricia V.; Mardones, Gonzalo A.; Rojas, Adriana L.; daSilva, Luis L.P.; Prabhu, Yogikala; Hurley, James H.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2010-08-12

    Adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is the most recently discovered and least well-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes that mediate sorting of transmembrane cargo in post-Golgi compartments. Herein, we report the interaction of an YKFFE sequence from the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the {micro}4 subunit of AP-4. Biochemical and X-ray crystallographic analyses reveal that the properties of the APP sequence and the location of the binding site on 4 are distinct from those of other signal-adaptor interactions. Disruption of the APP-AP-4 interaction decreases localization of APP to endosomes and enhances {gamma}-secretase-catalyzed cleavage of APP to the pathogenic amyloid-{beta} peptide. These findings demonstrate that APP and AP-4 engage in a distinct type of signal-adaptor interaction that mediates transport of APP from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes, thereby reducing amyloidogenic processing of the protein.

  14. Transcriptional regulation of Schistosoma mansoni calreticulin: possible role of AP-1.

    PubMed

    Khalife, J; Godin, C; Capron, A

    1995-11-01

    Little is known about the regulation and control of Schistosoma mansoni gene expression. In order to study such mechanisms a gene reporter expression vector construction, under the control of a promoter region derived from the S. mansoni calreticulin gene was used to transfect the human Jurkat T cell line. The promoter region contains potential TATA and CAAT boxes as well as an AP-1 core element. We show here that transcriptional factors of eucaryotic cells may induce a gene reporter activity under the control of a S. mansoni promoter region. Treatment of stably transfected cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a well-characterized antioxidant which counteracts the effects of reactive oxygen intermediates, enhanced the AP-1 dependent transactivation. This effect was abolished when the SmCaR promoter region was deleted in the AP-1 site. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays showed that the AP-1 sequence of S. mansoni bound to both S. mansoni extracts and in nuclear extracts from Jurkat cells, thus explaining possible activation of AP-1 by NAC. Finally treatment of S. mansoni schistosomula and adult worms with NAC induced an increased synthesis of calreticulin protein suggesting a possible role of redox mechanisms in the regulation of a calreticulin gene transcription process in S. mansoni. PMID:11023411

  15. Conditional depletion of intellectual disability and Parkinsonism candidate gene ATP6AP2 in fly and mouse induces cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dubos, Aline; Castells-Nobau, Anna; Meziane, Hamid; Oortveld, Merel A.W.; Houbaert, Xander; Iacono, Giovanni; Martin, Christelle; Mittelhaeuser, Christophe; Lalanne, Valérie; Kramer, Jamie M.; Bhukel, Anuradha; Quentin, Christine; Slabbert, Jan; Verstreken, Patrik; Sigrist, Stefan J.; Messaddeq, Nadia; Birling, Marie-Christine; Selloum, Mohammed; Stunnenberg, Henk G.; Humeau, Yann; Schenck, Annette; Herault, Yann

    2015-01-01

    ATP6AP2, an essential accessory component of the vacuolar H+ ATPase (V-ATPase), has been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and Parkinsonism. ATP6AP2 has been implicated in several signalling pathways; however, little is known regarding its role in the nervous system. To decipher its function in behaviour and cognition, we generated and characterized conditional knockdowns of ATP6AP2 in the nervous system of Drosophila and mouse models. In Drosophila, ATP6AP2 knockdown induced defective phototaxis and vacuolated photoreceptor neurons and pigment cells when depleted in eyes and altered short- and long-term memory when depleted in the mushroom body. In mouse, conditional Atp6ap2 deletion in glutamatergic neurons (Atp6ap2Camk2aCre/0 mice) caused increased spontaneous locomotor activity and altered fear memory. Both Drosophila ATP6AP2 knockdown and Atp6ap2Camk2aCre/0 mice presented with presynaptic transmission defects, and with an abnormal number and morphology of synapses. In addition, Atp6ap2Camk2aCre/0 mice showed autophagy defects that led to axonal and neuronal degeneration in the cortex and hippocampus. Surprisingly, axon myelination was affected in our mutant mice, and axonal transport alterations were observed in Drosophila. In accordance with the identified phenotypes across species, genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Atp6ap2Camk2aCre/0 mouse hippocampi revealed dysregulation of genes involved in myelination, action potential, membrane-bound vesicles and motor behaviour. In summary, ATP6AP2 disruption in mouse and fly leads to cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, mimicking aspects of the neuropathology associated with ATP6AP2 mutations in humans. Our results identify ATP6AP2 as an essential gene for the nervous system. PMID:26376863

  16. Conditional depletion of intellectual disability and Parkinsonism candidate gene ATP6AP2 in fly and mouse induces cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Dubos, Aline; Castells-Nobau, Anna; Meziane, Hamid; Oortveld, Merel A W; Houbaert, Xander; Iacono, Giovanni; Martin, Christelle; Mittelhaeuser, Christophe; Lalanne, Valérie; Kramer, Jamie M; Bhukel, Anuradha; Quentin, Christine; Slabbert, Jan; Verstreken, Patrik; Sigrist, Stefan J; Messaddeq, Nadia; Birling, Marie-Christine; Selloum, Mohammed; Stunnenberg, Henk G; Humeau, Yann; Schenck, Annette; Herault, Yann

    2015-12-01

    ATP6AP2, an essential accessory component of the vacuolar H+ ATPase (V-ATPase), has been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and Parkinsonism. ATP6AP2 has been implicated in several signalling pathways; however, little is known regarding its role in the nervous system. To decipher its function in behaviour and cognition, we generated and characterized conditional knockdowns of ATP6AP2 in the nervous system of Drosophila and mouse models. In Drosophila, ATP6AP2 knockdown induced defective phototaxis and vacuolated photoreceptor neurons and pigment cells when depleted in eyes and altered short- and long-term memory when depleted in the mushroom body. In mouse, conditional Atp6ap2 deletion in glutamatergic neurons (Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mice) caused increased spontaneous locomotor activity and altered fear memory. Both Drosophila ATP6AP2 knockdown and Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mice presented with presynaptic transmission defects, and with an abnormal number and morphology of synapses. In addition, Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mice showed autophagy defects that led to axonal and neuronal degeneration in the cortex and hippocampus. Surprisingly, axon myelination was affected in our mutant mice, and axonal transport alterations were observed in Drosophila. In accordance with the identified phenotypes across species, genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mouse hippocampi revealed dysregulation of genes involved in myelination, action potential, membrane-bound vesicles and motor behaviour. In summary, ATP6AP2 disruption in mouse and fly leads to cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, mimicking aspects of the neuropathology associated with ATP6AP2 mutations in humans. Our results identify ATP6AP2 as an essential gene for the nervous system. PMID:26376863

  17. Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting Activator Protein 1 (AP-1)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases. PMID:24831826

  18. Correction magnet power supplies for APS machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source machine requires a number of correction magnets; five kinds for the storage ring, two for the injector synchrotron, and two for the positron accumulator ring. Three types of bipolar power supply will be used for all the correction magnets. This paper describes the design aspects and considerations for correction magnet power supplies for the APS machine. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. An Updated AP2 Beamline TURTLE Model

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, M.; O'Day, S.

    1991-08-23

    This note describes a TURTLE model of the AP2 beamline. This model was created by D. Johnson and improved by J. Hangst. The authors of this note have made additional improvements which reflect recent element and magnet setting changes. The magnet characteristics measurements and survey data compiled to update the model will be presented. A printout of the actual TURTLE deck may be found in appendix A.

  20. Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-04-19

    This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report.

  1. Cultural Diversity in AP Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Frances R.

    2006-01-01

    Teaching AP Art History is like running on a treadmill that is moving faster than a teacher can run. Many teachers are out of breath before the end of the term and wonder how in the world they can cover every chapter. Because time is short and art from pre-history through to the present, including the non-European traditions, must be covered, this…

  2. Cultural Diversity in AP Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Frances R.

    2006-01-01

    Teaching AP Art History is like running on a treadmill that is moving faster than a teacher can run. Many teachers are out of breath before the end of the term and wonder how in the world they can cover every chapter. Because time is short and art from pre-history through to the present, including the non-European traditions, must be covered, this

  3. Pulsation tomography of rapidly oscillating Ap stars. Resolving the third dimension in peculiar pulsating stellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikova, T.; Sachkov, M.; Kochukhov, O.; Lyashko, D.

    2007-10-01

    Aims:We present detailed analysis of the vertical pulsation mode cross-section in ten rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars based on spectroscopic time-series observations. The aim of this analysis is to derive from observations a complete picture of how the amplitude and phase of magnetoacoustic waves depend on depth. Methods: We use the unique properties of roAp stars, in particular chemical stratification, to resolve the vertical structure of p-modes. Our approach consists of characterising pulsational behaviour of a carefully chosen, but extensive sample of spectral lines. We analyse the resulting amplitude-phase diagrams and interpret observations in terms of pulsation wave propagation. Results: We find common features in the pulsational behaviour of roAp stars. Within a sample of representative elements the lowest amplitudes are detected for Eu ii (and Fe in 33 Lib and in HD 19918), then pulsations go through the layers where Hα core, Nd, and Pr lines are formed. There RV amplitude reaches its maximum, and after that decreases in most stars. The maximum RV of the second REE ions is always delayed relative to the first ions. The largest phase shifts are detected in Tb iii and Th iii lines. Pulsational variability of the Th iii lines is detected here for the first time. The Y ii lines deviate from this picture, showing even lower amplitudes than Eu ii lines but half a period phase shift relative to other weakly pulsating lines. We measured an extra broadening, equivalent to a macroturbulent velocity from 4 to 11-12 km s-1 (where maximum values are observed for Tb iii and Th iii lines), for pulsating REE lines. The surface magnetic field strength is derived for the first time for three roAp stars: HD 9289 (2 kG), HD 12932 (1.7 kG), and HD 19918 (1.6 kG). Conclusions: The roAp stars exhibit similarity in the depth-dependence of pulsation phase and amplitude, indicating similar chemical stratification and comparable vertical mode cross-sections. In general, pulsations waves are represented by a superposition of the running and standing wave components. In the atmospheres of roAp stars with the pulsation frequency below the acoustic cut-off frequency, pulsations have a standing-wave character in the deeper layers and behave like a running wave in the outer layers. Cooler roAp stars develop a running wave higher in the atmosphere. In stars with pulsation frequency close to the acoustic cut-off one, pulsation waves have a running character starting from deep layers. The transition from standing to running wave is accompanied by an increase in the turbulent broadening of spectral lines. Based on observations made with the SAO 6-m telescope, with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, and the ESO VLT (DDT programme 274.D-5011 and programme 072.D-0138, retrieved through the ESO archive). Table 3 and Figs. 5, 6, 8-10, 12, 13 and 15-18 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. The Cryptosporidium parvum ApiAP2 gene family: insights into the evolution of apicomplexan AP2 regulatory systems

    PubMed Central

    Oberstaller, Jenna; Pumpalova, Yoanna; Schieler, Ariel; Llins, Manuel; Kissinger, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    We provide the first comprehensive analysis of any transcription factor family in Cryptosporidium, a basal-branching apicomplexan that is the second leading cause of infant diarrhea globally. AP2 domain-containing proteins have evolved to be the major regulatory family in the phylum to the exclusion of canonical regulators. We show that apicomplexan and perkinsid AP2 domains cluster distinctly from other chromalveolate AP2s. Protein-binding specificity assays of C. parvum AP2 domains combined with motif conservation upstream of co-regulated gene clusters allowed the construction of putative AP2 regulons across the in vitro life cycle. Orthologous Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) expression has been rearranged relative to the malaria parasite P. falciparum, suggesting ApiAP2 network rewiring during evolution. C. hominis orthologs of putative C. parvum ApiAP2 proteins and target genes show greater than average variation. C. parvum AP2 domains display reduced binding diversity relative to P. falciparum, with multiple domains binding the 5?-TGCAT-3?, 5?-CACACA-3? and G-box motifs (5?-G[T/C]GGGG-3?). Many overrepresented motifs in C. parvum upstream regions are not AP2 binding motifs. We propose that C. parvum is less reliant on ApiAP2 regulators in part because it utilizes E2F/DP1 transcription factors. C. parvum may provide clues to the ancestral state of apicomplexan transcriptional regulation, pre-AP2 domination. PMID:24957599

  5. Book Eyes Impact of AP Classes and Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2010-01-01

    At a time of mushrooming interest in Advanced Placement (AP) tests, a new book, "AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program," assembles studies on how capable the program is of meeting the increasingly diverse expectations held up for it. Growing out of a symposium held at Harvard in 2007, the book focuses on AP science courses…

  6. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Gasifier Tars: On-Line Monitoring of Tars with a Transportable Molecular-Beam Mass Spectrometer; Milestone Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.; Ratcliff, M.; Dayton, D.

    2002-05-01

    A method for evaluating catalytic tar decomposition in real time is presented. The effectiveness of two catalysts are compared. A key technical and economic barrier to commercialization of biomass gasification technologies is the removal of tars that are unavoidably formed in this thermochemical process. Tars contain fuel value; however, they are problematic in gas engines (both reciprocating and turbine) because they condense in the fuel delivery system, forming deposits that negatively affect operation and efficiency. These tars also combust with high luminosity, potentially forming soot particles. The conventional technology for tar removal is wet scrubbing. Although this approach has shown some success, there are significant equipment and operating costs associated with it. In order to prevent the generation of toxic wastewater, the tars must be separated and either disposed as hazardous waste or, preferably, combusted in the gasification plant. A conceptually better approach is catalytic steam reforming of the tars to hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO), effectively increasing the gasification efficiency and eliminating the problems mentioned above. In FY2000, Battelle Columbus Laboratories attempted to demonstrate integrated gasification-gas turbine operation using catalytic steam reforming of tars. NREL participated in those tests using the transportable molecular-beam mass spectrometer (TMBMS) to monitor the catalytic reactor's performance on-line [10]. Unfortunately, the pilot plant tests encountered operational problems that prevented conclusive determination of the efficacy of the selected catalyst (Battelle's DN34). In FY2001, NREL performed on-site tar steam reforming tests using a slip-stream of hot pyrolysis gas from the Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU), which was directed to a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor system designed expressly for this purpose. Supporting this effort, the TMBMS was employed to provide on-line analysis of the tar conversion. The gas composition changes were monitored by two identical gas chromatographs (GCs), and modified method 5 sampling was performed to obtain gravimetric conversion data. The combination of these analytical techniques provided definitive catalyst performance data, as well as linkage to previous and on-going work elsewhere. Two catalysts were tested: nickel (Ni) on potassium promoted alumina (Sued-Chemie C11-NK), used commercially for naphtha steam reforming, and alumina (Battelle's DN34) claimed to be effective for gasifier tar decomposition. In addition, sand was tested as an inert reference material.

  7. 77 FR 24480 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program-Reopening the AP Test Fee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    .... ACTION: Notice reopening the AP Test Fee fiscal year 2012 competition. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.330B. SUMMARY: On February 15, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR... Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program--Reopening the AP Test Fee Fiscal...

  8. Effects of Bisphosphonates on Glucose Transport in a Conditionally Immortalized Rat Retinal Capillary Endothelial Cell Line (TR-iBRB Cells).

    PubMed

    Lee, Na-Young; Park, Hyun-Joo; Kang, Young-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of bisphosphonates, anti-osteoporosis agents, on glucose uptake in retinal capillary endothelial cells under normal and high glucose conditions. The change of glucose uptake by pre-treatment of bisphosphonates at the inner blood-retinal barrier (iBRB) was determined by measuring cellular uptake of [(3)H]3-O-methyl glucose (3-OMG) using a conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB cells) under normal and high glucose conditions. [(3)H]3-OMG uptake was inhibited by simultaneous treatment of unlabeled D-glucose and 3-OMG as well as glucose transport inhibitor, cytochalasin B. On the other hand, simultaneous treatment of alendronate or pamidronate had no significant inhibitory effect on [(3)H]3-OMG uptake by TR-iBRB cells. Under high glucose condition of TR-iBRB cells, [(3)H]3-OMG uptake was increased at 48 h. However, [(3)H]3-OMG uptake was decreased significantly by pre-treatment of alendronate or pamidronate compared with the values for normal and high glucose conditions. Moreover, geranylgeraniol (GGOH), a mevalonate pathway intermediate, increased the uptake of [(3)H]3-OMG reduced by bisphosphonates pre-treatment. But, pre-treatment of histamine did not show significant inhibition of [(3)H]3-OMG uptake. The glucose uptake may be down regulated by inhibiting the mevalonate pathway with pre-treatment of bisphosphonates in TR-iBRB cells at high glucose condition. PMID:26759707

  9. Effects of Bisphosphonates on Glucose Transport in a Conditionally Immortalized Rat Retinal Capillary Endothelial Cell Line (TR-iBRB Cells)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Na-Young; Park, Hyun-Joo; Kang, Young-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of bisphosphonates, anti-osteoporosis agents, on glucose uptake in retinal capillary endothelial cells under normal and high glucose conditions. The change of glucose uptake by pre-treatment of bisphosphonates at the inner blood-retinal barrier (iBRB) was determined by measuring cellular uptake of [3H]3-O-methyl glucose (3-OMG) using a conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB cells) under normal and high glucose conditions. [3H]3-OMG uptake was inhibited by simultaneous treatment of unlabeled D-glucose and 3-OMG as well as glucose transport inhibitor, cytochalasin B. On the other hand, simultaneous treatment of alendronate or pamidronate had no significant inhibitory effect on [3H]3-OMG uptake by TR-iBRB cells. Under high glucose condition of TR-iBRB cells, [3H]3-OMG uptake was increased at 48 h. However, [3H]3-OMG uptake was decreased significantly by pre-treatment of alendronate or pamidronate compared with the values for normal and high glucose conditions. Moreover, geranylgeraniol (GGOH), a mevalonate pathway intermediate, increased the uptake of [3H]3-OMG reduced by bisphosphonates pre-treatment. But, pre-treatment of histamine did not show significant inhibition of [3H]3-OMG uptake. The glucose uptake may be down regulated by inhibiting the mevalonate pathway with pre-treatment of bisphosphonates in TR-iBRB cells at high glucose condition. PMID:26759707

  10. AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant safety overview for spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gorgemans, J.; Mulhollem, L.; Glavin, J.; Pfister, A.; Conway, L.; Schulz, T.; Oriani, L.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J.

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and costs. The AP1000 design uses passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as AC power, component cooling water, service water or HVAC. Furthermore, these passive features 'fail safe' during a non-LOCA event such that DC power and instrumentation are not required. The AP1000 also has simple, active, defense-in-depth systems to support normal plant operations. These active systems provide the first level of defense against more probable events and they provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the probabilistic risk assessment. The AP1000 passive safety approach allows the plant to achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of an accident for 72 hours without operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the U.S. Utility Requirement Document and the European Utility Requirements for passive plants. Limited operator actions are required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool via passive means. In line with the AP1000 approach to safety described above, the AP1000 plant design features multiple, diverse lines of defense to ensure spent fuel cooling can be maintained for design-basis events and beyond design-basis accidents. During normal and abnormal conditions, defense-in-depth and other systems provide highly reliable spent fuel pool cooling. They rely on off-site AC power or the on-site standby diesel generators. For unlikely design basis events with an extended loss of AC power (i.e., station blackout) or loss of heat sink or both, spent fuel cooling can still be provided indefinitely: - Passive systems, requiring minimal or no operator actions, are sufficient for at least 72 hours under all possible pool heat load conditions. - After 3 days, several different means are provided to continue spent fuel cooling using installed plant equipment as well as off-site equipment with built-in connections. Even for beyond design basis accidents with postulated pool damage and multiple failures in the passive safety-related systems and in the defense-in-depth active systems, the AP1000 multiple spent fuel pool spray and fill systems provide additional lines of defense to prevent spent fuel damage. (authors)

  11. MiniAp-4: A Venom-Inspired Peptidomimetic for Brain Delivery.

    PubMed

    Oller-Salvia, Benjamí; Sánchez-Navarro, Macarena; Ciudad, Sonia; Guiu, Marc; Arranz-Gibert, Pol; Garcia, Cristina; Gomis, Roger R; Cecchelli, Roméo; García, Jesús; Giralt, Ernest; Teixidó, Meritxell

    2016-01-11

    Drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a formidable challenge for therapies targeting the central nervous system. Although BBB shuttle peptides enhance transport into the brain non-invasively, their application is partly limited by lability to proteases. The present study proposes the use of cyclic peptides derived from venoms as an affordable way to circumvent this drawback. Apamin, a neurotoxin from bee venom, was minimized by reducing its complexity, toxicity, and immunogenicity, while preserving brain targeting, active transport, and protease resistance. Among the analogues designed, the monocyclic lactam-bridged peptidomimetic MiniAp-4 was the most permeable. This molecule is capable of translocating proteins and nanoparticles in a human-cell-based BBB model. Furthermore, MiniAp-4 can efficiently deliver a cargo across the BBB into the brain parenchyma of mice. PMID:26492861

  12. 45. SELAH LINE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING END OF LINE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. SELAH LINE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING END OF LINE AT LARSON FRUIT COMPANY - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  13. Science Education Reform and the Education Programs of the APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Ramon

    1998-11-01

    Science education in America is undergoing its greatest period of change since attempt at large-scale reforms in the 60s and 70s. APS members strongly believe that the APS should be involved in precollege science education reform, and the recent membership survey ranked this as the highest priority item for the APS. At the same time, many members are unaware of APS education initiatives. In this talk I will provide an overview of science education reform in the US today. I will then describe APS efforts to support reform in school systems around the country, as well as other APS education programs. APS members have played an active role in all of these programs. If science education reform is to succeed and make a lasting change in schools, the scientific community must be informed and engaged.

  14. APS Conference on Understanding the Biological Clock: From Genetics to Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Martin

    1996-01-01

    The Conference was designed to take advantage of the fusion of two intellectually dominant but heretofore separate lines of clock research, vertebrate physiology and invertebrate and microbial genetics. The APS Conference attracted 251 scientists, 68 of whom were students. In addition to the excellent speaker program organized by Dunlap and Loros, the attendees also submitted 93 volunteer abstracts that were programmed in poster sessions. Thirty-four percent of the submitted abstracts were first authorized by a female student or scientist.

  15. Ozone mitigation tests at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Wang Zhibi

    1996-09-01

    Ozone is generated in the APS experimental stations whenever the x-ray beam has a chance to interact with air. Ozone concentrations in an experimental station have to be below a certain defined limit (current OSHA regulations specify 0.08 ppm as the maximum limit) before an experimenter can reenter the hutch. This limit is said to be currently under study for a downward adjustment. One method of depleting the ozone generated in an experimental station is mitigation through either adsorption or direct destruction. In recent tests, both methods were tried using commercially available units. Test results and some analytical predictions are presented.

  16. Cold-fusion television show angers APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2009-06-01

    Cold fusion has been controversial since its inception on 23 March 1989, when chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons at the University of Utah in the US announced that they had achieved a sustained nuclear-fusion reaction at room temperature. Two decades on, a US television documentary about the field has stirred up fresh debate after it linked the American Physical Society (APS) to an evaluation of some cold-fusion results by Robert Duncan, a physicist and vice chancellor of the University of Missouri.

  17. Correction magnet power supplies for APS machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.G.

    1991-04-01

    A number of correction magnets are required for the advanced photon source (APS) machine to correct the beam. There are five kinds of correction magnets for the storage ring, two for the injector synchrotron, and two for the positron accumulator ring (PAR). Table I shoes a summary of the correction magnet power supplies for the APS machine. For the storage ring, the displacement of the quadrupole magnets due to the low frequency vibration below 25 Hz has the most significant effect on the stability of the positron closed orbit. The primary external source of the low frequency vibration is the ground motion of approximately 20 {mu}m amplitude, with frequency components concentrated below 10 Hz. These low frequency vibrations can be corrected by using the correction magnets, whose field strengths are controlled individually through the feedback loop comprising the beam position monitoring system. The correction field require could be either positive or negative. Thus for all the correction magnets, bipolar power supplies (BPSs) are required to produce both polarities of correction fields. Three different types of BPS are used for all the correction magnets. Type I BPSs cover all the correction magnets for the storage ring, except for the trim dipoles. The maximum output current of the Type I BPS is 140 Adc. A Type II BPS powers a trim dipole, and its maximum output current is 60 Adc. The injector synchrotron and PAR correction magnets are powered form Type III BPSs, whose maximum output current is 25 Adc.

  18. Magnetic fields of the Ap stars

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, E.F.; Landstreet, J.D.

    1980-03-01

    We have conducted a survey of longitudinal magnetic fields (B/sub e/) among bright northern and southern Ap stars. The photoelectric technique used involves circular Zeeman polarimetry in the wings of H..beta... We find that the photoelectric B/sub e/ curves tend to be more harmonic than the photographic B/sub e/ curves. We have discovered magnetic fields in several rapidly rotating Ap stars. There is marginal statistical evidence to suggest that the rapid rotators might have surface magnetic fields smaller than the slow rotators; however, some very rapid rotators (P=0.5 days) can clearly have B/sub e/ extrema (approx.1 kilogauss) comparable to the extrema of slow rotators. We do not find serious evidence for irregular B/sub e/ variations, although we cannot exclude irregular variations of the order of 200 gauss in some stars. The astrophysical implications of our findings are briefly discussed. We have observed several Am and Hg-Mn stars, finding no evidence of magnetic fields.

  19. On the Mechanisms for Defeating AP Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Z.; Dekel, E.; Ashuach, Y.; Yeshurun, Y.

    The important mechanisms for defeating armor piercing (AP) projectiles are reviewed in this paper. These mechanisms are based on the compressive strength of the target material (its inherent resistance to penetration) and on the asymmetrical forces which it exerts on the threat, through proper geometrical arrangements. We discuss the basic features of the resistance to penetration, starting with the classical analysis of the cavity expansion process in elasto-plastic solids. This property of the target is responsible for the deceleration of hard cored projectiles and for the erosion of long rods, under normal impact conditions. We then discuss the asymmetrical interaction of AP projectiles with inclined plates (metals and polymers) and with ceramic spheres. These asymmetric forces are responsible for their deflection and breakup. Our work combines experimental observations with numerical simulations and engineering models, which enhance the understanding of the various phenomena encountered in these complex situations. This understanding is necessary for optimizing the performance of any armor design against a given threat.

  20. The APS control system network upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K. v.; Leibfritz, D.; McDowell, W. P.

    1999-10-22

    When it was installed,the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system network was at the state-of-the-art. Different aspects of the system have been reported at previous meetings [1,2]. As loads on the controls network have increased due to newer and faster workstations and front-end computers, we have found performance of the system declining and have implemented an upgraded network. There have been dramatic advances in networking hardware in the last several years. The upgraded APS controls network replaces the original FDDI backbone and shared Ethernet hubs with redundant gigabit uplinks and fully switched 10/100 Ethernet switches with backplane fabrics in excess of 20 Gbits/s (Gbps). The central collapsed backbone FDDI concentrator has been replaced with a Gigabit Ethernet switch with greater than 30 Gbps backplane fabric. Full redundancy of the system has been maintained. This paper will discuss this upgrade and include performance data and performance comparisons with the original network.

  1. Evaluating EPA’s AP-42 development methodology to convert or rerate current AP-42 datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) published their new methodology for updating the Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42). The “Recommended Procedures for Development of Emissions Factors and Use of the WebFIRE Database” instructs that the ratings of the...

  2. Septin6 and Septin7 GTP binding proteins regulate AP-3- and ESCRT-dependent multivesicular body biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Traikov, Sofia; Stange, Christoph; Wassmer, Thomas; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Salamero, Jean; Raposo, Graça; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Septins (SEPTs) form a family of GTP-binding proteins implicated in cytoskeleton and membrane organization, cell division and host/pathogen interactions. The precise function of many family members remains elusive. We show that SEPT6 and SEPT7 complexes bound to F-actin regulate protein sorting during multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis. These complexes bind AP-3, an adapter complex sorting cargos destined to remain in outer membranes of maturing endosomes, modulate AP-3 membrane interactions and the motility of AP-3-positive endosomes. These SEPT-AP interactions also influence the membrane interaction of ESCRT (endosomal-sorting complex required for transport)-I, which selects ubiquitinated cargos for degradation inside MVBs. Whereas our findings demonstrate that SEPT6 and SEPT7 function in the spatial, temporal organization of AP-3- and ESCRT-coated membrane domains, they uncover an unsuspected coordination of these sorting machineries during MVB biogenesis. This requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase LRSAM1, an AP-3 interactor regulating ESCRT-I sorting activity and whose mutations are linked with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. PMID:25380047

  3. Septin6 and Septin7 GTP Binding Proteins Regulate AP-3- and ESCRT-Dependent Multivesicular Body Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Traikov, Sofia; Stange, Christoph; Wassmer, Thomas; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Salamero, Jean; Raposo, Graa; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Septins (SEPTs) form a family of GTP-binding proteins implicated in cytoskeleton and membrane organization, cell division and host/pathogen interactions. The precise function of many family members remains elusive. We show that SEPT6 and SEPT7 complexes bound to F-actin regulate protein sorting during multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis. These complexes bind AP-3, an adapter complex sorting cargos destined to remain in outer membranes of maturing endosomes, modulate AP-3 membrane interactions and the motility of AP-3-positive endosomes. These SEPT-AP interactions also influence the membrane interaction of ESCRT (endosomal-sorting complex required for transport)-I, which selects ubiquitinated cargos for degradation inside MVBs. Whereas our findings demonstrate that SEPT6 and SEPT7 function in the spatial, temporal organization of AP-3- and ESCRT-coated membrane domains, they uncover an unsuspected coordination of these sorting machineries during MVB biogenesis. This requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase LRSAM1, an AP-3 interactor regulating ESCRT-I sorting activity and whose mutations are linked with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. PMID:25380047

  4. Butyrate produced by commensal bacteria potentiates phorbol esters induced AP-1 response in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nepelska, Malgorzata; Cultrone, Antonietta; Bguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Dor, Jol; Arulampalam, Vermulugesan; Blottire, Herv M

    2012-01-01

    The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells. PMID:23300800

  5. A structural explanation for the binding of endocytic dileucine motifs by the AP2 complex

    PubMed Central

    Späte, Kira; Miller, Sharon E.; Evans, Philip R.; Höning, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Most transmembrane proteins are selected as transport vesicle cargo through the recognition of short, linear amino acid motifs in their cytoplasmic portions by vesicle coat proteins. In the case of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) the motifs are recognised by clathrin adaptors. The AP2 adaptor complex (subunits α,β2,μ2,σ2) recognises both major endocytic motifs: YxxΦ motifs 1 and [DE]xxxL[LI] acidic dileucine motifs. Here we describe the binding of AP2 to the endocytic dileucine motif from CD4 2. The major recognition events are the two leucine residues binding in hydrophobic pockets on σ2. The hydrophilic residue four residues upstream from the first leucine sits on a positively charged patch made from residues on σ2 and α subunits. Mutations in key residues inhibit the binding of AP2 to ‘acidic dileucine’ motifs displayed in liposomes containing PtdIns4,5P2, but do not affect binding to YxxΦ motifs via μ2. In the ‘inactive’ AP2 core structure 3, both motif binding sites are blocked by different parts of the β2 subunit. To allow a dileucine motif to bind, the β2 N-terminus is displaced and becomes disordered; however, in this structure the YxxΦ binding site on μ2 remains blocked. PMID:19140243

  6. Spectropolarimetric measurements of magnetic Ap and Bp stars in all four Stokes parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; Donati, J.-F.; Landstreet, J. D.; Shorlin, S. L. S.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper we begin an exploration of the potential of spectral line Zeeman linear and circular polarization signatures for reconstructing the surface magnetic field topologies of magnetic Ap and Bp stars. We present our first observational results, which include the very first high-quality measurements of stellar Zeeman spectral line linear polarization ever obtained. Using the new MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter at the Pic du Midi Observatory, over 360 spectra were obtained, in circular or linear polarization, of 14 magnetic Ap/Bp stars and six calibration objects. Zeeman circular polarization signatures are detected in most single lines in essentially all spectra of magnetic Ap stars, with typical relative amplitudes of a few per cent. Linear polarization Zeeman signatures are unambiguously detected in individual strong, magnetically sensitive lines in outstanding spectra of five objects. However, linear polarization is generally not detected in individual strong lines in our much more common moderate signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra, and is essentially never detected in weak lines. In order to overcome the limitations imposed by the S/N ratio and the inherent weakness of linear polarization Zeeman signatures, we exploit the information contained in the many lines in our spectra by using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique. Using LSD, mean linear polarization signatures are consistently detected within the spectral lines of 10 of our 14 programme stars. These mean linear polarization signatures are very weak, with typical amplitudes 10-20 times smaller than those of the associated mean circular polarization signatures. For 11 stars full or partial rotational phase coverage has been obtained in the Stokes I and V or the Stokes I, V, Q and U parameters. The rotational modulation of the LSD mean signatures is reported for these objects. Measurements of the longitudinal field and net linear polarization obtained from these LSD profiles show they are consistent with existing comparable data, and provide constraints on magnetic field models which are at least as powerful as any other data presently available. To illustrate the new information available from these data sets, we compare for four stars the observed Stokes profiles with those predicted by magnetic field models published previously in the literature. Important and sometimes striking differences between the observed and computed profiles indicate that the Zeeman signatures presented here contain important new information about the structure of the magnetic fields of Ap and Bp stars capable of showing the limitations of the best magnetic field models currently available.

  7. The complex interactions of Chs5p, the ChAPs, and the cargo Chs3p

    PubMed Central

    Rockenbauch, Uli; Ritz, Alicja M.; Sacristan, Carlos; Roncero, Cesar; Spang, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The exomer complex is a putative vesicle coat required for the direct transport of a subset of cargoes from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane. Exomer comprises Chs5p and the ChAPs family of proteins (Chs6p, Bud7p, Bch1p, and Bch2p), which are believed to act as cargo receptors. In particular, Chs6p is required for the transport of the chitin synthase Chs3p to the bud neck. However, how the ChAPs associate with Chs5p and recognize cargo is not well understood. Using domain-switch chimeras of Chs6p and Bch2p, we show that four tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) are involved in interaction with Chs5p. Because these roles are conserved among the ChAPs, the TPRs are interchangeable among different ChAP proteins. In contrast, the N-terminal and the central parts of the ChAPs contribute to cargo specificity. Although the entire N-terminal domain of Chs6p is required for Chs3p export at all cell cycle stages, the central part seems to predominantly favor Chs3p export in small-budded cells. The cargo Chs3p probably also uses a complex motif for the interaction with Chs6, as the C-terminus of Chs3p interacts with Chs6p and is necessary, but not sufficient, for TGN export. PMID:23015758

  8. Using selenomethionyl derivatives to assign sequence in low-resolution structures of the AP2 clathrin adaptor.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bernard T; Graham, Stephen C; Owen, David J

    2016-03-01

    Selenomethionine incorporation is a powerful technique for assigning sequence to regions of electron density at low resolution. Genetic introduction of methionine point mutations and the subsequent preparation and crystallization of selenomethionyl derivatives permits unambiguous sequence assignment by enabling the placement of the anomalous scatterers (Se atoms) thus introduced. Here, the use of this approach in the assignment of sequence in a part of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex that is responsible for clathrin binding is described. AP2 plays a pivotal role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, a tightly regulated process in which cell-surface transmembrane proteins are internalized from the plasma membrane by incorporation into lipid-enclosed transport vesicles. AP2 binds cargo destined for internalization and recruits clathrin, a large trimeric protein that helps to deform the membrane to produce the transport vesicle. By selenomethionine labelling of point mutants, it was shown that the clathrin-binding site is buried within a deep cleft of the AP2 complex. A membrane-stimulated conformational change in AP2 releases the clathrin-binding site from autoinhibition, thereby linking clathrin recruitment to membrane localization. PMID:26960121

  9. Using selenomethionyl derivatives to assign sequence in low-resolution structures of the AP2 clathrin adaptor

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Bernard T.; Graham, Stephen C.; Owen, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Selenomethionine incorporation is a powerful technique for assigning sequence to regions of electron density at low resolution. Genetic introduction of methionine point mutations and the subsequent preparation and crystallization of selenomethionyl derivatives permits unambiguous sequence assignment by enabling the placement of the anomalous scatterers (Se atoms) thus introduced. Here, the use of this approach in the assignment of sequence in a part of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex that is responsible for clathrin binding is described. AP2 plays a pivotal role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, a tightly regulated process in which cell-surface transmembrane proteins are internalized from the plasma membrane by incorporation into lipid-enclosed transport vesicles. AP2 binds cargo destined for internalization and recruits clathrin, a large trimeric protein that helps to deform the membrane to produce the transport vesicle. By selenomethionine labelling of point mutants, it was shown that the clathrin-binding site is buried within a deep cleft of the AP2 complex. A membrane-stimulated conformational change in AP2 releases the clathrin-binding site from autoinhibition, thereby linking clathrin recruitment to membrane localization. PMID:26960121

  10. A single β adaptin contributes to AP1 and AP2 complexes and clathrin function in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Sosa, R Thomas; Weber, Michelle M; Wen, Yujia; O'Halloran, Theresa J

    2012-02-01

    The assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles is important for numerous cellular processes, including nutrient uptake and membrane organization. Important contributors to clathrin assembly are four tetrameric assembly proteins, also called adaptor proteins (APs), each of which contains a β subunit. We identified a single β subunit, named β1/2, that contributes to both the AP1 and AP2 complexes of Dictyostelium. Disruption of the gene encoding β1/2 resulted in severe defects in growth, cytokinesis and development. Additionally, cells lacking β1/2 displayed profound osmoregulatory defects including the absence of contractile vacuoles and mislocalization of contractile vacuole markers. The phenotypes of β1/2 null cells were most similar to previously described phenotypes of clathrin and AP1 mutants, supporting a particularly important contribution of AP1 to clathrin pathways in Dictyostelium cells. The absence of β1/2 in cells led to significant reductions in the protein amounts of the medium-sized subunits of the AP1 and AP2 complexes, establishing a role for the β subunit in the stability of the medium subunits. Dictyostelium β1/2 could resemble a common ancestor of the more specialized β1 and β2 subunits of the vertebrate AP complexes. Our results support the essential contribution of a single β subunit to the stability and function of AP1 and AP2 in a simple eukaryote. PMID:22050483

  11. A hypomorphic mutation of the gamma-1 adaptin gene (Ap1g1) causes inner ear, retina, thyroid, and testes abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kenneth R; Gagnon, Leona H; Chang, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes function in the intracellular sorting and vesicular transport of membrane proteins. The clathrin-associated AP-1 complex functions at the trans-Golgi network and endosomes, and some forms of this complex are thought to mediate the sorting of proteins in plasma membranes of polarized epithelial cells. A null mutation of the mouse Ap1g1 gene, which encodes the gamma-1 subunit of the AP-1 complex, causes embryonic lethality when homozygous, indicating its critical importance in early development but precluding studies of its possible roles during later stages. Here, we describe our analyses of a new spontaneous mutation of Ap1g1 named "figure eight" (symbol fgt) and show that it is an in-frame deletion of 6 bp, which results in the elimination of two amino acids of the encoded protein. In contrast to Ap1g1 (-/-) null mice, mice homozygous for the recessive fgt mutation are viable with adult survival similar to controls. Although Ap1g1 is ubiquitously expressed, the phenotype of Ap1g1 (fgt) mutant mice is primarily restricted to abnormalities in sensory epithelial cells of the inner ear, pigmented epithelial cells of the retina, follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid gland, and the germinal epithelium of the testis, suggesting that impaired AP-1 sorting and targeting of membrane proteins in these polarized cells may underlie the observed pathologies. Ap1g1 (fgt) mutant mice provide a new animal model to study the in vivo roles of gamma-1 adaptin and the AP-1 complex throughout development and to investigate factors that underlie its associated phenotypic abnormalities. PMID:27090238

  12. Unexpected Heterodivalent Recruitment of NOS1AP to nNOS Reveals Multiple Sites for Pharmacological Intervention in Neuronal Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Li; Melero-Fernandez de Mera, Raquel M; Chen, Jia; Ba, Wei; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Zhang, Mingjie; Courtney, Michael J

    2015-05-13

    The protein NOS1AP/CAPON mediates signaling from a protein complex of NMDA receptor, PSD95 and nNOS. The only stroke trial for neuroprotectants that showed benefit to patients targeted this ternary complex. NOS1AP/nNOS interaction regulates small GTPases, iron transport, p38MAPK-linked excitotoxicity, and anxiety. Moreover, the nos1ap gene is linked to disorders from schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and autism to cardiovascular disorders and breast cancer. Understanding protein interactions required for NOS1AP function, therefore, has broad implications for numerous diseases. Here we show that the interaction of NOS1AP with nNOS differs radically from the classical PDZ docking assumed to be responsible. The NOS1AP PDZ motif does not bind nNOS as measured by multiple methods. In contrast, full-length NOS1AP forms an unusually stable interaction with nNOS. We mapped the discrepancy between full-length and C-terminal PDZ motif to a novel internal region we call the ExF motif. The C-terminal PDZ motif, although neither sufficient nor necessary for binding, nevertheless promotes the stability of the complex. It therefore potentially affects signal transduction and suggests that functional interaction of nNOS with NOS1AP might be targetable at two distinct sites. We demonstrate that excitotoxic pathways can be regulated, in cortical neuron and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rat, either by the previously described PDZ ligand TAT-GESV or by the ExF motif-bearing region of NOS1AP, even when lacking the critical PDZ residues as long as the ExF motif is intact and not mutated. This previously unrecognized heterodivalent interaction of nNOS with NOS1AP may therefore provide distinct opportunities for pharmacological intervention in NOS1AP-dependent signaling and excitotoxicity. PMID:25972165

  13. Activator protein-2gamma (AP-2gamma) expression is specifically induced by oestrogens through binding of the oestrogen receptor to a canonical element within the 5'-untranslated region.

    PubMed Central

    Orso, Francesca; Cottone, Erika; Hasleton, Mark D; Ibbitt, J Claire; Sismondi, Piero; Hurst, Helen C; De Bortoli, Michele

    2004-01-01

    The activator protein 2 (AP-2) transcription factors are essential proteins for oestrogenic repression of the ERBB2 proto-oncogene in breast cancer cells. In the present study, we have examined the possible oestrogenic regulation of AP-2 genes themselves in breast-tumour-derived lines. As early as 1 h after oestrogen treatment, AP-2gamma mRNA was markedly increased, whereas AP-2alpha was down-regulated, but with slower kinetics, and AP-2beta was not affected at all. Addition of anti-oestrogens ablated these effects. Modulation of the protein levels corresponded to changes in the transcript levels, thus suggesting that in oestrogen-treated cells, an inversion of the balance between AP-2alpha and AP-2gamma isoforms occurs. The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the human AP-2gamma gene contains one consensus and one degenerate oestrogen-responsive element (ERE). Reporter constructs carrying the AP-2gamma promoter and the 5'-UTR were up-regulated by oestrogens in transient transfection assays. Deletion of the most conserved (but not of the degenerate) ERE from reporter constructs abrogated the oestrogenic response, although both ERE-containing segments were footprinted in DNaseI protection assays. In vitro binding assays demonstrated the ability of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) to bind to this site, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the endogenous gene showed that ERalpha occupies this region in response to oestrogens. We conclude that AP-2gamma is a primary oestrogen-responsive gene and suggest that AP-2 proteins may mediate some oestrogenic responses. PMID:14565844

  14. The challenging SED of AP Librae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, David; Giebels, Berrie; Fortin, Pascal

    2012-08-01

    Matching the broad-band emission of active galaxies with the predictions of theoretical models can be used to derive constraints on the properties of the emitting region and to probe the physical processes involved. AP Librae is the third low frequency peaked BL Lac (LBL) detected at very high energy (VHE, E>100GeV) by an Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope; most VHE BL Lacs (34 out of 39) belong to the high-frequency and intermediate-frequency BL Lac classes (HBL and IBL). LBL objects tend to have a higher luminosity with lower peak frequencies than HBLs or IBLs. The characterization of their time-averaged spectral energy distribution is challenging for emission models such as synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models.

  15. Status of the APS Diagnostics Undulator Beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B. X.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Goeppner, G. A.; Sharma, S.; Rotela, E.; Sheng, I. C.; Moog, E.

    1997-05-01

    We report the status of the diagnostics undulator beamline for the APS storage ring. The beamline was designed for the characterization of the 7-GeV, low-emittance positron beam at high resolution.(B. Yang and A. H. Lumpkin, ``The Planned Photon Diagnostics Beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source,'' BIW94, AIP Conf. Proc. 333, Oct. 1994.) The special diagnostics undulator has been manufactured by STI Optronics. The device exhibits very low magnetic field errors at closed gap of 10.5 mm: first field integral < 15 g \\cdotcm, and phase error < 1.5^circ for the first harmonic radiation. The front end of the beamline and an in-air monochromator are being installed and tested for use on divergence and directional stability measurements with a target resolution of 3 μrad utilizing the first harmonic radiation of 23 keV. Initial results of these measurements will be presented as available.

  16. Adaptor Protein Complexes AP-1 and AP-3 Are Required by the HHV-7 Immunoevasin U21 for Rerouting of Class I MHC Molecules to the Lysosomal Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Kimpler, Lisa A.; Glosson, Nicole L.; Downs, Deanna; Gonyo, Patrick; May, Nathan A.; Hudson, Amy W.

    2014-01-01

    The human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) U21 gene product binds to class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and reroutes them to a lysosomal compartment. Trafficking of integral membrane proteins to lysosomes is mediated through cytoplasmic sorting signals that recruit heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which in turn mediate protein sorting in post-Golgi vesicular transport. Since U21 can mediate rerouting of class I molecules to lysosomes even when lacking its cytoplasmic tail, we hypothesize the existence of a cellular protein that contains the lysosomal sorting information required to escort class I molecules to the lysosomal compartment. If such a protein exists, we expect that it might recruit clathrin adaptor protein complexes as a means of lysosomal sorting. Here we describe experiments demonstrating that the μ adaptins from AP-1 and AP-3 are involved in U21-mediated trafficking of class I molecules to lysosomes. These experiments support the idea that a cellular protein(s) is necessary for U21-mediated lysosomal sorting of class I molecules. We also examine the impact of transient versus chronic knockdown of these adaptor protein complexes, and show that the few remaining μ subunits in the cells are eventually able to reroute class I molecules to lysosomes. PMID:24901711

  17. The transcriptional activation pattern of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) involving transcription factors AP-1 and C/EBP beta.

    PubMed

    Kirschning, C J; Unbehaun, A; Fiedler, G; Hallatschek, W; Lamping, N; Pfeil, D; Schumann, R R

    1997-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Binding Protein (LBP) is an acute phase protein with the ability to recognize bacterial LPS and transport it to the CD14 molecule or into HDL particles. It is synthesized in hepatocytes and secreted into the blood stream. LBP levels significantly rise during the acute phase response and levels of LBP may be important for an appropriate host reaction to bacterial challenge and for developing the sepsis syndrome. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of LBP regulation we investigated its transcription pattern and performed promoter studies under experimental conditions mimicking an acute phase scenario. In human hepatoma cell lines stimulation with IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and dexamethasone leads to strong transcriptional activation of the LBP gene in a dose- and time-dependent manner. IL-6 alone induces LBP significantly, whereas IL-1 beta mainly increases the IL-6 effect when applied in combination. Our results furthermore show that AP-1 and C/EBP beta are transcription factors involved in the activation of the LBP gene, as revealed by Luciferase reporter gene analysis and electromobility shift assays. Elucidating the mechanism of transcriptional activation of LBP potentially may help in understanding host-pathogen response patterns and mechanisms involved in the acute phase reaction and in the pathophysiology of sepsis. PMID:9442384

  18. 49 CFR 178.255-10 - Lining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lining. 178.255-10 Section 178.255-10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Portable Tanks § 178.255-10 Lining. (a) If...

  19. 49 CFR 178.255-10 - Lining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lining. 178.255-10 Section 178.255-10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Portable Tanks § 178.255-10 Lining. (a) If...

  20. Medium chains of adaptor complexes AP-1 and AP-2 recognize leucine-based sorting signals from the invariant chain.

    PubMed

    Rodionov, D G; Bakke, O

    1998-03-13

    Interactions between tyrosine- and leucine-based sorting signals in the cytoplasmic tails of transmembrane proteins and adaptor complexes AP-1 and AP-2 are believed to be the first step in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles that deliver these proteins to their destination. Medium chains of AP-1 and AP-2 have been reported to interact with tyrosine-based sorting signals in a number of in vitro assays. In the present study we found that recombinant medium chains could interact with leucine-based sorting signals from the cytoplasmic tail of the invariant chain. Medium chains may therefore be responsible for the proper recognition of both tyrosine and leucine sorting signals by AP-1 and AP-2 complexes. PMID:9497313

  1. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104

    SciTech Connect

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-02-25

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

  2. Metallized solid rocket propellants based on AN/AP and PSAN/AP for access to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, S.; Signoriello, D.; Gabardi, A.; Molinari, M.; Galfetti, L.; Deluca, L. T.; Cianfanelli, S.; Klyakin, G. F.

    2009-09-01

    Solid rocket propellants based on dual mixes of inorganic crystalline oxidizers (ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium perchlorate (AP)) with binder and a mixture of micrometric-nanometric aluminum were investigated. Ammonium nitrate is a low-cost oxidizer, producing environment friendly combustion products but with lower specific impulse compared to AP. The better performance obtained with AP and the low quantity of toxic emissions obtained by using AN have suggested an interesting compromise based on a dual mixture of the two oxidizers. To improve the thermal response of raw AN, different types of phase stabilized AN (PSAN) and AN/AP co-crystals were investigated.

  3. The AP2-like gene NsAP2 from water lily is involved in floral organogenesis and plant height.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Teng, Nianjun; Chen, Yu; Chen, Fadi

    2012-07-01

    APETALA2 (AP2) genes are ancient and widely distributed among the seed plants, and play an important role during the plant life cycle, acting as key regulators of many developmental processes. In this study, an AP2 homologue, NsAP2, was characterized from water lily (Nymphaea sp. cv. 'Yellow Prince') and is believed to be rather primitive in the evolution of the angiosperms. In situ RNA hybridization showed that NsAP2 transcript was present in all regions of the floral primordium, but had the highest level in the emerging floral organ primordium. After the differentiation of floral organs, NsAP2 was strongly expressed in sepals and petals, while low levels were found in stamens and carpels. The NsAP2 protein was suggested to be localized in the cell nucleus by onion transient expression experiment. Overexpression of NsAP2 in Arabidopsis led to more petal numbers, and Arabidopsis plants expressing NsAP2 exhibited higher plant height, which may be a result of down-regulated expression of GA2ox2 and GA2ox7. Our results indicated that the NsAP2 protein may function in flower organogenesis in water lily, and it is a promising gene for plant height improvement. PMID:22591856

  4. Genome-Wide Identification of the Target Genes of AP2-O, a Plasmodium AP2-Family Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Izumi; Iwanaga, Shiroh; Kato, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Issei; Yuda, Masao

    2015-05-01

    Stage-specific transcription is a fundamental biological process in the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasite. Proteins containing the AP2 DNA-binding domain are responsible for stage-specific transcriptional regulation and belong to the only known family of transcription factors in Plasmodium parasites. Comprehensive identification of their target genes will advance our understanding of the molecular basis of stage-specific transcriptional regulation and stage-specific parasite development. AP2-O is an AP2 family transcription factor that is expressed in the mosquito midgut-invading stage, called the ookinete, and is essential for normal morphogenesis of this stage. In this study, we identified the genome-wide target genes of AP2-O by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and elucidate how this AP2 family transcription factor contributes to the formation of this motile stage. The analysis revealed that AP2-O binds specifically to the upstream genomic regions of more than 500 genes, suggesting that approximately 10% of the parasite genome is directly regulated by AP2-O. These genes are involved in distinct biological processes such as morphogenesis, locomotion, midgut penetration, protection against mosquito immunity and preparation for subsequent oocyst development. This direct and global regulation by AP2-O provides a model for gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites and may explain how these parasites manage to control their complex life cycle using a small number of sequence-specific AP2 transcription factors. PMID:26018192

  5. New Beam Position Monitor System Design for the APS Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, R.; Singh, O.; Arnold, N.

    2002-12-01

    Demands on the APS injector have evolved over the last few years to the point that an upgrade to the existing beam position monitor (BPM) electronics is required. The injector is presently being used as a source for both the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) project and the top-up mode of operation. These new requirements and the fact that many new rf receiver components are available at reasonable cost make this upgrade very desirable at this time. The receiver topology selected is a logarithmic processor, which is designed around the Analog Devices AD8313 log amplifier demodulation chip. This receiver will become the universal replacement for all injector applications measuring positions signals from 352 to 2856 MHz with minimum changes in hardware and without the use of a downconverter. The receiver design features integrated front-end gain and built-in self test. The data acquisition being considered at this time is a 100-MHz, 12-bit transient recorder digitizer. The latest experimental and commissioning data and results will be presented.

  6. Action of a mammalian AP-endonuclease on DNAs of defined sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Haukanes, B I; Helland, D E; Kleppe, K

    1989-01-01

    An apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) specific endonuclease from mouse plasmacytoma cells (line MPC-11), was observed to cleave apurinic sites in oligonucleotides 9, 11, 12, 39 and 40 nucleotides in length. However, the enzyme failed to cleave AP-sites in two oligonucleotides 7 nucleotides in length. The maximum rates of digestion observed on these short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fragments were approximately 1/30 of the rates observed on double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). In studies using the Maxam-Gilbert DNA sequencing analysis, apurinic sites in purine-rich regions were preferentially cleaved in dsDNA but not in ssDNA, indicating that the enzyme has a sequence preference on dsDNA. These results suggest that some sites on DNA might be more efficiently repaired than others. Images PMID:2466239

  7. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - RUBBER PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for the rubber products industry which are appended to AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness information. As res...

  8. Status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.; Berg, W.; Fuja, R.; Grelick, A.; Mavrogenes, G.; Nassiri, A.; Russell, T.; Wesolowski, W.

    1993-08-01

    A 2856-MHz S-band, 450-MeV electron/positron linear accelerator is the first part of the injector for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring. Construction of the APS linac is currently nearing completion, and commissioning will begin in July 1993. The linac and its current status are discussed in this paper.

  9. Data-Based Decision Making: The Road to AP Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Duggan, Odette

    2012-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Lake Buena Vista, FL in July 2012. This presentation reviews concepts central to achieving equitable AP access and success for all willing and academically prepared students. We analyze trends in participation and performance by race/ethnicity from the AP Report to the Nation and…

  10. The APS SASE FEL : modeling and code comparison.

    SciTech Connect

    Biedron, S. G.

    1999-04-20

    A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

  11. Standards and Excellence: Evidence from Advanced Placement (AP) Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of state exit exams on the student utilization of and performance on Advanced Placement (AP) exams. AP programs have become an increasingly popular way of providing fairly standardized and academically rigorous academic experiences that can prepare high school students for the transition to post-secondary schooling.

  12. A Closer Examination of the Academic Benefits of AP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, Mary E. M.; Rawls, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to better understand the relationship between students participating in the Advanced Placement (AP) program and subsequent performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Focusing on students graduating from U.S. public high schools in 2010, the authors used propensity scores to match junior year AP examinees in 3 subjects to…

  13. Development of a superconducting undulator for the APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Abliz, M.; Doose, C.; Fuerst, J.; Hasse, Q.; Kasa, M.; Lev, V.; Mezentsev, N.; Syrovatin, V.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Tsukanov, V.; Vasserman, I.; Gluskin, E.

    2013-03-01

    As the western hemisphere's premier x-ray synchrotron radiation source, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) continues to advance the state of the art in insertion device technology in order to maintain record high brightness, especially in the hard x-ray wavelength region. Due to the unique bunch pattern used for normal APS operations and its ultimate capabilities, the APS has chosen superconducting technology for its future hard x-ray undulator sources. In the last several years, the APS in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics has being developing the technology for planar, small-period superconducting undulators (SCUs). These developments include the design and construction of several prototypes and the construction of the necessary mechanical, vacuum, and cryogenic infrastructure at the APS site. Several prototypes of the SCU magnetic structure have been built and tested. The first SCU is assembled and will be installed in the APS storage ring at the end of 2012. Expected SCU performance in terms of x-ray brightness should noticeably exceed that of existing APS undulators. Immediately after commissioning, the SCU will be used at APS Sector 6 as the radiation source for high-energy x-ray studies.

  14. AP233: An Information Model for Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebes, Georg

    2009-01-01

    In today's world, information is abundant. We have no problems generating it. But we are challenged to find, organize, and exchange information. center dot A standardized model of information can help. Such a model nearly completed its development for Systems Engineering. It is referred to as AP233 (AP = Application Protocol).

  15. Lithium and Isotopic Ratio Li6/Li7 in Magnetic roAp Stars as an Indicator of Active Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N.; Shavrina, A.; Lyashko, D.; Nesvacil, N.; Drake, N.; Smirnova, M.

    2015-04-01

    The lines of lithium at 6708 Å and 6103 Å are analyzed in high resolution spectra of some sharp-lined and slowly rotating roAp stars. Three spectral synthesis codes— STARSP, ZEEMAN2, and SYNTHM—were used. New lines of rare earth elements (REE) from the DREAM database and the lines calculated on the basis of the NIST energy levels were included. Magnetic splitting and other line broadening processes were taken into account. For both lithium lines, the enhanced abundances of lithium in the atmospheres of the stars studied are obtained. The lithium abundance determined from the Li 6103 Å line is higher than that from the Li 6708 Å for all the stars. This may be evidence of vertical lithium stratification, abnormal temperature distribution, or unidentified blending of the 6103 Å line. Our work on two roAp stars, HD 83368 and HD 60435 (Shavrina et al. 2001) provides evidence of an enhanced lithium abundance near the magnetic-field poles. We can expect similar effects in the sharp-lined roAp stars. High lithium abundance for all the stars and the estimates of the 6Li/7Li ratio (0.2-0.5) can be explained by production of Li in the cosmic ray spallation reactions in the interstellar medium where the stars were born, and by preservation of the original 6Li and 7Li by strong magnetic fields of these stars. The values of the 6Li/7Li ratio expected from production by cosmic rays are about 0.5-0.8 (Knauth et al. 2003; Webber et al. 2002). New laboratory and theoretical gf-values for REE lines are necessary in order to refine our estimates of lithium abundances and the isotopic ratio.

  16. Mutagenesis of cysteine 81 prevents dimerization of the APS1 subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and alters diurnal starch turnover in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Hädrich, Nadja; Hendriks, Janneke H M; Kötting, Oliver; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Feil, Regina; Zeeman, Samuel C; Gibon, Yves; Schulze, Waltraud X; Stitt, Mark; Lunn, John E

    2012-04-01

    Many plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, retain a substantial portion of their photosynthate in leaves in the form of starch, which is remobilized to support metabolism and growth at night. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyses the first committed step in the pathway of starch synthesis, the production of ADP-glucose. The enzyme is redox-activated in the light and in response to sucrose accumulation, via reversible breakage of an intermolecular cysteine bridge between the two small (APS1) subunits. The biological function of this regulatory mechanism was investigated by complementing an aps1 null mutant (adg1) with a series of constructs containing a full-length APS1 gene encoding either the wild-type APS1 protein or mutated forms in which one of the five cysteine residues was replaced by serine. Substitution of Cys81 by serine prevented APS1 dimerization, whereas mutation of the other cysteines had no effect. Thus, Cys81 is both necessary and sufficient for dimerization of APS1. Compared to control plants, the adg1/APS1(C81S) lines had higher levels of ADP-glucose and maltose, and either increased rates of starch synthesis or a starch-excess phenotype, depending on the daylength. APS1 protein levels were five- to tenfold lower in adg1/APS1(C81S) lines than in control plants. These results show that redox modulation of AGPase contributes to the diurnal regulation of starch turnover, with inappropriate regulation of the enzyme having an unexpected impact on starch breakdown, and that Cys81 may play an important role in the regulation of AGPase turnover. PMID:22098298

  17. A regulatory element that mediates co-operation between a PEA3-AP-1 element and an AP-1 site is required for phorbol ester induction of urokinase enhancer activity in HepG2 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nerlov, C; De Cesare, D; Pergola, F; Caracciolo, A; Blasi, F; Johnsen, M; Verde, P

    1992-01-01

    We have characterized a transcriptional enhancer of the human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) gene and found a regulatory element required for co-operation between a PEA3--AP-1 element and an AP-1 site in the enhancer. We designated this regulatory element co-operation mediator (COM). Both the PEA3--AP-1 element, the AP-1 site and the COM are required for efficient phorbol ester induction of transcription from the uPA promoter in the HepG2 hepatoma cell line. We show that the COM is also required for co-operation between the PEA3--AP-1 element and a glucocorticoid response element, both in the presence or absence of TPA, indicating that the COM is generally capable of mediating synergism between inducible enhancer elements. The COM contains multiple overlapping binding sites for nuclear proteins, designated uPA enhancer factors 1-4 (UEF-1-4). We have identified putative binding sites for UEF-1, -2 and -3. The UEF-1 and -3 sites in the uPA enhancer are highly conserved between species. We demonstrate the binding of UEF-3 to the NIP element, a previously characterized regulatory element in the human interleukin-3 and stromelysin promoters, suggesting that this factor plays a role in regulation of a variety of genes. Images PMID:1330539

  18. High Pressure Reverse Flow APS Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    A design and test demonstration effort was undertaken to evaluate the concept of the reverse flow engine for the APS engine application. The 1500 lb (6672 N) thrust engine was designed to operate on gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen propellants at a mixture ratio of 4 and to achieve the objective performance of 435 sec (4266 Nsec/kg) specific impulse. Superimposed durability requirements called for a million-cycle capability with 50 hours duration. The program was undertaken as a series of tasks including the initial preliminary design, design of critical test components and finally, the design and demonstration of an altitude engine which could be used interchangeably to examine operating parameters as well as to demonstrate the capability of the concept. The program results are reported with data to indicate that all of the program objectives were met or exceeded within the course of testing on the program. The analysis effort undertaken is also reported in detail and supplemented with test data in some cases where prior definitions could not be made. The results are contained of these analyses as well as the test results conducted throughout the course of the program. Finally, the test data and analytical results were combined to allow recommendations for a flight weight design. This preliminary design effort is also detailed.

  19. Beam instability studies at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.

    1994-10-01

    The Argonne Advanced Photon Source, APS (Fig. 1), is a 7-GeV positron storage ring with a circumference of 1104 m. It has a ``third generation, DBA or Chasman-Green`` lattice composed of 40 sectors each having a {approximately}6 m long zero-dispersion straight-section for accommodating insertion devices. Neighboring straight-sections are connected by a 360{degrees}/40 = 9{degrees} double-bend-achromatic bending section designed to produce the smallest emittance attainable with reasonable component parameter values and dynamic apertures. Thus, it is a very strongly focusing lattice with v{sub x} = 35.22 and v{sub y} = 14.30. The beam chamber of the storage ring including all rf, vacuum and photon beam components is designed to ensure that a beam current > 100 mA can be stably stored. We expect that the maximum stable beam current could be as high as 300 mA. This paper will give some details of the studies and computations to ensure the stability of such a beam. The discussions will be organized in the following three parts: Coupled-bunch instability caused by the higher-order modes (HOMs) of the rf cavities; Single-bunch instability due to the resistive wall impedance; and Single-bunch instability due to broadband impedances arising from beam chamber irregularities.

  20. Some ethylene biosynthesis and AP2/ERF genes reveal a specific pattern of expression during somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethylene production and signalling play an important role in somatic embryogenesis, especially for species that are recalcitrant in in vitro culture. The AP2/ERF superfamily has been identified and classified in Hevea brasiliensis. This superfamily includes the ERFs involved in response to ethylene. The relative transcript abundance of ethylene biosynthesis genes and of AP2/ERF genes was analysed during somatic embryogenesis for callus lines with different regeneration potential, in order to identify genes regulated during that process. Results The analysis of relative transcript abundance was carried out by real-time RT-PCR for 142 genes. The transcripts of ERFs from group I, VII and VIII were abundant at all stages of the somatic embryogenesis process. Forty genetic expression markers for callus regeneration capacity were identified. Fourteen markers were found for proliferating calli and 35 markers for calli at the end of the embryogenesis induction phase. Sixteen markers discriminated between normal and abnormal embryos and, lastly, there were 36 markers of conversion into plantlets. A phylogenetic analysis comparing the sequences of the AP2 domains of Hevea and Arabidopsis genes enabled us to predict the function of 13 expression marker genes. Conclusions This first characterization of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Hevea revealed dramatic regulation of the expression of AP2/ERF genes during the somatic embryogenesis process. The gene expression markers of proliferating callus capacity to regenerate plants by somatic embryogenesis should make it possible to predict callus lines suitable to be used for multiplication. Further functional characterization of these markers opens up prospects for discovering specific AP2/ERF functions in the Hevea species for which somatic embryogenesis is difficult. PMID:23268714

  1. APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - Monitoring System Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort; Dimitri Hochard

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), along with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Pubic Service (APS), is monitoring the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant to determine the costs to produce hydrogen fuels (including 100% hydrogen as well as hydrogen and compressed natural gas blends) for use by fleets and other operators of advanced-technology vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cost data will be used as benchmark data by technology modelers as well as research and development programs. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 18 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen per day by electrolysis. It can store up to 155 kg of hydrogen at various pressures up to 6,000 psi. The dispenser island can fuel vehicles with 100% hydrogen at 5,000 psi and with blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas at 3,600 psi. The monitoring system was designed to track hydrogen delivery to each of the three storage areas and to monitor the use of electricity on all major equipment in the Pilot Plant, including the fuel dispenser island. In addition, water used for the electrolysis process is monitored to allow calculation of the total cost of plant operations and plant efficiencies. The monitoring system at the Pilot Plant will include about 100 sensors when complete (50 are installed to date), allowing for analysis of component, subsystems, and plant-level costs. The monitoring software is mostly off-the-shelve, with a custom interface. The majority of the sensors input to the Programmable Automation Controller as 4- to 20-mA analog signals. The plant can be monitored over of the Internet, but the control functions are restricted to the control room equipment. Using the APS general service plan E32 electric rate of 2.105 cents per kWh, during a recent eight-month period when 1,200 kg of hydrogen was produced and the plant capacity factor was 26%, the electricity cost to produce one kg of hydrogen was $3.43. However, the plant capacity factor has been increasing, with a recent one-month high of 49%. If a plant capacity factor of 70% can be achieved with the present equipment, the cost of electricity would drop to $2.39 per kg of hydrogen. In this report, the power conversion (76.7%), cell stack (53.1%), and reverse osmosis system (7.14%) efficiencies are also calculated, as is the water cost per kg of hydrogen produced ($0.10 per kg). The monitoring system has identified several areas having the potential to lower costs, including using an reverse osmosis system with a higher efficiency, improving the electrolysis power conversion efficiency, and using air cooling to replace some or all chiller cooling. These activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory for the AVTA, which is part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  2. Enhancing and Archiving the APS Catalog of the POSS I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.

    2003-01-01

    We have worked on two different projects: 1) Archiving the APS Catalog of the POSS I for distribution to NASA's NED at IPAC, SIMBAD in France, and individual astronomers and 2) The automated morphological classification of galaxies. We have completed archiving the Catalog into easily readable binary files. The database together with the software to read it has been distributed on DVD's to the national and international data centers and to individual astronomers. The archived Catalog contains more than 89 million objects in 632 fields in the first epoch Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. Additional image parameters not available in the original on-line version are also included in the archived version. The archived Catalog is also available and can be queried at the APS web site (URL: http://aps.umn.edu) which has been improved with a much faster and more efficient querying system. The Catalog can be downloaded as binary datafiles with the source code for reading it. It is also being integrated into the SkyQuery system which includes the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 2MASS, and the FIRST radio sky survey. We experimented with different classification algorithms to automate the morphological classification of galaxies. This is an especially difficult problem because there are not only a large number of attributes or parameters and measurement uncertainties, but also the added complication of human disagreement about the adopted types. To solve this problem we used 837 galaxy images from nine POSS I fields at the North Galactic Pole classified by two independent astronomers for which they agree on the morphological types. The initial goal was to separate the galaxies into the three broad classes relevant to issues of large scale structure and galaxy formation and evolution: early (ellipticals and lenticulars), spirals, and late (irregulars) with an accuracy or success rate that rivals the best astronomer classifiers. We also needed to identify a set of parameters derived from the digitized images that separate the galaxies by type. The human eye can easily recognize complicated patterns in images such as spiral arms which can be spotty, blotchy affairs that are difficult for automated techniques. A galaxy image can potentially be described by hundreds of parameters, all of which may have some relation to the morphological type. In the set of initial experiments we used 624 such parameters, in two colors, blue and red. These parameters include the surface brightness and color measured at different radii, ratios of these parameters at different radii, concentration indices, Fourier transforms and wavelet decomposition coefficients. We experimented with three different classes of classification algorithms; decision trees, k-nearest neighbors, and support vector machines (SVM). A range of experiments were conducted and we eventually narrowed the parameters to 23 selected parameters. SVM consistently outperformed the other algorithms with both sets of features. By combining the results from the different algorithms in a weighted scheme we achieved an overall classification success of 86%.

  3. Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP) and an 0-AP/HTPB-Based Propellant

    SciTech Connect

    BEHRENS JR.,RICHARD; MINIER,LEANNA M.G.

    1999-10-25

    A study to characterize the low-temperature reactive processes for o-AP and an AP/HTPB-based propellant (class 1.3) is being conducted in the laboratory using the techniques of simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results presented in this paper are a follow up of the previous work that showed the overall decomposition to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The decomposition is characterized by the occurrence of one major event that consumes up to {approx}35% of the AP, depending upon particle size, and leaves behind a porous agglomerate of AP. The major gaseous products released during this event include H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl. The recent efforts provide further insight into the decomposition processes for o-AP. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates (GFRs) for the products indicate that the major decomposition event consists of three chemical channels. The first and third channels are affected by the pressure in the reaction cell and occur at the surface or in the gas phase above the surface of the AP particles. The second channel is not affected by pressure and accounts for the solid-phase reactions characteristic of o-AP. The third channel involves the interactions of the decomposition products with the surface of the AP. SEM images of partially decomposed o-AP provide insight to how the morphology changes as the decomposition progresses. A conceptual model has been developed, based upon the STMBMS and SEM results, that provides a basic description of the processes. The thermal decomposition characteristics of the propellant are evaluated from the identities of the products and the temporal behaviors of their GFRs. First, the volatile components in the propellant evolve from the propellant as it is heated. Second, the hot AP (and HClO{sub 4}) at the AP-binder interface oxidize the binder through reactions that preferentially strip the hydrogen from the binder and yield HCl and H{sub 2}O with some oxidation of the carbon from the binder. Third, the o-AP in the propellant decomposes in the same manner as in neat o-AP. Finally, AP-derived gaseous products interact with other ingredients in the propellant.

  4. The AP-3 clathrin-associated complex is essential for embryonic and larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaegal; Lee, Junho

    2005-06-30

    The adaptor protein (AP) complexes are involved in membrane transport of many proteins. There are 3 AP complexes in C. elegans unlike mammals that have four. To study the biological functions of the AP-3 complexes of C. elegans, we sought homologues of the mouse and human genes that encode subunits of the AP-3 complexes by screening C. elegans genomic and EST sequences. We identified single copies of homologues of the m3, s3, b3 and d genes. The medium chain of AP-3 is encoded by a single gene in C. elegans but two different genes in mammals. Since there are no known mutations in these genes in C. elegans, we performed RNAi to assess their functions in development. RNAi of each of the genes caused embryonic and larval lethal phenotypes. APM-3 is expressed in most cells, particularly strongly in spermatheca and vulva. We conclude that the products of the C. elegans m3, s3, b3 and d genes are essential for embryogenesis and larval development. PMID:15995364

  5. Structural Basis of the Intracellular Sorting of the SNARE VAMP7 by the AP3 Adaptor Complex

    PubMed Central

    Kent, HelenM.; Evans, PhilipR.; Schfer, IngmarB.; Gray, SallyR.; Sanderson, ChristopherM.; Luzio, J.Paul; Peden, AndrewA.; Owen, DavidJ.

    2012-01-01

    Summary VAMP7 is involved in the fusion of late endocytic compartments with other membranes. One possible mechanism of VAMP7 delivery to these late compartments is via the AP3 trafficking adaptor. We show that the linker of the ?-adaptin subunit of AP3 binds the VAMP7 longin domain and determines the structure of their complex. Mutation of residues on both partners abolishes the interaction invitro and invivo. The binding of VAMP7 to ?-adaptin requires the VAMP7 SNARE motif to be engaged in SNARE complex formation and hence AP3 must transport VAMP7 when VAMP7 is part of a cis-SNARE complex. The absence of ?-adaptin causes destabilization of the AP3 complex in mouse mocha fibroblasts and mislocalization of VAMP7. The mislocalization can be rescued by transfection with wild-type ?-adaptin but not by ?-adaptin containing mutations that abolish VAMP7 binding, despite in all cases intact AP3 being present and LAMP1 trafficking being rescued. PMID:22521722

  6. Development of Emergency Response Guidelines (ERGs) for AP1000

    SciTech Connect

    Yuichi Hayashi; Saiu, Gianfranco; Wright, Richard F.

    2006-07-01

    The AP1000 is two-loop 1100 MWe advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) that uses passive safety features to enhance plant safety and to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 uses proven technology, which builds on over 30 years of operating PWR experience. The AP1000 final design certification has been approved by the NRC in December, 2005. The Emergency Response Guidelines (ERGs) have been developed for the AP1000. The generic ERGs for the low pressure reference PWR plant were used as the basic documents to develop the AP1000 ERGs. The AP1000 design differences from the reference plant were reviewed and reflected in the process of developing operational steps in each ERG. The AP1000 used PRA in both design and licensing. The provisions of the AP1000 PRA were also reviewed and incorporated into the ERGs Although the AP1000 design does not require operator actions for the first 72 hours after accidents, the operator actions with both safety-related and non-safety-related equipment have an important role to mitigate the consequence of accidents. In the event of a LOCA, the AP1000 safety-related passive core cooling system (PXS) provides sources of core makeup water along with an automatic depressurization system (ADS) consisting of several sets of redundant flow paths which are sequentially opened in stages to reduce the reactor coolant system (RCS) pressure in a controlled manner. The final stage of this system, ADS-4, consists of four large valves that open off the hot legs, reducing the pressure to allow gravity injection from the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) and eventually the containment sump recirculation. The AP1000 has non-safety-related normal residual heat removal system (RNS) pumps which can be used to provide low pressure pumped injection of cask loading pit and/or IRWST water and recirculation of containment water. These pumps are not required to operate following accidents. However, it is expected that they should be used if available and their operator actions should be incorporated into ERGs to restore safety-related PXS and/or to avoid ADS-4 actuation. Several LOCA and other cases were analyzed, including consideration of such operator actions as RNS injection, to support the development process of the AP1000 ERGs. These cases were modeled using the best-estimate state-of-art RELAP5 code. The analyses results show that RNS injection is effective for a typical small LOCA to avoid ADS-4 actuation. (authors)

  7. AP600 design certification thermal hydraulics testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hochreiter, L.E.; Piplica, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, have been developing an advanced light water reactor design; the AP600. The AP600 is a 1940 Mwt, 600Mwe unit which is similar to a Westinghouse two-loop Pressurized Water Reactor. The accumulated knowledge on reactor design to reduce the capital costs, construction time, and the operational and maintenance cost of the unit once it begins to generate electrical power. The AP600 design goal is to maintain an overall cost advantage over fossil generated electrical power.

  8. A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

    1999-10-25

    A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders.

  9. Tank 241-AP-105, cores 208, 209 and 210, analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-10-24

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-AP-105. Push mode core segments were removed from Risers 24 and 28 between July 2, 1997, and July 14, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-AP-105 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1997) and Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, or total organic carbon (TOC) analysis exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP and DQO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group, and are not considered in this report. Appearance and Sample Handling Two cores, each consisting of four segments, were expected from Tank 241-AP-105. Three cores were sampled, and complete cores were not obtained. TSAP states core samples should be transported to the laboratory within three calendar days from the time each segment is removed from the tank. This requirement was not met for all cores. Attachment 1 illustrates subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis and identifies their sources. This reference also relates tank farm identification numbers to their corresponding 222-S Laboratory sample numbers.

  10. Time-dependent atomic diffusion in magnetic ApBp stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stift, M. J.; Alecian, G.

    2016-03-01

    Numerical modelling of surface abundance distributions in ApBp star atmospheres constitutes a challenging astrophysical problem. This paper is intended to deepen our understanding of how atomic diffusion affects the atmospheric structure of magnetic ApBp stars, and in particular how time-dependent calculations may be compared to the alternative method of estimating equilibrium stratifications. Our numerical calculations - with the stellar atmosphere adjusted self-consistently to the abundance profiles - show that final stationary solutions of the time-dependent diffusion problem (constant particle flux throughout the stellar atmosphere) are seemingly at variance with equilibrium stratifications (zero particle flux). In this work, we will provide some understanding of the origin of these differences and try to elucidate the as yet little explored behaviour of time-dependent atomic diffusion. To this purpose, we assess the influence of the boundary condition at the bottom of the atmosphere, we investigate how the stratifications depend on magnetic field angle and strength, and we have a look at possible interactions between different chemical elements. Based on a grid of atmospheric models and stratifications reflecting dipolar magnetic geometries, we also present predicted line profiles for different oblique rotator models. Finally, we shortly discuss the consequences of our findings for the interpretation of abundance maps of magnetic ApBp stars.

  11. Fra-2/AP-1 controls bone formation by regulating osteoblast differentiation and collagen production

    PubMed Central

    Bozec, Aline; Bakiri, Latifa; Jimenez, Maria; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex, in particular the Fos proteins, is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. Fra-2 (Fosl2), a Fos-related protein of the AP-1 family, is expressed in bone cells, and newborn mice lacking Fra-2 exhibit defects in chondrocytes and osteoclasts. Here we show that Fra-2–deficient osteoblasts display a differentiation defect both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, Fra-2–overexpressing mice are osteosclerotic because of increased differentiation of osteoblasts, which appears to be cell autonomous. Importantly, the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin (Oc) gene and collagen1α2 (col1α2) are transcriptional targets of Fra-2 in both murine and human bone cells. In addition, Fra-2, Oc, and col1 are expressed in stromal cells of human chondroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcomas (Os’s) as well as during osteoblast differentiation of human Os cell lines. These findings reveal a novel function of Fra-2/AP-1 as a positive regulator of bone and matrix formation in mice and humans. PMID:20837772

  12. Assembly and function of AP-3 complexes in cells expressing mutant subunits

    PubMed Central

    Peden, Andrew A.; Rudge, Rachel E.; Lui, Winnie W.Y.; Robinson, Margaret S.

    2002-01-01

    The mouse mutants mocha and pearl are deficient in the AP-3 δ and β3A subunits, respectively. We have used cells from these mice to investigate both the assembly of AP-3 complexes and AP-3 function. In mocha cells, the β3 and μ3 subunits coassemble into a heterodimer, whereas the σ3 subunit remains monomeric. In pearl cells, the δ and σ3 subunits coassemble into a heterodimer, whereas μ3 gets destroyed. The yeast two hybrid system was used to confirm these interactions, and also to demonstrate that the A (ubiquitous) and B (neuronal-specific) isoforms of β3 and μ3 can interact with each other. Pearl cell lines were generated that express β3A, β3B, a β3Aβ2 chimera, two β3A deletion mutants, and a β3A point mutant lacking a functional clathrin binding site. All six constructs assembled into complexes and were recruited onto membranes. However, only β3A, β3B, and the point mutant gave full functional rescue, as assayed by LAMP-1 sorting. The β3Aβ2 chimera and the β3A short deletion mutant gave partial functional rescue, whereas the β3A truncation mutant gave no functional rescue. These results indicate that the hinge and/or ear domains of β3 are important for function, but the clathrin binding site is not needed. PMID:11807095

  13. KIC 7582608: a new Kepler roAp star with frequency variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.; Smalley, B.; Kurtz, D. W.; Southworth, J.; Cunha, M. S.; Clubb, K. I.

    2014-09-01

    We analyse the fifth rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star reported in the Kepler field, KIC 7582608, discovered with the SuperWASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) project. The object shows a high-frequency pulsation at 181.7324 d-1 (P = 7.9 min) with an amplitude of 1.45 mmag, and low-frequency rotational modulation corresponding to a period of 20.4339 d with an amplitude of 7.64 mmag. Spectral analysis confirms the Ap nature of the target, with characteristic lines of Eu II, Nd III and Pr III present. The spectra are not greatly affected by broadening, which is consistent with the long rotational period found from photometry. From our spectral observations we derive a lower limit on the mean magnetic field modulus of = 3.05 0.23 kG. Long cadence Kepler observations show a frequency quintuplet split by the rotational period of the star, typical for an oblique pulsator. We suggest the star is a quadrupole pulsator with a geometry such that i 66 and ? 33. We detect frequency variations of the pulsation in both the WASP and Kepler data sets on many time-scales. Linear, non-adiabatic stability modelling allows us to constrain a region on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where the pulsations are unstable, an area consistent with observations.

  14. AP-1-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Persicaria chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Young-Jin; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Yang, Woo Seok; Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Han Gyung; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoon, Keejung; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Persicaria chinensis L. has been prescribed to cure numerous inflammatory disorders. We previously analyzed the bioactivity of the methanol extract of this plant (Pc-ME) against LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and found that it prevented HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The purpose of the current study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which Pc-ME inhibits activator protein- (AP-) 1 activation pathway and mediates its hepatoprotective activity. To investigate the putative therapeutic properties of Pc-ME against AP-1-mediated inflammation and hepatotoxicity, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 and U937 cells, a monocyte-like human cell line, and an LPS/D-galactosamine- (D-GalN-) induced acute hepatitis mouse model were employed. The expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin- (IL-) 1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) was significantly diminished by Pc-ME. Moreover, Pc-ME reduced AP-1 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and differentiated U937 cells. Additionally, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of Pc-ME pretreated orally in a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-intoxicated acute liver injury by demonstrating the significant reduction in elevated serum AST and ALT levels and histological damage. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that Pc-ME could function as an antihepatitis remedy suppressing MAPK/AP-1-mediated inflammatory events. PMID:25878717

  15. Engaging Cuban Physicists Through the APS/CPS Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Irving A.; Lerch, Irving A.

    In his reflections on Cuban physics, Marcelo Alonso urges APS to take steps to promote interactions between Cuban and US physicists. As an introduction to Marcello's essay, this note will summarize past and current activities.

  16. A hot-spare injector for the APS linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1999-04-13

    Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades.

  17. QCD on the Massively Parallel Computer AP1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akemi, K.; Fujisaki, M.; Okuda, M.; Tago, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hioki, S.; Miyamura, O.; Takaishi, T.; Nakamura, A.; de Forcrand, Ph.; Hege, C.; Stamatescu, I. O.

    We present the QCD-TARO program of calculations which uses the parallel computer AP1000 of Fujitsu. We discuss the results on scaling, correlation times and hadronic spectrum, some aspects of the implementation and the future prospects.

  18. A Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cell Line with Stable Organic Anion Transporter 1 and 3 Expression Predictive for Antiviral-Induced Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nieskens, Tom T G; Peters, Janny G P; Schreurs, Marieke J; Smits, Niels; Woestenenk, Rob; Jansen, Katja; van der Made, Thom K; Röring, Melanie; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Wilmer, Martijn J; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2016-03-01

    Drug-induced nephrotoxicity still hampers drug development, because current translation from in vitro or animal studies to human lacks high predictivity. Often, renal adverse effects are recognized only during clinical stages of drug development. The current study aimed to establish a robust and a more complete human cell model suitable for screening of drug-related interactions and nephrotoxicity. In addition to endogenously expressed renal organic cation transporters and efflux transporters, conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC) were completed by transduction of cells with the organic anion transporter (OAT) 1 or OAT3. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting upon exposure to the OAT substrate fluorescein successfully enriched transduced cells. A panel of organic anions was screened for drug-interactions in ciPTEC-OAT1 and ciPTEC-OAT3. The cytotoxic response to the drug-interactions with antivirals was further examined by cell viability assays. Upon subcloning, concentration-dependent fluorescein uptake was found with a higher affinity for ciPTEC-OAT1 (Km = 0.8 ± 0.1 μM) than ciPTEC-OAT3 (Km = 3.7 ± 0.5 μM). Co-exposure to known OAT1 and/or OAT3 substrates (viz. para-aminohippurate, estrone sulfate, probenecid, furosemide, diclofenac, and cimetidine) in cultures spanning 29 passage numbers revealed relevant inhibitory potencies, confirming the robustness of our model for drug-drug interactions studies. Functional OAT1 was directly responsible for cytotoxicity of adefovir, cidofovir, and tenofovir, while a drug interaction with zidovudine was not associated with decreased cell viability. Our data demonstrate that human-derived ciPTEC-OAT1 and ciPTEC-OAT3 are promising platforms for highly predictive drug screening during early phases of drug development. PMID:26821801

  19. 45-Day safety screening report for grab samples from Tank 241-AP-107

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.L.

    1995-03-08

    Three samples; 107-AP-1C, 107-AP-2c and 107-AP-3C; were received at 222-S Laboratory for analysis of DSC, TGA and visual appearance. Four additional samples; 107-AP-1D, 107-AP-2D, 107-AP-3D and 107-AP-6; were received for visual appearance only. No results exceeded the safety screen notification criteria. This report compiles the analytical results. Tank 241-AP-107 is a double-shell tank which is not on any of the four Watch Lists.

  20. How to Find a Bug in Ten Thousand Lines Transport Solver? Outline of Experiences from AN Advection-Diffusion Code Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, K.; Bombardelli, F.

    2011-12-01

    Almost all natural phenomena on Earth are highly nonlinear. Even simplifications to the equations describing nature usually end up being nonlinear partial differential equations. Transport (ADR) equation is a pivotal equation in atmospheric sciences and water quality. This nonlinear equation needs to be solved numerically for practical purposes so academicians and engineers thoroughly rely on the assistance of numerical codes. Thus, numerical codes require verification before they are utilized for multiple applications in science and engineering. Model verification is a mathematical procedure whereby a numerical code is checked to assure the governing equation is properly solved as it is described in the design document. CFD verification is not a straightforward and well-defined course. Only a complete test suite can uncover all the limitations and bugs. Results are needed to be assessed to make a distinction between bug-induced-defect and innate limitation of a numerical scheme. As Roache (2009) said, numerical verification is a state-of-the-art procedure. Sometimes novel tricks work out. This study conveys the synopsis of the experiences we gained during a comprehensive verification process which was done for a transport solver. A test suite was designed including unit tests and algorithmic tests. Tests were layered in complexity in several dimensions from simple to complex. Acceptance criteria defined for the desirable capabilities of the transport code such as order of accuracy, mass conservation, handling stiff source term, spurious oscillation, and initial shape preservation. At the begining, mesh convergence study which is the main craft of the verification is performed. To that end, analytical solution of ADR equation gathered. Also a new solution was derived. In the more general cases, lack of analytical solution could be overcome through Richardson Extrapolation and Manufactured Solution. Then, two bugs which were concealed during the mesh convergence study uncovered with the method of false injection and visualization of the results. Symmetry had dual functionality: there was a bug, which was hidden due to the symmetric nature of a test (it was detected afterward utilizing artificial false injection), on the other hand self-symmetry was used to design a new test, and in a case the analytical solution of the ADR equation was unknown. Assisting subroutines designed to check and post-process conservation of mass and oscillatory behavior. Finally, capability of the solver also checked for stiff reaction source term. The above test suite not only was a decent tool of error detection but also it provided a thorough feedback on the ADR solvers limitations. Such information is the crux of any rigorous numerical modeling for a modeler who deals with surface/subsurface pollution transport.

  1. Ectopic expression of a grape aspartic protease gene, AP13, in Arabidopsis thaliana improves resistance to powdery mildew but increases susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rongrong; Tu, Mingxing; Wang, Xianhang; Zhao, Jiao; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-07-01

    The grape aspartic protease gene, AP13 was previously reported to be responsive, in Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', to infection by Erysiphe necator, the causal agent of powdery mildew disease, as well as to treatment with salicylic acid in V. labrusca×V. vinifera cv. 'Kyoho'. In the current study, we evaluated the expression levels of AP13 in 'Shang-24' in response to salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and ethylene (ET) treatments, as well as to infection by the necrotrophic fungus, Botrytis cinerea, and the transcript levels of VqAP13 decreased after B. cinerea infection and MeJA treatment, but increased following ET and SA treatments. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing VqAP13 under the control of a constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and accumulated more callose than wild type plants, while the resistance of transgenic A. thaliana lines to B. cinerea inoculation was reduced. In addition, the expression profiles of various disease resistance- related genes in the transgenic A. thaliana lines following infection by different pathogens were compared to the equivalent profiles in the wild type plants. The results suggest that VqAP13 action promotes the SA dependent signal transduction pathway, but suppresses the JA signal transduction pathway. PMID:27181943

  2. Lining up your service lines.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, Steven D; Aber, Jeffrey M

    2007-07-01

    Steps in implementing a service line approach include: Defining the service line. Allocating service line revenue and expense. Analyzing service line contribution margin and profitability. Determining the value of other factors. Creating standards for investment decisions, benchmarking, and ranking. PMID:17687972

  3. Comparison of the expression of human equilibrative nucleotide transporter 1 (hENT1) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) genes in seven non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H B; Zhang, X F; Shi, F; Zhang, M Z; Xue, W L

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the variability in the expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) in non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. hENT1 and RRM1 mRNA expression levels in natural killer (NK) cells and seven non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines (YTS, SNK-6, Jeko-1, ly-1, Raji, Karpas, and Jurket) were studied using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and the results were compared using the Student t-test. mRNA expression of hENT1 was detectable in YTS, SNK-6, Jeko-1, ly-1, Raji, Karpas, Jurket, and NK cells, which revealed variability in gene expression. There were significant differences in the mRNA expression values of hENT1 (P = 0.021) and RRM1 (P = 0.002) compared to those in NK cells. mRNA expression of both hENT1 and RRM1 was closely associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell proliferation. Differential expression analysis of hENT1 and RRM1 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines may provide novel drug leads for precision medicine. PMID:27173327

  4. Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP)

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, R.; Minier, L.

    1999-03-01

    Preliminary STMBMS and SEM results of the thermal decomposition of AP in the orthorhombic phase are presented. The overall decomposition is shown to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The data show that the physical and chemical processes can be probed and characterized utilizing SEM and STMBMS. The overall decomposition is characterized by three distinguishing features: an induction period, and accelerator period and a deceleratory period. The major decomposition event occurs in the subsurface of the AP particles and propagates towards the center of the particle with time. The amount of total decomposition is dependent upon particle size and increases from 23% for {approximately}50{micro}m-diameter AP to 33% for {approximately}200{micro}m-diameter AP. A conceptual model of the physical processes is presented. Insight into the chemical processes is provided by the gas formation rates that are measured for the gaseous products. To our knowledge, this is the first presentation of data showing that the chemical and physical decomposition processes can be identified from one another, probed and characterized at the level that is required to better understand the thermal decomposition behavior of AP. Future work is planned with the goal of obtaining data that can be used to develop a mathematical description for the thermal decomposition of o-AP.

  5. Transport by the (Na+,K+) ATPase: modulation by differentiation inducers and inhibition of protein synthesis in the MDCK kidney epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, B G; Lever, J E

    1985-06-01

    MDCK kidney epithelial cell cultures exposed to the differentiation inducer hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) for 24 hours exhibited a 50% decrease in transport activity per (Na+,K+)-ATPase molecule (turnover number) but an unchanged number of pump sites (Kennedy and Lever, 1984). Inhibition of protein synthesis by either 10 microM cycloheximide or 2 microM emetine blocked the inhibitory effects of HMBA on Na+/K+ pump efficiency assessed by measurements of [3H]-ouabain binding to intact cells, (Na+,K+) ATPase activity of detergent-activated cell extracts, and ouabain-sensitive Rb+ uptake. In the absence of inducer treatment, inhibition of protein synthesis increased Na+/K+ pump turnover number by twofold while maintaining Na+/K+ pump activity per cell at a constant level. Intracellular Na+ levels were decreased after cycloheximide treatment; therefore, pump stimulation was not due to substrate effects. Furthermore, cycloheximide effects of Rb+ uptake could be dissociated from effects on tight junctions. These observations suggest that the transport activity of the (Na+,K+) ATPase is tightly regulated by factors dependent on protein synthesis. PMID:2580848

  6. An AP4B1 frameshift mutation in siblings with intellectual disability and spastic tetraplegia further delineates the AP-4 deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdollahpour, Hengameh; Alawi, Malik; Kortüm, Fanny; Beckstette, Michael; Seemanova, Eva; Komárek, Vladimír; Rosenberger, Georg; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2015-02-01

    The recently proposed adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) deficiency syndrome comprises a group of congenital neurological disorders characterized by severe intellectual disability (ID), delayed or absent speech, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and growth retardation. AP-4 is a heterotetrameric protein complex with important functions in vesicle trafficking. Mutations in genes affecting different subunits of AP-4, including AP4B1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4M1, have been reported in patients with the AP-4 deficiency phenotype. We describe two siblings from a non-consanguineous couple who presented with severe ID, absent speech, microcephaly, growth retardation, and progressive spastic tetraplegia. Whole-exome sequencing in the two patients identified the novel homozygous 2-bp deletion c.1160_1161delCA (p.(Thr387Argfs*30)) in AP4B1. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation in the siblings and revealed it in the heterozygous state in both parents. The AP4B1-associated phenotype has previously been assigned to spastic paraplegia-47. Identification of a novel AP4B1 alteration in two patients with clinical manifestations highly similar to other individuals with mutations affecting one of the four AP-4 subunits further supports the observation that loss of AP-4 assembly or functionality underlies the common clinical features in these patients and underscores the existence of the clinically recognizable AP-4 deficiency syndrome. PMID:24781758

  7. An AP4B1 frameshift mutation in siblings with intellectual disability and spastic tetraplegia further delineates the AP-4 deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahpour, Hengameh; Alawi, Malik; Kortm, Fanny; Beckstette, Michael; Seemanova, Eva; Komrek, Vladimr; Rosenberger, Georg; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The recently proposed adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) deficiency syndrome comprises a group of congenital neurological disorders characterized by severe intellectual disability (ID), delayed or absent speech, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and growth retardation. AP-4 is a heterotetrameric protein complex with important functions in vesicle trafficking. Mutations in genes affecting different subunits of AP-4, including AP4B1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4M1, have been reported in patients with the AP-4 deficiency phenotype. We describe two siblings from a non-consanguineous couple who presented with severe ID, absent speech, microcephaly, growth retardation, and progressive spastic tetraplegia. Whole-exome sequencing in the two patients identified the novel homozygous 2-bp deletion c.1160_1161delCA (p.(Thr387Argfs*30)) in AP4B1. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation in the siblings and revealed it in the heterozygous state in both parents. The AP4B1-associated phenotype has previously been assigned to spastic paraplegia-47. Identification of a novel AP4B1 alteration in two patients with clinical manifestations highly similar to other individuals with mutations affecting one of the four AP-4 subunits further supports the observation that loss of AP-4 assembly or functionality underlies the common clinical features in these patients and underscores the existence of the clinically recognizable AP-4 deficiency syndrome. PMID:24781758

  8. DNA cleavage at the AP site via β-elimination mediated by the AP site-binding ligands.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yukiko S; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2016-02-15

    DNA is continuously damaged by endogenous and exogenous factors such as oxidation and alkylation. In the base excision repair pathway, the damaged nucleobases are removed by DNA N-glycosylase to form the abasic sites (AP sites). The alkylating antitumor agent exhibits cytotoxicity through the formation of the AP site. Therefore blockage or modulation of the AP site repair pathway may enhance the antitumor efficacy of DNA alkylating agents. In this study, we have examined the effects of the nucleobase-polyamine conjugated ligands (G-, A-, C- and T-ligands) on the cleavage of the AP site. The G- and A-ligands cleaved DNA at the AP site by promoting β-elimination in a non-selective manner by the G-ligand, and in a selective manner for the opposing dT by the A-ligand. These results suggest that the nucleobase-polyamine conjugate ligands may have the potential for enhancement of the cytotoxicities of the AP site. PMID:26777298

  9. Pressure effects, anisotropic transport properties and irreversibility line of Pb 2Sr 2Y 1- xCa xCu 3O 8 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborde, O.; Souletie, B.; Martinez, J. C.; Borges, H.; Beille, J.; Capponi, J. J.; Chmaissem, O.

    1993-02-01

    We present a detailed study of the superconducting properties of crystals of Pb 2Sr 2Y 1- xCa xCu 3O 8(x between 0.36 and 0.39), in particular the irreversibility line obtained from magnetoresistance measurements up to 20 teslas, and the variation of T c with hydrostatic pressure (H.P.) up to 16.6. kbars and quasi-hydrostatic pressure (Q.H.P.) up to 100 kbars. This variation of T c with pressure strongly depends on the nature of the applied pressure, which is attributed to a strong sensitivity of T c to defects introduced in QHP experiments. The anisotropy of the irreversibility field H ∗ is similar to that of YBa 2Cu 3O 7 although the distance between the double copper-oxygen planes is much larger for Pb 2Sr 2Y 1- xCa xCu 3O 8.

  10. A parameter-free dynamic alternative to hyper-viscosity for coupled transport equations: Application to the simulation of 3D squall lines using spectral elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, Simone; Giraldo, Francis X.

    2015-02-01

    The stabilization of high order spectral elements to solve the transport equations for tracers in the atmosphere remains an active topic of research among atmospheric modelers. This paper builds on our previous work on variational multiscale stabilization (VMS) and discontinuity capturing (DC) (Marras et al. (2012) [7]) and shows the applicability of VMS+DC to realistic atmospheric problems that involve physics coupling with phase change in the simulation of 3D deep convection. We show that the VMS+DC approach is a robust technique that can damp the high order modes characterizing the spectral element solution of complex coupled transport problems. The method has important properties that techniques of more common use often lack: 1) it is free of a user-defined parameter, 2) it is anisotropic in that it only acts along the flow direction, 3) it is numerically consistent, and 4) it can improve the monotonicity of high-order spectral elements. The proposed method is assessed by comparing the results against those obtained with a fourth-order hyper-viscosity programmed in the same code. The main conclusion that arises is that tuning can be fully avoided without loss of accuracy if the dissipative scheme is properly designed. Finally, the cost of parallel communication is that of a second order operator which means that fewer communications are required by VMS+DC than by a hyper-viscosity method; fewer communications translate into a faster and more scalable code, which is of vital importance as we approach the exascale range of computing.

  11. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Line markers for mains and transmission lines. 192... § 192.707 Line markers for mains and transmission lines. (a) Buried pipelines. Except as provided in... buried main and transmission line: (1) At each crossing of a public road and railroad; and (2)...

  12. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line markers for mains and transmission lines. 192... § 192.707 Line markers for mains and transmission lines. (a) Buried pipelines. Except as provided in... buried main and transmission line: (1) At each crossing of a public road and railroad; and (2)...

  13. APS storage ring vacuum system development

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Ferry, R.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.D.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, rf and insertion device systems. The vacuum system will operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr and is fabricated from aluminum. The system includes distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. An overview of the vacuum system design and details of selected development program results are presented. 5 refs.

  14. Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

    2006-04-01

    From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware-software combined hybrid approach because of a too limited phase space of a single RFID for any meaningful encryption approach. Furthermore, a useful biological lesson is not to put all eggs in one basket, "if you don't get it all, you can't hack it". According to the Radar physics, we can choose the amplitude, the frequency, the phase, the polarization, and two radiation energy supply principles, the capacitance coupling (~6m) and the inductance coupling (<1m), to code the pair of tags differently. A casual skimmer equipped with single-mode reader can not read all. We consider near-field and mid-field applications each in this paper. The near-field is at check-out counters or the convey-belt inventory involving sensitive and invariant data. The mid-field search & rescue involves not only item/person identification, but also the geo-location. If more RF power becomes cheaper & portable for longer propagation distance in the near future, then a triangulation with pair of secured readers, located at known geo-locations, could interrogate and identify items/persons and their locations in a GPS-blind environment.

  15. Validation of the new trapped environment AE9/AP9/SPM at low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.

    2014-09-01

    The completion of the international space station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community an ideal proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport codes and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the space transportation system (STS; shuttle) provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code developments by indicating the need for an improved dynamic model of the low Earth orbit (LEO) trapped environment. Additional studies using thermo-luminescent detector (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) area monitors, and computer aided design (CAD) model of earlier ISS configurations, confirmed STS observations that, as input, computational dosimetry requires an environmental model with dynamic and directional (anisotropic) behavior, as well as an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) definition of the vehicle attitude and orientation along the orbit of ISS. At LEO, a vehicle encounters exposure from trapped particles and attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Within the trapped field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensities of the trapped particles during the solar quiet and active times. At active times, solar energetic particles (SEP) generated by solar flare or coronal mass ejection (CME) also contribute to the exposure at high northern and southern latitudes. Among the more established trapped models are the historic and popular AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s, the historic and less popular CRRES electron/proton, dating back to 1990s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. The AE9/AP9/SPM model is a major improvement over the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models. This model is derived from numerous measurements acquired over four solar cycles dating back to the 1970s, roughly representing 40 years of data collection. In contrast, the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models were limited to only a few months of measurements taken during the prior solar minima and maxima. The dual goal of this paper is to first validate the AE8/AP8 and AE9/AP9/SPM trapped models against ISS dosemetric measurements for a silicon based detector, to assess the improvements in the AE9/AP9/SPM model as compared to AE8/AP8 model. The validation is done at selected target points within ISS-6A configuration during its passage through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). For such validation, only the isotropic spectrum of either model is needed. As a second goal, the isotropic spectra of both trapped models are re-casted into anisotropic spectra by modulating them with a measurement derived angular formalism which is applicable to trapped protons. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution, the paper ignores the AE8 and AE9 component of the models and presents the angular validation of AP8 and AP9 against measurements from the compact environment anomaly sensor (CEASE) science instrument package, flown onboard the tri-service experiment-5 (TSX-5) satellite during the period of June 2000-July 2006. The spin stabilized satellite was flown in a 410 × 1710 km, 69° inclination orbit, allowing it to be exposed to a broad range of LEO regime. Particular emphasize is put on the validation of proton flux profiles at differential 40 MeV and integral >40 MeV, in the vicinity of SAA where protons exhibit east-west (EW) anisotropy and have a relatively narrow pitch angle distribution. Within SAA, the EW anisotropy results in different level of exposure to each side of CEASE instrument package, allowing the extraction of anisotropic proton spectra from the measurements. While the magnitude of the EW effect at LEO depends on a multitude of factors such as trapped proton energy, orientation of the spacecraft along the velocity vector and altitude of the spacecraft, for this part, the paper draws quantitative conclusions on the combined effect of proton pitch angle and EW anomaly.

  16. Measure Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  17. High-precision magnetic field measurements of Ap and Bp stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; Donati, J.-F.; Landstreet, J. D.; Shorlin, S. L. S.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach for measuring the mean longitudinal magnetic field and net linear polarization of Ap and Bp stars. As was demonstrated by Wade et al., least-squares deconvolution (LSD; Donati et al.) provides a powerful technique for detecting weak Stokes V, Q and U Zeeman signatures in stellar spectral lines. These signatures have the potential to apply strong new constraints to models of stellar magnetic field structure. Here we point out two important uses of LSD Stokes profiles. First, they can provide very precise determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field. In particular, this method allows one frequently to obtain 1σ error bars better than 50G, and smaller than 20G in some cases. This method is applicable to both broad- and sharp-lined stars, with both weak and strong magnetic fields, and effectively redefines the quality standard of longitudinal field determinations. Secondly, LSD profiles can in some cases provide a measure of the net linear polarization, a quantity analogous to the broad-band linear polarization recently used to derive detailed magnetic field models for a few stars (e.g. Leroy et al.). In this paper we report new high-precision measurements of the longitudinal fields of 14 magnetic Ap/Bp stars, as well as net linear polarization measurements for four of these stars, derived from LSD profiles.

  18. Synthesis of an inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) affinity probe to study the interactome from a colon cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Yin, Meng-Xin; Catimel, Bruno; Gregory, Mark; Condron, Melanie; Kapp, Eugene; Holmes, Andrew B; Burgess, Antony W

    2016-03-14

    Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6 or IP6) is an important signalling molecule in vesicular trafficking, neurotransmission, immune responses, regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases, activation of ion channels, antioxidant functions and anticancer activities. An IP6 probe was synthesised from myo-inositol via a derivatised analogue, which was immobilised through a terminal amino group onto Dynabeads. Systematic analysis of the IP6 interactome has been performed using the IP6 affinity probe using cytosolic extracts from the LIM1215 colonic carcinoma cell line. LC/MS/MS analysis identified 77 proteins or protein complexes that bind to IP6 specifically, including AP-2 complex proteins and β-arrestins as well as a number of novel potential IP6 interacting proteins. Bioinformatic enrichment analysis of the IP6 interactome reinforced the concept that IP6 regulates a number of biological processes including cell cycle and division, signal transduction, intracellular protein transport, vesicle-mediated transport and RNA splicing. PMID:26840369

  19. Functional Characterization of a Vesicular Glutamate Transporter in an Interneuron That Makes Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Connections in a Molluscan Neural Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Alexeeva, Vera; Chen, Song-an; Yu, Ke; Due, Michael R.; Tan, Li-nuo; Chen, Ting-ting; Liu, Dan-dan; Cropper, Elizabeth C.; Vilim, Ferdinand S.; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding circuit function requires the characterization of component neurons and their neurotransmitters. Previous work on radula protraction in the Aplysia feeding circuit demonstrated that critical neurons initiate feeding via cholinergic excitation. In contrast, it is less clear how retraction is mediated at the interneuronal level. In particular, glutamate involvement was suggested, but was not directly confirmed. Here we study a suspected glutamatergic retraction interneuron, B64. We used the representational difference analysis (RDA) method to successfully clone an Aplysia vesicular glutamate transporter (ApVGLUT) from B64 and from a glutamatergic motor neuron B38. Previously, RDA was used to characterize novel neuropeptides. Here we demonstrate its utility for characterizing other types of molecules. Bioinformatics suggests that ApVGLUT is more closely related to mammalian VGLUTs than to Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans VGLUTs. We expressed ApVGLUT in a cell line, and demonstrated that it indeed transports glutamate in an ATP and proton gradient-dependent manner. We mapped the ApVGLUT distribution in the CNS using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Further, we demonstrated that B64 is ApVGLUT positive, supporting the idea that it is glutamatergic. Although glutamate is primarily an excitatory transmitter in the mammalian CNS, B64 elicits inhibitory PSPs in protraction neurons to terminate protraction and excitatory PSPs in retraction neurons to maintain retraction. Pharmacological data indicated that both types of PSPs are mediated by glutamate. Thus, glutamate mediates the dual function of B64 in Aplysia. More generally, our systematic approaches based on RDA may facilitate analyses of transmitter actions in small circuits with identifiable neurons. PMID:26085636

  20. Is Ap sub 4 A involved in DNA repair processes

    SciTech Connect

    Gilson, G.; Ebel, J.P.; Remy, P. )

    1988-07-01

    Hepatoma tissue culture (HTAC) cells were incubated in the presence of the alkylating agent N-methyl-N{prime}-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) to study the variations in the bisnucleosides polyphosphates (Ap{sub 4}X) pool size. A transient but sensitive accumulation of these compounds is observed; if 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) which is a potent inhibitor of the ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) is added after the MNNG treatment, a more pronounced and persistent accumulation of Ap{sub 4}X can be seen. A moderate heat-shock results also in a small accumulation of Ap{sub 4}X but the shape of the accumulation curve is quite different and the increase of the Ap{sub 4}X pool is not sensitive to the presence of 3AB. However, both MNNG treatment and hyperthermia cause a marked inhibition of protein synthesis. On the other hand, the ADPRT activity is enhanced in the presence of MNNG whereas hyperthermia has little or a slightly inhibitory effect on this activity. These results suggest that MNNG treatment triggers an Ap{sub 4}X accumulation in eukaryotic cells different from that observed after heat-shock and it seems likely that these compounds are involved in the DNA excision repair system in which the ADPRT enzyme is also implicated.

  1. Design and realization of linear APS-based sun sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, He; Zhang, Jianfu; Lv, Zhengxin; Yu, Chengwu; Jia, Jinzhong

    2013-10-01

    Linear APS-based sun sensor is a kind of sun sensor based on a linear array Active Pixel Sensor (APS) with low power consumption, small size, and small mass. It is integrated with optical, mechanical and electronic technologies. The main function of linear APS-based sun sensor is to realize two-axis measurement of solar aspect angle, determining the attitude of spacecraft. The image of the solar is projected on the linear image sensor through an N-shape aperture in front of it. By comparing the position shift of solar image projection on linear array APS, we can obtain the position of the sun relative to sensor. This paper analyzes the sources of system error and some specific solutions are proposed. The error compensation algorithm in the software designed makes the sun senor meet the accuracy requirements. The performance characteristics are as follows: FOV is +/-64x+/-64 the accuracy of ?-axis is better than 0.02 (3?) in the FOV of less than 45, and better than 0.03 (3?) in other FOV; the accuracy of ?-axis is better than 0.03 (3?) in the whole FOV. Linear APS-based sun sensor was successfully carried by satellite on orbit in October 2012. On-orbit testing showed that it operates normally and the data curves prove the accuracy meets requirements.

  2. Mobile docking of REMUS-100 equipped with USBL-APS to an unmanned surface vehicle: A performance feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Mario, II

    The overall objective of this work is to evaluate the ability of homing and docking an unmanned underwater vehicle (Hydroid REMUS 100 UUV) to a moving unmanned surface vehicle (Wave-Adaptive Modular Surface Vehicle USV) using a Hydroid Digital Ultra-Short Baseline (DUSBL) acoustic positioning system (APS), as a primary navigation source. An understanding of how the UUV can rendezvous with a stationary USV first is presented, then followed by a moving USV. Inherently, the DUSBL-APS is susceptible to error due to the physical phenomena of the underwater acoustic channel (e.g. ambient noise, attenuation and ray refraction). The development of an APS model has allowed the authors to forecast the UUV's position and the estimated track line of the USV as determined by the DUSBL acoustic sensor. In this model, focus is placed on three main elements: 1) the acoustic channel and sound ray refraction when propagating in an inhomogeneous medium; 2) the detection component of an ideal DUSBL-APS using the Neyman-Pearson criterion; 3) the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and receiver directivity impact on position estimation. The simulation tool is compared against actual open water homing results in terms of the estimated source position between the simulated and the actual USBL range and bearing information.

  3. Past, Present, and Future of AP Chemistry: A Brief History of Course and Exam Alignment Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrogan, Serena

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Placement (AP) Program's commitment to continually enhance alignment with current best practices in college-level learning, the AP Program is currently evaluating and redesigning courses and exams, one of which launched during the 2013-2014 academic school year: AP chemistry. The history of the AP chemistry course and…

  4. AP Report to the Nation: A Closer Look at the Nation and Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawtell, Ellen A.; Gillie, Jacqueline M.; Smith, Patricia Z.

    2012-01-01

    In February 2012, the College Board published The 8th Annual AP Report to the Nation. This session provides a deeper dive into key information for the United States with an emphasis on Florida, and participants hear how one school in Florida utilizes AP Potential™ to help build their AP Program. Participants also learn about AP participation and…

  5. Past, Present, and Future of AP Chemistry: A Brief History of Course and Exam Alignment Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrogan, Serena

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Placement (AP) Program's commitment to continually enhance alignment with current best practices in college-level learning, the AP Program is currently evaluating and redesigning courses and exams, one of which launched during the 2013-2014 academic school year: AP chemistry. The history of the AP chemistry course and

  6. Si 6142 and 6155 Å lines in stellar atmospheres: Stark broadening effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.; Popović, L. Č.; Ryabchikova, T.

    2002-07-01

    We study the influence of Stark broadening effect on Si I lines in the roAp 10 Aql star, where the lines are asymmetrical and shifted. First we have calculated Stark broadening parameters using by the semi-classical method for two Si I lines: 6142.48 Å and 6155.13 Å. We have adopted SYNTH code to include into account both Stark width and shift for these lines. From comparison of our calculation data with observations we found that Stark broadening plus stratification effect can explain the width and the asymmetry of the Si I lines in the atmosphere of roAp 10 Aql star.

  7. A late Golgi sorting function for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Apm1p, but not for Apm2p, a second yeast clathrin AP medium chain-related protein.

    PubMed

    Stepp, J D; Pellicena-Palle, A; Hamilton, S; Kirchhausen, T; Lemmon, S K

    1995-01-01

    Mammalian clathrin-associated protein (AP) complexes, AP-1 (trans-Golgi network) and AP-2 (plasma membrane), are composed of two large subunits of 91-107 kDa, one medium chain (mu) of 47-50 kDa and one small chain (sigma) of 17-19 kDa. Two yeast genes, APM1 and APM2, have been identified that encode proteins related to AP mu chains. APM1, whose sequence was reported previously, codes for a protein of 54 kDa that has greatest similarity to the mammalian 47-kDa mu 1 chain of AP-1. APM2 encodes an AP medium chain-related protein of 605 amino acids (predicted molecular weight of 70 kDa) that is only 30-33% identical to the other family members. In yeast containing a normal clathrin heavy chain gene (CHC1), disruptions of the APM genes, singly or in combination, had no detectable phenotypic consequences. However, deletion of APM1 greatly enhanced the temperature-sensitive growth phenotype and the alpha-factor processing defect displayed by cells carrying a temperature-sensitive allele of the clathrin heavy chain gene. In contrast, deletion of APM2 caused no synthetic phenotypes with clathrin mutants. Biochemical analysis indicated that Apm1p and Apm2p are components of distinct high molecular weight complexes. Apm1p, Apm2p, and clathrin cofractionated in a discrete vesicle population, and the association of Apm1p with the vesicles was disrupted in CHC1 deletion strains. These results suggest that Apm1p is a component of an AP-1-like complex that participates with clathrin in sorting at the trans-Golgi in yeast. We propose that Apm2p represents a new class of AP-medium chain-related proteins that may be involved in a nonclathrin-mediated vesicular transport process in eukaryotic cells. PMID:7749194

  8. Susceptibility of muridae cell lines to ecotropic murine leukemia virus and the cationic amino acid transporter 1 viral receptor sequences: implications for evolution of the viral receptor.

    PubMed

    Kakoki, Katsura; Shinohara, Akio; Izumida, Mai; Koizumi, Yosuke; Honda, Eri; Kato, Goro; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-06-01

    Ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (Eco-MLVs) infect mouse and rat, but not other mammalian cells, and gain access for infection through binding the cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1). Glycosylation of the rat and hamster CAT1s inhibits Eco-MLV infection, and treatment of rat and hamster cells with a glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, enhances Eco-MLV infection. Although the mouse CAT1 is also glycosylated, it does not inhibit Eco-MLV infection. Comparison of amino acid sequences between the rat and mouse CAT1s shows amino acid insertions in the rat protein near the Eco-MLV-binding motif. In addition to the insertion present in the rat CAT1, the hamster CAT1 has additional amino acid insertions. In contrast, tunicamycin treatment of mink and human cells does not elevate the infection, because their CAT1s do not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif. To define the evolutionary pathway of the Eco-MLV receptor, we analyzed CAT1 sequences and susceptibility to Eco-MLV infection of other several murinae animals, including the southern vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis), large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), and Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus). Eco-MLV infection was enhanced by tunicamycin in these cells, and their CAT1 sequences have the insertions like the hamster CAT1. Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian CAT1s suggested that the ancestral CAT1 does not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif, like the human CAT1, and the mouse CAT1 is thought to be generated by the amino acid deletions in the third extracellular loop of CAT1. PMID:24469466

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the distribution of AP2/ERF transcription factors reveals duplication and CBFs genes elucidate their potential function in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) is one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide. The entire cabbage genome sequence and more than fifty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. However a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between cabbage and Arabidopsis; therefore, Arabidopsis is a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Transcription factors (TFs) are important regulators involved in plant development and physiological processes and the AP2/ERF protein family contains transcriptional factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development, as well as response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. However, no detailed expression profile of AP2/ERF-like genes is available for B. oleracea. Results In the present study, 226 AP2/ERF TFs were identified from B. oleracea based on the available genome sequence. Based on sequence similarity, the AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into five groups (DREB, ERF, AP2, RAV and Soloist) and 15 subgroups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic construction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns and interaction network were then predicted and analyzed. AP2/ERF transcription factor expression levels exhibited differences in response to varying abiotic stresses based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). BoCBF1a, 1b, 2, 3 and 4, which were highly conserved in Arabidopsis and B. rapa CBF/DREB genes families were well characterized. Expression analysis enabled elucidation of the molecular and genetic level expression patterns of cold tolerance (CT) and susceptible lines (CS) of cabbage and indicated that all BoCBF genes responded to abiotic stresses. Conclusions Comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of AP2/ERF superfamily genes and BoCBF family genes in B. oleracea is required to fully elucidate AP2/ERF, which will provide rich resources and opportunities to understand abiotic stress tolerance in crops. PMID:24888752

  10. A dominant magnetic dipole for the evolved Ap star candidate EK Eridani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurière, M.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Petit, P.; Roudier, T.; Donati, J.-F.; Charbonnel, C.; Dintrans, B.; Lignières, F.; Wade, G. A.; Morgenthaler, A.; Tsvetkova, S.

    2011-10-01

    Context. EK Eri is one of the most slowly rotating active giants known, and has been proposed to be the descendant of a strongly magnetic Ap star. Aims: We have performed a spectropolarimetric study of EK Eri over 4 photometric periods with the aim of inferring the topology of its magnetic field. Methods: We used the NARVAL spectropolarimeter at the Bernard Lyot telescope at the Pic du Midi Observatory, along with the least-squares deconvolution method, to extract high signal-to-noise ratio Stokes V profiles from a timeseries of 28 polarisation spectra. We have derived the surface-averaged longitudinal magnetic field Bℓ. We fit the Stokes V profiles with a model of the large-scale magnetic field and obtained Zeeman Doppler images of the surface magnetic strength and geometry. We studied the classical activity indicators, the Ca ii H and K lines, the Ca ii infrared triplet, and Hα line, as well as the stellar radial velocity. Results: Bℓ variations of up to about 80 G are observed without any reversal of its sign, and which are in phase with photometric ephemeris. The activity indicators are shown to vary smoothly on a timescale compatible with the rotational period inferred from photometry (308.8 d), however large deviations can occur from one rotation to another. The surface magnetic field variations of EK Eri appear to be dominated by a strong magnetic spot (of negative polarity) which is phased with the dark (cool) photometric spot. Our modeling shows that the large-scale magnetic field of EK Eri is strongly poloidal. For a rotational axis inclination of i = 60°, we obtain a model that is almost purely dipolar. Conclusions: In the dipolar model, the strong magnetic/photometric spot corresponds to the negative pole of the dipole, which could be the remnant of that of an Ap star progenitor of EK Eri. Our observations and modeling conceptually support this hypothesis, suggesting an explanation of the outstanding magnetic properties of EK Eri as the result of interaction between deep convection and the remnant of an Ap star magnetic dipole. Nevertheless, the longitudinal magnetic field curve clearly shows changes from one rotation to the next, indicating that the surface magnetic topology is not static as in an Ap star. Based on data obtained using the Télescope Bernard Lyot at Observatoire du Pic du Midi, CNRS/INSU and Université de Toulouse, France.

  11. A survey of Ap stars for weak longitudinal magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auriere, M.; Silvester, J.; Wade, G. A.; Bagnulo, S.; Donati, J. F.; Johnson, N.; Landstreet, J. D.; Lignieres, F.; Lueftinger, T.; Mouillet, M.; Paletou, F.; Petit, P.; Strasser, S.

    2004-10-01

    We are conducting a magnetic survey of a sample of about 30 spectroscopically-identified Ap stars (selected from the HD catalogue), but with faint or previously undetected magnetic fields. We use the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter at Telescope Bernard Lyot (Pic du Midi Observatory, France) and the cross-correlation technique Least Squares Deconvolution (LSD; Donati et al. 1997). For 24 studied stars, we have obtained 21 detections of Stokes V Zeeman signatures (data quality and phase coverage may explain our lack of detection of any field in some objects). Our results suggest that all Ap stars are magnetic and, furthermore, that there may exist a minimum field strength for which Ap-type characteristics are produced.

  12. Ground vibration model studies for APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Koul, R.K.

    1994-07-01

    An analytical ground vibration model is developed for study of the vibration effects on the beam motion in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The different physical parameters associated with the wave characteristics and the vibration modes needed for the study are taken from the vibration studies carried out at the APS site. The implementation has been carried out using Mathematica{trademark}. The study is carried out for the frequency range 1--35 Hz, with a number of sources changing from one through ten. The program written in Mathematica{trademark}, calculates orbit distortion, beta wave change, tune change, dispersion change, and chromaticity change. However, the main parameter studied for the APS storage ring has been the orbit distortion. The merit factor associated with different modes excited by the vibrations has been calculated.

  13. The fundamental parameters of the Ap star 78 Virginis. Could 78 Vir be a rapidly oscillating Ap star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraut, K.; Cunha, M.; Brandão, I.; Loridat, J.; Mourard, D.; Meilland, A.; Nardetto, N.; McAlister, H.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Vargas, N.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Determining the effective temperature of Ap stars, including the roAp stellar pulsators, is a difficult task owing to their strong magnetic field and their related spotted surfaces. It is, however, an important step towards constraining models of their complex atmosphere and testing proposed pulsation excitation mechanisms. Aims: Using the unique angular resolution provided by long-baseline visible interferometry, we aim at deriving accurate angular diameters of a number of Ap targets, so as to determine their unbiased effective temperature (Teff) and their accurate position in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, to estimate their mass and age, and to test non-adiabatic pulsation models. Interferometric results on four Ap stars have been published in earlier works. Here we report the results on a fifth, significantly hotter star. Methods: We observed 78 Vir with the visible spectrograph VEGA installed at the combined focus of the CHARA long-baseline optical array. We derived the limb-darkened diameter of this Ap star from our interferometric measurements. Based on photometric and spectroscopic data available in the literature, we estimated the star's bolometric flux and used it, in combination with its parallax and angular diameter, to determine the star's luminosity and effective temperature. We then used the derived fundamental parameters to perform a non-adiabatic pulsation analysis. Results: We determined a limb-darkened angular diameter of 0.346 ± 0.006 mas and deduced a linear radius of R = 2.11 ± 0.04 R⊙. Considering a bolometric flux of 2.73 ± 0.20 10-7 erg/cm2/s we obtained a luminosity of L/L⊙ = 27 ± 2 and an effective temperature of Teff = 9100 ± 190 K. The non-adiabatic pulsation modeling allows us to predict that high overtone pulsations could be excited in 78 Vir at frequencies ranging from 1.2 to 1.9 mHz, provided that the magnetic field is capable of suppressing envelope convection in the polar regions. Conclusions: Visible long-baseline interferometry is a unique means of deriving accurate fundamental parameters of Ap stars. The Ap star 78 Vir is found to be a promising roAp-star candidate and one that would allow us to extend recent tests on the roAp stars' excitation mechanism towards the blue edge of the instability strip. Asteroseismic data of this star would, therefore, be of strong interest. Based on observations made with the VEGA/CHARA spectro-interferometer.

  14. PKCε inhibits isolation and stemness of side population cells via the suppression of ABCB1 transporter and PI3K/Akt, MAPK/ERK signaling in renal cell carcinoma cell line 769P.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Fu, Shun Jun; Fan, Wen Zhe; Wang, Zhong Hua; Chen, Ze Bin; Guo, Sheng Jie; Chen, Jun Xing; Qiu, Shao Peng

    2016-06-28

    Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), a member of the novel PKC family, is known to be a transforming oncogene and tumor biomarker for many human solid cancers including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We isolated side population (SP) cells from the RCC 769P cell line, and proved that those cells possess cancer stem cell (CSC) characteristics. In this study, to identify the function of PKCε in cancer stemness of 769P SP cells, we reduced the expression of PKCε in those cells, following the results demonstrated that PKCε depletion had a negative correlation with the existence of SP cells in 769P cell line. Down-regulation of PKCε also suppresses the CSC potential of sorted 769P SP cells in several ways: proliferation potential, resistance to chemotherapeutics and in vivo tumor formation ability. Our study also reveals that PKCε is associated with ABCB1 and this association probably contributed to the SP cells isolation from 769P cell line. Furthermore, the expression of ABCB1 is directly regulated by PKCε. Additionally, after the depletion of PKCε, the phosphorylation of pAkt, pStat3 and pERK was apparently suppressed in 769P SP cells, whereas PKCε overexpression could promote the phosphorylation of AKT, STAT3 and ERK in 769P Non-SP cells. Overall, PKCε down-regulation suppresses sorting and the cancer stem-like phenotype of RCC 769P SP cells through the regulation of ABCB1 transporter and the PI3K/Akt, Stat3 and MAPK/ERK pathways that are dependent on the phosphorylation effects. Thus, PKCε may work as an important mediator in cancer stem cell pathogenesis of renal cell cancer. PMID:27037060

  15. Two WXXF-based motifs in NECAPs define the specificity of accessory protein binding to AP-1 and AP-2

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Brigitte; Denisov, Alexei Yu; Philie, Jacynthe; Deprez, Christophe; Tung, Elaine C; Gehring, Kalle; McPherson, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    The adaptor proteins AP-2 and AP-1/GGAs are essential components of clathrin coats at the plasma membrane and trans-Golgi network, respectively. The adaptors recruit accessory proteins to clathrin-coated pits, which is dependent on the adaptor ear domains engaging short peptide motifs in the accessory proteins. Here, we perform an extensive mutational analysis of a novel WXXF-based motif that functions to mediate the binding of an array of accessory proteins to the α-adaptin ear domain of AP-2. Using nuclear magnetic resonance and mutational studies, we identified WXXF-based motifs as major ligands for a site on the α-ear previously shown to bind the DPW-bearing proteins epsin 1/2. We also defined the determinants that allow for specific binding of the α-ear motif to AP-2 as compared to those that allow a highly related WXXF-based motif to bind to the ear domains of AP-1/GGAs. Intriguingly, placement of acidic residues around the WXXF cores is critical for binding specificity. These studies provide a structural basis for the specific recruitment of accessory proteins to appropriate sites of clathrin-coated vesicle formation. PMID:15359277

  16. Psychosocial Assessment of Artificial Pancreas (AP): Commentary and Review of Existing Measures and Their Applicability in AP Research

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Korey K.; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Aldred, Chris; Oliver, Nick; Laffel, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim: This study aimed to systematically review the evidence base for the use of existing psychological and psychosocial measures suitable for use in artificial pancreas (AP) research. Materials and Methods: This systematic review of published literature, gray literature, previous systematic reviews, and qualitative and economic studies was conducted using terms and abbreviations synonymous with diabetes, AP, and quality of life (QoL). Results: Two hundred ninety-two abstracts were identified that reported psychosocial assessment of diabetes-related technologies. Of these, nine met the inclusion criteria and were included. Only four of 103 ongoing trials evaluated psychosocial aspects as an outcome in the trial. Of these, treatment satisfaction, acceptance and use intention of AP, fear of hypoglycemia episodes, satisfaction with AP, and an unspecified QoL measure were used. Conclusions: A better understanding of the psychosocial side of AP systems and the extent to which human factors play a role in the uptake and efficient use of these systems will ultimately lead to the most benefit for people with diabetes. PMID:25549042

  17. Plant resistance against the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii is mediated by MPK3 and MPK6 kinases, which are controlled by the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sidonskaya, Ekaterina; Schweighofer, Alois; Shubchynskyy, Volodymyr; Kammerhofer, Nina; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Meskiene, Irute

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes infect plants and form highly sophisticated feeding sites in roots. It is not known which plant cell signalling mechanisms trigger plant defence during the early stages of nematode parasitism. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are central components of protein phosphorylation cascades transducing extracellular signals to plant defence responses. MAPK phosphatases control kinase activities and the signalling outcome. The involvement and the role of MPK3 and MPK6, as well as the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1, is demonstrated during parasitism of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis. Our data reveal notable activation patterns of plant MAPKs and the induction of AP2C1 suggesting the attenuation of defence signalling in plant cells during early nematode infection. It is demonstrated that the ap2c1 mutant that is lacking AP2C1 is more attractive but less susceptible to nematodes compared with the AP2C1-overexpressing line. This implies that the function of AP2C1 is a negative regulator of nematode-induced defence. By contrast, the enhanced susceptibility of mpk3 and mpk6 plants indicates a positive role of stress-activated MAPKs in plant immunity against nematodes. Evidence is provided that phosphatase AP2C1, as well as AP2C1-targeted MPK3 and MPK6, are important regulators of plant–nematode interaction, where the co-ordinated action of these signalling components ensures the timely activation of plant defence. PMID:26438412

  18. Plant resistance against the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii is mediated by MPK3 and MPK6 kinases, which are controlled by the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sidonskaya, Ekaterina; Schweighofer, Alois; Shubchynskyy, Volodymyr; Kammerhofer, Nina; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Meskiene, Irute

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes infect plants and form highly sophisticated feeding sites in roots. It is not known which plant cell signalling mechanisms trigger plant defence during the early stages of nematode parasitism. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are central components of protein phosphorylation cascades transducing extracellular signals to plant defence responses. MAPK phosphatases control kinase activities and the signalling outcome. The involvement and the role of MPK3 and MPK6, as well as the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1, is demonstrated during parasitism of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis. Our data reveal notable activation patterns of plant MAPKs and the induction of AP2C1 suggesting the attenuation of defence signalling in plant cells during early nematode infection. It is demonstrated that the ap2c1 mutant that is lacking AP2C1 is more attractive but less susceptible to nematodes compared with the AP2C1-overexpressing line. This implies that the function of AP2C1 is a negative regulator of nematode-induced defence. By contrast, the enhanced susceptibility of mpk3 and mpk6 plants indicates a positive role of stress-activated MAPKs in plant immunity against nematodes. Evidence is provided that phosphatase AP2C1, as well as AP2C1-targeted MPK3 and MPK6, are important regulators of plant-nematode interaction, where the co-ordinated action of these signalling components ensures the timely activation of plant defence. PMID:26438412

  19. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  20. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  1. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  2. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  3. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  4. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  5. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  6. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  7. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  8. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  9. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  10. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  11. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  12. Analysis of the planning and scheduling functionality in APS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger-Jensen, Kenn; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2001-10-01

    The paper discusses the basic functionality of planning and scheduling in Advanced Planning and Scheduling systems (APS). Three basic planning options - unconstrained planning, constrained planning and optimization are analyzed by use of theory and examples based on test of an APS system. Even though the planning functionality are radically improved compared to MRP and MRP II, the balance between the objectives are found to be too rigid. This conclusion is based on a number of examples, comparing the outcome of different objectives such as constraints based planning versus optimized planning.

  13. Status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.; Arnold, N.; Berg, W.; Cours, A.; Fuja, R.; Grelick, A.; Ko, K.; Qian, Y.; Russell, T.; Sereno, N.

    1994-09-01

    A 2856-MHz S-band, electron-positron linear accelerator (linac) has been constructed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). It is the source of particles and the injector for the other APS accelerators, and linac commissioning is well underway. The linac is operated 24 hours per day to support linac beam studies and rf conditioning, as well as positron accumulator ring and synchrotron commissioning studies. The design goal for accelerated positron current is 8-mA, and has been met. Maximum positron energy to date is 420-MeV, approaching the design goal of 450-MeV. The linac design and its performance are discussed.

  14. Magnetic fields in A stars besides Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.

    2014-11-01

    I review ongoing efforts to understand the incidence of magnetism in intermediate-mass stars that are different from the magnetic Ap stars. This includes the search for magnetic fields in chemically peculiar stars of the Am and HgMn types as well as in normal A and late-B stars. I discuss different techniques for detecting weak stellar magnetic fields, and present a critical evaluation of recent magnetic detections in non-Ap stars. Special attention is given to the magnetic status of HgMn stars and to the discovery of weak polarization signatures in Sirius and Vega.

  15. RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVAE HAVE SHORTER-LIVED CENTRAL ENGINES OR MORE EXTENDED PROGENITORS: THE CASE OF SN 2012ap

    SciTech Connect

    Margutti, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Soderberg, A. M.; Sanders, N.; Chakraborti, S.; Kamble, A.; Drout, M.; Parrent, J.; Zauderer, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Morsony, B. J.; Ray, A.; Chomiuk, L.

    2014-12-20

    Deep, late-time X-ray observations of the relativistic, engine-driven, type Ic SN 2012ap allow us to probe the nearby environment of the explosion and reveal the unique properties of relativistic supernova explosions (SNe). We find that on a local scale of ∼0.01 pc the environment was shaped directly by the evolution of the progenitor star with a pre-explosion mass-loss rate of M-dot <5×10{sup −6} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, in line with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and the other relativistic SN 2009bb. Like sub-energetic GRBs, SN 2012ap is characterized by a bright radio emission and evidence for mildly relativistic ejecta. However, its late-time (δt ≈ 20 days) X-ray emission is ∼100 times fainter than the faintest sub-energetic GRB at the same epoch, with no evidence for late-time central engine activity. These results support theoretical proposals that link relativistic SNe like 2009bb and 2012ap with the weakest observed engine-driven explosions, where the jet barely fails to break out. Furthermore, our observations demonstrate that the difference between relativistic SNe and sub-energetic GRBs is intrinsic and not due to line-of-sight effects. This phenomenology can either be due to an intrinsically shorter-lived engine or to a more extended progenitor in relativistic SNe.

  16. Incorporating the APS Catalog of the POSS I and Image Archive in ADS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary purpose of this contract was to develop the software to both create and access an on-line database of images from digital scans of the Palomar Sky Survey. This required modifying our DBMS (called Star Base) to create an image database from the actual raw pixel data from the scans. The digitized images are processed into a set of coordinate-reference index and pixel files that are stored in run-length files, thus achieving an efficient lossless compression. For efficiency and ease of referencing, each digitized POSS I plate is then divided into 900 subplates. Our custom DBMS maps each query into the corresponding POSS plate(s) and subplate(s). All images from the appropriate subplates are retrieved from disk with byte-offsets taken from the index files. These are assembled on-the-fly into a GIF image file for browser display, and a FITS format image file for retrieval. The FITS images have a pixel size of 0.33 arcseconds. The FITS header contains astrometric and photometric information. This method keeps the disk requirements manageable while allowing for future improvements. When complete, the APS Image Database will contain over 130 Gb of data. A set of web pages query forms are available on-line, as well as an on-line tutorial and documentation. The database is distributed to the Internet by a high-speed SGI server and a high-bandwidth disk system. URL is http://aps.umn.edu/IDB/. The image database software is written in perl and C and has been compiled on SGI computers with MIX5.3. A copy of the written documentation is included and the software is on the accompanying exabyte tape.

  17. Exploring Mars: The Ares Payload Service (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

    1999-08-01

    In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the design notably an improved re-entry cooling system and fueling stability analysis were done this year. More technical detail and a proposed international consortium to develop the SSTO is presented in another session of this year's Mars convention. We believe that there will be no human exploration of Mars based on the Shuttle or Expendable launch vehicles, and no resources available except for a cooperative international program. However, just as the world is learning to cooperate in peacekeeping, we hold out the hope that similar cooperation will develop for Mars exploration. With that in mind, this year we asked the question- "How will the human mission get to Mars if it has to use the SsTO for transportation?"

  18. Exploring Mars: the Ares Payload Service (APS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the design notably an improved re-entry cooling system and fueling stability analysis were done this year. More technical detail and a proposed international consortium to develop the SSTO is presented in another session of this year's Mars convention. We believe that there will be no human exploration of Mars based on the Shuttle or Expendable launch vehicles, and no resources available except for a cooperative international program. However, just as the world is learning to cooperate in peacekeeping, we hold out the hope that similar cooperation will develop for Mars exploration. With that in mind, this year we asked the question- "How will the human mission get to Mars if it has to use the SsTO for transportation?"

  19. Magnetic Doppler imaging of the roAp star HD 24712

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüftinger, T.; Kochukhov, O.; Ryabchikova, T.; Piskunov, N.; Weiss, W. W.; Ilyin, I.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We present the first magnetic Doppler images of a rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star. Methods: We deduce information about magnetic field geometry and abundance distributions of a number of chemical elements on the surface of the hitherto best studied roAp star, HD 24712, using the magnetic Doppler imaging (MDI) code, invers10, which allows us to reconstruct simultaneously and consistently the magnetic field geometry and elemental abundance distributions on a stellar surface. For this purpose we analyse time series spectra obtained in Stokes I and V parameters with the SOFIN polarimeter at the Nordic Optical Telescope and recover surface abundance structures of sixteen different chemical elements, respectively ions, including Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, and Dy. For the rare earth elements (REE) Pr and Nd separate maps were obtained using lines of the first and the second ionization stage. Results: We find and confirm a clear dipolar structure of the surface magnetic field and an unexpected correlation of elemental abundance with respect to this field: one group of elements accumulates solely where the positive magnetic pole is visible, whereas the other group avoids this region and is enhanced where the magnetic equatorial region dominates the visible stellar surface. We also observe relative shifts of abundance enhancement- or depletion regions between the various elements exhibiting otherwise similar behaviour. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  20. Trans-Golgi Network-Located AP1 Gamma Adaptins Mediate Dileucine Motif-Directed Vacuolar Targeting in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangfeng; Cai, Yi; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yonglun; Zhuang, Xiaohong; Li, Baiying

    2014-01-01

    Membrane proteins on the tonoplast are indispensible for vacuolar functions in plants. However, how these proteins are transported to the vacuole and how they become separated from plasma membrane proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar ion transporter1 (VIT1) as a reporter to study the mechanisms of tonoplast targeting. We showed that VIT1 reached the tonoplast through a pathway involving the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, trans-Golgi network (TGN), prevacuolar compartment, and tonoplast. VIT1 contains a putative N-terminal dihydrophobic type ER export signal, and its N terminus has a conserved dileucine motif (EKQTLL), which is responsible for tonoplast targeting. In vitro peptide binding assays with synthetic VIT1 N terminus identified adaptor protein complex-1 (AP1) subunits that interacted with the dileucine motif. A deficiency of AP1 gamma adaptins in Arabidopsis cells caused relocation of tonoplast proteins containing the dileucine motif, such as VIT1 and inositol transporter1, to the plasma membrane. The dileucine motif also effectively rerouted the plasma membrane protein SCAMP1 to the tonoplast. Together with subcellular localization studies showing that AP1 gamma adaptins localize to the TGN, we propose that the AP1 complex on the TGN mediates tonoplast targeting of membrane proteins with the dileucine motif. PMID:25351491

  1. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  2. 76 FR 82079 - AP1000 Design Certification Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... System (CCWS). Changes to I&C Systems. Changes to the Passive Core Cooling System (PCCS)--Gas Intrusion... System (ADAMS): Publicly available documents created or received at the NRC are available online in the... any person. The NRC originally approved the AP1000 design certification in a final rule in 2006 (71...

  3. Approximate entropy (ApEn) as a complexity measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincus, Steve

    1995-03-01

    Approximate entropy (ApEn) is a recently developed statistic quantifying regularity and complexity, which appears to have potential application to a wide variety of relatively short (greater than 100 points) and noisy time-series data. The development of ApEn was motivated by data length constraints commonly encountered, e.g., in heart rate, EEG, and endocrine hormone secretion data sets. We describe ApEn implementation and interpretation, indicating its utility to distinguish correlated stochastic processes, and composite deterministic/ stochastic models. We discuss the key technical idea that motivates ApEn, that one need not fully reconstruct an attractor to discriminate in a statistically valid manner—marginal probability distributions often suffice for this purpose. Finally, we discuss why algorithms to compute, e.g., correlation dimension and the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy, often work well for true dynamical systems, yet sometimes operationally confound for general models, with the aid of visual representations of reconstructed dynamics for two contrasting processes.

  4. Automated Procurement System (APS) revised project management plan (DS-03)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Diane R.

    1995-01-01

    The Project Plan is the governing document for the implementation of the Automated Procurement System (APS). It includes a description of the proposed system, describes the work to be done, establishes a schedule of deliverables, and discusses the major standards and procedures to be followed.

  5. The New AP Chemistry Exam: Its Rationale, Content, and Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Paul D.; Kugel, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013-2014 academic year marks the rollout of the redesigned advanced placement (AP) chemistry course and exam. There have been many questions as to why the course was redesigned and how the new examination will differ from its legacy version. In this article we give a brief overview of the legacy course and examine why a redesign occurred in…

  6. Tead and AP1 coordinate transcription and motility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangfan; Li, Huapeng; Rajurkar, Mihir; Li, Qi; Cotton, Jennifer L.; Ou, Jianhong; Zhu, Lihua J.; Goel, Hira L.; Mercurio, Arthur M.; Park, Joo-Seop; Davis, Roger J.; Mao, Junhao

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Tead family transcription factors are the major intracellular mediators of the Hippo-Yap pathway. Despite the importance of Hippo signaling in tumorigenesis, Tead-dependent downstream oncogenic programs and target genes in cancer cells remain poorly understood. Here we characterize Tead4-mediated transcriptional networks in a diverse range of cancer cells, including neuroblastoma, colorectal, lung, and endometrial carcinomas. By intersecting genome-wide chromatin occupancy analyses of Tead4, JunD and Fra1/2, we find that Tead4 cooperates with AP1 transcription factors to coordinate target gene transcription. We find that Tead-AP1 interaction is JNK independent, but engages the SRC1-3 coactivators to promote downstream transcription. Furthermore we show that Tead-AP1 cooperation regulates the activity of the Dock-Rac/CDC42 module and drives the expression of a unique core set of target genes, thereby directing cell migration and invasion. Together, our data unveil a critical regulatory mechanism underlying Tead- and AP1-controlled transcriptional and functional outputs in cancer cells. PMID:26832411

  7. ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED TRIVALENT ARSENICALS. Z Drobna1, I Jaspers2, D J Thomas3 and M Styblo1. 1Department of Pediatrics; 2Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.

  8. The APS Panel on Public Affairs and Federal Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Robert

    2013-03-01

    The Panel on Public Affairs (POPA) is the organ through which the APS seeks to provide high quality input to the Federal Government on issues with significant physics content, ranging from energy and environment to national security. I will describe POPA's evolving mission, some recent efforts and successes, and look at the agenda for the next few years.

  9. Early Telegraphic News Dispatches: The Forerunner of the AP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzlose, Richard A.

    The origin of the Associated Press (AP) lies in the early cooperative news gathering efforts of the editors of several New York newspapers. As early as May 1846, these editors were "pooling" their energies in response to newly developed modes of communication--the wire and wireless telegraph and the trans-oceanic steamship mail services. The…

  10. Time Trials--An AP Physics Challenge Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    2009-01-01

    I have come to the conclusion that for high school physics classroom and laboratory experiences, simpler is better! In this paper I describe a very simple and effective lab experience that my AP students have thoroughly enjoyed year after year. I call this lab exercise "Time Trials." The experiment is simple in design and it is a lot of fun for…

  11. APS storage ring vacuum chamber: Section 1, Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Benaroya, R.; Roop, B.

    1995-07-01

    The vacuum characteristics of the APS storage ring vacuum chamber prototype, Section One (S1), is presented. The base pressure achieved was 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}, the welds contained no virtual or real leaks, the NeG strip mounting design and activation procedures have been determined, and S1 was found contaminated with hydrocarbons.

  12. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations

  13. The AP Lever for Boosting Access, Success, and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roegman, Rachel; Hatch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Four New Jersey school districts worked together to increase student achievement by applying a number of strategies focused on getting traditionally underrepresented students to take more AP courses. The districts are members of the New Jersey Network of Superintendents (NJNS), comprising 15 superintendents who work together to develop systemwide…

  14. 75 FR 75666 - Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ...: On September 1, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 53681) a notice inviting... in the September 1, 2010 notice (75 FR 53682-53683). We encourage eligible applicants to submit their... Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education...

  15. CMOS APS imaging system application in star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Jinguo; Li, Xuekui; Liu, Yaxia; Hao, Zhihang

    2005-01-01

    Small satellites are capable of performing space explore missions that require accurate attitude determination and control. However, low weight, size, power and cost requirements limit the types of attitude sensor of small craft, such as CCD, are not practical for small satellites. CMOS APS is a good substitute for attitude sensors of small craft. Some of the technical advantages of CMOS APS are no blooming, single power, low power consumption, small size and little support circuitry, direct digital output, simple to system design, in particular, radiation-hard characteristic compare with CCD. This paper discusses the application probability of CMOS APS in star tracker for small satellites, further more, a prototype ground-based star camera based on STAR250 CMOS image sensor has been built. In order to extract stars positions coordinates, subpixel accuracy centroiding algorithm has been developed and tested on some ground-based images. Moreover, the camera system star sensitivity and noise model are analyzed, and the system accuracy is been evaluated. Experimental results indicate that a star camera based on CMOS APS is a viable practical attitude sensor appropriate for space small satellites.

  16. A Web Site Supporting the AP Descriptive Chemistry Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Brooks, David W.; Abuloum, Amjad

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes the use of a Web page that generates and grades quizzes based on the descriptive AP exam question, in a manner historically similar to previous pencil-and-paper exams. Use of the site indicates a potential as an educational tool. The intent of this article is to describe to interested chemistry teachers early use of this chemistry teaching Web site.

  17. Tank 241-AP-106 tank characterization plan: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, B.D.

    1994-11-17

    Tank 241-AP-106 (AP-106) is a candidate feed tank which is expected to be processed at the 242-A Evaporator. Three issues related to the overall concern of the evaporator must be evaluated: compatibility of the candidate waste with respect to feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator requirements; safety parameters of the candidate waste tank to avoid a facility condition which is outside the safety boundaries; and compliance of the waste as dictated by regulations from various government and environmental agencies. The characterization efforts of this Tank Characterization Plan are focused on the resolution of the issues above. To evaluate the potential for waste incompatibility with the feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator, as well as relevant safety issues, analyses will be performed on the grab samples obtained from tank AP-106. These analyses are discussed in Section 4.0. Once the characterization of tank AP-106 has been performed, the waste compatibility and safety assessment shall be conducted. This effort is discussed elsewhere.

  18. Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

  19. Plastid-cytosol partitioning and integration of metabolic pathways for APS/PAPS biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bohrer, Anne-Sophie; Kopriva, Stanislav; Takahashi, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Plants assimilate sulfate from the environment to synthesize biologically active sulfur-containing compounds required for growth and cellular development. The primary steps of sulfur metabolism involve sequential enzymatic reactions synthesizing adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS) and 3′-phosphoadenosine 5’-phosphosulfate (PAPS). Recent finding suggests that an adenosine nucleotide transport system facilitating the exchange of PAPS and 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate across the plastid envelope is essential for establishing an intimate connection between the plastidic and cytosolic sulfate assimilation pathways in plants. Subcellular partitioning and integration of metabolic pathways provide focal points for investigating metabolic flux regulations. This perspective article presents an integrative view of sulfur metabolic flux control mechanisms with an emphasis on subcellular partitioning of APS/PAPS biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25657651

  20. Stokes IQUV magnetic Doppler imaging of Ap stars - I. ESPaDOnS and NARVAL observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvester, J.; Wade, G. A.; Kochukhov, O.; Bagnulo, S.; Folsom, C. P.; Hanes, D.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we describe and evaluate new spectral line polarization observations obtained with the goal of mapping the surfaces of magnetic Ap stars in great detail. One hundred complete or partial Stokes IQUV sequences, corresponding to 297 individual polarized spectra, have been obtained for seven bright Ap stars using the Échelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for the Observation of Stars (ESPaDOnS) and NARVAL high-resolution spectropolarimeters. The targets span a range of masses from approximately 1.8 to 3.4 M⊙, a range of rotation periods from 2.56 to 6.80 d and a range of maximum longitudinal magnetic field strengths from 0.3 to over 4 kG. For three of the seven stars, we have obtained dense phase coverage sampling the entire rotational cycle. These data sets are suitable for immediate magnetic and chemical abundance surface mapping using magnetic Doppler imaging. For the remaining four stars, partial phase coverage has been obtained, and additional observations will be required in order to map the surfaces of these stars. The median signal-to-noise ratio of the reduced observations is over 700 per 1.8 km s-1 pixel. Spectra of all stars show Stokes V Zeeman signatures in essentially all individual lines, and most stars show clear Stokes QU signatures in many individual spectral lines. The observations provide a vastly improved data set compared to previous generations of observations in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, resolving power and measurement uncertainties. Measurement of the longitudinal magnetic field demonstrates that the data are internally consistent within computed uncertainties typically at the 50-100σ level. Data are also shown to be in excellent agreement with published observations and in qualitative agreement with the predictions of published surface structure models. In addition to providing the foundation for the next generation of surface maps of Ap stars, this study establishes the performance and stability of the ESPaDOnS and NARVAL high-resolution spectropolarimeters during the period 2006-2010. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France and the University of Hawaii. Also based on observations obtained at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL, Pic du Midi, France) of the Midi-Pyrénées Observatory, which is operated by the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France.

  1. AP17 and AP19, the mammalian small chains of the clathrin-associated protein complexes show homology to Yap17p, their putative homolog in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kirchhausen, T; Davis, A C; Frucht, S; Greco, B O; Payne, G S; Tubb, B

    1991-06-15

    AP17 and AP19 are the smallest polypeptide chain components of AP-2 and AP-1, the clathrin-associated protein complexes found in coated structures of the plasma membrane and Golgi apparatus of mammalian cells. cDNA clones representing the entire coding sequence of AP17 and AP19 were isolated from rat and mouse brain cDNA libraries, respectively. Determination of their nucleotide sequence predicts proteins of 142 and 158 amino acids with Mr 17,018 and 18,733. A sequence comparison of rat brain AP17 with mouse brain AP19 demonstrates that the small chains are highly related. A computer search for other related proteins has uncovered in yeast a previously unknown gene whose DNA sequence encodes a protein homologous to the small chain of AP complexes. The yeast sequence predicts Yap17p, a protein with 147 amino acids and a Mr of 17,373 that is slightly more related to the mammalian AP17 chain than to its AP19 counterpart. PMID:2040623

  2. Nucleolin binds specifically to an AP-1 DNA sequence and represses AP1-dependent transactivation of the matrix metalloproteinase-13 gene.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Shaija; Twizere, Jean-Claude; Beifuss, Katherine K; Bernstein, Lori R

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation via activator protein-1 (AP-1) protein binding to AP-1 binding sites within gene promoter regions of AP-1 target genes plays a key role in controlling cellular invasion, proliferation, and oncogenesis, and is important to pathogenesis of arthritis and cardiovascular disease. To identify new proteins that interact with the AP-1 DNA binding site, we performed the DNA affinity chromatography-based Nucleotide Affinity Preincubation Specificity TEst of Recognition (NAPSTER) assay, and discovered a 97 kDa protein that binds in vitro to a minimal AP-1 DNA sequence element. Mass spectrometric fragmentation sequencing determined that p97 is nucleolin. Immunoblotting of DNA affinity-purified material with anti-nucleolin antibodies confirmed this identification. Nucleolin also binds the AP-1 site in gel shift assays. Nucleolin interacts in NAPSTER with the AP-1 site within the promoter sequence of the metalloproteinase-13 gene (MMP-13), and binds in vivo in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in the vicinity of the AP-1 site in the MMP-13 promoter. Overexpression of nucleolin in human HeLa cervical carcinoma cells significantly represses AP-1 dependent gene transactivation of a minimal AP-1 reporter construct and of an MMP-13 promoter reporter sequence. This is the first report of nucleolin binding and transregulation at the AP-1 site. PMID:17626252

  3. The 50 kDa protein subunit of assembly polypeptide (AP) AP-2 adaptor from clathrin-coated vesicles is phosphorylated on threonine-156 by AP-1 and a soluble AP50 kinase which co-purifies with the assembly polypeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Pauloin, A; Thurieau, C

    1993-01-01

    AP50 is a subunit of the assembly polypeptide (AP) subclass AP-2 from bovine brain coated vesicles. It can be phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro on a threonine residue by means of the AP50 kinase activity associated with AP. We have undertaken an analysis of the amino acid sequence around the AP50 phosphorylation site. After phosphorylation in vitro of AP50 followed by tryptic cleavage, only one radioactive peptide was isolated following Mono-Q ion-exchange f.p.l.c. and reverse-phase h.p.l.c. The amino acid sequence of this peptide: Glu146-Glu-Gln-Ser-Gln-Ile-Thr-Ser-Gln-Val-Thr*-Gly-Gly-Ile-Gly-Tr p-Arg162, displayed two threonine residues. Analysis of the yield and radioactivity of the product from automated Edman degradation indicated that only Thr-156 was phosphorylated, reflecting the presence of a single phosphorylation site in AP50. AP phosphorylated the corresponding synthetic peptide on the same threonyl residue. We demonstrated that AP50 was a phosphorylation substrate unable to autophosphorylate. The enzyme involved in the AP50 phosphorylation was shown to be associated with AP-1 and with a soluble protein complex co-purified with APs but resolved from the latter by hydroxyapatite-column exclusion chromatography. This AP50 kinase activity corresponded to a 280 kDa protein complex according to gel-filtration data. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8257432

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] lines (Ruffoni+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    The Ritz wavelengths of the parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] lines reported here were calculated, respectively, from the accurate Co II energy levels reported by Pickering et al. (1998ApJS..117..261P) and the revised accurate V II energy levels measured by Thorne et al. (2013, Cat. J/ApJS/207/13). (4 data files).

  5. Copper corrosion & clogging in APS deionized water cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Bijaya

    An extensive amount of work has been performed on copper corrosion in last century due to its abundant use in domestic and industrial water systems. However, work on copper corrosion in deionized water is very limited. The water cooling system of Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory uses deionized water containing very low dissolved oxygen (less than 10 ppb). Therefore, It is expected that copper corrosion would be less in this system. On the contrary, APS suffers significant clogging in its water cooling circuit resulting from the deposition of corrosion product and carries out frequent expensive maintenance to retain the required flow rate. The location of pH and corrosion potential of APS water cooling system is very close to the boundary condition of the two oxides (CuO and Cu 2O) of the Pourbaix diagram of copper. While a single phase presence of either of these two oxides is stable as a protective layer, a mixture of the two oxides is unstable. An unstable protective layer results in spalling of the oxide layer. A fluctuation in water chemistry (which is common in an industrial facility) triggers a phase transformation between these two oxides due to its near boundary values. It was observed that the location of pH and corrosion potential was away from the boundaries in high dissolved oxygen condition (more than 2000 ppm). Hence, the possibility of phase transformation becomes lesser in high dissolved oxygen condition than in low dissolved oxygen condition. A test station, that was a replica of the APS water cooling system, was used to perform experiments in both high and low oxygen condition. It was demonstrated that high oxygen condition results in less clogging than in low oxygen condition. Microstructural characterization was performed on the coupons from test station and on some components from APS to evaluate oxide surface and determine phases. Mechanism of the phase transformation was suggested.

  6. Analysis of N-16 concentration in primary cooling system of AP1000 power reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the primary reactor system. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant system during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on 16O(n,p)16N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (primary coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor system. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, primary pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.

  7. Analysis of N-16 concentration in primary cooling system of AP1000 power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul

    2015-04-16

    Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the primary reactor system. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant system during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (primary coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor system. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, primary pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.

  8. KIC 7582608: a new Kepler roAp star with frequency variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, D. L.; Smalley, B.; Kurtz, D. W.; Southworth, J.; Cunha, M. S.; Clubb, K. I.

    2015-09-01

    We analyse the fifth roAp star reported in the Kepler field, KIC 7582608, discovered with the SuperWASP project. The object shows a high frequency pulsation at 181.7324d-1 (P = 7.9 min) with an amplitude of 1.45 mmag, and low frequency rotational modulation corresponding to a period of 20.4339 d. Spectral analysis confirms the Ap nature of the target, with characteristic lines of rare earth elements present. From our spectral observations we derive a lower limit on the mean magnetic field modulus of =3.05 ± 0.23 kG. Long Cadence Kepler observations show a frequency quintuplet split by the rotational period of the star, typical for an oblique pulsator. We suggest the star is a quadrupole pulsator with a geometry such that i ~ 66° and β ~ 33°. We detect frequency variations of the pulsation in both the WASP and Kepler data sets on many time scales. Linear, non-adiabatic stability modelling allows us to constrain a region on the HR diagram where the pulsations are unstable, an area consistent with observations.

  9. The AP2-Like Gene OitaAP2 Is Alternatively Spliced and Differentially Expressed in Inflorescence and Vegetative Tissues of the Orchid Orchis italica

    PubMed Central

    Salemme, Marinella; Sica, Maria; Iazzetti, Giovanni; Gaudio, Luciano; Aceto, Serena

    2013-01-01

    The AP2/ERF proteins are plant-specific transcription factors involved in multiple regulatory pathways, from plant organ development to response to various environmental stresses. One of the mechanisms that regulates the AP2-like genes involves the microRNA miR172, which controls their activity at the post-transcriptional level. Extensive studies on AP2-like genes are available in many different species; however, in orchids, one of the largest plant families, studies are restricted to a few species, all belonging to the Epidendroideae subfamily. In the present study, we report the isolation of an AP2-like gene in the Mediterranean orchid Orchis italica (Orchidoideae). The OitaAP2 locus includes 10 exons and 9 introns, and its transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in the long OitaAP2 and the short OitaAP2_ISO isoforms, with the latter skipping exon 9. Both isoforms contain the conserved target site for miR172, whose action is demonstrated by the presence of cleaved OitaAP2 mRNA. The OitaAP2 and OitaAP2_ISO mRNAs are present in the tepals and lip before and after anthesis at different expression levels. In addition, the OitaAP2_ISO isoform is expressed in the ovary before pollination and in the root and stem. The isoform-specific expression pattern suggests a functional differentiation of the OitaAP2 alternatively spliced transcripts. The expression profile of miR172 is complementary to that of the OitaAP2 isoforms in inflorescence tissues before anthesis, whereas after anthesis and in ovary tissue before and after pollination, this relationship disappears, suggesting the existence of OitaAP2 inhibitory mechanisms in these tissues that differ from that involving miR172. PMID:24204832

  10. Molecular and biochemical characterisation of two aspartic proteinases TcAP1 and TcAP2 from Theobroma cacao seeds.

    PubMed

    Laloi, Maryse; McCarthy, James; Morandi, Olivia; Gysler, Christof; Bucheli, Peter

    2002-09-01

    Aspartic proteinase (EC 3.4.23) activity plays a pivotal role in the degradation of Theobroma cacao L. seed proteins during the fermentation step of cacao bean processing. Therefore, this enzyme is believed to be critical for the formation of the peptide and amino acid cocoa flavor precursors that occurs during fermentation. Using cDNA cloning and northern blot analysis, we show here that there are at least two distinct aspartic proteinase genes ( TcAP1 and TcAP2) expressed during cacao seed development. Both genes are expressed early during seed development and their mRNA levels decrease towards the end of seed maturation. TcAP2 is expressed at a much higher level than TcAP1, although the expression of TcAP1 increases slightly during germination. The proteins encoded by TcAP1 and TcAP2 are relatively different from each other (73% identity). This, and the fact that the two corresponding genes have different expression patterns, suggests that the TcAP1 and TcAP2 proteins may have different functions in the maturing seeds and during germination. Because the TcAP2 gene is expressed at a much higher level during seed development than TcAP1, it is likely that the TcAP2 protein is primarily responsible for the majority of the industrially important protein hydrolysis that occurs during cacao bean fermentation. Finally, TcAP2 has been functionally expressed in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The secreted recombinant protein is able to hydrolyse bovine haemoglobin at acidic pH and is sensitive to pepstatin A, confirming that TcAP2 encodes an aspartic proteinase, and strongly suggests that this gene encodes the well-characterized aspartic proteinase of mature cacao seeds. PMID:12244440

  11. CARMA1- and MyD88-dependent activation of Jun/ATF-type AP-1 complexes is a hallmark of ABC diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Juilland, Mélanie; Gonzalez, Montserrat; Erdmann, Tabea; Banz, Yara; Jevnikar, Zala; Hailfinger, Stephan; Tzankov, Alexandar; Grau, Michael; Lenz, Georg; Novak, Urban; Thome, Margot

    2016-04-01

    A hallmark of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the activated B-cell (ABC) type, a molecular subtype characterized by adverse outcome, is constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which controls expression of genes promoting cellular survival and proliferation. Much less, however, is known about the role of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) in ABC DLBCL. Here, we show that AP-1, like NF-κB, was controlled by constitutive activation of the B-cell receptor signaling component caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase 1 (CARMA1) and/or the Toll-like receptor signaling component myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in ABC DLBCL cell lines. In contrast to germinal center (GC) B-cell (GCB) DLBCL, ABC DLBCL cell lines expressed high levels of the AP-1 family members c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, which formed heterodimeric complexes with the AP-1 family members activating transcription factor (ATF) 2, ATF3, and ATF7. Inhibition of these complexes by a dominant-negative approach led to impaired growth of a majority of ABC DLBCL cell lines. Individual silencing of c-Jun, ATF2, or ATF3 decreased cellular survival and revealed c-Jun/ATF2-dependent control of ATF3 expression. As a consequence, ATF3 expression was much higher in ABC vs GCB DLBCL cell lines. Samples derived from DLBCL patients showed a clear trend toward high and nuclear ATF3 expression in nodal DLBCL of the non-GC or ABC subtype. These findings identify the activation of AP-1 complexes of the Jun/ATF-type as an important element controlling the growth of ABC DLBCL. PMID:26747248

  12. CARMA1- and MyD88-dependent activation of Jun/ATF-type AP-1 complexes is a hallmark of ABC diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Juilland, Mélanie; Gonzalez, Montserrat; Erdmann, Tabea; Banz, Yara; Jevnikar, Zala; Hailfinger, Stephan; Tzankov, Alexandar; Grau, Michael; Lenz, Georg; Novak, Urban

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the activated B-cell (ABC) type, a molecular subtype characterized by adverse outcome, is constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor–κB (NF-κB), which controls expression of genes promoting cellular survival and proliferation. Much less, however, is known about the role of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) in ABC DLBCL. Here, we show that AP-1, like NF-κB, was controlled by constitutive activation of the B-cell receptor signaling component caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase 1 (CARMA1) and/or the Toll-like receptor signaling component myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in ABC DLBCL cell lines. In contrast to germinal center (GC) B-cell (GCB) DLBCL, ABC DLBCL cell lines expressed high levels of the AP-1 family members c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, which formed heterodimeric complexes with the AP-1 family members activating transcription factor (ATF) 2, ATF3, and ATF7. Inhibition of these complexes by a dominant-negative approach led to impaired growth of a majority of ABC DLBCL cell lines. Individual silencing of c-Jun, ATF2, or ATF3 decreased cellular survival and revealed c-Jun/ATF2-dependent control of ATF3 expression. As a consequence, ATF3 expression was much higher in ABC vs GCB DLBCL cell lines. Samples derived from DLBCL patients showed a clear trend toward high and nuclear ATF3 expression in nodal DLBCL of the non-GC or ABC subtype. These findings identify the activation of AP-1 complexes of the Jun/ATF-type as an important element controlling the growth of ABC DLBCL. PMID:26747248

  13. Correlates of Texas Standard AP Charter Campuses and How They Compare with Standard AP Traditional Public Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Jason Diego

    2009-01-01

    The research sought to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of Texas standard AP open-enrollment charter school campuses and to discover independent variables that may be utilized to predict effective charter school campuses. The data items used in the analyses were downloaded from the 2007-2008 Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS), which…

  14. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantier, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

  15. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection of a resistant tomato line with a silenced sucrose transporter gene LeHT1 results in inhibition of growth, enhanced virus spread, and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Eybishtz, Assaf; Peretz, Yuval; Sade, Dagan; Gorovits, Rena; Czosnek, Henryk

    2010-02-01

    To identify genes involved in resistance of tomato to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), cDNA libraries from lines resistant (R) and susceptible (S) to the virus were compared. The hexose transporter LeHT1 was found to be expressed preferentially in R tomato plants. The role of LeHT1 in the establishment of TYLCV resistance was studied in R plants where LeHT1 has been silenced using Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (TRV VIGS). Following TYLCV inoculation, LeHT1-silenced R plants showed inhibition of growth and enhanced virus accumulation and spread. In addition, a necrotic response was observed along the stem and petioles of infected LeHT1-silenced R plants, but not on infected not-silenced R plants. This response was specific of R plants since it was absent in infected LeHT1-silenced S plants. Necrosis had several characteristics of programmed cell death (PCD): DNA from necrotic tissues presented a PCD-characteristic ladder pattern, the amount of a JNK analogue increased, and production of reactive oxygen was identified by DAB staining. A similar necrotic reaction along stem and petioles was observed in LeHT1-silenced R plants infected with the DNA virus Bean dwarf mosaic virus and the RNA viruses Cucumber mosaic virus and Tobacco mosaic virus. These results constitute the first evidence for a necrotic response backing natural resistance to TYLCV in tomato, confirming that plant defense is organized in multiple layers. They demonstrate that the hexose transporter LeHT1 is essential for the expression of natural resistance against TYLCV and its expression correlates with inhibition of virus replication and movement. PMID:19946703

  16. AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    O’Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, III, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim

    2010-09-07

    Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABL{sup T315I} mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and preclinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multitargeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABL{sup T315I}-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML.

  17. Beau's Lines

    MedlinePlus

    ... run parallel to the shape of the white, moon-shaped portion of the nail bed (lunula) seen ... much time has elapsed since the line was formed. Because fingernails grow at a rate of approximately ...

  18. 49 CFR 1152.31 - Revenue and income attributable to branch lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Revenue and income attributable to branch lines. 1152.31 Section 1152.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ABANDONMENT AND DISCONTINUANCE OF RAIL LINES AND RAIL TRANSPORTATION UNDER...

  19. 49 CFR 1152.31 - Revenue and income attributable to branch lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revenue and income attributable to branch lines. 1152.31 Section 1152.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ABANDONMENT AND DISCONTINUANCE OF RAIL LINES AND RAIL TRANSPORTATION UNDER...

  20. Iodine Volatility and pH Control in the AP-600 Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.

    1998-10-01

    Two design-basis accidents for the AP-600 reactor are formulated and evaluate~ in which significant bypass of the principal pH control system occurs. Some iodine released from the reactor primary system is retained in the Incontainment Refaeling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) water, never entering the containment where trisodium phosphate produces a high pH. Some of this iodine is volatilized and is transported into the reactor containment airspace. in the worst case, a small fraction is released to the environment at design-basis leak rate, yielding a total cumulative iodine release at 30 days of 0.0352 mol (0.023% of core iodine inventory) due to the iodine volatilization bypassing the pH control system. No fission product removal in the containment atmosphere (i.e., natural deposition sprays) is considered.