Sample records for aps transport lines

  1. The APS transfer line from linac to injector synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Koul, R.K.; Crosbie, E.

    1991-03-01

    This note describes the low-energy-transfer-line designed for the APS. The low energy transfer line constitutes two transport lines. One of these lines runs from linac to the positron accumulator ring, also called ``PAR``, and is 23.7138 m long. The second part of the low energy transport line runs from the ``PAR`` to the injector synchrtoron and is about 30.919 m long. The above length includes two quadrupoles, a bend magnet and a septum magnet in the injector synchrotron.

  2. Basolateral sorting of the Mg²? transporter CNNM4 requires interaction with AP-1A and AP-1B.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yusuke; Funato, Yosuke; Miki, Hiroaki

    2014-12-12

    Ancient conserved domain protein/cyclin M (CNNM) 4 is an evolutionarily conserved Mg(2+) transporter that localizes at the basolateral membrane of the intestinal epithelia. Here, we show the complementary importance of clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1A and AP-1B in basolateral sorting of CNNM4. We first confirmed the basolateral localization of both endogenous and ectopically expressed CNNM4 in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells, which form highly polarized epithelia in culture. Single knockdown of ?1B, a cargo-recognition subunit of AP-1B, did not affect basolateral localization, but simultaneous knockdown of the ?1A subunit of AP-1A abrogated localization. Mutational analyses showed the importance of three conserved dileucine motifs in CNNM4 for both basolateral sorting and interaction with ?1A and ?1B. These results imply that CNNM4 is sorted to the basolateral membrane by the complementary function of AP-1A and AP-1B. PMID:25449265

  3. Discovery of 17 new sharp-lined Ap stars with magnetically resolved lines

    E-print Network

    L. M. Freyhammer; V. G. Elkin; D. W. Kurtz; G. Mathys; P. Martinez

    2008-06-17

    Chemically peculiar A stars (Ap) are extreme examples of the interaction of atomic element diffusion processes with magnetic fields in stellar atmospheres. The rapidly oscillating Ap stars provide a means for studying these processes in 3D and are at the same time important for studying the pulsation excitation mechanism in A stars. As part of the first comprehensive, uniform, high resolution spectroscopic survey of Ap stars, which we are conducting in the southern hemisphere with the Michigan Spectral Catalogues as the basis of target selection, we report here the discovery of 17 new magnetic Ap stars having spectroscopically resolved Zeeman components from which we derive magnetic field moduli in the range 3 - 30 kG. Among these are 1) the current second-strongest known magnetic A star, 2) a double-lined Ap binary with a magnetic component and 3) an A star with particularly peculiar and variable abundances. Polarimetry of these stars is needed to constrain their field geometries and to determine their rotation periods. We have also obtained an additional measurement of the magnetic field of the Ap star HD 92499.

  4. Aerosol penetration through transport lines

    E-print Network

    Dileep, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    ) at its facilities. Under the ARM, losses of aerosol particles in the transport lines must be evaluated LISillcy the DEPOSITION software. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Comission [sic] also states DEPOSITION code as an alternative method to evaluate losses...

  5. Accepted for publication in ApJ Emission Line Variability of the Accreting Young Brown Dwarf

    E-print Network

    Accepted for publication in ApJ Emission Line Variability of the Accreting Young Brown Dwarf 2MASSW­resolution optical spectra were obtained months apart at the Magellan Clay telescope using the MIKE instrument. Com accretion suppresses magnetic activity in brown dwarfs, similar to the findings for higher mass T Tauri

  6. Optical observations of the broad-lined type Ic supernova SN 2012ap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Xu-Lin; Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Chen, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The optical observations of the type Ic supernova (SN Ic) SN 2012ap in NGC 1729 are presented. A comparison with other SNe Ic indicates that SN 2012ap is highly reddened (with E(B — V)host~0.8 mag) and may represent one of the most luminous SNe Ic ever observed, with an absolute V-band peak magnitude of ~ ?19.3±0.5 mag after extinction correction. The near-maximum-light spectrum shows wide spectral features that are typical of broad-lined SNe Ic. One interesting feature in the spectrum is the appearance of some narrow absorption features that can be attributed to the diffuse interstellar bands, consistent with the large reddening inferred from the photometric method. Based on the light curves and the spectral data, we estimate that SN 2012ap produced a 56Ni mass of ~ 0.3 ± 0.1Msolar 1 in the explosion, with an ejecta mass of 2.4?0.7+0.7Msolar and a kinetic energy of EK = 1.1?0.4+0.4 × 1052 erg. The properties of its progenitor are also briefly discussed.

  7. Beam chopper For the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) in the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.; Wang, J.; Milton, S.; Teng, L. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) is being built and will be tested with a short beam pulse from an rf gun in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory. In the LEUTL a beam chopper is used after the rf gun to deflect the unwanted beam to a beam dump. The beam chopper consists of a permanent magnet and an electric deflector that can compensate for the magnetic deflection. A 30-kV pulsed power supply is used for the electric deflector. The chopper subsystem was assembled and tested for beamline installation. The electrical and beam properties of the chopper assembly are presented.

  8. NSLS-II Transport Line Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

    2012-05-20

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

  9. Effects of Escherichia coli challenge and transport stress on hematology and serum chemistry values of three genetic lines of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; Anthony, N B; Nestor, K E

    2008-11-01

    Three lines of turkeys were compared for response to an Escherichia coli challenge followed by transport stress (transport). The turkey lines were a slow-growing line selected for increased egg production (egg line), a fast-growing line selected for increased 16-wk BW (F line), and a commercial line (Comm line). Birds were challenged at 14 wk of age with an air sac injection of 5,000 to 10,000 cfu of E. coli. At 8 d postchallenge, birds were subjected to a transport stress procedure that included 12 h of holding time in a transport vehicle. The following morning all birds (n = 10 to 19 birds/line) were bled. Whole blood was analyzed using the Cell-Dyn 3500 blood analysis system (Abbott Diagnostics), and serum chemistry was measured using the Express Plus analyzer (Ciba-Corning Diagnostics Corp.). Transport significantly decreased the levels of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphorus, iron, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase (AP) and increased the levels of uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase. Line differences were variable, but the levels of both iron and AP were least in the fastest-growing Comm line birds and greatest in the slowest-growing egg-line birds with intermediate values in the F line. Iron and AP were also the only parameters influenced by sex, with males having greater levels of both compared with females. The creatine kinase levels were more than 6-fold greater in transported Comm line birds, and iron levels of transported Comm males were 3-fold less than controls. Previously, the growth rate of these lines was positively correlated with increased heterophil to lymphocyte ratios and susceptibility to colibacillosis. The differences seen in the Comm line for these commonly measured blood parameters suggest that they may be useful for profiling flocks to determine their response to transport stress and feed withdrawal. PMID:18931173

  10. Non-LTE line formation for Pr II and Pr III in A and Ap stars

    E-print Network

    L. Mashonkina; T. Ryabchikova; A. Ryabtsev; R. Kildiyarova

    2008-11-21

    Non-LTE line formation for Pr II and Pr III is considered through a range of effective temperatures between 7250 K and 9500 K. A comprehensive model atom for Pr II/III is based on the measured and the predicted energy levels, in total, 6708 levels of Pr II and Pr III. We describe calculations of the Pr II energy levels and oscillator strengths for the transitions in Pr II and Pr III. The influence of departures from LTE on Pr abundance determinations is evaluated. At Teff >= 8000 K departures from LTE lead to overionization of Pr II and to systematically depleted total absorption in the line and positive abundance corrections. At the lower temperatures, different lines of Pr II may be either weakened or amplified depending on the line strength. The non-LTE effects strengthen the Pr III lines and lead to negative abundance corrections. Non-LTE corrections grow with effective temperature for the Pr II lines, and, in contrast, they decline for the Pr III lines. The Pr II/III model atom is applied to determine the Pr abundance in the atmosphere of the roAp star HD 24712 from the lines of two ionization stages. In the chemically uniform atmosphere with [Pr/H] = 3, the departures from LTE may explain only small part (0.3 dex) of the difference between the LTE abundances derived from the Pr II and Pr III lines (2 dex). We find that the lines of both ionization stages are described for the vertical distribution of the praseodymium where the Pr enriched layer with [Pr/H] > 4 exists in the outer atmosphere at log tau_5000 < -4. The departures from LTE for Pr II/III are strong in the stratified atmosphere and have the opposite sign for the Pr II and Pr III lines. Using the revised partition function of Pr II and experimental transition probabilities, we determine the solar non-LTE abundance of Pr as log (Pr/H) = -11.15\\pm0.08.

  11. BEAM TRANSPORT LINES FOR THE BSNS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    This paper presents the design of two beam transport lines at the BSNS: one is the injection line from the Linac to the RCS and the other is the target line from the RCS to the target station. In the injection beam line, space charge effects, transverse halo collimation, momentum tail collimation and debunching are the main concerned topics. A new method of using triplet cells and stripping foils is used to collimate transverse halo. A long straight section is reserved for the future upgrading linac and debuncher. In the target beam line, large halo emittance, beam stability at the target due to kicker failures and beam jitters, shielding of back-scattering neutrons from the target are main concerned topics. Special bi-gap magnets will be used to reduce beam losses in the collimators in front of the target.

  12. Intracellular transport of MHC class II and associated invariant chain in antigen presenting cells from AP-3-deficient mocha mice.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, L M; Richter, S S; Miller, J

    2001-06-15

    MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation requires trafficking of newly synthesized class II-invariant chain complexes from the trans-Golgi network to endosomal, peptide-loading compartments. This transport is mediated by dileucine-like motifs within the cytosolic tail of the invariant chain. Although these signals have been well characterized, the cytosolic proteins that interact with these dileucine signals and mediate Golgi sorting and endosomal transport have not been identified. Recently, an adaptor complex, AP-3, has been identified that interacts with dileucine motifs and mediates endosomal/lysosomal transport in yeast, Drosophila, and mammals. In this report, we have assessed class II-invariant chain trafficking in a strain of mice (mocha) which lacks expression of AP-3. Our studies demonstrate that the lack of AP-3 does not affect the kinetics of invariant chain degradation, the route of class II-invariant chain transport, or the rate and extent of class II-peptide binding as assessed by the generation of SDS-stable dimers. The possible role of other known or unknown adaptor complexes in class II-invariant chain transport is discussed. PMID:11520080

  13. [AP7157]019010PRA Absolute measurement of the resonance lines in heliumlike vanadium on an electron-beam ion trap

    E-print Network

    Chantler, Christopher T.

    PROOF COPY [AP7157]019010PRA Absolute measurement of the resonance lines in heliumlike vanadium measurements of the energies of resonance lines in heliumlike vanadium on an electron-beam ion trap at an absolute precision measurement of heliumlike resonance lines in vanadium (Z 23) to investi- gate

  14. Beam Dynamics Studies in the RACE Project: MH1 transport line --low power regime operation-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidana, Carlos; Hunt, Alan; Beller, Denis

    2007-05-01

    As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical nuclear system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible divergence problem) the MH1 transport line was designed. Beam dynamics studies followed the beam optics ones and we present in this paper the first results of such studies. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.C1.8

  15. Calibrating transport lines using LOCO techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yves Roblin

    2011-09-01

    With the 12GeV upgrade underway at CEBAF, there is a need to re-characterize the beamlines after the modifications made to it to accommodate running at higher energies. We present a linear perturbation approach to calibrating the optics model of transport lines. This method is adapted from the LOCO method in use for storage rings. We consider the effect of quadrupole errors, dipole construction errors as well as beam position monitors and correctors calibrations. The ideal model is expanded to first order in Taylor series of the quadrupole errors. A set of difference orbits obtained by exciting the correctors along the beamline is taken, yielding the measured response matrix. An iterative procedure is invoked and the quadrupole errors as well as beam position monitors and corrector calibration factors are obtained. Here we present details of the method and results of first measurements at CEBAF in early 2011.

  16. Acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line AP1060 established as a cytokine-dependent culture from a patient clinically resistant to all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Sun; S H Kim; D-C Zhou; W Ding; E Paietta; F Guidez; A Zelent; K H Ramesh; L Cannizzaro; R P Warrell; R E Gallagher

    2004-01-01

    AP-1060 is a newly established acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line from a multiple-relapse patient clinically resistant to both all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). The line was initially derived as a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-dependent strain that underwent replicative senescence and, following ethylnitrosourea treatment, as a phenotypically similar immortalized line. Immortalization was associated with broadened cytokine sensitivity but

  17. Interaction between the Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova 2012ap and Carriers of Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Sanders, Nathan E.; Drout, Maria R.; Kamble, Atish; Chakraborti, Sayan; Pickering, Timothy E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Mazzali, Paolo; Maeda, Keiichi; Marion, G. H. Howie; Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2014-02-01

    Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption features observed in optical and near-infrared spectra that are thought to be associated with carbon-rich polyatomic molecules in interstellar gas. However, because the central wavelengths of these bands do not correspond to electronic transitions of any known atomic or molecular species, their nature has remained uncertain since their discovery almost a century ago. Here we report on unusually strong DIBs in optical spectra of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN 2012ap that exhibit changes in equivalent width over short (lsim 30 days) timescales. The 4428 Å and 6283 Å DIB features get weaker with time, whereas the 5780 Å feature shows a marginal increase. These nonuniform changes suggest that the supernova is interacting with a nearby source of DIBs and that the DIB carriers possess high ionization potentials, such as small cations or charged fullerenes. We conclude that moderate-resolution spectra of supernovae with DIB absorptions obtained within weeks of outburst could reveal unique information about the mass-loss environment of their progenitor systems and provide new constraints on the properties of DIB carriers.

  18. Performance of Acoustic Charge Transport Programmable Tapped Delay Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Guediri; R. L. Martin; B. J. Hunsinger; F. M. Fliegel

    1987-01-01

    An Acoustic Charge Transport (ACT) based Programmable Tapped Delay Line (PTDL) with monolithic tap weight control circuitry has been designed and developed. The ACT device is a new type of high frequency monolithic charge transfer device (CTD), where carriers are gathered by and transported within the traveling wave electric field of a powerful Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW), propagating in a

  19. TRANSPORT OF WASTE SIMULANTS IN PJM VENT LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Z

    2007-02-21

    The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.

  20. Golgi-Dependent Transport of Vacuolar Sorting Receptors Is Regulated by COPII, AP1, and AP4 Protein Complexes in Tobacco[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gershlick, David C.; de Marcos Lousa, Carine; Foresti, Ombretta; Lee, Andrew J.; Pereira, Estela A.; daSilva, Luis L.P.; Bottanelli, Francesca; Denecke, Jurgen

    2014-01-01

    The cycling of vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs) between early and late secretory pathway compartments is regulated by signals in the cytosolic tail, but the exact pathway is controversial. Here, we show that receptor targeting in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) initially involves a canonical coat protein complex II–dependent endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi bulk flow route and that VSR–ligand interactions in the cis-Golgi play an important role in vacuolar sorting. We also show that a conserved Glu is required but not sufficient for rate-limiting YXX?-mediated receptor trafficking. Protein–protein interaction studies show that the VSR tail interacts with the ?-subunits of plant or mammalian clathrin adaptor complex AP1 and plant AP4 but not that of plant and mammalian AP2. Mutants causing a detour of full-length receptors via the cell surface invariantly cause the secretion of VSR ligands. Therefore, we propose that cycling via the plasma membrane is unlikely to play a role in biosynthetic vacuolar sorting under normal physiological conditions and that the conserved Ile-Met motif is mainly used to recover mistargeted receptors. This occurs via a fundamentally different pathway from the prevacuolar compartment that does not mediate recycling. The role of clathrin and clathrin-independent pathways in vacuolar targeting is discussed. PMID:24642936

  1. Earthquake Early Warning Systems for Transportation Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, F.; Titzschkau, T.; Hilbring, D.; Bonn, G.; Buchmann, A.; Hohnecker, E.

    2009-12-01

    We analyze the potential of earthquake early warning for railway systems. With the rapid availability of earthquake parameters emergency measures before the strong-motion phase can be initiated. A flexible standard-based architecture is specified in EWS Transport to ensure future reusability of the design. The principle of functionality has been realized in an online demonstrator (http://ews-transport.iitb.fraunhofer.de). The federal state of Baden-Württemberg (BW), located in the south-west of Germany, serves as test area because of the availability of GIS railway data, knowledge of the railway operational system and information on the local geology. Different earthquake and sensor network scenarios are considered for implementing a large number of low-cost sensors in or near railway tracks. Earthquake parameters are extracted from the sensor network via artificial neural net technology. Estimates of magnitude, hypocenter and peak ground acceleration (PGA) are computed as soon as one station is triggered and are continuously updated using the incoming information from all triggered and not yet triggered stations. Alert maps displaying estimated PGA values are provided rapidly during the ongoing earthquake. Closed and speed reduced track segments for which the estimated PGA exceeds thresholds above which train operation must be considered unsafe are displayed instantly. Immediately after an event, shake maps based on the PGA values determined from the actual seismograms of each station are available for damage projection based on a damage catalogue, which contains various infrastructure elements together with their seismically relevant attributes.The EWS Transport information system is designed according to the principles of an open architecture with standard-based interfaces of system components. These interfaces ensure the flexible and easy exchange of components. The architecture document is set-up according to the ISO “Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing”. The architecture takes into account the standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), especially those of the Sensor Web Enablement Group (Sensor Observation Service, Observation & Measurement Model). OGC standard services used in this workflow include Sensor Observation Service, Web Processing Service, Web Feature Service and Web Mapping Service. The results are visualized online in a Web mapping client where the different result layers (alert, hazard, shake, damage map) can be analyzed together with base layers (sensor stations, railway tracks, topography).

  2. Mutation in AP-3 delta in the mocha mouse links endosomal transport to storage deficiency in platelets, melanosomes, and synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kantheti, P; Qiao, X; Diaz, M E; Peden, A A; Meyer, G E; Carskadon, S L; Kapfhamer, D; Sufalko, D; Robinson, M S; Noebels, J L; Burmeister, M

    1998-07-01

    The mouse mutant mocha, a model for the Hermansky-Pudlak storage pool deficiency syndrome, is characterized by defective platelets, coat and eye color dilution, lysosomal abnormalities, inner ear degeneration, and neurological deficits. Here, we show that mocha is a null allele of the delta subunit of the adaptor-like protein complex AP-3, which is associated with coated vesicles budding from the trans-Golgi network, and that AP-3 is missing in mocha tissues. In mocha brain, the ZnT-3 transporter is reduced, resulting in a lack of zinc-associated Timm historeactivity in hippocampal mossy fibers. Our results demonstrate that the AP-3 complex is responsible for cargo selection to lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes and platelet dense granules as well as to neurotransmitter vesicles. PMID:9697856

  3. Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

  4. Design of the SLC damping ring to linac transport lines

    SciTech Connect

    Fieguth, T.H.; Murray, J.J.

    1983-07-01

    The first and second order optics for the damping ring to linac transport line are designed to preserve the damped transverse emittance while simultaneously compressing the bunch length of the beam to that length required for reinjection into the linac. This design, including provisions for future control of beam polarization, is described.

  5. Polarized sorting of the copper transporter ATP7B in neurons mediated by recognition of a dileucine signal by AP-1

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shweta; Farías, Ginny G.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons are highly polarized cells having distinct somatodendritic and axonal domains. Here we report that polarized sorting of the Cu2+ transporter ATP7B and the vesicle-SNARE VAMP4 to the somatodendritic domain of rat hippocampal neurons is mediated by recognition of dileucine-based signals in the cytosolic domains of the proteins by the ?1 subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-1. Under basal Cu2+ conditions, ATP7B was localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane of the soma and dendrites but not the axon. Mutation of a dileucine-based signal in ATP7B or overexpression of a dominant-negative ?1 mutant resulted in nonpolarized distribution of ATP7B between the somatodendritic and axonal domains. Furthermore, addition of high Cu2+ concentrations, previously shown to reduce ATP7B incorporation into AP-1–containing clathrin-coated vesicles, caused loss of TGN localization and somatodendritic polarity of ATP7B. These findings support the notion of AP-1 as an effector of polarized sorting in neurons and suggest that altered polarity of ATP7B in polarized cell types might contribute to abnormal copper metabolism in the MEDNIK syndrome, a neurocutaneous disorder caused by mutations in the ?1A subunit isoform of AP-1. PMID:25378584

  6. Monocarboxylate transport in human corneal epithelium and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Häkli, Marika; Merezhinskaya, Natalya; Tervo, Timo; Honkakoski, Paavo; Urtti, Arto

    2010-02-19

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are transmembrane proteins capable of transferring lactate and other endogenous and exogenous monocarboxylates across the cell membrane. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression and transporter role of human MCT1, MCT3 and MCT4 in the corneal epithelium, corneal epithelial cell lines (primary HCEpiC and immortalized HCE cells) and isolated rabbit corneas. MCT1 and MCT4 were expressed in the human corneal epithelium and the cell lines at mRNA and protein levels. Cellular uptake studies showed saturable and pH-dependent l-lactic acid transport, which was inhibited by various monocarboxylates like diclofenac and flurbiprofen. The permeability of benzoic acid across the rabbit cornea was higher in absorptive direction and this directionality was diminished in the presence of monocarboxylate drug valproic acid. Monocarboxylate transport was functional in the human corneal epithelial cells and rabbit cornea and it may play a role in the ocular drug absorption. PMID:20035863

  7. The Broad-lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-Ray Burst Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Sanders, N. E.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Pickering, T. E.; Kawabata, K.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Marion, G. H.; Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ? 20,000 km s-1 that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v >~ 27,000 km s-1). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ~2.7 M ?, a kinetic energy of ~1.0 × 1052 erg, and a 56Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M ?. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] ??6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z >~ Z ?, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B - V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  8. Design of transport lines for uniforming beam distribution with octupoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y. Y.; Xu, G.

    2013-02-01

    The intensity distribution of a typical particle beam is an approximate Gaussian distribution while many applications require the beam to be uniform. Local bright spots on the targets for high-power Gaussian beams create difficult cooling problems and shorten the lifetime of the target. In this paper, we have theoretically studied uniformization of the transverse beam profile using two octupole magnets placed at particular locations in the beam transport line. The details about the requirements on magnet strength and phase advance will be shown. As an example, we take a set of China Spallation Neutron Source parameters to simulate the beam. The simulation result agrees well with theoretical formulas.

  9. Thermal Transport Along the Dislocation Line in Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yuxiang; Xiong, Shiyun; Volz, Sebastian; Dumitric, Traian

    2014-09-01

    We elucidate thermal conductivity along the screw dislocation line, which represents a transport direction inaccessible to classical theories. By using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we uncover a Burgers vector dependent thermal conductivity reduction in silicon carbide. The effect is uncorrelated with the classical modeling and originates in the highly deformed core region, which represents a significant source of anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering. High strain reduces the phonon relaxation time, especially in the longitudinal acoustic branches, and creates an effective internal thermal resistance around the dislocation axis. Our results have implications for designing materials useful for high-temperature electronics and thermoelectric applications.

  10. Thermal transport along the dislocation line in silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yuxiang; Xiong, Shiyun; Volz, Sebastian; Dumitric, Traian

    2014-09-19

    We elucidate thermal conductivity along the screw dislocation line, which represents a transport direction inaccessible to classical theories. By using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we uncover a Burgers vector dependent thermal conductivity reduction in silicon carbide. The effect is uncorrelated with the classical modeling and originates in the highly deformed core region, which represents a significant source of anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering. High strain reduces the phonon relaxation time, especially in the longitudinal acoustic branches, and creates an effective internal thermal resistance around the dislocation axis. Our results have implications for designing materials useful for high-temperature electronics and thermoelectric applications. PMID:25279633

  11. Reclaiming residual space from elevated transport infrastructure : time, space, and activity under the Chicago Brown Line

    E-print Network

    Su, Jing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies the non-transport functions of the residual space generated by elevated transport infrastructure and its relationship with abutting neighborhoods The space under the Chicago Brown Line, among all other ...

  12. PIPELINES, TRANSMISSION LINES, AND MISCELLANEOUS TRANSPORTATION FEATURES DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of pipelines, transmission lines, and miscellaneous transportation features for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was p...

  13. Human cytomegalovirus induces interleukin-8 production by a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, through acting concurrently on AP-1- and NF-kappaB-binding sites of the interleukin-8 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, T; Ohara, Y; Obuchi, M; Khabar, K S; Higashi, H; Mukaida, N; Matsushima, K

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene transcription in a human monocytic cell line, THP-1 cells, leading to IL-8 secretion. The functional analysis of the IL-8 gene revealed that both AP-1- and NF-kappaB factor-binding elements were involved in conferring the responsiveness to CMV. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that CMV induced the formation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 complexes. These results suggest that CMV activates these transcriptional factors, resulting in IL-8 gene expression. PMID:9188651

  14. Erratum: ``A Grid of Non-LTE Line-blanketed Model Atmospheres of O-Type Stars'' (ApJS, 146, 417 [2003])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, Thierry; Hubeny, Ivan

    2003-07-01

    We have constructed a comprehensive grid of 680 metal line-blanketed, non-LTE, plane-parallel, hydrostatic model atmospheres for the basic parameters appropriate to O-type stars. The OSTAR2002 grid considers 12 values of effective temperatures, 27,500K<=Teff<=55,000 K with 2500 K steps, eight surface gravities, 3.0<=logg<=4.75 with 0.25 dex steps, and 10 chemical compositions, from metal-rich relative to the Sun to metal-free. The lower limit of logg for a given effective temperature is set by an approximate location of the Eddington limit. The selected chemical compositions have been chosen to cover a number of typical environments of massive stars: the Galactic center, the Magellanic Clouds, blue compact dwarf galaxies like I Zw 18, and galaxies at high redshifts. The paper contains a description of the OSTAR2002 grid and some illustrative examples and comparisons. The complete OSTAR2002 grid is available at our Web site at ApJS, 146, 417 [2003]. Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 681, Greenbelt, MD 20771.

  15. Investigation of a line-focused acoustic levitation for contactless transport of particles

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    Investigation of a line-focused acoustic levitation for contactless transport of particles Daniele 2011) We investigate herein an interesting acoustic line-focused levitation mechanism, enabling the simultaneous transportation of the acoustically levitated particles. It is shown that the performance

  16. Effects of Escherichia coli Challenge and Transport Stress on Hematology and Serum Chemistry Values of Three Genetic Lines of Turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Males and females from 3 genetic lines of turkeys were compared for their response to an Escherichia coli airsac challenge followed by transport stress (Transport). The turkey lines were a slow growing line selected for increased egg production (Egg line), a fast growing line selected for increased...

  17. Aaptamines from the marine sponge Aaptos sp. display anticancer activities in human cancer cell lines and modulate AP-1-, NF-?B-, and p53-dependent transcriptional activity in mouse JB6 Cl41 cells.

    PubMed

    Dyshlovoy, Sergey A; Fedorov, Sergey N; Shubina, Larisa K; Kuzmich, Alexandra S; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Keller-von Amsberg, Gunhild; Honecker, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Aaptamine (8,9-dimethoxy-1H-benzo[de][1,6]naphthyridine) is a marine natural compound possessing antioxidative, antimicrobial, antifungal, and antiretroviral activity. Earlier, we have found that aaptamine and its derivatives demonstrate equal anticancer effects against the human germ cell cancer cell lines NT2 and NT2-R and cause some changes in the proteome of these cells. In order to explore further the mechanism of action of aaptamine and its derivatives, we studied the effects of aaptamine (1), demethyl(oxy)aaptamine (2), and isoaaptamine (3) on human cancer cell lines and on AP-1-, NF-?B-, and p53-dependent transcriptional activity in murine JB6 Cl41 cells. We showed that compounds 1-3 demonstrate anticancer activity in THP-1, HeLa, SNU-C4, SK-MEL-28, and MDA-MB-231 human cancer cell lines. Additionally, all compounds were found to prevent EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of murine JB6 Cl41 cells. Nuclear factors AP-1, NF-?B, and p53 are involved in the cellular response to high and nontoxic concentrations of aaptamine alkaloids 1-3. Furthermore, inhibition of EGF-induced JB6 cell transformation, which is exerted by the compounds 1-3 at low nontoxic concentrations of 0.7-2.1??M, cannot be explained by activation of AP-1 and NF-?B. PMID:25215281

  18. APS Science 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-30

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

  19. Emergence of Straight-Line Trajectory in Cooperative Object Transportation

    E-print Network

    Sudsang, Attawith

    for cooperative transportation of an object by a team of mobile robots. We investigate a new approach for which methods for multi-robot object transportation have been proposed in the area of cooperative robotics a distributed control al- gorithm that enables the robots to cooperatively carry a plate along a straight

  20. 19 CFR 18.9 - Examination by inspectors of trunk line associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board. 18...associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board. ...Trunk Line Association, the Surface Transportation Board, the...Atlanta, inspectors of CBP in charge will permit such...

  1. 19 CFR 18.9 - Examination by inspectors of trunk line associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board. 18...associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board. ...Trunk Line Association, the Surface Transportation Board, the...Atlanta, inspectors of CBP in charge will permit such...

  2. 19 CFR 18.9 - Examination by inspectors of trunk line associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board. 18...associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board. ...Trunk Line Association, the Surface Transportation Board, the...Atlanta, inspectors of CBP in charge will permit such...

  3. 19 CFR 18.9 - Examination by inspectors of trunk line associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board. 18...associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board. ...Trunk Line Association, the Surface Transportation Board, the...Atlanta, inspectors of CBP in charge will permit such...

  4. 19 CFR 18.9 - Examination by inspectors of trunk line associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board. 18...associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board. ...Trunk Line Association, the Surface Transportation Board, the...Atlanta, inspectors of CBP in charge will permit such...

  5. Probabilistic on-line transportation problems with carrying-capacity constraints

    E-print Network

    Treleaven, Kyle (Kyle Ballantyne)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents new insights and techniques for the analysis and design of autonomous or technology-assisted ("intelligent") transportation systems. The focus is on cooperative, on-line planning and control, of a fleet ...

  6. 8 CFR 241.24 - Notice to transportation line of alien's exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings Commenced Prior to April 1, 1997) § 241.24 Notice to transportation line of alien's exclusion. (a) An excluded alien shall,...

  7. Tyrosine transport in a human melanoma cell line as a basis for selective transport of cytotoxic analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Pankovich, J M; Jimbow, K

    1991-01-01

    Tyrosine is an essential amino acid for the initial step of melanin synthesis, yet little is known concerning its transport in melanocytes. As an important first step in the development of new anti-melanoma agents based upon chemical and pharmacological modifications of melanin synthesis, the present study characterized the transport mechanism of tyrosine in vitro using the human melanoma cell line SK-MEL 23. Several tyrosine transport systems may be involved in melanocytes: systems L and T, which transport neutral amino acids with branched or aromatic side chains, and systems A and ASC, which transport neutral amino acids with smaller side chains. In order to determine which system or combination of systems is involved in tyrosine transport in melanoma cells, studies of kinetics, Na(+)-dependence and competitive inhibition were undertaken. The Km and Vmax. for the Na(+)-independent transport system were found to be 0.164 +/- 0.016 mM and 21.6 +/- 1.1 nmol/min per mg of protein respectively. This transport was preferentially inhibited by the system L specific analogue, 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid, the system T substrate tryptophan, and the sulphur homologue of tyrosine, 4-S-cysteinylphenol. Sequential addition of these inhibitors at increasing concentrations indicated that they inhibit the same transporter. Our results suggest that tyrosine transport in SK-MEL 23 melanoma cells is similar to system L transport previously characterized in other cell types. This one transport system appears to supply all the tyrosine required for both cell growth and melanin synthesis. The transport system may be subject to manipulation by melanogenic stimulating factors, making the transport of cytotoxic tyrosine analogues an important area for further study. PMID:1764036

  8. Wave packet dynamical simulation of electron transport through a line defect on the graphene surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márk, G. I.; Biró, L. P.; Lambin, Ph.; Chernozatonskii, L. A.

    2008-05-01

    Formerly, we proposed an approach to construct new graphene-based elements for nanoelectronics with different properties using “lines” of chemisorbed H atom pairs on a graphene surface. According to band structure calculations these H-C “lines” change the electronic spectrum of pure graphene, forming quasi-one-dimensional electronic waveguides. The periodic “line” superlattices have semiconductor or metallic electronic structures according to their geometry, similar to the case of carbon nanotubes. We calculated the propagation of electronic wave packets parallel to the H-C line. The results make it possible to gain insight into the details of electron transport in nanoelectronic devices made of line superlattices.

  9. The Mechanical Design for the Darht-II Downstream Beam Transport Line

    E-print Network

    Westenskow, G A; Duffy, P T; Paul, A C

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-msec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The down-stream beam transport line is approximately 20-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 15 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several speciality magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and to the beam dumps. There are two high power beam dumps, which are designed to absorb 80-kJ per pulse during accelerator start-up and operation. Aspects of the mechanical design of these elements are presented.

  10. The Mechanical Design for the DARHT-II Downstream Beam Transport Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westenskow, Glen

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-msec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The down-stream beam transport line is approximately 20-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 15 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several speciality magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and to the beam dumps. There are two high power beam dumps, which are designed to absorb 80-kJ per pulse during accelerator start-up and operation. Aspects of the mechanical design of these elements are presented.

  11. New 750 keV H/sup -/ beam transport line for LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, H.S.; Browman, A.A.; Hagerman, D.C.; Jakobson, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The injector complex at LAMPF consists of three injectors with associated transport lines to deliver H/sup +/, H/sup -/, and P/sup -/ beams to the linac. Early in 1984 the original H/sup -/ injector (circa 1973) was replaced with one capable of producing a peak current of 20-mA, a 100X improvement. The motivation for this upgrade was the addition of a Proton Storage Ring (PSR) for pulsed neutron research. To support the new operating modes associated with the PSR, the H/sup -/ transport line was replaced by one having a different design that required changes to portions of the H/sup +/ and P/sup -/ lines, also. This paper describes the new transport system and reports on the initial performance of the H/sup -/ line.

  12. Two Novel Glycosides from the Fruits of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) Inhibit AP1 Transactivation and Cell Transformation in the Mouse Epidermal JB6 Cell Line1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangming Liu; Ann Bode; Wei-Ya Ma; Shengmin Sang; Chi-Tang Ho; Zigang Dong

    2001-01-01

    The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni), a plant originally grown in the Hawaiian and Tahitian islands, has long been used by islanders to treat diseases, including cancer. Two novel glycosides, 6-O-(b-D-glucopy- ranosyl)-1-O-octanoyl-b-D-glucopyranose and asperulosidic acid, ex- tracted from the juice of noni fruits, were used to examine their effects on 12-O-tedtradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced AP-1 transactivation

  13. Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheng-wu; Qi, Rui; Li, Xiao-fang; Liu, Zhi-xiong

    2014-10-25

    Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum. PMID:25149019

  14. On-line particle-swarm-optimization control for maglev transportation system via backstepping design procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong-Jong Wai; Kun-Lun Chuang

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the design of a backstepping particle-swarm-optimization control (BSPSOC) for the on-line levitated balancing and propulsive positioning of a magnetic-levitation (maglev) transportation system. The dynamic model of a maglev transportation system including levitated electromagnets and a propulsive linear induction motor (LIM) based on the concepts of mechanical geometry and motion dynamics is firstly constructed. In the proposed

  15. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crisp, J; Fellenz, B; Fitzgerald, J; Heikkinen, D; Ibrahim, M A.

    2011-10-01

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. During Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  16. Generic effluent monitoring system certification for AP-40 exhauster stack

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Davis, W.E.; Bussell, J.H.; Maughan, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as applied to the AP-40 exhauster stack, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/AP-40 system meets all applicable performance criteria. The contaminant mixing tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at the wind tunnel facility, 331-H Building, using a mockup of the actual stack. The particle sample transport tests were conducted by PNNL at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The AP-40 stack is typical of several 10-in. diameter stacks that discharge the filtered ventilation air from tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles. Unrelated to the performance criteria, it was found that the record sample filter holder exhibited symptoms of sample bypass around the particle collection filter. This filter holder should either be modified or replaced with a different type. 10 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Theoretical radiative transport results for a free-burning arc using a line-by-line technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menart, J.; Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E.

    1999-01-01

    Many thermal radiation results for a two-dimensional, axisymmetric, atmospheric, free-burning arc for several different wavelength intervals, as well as the entire thermal spectrum, are presented. Quantities such as the emission, average intensity, radiative source term and radial flux are calculated from a theoretically rigorous technique for handling radiative transport in a medium such as a plasma in which the absorption coefficient is a strong function of the wavelength. An S-N discrete ordinates method is used on a line-by-line basis to perform this task. Most of the results presented are for a pure-argon arc; however, results indicating the effect of copper contamination on the radiative quantities are also given. Comparisons between the pure-argon and copper-contaminated arcs show that a small amount of copper greatly affects the radiative characteristics of the plasma.

  18. The line haul cost and cost drivers for road freight transportation in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Wang

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many companies of road freight transportation in China have suffered from performance decline and business distress because of the continual rise of the costs and the long-term downturn of the freight rate. The line haul cost model with light-duty truck for a round trip is developed, and sensitivity analysis and tornado graphs are conducted to estimate the

  19. THE MECHANICAL DESIGN FOR THE DARHT-II DOWNSTREAM BEAM TRANSPORT LINE*

    E-print Network

    G. A. Westenskow; L. R. Bertolini; P. T. Duffy; A. C. Paul

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a

  20. RISK ASSESSMENT ANALYSES USING EPA'S ON-LINE SITE-SPECIFIC TRANSPORT MODELS AND FIELD DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators and transport models to aid in risk assessment for subsurface contamination. The calculators (www.epa.gov/athens/onsite) provide several levels of tools and data. These include tools for generating commonly-used model input param...

  1. Focused transport of energetic particles along magnetic field lines draped around a coronal mass ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Lee, M. A.; Klecker, B.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Evidence is presented for focused transport of energetic particles along magnetic field lines draped around a coronal mass ejection. This evidence was obtained with the University of Maryland/Max-Planck-Institute experiment on the ISEE-3 spacecraft during the decay phase of the June 6, 1979, solar particle event. During the early portion of the decay phase of this event, interplanetary magnetic field lines were apparently draped around a coronal mass ejection, leading to a small focusing length on the western flank where ISEE 3 was located. A period of very slow decrease of particle intensity was observed, along with large sunward anisotropy in the solar wind frame, which is inconsistent with predictions of the standard Fokker-Planck equation models for diffusive transport. It was found possible to fit the observations, assuming that focused transport dominates and that the particle pitch angle scattering is isotropic.

  2. Electron transport through a graphene quantum dot: the role of line defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei-Jiang; Jin, Li-Hui; Sun, Xue; Han, Yu

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the electron transport through a graphene quantum dot with one line defect, by coupling the dot to two normal metallic leads. It is found that in the cases of the leads coupling to the same-type edges of the dot, the presence of line defect enhances the conductance at the Dirac point by inducing a new conductance peak or strengthening the original conductance peak. Such results are irrelevant to the graphene dot size. On the other hand, if the leads couple to the different-type edges of the dot, the line defect will induce two new conductance peaks near the Dirac point. The conductance enhancement is considered to originate from the fact that one bound state at the Dirac point induced by the line defect couples to the leads, which provides an additional channel for electron motion. Nevertheless, different dot-lead coupling manners change the contribution of the new channel to the electron motion, leading to the complicated transport results. These results show that the line-defect-existed graphene quantum dot will be beneficial to the realization of electron transport manipulation.

  3. An alternatively spliced mRNA from the AP-2 gene encodes a negative regulator of transcriptional activation by AP-2.

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, R; Kannan, P; Imhof, A; Bauer, R; Yim, S O; Glockshuber, R; Van Dyke, M W; Tainsky, M A

    1993-01-01

    AP-2 is a retinoic acid-inducible and developmentally regulated activator of transcription. We have cloned an alternative AP-2 transcript (AP-2B) from the human teratocarcinoma cell line PA-1, which encodes a protein differing in the C terminus from the previously isolated AP-2 protein (AP-2A). This protein contains the activation domain of AP-2 and part of the DNA binding domain but lacks the dimerization domain which is necessary for DNA binding. Analysis of overlapping genomic clones spanning the entire AP-2 gene proves that AP-2A and AP-2B transcripts are alternatively spliced from the same gene. Both transient and stable transfection experiments show that AP-2B inhibits AP-2 transactivator function, as measured by an AP-2-responsive chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter plasmid. Furthermore, constitutive AP-2B expression in PA-1 cells causes a retinoic acid-resistant phenotype, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and tumorigenicity in nude mice, in a fashion similar to transformation of these cells by oncogenes. To determine the mechanism by which AP-2B exerts its inhibitory function, we purified bacterially expressed AP-2A and AP-2B proteins. While bacterial AP-2B does not bind an AP-2 consensus site, it strongly inhibits binding of the endogenous AP-2 present in PA-1 cell nuclear extracts. However, DNA sequence-specific binding of bacterially expressed AP-2A cannot be inhibited by bacterially expressed AP-2B. Therefore, inhibition of AP-2 activity by the protein AP-2B may require an additional factor or modification supplied by nuclear extracts. Images PMID:8321221

  4. The mechanical design for the second axis beam transport line for the DARHT facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolini, L R; Alford, O J; Paul, A C; Shang, C C; Westenkow, G A

    1999-03-23

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) facility. The DARHT II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL, and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-µsec pulse length linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The downstream beam transport line is an 18-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 17 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several specialty magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and beam dumps. There is a high power beam dump, which is designed to absorb the 80-kJ of beam energy during accelerator start-up and operation. The beamline vacuum chamber has an 8-cm diameter aperture and operates at an average pressure of 10-7 Torr.

  5. Investigation of oxygen impurity transport using the O4+ visible spectral line in the Aditya tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhuri, M. B.; Ghosh, J.; Banerjee, S.; Dey, Ritu; Manchanda, R.; Kumar, Vinay; Vasu, P.; Patel, K. M.; Atrey, P. K.; Shankara Joisa, Y.; Rao, C. V. S.; Tanna, R. L.; Raju, D.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Jha, R.; Gupta, C. N.; Bhatt, S. B.; Saxena, Y. C.; the Aditya Team

    2013-02-01

    Intense visible lines from Be-like oxygen impurity are routinely observed in the Aditya tokamak. The spatial profile of brightness of a Be-like oxygen spectral line (2p3p 3D3-2p3d 3F4) at 650.024 nm is used to investigate oxygen impurity transport in typical discharges of the Aditya tokamak. A 1.0 m multi-track spectrometer (Czerny-Turner) capable of simultaneous measurements from eight lines of sight is used to obtain the radial profile of brightness of O4+ spectral emission. The emissivity profile of O4+ spectral emission is obtained from the spatial profile of brightness using an Abel-like matrix inversion. The oxygen transport coefficients are determined by reproducing the experimentally measured emissivity profiles of O4+, using a one-dimensional empirical impurity transport code, STRAHL. Much higher values of the diffusion coefficient compared with the neo-classical values are observed in both the high magnetic field edge region (D_inboard^{\\max}\\sim 30\\,m^{2}\\,s^{-1}) and the low magnetic field edge region (D_outboard^{\\max}\\sim 45\\,m^{2}\\,s^{-1}) of typical Aditya ohmic plasmas, which seems to be due to fluctuation-induced transport. The diffusion coefficient at the limiter radius in the low-field (outboard) region is typically ˜ twice as high as that at the limiter radius in the high-field (inboard) region.

  6. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. During Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system. Work supported by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy.

  7. Opening AP to All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a school's effort to open Advanced Placement (AP) to all by challenging its students to take the leap into AP courses. Samuel W. Wolfson High School, on the south side of Jacksonville, Florida, is one of 27 schools in five cities across the country that chose to participate in a College Board initiative called EXCELerator.…

  8. Iterative approach to line-shape calculations based on the transport-relaxation equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wcis?o, P.; Cygan, A.; Lisak, D.; Ciury?o, R.

    2013-07-01

    The iterative approach to the line-shape calculations from the transport-relaxation equation was modified to allow its application for low pressures down to the Doppler limit. In our approach functions and operators are decomposed in the Burnett basis. This technique was applied to experimental data presenting the consistency between the line-shape model and measured spectrum corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio higher than 9×104. Implications for precise molecular spectroscopy as well as for Doppler-width thermometry and spectroscopic Boltzmann constant determination are discussed.

  9. Dijkstra's Algorithm On-Line: An Empirical Case Study from Public Railroad Transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Schulz; Dorothea Wagner; Karsten Weihe

    1999-01-01

    Traffic information systems are among the most prominent real-world applications of Dijkstra’s algorithm for shortest paths.\\u000a We consider the scenario of a central information server in the realm of public railroad transport on wide-area networks.\\u000a Such a system has to process a large number of on-line queries in real time. In practice, this problem is usually solved by\\u000a heuristical variations

  10. Dijkstra's Algorithm On-Line: An Empirical Case Study from Public Railroad Transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Schulz; Dorothea Wagner; Karsten Weihe

    2000-01-01

    Traffic information systems are among the most prominent real-world applications of Dijkstra's algorithm for shortest paths. We consider the scenario of a central information server in the realm of public railroad transport on wide-area networks. Such a system has to process a large number of on-line queries for optimal travel connections in real time. In practice, this problem is usually

  11. The mechanical design for the second axis beam transport line for the DARHT Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. J. Alford; L. R. Bertolini; A. C. Paul; C. C. Shang; G. A. Westenskow

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-?sec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of X-rays for the purpose of radiographing

  12. The Mechanical Design for the DARHT-II Downstream Beam Transport Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen Westenskow; L. R. Bertolini; P. T. Duffy; A. C. Paul

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-msec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense

  13. Electron-Cloud Effects in Transport Lines of a Normal Conducting Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Pivi, M.T.F.; Seryi, A.; /SLAC

    2005-06-15

    In the transport lines of a normal conducting linear collider, the long positron bunch train can generate an electron cloud which can then amplify intra-train offsets. This is a transient effect which is similar to the electron-cloud driven coupled bunch instabilities in a positron storage ring. In this paper, we study this phenomenon analytically. Some criteria on the critical cloud density with respect to given collider parameters are discussed.

  14. Sherwood/APS 2006 Conference

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Drake

    2009-07-28

    The International Sherwood Theory Meeting is a yearly meeting that focuses on the theory of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. There are many topics of common interest in fusion plasma systems and space and astrophysical plasmas. These common topics include such key topics as magnetic reconnection, the dynamo, turbulence and transport and particle heating and acceleration. One of the major participants of the April APS meeting is the APS Division of Astrophysics (DAP). The goal of having the Sherwood Meeting jointly with the April meeting was to promote discussion of topics of common interest in fusion and space and astrophysics. Scientists from the DAP, the Division of Plasma Physics (DPP), the Topical Group on Plasma Astrophysics (GPAP) and Sherwood worked together closely to produce a joint program that addressed areas of common interest. Four sessions of invited talks were sponsored jointly by the DAP, DPP and GPAP on laboratory experiments related to astrophysics. Plasma scientists working in theory and computation play a key role in connecting these laboratory experiments to the very disparate conditions found in fusion and astrophysical systems. Thus, the attendees of the Sherwood Theory meeting were critical to facilitating this effort at cross-disciplinary communication. Noteworthy were the selection of two of the prestigious plenary talks at the joint meeting on plasma topics - one related to the gyrokinetic modeling of turbulence and the other related to the structure of collisionless shocks. It is rare to see even a single plenary talk on plasma physics at the APS April Meeting. There were additional costs associated with hosting a joint meeting. The Office of Fusion Energy Sciences contributed $3000 in partial support of this meeting. This funding covered part of the costs of the poster boards and A. V. equipment that was used in the presentation of nearly 200 scientific papers related to magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The APS waived its indirect costs on this funding as part of their effort to support this joint meeting.

  15. AP Chemistry: Course Revisions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In Fall 2013, The Advanced Placement Program will be replacing the existing AP Chemistry course with a new chemistry curriculum designed to foster greater conceptual understanding and more time engaged in scientific practices. This website offers an array of resources to support teachers and school administrators in adopting the new AP Chemistry. The framework shifts away from a traditional "content coverage" model to one that focuses on six key ideas in chemistry. Especially noteworthy is the greater emphasis on visualization of the particle nature of matter. Each learning objective explicitly combines content and one or more "thinking skills", intended to promote greater time engaged in scientific inquiry with less focus on mathematical routines. Resources available on this web page include the Curriculum Framework, FAQ's on the new AP Chemistry, Planning and Pacing Guides, teachers' forum, examples, and reference material on inquiry instruction. The changes to each course were guided by National Research Council and National Science Foundation recommendations, following several years of collaborations among university educators and master AP teachers. Editor's Note: The AP Physics course has also undergone major revision, replacing AP Physics B with two year-long courses, slated for adoption in Fall 2014. See "Related Materials" for a link to the College Board's website on AP Physics revisions.

  16. Doppler Imaging of Ap Stars

    E-print Network

    R. Kuschnig

    1998-05-06

    Doppler imaging, a technique which inverts spectral line profile variations of an Ap star into a two-dimensional abundance maps, provides new observational constraints on diffusion mechanism in the presence of a global magnetic field. A programme is presented here with the aim to obtain abundance distributions of at least five elements on each star, in order to study how different diffusion processes act under influence of a stellar magnetic field. The importance of this multi-element approach is demonstrated, by presenting the abundance maps of helium, magnesium, silicon, chromium and iron for the magnetic B9pSi star CU Virginis.

  17. APS Science 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

    2007-05-24

    In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged from work at the APS, to complement the tremendous output of work in basic science, which often has payoff in technology but over decades rather than years. Highlights in this report also reflect the relevance of APS work to Department of Energy missions, for example a route to more efficient fuel cells (page xx mr-88-073113) addresses the energy challenge, and natural approaches to cleaning up the environment.

  18. Increased glucose uptake and metabolism in mesangial cells overexpressing glucose transporter 1 increases interleukin-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor production: role of AP-1 and HIF-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Pfäfflin, Albrecht; Brodbeck, Katrin; Heilig, Charles W; Häring, Hans Ulrich; Schleicher, Erwin D; Weigert, Cora

    2006-01-01

    Previous results indicate that enhanced glucose transporter (GLUT)1 expression mediates the deleterious effects of metabolic and hemodynamic perturbations leading to diabetic kidney disease. First screening for altered gene expression in GLUT1 overexpressing cells (GT1) by Affymetrix microarray analysis revealed upregulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, which was verified by RT-PCR. Subsequently, IL-6 and VEGF protein production was more than 3-fold increased in the GT1 cells. This upregulation was independent from each other. Studies on the underlying transcriptional mechanisms by gelshift assays and siRNA approach implicated activation of AP-1 in the increased expression of both, IL-6 and VEGF. We found also increased nuclear protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and enhanced DNA binding activity to a hypoxia responsible element located in the VEGF promoter. Knock-down of HIF-1alpha reduced the VEGF expression to 50% with an additive effect of AP-1 gene silencing down to 24%. The IL-6 expression was not affected by reducing HIF-1alpha. In conclusion our results link increased GLUT1 levels leading to excess glucose metabolism under normoglycemic conditions and altered gene expression of pathogenetic factors involved in diabetic kidney disease. PMID:17167225

  19. Organelle transport in cultured Drosophila cells: S2 cell line and primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Del Castillo, Urko; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila S2 cells plated on a coverslip in the presence of any actin-depolymerizing drug form long unbranched processes filled with uniformly polarized microtubules. Organelles move along these processes by microtubule motors. Easy maintenance, high sensitivity to RNAi-mediated protein knock-down and efficient procedure for creating stable cell lines make Drosophila S2 cells an ideal model system to study cargo transport by live imaging. The results obtained with S2 cells can be further applied to a more physiologically relevant system: axonal transport in primary neurons cultured from dissociated Drosophila embryos. Cultured neurons grow long neurites filled with bundled microtubules, very similar to S2 processes. Like in S2 cells, organelles in cultured neurons can be visualized by either organelle-specific fluorescent dyes or by using fluorescent organelle markers encoded by DNA injected into early embryos or expressed in transgenic flies. Therefore, organelle transport can be easily recorded in neurons cultured on glass coverslips using living imaging. Here we describe procedures for culturing and visualizing cargo transport in Drosophila S2 cells and primary neurons. We believe that these protocols make both systems accessible for labs studying cargo transport. PMID:24300413

  20. Carrier-mediated transport of valproic acid in BeWo cells, a human trophoblast cell line

    E-print Network

    Utoguchi, Naoki; Audus, Kenneth L.

    2000-01-01

    The biochemical mechanisms mediating the rapid distribution of valproic acid across placenta are not precisely known. We have characterized valproic acid transport by the human trophoblast using the human choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo. The uptake...

  1. Beam Transport of 4 GeV Protons from AGS to the Proton Interrogation Target of the Neutrino Line (Z_line) and Effect of the Air on the Transported Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; Ahrens, L.; Pile, P.; Thieberger, P.; Murray, M.M.

    2008-10-01

    As part of the preparation for the Proton Interrogation Experiment, we have calculated the beam optics for the transport of 4 GeV protons, from the AGS extraction point, to the 'Cross-Section Target Wheel 1' and to the 'Proton Interrogation Target'. In this technical note we present three possible beam-transports each corresponding to a particular Fast Extracted Beam W B setup of the AGS. In addition we present results on the effect of the atmospheric air, (which fills the drift space of the last 100 [m] of the transport line), on the size of the beam, at two locations along the drift space, one location at the middle of the drift space and the other at the end where the 'Proton Interrogation Target' is placed. All the beam transports mentioned above require the removal of the WD1 dipole magnet, which is the first magnet of the W-line, because it acts as a limiting beam aperture, and the magnet is not used in the beam transport. An alternative solution of a beam transport, which does not require the removal of the WD1 magnet, is also presented. In this solution, which models the transport line using the TURTLE computer code[7], the vertical beam sizes at the location of the WD1 magnet is minimized to allow 'lossless' beam transport at the location of the WD1 magnet. A similar solution, but using a MAD model of the line, is also presented.

  2. Mitochondrial and plasma membrane lactate transporter and lactate dehydrogenase isoform expression in breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Hussien, Rajaa

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that dysregulation of lactate/pyruvate (monocarboxylate) transporters (MCT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoforms contribute to the Warburg effect in cancer. Therefore, we assayed for the expression levels and the localizations of MCT (1, 2, and 4), and LDH (A and B) isoforms in breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and compared results with those from a control, untransformed primary breast cell line, HMEC 184. Remarkably, MCT1 is not expressed in MDA-MB-231, but MCT1 is expressed in MCF-7 cells, where its abundance is less than in control HMEC 184 cells. When present in HMEC 184 and MCF-7 cells, MCT1 is localized to the plasma membrane. MCT2 and MCT4 were expressed in all the cell lines studied. MCT4 expression was higher in MDA-MB-231 compared with MCF-7 and HMEC 184 cells, whereas MCT2 abundance was higher in MCF-7 compared with MDA-MB-231 and HMEC 184 cells. Unlike MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 were localized in mitochondria in addition to the plasma membrane. LDHA and LDHB were expressed in all the cell-lines, but abundances were higher in the two cancer cell lines than in the control cells. MCF-7 cells expressed mainly LDHB, while MDA-MB-231 and control cells expressed mainly LDHA. LDH isoforms were localized in mitochondria in addition to the cytosol. These localization patterns were the same in cancerous and control cell lines. In conclusion, MCT and LDH isoforms have distinct expression patterns in two breast cancer cell lines. These differences may contribute to divergent lactate dynamics and oxidative capacities in these cells, and offer possibilities for targeting cancer cells. PMID:21177384

  3. APS Science 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

    2010-05-01

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report), the challenge of sustainable energy provides an opportunity for expanded involvement with industrial research. We were privileged to recruit several outstanding new leaders at the APS. Linda Young, from Argonne's Chemical Sciences Division, became the new Director of the X-ray Science Division (XSD). Chris Jacobsen (from Stony Brook University) has been added to Linda's team as an XSD Associate Division Director, joining George Srajer. Alexander (Sasha) Zholents (formerly of Berkeley Lab) became Director of the Accelerator Systems Division. Sasha is the inventor of the short-pulse x-ray scheme that we plan to implement in the APS-U to obtain very high average brightness, broadband, 1-ps x-ray pulses. Walter Lowe (formerly of Howard University) has taken a new position as senior advisor for outreach and development of the user community. Walter's role is to increase the diversity of the user community (with diversity read broadly to include users, institutions, and technical disciplines that are underrepresented at APS). Walter is also leading an effort to increase access for industrial users. I am confident that we have in place a great team to help our users and the APS take fullest advantage of the APS-U opportunity. In planning with users for the proposed APS-U, we focused on the need to study 'real materials under real conditions in real time' on spatial and temporal scales unavailable today. Only by studying materials as they are made-or as they perform-in difficult environments can we solve the grand challenge of higher-performance, sustainable materials for energy and health. The proposed APS-U will improve the brightness of penetrating x-rays produced by the APS over 100 times, and support our efforts in developing state-of-the-art instruments to address these challenges.

  4. The experimental chemotherapeutic N6-furfuryladenosine (kinetin-riboside) induces rapid ATP depletion, genotoxic stress, and CDKN1A(p21) upregulation in human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Christopher M; Bair, Warner B; Ley, Stephanie; Lamore, Sarah D; Azimian, Sara; Wondrak, Georg T

    2009-04-01

    Cytokinins and cytokinin nucleosides are purine derivatives with potential anticancer activity. N(6)-furfuryladenosine (FAdo, kinetin-riboside) displays anti-proliferative and apoptogenic activity against various human cancer cell lines, and FAdo has recently been shown to suppress tumor growth in murine xenograft models of human leukemia and melanoma. In this study, FAdo-induced genotoxicity, stress response gene expression, and cellular ATP depletion were examined as early molecular consequences of FAdo exposure in MiaPaCa-2 pancreas carcinoma, A375 melanoma, and other human cancer cell lines. FAdo, but not adenosine or N(6)-furfuryladenine (FA), displayed potent anti-proliferative activity that was also observed in human primary fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Remarkably, massive ATP depletion and induction of genotoxic stress as assessed by the alkaline comet assay occurred within 60-180min of exposure to low micromolar concentrations of FAdo. This was followed by rapid upregulation of CDKN1A and other DNA damage/stress response genes (HMOX1, DDIT3, and GADD45A) as revealed by expression array and Western analysis. Pharmacological and siRNA-based genetic inhibition of adenosine kinase (ADK) suppressed FAdo cytotoxicity and also prevented ATP depletion and p21 upregulation suggesting the importance of bioconversion of FAdo into the nucleotide form required for drug action. Taken together our data suggest that early induction of genotoxicity and energy crisis are important causative factors involved in FAdo cytotoxicity. PMID:19186174

  5. A Look at the AP2 Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, Keith; /Fermilab

    2001-01-08

    Some recent work has been done to look at improvements of transporting beam from the Lithium Lens to the Debuncher. This work has been done using the beamline modeling tools developed by Dave McGinnis. These tools, console application P143 and optimization code running MAD repeatedly on the Beam Physics UNIX system, were first used to match the Twiss and dispersion parameters at the end of AP2 to the Debuncher. Imaginary trims were then added to AP2 to study where additional trims could be used to help with beam control in small aperture areas.

  6. A new optical design for the BNL isotope production transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Raparia, D.; Mapes, M.; Tsoupas, N.

    1996-10-01

    The 200 MeV linac at BNL has recently been upgraded. As a result, 2.5 times more average beam current can be delivered to the Brookhaven Isotope Resource Center (BIRC), formerly called BLIP, a facility which produces radionuclides and radiopharmaceutical for the medical community, and also supports a research program seeking more effective diagnostic and therapeutic agents. The optics of the beam transport line to BIRC was redesigned to (a) reduce transverse fluctuations of the beam at the target due to any linac energy fluctuations, (b) produce a flat beam distribution at the target, in order to avoid melting certain target materials, and (c) handle the higher beam intensity while keeping radiation levels low. A profile monitor was also modified to monitor the flatness of the beam using the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). The above improvements will be described, and results of the commissioning of the line during the 1996 running period will be discussed.

  7. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Ana [Vanderbilt University; Airey, David [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Thompson, Brent [Vanderbilt University; Zhu, C [Vanderbilt University; Rinchik, Eugene M [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Erikson, Keith [University of North Carolina; Blakely, Randy [Vanderbilt University

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  8. Evaluation of the internal high alumina cement mortar lining of ductile cast iron pipes used in sewage transportation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. S. El-Hemaly; H. A. M. Abdallah; M. F. Abadir; H. H. El Sersy

    2008-01-01

    High alumina cement has been used to line the interior of ductile cast iron pipes intended for sewage transportation. Defects occurring in the production line include waves, ripples, knots, strip cracks, milky layers, crack network, non uniform thickness, breakage and roughness. The effect of the grain size of sand, the water\\/cement ratio, the sand\\/cement ratio and the percent citric acid

  9. Noble internal transport barriers and radial subdiffusion of toroidal magnetic lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misguich, J. H.; Reuss, J.-D.; Constantinescu, D.; Steinbrecher, G.; Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Weyssow, B.; Balescu, R.

    2003-11-01

    Internal transport barriers (ITB's) observed in tokamaks are described by a purely magnetic approach. Magnetic line motion in toroidal geometry with broken magnetic surfaces is studied from a previously derived Hamiltonian map in situation of incomplete chaos. This appears to reproduce in a realistic way the main features of a tokamak, for a given safety factor profile and in terms of a single parameter L representing the amplitude of the magnetic perturbation. New results are given concerning the Shafranov shift as function of L. The phase space (psi ,? ) of the "tokamap" describes the poloidal section of the line trajectories, where psi is the toroidal flux labelling the surfaces. For small values of L, closed magnetic surfaces exist (KAM tori) and island chains begin to appear on rational surfaces for higher values of L, with chaotic zones around hyperbolic points, as expected. Island remnants persist in the chaotic domain for all relevant values of L at the main rational q-values. Single trajectories of magnetic line motion indicate the persistence of a central protected plasma core, surrounded by a chaotic shell enclosed in a double-sided transport barrier: the latter is identified as being composed of two Cantori located on two successive “most-noble” numbers values of the perturbed safety factor, and forming an internal transport barrier (ITB). Magnetic lines which succeed to escape across this barrier begin to wander in a wide chaotic sea extending up to a very robust barrier (as long as Lprecsim 1) which is identified mathematically as a robust KAM surface at the plasma edge. In this case the motion is shown to be intermittent, with long stages of pseudo-trapping in the chaotic shell, or of sticking around island remnants, as expected for a continuous time random walk. For values of Lsucceq 1, above the escape threshold, most magnetic lines succeed to escape out of the external barrier which has become a permeable Cantorus. Statistical analysis of a large number of trajectories, representing the evolution of a bunch of magnetic lines, indicate that the flux variable psi asymptotically grows in a diffusive manner as (L2t) with a L2 scaling as expected, but that the average radial position rm(t) asymptotically grows as (L2t)^{1/4} while the mean square displacement around this average radius asymptotically grows in a subdiffusive manner as (L2t)^{1/2}. This result shows the slower dispersion in the present incomplete chaotic regime, which is different from the usual quasilinear diffusion in completely chaotic situations. For physical times t_{\\varphi } of the order of the escape time defined by xm(t_{\\varphi })sim 1, the motion appears to be superdiffusive, however, but less dangerous than the generally admitted quasi-linear diffusion. The orders of magnitude of the relevant times in Tore Supra are finally discussed. Barrières internes de transport " nobles " et sous-diffusion radiale des lignes magnétiques toroïdales Les barrières internes de transport observées dans les tokamaks sont décrites ici dans une approche purement magnétique. Le mouvement des lignes magnétiques en géométrie toroïdale avec brisure des surfaces magnétiques est étudié à partir d'une application hamiltonienne "tokamap" développée précédemment en situation de chaos incomplet, et dans laquelle le "temps" est représenté par la coordonnée toroïdale. Cette application reproduit de façon réaliste les principales caractéristiques d'un tokamak, pour un profil donné du facteur de sécurité q, et en terme d'un seul paramètre L représentant l'amplitude de la perturbation magnétique. On obtient des résultats nouveaux concernant le déplacement de Shafranov en fonction de L. L'espace des phases (psi,?) du "tokamap" décrit la section poloïdale des trajectoires des lignes, où psisim r^2 est le flux toroïdal caractérisant les surfaces magnétiques (proportionnel au carré du rayon r de cette surface). Pour de faibles valeurs de L, des surfaces magnétiques fermées

  10. Design, Modeling and Simulations in the RACE Project: Preliminary study for the development of a transport line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidana, C. O.; Hunt, A. W.; Beller, D.; Folkman, K.

    2007-02-01

    As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiment (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25 MeV electron beam from a Linear Accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible divergence problem) different parameters and models were studied before a final design could be submitted for assembly. This report shows the first results obtained from different simulations of the transport line optics and dynamics.

  11. Design, modeling and simulations in the RACE project: First study for the development of a transport line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidana, Carlos O.; Hunt, Alan W.; Beller, Denis; Folkman, Kevin

    2006-06-01

    As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiment (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25 MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible divergence problem) different parameters and models were studied before a final design could be submitted for assembly. This report shows the results obtained from different simulations for different lattices of the transport line optics and dynamics.

  12. Design, Modeling and Simulations in the RACE Project: Preliminary study for the development of a transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Maidana, C. O.; Hunt, A. W. [Idaho Accelerator Center, Department of Physics, PO Box 8106, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Idaho State University, Department of Physics, PO Box 8106, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Beller, D.; Folkman, K. [Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, 1500 Alvin Ricken Drive, Pocatello, ID 83201 (United States)

    2007-02-12

    As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiment (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25 MeV electron beam from a Linear Accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible divergence problem) different parameters and models were studied before a final design could be submitted for assembly. This report shows the first results obtained from different simulations of the transport line optics and dynamics.

  13. The effects of magnetic fringe fields on beam dynamics in a beam transport line of a terahertz FEL source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Han; Xiong, Yongqian; Pei, Yuanji

    2014-11-01

    The transport line used in a terahertz FEL device has to transport electron beam through the entire system efficiently and meet the requirements of the beam parameters at the undulator entrance. Due to space limitations, the size of the magnets (five quadrupoles and two bending magnets) employed in the transport line was limited, and some devices were densely packed. In this paper, analyses of the effect of fringe fields and magnetic interference of magnets are presented. 3D models of these magnets are built and their linear optical properties are compared with those obtained by hard edge models. The results indicated that the effects of these factors are significant and they would cause a mismatch of the beam at the exit of the transport line under the preliminary lattice design. To solve this problem, the beam was re-matched using the particle swarm optimization algorithm.

  14. A simple highly accurate field-line mapping technique for three-dimensional Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Sardei, F.; Kisslinger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Euratom Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-05-15

    The paper presents a new simple and accurate numerical field-line mapping technique providing a high-quality representation of field lines as required by a Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport in the complex magnetic boundaries of three-dimensional (3D) toroidal fusion devices. Using a toroidal sequence of precomputed 3D finite flux-tube meshes, the method advances field lines through a simple bilinear, forward/backward symmetric interpolation at the interfaces between two adjacent flux tubes. It is a reversible field-line mapping (RFLM) algorithm ensuring a continuous and unique reconstruction of field lines at any point of the 3D boundary. The reversibility property has a strong impact on the efficiency of modeling the highly anisotropic plasma edge transport in general closed or open configurations of arbitrary ergodicity as it avoids artificial cross-field diffusion of the fast parallel transport. For stellarator-symmetric magnetic configurations, which are the standard case for stellarators, the reversibility additionally provides an average cancellation of the radial interpolation errors of field lines circulating around closed magnetic flux surfaces. The RFLM technique has been implemented in the 3D edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE and is used routinely for plasma transport modeling in the boundaries of several low-shear and high-shear stellarators as well as in the boundary of a tokamak with 3D magnetic edge perturbations.

  15. Fano effect and bound state in continuum in electron transport through an armchair graphene nanoribbon with line defect

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Electron transport properties in an armchair graphene nanoribbon are theoretically investigated by considering the presence of line defect. It is found that the line defect causes the abundant Fano effects and bound state in continuum (BIC) in the electron transport process, which are tightly dependent on the width of the nanoribbon. By plotting the spectra of the density of electron states of the line defect, we see that the line defect induces some localized quantum states around the Dirac point and that the different localizations of these states lead to these two kinds of transport results. Next, the Fano effect and BIC phenomenon are detailedly described via the analysis about the influence of the structure parameters. According to the numerical results, we propose such a structure to be a promising candidate for graphene nanoswitch. PACS 81.05.Uw, 71.55.-i, 73.23.-b, 73.25.+i PMID:23870061

  16. In vitro transport mechanism of psoralen in a human placental cell line (BeWo cells).

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Song, Dianrong; Han, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanan; Wang, Yuhua; Du, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which psoralen is transported across the placenta was investigated in the BeWo human placental cell line derived from choriocarcinoma in a transwell assay system using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry detection. Psoralen uptake by BeWo cells increased linearly over the concentration range of 0.01?µM to 100?µM (r (2)?=?0.997) and was not saturable. Psoralen uptake by BeWo cells was not affected by temperature (4?°C, room temperature, and 37?°C; p?>?0.05). Psoralen transport increased linearly over 180?min (r (2)?=?0.988) with 3.08?±?0.26?%, 5.47?±?0.21?%, 7.54?±?0.06?%, 9.40?±?0.37?%, 11.49?±?0.31?%, and 12.46?±?0.61?% transferred from the apical chamber to the basolateral chamber in the transwell assays at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180?min, respectively. The rate of transport showed the same tendency, increasing linearly from 0.13?±?0.01?pmol/s to 0.58?±?0.03?pmol/s over the concentration range of 25?µM to 100?µM (r (2)?=?0.989). The apparent permeability coefficient for psoralen (100?µM) was 5.62?±?0.24?×?10(-6)?cm/s and 5.53?±?0.47?×?10(-6)?cm/s before and after treatment with verapamil (100?µM), respectively (p?>?0.05). The efflux value for psoralen was approximately 1. These data show that psoralen is well absorbed and crosses the placental barrier via passive diffusion in the BeWo cell line. PMID:25626141

  17. Postendocytic Sorting of Constitutively Internalized Dopamine Transporter in Cell Lines and Dopaminergic Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Jacob; Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden Emil; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Newman, Amy Hauck; Gether, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of released dopamine and is the target for psychostimulants, such as cocaine and amphetamine. DAT undergoes marked constitutive endocytosis, but little is known about the fate and sorting of the endocytosed transporter. To study DAT sorting in cells lines, we fused the one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to DAT, thereby generating a transporter (TacDAT) with an extracellular antibody epitope suited for trafficking studies. TacDAT was functional and endocytosed constitutively in HEK293 cells. According to an ELISA-based assay, TacDAT intracellular accumulation was increased by the lysosomal protease inhibitor leupeptin and by monensin, an inhibitor of lysosomal degradation and recycling. Monensin also reduced TacDAT surface expression consistent with partial recycling. In both HEK293 cells and in the dopaminergic cell line 1Rb3An27, constitutively internalized TacDAT displayed primary co-localization with the late endosomal marker Rab7, less co-localization with the “short loop” recycling marker Rab4, and little co-localization with the marker of “long loop” recycling endosomes, Rab11. Removal by mutation of N-terminal ubiquitination sites did not affect this sorting pattern. The sorting pattern was distinct from a bona fide recycling membrane protein, the ?2-adrenergic receptor, that co-localized primarily with Rab11 and Rab4. Constitutively internalized wild type DAT probed with the fluorescently tagged cocaine analogue JHC 1-64, exhibited the same co-localization pattern as TacDAT in 1Rb3An27 cells and in cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons. We conclude that DAT is constitutively internalized and sorted in a ubiquitination-independent manner to late endosomes/lysosomes and in part to a Rab4 positive short loop recycling pathway. PMID:20551317

  18. Optimization of solenoid based low energy beam transport line for high current H+ beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, R.; Singh, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Roy, S.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2015-02-01

    A 20 MeV, 30 mA CW proton linac is being developed at BARC, Mumbai. This linac will consist of an ECR ion source followed by a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and Drift tube Linac (DTL). The low energy beam transport (LEBT) line is used to match the beam from the ion source to the RFQ with minimum beam loss and increase in emittance. The LEBT is also used to eliminate the unwanted ions like H2+ and H3+ from entering the RFQ. In addition, space charge compensation is required for transportation of such high beam currents. All this requires careful design and optimization. Detailed beam dynamics simulations have been done to optimize the design of the LEBT using the Particle-in-cell code TRACEWIN. We find that with careful optimization it is possible to transport a 30 mA CW proton beam through the LEBT with 100% transmission and minimal emittance blow up, while at the same time suppressing unwanted species H2+ and H3+ to less than 3.3% of the total beam current.

  19. Identification of transport pathways for citric acid cycle intermediates in the human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2

    PubMed Central

    Weerachayaphorn, Jittima; Pajor, Ana M.

    2008-01-01

    Citric acid cycle intermediates are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract through carrier-mediated mechanisms, although the transport pathways have not been clearly identified. This study examines the transport of citric acid cycle intermediates in the Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cell line, often used as a model of small intestine. Inulin was used as an extracellular volume marker instead of mannitol since the apparent volume measured with mannitol changed with time. The results show that Caco-2 cells contain at least three distinct transporters, including the Na+-dependent di- and tricarboxylate transporters, NaDC1 and NaCT, and one or more sodium-independent pathways, possibly involving organic anion transporters. Succinate transport is mediated mostly by Na+-dependent pathways, predominantly by NaDC1, but with some contribution by NaCT. RT-PCR and functional characteristics verified the expression of these transporters in Caco-2 cells. In contrast, citrate transport in Caco-2 cells occurs by a combination of Na+-independent pathways, possibly mediated by an organic anion transporter, and Na+-dependent mechanisms. The non-metabolizable dicarboxylate, methylsuccinate, is also transported by a combination of Na+-dependent and -independent pathways. In conclusion, we find that multiple pathways are involved in the transport of di-and tricarboxylates by Caco-2 cells. Since many of these pathways are not found in human intestine, this model may be best suited for studying Na+-dependent transport of succinate by NaDC1. PMID:18194662

  20. AP Biology Demonstrations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The College Board The College Board (The College Board; )

    2003-06-03

    A collection of experiments and demonstrations presented by biology teachers addressing some of the most difficult-to-understand topics in the AP biology curriculum which include evolutionary traits, genetics, bacterial transformation, antibody diversity, comparative anatomy, photosynthesis, human genetics, protein synthesis, recombinant DNA and RNA polymerase.

  1. APS power supply controls

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-03-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications.

  2. Hydrogen transport diagnostics by atomic and molecular emission line profiles simultaneously measured for large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Shikama, T.; Hasuo, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Goto, M.; Morita, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    We observe the Balmer-{alpha}, -{beta}, and -{gamma} lines of hydrogen atoms and Q branches of the Fulcher-{alpha} band of hydrogen molecules simultaneously with their polarization resolved for large helical device. From the fit including the line splits and the polarization dependences by the Zeeman effect, the emission locations, intensities, and the temperatures of the atoms and molecules are determined. The emission locations of the hydrogen atoms are determined outside but close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS). The results are consistent with a previous work (Phys. Plasmas 12, 042501 (2005)). On the other hand, the emission locations of the molecules are determined to be in the divertor legs, which is farer from those of the atoms. The kinetic energy of the atoms is 1 {approx} 20 eV, while the rotational temperature of molecules is {approx}0.04 eV. Additionally, substantial wings, which originate from high velocity atoms and are not reproduced by the conventional spectral analysis, are observed in the Balmer line profiles. We develop a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of the atoms and molecules. The model reproduces the differences of the emission locations of the atoms and molecules when their initial temperatures are assumed to be 3 eV and 0.04 eV, respectively. From the model, the wings of the Balmer-{alpha} line is attributed to the high velocity atoms exist deep inside the LCFS, which are generated by the charge exchange collisions with hot protons there.

  3. Drug transporter expression profiling in chemoresistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Januchowski, Rados?aw; Zawierucha, Piotr; Ruci?ski, Marcin; Andrzejewska, Ma?gorzata; Wojtowicz, Karolina; Nowicki, Micha?; Zabel, Maciej

    2014-05-01

    Ovarian cancer is characterized by the higher mortality among gynecological cancers. In results of MDR development during chemotherapy cancer cells become resistant to further treatment. Microarray techniques can provide information about MDR development at gene expression level. ABC and SLC transporters are most important proteins responsible for this phenomenon. In this study changes of ABC and SLC genes expression pattern in drugs resistant sublines of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line were demonstrated. The cytostatic resistant sublines were generated by culture of A2780 cell line with an increasing concentration of the indicated drugs. As screening methods, we used Affymetrix U219 Human Genome microarrays. Independent t-tests were used to determinate statistical significances of results. Genes that expression levels were higher than assumed threshold (upregulated above threefold and downregulated under -3 fold) were visualized using scatter plot method, selected and listed in table. Between the ABC genes increased expression of seven genes and decreased expression of three genes were observed. Expression of two genes was increased or decreased depending on the cell line. We observed significant (more than tenfold) increase in expression of four ABC genes: ABCA8, ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCG2 and decreased expression of ABCA3 gene. We also observed changes in expression of 32 SLC genes. Between them we observe increased expression of 17 genes and decreased expression of 15 genes. Expression of four genes was increased or decreased dependent on cell line. The expression of nine SLC genes increased or decreased very significantly (more than tenfold). Five genes were significantly upregulated: SLC2A9, SLC16A3, SLC16A14, SLC38A4 and SLC39A8. Four additional genes were significantly downregulated: SLC2A14, SLC6A15, SLC8A1 and SLC27A2. Expression profiles of these genes give strong arguments for assumption of correlation between expression of ABC and SLC genes and drug resistance phenomenon. Identifying correlations between specific drug transporters and cytostatic drug resistance will require further investigation. PMID:24814220

  4. Quantitative assessment of direct and indirect landslide risk along transportation lines in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, P.; van Westen, C. J.; Jetten, V.

    2010-06-01

    A quantitative approach for landslide risk assessment along transportation lines is presented and applied to a road and a railway alignment in the Nilgiri hills in southern India. The method allows estimating direct risk affecting the alignments, vehicles and people, and indirect risk resulting from the disruption of economic activities. The data required for the risk estimation were obtained from historical records. A total of 901 landslides were catalogued initiating from cut slopes along the railway and road alignment. The landslides were grouped into three magnitude classes based on the landslide type, volume, scar depth, run-out distance, etc and their probability of occurrence was obtained using frequency-volume distribution. Hazard, for a given return period, expressed as the number of landslides of a given magnitude class per kilometre of cut slopes, was obtained using Gumbel distribution and probability of landslide magnitude. In total 18 specific hazard scenarios were generated using the three magnitude classes and six return periods (1, 3, 5, 15, 25, and 50 years). The assessment of the vulnerability of the road and railway line was based on damage records whereas the vulnerability of different types of vehicles and people was subjectively assessed based on limited historic incidents. Direct specific loss for the alignments (railway line and road), vehicles (train, bus, lorry, car and motorbike) was expressed in monetary value (US), and direct specific loss of life of commuters was expressed in annual probability of death. Indirect specific loss (US) derived from the traffic interruption was evaluated considering alternative driving routes, and includes losses resulting from additional fuel consumption, additional travel cost, loss of income to the local business, and loss of revenue to the railway department. The results indicate that the total loss, including both direct and indirect loss, from 1 to 50 years return period, varies from US 90 840 to US 779 500 and the average annual total loss was estimated as US 35 000. The annual probability of a person most at risk travelling in a bus, lorry, car, motorbike and train is less than 10-4/annum in all the time periods considered. The detailed estimation of direct and indirect risk will facilitate developing landslide risk mitigation and management strategies for transportation lines in the study area.

  5. Learning about Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... APS)? Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), also known as antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and sometimes Hughes syndrome, is a disorder characterized by elevated levels of multiple different antibodies (proteins produced by the body to fight off ...

  6. THE COMMISSIONING PLAN FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING AND TRANSPORT LINES.

    SciTech Connect

    RAPARIA,D.BLASKIEWICZ,M.LEE,Y.Y.WEI,J.ET AL.

    2004-03-10

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will provide a 1 GeV, 1.44 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. In order to satisfy the accelerator systems' portion of the Critical Decision 4 (CD-4) commissioning goal (which marks the completion of the construction phase of the project), a beam pulse with intensity greater than 1 x 10{sup 13} protons must be accumulated in the ring, extracted in a single turn and delivered to the target. A commissioning plan has been formulated for bringing into operation and establishing nominal operating conditions for the various ring and transport line subsystems as well as for establishing beam conditions and parameters which meet the commissioning goal.

  7. Investigation of a line-focused acoustic levitation for contactless transport of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresti, Daniele; Bjelobrk, Nada; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2011-05-01

    We investigate herein an interesting acoustic line-focused levitation mechanism, enabling the simultaneous transportation of the acoustically levitated particles. It is shown that the performance of such a system is strongly dependent on the envelope of geometric parameters of the levitator. To study this dependence systematically, a thorough numerical model using the finite element method is developed. Both rigid and flexural radiating plates are considered. The effect of all important geometric parameters on the resulting acoustic potential patterns is investigated. After successful experimental validation, in which particles of density ca. 1000 times higher than that of their surrounding gas (˜1 g/cm3 versus ˜10-3 g/cm3) are levitated and translated, the model proves to be reliable in predicting the position as well as the force exerted on the levitated particles.

  8. Evidence for two different broad-specificity oligopeptide transporters in intestinal cell line Caco-2 and colonic cell line CCD841.

    PubMed

    Chothe, Paresh; Singh, Nagendra; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2011-06-01

    Recently the existence of two different Na(+)-coupled oligopeptide transport systems has been described in mammalian cells. These transport systems are distinct from the previously known H(+)/peptide cotransporters PEPT1 and PEPT2, which transport only dipeptides and tripeptides. To date, the only peptide transport system known to exist in the intestine is PEPT1. Here we investigated the expression of the Na(+)-coupled oligopeptide transporters in intestinal cell lines, using the hydrolysis-resistant synthetic oligopeptides deltorphin II and [d-Ala(2),d-Leu(5)]enkephalin (DADLE) as model substrates. Caco-2 cells and CCD841 cells, both representing epithelial cells from human intestinal tract, were able to take up these oligopeptides. Uptake of deltorphin II was mostly Na(+) dependent, with more than 2 Na(+) involved in the uptake process. In contrast, DADLE uptake was only partially Na(+) dependent. The uptake of both peptides was also influenced by H(+) and Cl(-), although to a varying degree. The processes responsible for the uptake of deltorphin II and DADLE could be differentiated not only by their Na(+) dependence but also by their modulation by small peptides. Several dipeptides and tripeptides stimulated deltorphin II uptake but inhibited DADLE uptake. These modulating small peptides were, however, not transportable substrates for the transport systems that mediate deltorphin II or DADLE uptake. These two oligopeptide transport systems were also able to take up several nonopioid oligopeptides, consisting of 9-17 amino acids. This represents the first report on the existence of transport systems in intestinal cells that are distinct from PEPT1 and capable of transporting oligopeptides consisting of five or more amino acids. PMID:21307350

  9. Addendum: ``Hard X-Rays and Gamma Rays from Type Ia Supernovae'' (ApJ, 492, 228 [1998])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Peter; Wheeler, J. C.

    2004-04-01

    We report a subtle error in the normalization of the absolute flux published in our original article (hereafter HWK98), and some minor updates. The normalization problem is related to the post-processing. As a consequence, the reported line fluxes are too large at early times. Note that Figure 1 of P. Höflich (ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]) has been transferred from HWK98. Results of previous papers are not affected (E. Müller, P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]; P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]). For calculating the ?-ray spectra, the ?-ray transport is solved via a Monte Carlo code that produces an output file containing the Eddington flux, the energy input by radioactive decay and escape probability, ?, of ?-ray photons. In a postprocessing step, the spectrum is renormalized and convolved with the instrumental response function of the ?-ray telescope. A two-step procedure is used to obtain the emergent spectra to separate the CPU-intensive Monte Carlo transport calculation from the ``fast'' second step, allowing us to study the influence of the instrument on the observables (e.g., E. Müller, P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998

  10. (P) Professor (AP) Associate Professor

    E-print Network

    Goodman, James R.

    Professor Paul Rishworth (P) Bill of Rights Scott OPTICAN (AP) Bill of Rights (criminal law issues) Peter) Copyright Paul SUMPTER (SL) Criminal law Dr Georgos MOUSOURAKIS (SL) Criminal law Ken PALMER (AP) Criminal law Julia TOLMIE (AP) Criminal law Khylee QUINCE (L) Criminal law Professor Warren BROOKBANKS (P

  11. Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Blue Line vehicle evaluation. Final report Apr-Oct 79

    SciTech Connect

    Balaster, A.; Arnold, G.; Simmonds, K.; Francis, K.

    1980-07-01

    The report presents the results of engineering tests carried out on a pair of rapid transit cars for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. The tests were performed at the Transportation Test Center, Pueblo, Colorado, from April 1979 through October 1979. The scope of the test program included an evaluation of performance, ride quality, and interior and wayside noise, using standardized test procedures; special engineering tests were made to evaluate energy conservation methods and three types of experimental brake shoes. The tests showed that the vehicles met their design specification requirements with some deficiencies, notably in emergency braking rates. An energy conservation technique was evaluated, in which response characteristics of the vehicle propulsion system were modified to reduce energy needs due to aerodynamic drag at high speeds. Several potential energy-saving configurations were identified, with minimal impact on round-trip times. The experimental brake shoes tested were found to give performance comparable to the original equipment at normal operating speeds for the MBTA Blue Line, but were inferior at higher speeds.

  12. Celecoxib Up Regulates the Expression of Drug Efflux Transporter ABCG2 in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kalalinia, Fatemeh; Elahian, Fatemeh; Mosaffa, Fatemeh; Behravan, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Elevated expression of the drug efflux transporter ABCG2 seems to correlate with multidrug resistance of cancer cells. Specific COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib has been shown to enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to anticancer drugs. To clarify whether ABCG2 inhibition is involved in the sensitizing effect of celecoxib, we investigated whether the expression of ABCG2 in breast cancer cell lines, could be modulated by celecoxib. The expression of the multidrug resistant gene (ABCG2) at mRNA and protein level was detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Among three human breast cancer cell lines ABCG2 and COX-2 were highly expressed in MCF7-MX and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. The COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib up-regulated the expression of ABCG2 mRNA in MCF-7 and MCF7-MX cells, which was accompanied by increased ABCG2 protein expression. While celecoxib was able to block the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-mediated increase in COX-2 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells, it increased the expression of ABCG2 up to 4.27 times to the control level at mRNA level and with less intensity at protein level. Our findings provide evidence that celecoxib up-regulates ABCG2 expression in human breast cancer cells and proposed that ABCG2 is not involved in chemosensitizing effects of celecoxib. PMID:25587329

  13. Beam transport line with scaling fixed field alternating gradient type magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Shinji; Fenning, Richard

    2010-08-01

    A scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator provides large momentum acceptance despite the fact that magnetic guiding fields are constant in time. Optical functions are identical over the large momentum range as well. We have designed a straight beam transport line (BTL) using a scaling FFAG type magnet which has a field profile of yk, where y is the horizontal coordinate and k is the magnetic field index. This FFAG-BTL has very large momentum acceptance and optical functions that, practically speaking, do not depend on momentum. We also designed a dispersion suppressor at the end of the line by combining unit cells with a different field index k so that the momentum dependence of orbit location should be eliminated at the exit. An obvious application of this design is the BTL after an FFAG accelerator to a patient in a hadron therapy facility or to a target in general. This could be an alternative to the conventional BTL with solenoids or quadrupoles because of the strong focusing nature of a quadrupole and the large momentum acceptance like a solenoid.

  14. AP Biology II

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Presented by Hippocampus, a project of The Monterey Institute for Technology and Education, this free online course covers all of the material outlined by the College Board as necessary to prepare students to pass the AP Biology exam and is designed to acquaint visitors with "the general concepts of life including reproduction, balance in nature, and the nature of living things." This section is the second of a two-semester AP Biology course and contains six units: Energetics of Life; Animal Structure, Reproduction, and Development; Circulation, Body's Defenses, Nutrition; Nervous System and Internal Controls; Plants: Form and Function; and Ecology. Each unit includes readings, lessons, and assignments and/or chapter tests with answers. The site also lists all the topics covered, indexed in both alphabetical and sequential order. It's a great place for students to get extra help in Biology and for instructors to find lecture and test materials for the classroom.

  15. AP Biology I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Presented by HippoCampus, a project of The Monterey Institute for Technology and Education, this free online course covers all of the material outlined by the College Board as necessary to prepare students to pass the AP Biology exam and is designed to acquaint visitors with "the general concepts of life including reproduction, balance in nature, and the nature of living things." This section is the first of a two-semester AP Biology course and contains six units: Introduction to Biology; Cell Structure and Function; Genes; Principles of Heredity; Evolutionary Biology; and Biological Diversity. Each unit includes readings, lessons, and assignments and/or chapter tests with answers. The site also lists all the topics covered, indexed in both alphabetical and sequential order. It's a great place for students to get extra help in Biology and for instructors to find lecture and test materials for the classroom.

  16. AP Calculus AB II

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education (MITE), seeks to provide â??high-quality, multimedia content on general education subjects to high school and college students.â? This course, Advanced Placement Calculus AB II, is a continuation on the principles covered in the Advanced Placement Calculus AB I course. It contains study materials, interactive lessons, and textbooks to help students prepare for the College Board AP Calculus AB exam. Each lesson contains objectives, readings, an interactive lesson, and a test with answer key. Students can review the course material in its entirety, or simply choose a lesson that they need to review. The materials provided in this course will definitely help students to prepare for the AP Calculus exam, and can also serve as useful supplementary material for the classroom.

  17. AP Calculus AB I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-07-10

    HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education (MITE), seeks to provide â??high-quality, multimedia content on general education subjects to high school and college students.â? This course, Advanced Placement Calculus AB I, is part one of a two semester course and contains study materials, lessons, and textbooks to help students prepare for the College Board AP Calculus AB exam. Two course units, containing 14 lessons, cover a multitude of topics such as: differential equations, derivatives, antiderivatives, trigonometric functions, and definite integrals among others. This is an excellent self-paced tool for students to use while preparing for the AP Calculus exam, or as supplementary material for a calculus course.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation for excessive Balmer line broadening generated by transport of fast H Atoms in an abnormal glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetanovic, N. [Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 305, Belgrade (Serbia); Obradovic, B. M.; Kuraica, M. M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 368, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2009-02-15

    Monte Carlo code for fast hydrogen atom transport and generating of excessively Doppler broadened profiles based on the collision model is presented. Results for the initial monoenergetic atom beam and for a more realistic energy distribution of H atoms are reported. Line profiles obtained from the simulation are compared to our experimentally obtained data. Initial energy distribution for atoms is approximately calculated from the measured line profiles while the initial angle distribution was taken to be cosine. Balmer alpha intensity was found to exponentially decay in the negative glow region, which concurs with the experimental results. These agreements between the simulation and experiment support the collision model for excessive line broadening.

  19. Contactless transport of matter in the first five resonance modes of a line-focused acoustic manipulatora)

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    2011) The first five resonance modes for transport of matter in a line-focused acoustic levitation] Pages: 1029­1038 I. INTRODUCTION Among levitation techniques, acoustic levitation is not the most widely advanced analytical devices.4­8 The investigation of droplet levitation using acoustic force has a rich

  20. Vasopressin-dependent coupling between sodium transport and water flow in a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line.

    PubMed

    Gaeggeler, Hans-Peter; Guillod, Yann; Loffing-Cueni, Dominique; Loffing, Johannes; Rossier, Bernard C

    2011-04-01

    Water balance is achieved through the ability of the kidney to control water reabsorption in the connecting tubule and the collecting duct. In a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line (mCCD(c11)), physiological concentrations of arginine vasopressin increased both electrogenic, amiloride-sensitive, epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-mediated sodium transport measured by the short-circuit current (Isc) method and water flow (Jv apical to basal) measured by gravimetry with similar activation coefficient K(1/2) (6 and 12?pM, respectively). Jv increased linearly according to the osmotic gradient across the monolayer. A small but highly significant Jv was also measured under isoosmotic conditions. To test the coupling between sodium reabsorption and water flow, mCCD(c11) cells were treated for 24?h under isoosmotic condition with either diluent, amiloride, vasopressin or vasopressin and amiloride. Isc, Jv, and net chemical sodium fluxes were measured across the same monolayers. Around 30% of baseline and 50% of vasopressin-induced water flow is coupled to an amiloride-sensitive, ENaC-mediated, electrogenic sodium transport, whereas the remaining flow is coupled to an amiloride-insensitive, nonelectrogenic sodium transport mediated by an unknown electroneutral transporter. The mCCD(c11) cell line is a first example of a mammalian tight epithelium allowing quantitative study of the coupling between sodium and water transport. Our data are consistent with the 'near isoosmotic' fluid transport model. PMID:21178974

  1. Characterization of a Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell line with increased system L amino acid transport activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lobaton, C D; Moreno, A; Oxender, D L

    1984-01-01

    We have studied leucine transport in several Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell lines obtained by fusion of a temperature-sensitive line of Chinese hamster ovary cells, ts025C1, and normal human leukocytes. A hybrid cell line exhibiting a twofold increase in L-leucine uptake over that in the parental cell line was found. This hybrid cell line, 158CnpT-1, was temperature resistant, whereas the parental Chinese hamster ovary mutant, ts025C1, contained a temperature-sensitive leucyl-tRNA synthetase mutation. An examination of the different amino acid transport systems in this hybrid cell line revealed a specific increase of system L activity with no significant changes in systems A and ASC. The Vmax for L-leucine uptake exhibited by the hybrid 158CnpT-1 was twice that in the CHO parental mutant, ts025C1. Cytogenetic analysis showed that the hybrid 158CnpT-1 contains four complete human chromosomes (numbers 4, 5, 10, and 21) and three interspecific chromosomal translocations in a total complement of 34 chromosomes. Biochemical and cytogenetic analysis of segregant clones obtained from hybrid 158CnpT-1 showed that the primary temperature resistance and high system L transport phenotypes can be segregated from this hybrid independently. The loss of the primary temperature resistance was associated with the loss of the human chromosome 5, as previously reported by other laboratories, whereas the loss of the high leucine transport phenotype, which is associated with a lesser degree of temperature resistance, was correlated with the loss of human chromosome 20. Images PMID:6717430

  2. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  3. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source.

    PubMed

    Neri, L; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Torrisi, G; Cheymol, B; Ponton, A; Galatà, A; Patti, G; Gozzo, A; Lega, L; Ciavola, G

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here. PMID:24593457

  4. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, L., E-mail: neri@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)] [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy) [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund (Sweden)] [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund (Sweden); Galatà, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell'università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)] [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell'università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Patti, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy) [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell'università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gozzo, A.; Lega, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy) [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  5. Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Mustapha, B.; Savard, G.

    2015-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×105 as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS.

  6. AP1 function and regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Karin; Zheng-gang Liu; Ebrahim Zandi

    1997-01-01

    AP-1 (activating protein-1) is a collective term referring to dimeric transcription factors composed of Jun, Fos or ATF (activating transcription factor) subunits that bind to a common DNA site, the AP-1-binding site. As the complexity of our knowledge of AP-1 factors has increased, our understanding of their physiological function has decreased. This trend, however, is beginning to be reversed due

  7. AP Physics 1 and AP Physics 2: Course Revisions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-26

    In Fall 2014, The Advanced Placement Program will be replacing AP Physics B with a two-year sequence designed to foster greater depth of conceptual understanding and more time engaged in inquiry-based learning. The new courses, AP Physics 1 and AP Physics 2, will be equivalent to the first and second semesters of a typical introductory, algebra-based college physics course. This website informs physics teachers and school administrators about what's changing in AP physics, from course scope to exam design. The framework shifts away from a traditional "content coverage" model to one that focuses on key ideas in introductory physics. The approach was developed to allow greater time engaged in the practice of science, with less focus on mathematical routines. Resources available on this web page include the Curriculum Framework, FAQ's on the new AP Physics, examples, and reference material on inquiry instruction. The changes to each course were guided by National Research Council and National Science Foundation recommendations, following several years of collaborations among university educators and master AP teachers. Editor's Note: The AP Chemistry course has also undergone major revision, slated for adoption in Fall 2013. See Related Materials for a link to the College Board's web page on AP Chemistry revisions.

  8. Membrane transport changes in an adriamycin-resistant murine leukemia cell line and in its sensitive parental cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ratna Bose; Hing-Yat Peter Lain

    1988-01-01

    Multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy occurs when cells develop resistance towards structurally and functionally unrelated drugs. It is speculated that alteration of some fundamental process(es) in the cells leads to the development of multidrug resistance. The sodium pump activity of murine leukemia cell lines P388\\/S (sensitive) and P388\\/ADR (resistant) was measured and found to be different in the two cell

  9. Contactless transport of matter in the first five resonance modes of a line-focused acoustic manipulator.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-02-01

    The first five resonance modes for transport of matter in a line-focused acoustic levitation system are investigated. Contactless transport was achieved by varying the height between the radiating plate and the reflector. Transport and levitation of droplets in particular involve two limits of the acoustic forces. The lower limit corresponds to the minimum force required to overcome the gravitational force. The upper limit corresponds to the maximum acoustic pressure beyond which atomization of the droplet occurs. As the droplet size increases, the lower limit increases and the upper limit decreases. Therefore to have large droplets levitated, relatively flat radiation pressure amplitude during the translation is needed. In this study, using a finite element model, the Gor'kov potential was calculated for different heights between the reflector and the radiating plate. The application of the Gor'kov potential was extended to study the range of droplet sizes for which the droplets can be levitated and transported without atomization. It was found that the third resonant mode (H(3)-mode) represents the best compromise between high levitation force and smooth pattern transition, and water droplets of millimeter radius can be levitated and transported. The H(3)-mode also allows for three translation lines in parallel. PMID:22352478

  10. AP2 suppresses osteoblast differentiation and mineralization through down-regulation of Frizzled-1.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shibing; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Chu, Yanxia; Zmuda, Joseph M; Zhang, Yingze

    2015-02-01

    Transcription factor activating protein 2 (AP2) plays an important role in cellular differentiation. Although profound craniofacial and long bone developmental abnormalities have been observed in AP2-knockout mice, the molecular effects of AP2 on osteoblasts are poorly defined. We demonstrated that AP2 regulates the expression of human Frizzled 1 (FZD1), a co-receptor for the Wnt signalling pathway, in human osteoblast cell lines and primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). We also identified a putative AP2-binding site in the FZD1 proximal promoter in silico and characterized this binding element further in Saos2 in vitro by ChIP, electrophoretic mobility shift and promoter reporter assays. The transcriptional repression of the FZD1 promoter by AP2 was confirmed in normal human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB). Furthermore, overexpression of AP2 resulted in a significant reduction in both differentiation and mineralization of Saos2 cells. Knockdown of FZD1 expression before AP2 up-regulation diminished the AP2-dependent inhibition of Saos2 cell differentiation and mineralization. Similarly, overexpressing FZD1 before AP2 treatment in both Saos2 and BMSCs diminished the inhibitory effect of AP2 on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AP2 is a negative regulator of osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, and its inhibitory effect may be mediated in part through down-regulation of FZD1 expression. PMID:25369469

  11. A demonstration of a transportable radio interferometric surveying system with 3-cm accuracy on a 307-m base line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, K. M.; Macdoran, P. F.; Thomas, J. B.; Fliegel, H. F.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Batelaan, P. D.; Paine, S. R.; Newsted, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    A precision geodetic measurement system (Aries, for Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying) based on the technique of very long base line interferometry has been designed and implemented through the use of a 9-m transportable antenna and the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Communications Complex at Goldstone, California. A series of experiments designed to demonstrate the inherent accuracy of a transportable interferometer was performed on a 307-m base line during the period from December 1973 to June 1974. This short base line was chosen in order to obtain a comparison with a conventional survey with a few-centimeter accuracy and to minimize Aries errors due to transmission media effects, source locations, and earth orientation parameters. The base-line vector derived from a weighted average of the measurements, representing approximately 24 h of data, possessed a formal uncertainty of about 3 cm in all components. This average interferometry base-line vector was in good agreement with the conventional survey vector within the statistical range allowed by the combined uncertainties (3-4 cm) of the two techniques.

  12. AP Calculus BC I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-07-09

    Presented by HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education, this free online course covers all of the material outlined by the College Board as necessary to prepare students to pass the AP Calculus BC exam. This course is divided into two semesters and this unit is the first of those two semesters, it is designed to "acquaint you with calculus principles such as derivatives, integrals, limits, approximation, applications and modeling, and sequences and series." The course is separated into four units, including functions and graphs, limits and continuity, derivatives, and application of the derivative. Each lesson has objectives, readings, multimedia lectures, and assessments with answers. The site is also indexed by subject, which can be browsed alphabetically or sequentially. It is a great place for students to enhance their calculus skills or for educators to find supplementary materials for the classroom.

  13. Bending of Protonema Cells in a Plastid Glycolate/Glycerate Transporter Knockout Line of Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Jin; Takechi, Katsuaki; Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Moriyama, Yasuko; Sato, Hiroshi; Takio, Susumu; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis LrgB (synonym PLGG1) is a plastid glycolate/glycerate transporter associated with recycling of 2-phosphoglycolate generated via the oxygenase activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). We isolated two homologous genes (PpLrgB1 and B2) from the moss Physcomitrella patens. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PpLrgB1 was monophyletic with LrgB proteins of land plants, whereas PpLrgB2 was divergent from the green plant lineage. Experiments with PpLrgB–GFP fusion proteins suggested that both PpLrgB1 and B2 proteins were located in chloroplasts. We generated PpLrgB single (?B1 and ?B2) and double (?B1/?B2)-knockout lines using gene targeting of P. patens. The ?B1 plants showed decreases in growth and photosynthetic activity, and their protonema cells were bent and accumulated glycolate. However, because ?B2 and ?B1/?B2 plants showed no obvious phenotypic change relative to the wild-type or ?B1 plants, respectively, the function of PpLrgB2 remains unclear. Arabidopsis LrgB could complement the ?B1 phenotype, suggesting that the function of PpLrgB1 is the same as that of AtLrgB. When ?B1 was grown under high-CO2 conditions, all novel phenotypes were suppressed. Moreover, protonema cells of wild-type plants exhibited a bending phenotype when cultured on media containing glycolate or glycerate, suggesting that accumulation of photorespiratory metabolites caused P. patens cells to bend. PMID:25793376

  14. P cell excitability AP excitability

    E-print Network

    Gaudry, Quentin

    AP (mV) P (mV) DP(15) (ipsi) DP(15) (contra) ba d P cell excitability Vm I (nA) AP excitability Vm) Measurement of input resistance of P and cell 212 and the amplitude of the P-to-cell 212 synaptic potential. We hyperpolarized cell 212 to prevent it from generating action potentials during P cell stimulations

  15. AP-42 REVISION: COKE OVENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors" (AP-42) has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1972. Supplements to AP-42 have been routinely published to add new emission source categories and to update existing emission factor...

  16. Serotonin Transporter Promoter Gain-of-Function Genotypes Are Linked to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xian-Zhang Hu; Robert H. Lipsky; Guanshan Zhu; Longina A. Akhtar; Julie Taubman; Benjamin D. Greenberg; Ke Xu; Paul D. Arnold; Margaret A. Richter; James L. Kennedy; Dennis L. Murphy; David Goldman

    2006-01-01

    A functional serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism, HTTLPR, alters the risk of disease as well as brain morphometry and function. Here, we show that HTTLPR is functionally triallelic. The LG allele, which is the L allele with a common G substitution, creates a functional AP2 transcription-factor binding site. Expression assays in 62 lymphoblastoid cell lines representing the six genotypes and in

  17. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...form. The on-line complaint form allows the public to electronically...On-Line Aviation Complaint Form. OMB Control Number: To Be...rights requirements. Among other things, the office is responsible...Department using an on-line form. If the information...

  18. The interaction of celecoxib with MDR transporters enhances the activity of mitomycin C in a bladder cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An in vitro model was developed to understand if celecoxib could synergize with Mitomycin C (MMC), commonly used for the prevention of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer recurrence, and eventually elucidate if the mechanism of interaction involves multi drug resistance (MDR) transporters. Methods UMUC-3, a non COX-2 expressing bladder cancer cell line, and UMUC-3-CX, a COX-2 overexpressing transfectant, as well as 5637, a COX-2 overexpressing cell line, and 5637si-CX, a non COX-2 expressing silenced 5637 cell line, were used in the present study. The expression of COX-2 and MDR pumps (P-gp, MDR-1 and BCRP) was explored through western blot. The anti-proliferative effect of celecoxib and MMC was studied with MTT test. Three biological permeability assays (Drug Transport Experiment, Substrate Transporter Inhibition, and ATP cell depletion) were combined to study the interaction between MDR transporters and celecoxib. Finally, the ability of celecoxib to restore MMC cell accumulation was investigated. Results The anti-proliferative effect of celecoxib and MMC were investigated alone and in co-administration, in UMUC-3, UMUC-3-CX, 5637 and 5637si-CX cells. When administered alone, the effect of MMC was 8-fold greater in UMUC-3. However, co-administration of 1 ?M, 5 ?M, and 10 ?M celecoxib and MMC caused a 2,3-fold cytotoxicity increase in UMUC-3-CX cell only. MMC cytotoxicity was not affected by celecoxib co-administration either in 5637, or in 5637si-CX cells. As a result of all finding from the permeability experiments, celecoxib was classified as P-gp unambiguous substrate: celecoxib is transported by MDR pumps and interferes with the efflux of MMC. Importantly, among all transporters, BCRP was only overexpressed in UMUC-3-CX cells, but not in 5637 and 5637si-CX. Conclusions The UMUC-3-CX cell line resembles a more aggressive phenotype with a lower response to MMC compared to the wt counterpart. However, the administration of celecoxib in combination to MMC causes a significant and dose dependent gain of the anti-proliferative activity. This finding may be the result of a direct interaction between celecoxib and MDR transporters. Indeed, BCRP is overexpressed in UMUC-3-CX, but not in UMUC-3, 5637, and 5637si-CX, in which celecoxib is ineffective. PMID:23705854

  19. Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

  20. Vasopressin-dependent coupling between sodium transport and water flow in a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Peter Gaeggeler; Yann Guillod; Dominique Loffing-Cueni; Johannes Loffing; Bernard C Rossier

    2011-01-01

    Water balance is achieved through the ability of the kidney to control water reabsorption in the connecting tubule and the collecting duct. In a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line (mCCDc11), physiological concentrations of arginine vasopressin increased both electrogenic, amiloride-sensitive, epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-mediated sodium transport measured by the short-circuit current (Isc) method and water flow (Jv apical to basal)

  1. Altered retinal cell differentiation in the AP3 delta mutant ( Mocha) mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Baguma-Nibasheka; Boris Kablar

    2009-01-01

    Adaptor-related protein complex 3 delta 1 (Ap3d1) encodes the delta 1 subunit of an adaptor protein regulating intracellular vesicle-mediated transport, and the Ap3d-deletion mutant (Mocha) mouse undergoes rapid photoreceptor degeneration leading to blindness soon after birth. Previous microarray analysis revealed Ap3d down-regulation in the retina of mouse embryos specifically lacking cholinergic amacrine cells as a result of the absence of

  2. Paracellular Transport through Healthy and Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cell Lines – Do We Have a Proper Model?

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Nelly; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Günzel, Dorothee; Schillers, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported recently that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) besides transcellular chloride transport, also controls the paracellular permeability of bronchial epithelium. The aim of this study was to test whether overexpressing wtCFTR solely regulates paracellular permeability of cell monolayers. To answer this question we used a CFBE41o– cell line transfected with wtCFTR or mutant F508del-CFTR and compered them with parental line and healthy 16HBE14o– cells. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular fluorescein flux were measured under control and CFTR-stimulating conditions. CFTR stimulation significant decreased TER in 16HBE14o– and also in CFBE41o– cells transfected with wtCFTR. In contrast, TER increased upon stimulation in CFBE41o– cells and CFBE41o– cells transfected with F508del-CFTR. Under non-stimulated conditions, all four cell lines had similar paracellular fluorescein flux. Stimulation increased only the paracellular permeability of the 16HBE14o– cell monolayers. We observed that 16HBE14o– cells were significantly smaller and showed a different structure of cell-cell contacts than CFBE41o– and its overexpressing clones. Consequently, 16HBE14o– cells have about 80% more cell-cell contacts through which electrical current and solutes can leak. Also tight junction protein composition is different in ‘healthy’ 16HBE14o– cells compared to ‘cystic fibrosis’ CFBE41o– cells. We found that claudin-3 expression was considerably stronger in 16HBE14o– cells than in the three CFBE41o– cell clones and thus independent of the presence of functional CFTR. Together, CFBE41o– cell line transfection with wtCFTR modifies transcellular conductance, but not the paracellular permeability. We conclude that CFTR overexpression is not sufficient to fully reconstitute transport in CF bronchial epithelium. Hence, it is not recommended to use those cell lines to study CFTR-dependent epithelial transport. PMID:24945658

  3. Adaptor protein complexes and intracellular transport

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Yoon; Guo, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    The AP (adaptor protein) complexes are heterotetrameric protein complexes that mediate intracellular membrane trafficking along endocytic and secretory transport pathways. There are five different AP complexes: AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 are clathrin-associated complexes; whereas AP-4 and AP-5 are not. These five AP complexes localize to different intracellular compartments and mediate membrane trafficking in distinct pathways. They recognize and concentrate cargo proteins into vesicular carriers that mediate transport from a donor membrane to a target organellar membrane. AP complexes play important roles in maintaining the normal physiological function of eukaryotic cells. Dysfunction of AP complexes has been implicated in a variety of inherited disorders, including: MEDNIK (mental retardation, enteropathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, ichthyosis and keratodermia) syndrome, Fried syndrome, HPS (Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome) and HSP (hereditary spastic paraplegia). PMID:24975939

  4. APS Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2010 APS Conferences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-12-01

    From The Physiologist. Four travel fellows received funding to attend the 2010 APS Intersociety Meeting, Â?Global Change and Global Science: Comparative Physiology in a Changing World,Â? from August 4-7, 2010 in Westminster, CO. Four travel fellows received funding to attend the APS Conference, Â?Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease,Â? from August 25-28, 2010 also in Westminster, CO. The application reviews were led by Committee Member, Johana Vallejo-Elias.

  5. AP Central: Genetics Accountability Box

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carl Koch (Benedictine University and Waubonsee Community College; )

    2003-06-01

    With this simple demonstration, teachers can present the concepts of genetic diseases, probability, and ethics. Students can discuss other genetic problems using this model that are align with questions found on the AP Biology exam.

  6. A parameterization of the Lyman ? and Lyman ? line shapes for radiation transport simulations in divertor plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosato, J.; Reiter, D.; Capes, H.; Ferri, S.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Marandet, Y.; Stamm, R.

    2009-06-01

    At high divertor densities as foreseen in ITER, the hydrogen resonance radiation is trapped. This significantly affects the divertor dynamics. The model currently used for photon emission and absorption rates in EIRENE has been improved for the Lyman ? and Lyman ? lines. All line broadening mechanisms in the atom's rest frame are retained, including Stark, Zeeman and fine structure effects. The influence of the ion dynamics on Stark broadening is described by a computer simulation technique. A parameterization of simulated spectral line shapes is proposed by using a fit subroutine, which allows for fast evaluation of the model in EIRENE.

  7. Secretory protein targeting in a pituitary cell line: differential transport of foreign secretory proteins to distinct secretory pathways

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The mouse pituitary cell line, AtT-20, packages the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in secretory vesicles and releases it when the cell is stimulated with secretagogues. These cells have the capacity, after transfection with the appropriate DNA, to package heterologous peptide hormones into the regulated secretory vesicles (Moore, H. P. H., M. D. Walker, F. Lee, and R. B. Kelly, 1983, Cell, 35:531-538). To test if other secreted proteins prefer a different route to the surface, we have transfected AtT-20 cells with DNAs coding for a fragment of a membrane protein, the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein from which the membrane spanning domain has been deleted (Rose, J. K., and J. E. Bergmann, 1982, Cell, 17:813-819). We found that the secreted vesicular stomatitis virus G proteins were not transported to the regulated secretory vesicles. Instead they preferentially exited the cell by the constitutive pathway previously found in these cells (Gumbiner, B., and R. B. Kelly, 1982, Cell, 28:51-59). In contrast, human growth hormone transfected into the cells by the same procedure was transported to the regulated pathway with a similar efficiency as the endogenous hormone ACTH. Transport of the secreted G protein to the regulated pathway, if it occurs at all, is at least 30-fold less efficient than peptide hormones. We conclude that the transport machinery in AtT-20 cells must selectively recognize different secreted proteins and sort them into distinct secretory pathways. PMID:2997234

  8. A generalized framework for in-line energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Griesheimer, D. P. [Bertis Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States); Stedry, M. H. [Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 1072, Schenectady, NY 12301 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A rigorous treatment of energy deposition in a Monte Carlo transport calculation, including coupled transport of all secondary and tertiary radiations, increases the computational cost of a simulation dramatically, making fully-coupled heating impractical for many large calculations, such as 3-D analysis of nuclear reactor cores. However, in some cases, the added benefit from a full-fidelity energy-deposition treatment is negligible, especially considering the increased simulation run time. In this paper we present a generalized framework for the in-line calculation of energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo transport simulations. This framework gives users the ability to select among several energy-deposition approximations with varying levels of fidelity. The paper describes the computational framework, along with derivations of four energy-deposition treatments. Each treatment uses a unique set of self-consistent approximations, which ensure that energy balance is preserved over the entire problem. By providing several energy-deposition treatments, each with different approximations for neglecting the energy transport of certain secondary radiations, the proposed framework provides users the flexibility to choose between accuracy and computational efficiency. Numerical results are presented, comparing heating results among the four energy-deposition treatments for a simple reactor/compound shielding problem. The results illustrate the limitations and computational expense of each of the four energy-deposition treatments. (authors)

  9. AP180 Couples Protein Retrieval to Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis of Synaptic Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Vanlandingham, Phillip A; Barmchi, Mojgan Padash; Royer, Suzanne; Green, Rebekah; Bao, Hong; Reist, Noreen; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    How clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) retrieves vesicle proteins into newly formed synaptic vesicles (SVs) remains a major puzzle. Besides its roles in stimulating clathrin-coated vesicle formation and regulating SV size, the clathrin assembly protein AP180 has been identified as a key player in retrieving SV proteins. The mechanisms by which AP180 recruits SV proteins are not fully understood. Here, we show that following acute inactivation of AP180 in Drosophila, SV recycling is severely impaired at the larval neuromuscular synapse based on analyses of FM 1-43 uptake and synaptic ultrastructure. More dramatically, AP180 activity is important to maintain the integrity of SV protein complexes at the plasma membrane during endocytosis. These observations suggest that AP180 normally clusters SV proteins together during recycling. Consistent with this notion, SV protein composition and distribution are altered in AP180 mutant flies. Finally, AP180 co-immunoprecipitates with SV proteins, including the vesicular glutamate transporter and neuronal synaptobrevin. These results reveal a new mode by which AP180 couples protein retrieval to CME of SVs. AP180 is also genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease. Hence, the findings of this study may provide new mechanistic insight into the role of AP180 dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24456281

  10. Calcium role in base-line and ADH-stimulated sodium transport in frog skin.

    PubMed

    Casavola, V; Svelto, M

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of ventral frog skin with serosal A23187 calcium ionophore caused an initially transient increase in transepithelial sodium transport. After 60 min of treatment with A23187, a steady-state transport value was reached which was significantly lower than the initial one. Furthermore, it was found that ionophore treatment greatly inhibited the natriferic response to ADH and to 8br-cAMP. A further analysis on the possible ionophore action mechanism was carried out through pretreatment of the skin with indomethacin, very powerful prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. In the experimental conditions reported, A23187 seems no longer capable of inducing a transient increase in sodium transport, although it does inhibit the natriferic response to ADH. PMID:2858310

  11. Obesity-Linked Homologues TfAP-2 and Twz Establish Meal Frequency in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael J.; Goergen, Philip; Rajendran, Jayasimman; Zheleznyakova, Galina; Hägglund, Maria G.; Perland, Emelie; Bagchi, Sonchita; Kalogeropoulou, Argyro; Khan, Zaid; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2014-01-01

    In all animals managing the size of individual meals and frequency of feeding is crucial for metabolic homeostasis. In the current study we demonstrate that the noradrenalin analogue octopamine and the cholecystokinin (CCK) homologue Drosulfakinin (Dsk) function downstream of TfAP-2 and Tiwaz (Twz) to control the number of meals in adult flies. Loss of TfAP-2 or Twz in octopaminergic neurons increased the size of individual meals, while overexpression of TfAP-2 significantly decreased meal size and increased feeding frequency. Of note, our study reveals that TfAP-2 and Twz regulate octopamine signaling to initiate feeding; then octopamine, in a negative feedback loop, induces expression of Dsk to inhibit consummatory behavior. Intriguingly, we found that the mouse TfAP-2 and Twz homologues, AP-2? and Kctd15, co-localize in areas of the brain known to regulate feeding behavior and reward, and a proximity ligation assay (PLA) demonstrated that AP-2? and Kctd15 interact directly in a mouse hypothalamus-derived cell line. Finally, we show that in this mouse hypothalamic cell line AP-2? and Kctd15 directly interact with Ube2i, a mouse sumoylation enzyme, and that AP-2? may itself be sumoylated. Our study reveals how two obesity-linked homologues regulate metabolic homeostasis by modulating consummatory behavior. PMID:25187989

  12. Obesity-linked homologues TfAP-2 and Twz establish meal frequency in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael J; Goergen, Philip; Rajendran, Jayasimman; Zheleznyakova, Galina; Hägglund, Maria G; Perland, Emelie; Bagchi, Sonchita; Kalogeropoulou, Argyro; Khan, Zaid; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2014-09-01

    In all animals managing the size of individual meals and frequency of feeding is crucial for metabolic homeostasis. In the current study we demonstrate that the noradrenalin analogue octopamine and the cholecystokinin (CCK) homologue Drosulfakinin (Dsk) function downstream of TfAP-2 and Tiwaz (Twz) to control the number of meals in adult flies. Loss of TfAP-2 or Twz in octopaminergic neurons increased the size of individual meals, while overexpression of TfAP-2 significantly decreased meal size and increased feeding frequency. Of note, our study reveals that TfAP-2 and Twz regulate octopamine signaling to initiate feeding; then octopamine, in a negative feedback loop, induces expression of Dsk to inhibit consummatory behavior. Intriguingly, we found that the mouse TfAP-2 and Twz homologues, AP-2? and Kctd15, co-localize in areas of the brain known to regulate feeding behavior and reward, and a proximity ligation assay (PLA) demonstrated that AP-2? and Kctd15 interact directly in a mouse hypothalamus-derived cell line. Finally, we show that in this mouse hypothalamic cell line AP-2? and Kctd15 directly interact with Ube2i, a mouse sumoylation enzyme, and that AP-2? may itself be sumoylated. Our study reveals how two obesity-linked homologues regulate metabolic homeostasis by modulating consummatory behavior. PMID:25187989

  13. Monolayers of IEC18 cells as an in vitro model for screening the passive transcellular and paracellular transport across the intestinal barrier: comparison of active and passive transport with the human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolien H. M Versantvoort; Rob C. A Ondrewater; Erwin Duizer; Johannes J. M Van de Sandt; Andries J Gilde; John P Groten

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: previous studies have shown that the rat small intestinal cell line IEC-18 provides a size-selective barrier for paracellularly transported hydrophilic macromolecules. In order to determine the utility of IEC-18 cells as an in vitro model to screen the passive paracellular and transcellular components of the intestinal transport of nutrients and drugs, we have now examined the transport of GlySar

  14. Different Behavioral and Physiological Response in two Genetic Lines of Laying Hens Following Transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological and behavioral response to transportation stress were examined in chickens selected for high group productivity and survivability (HGPS) resulting from reduced cannibalism and flightiness in colony cages and in chickens from Dekalb XL (DXL) commercial strain. At 13 wks of age, 96 pulle...

  15. On the abundance of Europium. [in Ap and Am stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartoog, M. R.; Cowley, C. R.; Adelman, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    The inclusion of the effects of hyperfine splitting can significantly lower the abundance estimate of Eu from singly ionized lines which lie on the flat portion of the curve of growth. In the 21 cool Ap stars studied by Adelman and the five Am stars studied by Smith, the Eu abundance was reduced by 0.4 dex on the average. In individual cases, the reductions were as great as 0.9 dex. This makes the Eu abundance comparable to that of its neighboring rare earths Sm and Gd in the Ap stars and less than Sm and Gd in the Am stars, but still substantially overabundant with respect to solar values.

  16. The Role of the Clathrin Adaptor AP-1: Polarized Sorting and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The selective transport of proteins or lipids by vesicular transport is a fundamental process supporting cellular physiology. The budding process involves cargo sorting and vesicle formation at the donor membrane and constitutes an important process in vesicular transport. This process is particularly important for the polarized sorting in epithelial cells, in which the cargo molecules need to be selectively sorted and transported to two distinct destinations, the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Adaptor protein (AP)-1, a member of the AP complex family, which includes the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A and the epithelium-specific AP-1B, regulates polarized sorting at the trans-Golgi network and/or at the recycling endosomes. A growing body of evidence, especially from studies using model organisms and animals, demonstrates that the AP-1-mediated polarized sorting supports the development and physiology of multi-cellular units as functional organs and tissues (e.g., cell fate determination, inflammation and gut immune homeostasis). Furthermore, a possible involvement of AP-1B in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and cancer, is now becoming evident. These data highlight the significant contribution of AP-1 complexes to the physiology of multicellular organisms, as master regulators of polarized sorting in epithelial cells. PMID:25387275

  17. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)] [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico)] [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup ?} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  18. Optimization of the 8 GeV AP3-P1 Lattice for Antiproton Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Dave; /Fermilab

    2001-01-22

    During 8 GeV antiproton transfers between the Accumulator to the Main Injector, the antiprotons must travel through four separate beam lines, AP3, AP1, P2, and P1. This note describes the optimization of a single lattice that describes these beam lines for 8 GeV antiproton transfers from the Accumulator to the Main Injector and 8 GeV proton transfers from the Main Injector to the Accumulator.

  19. AP Chemistry Course Home Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For people with a penchant for benzene rings and other topics, the AP Chemistry Course site is a great resource. Designed for both educators and students, the site contains resources for teaching to the AP exam as well as a wealth of other items. Interested parties should explore the Classroom Resources where they will find seven different lab activities, such as "Misconceptions and Issues in Quantum Theory" and "Women Scientists of the Manhattan Project.� Additionally, the site features Other Core Resources which includes an open forum for educators along with some basic overviews for crafting a one-semester course in chemistry.

  20. AP Human Geography and Success on the AP Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncone, John; Newhalfen, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Classroom projects that explore culture and globalization enhance the curriculum and help students see how geography directly connects to their lives. These authors contend that a project-based approach can supplement the teaching of an AP Human Geography course, and visualize this course as an essential tool for students to truly understand how…

  1. Time resolved spectroscopy of the cool Ap star HD 213637*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present an analysis of high time resolution spectra of the chemically peculiar Ap star HD 213637. The star shows rapid radial velocity variations with a period close to the photometric pulsation period. Radial velocity pulsation amplitudes vary significantly for different rare earth elements. The highest pulsation amplitudes belong to lines of Tb III (˜360 m s-1), Pr II (˜250 m s-1) and Pr III (˜230 m s-1). We did not detect any pulsations from spectral lines of Eu II and in H?, in contrast to many other roAp stars. We also did not find radial velocity pulsations using spectral lines of other chemical elements, including Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba. There are phase shifts between the maxima of pulsation amplitudes of different rare earth elements and ions, which is evidence of an outwardly running magneto-acoustic wave propagating through the upper stellar atmosphere.

  2. Going below the line: creating transportable brands for Australia's dark market

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate non-point-of-sale cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents. Results: The tobacco industry has continued to market their products despite severe restrictions on legal marketing activity. They made careful plans to circumvent regulation well in advance. In preparation for bans, they chose and strengthened existing brands to enable their continued success in a dark market and prepared the consumer for bans by increasing their spending on below the line activities. Bans reduced the industry's effectiveness and efficiency. After bans new brand launches stopped: instead key existing brands were strengthened via alterations to the product, line extensions, and stretching loopholes in the legislation as far as possible. In line with the general trend towards integrated marketing, a range of activities have been used in combination, including guerrilla marketing, advertising in imported international magazines, altering the pack, sponsorships, brand stretching, event promotions, lifestyle premiums, and the development of corporate websites. Conclusions: The tobacco industry acknowledges that marketing restrictions have an impact, validating their continued use in tobacco control. The industry is extremely creative in circumventing these marketing restrictions, requiring tobacco marketing regulations to be informed by marketing expertise, regularly updated, and to adopt the broadest possible scope. Tobacco control advocates, particularly those communicating with young people, could learn from the creativity of the tobacco industry. PMID:14645953

  3. The Electronic ApJ in Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemesderfer, C. D.

    1995-12-01

    The on-line edition of the Astrophysical Journal provides the first opportunity for astronomical researchers to interact with the literature in a network context. Other electronic journals will follow. Astronomers will continue to develop ways to take advantage of information on the network, and these will be most effective when ApJ articles, observations from data centers, proposals for telescope time, communications with collaborators, and so on, are meshed. Astronomical literature, as a resource on the Internet, is not unique from the viewpoint of function or management, and astronomers are not unique as scholars in their desire to use the Internet as a tool to advance their work. We need to ensure as a community that all our resources for research --- journals and data --- fit in a global context on an Internet being used by everyone. In other words, we have to be sure that the ApJ fits into all the digital libraries of the future, including the ones we don't build. This paper will present a scenario in which many varied forms of information, astronomical and otherwise, can be catalogued and distributed so that they can be discovered and used by the research community.

  4. Space Charge Compensation in the Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport Line with Negative Hydrogen Ions

    E-print Network

    Valerio-Lizarraga, C; Leon-Monzon, I; Lettry, J; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2013-01-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Tranport (LEBT) using the package IBSimu1, which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H- beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  5. APS undergraduate brainstorming summit report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Robert G. Carroll (East Carolina State University Department of Physiology)

    2007-12-09

    IN 2004, the Education Committee was charged with seeking additional strategies to increase the exposure of undergraduate students to physiology studies and careers. Following a reaffirmation of this charge in the 2006 strategic plan, the American Physiological Society (APS) hosted an undergraduate brainstorming summit in late September of 2006.

  6. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  7. Filament wound metal lined propellant tanks for future Earth-to-orbit transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O.; Davis, Robert B.; Freeman, William T., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    For future Earth-to-orbit transport vehicles, reusability and lighter weights are sought for the main propellant tanks. To achieve this, a filament wound tank with a metal liner and an intermediate layer of foam-filled honeycomb is proposed. A hydrogen tank is used as an example. To accommodate mismatches in the expansion of liner and overwrap a design is proposed wherin the liner is configured so that the extension of the liner under pressure matches the expected contraction of the same liner due to the presence of a cryogen. In operation, the liner is pressurized at a rate such that the pressure strain matches the contraction due to decrease in temperature. As an alternate approach, compressive pre-stress is placed in the liner such that it will not separate from the overwrap. A finite element program is used to show stresses in the liner and overwrap for various tank pressures for the pre-stressed liner concept. A fracture mechanics analysis is made of the liners to determine tank life. The tank concept shown has a similar weight to the Shuttle external hydrogen tank, but the filament wound tank is expected to be reusable. Integration of the propellant tanks into a future transport vehicle is discussed.

  8. AP-2? REGULATES AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN STIMULATION OF APOLIPOPROTEIN E TRANSCRIPTION IN ASTROCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Rossello, Ximena; Igbavboa, Urule; Weisman, Gary A.; Sun, Grace Y.; Wood, W. Gibson

    2012-01-01

    Two key players involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are amyloid beta protein (A?) and apolipoprotein E (apoE). A? increases apoE protein levels in astrocytes which is associated with cholesterol trafficking, neuroinflammatory responses and A? clearance. The mechanism for the increase in apoE protein abundance is not understood. Based on different lines of evidence, we propose that the beta-adrenergic receptor (?AR), cAMP and the transcription factor activator protein-2 (AP-2) are contributors to the A?-induced increase in apoE abundance. This hypothesis was tested in mouse primary astrocytes and in cells transfected with an apoE promoter fragment with binding sites for AP-2. A?(42) induced a time-dependent increase in apoE mRNA and protein levels which were significantly inhibited by ?AR antagonists. A novel finding was that A? incubation significantly reduced AP-2? levels and significantly increased AP-2? levels in the nuclear fraction. The impact of A?-induced translocation of AP-2 into the nucleus was demonstrated in cells expressing AP-2 and incubated with A?(42). AP-2 expressing cells had enhanced activation of the apoE promoter region containing AP-2 binding sites in contrast to AP-2 deficient cells. The transcriptional upregulation of apoE expression by A?(42) may be a neuroprotective response to A?-induced cytotoxicity, consistent with apoE’s role in cytoprotection. PMID:22325097

  9. Modeled transport of freshwater from a line-source in the coastal Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, Elizabeth L.; Hermann, Albert J.; Stabeno, Phyllis; Bond, Nicholas A.; Steed, Richard C.

    2009-12-01

    A set of multiply nested atmospheric (The Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Modeling system—MM5) and oceanic (Regional Ocean Modeling System—ROMS) models has been developed to investigate ecosystem forcing as part of the US. GLOBEC program. This study focuses on the most finely nested oceanic model in the hierarchy, that of the coastal Gulf of Alaska (CGOA) during 2001-2002, and compares the model's results to data collected by GLOBEC investigators. The 3-km resolution model realistically generates two physical features needed to reproduce the CGOA ecosystem: the cross-shelf water mass structure on the Seward Shelf, and the seasonal cycle of vertical structure. In addition, the temporal variability of currents and tracer fields generated by the model is greatly improved compared to previous work, as is the resolution of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC). However, the treatment of the line-source freshwater source along the coast of Alaska still presents difficulties, because the model cannot resolve the many inlets and fjords where mixing takes place initially. This issue is investigated by testing the model's sensitivity to various forcing mechanisms which could compensate for this weakness, such as the addition of tidal mixing, the use of finely resolved winds, and the use of brackish runoff rather than purely freshwater for the line-source.

  10. Expression of transcription factor AP-2? predicts survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, M A; Kellokoski, J K; Moisio, K I; Mitchell, P J; Saarikoski, S; Syrjänen, K; Kosma, V-M

    2000-01-01

    The 52-kDa activator protein (AP)-2 is a DNA-binding transcription factor which has been reported to have growth inhibitory effects in cancer cell lines and in human tumours. In this study the expression of AP-2? was analysed in 303 epithelial ovarian carcinomas by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a polyclonal AP-2? antibody and its mRNA status was determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The immunohistochemical expression of AP-2? was correlated with clinicopathological variables, p21/WAF1 protein expression and survival. In normal ovaries, epithelial cells expressed AP-2? protein only in the cytoplasm. In carcinomas nuclear AP-2? expression was observed in 28% of the cases although cytoplasmic expression was more common (51%). The expression of AP-2? varied according to the histological subtype and differentiation. AP-2? and p21/WAF1 expressions did not correlate with each other. Both in univariate (P = 0.002) and multivariate analyses (relative risks (RR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–2.18, P = 0.007) the high cytoplasmic AP-2? expression favoured the overall survival. In contrast, the nuclear AP-2? expression combined with low cytoplasmic expression increased the risk of dying of ovarian cancer (RR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.13–3.83, P = 0.018). The shift in the expression pattern of AP-2? (nuclear vs cytoplasmic) in carcinomas points out to the possibility that this transcription factor may be used by oncogenes in certain histological subtypes. Based on the mRNA analyses, the incomplete expression and translation of AP-2? in ovarian cancer may be due to post-transcriptional regulation. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10864206

  11. Effect of subdominant species on the evolution of intense primary beam in a low energy beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)] [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2013-08-15

    The dynamics of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam with different distributions has been studied in a solenoid based low energy beam transport line using a particle-in-cell simulation method. Results are presented in wide parameter regimes covering emittance dominated as well as space charge dominated multispecies beams consisting of p, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams. Simulation shows the formation of hollow distribution of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams around the desired proton beam and separation is more distinct as the fraction of proton is increased. The hollow formation is almost independent of combination of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams, once the fraction of proton beam is fixed. The emittance growth of proton is found to increase sharply in the space-charge-dominated regime and is more in the cases where proton fraction is low.

  12. AP Central: AP Calculus AB Course Home Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Educational Testing Service (ETS) and the AP College Board have a number of excellent resources at their disposal, and this site provides a cornucopia of materials about teaching and learning calculus. First up is the information about the actual AP Calculus AB course, which may be most useful to those teaching the course at the high school level. Most visitors will want to take their time looking over the "Classroom Instruction and Resources" area. Here visitors will find special focus materials on approximation and differential equations, along with sample lesson plans and curriculum modules. The modules cover extrema, motion, and reasoning from tabular data. History of mathematics-types shouldn't miss the "History of Calculus" area, as it is quite a pip.

  13. Influence of overexpression of efflux proteins on the function and gene expression of endogenous peptide transporters in MDR-transfected MDCKII cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiying; Pal, Dhananjay; Patel, Ashaben; Kwatra, Deep; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to delineate whether overexpression of human efflux transporters (P-gp, MRP2, and BCRP) in transfected MDCK cells affect the functional activities, and gene and protein expression of endogenous influx peptide transporter system (PepT). Real-time PCR, immunoblotting, uptake and permeability studies of [3H]Gly-Sar were conducted on transfected MDCKII and wild-type cells to investigate functional differences. Cellular [3H]Gly-Sar accumulation was significantly lower in transfected MDCKII cell lines compared to wild-type cells. Transport efficiency of apical peptide transporters was markedly reduced to around 25%, 30%, and 40% in P-gp-, MRP2-, and BCRP-overexpressed MDCK cell lines, respectively. With ascending cell-passage, transport efficiency was enhanced. A significantly higher Gly-Sar permeability was observed across parental cell-monolayers over transfected cells at all pHs. Levels of mRNA for both canine PepT1 and PepT2 were substantially reduced when efflux transporters overexpressed but enhanced when mRNA-levels of efflux genes diminished with ascending cell-passage of transfected cells. An inverse correlation was evident between endogenous PepT and exogenous efflux transporters in transfected MDCKII cells. Results of protein expression also supported these findings. Overexpression of MDR genes can affect endogenous PepT function which might be due to the phenomenon of transporter-compensation resulting in down-regulation of endogenous genes. PMID:23262422

  14. Geometry, percolation and transport properties of fracture networks derived from line data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisavath, S.; Mourzenko, V.; Genthon, P.; Thovert, J.-F.; Adler, P. M.

    2004-05-01

    In most geological instances, 2-D or 3-D fracture distributions are not available from field data. We show here that when data relative to fractures are collected along a line such as a road or a well, estimations can be given to the major geometrical properties of the corresponding fracture networks, such as the volumetric density of fractures, their percolation character and their macroscopic permeability. All these formulae are analytical and can be split into two parts; the first one can be derived from the measured data, while the second one requires some assumption on the lateral extension of the fractures and on their permeability. All these techniques are applied to fractures located in the Baget watershed. They are also validated on a granite block whose structure is fully known. Extensions are proposed for networks with variable permeabilities and polydisperse fractures.

  15. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  16. Expression, localization, and inducibility by bile acids of hepatobiliary transporters in the new polarized rat hepatic cell lines, Can 3?1 and Can 10

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doris Cassio; Rocio I. R. Macias; Brigitte Grosse; Jose J. G. Marin; Maria J. Monte

    2007-01-01

    Sinusoidal and apical transporters are responsible for the uptake and biliary elimination of many compounds by hepatocytes.\\u000a Few in vitro models are however available for analyzing such functions. The expression and bile-acid inducibility of 13 transporters\\u000a and two nuclear receptors were investigated in the new rat polarized lines, Can 3?1 and Can 10, and in their unpolarized parent,\\u000a Fao. The

  17. Development and Characterization of a Novel Mouse Line Humanized for the Intestinal Peptide Transporter PEPT1

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Yehua; Wang, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaomei; Smith, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, but not colon, of mammals and found to mediate the uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs from the intestinal lumen. However, species differences have been observed in both the expression (and localization) of PEPT1 and its substrate affinity. With this in mind, the objectives of this study were to develop a humanized PEPT1 mouse model (huPEPT1) and to characterize hPEPT1 expression and functional activity in the intestines. Thus, after generating huPEPT1 mice in animals previously nulled for mouse Pept1, phenotypic, PCR, and immunoblot analyses were performed, along with in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies with a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar). Overall, the huPEPT1 mice had normal survival rates, fertility, litter size, gender distribution, and body weight. There was no obvious behavioral or pathological phenotype. The mRNA and protein profiles indicated that huPEPT1 mice had substantial PEPT1 expression in all regions of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) along with low but measurable expression in both proximal and distal segments of the colon. In agreement with PEPT1 expression, the in situ permeability of GlySar in huPEPT1 mice was similar to but lower than wildtype animals in small intestine, and greater than wildtype mice in colon. However, a species difference existed in the in situ transport kinetics of jejunal PEPT1, in which the maximal flux and Michaelis constant of GlySar were reduced 7-fold and 2- to 4-fold, respectively, in huPEPT1 compared to wildtype mice. Still, the in vivo function of intestinal PEPT1 appeared fully restored (compared to Pept1 knockout mice) as indicated by the nearly identical pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration–time profiles following a 5.0 nmol/g oral dose of GlySar to huPEPT1 and wildtype mice. This study reports, for the first time, the development and characterization of mice humanized for PEPT1. This novel transgenic huPEPT1 mouse model should prove useful in examining the role, relevance, and regulation of PEPT1 in diet and disease, and in the drug discovery process. PMID:25148225

  18. Gas Transport and Density Control in the HYLIFE Heavy-Ion Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Debonnel, Christophe S.; Welch, Dale R.; Rose, David V.; Lawrence, Simon S.Yu; Peterson, Per F

    2003-05-15

    The effective propagation and focusing of heavy-ion beams in the final-focus magnet region of inertial fusion target chambers require controlling the background gas density and pressure in the beam tubes. Liquid vortexes will coat the inside of the tubes next to the beam ports and will help eliminate the need for mechanical shutters to mitigate the venting of target chamber background gas into the final-focus magnet region. Before the neutralizing region, the beam space charge is high, and ablation and target debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region may cause voltage breakdown. Previous studies focused on evaluating the amount of target chamber debris reaching the entrance of the beam ports. The TSUNAMI code has now been used to assess the density, temperature, and velocity of the vortex debris transported {approx}3 m up the beam tubes and reaching the final-focus magnet region, assuming that the liquid vortexes are perfectly absorbing surfaces. To further mitigate debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region, and prevent voltage breakdown, a 'magnetic shutter' has been envisaged to divert the debris out of the final-focus region. This shutter will prevent the hot ablation debris from reaching the magnet region and, coupled to some ionizing scheme, will conveniently suppress early ingression of debris into the final-focus magnet region.

  19. A three-channel LED driver with single line transportation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Caideng; Du, Yiying; Jiang, Qiao; Zhou, Yun; Lv, Jian

    2012-10-01

    Designed a three-channel LED driver, realized the single-wire transmission of cascade signal between the drive IC of LED. Including the MCU digital interface, date register, clock synchronization, PWM grayscale adjustment circuit, as well as high voltage driver circuit for LED, etc… The driver control LED displaying 256 gray. Chip will generate synchronous sampling clock signals according to the received serial signals, when 24 bits dates have been received, the output pin begins to transport the dates followed-up which are automotive shaped to the input of the next chip. When the date receiving becomes low level that represent RESET, the red, green and blue channels will export different signals based on different input dates. Through the external MCU, it is realized the Separate luminance, and by connecting chips in series it achieved the control of outdoor big screen' colorful display. The automatic shaping forward technique makes the number of chips cascading immune to the limitations of signal transmission, but only limited by the refresh speed.

  20. AP1000 Features Prevent Potential Containment Recirculation Screen Plugging

    SciTech Connect

    Andreychek, Timothy; Anderson, Richard; Schulz, Terry [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, P.O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA, 15230 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the results of plant design development and evaluations that demonstrate that the AP1000 plant is not subject to potential containment recirculation screen plugging following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). Following a LOCA in a pressurized water reactor, it is necessary to recirculate water from the containment back into the reactor to maintain long term core cooling. The AP1000 utilizes passive safety systems to provide containment recirculation for long term core cooling following a LOCA. The AP1000 also has non-safety pumps which provide a backup means of providing recirculation. Screens are provided around the recirculation pipes to prevent debris from blocking recirculation flow and core cooling passages. Debris may be generated by the LOCA blowdown from insulation and coatings used inside containment. Even with effective cleanliness programs, there may be some resident debris such as dust and dirt. The potential for plugging the recirculation screens is a current PWR licensing issue. The AP1000 design provides inherent advantages with respect to the potential plugging of containment recirculation screens. These characteristics include prevention of fibrous debris generation, improved debris settling and improved recirculation screen design. Debris settling analysis demonstrates that failure of coatings does not result in debris being transported to the screens before it settles to the floor. Additional analysis also shows that the plant can tolerate conservative amounts of resident debris being transported to the screens. The AP1000 significantly reduces the probability of plugging the containment recirculation screens and significantly reduces inspection and maintenance of coatings used inside containment. (authors)

  1. R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

  2. Functional Identification and Characterization of the Brassica Napus Transcription Factor Gene BnAP2, the Ortholog of Arabidopsis Thaliana APETALA2

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Zhiyong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Lijun; Yu, Jingyin; Lu, Changming; Wei, Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    BnAP2, an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, has been isolated from Brassica napus cultivar Zhongshuang 9. The cDNA of BnAP2, with 1, 299 bp in length, encoded a transcription factor comprising of 432 amino acid residues. Results from complementary experiment indicated that BnAP2 was completely capable of restoring the phenotype of Arabidopsis ap2-11 mutant. Together with the sequence and expression data, the complementation data suggested that BnAP2 encodes the ortholog of AtAP2. To address the transcriptional activation of BnAP2, we performed transactivation assays in yeast. Fusion protein of BnAP2 with GAL4 DNA binding domain strongly activated transcription in yeast, and the transactivating activity of BnAP2 was localized to the N-terminal 100 amino acids. To further study the function of BnAP2 involved in the phenotype of B. napus, we used a transgenic approach that involved targeted RNA interference (RNAi) repression induced by ihp-RNA. Floral various phenotype defectives and reduced female fertility were observed in B. napus BnAP2-RNAi lines. Loss of the function of BnAP2 gene also resulted in delayed sepal abscission and senescence with the ethylene-independent pathway. In the strong BnAP2-RNAi lines, seeds showed defects in shape, structure and development and larger size. Strong BnAP2-RNAi and wild-type seeds initially did not display a significant difference in morphology at 10 DAF, but the development of BnAP2-RNAi seeds was slower than that of wild type at 20 DAF, and further at 30 DAF, wild-type seeds were essentially at their final size, whereas BnAP2-RNAi seeds stopped growing and developing and gradually withered. PMID:22479468

  3. Dynamics of intracellular clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 containing carriers

    PubMed Central

    Kural, Comert; Tacheva-Grigorova, Silvia K.; Boulant, Steeve; Cocucci, Emanuele; Baust, Thorsten; Duarte, Delfim; Kirchhausen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 coated vesicular carriers originate from endosomes and the TGN. We report here the real-time visualization of these structures in living cells reliably tracked by using rapid, three-dimensional imaging with a spinning-disk confocal microscope. We imaged relatively sparse, diffraction-limited, fluorescent objects containing chimeric fluorescent protein (clathrin light chain, ? adaptor subunits or dynamin2) with a spatial precision of up to ~ 30 nm and a temporal resolution of ~ 1 sec. The dynamic characteristics of the intracellular clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 carriers are similar to those of endocytic clathrin/AP2 pits and vesicles; the clathrin/AP1 coats are, on average, slightly shorter-lived than their AP2 and AP3 counterparts. We confirmed that while dynamin2 is recruited as a burst to clathrin/AP2 pits immediately before their budding from the plasma membrane, we found no evidence supporting a similar association of dynamin2 with clathrin/AP1 or clathrin/AP3 carriers at any stage during their lifetime. We found no effects of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function or the K44A dominant negative mutant of dynamin on AP1 and AP3 dynamics. This observation suggests that an alternative budding mechanism, yet to be discovered, is responsible for the scission step of clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 carriers. PMID:23103167

  4. AP reclamation and reuse in RSRM propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miks, Kathryn F.; Harris, Stacey A.

    1995-01-01

    A solid propellant ingredient reclamation pilot plant has been evaluated at the Strategic Operations of Thiokol Corporation, located in Brigham City, Utah. The plant produces AP wet cake (95 percent AP, 5 percent water) for recycling at AP vendors. AP has been obtained from two standard propellant binder systems (PBAN and HTPB). Analytical work conducted at Thiokol indicates that the vendor-recrystallized AP meets Space Shuttle propellant specification requirements. Thiokol has processed 1-, 5-, and 600-gallon propellant mixes with the recrystallized AP. Processing, cast, cure, ballistic, mechanical, and safety properties have been evaluated. Phillips Laboratory static-test-fired 70-pound and 800-pound BATES motors. The data indicate that propellant processed with reclaimed AP has nominal properties.

  5. Diadenosine polyphosphates Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, induce proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Peter; Schlüter, Hartmut; Schultheiss, Heinz Peter; Reusch, Hans Peter

    2008-05-15

    Depending on the number of phosphate groups, diadenosine polyphosphates (ApnA, Ap3A, Ap4A, Ap5A and Ap6A) differ in properties such as proliferation, apoptosis, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Possible signaling pathways leading to effects such as proliferation are still unknown. This study examined the proliferative effects of diadenosine polyphosphates on VSMCs and their intracellular pathways. Proliferation of VSMCs was measured by the cell count and [(3)H] thymidine incorporation. Phosphorylation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 was determined by Western blotting. Single-cell [Ca(2+)](i) measurements were done to determine the influence of [Ca(2+)](i) on intracellular signaling. Stress fiber formation was assessed by fluorescence microscopy to detect an influence of G alpha(12). Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, were shown to increase proliferation of VSMCs by activating P2Y receptors, which leads to stimulation of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 cascade. Ap3A- and Ap4A-induced activation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 was dependent on a signaling pathway that included the EGF receptor, PKC, PLCbeta and the increase of [Ca(2+)](i). In conclusion, Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, induce proliferation of VSMCs by a signaling pathway that begins with activation of P2Y receptors and leads to stimulation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2. PMID:18394589

  6. Glutathione peroxidase-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Lei [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Venkataraman, Sujatha [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Coleman, Mitchell C. [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Spitz, Douglas R. [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wertz, Philip W. [Dows Institute for Dental Research, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Domann, Frederick E. [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)]. E-mail: frederick-domann@uiowa.edu

    2006-12-29

    In this study, we found a role for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. UVA irradiation not only increased AP-2{alpha}, but also caused accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the cell culture media, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself could induce the expression of AP-2{alpha}. By catalyzing the removal of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from cells through over-expression of GPx-1, induction of AP-2{alpha} expression by UVA was abolished. Induction of transcription factor AP-2{alpha} by UVA had been previously shown to be mediated through the second messenger ceramide. We found that not only UVA irradiation, but also H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself caused increases of ceramide in HaCaT cells, and C2-ceramide added to cells induced the AP-2{alpha} signaling pathway. Finally, forced expression of GPx-1 eliminated UVA-induced ceramide accumulation as well as AP-2{alpha} expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that GPx-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression by suppressing the accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  7. Effect of magnetic fringe field and interference on beam matching in a Medium Energy Beam Transport line of the Spallation Neutron Source linac

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Guang Wang; Yan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line is employed in the Spallation Neutron Source linear accelerator (linac) to match the beam from a radio frequency quadrupole to a drift tube linac and to perform other functions. The MEBT lattice consists of 14 electromagnetic quadrupoles and other devices. The quads have very small aspect ratios (steel length over aperture diameter), and

  8. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in AP4S1 cause mild fever-sensitive seizures, developmental delay and spastic paraplegia through loss of AP-4 complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Hardies, Katia; May, Patrick; Djémié, Tania; Tarta-Arsene, Oana; Deconinck, Tine; Craiu, Dana; Helbig, Ingo; Suls, Arvid; Balling, Rudy; Weckhuysen, Sarah; De Jonghe, Peter; Hirst, Jennifer

    2015-04-15

    We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole-genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene, encoding the ? subunit of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). The effect of the predicted loss-of-function variants (p.Gln46Profs*9 and p.Arg97*) was further investigated in a patient's fibroblast cell line. We show that the premature stop mutations in AP4S1 result in a reduction of all AP-4 subunits and loss of AP-4 complex assembly. Recruitment of the AP-4 accessory protein tepsin, to the membrane was also abolished. In retrospect, the clinical phenotype in the family is consistent with previous reports of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. Our study reports the second family with mutations in AP4S1 and describes the first two patients with loss of AP4S1 and seizures. We further discuss seizure phenotypes in reported patients, highlighting that seizures are part of the clinical manifestation of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. We also hypothesize that endosomal trafficking is a common theme between heritable spastic paraplegia and some inherited epilepsies. PMID:25552650

  9. Effective temperatures of AP stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepien, K.; Dominiczak, R.

    1989-07-01

    A new method of determination of the effective temperatures of Ap stars is suggested in which at first the temperature of a model best reproducing the observed visual energy distribution is determined and then a correction to this temperature resulting from the UV flux deficit is added. The method is calibrated on a sample of stars with energy distributions known from the UV to the red. It is shown that the obtained effective temperatures of hotter stars agree well with the relation found by Lanz (1985). An extension of his relation toward cooler temperatures is given.

  10. Inhibition of K+ channel activity by 4-AP stimulates N-type Ca2+ channels in CHP-100 cells.

    PubMed

    Basavappa, S; Romano-Silva, M A; Mangel, A W; Laro, D; Campbell, I; Brammer, M

    1994-06-01

    The potassium channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), stimulates neurotransmitter release via plasma membrane depolarization and subsequent activation of voltage-gated calcium channels. The present study assessed the effects of 4-AP on intracellular calcium levels in the human neuroblastoma cell line CHP-100. Blockade of K+ channels with 4-AP significantly increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). This increase occurred via activation of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels. The 4-AP induced rise in [Ca2+]i was not inhibited by the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine but was sensitive to the N-type Ca2+ channel blocker omega-contotoxin GVIA. Tetrodotoxin did not alter the effect of 4-AP. These results suggest that in CHP-100 cells, following inhibition of K+ channels by 4-AP, N-type Ca2+ channels are activated. PMID:7919177

  11. Candidate Ap stars in close binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folsom, C. P.; Wade, G. A.; Likuski, K.; Kochukhov, O.; Alecian, E.; Shulyak, D.; Johnson, N. M.

    2014-08-01

    Short period binary systems containing magnetic Ap stars are anomalously rare. This apparent anomaly may provide insight into the origin of the magnetic fields in theses stars. As an early investigation of this, we observed three close binary systems that have been proposed to host Ap stars. Two of these systems (HD 22128 and HD 56495) we find contain Am stars, but not Ap stars. However, for one system (HD 98088) we find the primary is indeed an Ap star, while the secondary is an Am star. Additionally, the Ap star is tidally locked to the secondary, and the predominately dipolar magnetic field of the Ap star is roughly aligned with the secondary. Further investigations of HD 98088 are planned by the BinaMIcS collaboration.

  12. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  13. Transcription factor AP-2? promotes EGF-dependent invasion of human trophoblast.

    PubMed

    Biadasiewicz, Katarzyna; Sonderegger, Stefan; Haslinger, Peter; Haider, Sandra; Saleh, Leila; Fiala, Christian; Pollheimer, Jürgen; Knöfler, Martin

    2011-04-01

    The basic helix-span-helix transcription factor activating protein (AP)-2? is critically involved in cell-specific hormone expression of syncytializing human trophoblasts. Its role in invasive trophoblast differentiation, however, remains largely elusive. Using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence of first-trimester placentae, we here show that AP-2? is expressed in extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) both in situ and in vitro as well as in invasive trophoblast cell lines. Its protein expression was increased upon supplementation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) both in primary EVTs and trophoblastic SGHPL-5 cells. Gene silencing of AP-2? using small hairpin microRNA (shRNAmir) did not affect basal invasion of SGHPL-5 cells through Matrigel-coated filters but reduced EGF-stimulated invasion. Similarly, treatment of primary EVTs with AP-2? small interfering RNA decreased EGF-dependent invasion. Proliferation of SGHPL-5 cells and primary EVTs, measured by cumulative cell numbers and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling, respectively, were not affected on loss of AP-2?. EGF-dependent induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, pro- and active form of urokinase plasminogen activator, and chorionic gonadotropin (CG)-? was noticed in shRNAmir-control cells, whereas these genes were suppressed in EGF-treated shRNAmir-AP-2? cells. Similarly, EGF-stimulated MMP-2 and CG? protein expression was reduced in AP-2? small interfering RNA-treated primary EVTs. Knockdown of AP-2? also decreased luciferase activity of the CG?5 promoter in SGHPL-5 cells, which was compensated upon transient overexpression of AP-2? cDNA. In conclusion, we show that AP-2? expression positively affects human trophoblast invasion under EGF-stimulated conditions, likely by inducing critical invasion-promoting genes such MMP-2, urokinase plasminogen activator, and CG. PMID:21303946

  14. The effects of media on pharmaceutically relevant transporters in the human HT-29 adenocarcinoma cell line: does culture media need to be controlled?

    PubMed

    Lindley, David J; Roth, Wyatt J; Carl, Stephen M; Knipp, Gregory T

    2012-04-01

    The HT-29 cell line forms a confluent monolayer with tight junctions, but displays different phenotypes when cultured for 21 days in galactose-supplemented media (differentiated) versus glucose-supplemented media (dedifferentiated). This study is aimed at elucidating how media differences might affect selected drug transporter expression and peptide-based substrate transport toward reducing this variability. A vial of HT-29 cells was amplified and cultured over several passages in four different mediums (American Type Culture Collection recommended McCoy's 5A versus Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media containing glucose, galactose, or neither carbohydrate) with normal supplementation. Transporter mRNA expression was characterized at days 5 and 21 postseeding utilizing SABiosciences quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) drug transporter arrays. Transport studies using [H]histidine, [(3) H]glycylsarcosine, [(3) H]valacyclovir, and [(3) H]carnosine were performed to assess the functional effects of oligopeptide transporter expression changes in HT-29 cells grown in each media. qRT-PCR arrays illustrated variable, media-dependent transporter expression between both the initial and differentiated time points. Permeability studies illustrated considerable media-dependent differences in both paracellular and transcellular substrate fluxes. The results demonstrate that these cells exhibit differing monolayer characteristics and genotypic/phenotypic profile properties when cultured under different media. The results suggest a need for standardization of culture methodologies for reducing inter- and intralaboratory variability. PMID:22213613

  15. ANL/APS/TB-24 Diamond Monochromators for APS Undulator-A Beamlines

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    ANL/APS/TB-24 Diamond Monochromators for APS Undulator-A Beamlines R.C. Blasdell, L. A. Assoufid .................................................................................1 2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF DIAMONDS ..................................................5 2.1 Varieties of Diamonds ....................................................................5 2.2 The Lattice

  16. Predicting carrier-mediated hepatic disposition of rosuvastatin in man by scaling from individual transfected cell-lines in vitro using absolute transporter protein quantification and PBPK modeling.

    PubMed

    Bosgra, Sieto; van de Steeg, Evita; Vlaming, Maria L; Verhoeckx, Kitty C; Huisman, Maarten T; Verwei, Miriam; Wortelboer, Heleen M

    2014-12-18

    In contrast to primary hepatocytes, estimating carrier-mediated hepatic disposition by using a panel of single transfected cell-lines provides direct information on the contribution of the individual transporters to the net disposition. The most direct way to correct for differences in transporter abundance between cell-lines and tissue is by using absolute protein quantification. In the present study, the performance of this strategy to predict human hepatic uptake transport was investigated and compared with traditional scaling from primary human hepatocytes. Rosuvastatin was used as a model compound. The uptake activity was measured in HEK293 cell-lines stably overexpressing OATP1B1(?)1a, OATP1B3 or OATP2B1, the major transporters involved in human hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin, or expressing OATP1B1(?)15, associated with reduced hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin. The abundance of these transporter proteins in the outer membranes of HEK293-cells, in human primary hepatocytes and in human liver tissue was determined by LC-MS/MS. The measured activity, corrected for protein abundance and scaled to the whole liver, gave a very accurate prediction of the hepatic intrinsic clearance observed in vivo. Embedded in a PBPK model describing the hepatic disposition and enterohepatic circulation, the collective in vitro data resulted in a good explanation of the observed oral and intravenous pharmacokinetic profiles of rosuvastatin. The model allowed simulation of the effect of polymorphic variants of OATP1B1 on rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. These results encourage a larger scale validation. This approach may facilitate prediction of drug-drug interactions, scaling of transporter processes across subpopulations (children, diseased patients), and may be extended to tissues for which primary cells may be more difficult to obtain. PMID:25261337

  17. Altered retinal cell differentiation in the AP-3 delta mutant (Mocha) mouse.

    PubMed

    Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Kablar, Boris

    2009-11-01

    Adaptor-related protein complex 3 delta 1 (Ap3d1) encodes the delta 1 subunit of an adaptor protein regulating intracellular vesicle-mediated transport, and the Ap3d-deletion mutant (Mocha) mouse undergoes rapid photoreceptor degeneration leading to blindness soon after birth. Previous microarray analysis revealed Ap3d down-regulation in the retina of mouse embryos specifically lacking cholinergic amacrine cells as a result of the absence of skeletal musculature. To investigate the role of Ap3d in the determination of retinal cell fate, the present study examined retinal morphology in newborn Ap3d-/- mice. The Ap3d-/- retina showed a complete absence of cholinergic amacrine cells and a decrease in parvalbumin-expressing amacrine cells and syntaxin- and VC1.1-expressing amacrine precursor cells, but had a normal number of cell layers and number of cells in each layer with no detectable difference in cell proliferation or apoptosis. These findings indicate that, despite having no apparent effect on the basic spatial organization of the retina at this stage of development, Ap3d could be involved in the regulation of progenitor cell competence and the eventual ratio of resulting differentiated cells. Finding the mouse mutant which phenocopies the eye defect seen in fetuses with no striated muscle was accomplished by the Systematic Subtractive Microarray Analysis Approach (SSMAA), explained in the discussion section. PMID:19631730

  18. Inland Water Transport Decision Support System for Sustainable Development Based on Data Warehouse and On-Line Analytical Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Ke; Yang Shanfeng

    2009-01-01

    Considering the lack of effective evaluation on the sustainable development of inland water transport, an indicator system is designed for evaluation, illustration and checking of inland water transport sustainable development and an inland water transport decision support system for sustainable development is constructed based on data warehouse and online analytical processing (OLAP). The system structure includes 5 layers: application interface

  19. Expression, localization, and inducibility by bile acids of hepatobiliary transporters in the new polarized rat hepatic cell lines, Can 3-1 and Can 10.

    PubMed

    Cassio, Doris; Macias, Rocio I R; Grosse, Brigitte; Marin, Jose J G; Monte, Maria J

    2007-12-01

    Sinusoidal and apical transporters are responsible for the uptake and biliary elimination of many compounds by hepatocytes. Few in vitro models are however available for analyzing such functions. The expression and bile-acid inducibility of 13 transporters and two nuclear receptors were investigated in the new rat polarized lines, Can 3-1 and Can 10, and in their unpolarized parent, Fao. The relative abundance of mRNA, the protein level, and their localization were examined by real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and confocal microscopy. Compared with rat liver, mRNA levels of Fao cells were: negligible for Bsep/Abcb11; lower for the uptake transporters Ntcp and Oatps; similar for SHP, FXR, and Bcrp/Abcg2; and higher (four-fold to 160-fold) for the efflux pumps Mdr1b/Abcb1b, Mdr2/Abcb4, Mrp1/Abcc1, Mrp2/Abcc2, Mrp3/Abcc3, Abcg5, and Abcg8. This profile was mostly maintained (and improved for Bsep) in Can 10. Some transporters were less well expressed in Can 3-1. In both lines, sinusoidal (Ntcp, Mrp3) and canalicular transporters (Mdr-P-glycoproteins detected with C219 antibody, Mrp2) were localized at their correct poles. Bile-acid effects on polarity and mRNA levels of transporters were analyzed after a 6-day treatment with 50 microM taurocholic, chenodeoxycholic (CDCA), or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). No polarization of Fao cells was induced; Can 10 and Can 3-1 polarity was maintained. CDCA and UDCA induced marked enhancement of the volume of Can 10 bile canaliculi. CDCA upregulated Bsep, Mdr2, SHP, Mdr1b, and Oatp2/1a4 in Can 10 (two- to seven-fold) and in Fao cells. Thus, Can 10 constitutes an attractive polarized model for studying vectorial hepatobiliary transport of endogenous and xenobiotic cholephilic compounds. PMID:17909858

  20. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D., E-mail: leitnerd@nscl.msu.edu; Cole, D.; Machicoane, G.; Tobos, L. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)] [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

  1. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D.; Cole, D.; Machicoane, G.; Tobos, L.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

  2. THE APS GAVEL MEETS A NEW BLOCK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a summary on the history of the gavel and the block of the American Pomological Society (APS). In 2001, Dr. David Ferree, Emeritus Professor from the Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio, presented a gavel to the APS. He made this wooden gav...

  3. Advanced Placement Program: What's Changing in AP

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-26

    The AP Program has recently redesigned several courses in science, history, and world languages in an effort to stay strongly aligned with college credit policies and to prepare students for future learning and career pursuit. This website focuses on informing AP teachers about what's changing in AP, from course scope to exam preparation. The AP Chemistry revision will take effect in Fall, 2013. The change that will impact physics teachers most directly is the replacement of AP Physics B with two new year-long courses: AP Physics 1 Algebra-Based and AP Physics 2 Algebra-Based (scheduled to be deployed Fall, 2014). The changes to each course were guided by National Research Council and National Science Foundation recommendations, following several years of collaborations among university educators and master AP teachers. Especially noteworthy are the changes that integrate science practice as an essential component of the curriculum, along with statements that pair the essential knowledge (learning goal) to the appropriate science practice and articulate specific performance objectives.

  4. Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination and scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  5. AP Courses Get Audited for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Ellie

    2007-01-01

    As the college admissions process has gotten much more competitive, the number of high school students taking Advanced Placement (AP) courses has soared. At the same time, policymakers and education leaders seek to get more minorities and students not on the college track to sign up for AP and other rigorous classes. But as high schools have…

  6. Correction magnet power supplies for APS machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. G. Kang

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) machine requires a number of correction magnets; five kinds for the storage ring, two for the injector synchrotron, and two for the positron accumulator ring. Three types of bipolar power supply will be used for all the correction magnets. The author describes the design aspects and considerations for correction magnet power supplies for the APS

  7. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - WILDLAND FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is aimed at consolidating, selecting, and disseminating the most appropriate data and methods for estimating air emissions from wildfires and prescribed burns. The product will replace a current section of AP-42, but may not take the precise form of an AP-42 secti...

  8. Transportation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bryant, Joyce

    A unit designed to increase students' knowledge and understanding of diesel and gasoline engines, providing an introduction for students interested in more specialized training in the automobile field and its scientific principles through math, science, and chemistry. It will also help students realize the importance of transportation, and will help them meet their needs in math through problem solving by dealing with materials in their world, letting them develop skills and techniques through hands-on experience. Includes more than 20 problems to solve.

  9. In vitro establishment of ivermectin-resistant Rhipicephalus microplus cell line and the contribution of ABC transporters on the resistance mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Paula C; Carvalho, Danielle D; Daffre, Sirlei; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Masuda, Aoi

    2014-08-29

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is one of the most economically damaging livestock ectoparasites, and its widespread resistance to acaricides is a considerable challenge to its control. In this scenario, the establishment of resistant cell lines is a useful approach to understand the mechanisms involved in the development of acaricide resistance, to identify drug resistance markers, and to develop new acaricides. This study describes the establishment of an ivermectin (IVM)-resistant R. microplus embryonic cell line, BME26-IVM. The resistant cells were obtained after the exposure of IVM-sensitive BME26 cells to increasing doses of IVM in a step-wise manner, starting from an initial non-toxic concentration of 0.5 ?g/mL IVM, and reaching 6 ?g/mL IVM after a 46-week period. BME26-IVM cell line was 4.5 times more resistant to IVM than the parental BME26 cell line (lethal concentration 50 (LC50) 15.1 ± 1.6 ?g/mL and 3.35 ± 0.09 ?g/mL, respectively). As an effort to determine the molecular mechanisms governing resistance, the contribution of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter was investigated. Increased expression levels of ABC transporter genes were found in IVM-treated cells, and resistance to IVM was significantly reduced by co-incubation with 5 ?M cyclosporine A (CsA), an ABC transporter inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of these proteins in IVM-resistance. These results are similar to those already described in IVM-resistant tick populations, and suggest that similar resistance mechanisms are involved in vitro and in vivo. They reinforce the hypothesis that ABC transporters are involved in IVM resistance and support the use of BME26-IVM as an in vitro approach to study acaricide resistance mechanisms. PMID:24956999

  10. Knockdown of CDK2AP1 in Primary Human Fibroblasts Induces p53 Dependent Senescence.

    PubMed

    Alsayegh, Khaled N; Gadepalli, Venkat S; Iyer, Shilpa; Rao, Raj R

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin Dependent Kinase-2 Associated Protein-1 (CDK2AP1) is known to be a tumor suppressor that plays a role in cell cycle regulation by sequestering monomeric CDK2, and targeting it for proteolysis. A reduction of CDK2AP1 expression is considered to be a negative prognostic indicator in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and also associated with increased invasion in human gastric cancer tissue. CDK2AP1 overexpression was shown to inhibit growth, reduce invasion and increase apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effect of CDK2AP1 downregulation in primary human dermal fibroblasts. Using a short-hairpin RNA to reduce its expression, we found that knockdown of CDK2AP1in primary human fibroblasts resulted in reduced proliferation and in the induction of senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage of cells in the S phase and an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Immunocytochemical analysis also revealed that the CDK2AP1 knockdown significantly increased the percentage of cells that exhibited ?-H2AX foci, which could indicate presence of DNA damage. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in increased mRNA levels of p53, p21, BAX and PUMA and p53 protein levels. In primary human fibroblasts in which p53 and CDK2AP1 were simultaneously downregulated, there was: (a) no increase in senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity, (b) decrease in the number of cells in the G1-phase and increase in number of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, and (c) decrease in the mRNA levels of p21, BAX and PUMA when compared with CDK2AP1 knockdown only fibroblasts. Taken together, this suggests that the observed phenotype is p53 dependent. We also observed a prominent increase in the levels of ARF protein in the CDK2AP1 knockdown cells, which suggests a possible role of ARF in p53 stabilization following CDK2AP1 knockdown. Altogether, our results show that knockdown of CDK2AP1 in primary human fibroblasts reduced proliferation and induced premature senescence, with the observed phenotype being p53 dependent. PMID:25785833

  11. Knockdown of CDK2AP1 in Primary Human Fibroblasts Induces p53 Dependent Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Alsayegh, Khaled N.; Gadepalli, Venkat S.; Iyer, Shilpa; Rao, Raj R.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin Dependent Kinase-2 Associated Protein-1 (CDK2AP1) is known to be a tumor suppressor that plays a role in cell cycle regulation by sequestering monomeric CDK2, and targeting it for proteolysis. A reduction of CDK2AP1 expression is considered to be a negative prognostic indicator in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and also associated with increased invasion in human gastric cancer tissue. CDK2AP1 overexpression was shown to inhibit growth, reduce invasion and increase apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effect of CDK2AP1 downregulation in primary human dermal fibroblasts. Using a short-hairpin RNA to reduce its expression, we found that knockdown of CDK2AP1in primary human fibroblasts resulted in reduced proliferation and in the induction of senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage of cells in the S phase and an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Immunocytochemical analysis also revealed that the CDK2AP1 knockdown significantly increased the percentage of cells that exhibited ?-H2AX foci, which could indicate presence of DNA damage. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in increased mRNA levels of p53, p21, BAX and PUMA and p53 protein levels. In primary human fibroblasts in which p53 and CDK2AP1 were simultaneously downregulated, there was: (a) no increase in senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity, (b) decrease in the number of cells in the G1-phase and increase in number of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, and (c) decrease in the mRNA levels of p21, BAX and PUMA when compared with CDK2AP1 knockdown only fibroblasts. Taken together, this suggests that the observed phenotype is p53 dependent. We also observed a prominent increase in the levels of ARF protein in the CDK2AP1 knockdown cells, which suggests a possible role of ARF in p53 stabilization following CDK2AP1 knockdown. Altogether, our results show that knockdown of CDK2AP1 in primary human fibroblasts reduced proliferation and induced premature senescence, with the observed phenotype being p53 dependent. PMID:25785833

  12. AP1S3 mutations are associated with pustular psoriasis and impaired Toll-like receptor 3 trafficking.

    PubMed

    Setta-Kaffetzi, Niovi; Simpson, Michael A; Navarini, Alexander A; Patel, Varsha M; Lu, Hui-Chun; Allen, Michael H; Duckworth, Michael; Bachelez, Hervé; Burden, A David; Choon, Siew-Eng; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Kirby, Brian; Kolios, Antonios; Seyger, Marieke M B; Prins, Christa; Smahi, Asma; Trembath, Richard C; Fraternali, Franca; Smith, Catherine H; Barker, Jonathan N; Capon, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotetramer that promotes vesicular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes. The knockout of most murine AP-1 complex subunits is embryonically lethal, so the identification of human disease-associated alleles has the unique potential to deliver insights into gene function. Here, we report two founder mutations (c.11T>G [p.Phe4Cys] and c.97C>T [p.Arg33Trp]) in AP1S3, the gene encoding AP-1 complex subunit ?1C, in 15 unrelated individuals with a severe autoinflammatory skin disorder known as pustular psoriasis. Because the variants are predicted to destabilize the 3D structure of the AP-1 complex, we generated AP1S3-knockdown cell lines to investigate the consequences of AP-1 deficiency in skin keratinocytes. We found that AP1S3 silencing disrupted the endosomal translocation of the innate pattern-recognition receptor TLR-3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and resulted in a marked inhibition of downstream signaling. These findings identify pustular psoriasis as an autoinflammatory phenotype caused by defects in vesicular trafficking and demonstrate a requirement of AP-1 for Toll-like receptor homeostasis. PMID:24791904

  13. AP1S3 Mutations Are Associated with Pustular Psoriasis and Impaired Toll-like Receptor 3 Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Setta-Kaffetzi, Niovi; Simpson, Michael A.; Navarini, Alexander A.; Patel, Varsha M.; Lu, Hui-Chun; Allen, Michael H.; Duckworth, Michael; Bachelez, Hervé; Burden, A. David; Choon, Siew-Eng; Griffiths, Christopher E.M.; Kirby, Brian; Kolios, Antonios; Seyger, Marieke M.B.; Prins, Christa; Smahi, Asma; Trembath, Richard C.; Fraternali, Franca; Smith, Catherine H.; Barker, Jonathan N.; Capon, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotetramer that promotes vesicular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes. The knockout of most murine AP-1 complex subunits is embryonically lethal, so the identification of human disease-associated alleles has the unique potential to deliver insights into gene function. Here, we report two founder mutations (c.11T>G [p.Phe4Cys] and c.97C>T [p.Arg33Trp]) in AP1S3, the gene encoding AP-1 complex subunit ?1C, in 15 unrelated individuals with a severe autoinflammatory skin disorder known as pustular psoriasis. Because the variants are predicted to destabilize the 3D structure of the AP-1 complex, we generated AP1S3-knockdown cell lines to investigate the consequences of AP-1 deficiency in skin keratinocytes. We found that AP1S3 silencing disrupted the endosomal translocation of the innate pattern-recognition receptor TLR-3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and resulted in a marked inhibition of downstream signaling. These findings identify pustular psoriasis as an autoinflammatory phenotype caused by defects in vesicular trafficking and demonstrate a requirement of AP-1 for Toll-like receptor homeostasis. PMID:24791904

  14. ARF1GTP, Tyrosine-based Signals, and Phosphatidylino- sitol 4,5-Bisphosphate Constitute a Minimal Machinery to Recruit the AP1 Clathrin Adaptor to Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Crottet; Daniel M. Meyer; Jack Rohrer; Martin Spiess

    At the trans-Golgi network, clathrin coats containing AP-1 adaptor complexes are formed in an ARF1-dependent manner, generating vesicles transporting cargo proteins to endosomes. The mechanism of site-specific targeting of AP-1 and the role of cargo are poorly understood. We have developed an in vitro assay to study the recruitment of purified AP-1 adaptors to chemically defined liposomes presenting peptides corresponding

  15. Residual radiation studies at AP0

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander J Elwyn et al.

    2002-06-19

    The radiation environment at the NuMI experiment has received a lot of attention in the last few years in preparation for project construction. One important issue is the induced radioactivation of the components in the beam line and the shielding materials. This arises from irradiation by hadrons that are generated in the target. Since the level of the residual activity has to be considered when determining access procedures for maintenance during NuMI operation, an understanding of the properties of the remnant radiation is important. To this end, experimental studies were performed in the target vault at AP0 which is similar in design to the NuMI target area. Here 120 GeV protons bombard a target, generating the hadrons that produce the induced radioactivity. Two sets of samples each consisting of three small cylindrical or rectangular solids of iron and steel, one sample of aluminum, and one of concrete were irradiated. One set was hung just below the bottom of a module near the lithium lens (in-vault), and the other was placed on top of the modules downstream of this location (above-vault), just beneath the movable concrete roof of the vault at AP0. Further, four thin activation foils of Au, Au+Cd, In, and Al (along with small disks of the same iron, aluminum, and concrete samples discussed above) were mounted on four 10.2 cm diameter Al disks, one placed on the in-vault module and three at above-vault downstream locations as well. The radioactivity of all these materials on the 10.2 cm Al disks was determined at the Radioisotope Analysis Facility in an attempt to characterize the radionuclides produced during irradiation. The activities of the thin foils were employed in an effort to unfold a spectrum of the neutrons produced during the hadronic cascades in the target. The MARS Monte Carlo code (MO95, MO00) was used to predict and analyze the residual radiation produced during the beam irradiation. New subroutines have been developed for the MARS14 version providing reliable estimation of residual dose rates in arbitrary composite materials for arbitrary irradiation and cooling times (RA01). The results of the simulations have been compared with the measurements in Ref. (RA01) and this comparison will be summarized here.

  16. Analysis of large scale tests for AP-600 passive containment cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, W.T.; Chien, T.H.; Sun, J.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Chao, B.T. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-07-01

    One unique feature of the AP-600 is its passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which is designed to maintain containment pressure below the design limit for 72 hours without action by the reactor operator. During a design-basis accident, i.e., either a loss-of-coolant or a main steam-line break accident, steam escapes and comes in contact with the much cooler containment vessel wall. Heat is transferred to the inside surface of the steel containment wall by convection and condensation of steam and through the containment steel wall by conduction. Heat is then transferred from the outside of the containment surface by heating and evaporation of a thin liquid film that is formed by applying water at the top of the containment vessel dome. Air in the annual space is heated by both convection and injection of steam from the evaporating liquid film. The heated air and vapor rise as a result of natural circulation and exit the shield building through the outlets above the containment shell. All of the analytical models that are developed for and used in the COMMIX-ID code for predicting performance of the PCCS will be described. These models cover governing conservation equations for multicomponents single phase flow, transport equations for the {kappa}-{epsilon} two-equation turbulence model, auxiliary equations, liquid-film tracking model for both inside (condensate) and outside (evaporating liquid film) surfaces of the containment vessel wall, thermal coupling between flow domains inside and outside the containment vessel, and heat and mass transfer models. Various key parameters of the COMMIX-ID results and corresponding AP-600 PCCS experimental data are compared and the agreement is good. Significant findings from this study are summarized.

  17. Regulation of Aggression by Obesity-Linked Genes TfAP-2 and Twz Through Octopamine Signaling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael J.; Goergen, Philip; Rajendran, Jayasimman; Klockars, Anica; Kasagiannis, Anna; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2014-01-01

    In Drosophila, the monoamine octopamine, through mechanisms that are not completely understood, regulates both aggression and mating behavior. Interestingly, our study demonstrates that the Drosophila obesity-linked homologs Transcription factor AP-2 (TfAP-2; TFAP2B in humans) and Tiwaz (Twz; KCTD15 in humans) interact to modify male behavior by controlling the expression of Tyramine ?-hydroxylase and Vesicular monanime transporter, genes necessary for octopamine production and secretion. Furthermore, we reveal that octopamine in turn regulates aggression through the Drosophila cholecystokinin satiation hormone homolog Drosulfakinin (Dsk). Finally, we establish that TfAP-2 is expressed in octopaminergic neurons known to control aggressive behavior and that TfAP-2 requires functional Twz for its activity. We conclude that genetically manipulating the obesity-linked homologs TfAP-2 and Twz is sufficient to affect octopamine signaling, which in turn modulates Drosophila male behavior through the regulation of the satiation hormone Dsk. PMID:24142897

  18. Development of the AP Technology Through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmier, F.; Martin, O.; Gariepy, R.

    2015-02-01

    This article presents the historical development of the AP Technology (Aluval, Voreppe, France) pot series starting with the AP13 in the 1960s, followed by the AP18 and the AP30 in the 1980s and 1990s. For most of the modern-era technology, from the late 1970s on, development has been based on a three-stage pattern, the first one being the pot modeling, followed by the pot prototype stage, and then the industrial stage, which fully validated the technology. This development pattern has proven to be successful since it has led to the very robust AP Technology pot design generation and a large number of greenfield smelters built in the 1990-2010 selected the AP Technology design. AP60 is the latest of this series: The development at the prototype level was initiated in the 1990s and is presented in the article. It is now followed by the first industrial realization at Jonquière with the startup in late 2013 and the full validation of the technology in mid-2014. The development of APXe, which aims at very low energy consumption, uses many common elements pertaining to the AP60 design and is presented in the article. AP Technology has also addressed the need for continuous and fast improvement of pot performances adapted to each existing client or site specifics; for this purpose, a new development methodology has recently emerged thanks to the very high modeling capabilities. This methodology, based on the validation of "technology bricks" and their integration in the final design following a strict process, is presented in the last section of this article.

  19. Effect of radiation on the regulation of sodium-dependent glucose transport in LLC-PK/sub 1/ epithelial cell line: possible model for gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, A.; Davis, L.; Hagan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Low concentrations of glucose-cultured kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK/sub 1/) to produce hexose-transport proteins. The effects of ionizing radiation were investigated on this induction process in plateau-phase cultures. The induced production of hexose transporters, requiring approximately 6 to 9 days for complete expression, can be inhibited by irradiation during the first 4 days. After the fourth post-induction day, radiation sensitivity decreases with almost no radiation effect on the induction of hexose transport apparent by the sixth day of the induction period. The D/sub o/ value associated with the induction block is approximately 25 Gy, a value which is considerably greater than necessary to inhibit cell replication. Hexose transport, itself resistant to ionizing radiation at doses in excess of 100 Gy, is sensitive to cycloheximide throughout the induction period. The sensitivity to cycloheximide decreases during the last 2 days of the induction period, approximately 1 day after the reduction in radiosensitivity. Based on these properties hexose transport may be a convenient model for the study of radiation effects upon gene expression in this cell line.

  20. Effect of radiation on the regulation of sodium-dependent glucose transport in LLC-PK1 epithelial cell line: possible model for gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, A.; Davis, L.; Hagan, M.

    1986-02-01

    Low concentrations of glucose induce cultured kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1) to produce hexose transport proteins. We have investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on this induction process in plateau-phase cultures. The induced production of hexose transporters, requiring approximately 6 to 9 days for complete expression, can be inhibited by irradiation during the first 4 days. After the fourth postinduction day, radiation sensitivity decreases with almost no radiation effect on the induction of hexose transport apparent by the sixth day of the induction period. The D0 value associated with the induction block is approximately 25 Gy, a value which is considerably greater than that necessary to inhibit cell replication. Hexose transport, itself resistant to ionizing radiation at doses in excess of 100 Gy, is sensitive to cycloheximide throughout the induction period. The sensitivity to cycloheximide decreases during the last 2 days of the induction period, approximately 1 day after the reduction in radiosensitivity. Based on these properties hexose transport may be a convenient model for the study of radiation effects upon gene expression in this cell line.

  1. The A&P Professor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patton, Kevin T.

    2012-04-06

    Kevin Patton is the president emeritus of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) and he is also the brains behind the A&P (Anatomy & Physiology) Professor website. Patton has worked to create this online collection of resources for people teaching human anatomy and physiology, and it's a great counterpart to his blog of the same name. Visitors should start by looking over one of the five tabs at the top of the page, which include Resources, Topics, and How To. The How To contains resources for educators about producing online lectures and various in-class student response systems. The files here are dynamic, and they include interactive sections that make the material quite lively. Moving on, the Resources area includes an online version of an anatomy & physiology textbook created by Patton, along with links to other high-quality resources. Finally, the Lion's Den section of the site contains links to Patton's syllabi, course handouts, and a range of introductory materials for anyone who might be teaching a basic anatomy & physiology course.

  2. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples, 7AP-99-1, 7AP-99-3 and 7AP-99-4 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    BELL, K.E.

    1999-08-12

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107) grab samples taken in May 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-107 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999. Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. Interim data were provided earlier to River Protection Project (RPP) personnel, however, the data presented here represent the official results. No notification limits were exceeded.

  3. IGF-1 vs insulin: respective roles in modulating sodium transport via the PI-3 kinase/Sgk1 pathway in a cortical collecting duct cell line.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, E; Gaeggeler, H-P; Rossier, B C

    2007-01-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) may play a role in the regulation of sodium balance by increasing basal and aldosterone-stimulated transepithelial sodium transport in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN). As insulin and IGF-1 are capable of binding to each other's receptor with a 50- to 100-fold lower affinity than to their cognate receptor, it is not clear which receptor mediates its respective sodium transport response in the ASDN. The aim of the present study was to characterize the IGF-1 regulation of Na(+) transport in the mCCD(cl1) cell line, a highly differentiated cell line which responds to physiological concentrations (K(1/2)=0.3 nM) of aldosterone. IGF-1 increased basal transepithelial Na(+) transport with a K(1/2) of 0.41+/-0.07 nM. Insulin dose-response curve was displaced to the right 50-fold, as compared to that of IGF-1 (K(1/2)=20.0+/-3.0 nM), indicating that it acts through the IGF type 1 receptor (IGF-1R). Co-stimulation with IGF-1 (0.3 nM) (or 30 nM insulin) and aldosterone (0.3 nM), either simultaneously or by pretreating the cells for 5 h with aldosterone, induced an additive response. The phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor LY294002 completely blocked IGF-1 and aldosterone induced and co-induced currents. As assessed by Western blotting, protein levels of the serum-, and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (Sgk1) were directly and proportionally related to the current induced by either or both IGF-1 and aldosterone, effects also blocked by the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002. IGF-1 could play an important physiological role in regulating basal sodium transport via the PI3-K/Sgk1 pathway in ASDN. PMID:17164836

  4. Enhancement of the helium resonance lines in the solar atmosphere by suprathermal electron excitation I: non-thermal transport of helium ions

    E-print Network

    G. R. Smith; C. Jordan

    2002-08-16

    Models of the solar transition region made from lines other than those of helium cannot account for the strength of the helium lines. However, the collisional excitation rates of the helium resonance lines are unusually sensitive to the energy of the exciting electrons. Non-thermal motions in the transition region could drive slowly-ionizing helium ions rapidly through the steep temperature gradient, exposing them to excitation by electrons characteristic of higher temperatures than those describing their ionization state. We present the results of calculations which use a more physical representation of the lifetimes of the ground states of He I and He II than was adopted in earlier work on this process. New emission measure distributions are used to calculate the temperature variation with height. The results show that non-thermal motions can lead to enhancements of the He I and He II resonance line intensities by factors that are comparable with those required. Excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions would reduce the effects of non-thermal transport. The effects of non-thermal motions are more consistent with the observed spatial distribution of helium emission than are those of excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions alone. In particular, they account better for the observed line intensity ratio I(537.0 A)/I(584.3 A), and its variation with location.

  5. ISSN 1931-5015 APS SCIENCE 2013

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    ANL-14/04 ISSN 1931-5015 May 2014 APS SCIENCE 2013 RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING HIGHLIGHTS FROM to the cover graphics. #12;APS SCIENCE 2013ReSeARch ANd eNgINeeRINg hIghLIghtS fRoM the AdvANced PhotoN Sou 13 electronic & magnetic materials 14 teASing out the nAture oF StructurAl inStAbilitieS in cerAmic

  6. APS Receives Continued Funding from NIDDK

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2010-09-22

    Press Release - BETHESDA, MD (September 22, 2010)Â? The American Physiological Society (APS; www.the-APS.org) has received continued funding from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK) for an additional two years of support effective July 1, 2010. The goal of the project is to encourage highly qualified students from groups underrepresented in the biomedical/behavioral sciences (especially underrepresented minority students) to pursue professional careers in physiological/biomedical sciences.

  7. Kepler observations of rapidly oscillating Ap, ? Scuti and ? Doradus pulsations in Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balona, L. A.; Cunha, M. S.; Kurtz, D. W.; Brandão, I. M.; Gruberbauer, M.; Saio, H.; Östensen, R.; Elkin, V. G.; Borucki, W. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Koch, D. G.; Bryson, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of the A5p star KIC 8677585 obtained during the Kepler 10-d commissioning run with 1-min time resolution show that it is a rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star with several frequencies with periods near 10 min. In addition, a low frequency at 3.142 d-1 is also clearly present. Multiperiodic ? Doradus (? Dor) and ? Scuti (? Sct) pulsations, never before seen in any Ap star, are present in Kepler observations of at least three other Ap stars. Since ? Dor pulsations are seen in Ap stars, it is likely that the low frequency in KIC 8677585 is also a ? Dor pulsation. The simultaneous presence of both ? Dor and roAp pulsations and the unexpected detection of ? Sct and ? Dor pulsations in Ap stars present new opportunities and challenges for the interpretation of these stars. Since it is easy to confuse Am and Ap stars at classification dispersions, the nature of these Ap stars in the Kepler field needs to be confirmed.

  8. Targeted Deletion of AP-2? Leads to Disruption in Corneal Epithelial Cell Integrity and Defects in the Corneal Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Dhruva J.; Pontoriero, Giuseppe F.; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Sullivan, Shelley; Williams, Trevor; West-Mays, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The present study was undertaken to create a conditional knockout of AP-2? in the corneal epithelium. Methods A line of mice expressing Cre-recombinase specifically in the early lens placode was crossed with mice in which the AP-2? allele is flanked by two loxP sites. The resultant Le-AP-2? mutants exhibited a targeted deletion of AP-2? in lens placode derivatives, including the differentiating corneal epithelium. Results The Le-AP-2? mutant mice were viable and had a normal lifespan. The adult corneal epithelium exhibited a variation in the number of stratified epithelial layers, ranging from 2 to 10 cell layers. A substantial decrease in expression of the cell–cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, was observed in all layers of the Le-AP-2? mutant corneal epithelium. The basement membrane, or Bowman's layer, was thinner in the mutant cornea and in many regions was discontinuous. These defects corresponded with altered distribution of laminin and entactin, and to a lesser degree, type IV collagen. The Le-AP-2? mutant cornea also exhibited stromal defects, including disrupted organization of the collagen lamellae and accumulation of fibroblasts beneath the epithelium that showed increased immunoreactivity for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), p-Smad2, and TGF-?2. Conclusions In the absence of AP-2?, the corneal epithelium exhibits altered cell adhesion and integrity and defects in its underlying basement membrane. These defects likely caused the alterations in the corneal stroma. PMID:16186342

  9. The surface chemistry of the magnetic Ap star HD 147010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. D.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2013-06-01

    HD 147010 is a hot (Teff = 13 000 K), large-field magnetic Ap star that is a member of the Upper Scorpius-Centaurus Association, which means it is a star with a well-defined age (log t = 6.70). We offer a comprehensive analysis of the magnetic field and surface chemistry of HD 147010 based on seven spectra obtained using CFHT's ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter. This data set is sufficient to obtain a first-order model of the magnetic field and obtain the abundance distribution of He, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Sr, La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm. The magnetic field model is a low-order multipole expansion based on the variations of the line of sight and surface magnetic fields with rotation. Spectral synthesis was carried out using ZEEMAN, a program which takes into account the influence of the magnetic field. A simple model of uniform abundance in each of two rings in the observed magnetic hemisphere with equal spans in colatitude was used. The new magnetic field measurements enabled us to re-analyse the rotation period of HD 147010, finding P = 3.9207 ± 0.0003 d. The line of sight and surface magnetic field strengths vary from about -2000 to -5000 G and 11000 to 17000 G, respectively. Our analysis finds large overabundances of Fe-peak and rare-earth elements relative to the solar ratios. In all cases, where strong variability in surface chemistry is observed, abundances are higher near the magnetic equator as compared to the magnetic pole. HD 147010 appears to be an Ap star that is highly rich in rare-earth elements that are of the order of 105 times more abundant than in the Sun. This analysis adds to the growing number of hot Ap stars for which both the magnetic field and abundance distribution have been studied in detail.

  10. ANL/APS/LS-321 1 Abstract--Research frontiers for future free-electron lasers

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    ANL/APS/LS-321 1 Abstract-- Research frontiers for future free-electron lasers are discussed accelerator simultaneously supporting multiple free-electron laser lines. Index Terms--Attosecond, brightness-rays. I. INTRODUCTION free-electron laser (FEL) facility consist of two major components: the FEL itself

  11. AP Scores: What Do They Really Tell Us?

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    that the number of FTIAC students with AP test scores dramatically increased at Wayne State from 2006-2011. 16% 19 for their score on the AP test. They placed out of Calculus 1. · AP Test & Class students · Are those who took the AP test, but did not score high enough and therefore took the prerequisite course, Calculus 1

  12. The chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660

    SciTech Connect

    Giarrusso, M. [Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    In this work I present the determination of chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660, a possible rapid oscillating star. As all the magnetic chemically peculiar objects, it presents CNO underabundance and overabundance of iron peak elements of ?100 times and of rare earths up to 4 dex with respect to the Sun. The determination was based on the conversion of the observed equivalent widths into abundances simultaneously to the determination of effective temperature and gravity. Since the Balmer lines of early type stars are very sensitive to the surface gravity while the flux distribution is sensitive to the effective temperature, I have adopted an iterative procedure to match the H{sub ?} line profile and the observed UV-Vis-NIR magnitudes of HD94660 looking for a consistency between the metallicity of the atmosphere model and the derived abundances. From my spectroscopic analysis, this star belongs to the no-rapid oscillating class.

  13. OsAP65, a rice aspartic protease, is essential for male fertility and plays a role in pollen germination and pollen tube growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qifa

    2013-01-01

    Aspartic proteases (APs) comprise a large proteolytic enzyme family widely distributed in animals, microbes, viruses, and plants. The rice genome encodes 96 APs, of which only a few have been functionally characterized. Here, the identification and characterization of a novel AP gene, OsAP65, which plays an indispensable role in pollen tube growth in rice, is reported. The T-DNA insertion line of OsAP65 caused severe segregation distortion. In the progeny derived from an individual heterozygous for the T-DNA insertion, the wild type and T-DNA-carrying heterozygote segregated at a ratio close to 1:1, while homozygotes of disrupted OsAP65 (OsAP65–/–) were not recovered. Reciprocal crosses between heterozygotes and wild-type plants demonstrated that the mutant alleles could not be transmitted through the male gamete. Examination of the anthers from heterozygous plants revealed that the mutant pollen matured normally, but did not germinate or elongate. OsAP65 was expressed in various tissues and the transcript level in heterozygous plants was about half of the amount measured in the wild-type plants. The subcellular localization showed that OsAP65 is a pre-vacuolar compartment (PVC) protein. These results indicated that OsAP65 was essential for rice pollen germination and tube growth. PMID:23918968

  14. Radiation transport analyses in support of the SNS Target Station Neutron Beam Line Shutters Title I Design

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.M.; Pevey, R.E.; Lillie, R.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    2000-12-01

    A detailed radiation transport analysis of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) shutters is important for the construction of the SNS because of its impact on conventional facility design, normal operation of the facility, and maintenance operations. Thus far the analysis of the SNS shutter travel gaps has been completed. This analysis was performed using coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations.

  15. Parametric study of the current limit within a single driver-scale transport beam line of an induction linac for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, Lionel Robert

    2004-12-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ˜0.2 muC/m) over long pulse durations (4 mus) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K+ ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (?80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  16. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

  17. Identification of AP80978, a Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus Replication That Targets NS4B

    PubMed Central

    Dufner-Beattie, Jodi; O'Guin, Andrew; O'Guin, Stephanie; Briley, Aaron; Wang, Bin; Balsarotti, Jennifer; Roth, Robert; Starkey, Gale; Slomczynska, Urszula; Noueiry, Amine; Olivo, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    A small-molecule inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) designated AP89652 was identified by screening a compound library with an HCV genotype 1b subgenomic replicon assay. AP89652 contains two chiral centers, and testing of two syn enantiomers revealed that activity in the replicon assay resided with only one, AP80978, whose 50% effective concentration (EC50) (the concentration at which a 50% reduction in Renilla luciferase levels was observed relative to an untreated control) was 630 nM. AP80978 was inhibitory against HCV genotypes 1a and 1b but not genotype 2a. In a replicon clearance assay, the potency and clearance rate of AP80978 were similar to those of telaprevir (VX950) and cyclosporine (CsA). AP80978 was nontoxic when tested against a panel of human cell lines, and inhibitory activity was HCV specific in that there was limited activity against negative-strand viruses, an alphavirus, and flaviviruses. By selection of resistant replicons and assessment of activity in genotype 1b/2a intergenotypic replicons, the viral protein target of this compound was identified as NS4B. NS4B F98V/L substitutions were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis as AP80978 resistance-associated mutations. When tested against HCV produced in cell culture, the compound was significantly more potent than other HCV inhibitors, including VX950, CsA, and 2?-C-methyladenosine (2?C-meA). In addition, AP80977, the enantiomer that was inactive in the replicon assay, had activity against the virus, although it was lower than the activity of AP80978. These results suggest that AP80978 has the potential to be optimized into an effective antiviral drug and is a useful tool to further study the role of NS4B in HCV replication. PMID:24709254

  18. Luteolin induces apoptosis in multidrug resistant cancer cells without affecting the drug transporter function: involvement of cell line-specific apoptotic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Prema S.; Satelli, Arun; Moridani, Majid; Jenkins, Marjorie; Rao, U. Subrahmanyeswara

    2011-01-01

    Bioflavonoids are of considerable interest to human health as these serve as antioxidant and anticancer agents. Although epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that luteolin, a natural bioflavonoid, exhibits chemopreventive properties, its effectiveness as an antiproliferative agent against multidrug resistant (MDR) cancers is unclear. We thus assessed the antiproliferative effects of luteolin and associated molecular mechanisms using two MDR cancer cell lines that express high levels of P-glycoprotein and ABCG2. In this paper, we demonstrate that luteolin induces apoptosis in P-glycoprotein- and ABCG2-expressing MDR cancer cells without affecting the transport functions of these drug transporters. Analysis of various proliferative signaling pathways indicated that luteolin-induced apoptosis involves reactive oxygen species generation, DNA damage, activation of ATR?Chk2?p53 signaling pathway, inhibition of NF-kB signaling pathway, activation of p38 pathway and depletion of anti-apoptotic proteins. Importantly, use of luteolin in these analyses also identified specific molecular characteristics of NCI-ADR/RES and MCF-7/MitoR cells that highlight their different tissue origins. These results suggest that luteolin possesses therapeutic potential to control the proliferation of MDR cancers without affecting the physiological function of drug transporters in the body tissues. PMID:21792893

  19. [Possible role of transcription factor AP1 in the tissue-specific regulation of human papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    Velazquez Torres, Araceli; Gariglio Vidal, Patricio

    2002-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP1) is a dimeric protein, consisting either of homodimers between c-Jun, JunB, and JunD of by heterodimers with members of the Fos-family by physically interacting via a "leucine zipper" region. AP1 is an important transcription factor initially identified as a DNA binding protein that bound to enhancer sequences of the human metallothionein IIA gene. The protein components of AP1 are encoded by a set of genes known as "immediate-early" genes that can be activated by a variety of growth factors and mitogens through several different signaling pathways. Until recently, AP1 was considered a transcription factor expressed in most tissues to regulate cellular and viral genes now, it is becoming evident that AP1 can be involved in tissue-specific regulation of target genes due to the differential combination of the components of this important transcription factor. AP1 plays a crucial role during human papillomavirus (HPV) early gene expression, in particular of the expression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. The HPV are a group of DNA viruses consisting of more than 80 different genotypes. Some of these HPV, know as high risk HPV, are important etiologic agents of uterine-cervical cancer (CaCu). Of the different types of cancer, CaCu is one of the most frequent among women worldwide, constituting the second death cause due to neoplasia. During cellular transformation, HPV infect basal cells in stratified epithelium; their DNA integrate into the host genome usually through the E2 gene; as these cells differentiate and migrate into the upper layer of the epithelium, viral oncogene are expressed blocking their differentiation. Mutagenesis in AP1 sites belonging to the HPV promoter region (LCR) completely abolished the HPV promoter activity in different cell lines; these results and biochemistry assays on this AP1 transcription factor, that includes protein-protein interactions between AP1 and another factors as E7 from HPV, and YY-1; the post-translattional modification and, the retinoic acid interaction; suggest a role for this AP1 factor in tissue-specific transcription of the human papillomavirus. PMID:12183893

  20. The Clathrin Adaptor AP-1A Mediates Basolateral Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Gravotta, Diego; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Mattera, Rafael; Deborde, Sylvie; Banfelder, Jason R.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Summary Clathrin and the epithelial-specific clathrin adaptor AP-1B mediate basolateral trafficking in epithelia. However, several epithelia lack AP-1B and mice knocked-out for AP-1B are viable, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms that control basolateral polarity. Here, we demonstrate a distinct role of the ubiquitous clathrin adaptor AP-1A in basolateral protein sorting. Knock-down of AP-1A causes missorting of basolateral proteins in MDCK cells but only after knock-down of AP-1B, suggesting that AP-1B can compensate for lack of AP-1A. AP-1A localizes predominantly to the TGN and its knock-down promotes spillover of basolateral proteins into common recycling endosomes, the site of function of AP-1B, suggesting complementary roles of both adaptors in basolateral sorting. Yeast two-hybrid assays detect interactions between the basolateral signal of TfR and the medium subunits of both AP-1A and AP-1B. The basolateral sorting function of AP-1A reported here establishes AP-1 as a major regulator of epithelial polarity. PMID:22516199

  1. A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source.

    PubMed

    Naik, V; Chakrabarti, A; Bhattacharjee, M; Karmakar, P; Bandyopadhyay, A; Bhattacharjee, S; Dechoudhury, S; Mondal, M; Pandey, H K; Lavanyakumar, D; Mandi, T K; Dutta, D P; Kundu Roy, T; Bhowmick, D; Sanyal, D; Srivastava, S C L; Ray, A; Ali, Md S

    2013-03-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms?molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms?molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of (14)O (71 s), (42)K (12.4 h), (43)K (22.2 h), and (41)Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10(3) particles per second (pps). About 3.2 × 10(3) pps of 1.4 MeV (14)O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future. PMID:23556809

  2. A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Karmakar, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Dechoudhury, S.; Mondal, M.; Pandey, H. K.; Lavanyakumar, D.; Mandi, T. K.; Dutta, D. P.; Kundu Roy, T.; Bhowmick, D.; Sanyal, D.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Ray, A.; Ali, Md. S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Sector-1, Block-AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharjee, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2013-03-15

    Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms/molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms/molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of {sup 14}O (71 s), {sup 42}K (12.4 h), {sup 43}K (22.2 h), and {sup 41}Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10{sup 3} particles per second (pps). About 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} pps of 1.4 MeV {sup 14}O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

  3. The cell line NCl-H441 is a useful in vitro model for transport studies of human distal lung epithelial barrier.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Johanna J; Muchitsch, Viktoria E; Gausterer, Julia C; Schwagerus, Elena; Huwer, Hanno; Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2014-03-01

    The lack of a well characterized, continuously growing in vitro model of human distal lung epithelial phenotype constitutes a serious limitation in the area of inhalation biopharmaceutics, particularly in the context of transepithelial transport studies. Here, we investigated if a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, NCl-H441, has potential to serve as an in vitro model of human distal lung epithelium. The development of barrier properties was studied by immunocytochemistry (ICC) against the junction proteins zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) and E-cadherin and measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Moreover, transport studies with the paracellular marker compounds fluorescein sodium and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextrans of molecular weights ranging from 4 to 70 kDa were carried out. The expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1) and organic cation transporters (OCT/Ns; SLC22A1-A5) was investigated by ICC and immunoblot. P-gp function was assessed by monolayer release and bidirectional transport studies using rhodamine 123 (Rh123) and the inhibitors verapamil and LY335979. Uptake of 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+)) was measured, in order to assess organic cation transporter function in vitro. Furthermore, the inhibitory potential of several organic cations on ASP(+) uptake was studied. NCl-H441 cells, when grown under liquid-covered conditions, formed confluent, electrically tight monolayers with peak TEER values of approximately 1000 ?·cm(2), after 8-12 days in culture. These monolayers were able to differentiate paracellularly transported substrates according to their molecular weight. Presence of P-gp, OCT1, OCT2, OCT3, OCTN1, and OCTN2 was confirmed by Western blot and ICC and was similar to data from freshly isolated human alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture. Rh123 release from NCI-H441 monolayers was time-dependent and showed low, albeit significant attenuation by both inhibitors. In transport studies, Rh123 exhibited net secretion, which again was inhibitable by bona fide P-gp modulators. The uptake of ASP(+) was time- and temperature-dependent with Km = 881.2 ± 195.3 ?M and Vmax = 2.07 ± 0.26 nmol/min/mg protein. TEA, amantadine, quinidine, and verapamil significantly inhibited ASP(+) uptake into NCl-H441 cells, whereas the effect of d- and l-carnitine and ergothioneine, two OCTN substrates, was less pronounced. NCl-H441 cells are the first cell line of human distal lung epithelial origin with the ability to form monolayers with appreciable barrier properties. Moreover, drug transporter expression and activity in NCl-H441 cells was consistent with what has been reported for human alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture. PMID:24524365

  4. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - TRANSPORTABILITY FACTORS FOR FUGITIVE DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a table of factors, one for each county in the US, reflecting the portion of fugitive dust removed very close to the source via impaction on vegetation and similar mechanisms. Factors were based on land cover in area (county or grid cell) A praft final product was...

  5. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  6. Comparative evaluation of transport mechanisms of trans-1-amino-3-[¹?F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid and L-[methyl-¹¹C]methionine in human glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masahiro; Oka, Shuntaro; Okudaira, Hiroyuki; Schuster, David M; Goodman, Mark M; Kawai, Keiichi; Shirakami, Yoshifumi

    2013-10-16

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with amino acid tracers is useful for the visualization and assessment of therapeutic effects on gliomas. Our purpose is to elucidate the transport mechanisms of trans-1-amino-3-[¹?F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (anti-[¹?F]FACBC) and L-[methyl-¹¹C]methionine ([¹¹C]Met) in normal human astrocytes (NHA), low-grade (Hs683, SW1088), and high-grade (U87MG, T98G) human glioma cell lines. Because the short half-lives of fluorine-18 and carbon-11 are inconvenient for in vitro experiments, trans-1-amino-3-fluoro[1-¹?C]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid (anti-[¹?C]FACBC) and L-[methyl-¹?C]methionine ([¹?C]Met) were used instead of the PET tracers. Time-course uptake experiments showed that uptake of anti-[¹?C]FACBC was 1.4-2.6 times higher than that of [¹?C]Met in NHA and low-grade glioma cells, and was almost equal to that of [¹?C]Met in high-grade glioma cells. To identify the amino acid transporters (AATs) involved in the transport of anti-[¹?C]FACBC and [¹?C]Met, we carried out competitive inhibition experiments using synthetic/naturally-occurring amino acids as inhibitors. We found that anti-[¹?C]FACBC uptake in the presence of Na? was strongly inhibited by L-glutamine and L-serine (the substrates for ASC system AATs), whereas L-phenylalanine and 2-amino-bicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH, the substrates for L system AATs) robustly inhibited Na?-independent anti-[¹?C]FACBC uptake. Regardless of Na?, [¹?C]Met uptake was inhibited strongly by L-phenylalanine and BCH. Moreover, the exchange transport activity of L-glutamine for anti-[¹?C]FACBC was stronger than that of BCH in the presence of Na?, whereas that for [¹?C]Met was almost equal to BCH. These results demonstrate that ASC and L are important transport systems for anti-[¹?F]FACBC uptake, while system L is predominantly involved in [¹¹C]Met transport in human astrocytes and glioma cells. PMID:23994214

  7. Tank 241-AP-106, grab samples, 6AP-96-1 through 6AP-96-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. This document presents the analytical results for three samples (6AP-96-1, 6AP-96-2 and 6AP-96-3) taken from riser 1 @ 150{degrees} of tank 241-AP-1 06 on September 12, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1996) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler, 1995).

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERCONDUCTING COMBINED FUNCTION MAGNETS FOR THE PROTON TRANSPORT LINE FOR THE J-PARC NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    NAKAMOTO, T.; AJIMA, Y.; FUJII, Y.; HIGASHI, N.; ICHIKAWA, A.; KIMURA, N.; KOBAYASHI, T.; MAKIDA, Y.; OGITSU, T.; OHHATA, H.; OKAMURA, T.; SASAKI, K.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Superconducting combined function magnets will be utilized for the 50 GeV, 750 kW proton beam line for the J-PARC neutrino experiment. The magnet is designed to provide a dipole field of 2.6 T combined with a quadrupole field of 19 T/m in a coil aperture of 173.4 mm at a nominal current of 7345 A. Two full-scale prototype magnets to verify the magnet performance were successfully developed. The first prototype experienced no training quench during the excitation test and good field quality was confirmed.

  9. APS deposition facility upgrades and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Ray; Shi, Bing; Erdmann, Mark; Izzo, Scott; Assoufid, Lahsen; Goetze, Kurt; Mooney, Tim; Lauer, Kenneth

    2014-09-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has recently invested resources to upgrade or replace aging deposition systems with modern equipment. Of the three existing deposition systems, one will receive an upgrade, while two are being replaced. A design which adds a three-substrate planetary for the APS rotary deposition system is almost complete. The replacement for the APS large deposition system, dubbed the "Modular Deposition System", has been conceptually designed and is in the procurement process. Eight cathodes will sputter horizontally on mirrors up to 1.5 meters in length. This new instrument is designed to interface with ion-milling instruments and various metrology equipment for ion-beam figuring. A third linear machine, called the APS Profile Coating System, has two cathodes and is designed to accept substrates up to 200mm in length. While this machine is primarily intended for fabrication of figured KB mirrors using the profile-coating technique, it has also been used to produce multilayer monochromators for beamline use.

  10. Structuring the AP Art History Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herscher, Walter R.

    2013-01-01

    While AP (Advanced Placement) Art History may be taught within the art department in many schools, social studies teachers are equally capable of teaching the course well. They have the historical background to discuss the reasons for changes in art styles. A teacher's preparation is similar to teaching a course stressing political history,…

  11. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

  12. The Promise of AP World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  13. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  14. College Board Readies Plans for AP Audits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the educators mixed reviews regarding the audit system planned by the College Board to scrutinize high school Advanced Placement courses. Teachers of AP courses are required to submit materials to the College Board proving that their course syllabuses meet the program's curricular requirements. It is the most extensive…

  15. AP Biology Investigation #6: Cellular Respiration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    AP Biology Investigative Labs: An Inquiry-Based Approach

    This is the Advanced Placement Investigation into cellular respiration (#6). The investigation was developed by the College Board for use in AP Biology classes. Students begin by investigating the question, What factors affect the rate of cellular respiration in multicellular organisms? Later, students investigate one of their own questions that arose during the first investigation. Wisconsin Fast Plants are used as a model organism.

  16. ANL/APS/TB53 Insertion Devices

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    is the calibration system [4]. This system consists of the calibration electromagnet and a set of Nuclear Magnetic moments of individual permanent magnets [5]. ID Magnetic Specifications An electron beam passing throughANL/APS/TB53 Insertion Devices: Magnetic Measurements and Tuning I. Vasserman, E. Gluskin, J

  17. Building a Robust A-P Axis

    PubMed Central

    Heimberg, Alysha; McGlinn, Edwina

    2012-01-01

    Since the last common ancestor of Metazoa, animals have evolved complex body plans with specialized cells and spatial organization of tissues and organs. Arguably, one of the most significant innovations during animal evolutionary history was the establishment of a bilateral plane of symmetry on which morphological features (e.g. tissues, organs, appendages, skeleton) could be given specific coordinates within the animal along the anterior-posterior (A-P) and dorsal-ventral (D-V) axes. Hox genes are a known group of eumetazoan transcription factors central to regulating A-P patterning, but less well known and under current investigation is the broader regulatory landscape incorporating these genes, including microRNA (miRNA) regulation. The degree to which evolutionarily conserved targeting of Hox genes by Hox-embedded miRNAs contributes directly to A-P patterning is under investigation, yielding contrasting information dependent on the organism and miRNA of interest. The widespread A-P patterning defects observed in recent miR-196 loss-of-function studies solidifies the importance of miRNA regulation in Hox genetic hierarchies, and elucidating the developmental and evolutionary importance of all Hox-embedded miRNAs remains a challenge for the future. PMID:23204917

  18. Curcumin inhibits AP-2?-induced apoptosis in the human malignant testicular germ cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chang; Zhao, Xiao-meng; Li, Xiao-feng; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-ting; Liu, Xi-zhi; Ding, Xiao-feng; Xiang, Shuang-lin; Zhang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of curcumin on proliferation and apoptosis in testicular cancer cells in vitro and to investigate its molecular mechanisms of action. Methods: NTera-2 human malignant testicular germ cell line and F9 mouse teratocarcinoma stem cell line were used. The anti-proliferative effect was examined using MTT and colony formation assays. Hoechst 33258 staining, TUNEL and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assays were used to analyze cell apoptosis. Protein expression was examined with Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical staining. Results: Curcumin (5, 10 and 15 ?mol/L) inhibited the viability of NTera-2 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Curcumin significantly inhibited the colony formation in both NTera-2 and F9 cells. Curcumin dose-dependently induced apoptosis of NTera-2 cells by reducing FasL expression and Bcl-2-to-Bax ratio, and activating caspase-9, -8 and -3. Furthermore, curcumin dose-dependently reduced the expression of AP transcription factor AP-2? in NTera-2 cells, whereas the pretreatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 blocked both the curcumin-induced reduction of AP-2? and antiproliferative effect. Curcumin inhibited ErbB2 expression, and decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK in NTera-2 cells. Conclusion: Curcumin induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in NTera-2 cells via the inhibition of AP-2?-mediated downstream cell survival signaling pathways. PMID:23685957

  19. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for residential fireplaces and woodstoves which are incorporated into AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness infor...

  20. The Cryptosporidium parvum ApiAP2 gene family: insights into the evolution of apicomplexan AP2 regulatory systems

    PubMed Central

    Oberstaller, Jenna; Pumpalova, Yoanna; Schieler, Ariel; Llinás, Manuel; Kissinger, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    We provide the first comprehensive analysis of any transcription factor family in Cryptosporidium, a basal-branching apicomplexan that is the second leading cause of infant diarrhea globally. AP2 domain-containing proteins have evolved to be the major regulatory family in the phylum to the exclusion of canonical regulators. We show that apicomplexan and perkinsid AP2 domains cluster distinctly from other chromalveolate AP2s. Protein-binding specificity assays of C. parvum AP2 domains combined with motif conservation upstream of co-regulated gene clusters allowed the construction of putative AP2 regulons across the in vitro life cycle. Orthologous Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) expression has been rearranged relative to the malaria parasite P. falciparum, suggesting ApiAP2 network rewiring during evolution. C. hominis orthologs of putative C. parvum ApiAP2 proteins and target genes show greater than average variation. C. parvum AP2 domains display reduced binding diversity relative to P. falciparum, with multiple domains binding the 5?-TGCAT-3?, 5?-CACACA-3? and G-box motifs (5?-G[T/C]GGGG-3?). Many overrepresented motifs in C. parvum upstream regions are not AP2 binding motifs. We propose that C. parvum is less reliant on ApiAP2 regulators in part because it utilizes E2F/DP1 transcription factors. C. parvum may provide clues to the ancestral state of apicomplexan transcriptional regulation, pre-AP2 domination. PMID:24957599

  1. Effects of eletron heating on the current driven electrostatic ion cyclotron instability and plasma transport processes along auroral field lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguli, Supriya B.; Mitchell, Horace G.; Palmadesso, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Fluid simulations of the plasma along auroral field lines in the return current region have been performed. It is shown that the onset of electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) related anomalous resistivity and the consequent heating of electrons leads to a transverse ion temperature that is much higher than that produced by the current driven EIC instability (CDICI) alone. Two processes are presented for the enhancement of ion heating by anomalous resistivity. The anomalous resistivity associated with the turbulence is limited by electron heating, so that CDICI saturates at transverse temperature that is substantially higher than in the absence of resistivity. It is suggested that this process demonstrates a positive feedback loop in the interaction between CDICI, anomalous resistivity, and parallel large-scale dynamics in the topside ionosphere.

  2. Greenhouse evaluation of Bacillus subtilis AP-01 and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 in controlling tobacco diseases

    PubMed Central

    Maketon, Monchan; Apisitsantikul, Jirasak; Siriraweekul, Chatchai

    2008-01-01

    Two biological control agents, Bacillus subtilis AP-01 (Larminar™) and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 (Trisan™) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (Pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora nicotiana). Tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. Bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed with the biological control agents and for comparison purposes, two chemical fungicides. But for frogeye leaf spot, which is an airborne fungus, a spraying procedure for every treatment including a chemical fungicide was applied instead of drenching. Results showed that neither B. subtilis AP-01 nor T harzianum AP-001 alone could control the bacterial wilt, but when combined, their controlling capabilities were as effective as a chemical treatment. These results were also similar for damping-off disease when used in combination. In addition, the combined B. subtilis AP-01 and T. harzianum AP-001 resulted in a good frogeye leaf spot control, which was not significantly different from the chemical treatment. PMID:24031219

  3. Greenhouse evaluation of Bacillus subtilis AP-01 and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 in controlling tobacco diseases.

    PubMed

    Maketon, Monchan; Apisitsantikul, Jirasak; Siriraweekul, Chatchai

    2008-04-01

    Two biological control agents, Bacillus subtilis AP-01 (Larminar(™)) and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 (Trisan(™)) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (Pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora nicotiana). Tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. Bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed with the biological control agents and for comparison purposes, two chemical fungicides. But for frogeye leaf spot, which is an airborne fungus, a spraying procedure for every treatment including a chemical fungicide was applied instead of drenching. Results showed that neither B. subtilis AP-01 nor T harzianum AP-001 alone could control the bacterial wilt, but when combined, their controlling capabilities were as effective as a chemical treatment. These results were also similar for damping-off disease when used in combination. In addition, the combined B. subtilis AP-01 and T. harzianum AP-001 resulted in a good frogeye leaf spot control, which was not significantly different from the chemical treatment. PMID:24031219

  4. Transport of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor into Liposomes across the Blood-Brain Barrier: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaoling; Li, Guoqi; Li, Xiao; Lin, Caina; Yu, Ding; Luan, Shuo; Ma, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was encapsulated into liposomes in order to protect it from enzyme degradation in vivo and promote its permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, GDNF conventional liposomes (GDNF-L) and GDNF target sterically stabilized liposomes (GDNF-SSL-T) were prepared. The average size of liposomes was below 90 nm. A primary model of BBB was established and evaluated by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability. This BBB model was employed to study the permeability of GDNF liposomes in vitro. The results indicated that the liposomes could enhance transport of GDNF across the BBB and GDNF-SSL-T had achieved the best transport efficacy. The distribution of GDNF liposomes was studied in vivo. Free GDNF and GDNF-L were eliminated rapidly in the circulation. GDNF-SSL-T has a prolonged circulation time in the blood and favorable brain delivery. The values of the area under the curve (AUC(0–1 h)) in the brain of GDNF-SSL-T was 8.1 times and 6.8 times more than that of free GDNF and GDNF-L, respectively. These results showed that GDNF-SSL-T realized the aim of targeted delivery of therapeutic proteins to central nervous system. PMID:24583850

  5. Book Eyes Impact of AP Classes and Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2010-01-01

    At a time of mushrooming interest in Advanced Placement (AP) tests, a new book, "AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program," assembles studies on how capable the program is of meeting the increasingly diverse expectations held up for it. Growing out of a symposium held at Harvard in 2007, the book focuses on AP science courses…

  6. Characterization of a pituitary-tumor-derived cell line, TtT/GF, that expresses Hoechst efflux ABC transporter subfamily G2 and stem cell antigen 1.

    PubMed

    Mitsuishi, Hideo; Kato, Takako; Chen, Mo; Cai, Li-Yi; Yako, Hideji; Higuchi, Masashi; Yoshida, Saishu; Kanno, Naoko; Ueharu, Hiroki; Kato, Yukio

    2013-11-01

    The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is composed of five types of endocrine cells and of non-endocrine folliculo-stellate cells that produce various local signaling molecules. The TtT/GF cell line is derived from pituitary tumors, produces no hormones and has folliculo-stellate cell-like characteristics. The biological function of TtT/GF cells remains elusive but several properties have been postulated (support of endocrine cells, control of cell proliferation, scavenger function). Recently, we observed that TtT/GF cells have high resistance to the antibiotic G418 and low influx for Hoechst 33342, indicating the presence of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that efflux multiple drugs, i.e., a property similar to that of stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, we examine TtT/GF cells for the presence of ABC transporters, for the efflux ability of Hoechst 33342 and for those genes characteristic of TtT/GF cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ABC transporters demonstrated that Abcb1a, Abcb1b and Abcg2, regarded as stem cell markers, were characteristically expressed in TtT/GF cells but not in Tpit/F1 and L?T2 cells. Furthermore, the remarkable low-efflux ability of Hoechst 33342 from TtT/GF cells was confirmed by using inhibitors and contrasted with the abilities of Tpit/F1 and L?T2 cells. The high and specific expression of stem cell antigen 1 (Sca1) in TtT/GF cells was confirmed by real-time PCR. We also demonstrated those genes that are expressed abundantly and characteristically in TtT/GF, suggesting that TtT/GF cells have unique characteristics similar to those of stem/progenitor cells of endothelial or mesenchymal origin. Thus, the present study has revealed an intriguing property of TtT/GF cells, providing a new clue for an understanding of the function of this cell line. PMID:23881407

  7. Growth-stimulating effect on transferrin on a hybridoma cell line: Relation to transferrin iron-transporting function

    SciTech Connect

    Kovar, J.; Franek, F. (Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-06-01

    The relation of the growth-stimulating capacity of transferrin to its iron-transporting function was investigated in mouse hybridoma PLV-01 cells cultivated in a chemically defined medium. The cells were precultivated in protein-free medium supplemented either with ferric citrate (cells with a high intracellular iron level) or with iron-saturated transferrin (cells with a low intracellular iron level). Iron uptake was monitored after the application of {sup 59}Fe-labeled ferric citrate or pig transferrin. Cultivation of the cells at the optimum growth-stimulating concentration (500{mu}M) of ferric citrate resulted in an intracellular iron level about 100-fold higher than that of cells cultivated at the optimum transferrin concentration. Replacement of pig transferrin with bovine transferrin resulted in similar intracellular iron levels, but the growth-stimulating effect of bovine transferrin was more than one order of magnitude lower. Cells with a high intracellular iron level grew equally well when cultivated with iron-saturated transferrin or with apotransferrin + deferoxamine. The results suggest that transferrin can act as a cell growth factor only in the iron-saturated form. However, several findings of this work indicate that supplying cells with iron cannot be accepted as the full explanation of the transferrin growth-stimulating effect.

  8. Microcystin-LR induces anoikis resistance to the hepatocyte uptake transporter OATP1B3-expressing cell lines.

    PubMed

    Takano, Hiroyuki; Takumi, Shota; Ikema, Satoshi; Mizoue, Nozomi; Hotta, Yuki; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Komatsu, Masaharu

    2014-12-01

    Microcystin-LR is a cyclic peptide released by several bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Understanding the mechanism of microcystin-LR toxicity is important, because of the both potencies of its acute cytotoxicity and tumor-promoting activity in hepatocytes of animals and humans. Recently, we have reported that the expression of human hepatocyte uptake transporter OATP1B3 was critical for the selective uptake of microcystin-LR into hepatocytes and for induction of its fatal cytotoxicity. In this study, we demonstrated a novel function of microcystin-LR which induced bipotential changes including anoikis resistance and cytoskeleton reorganization to OATP1B3-transfected HEK293 cells (HEK293-OATP1B3). After exposure to microcystin-LR, HEK293-OATP1B3 cells were divided to the floating cells and remaining adherent cells. After collection and reseeding the floating cells into a fresh flask, cells were confluently proliferated (HEK293-OATP1B3-FL) under the microcystin-LR-free condition. Both the proliferated HEK293-OATP1B3-FL and remaining adherent HEK293-OATP1B3-AD cells changed the character with down- and up-regulation of E-cadherin, respectively. Additionally, these cells acquired resistance to microcystin-LR. These results suggest that microcystin-LR could be associated with not only tumor promotion, but also epithelial-mesenchymal transition-mediated cancer metastasis. Furthermore, microcystin-LR might induce the cytoskeleton reorganization be accompanied epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:25456266

  9. Cellular characterization of pituitary adenoma cell line (AtT20 cell) transfected with insulin, glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) and glucokinase genes: Insulin secretion in response to physiological concentrations of glucose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Motoyoshi; T. Shirotani; E. Araki; K. Sakai; K. Kaneko; H. Motoshima; K. Yoshizato; A. Shirakami; H. Kishikawa; M. Shichiri

    1998-01-01

    Summary   We investigated the mechanisms of insulin secretion by transfecting into a pituitary adenoma cell line (AtT20) a combination\\u000a of genes encoding human insulin (HI), glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) and glucokinase (GK), followed by studying the characteristics\\u000a of these cells. In static incubation, a cell line transfected with insulin gene alone (AtT20HI) secreted mature human insulin\\u000a but this was

  10. Waiting-line auction for WiFi pricing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Han; Liang Ma; Yuan'an Liu

    2008-01-01

    We model the relationship between a WLAN access point (AP) and a paying mobile station (MS) as a waiting-line auction [1] in which clients bids for transmission using the length of Contention Window (CW) as bid signals. The shorter CW is, the higher the access probability is, thus the higher pay to AP. The clients adapt their CWs based on

  11. AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant safety overview for spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gorgemans, J.; Mulhollem, L.; Glavin, J.; Pfister, A.; Conway, L.; Schulz, T.; Oriani, L.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and costs. The AP1000 design uses passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as AC power, component cooling water, service water or HVAC. Furthermore, these passive features 'fail safe' during a non-LOCA event such that DC power and instrumentation are not required. The AP1000 also has simple, active, defense-in-depth systems to support normal plant operations. These active systems provide the first level of defense against more probable events and they provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the probabilistic risk assessment. The AP1000 passive safety approach allows the plant to achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of an accident for 72 hours without operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the U.S. Utility Requirement Document and the European Utility Requirements for passive plants. Limited operator actions are required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool via passive means. In line with the AP1000 approach to safety described above, the AP1000 plant design features multiple, diverse lines of defense to ensure spent fuel cooling can be maintained for design-basis events and beyond design-basis accidents. During normal and abnormal conditions, defense-in-depth and other systems provide highly reliable spent fuel pool cooling. They rely on off-site AC power or the on-site standby diesel generators. For unlikely design basis events with an extended loss of AC power (i.e., station blackout) or loss of heat sink or both, spent fuel cooling can still be provided indefinitely: - Passive systems, requiring minimal or no operator actions, are sufficient for at least 72 hours under all possible pool heat load conditions. - After 3 days, several different means are provided to continue spent fuel cooling using installed plant equipment as well as off-site equipment with built-in connections. Even for beyond design basis accidents with postulated pool damage and multiple failures in the passive safety-related systems and in the defense-in-depth active systems, the AP1000 multiple spent fuel pool spray and fill systems provide additional lines of defense to prevent spent fuel damage. (authors)

  12. The APS Archive of Teaching Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-02-10

    The American Physiological Society (APS) Archive of Teaching Resources is a digital library of peer-reviewed science teaching resources that contains over 2,200 lesson plans, teaching journal articles, and audiovisual materials. A range of learned societies contribute materials to the archive, including the APS itself and the International Union of Physiological Societies. On the homepage, visitors can click on the Featured area for a nice introduction to some of the most popular materials on the site. Here they can look over the Top 100 resources for use with K-12 students, undergrads, graduate students, and those in continuing education. Moving along, the Research Bytes area contains links to recent news items that cover everything from brain fatigue to exercise strategies that successfully combat Type 2 diabetes. Visitors are encouraged to sign up for their own account on the site, which will allow them to save and categorize resources for their own use.

  13. Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1027 Engineering Presentations | Prof. Doug Reeve & Christina Heidorn 1 APS1027 Engineering Presentations

    E-print Network

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1027 Engineering Presentations | Prof. Doug Reeve & Christina Heidorn 1 Syllabus APS1027 Engineering Presentations Instructors Doug Reeve doug.reeve@utoronto.ca WB363 Christina: Engineers leading change to build a better world. #12;Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1027 Engineering

  14. Cultural Diversity in AP Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Frances R.

    2006-01-01

    Teaching AP Art History is like running on a treadmill that is moving faster than a teacher can run. Many teachers are out of breath before the end of the term and wonder how in the world they can cover every chapter. Because time is short and art from pre-history through to the present, including the non-European traditions, must be covered, this…

  15. APS storage ring vacuum system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, J.R.; Gagliano, J.; Goeppner, G.A. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented.

  16. Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-04-19

    This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report.

  17. APS Museum "Dialogues with Darwin" Online Exhibition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Philosophical Society & Philadelphia Area Center for History of Science

    The American Philosophical Society (APS) Museum's "Dialogues with Darwin" exhibition tells the story of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and considers the debates about evolution that came both before and after him. The online gallery features all objects, label texts, and wall texts on view in the actual exhibition. The site includes a link to an Educator's Guide which can be downloaded as a pdf file.

  18. C-A/AP/#291 October 2007

    E-print Network

    C-A/AP/#291 October 2007 Summary of the LARP Mini-Workshop on Beam-Beam Compensation 2007 W Laboratory Upton, NY 11973 #12;1 1.1 Summary of the LARP Mini-Workshop on Beam-Beam Compensation 2007 W Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA 1.1.1 Introduction The LARP Mini-Workshop on Beam-Beam Compensation 2007

  19. Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along open magnetic field lines: Parallel heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2012-06-01

    In a long mean-free-path plasma where temperature anisotropy can be sustained, the parallel heat flux has two components with one associated with the parallel thermal energy and the other the perpendicular thermal energy. Due to the large deviation of the distribution function from local Maxwellian in an open field line plasma with low collisionality, the conventional perturbative calculation of the parallel heat flux closure in its local or non-local form is no longer applicable. Here, a non-perturbative calculation is presented for a collisionless plasma in a two-dimensional flux expander bounded by absorbing walls. Specifically, closures of previously unfamiliar form are obtained for ions and electrons, which relate two distinct components of the species parallel heat flux to the lower order fluid moments such as density, parallel flow, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, and the field quantities such as the magnetic field strength and the electrostatic potential. The plasma source and boundary condition at the absorbing wall enter explicitly in the closure calculation. Although the closure calculation does not take into account wave-particle interactions, the results based on passing orbits from steady-state collisionless drift-kinetic equation show remarkable agreement with fully kinetic-Maxwell simulations. As an example of the physical implications of the theory, the parallel heat flux closures are found to predict a surprising observation in the kinetic-Maxwell simulation of the 2D magnetic flux expander problem, where the parallel heat flux of the parallel thermal energy flows from low to high parallel temperature region.

  20. Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along open magnetic field lines: Parallel heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Zehua; Tang Xianzhu [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    In a long mean-free-path plasma where temperature anisotropy can be sustained, the parallel heat flux has two components with one associated with the parallel thermal energy and the other the perpendicular thermal energy. Due to the large deviation of the distribution function from local Maxwellian in an open field line plasma with low collisionality, the conventional perturbative calculation of the parallel heat flux closure in its local or non-local form is no longer applicable. Here, a non-perturbative calculation is presented for a collisionless plasma in a two-dimensional flux expander bounded by absorbing walls. Specifically, closures of previously unfamiliar form are obtained for ions and electrons, which relate two distinct components of the species parallel heat flux to the lower order fluid moments such as density, parallel flow, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, and the field quantities such as the magnetic field strength and the electrostatic potential. The plasma source and boundary condition at the absorbing wall enter explicitly in the closure calculation. Although the closure calculation does not take into account wave-particle interactions, the results based on passing orbits from steady-state collisionless drift-kinetic equation show remarkable agreement with fully kinetic-Maxwell simulations. As an example of the physical implications of the theory, the parallel heat flux closures are found to predict a surprising observation in the kinetic-Maxwell simulation of the 2D magnetic flux expander problem, where the parallel heat flux of the parallel thermal energy flows from low to high parallel temperature region.

  1. Quaternary structure and apical membrane sorting of the mammalian NaSi-1 sulfate transporter in renal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Regeer, Ralf R; Nicke, Annette; Markovich, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    NaSi-1 encodes a Na(+)-sulfate cotransporter expressed on the apical membrane of renal proximal tubular cells, which is responsible for body sulfate homeostasis. Limited information is available on NaSi-1 protein structure and the mechanisms controlling its apical membrane sorting. The aims of this study were to biochemically determine the quaternary structure of the rat NaSi-1 protein and to characterize its expression in renal epithelial cell lines. Hexahistidyl-tagged NaSi-1 (NaSi-1-His) proteins expressed in Xenopus oocytes, appeared as two bands of about 60 and 75 kDa. PNGase F treatment shifted both bands to 57 kDa while endoglycosidase H treatment led to a downward shift of the lower molecular mass band only. Mutagenesis of a putative N-glycosylation site (N591S) produced a single band that was not shifted by endoglycosidase H or PNGase F, confirming a single glycosylation site at residue 591. Blue native-PAGE and cross-linking experiments revealed dimeric complexes, suggesting the native form of NaSi-1 to be a dimer. Transient transfection of EGFP/NaSi-1 in renal epithelial cells (OK, LLC-PK1 and MDCK) demonstrated apical membrane sorting, which was insensitive to tunicamycin. Transfection of the EGFP/NaSi-1 N591S glycosylation mutant also showed apical expression, suggesting N591 is not essential for apical sorting. Treatment with cholesterol depleting compounds did not disrupt apical sorting, but brefeldin A led to misrouting to the basolateral membrane, suggesting that NaSi-1 sorting is through the ER to Golgi pathway. Our data demonstrates that NaSi-1 forms a dimeric protein which is glycosylated at N591, whose sorting to the apical membrane in renal epithelial cells is brefeldin A-sensitive and independent of lipid rafts or glycosylation. PMID:17681482

  2. R9AP targeting to rod outer segments is independent of rhodopsin and is guided by the SNARE homology domain

    PubMed Central

    Pearring, Jillian N.; Lieu, Eric C.; Winter, Joan R.; Baker, Sheila A.; Arshavsky, Vadim Y.

    2014-01-01

    In vertebrate photoreceptor cells, rapid recovery from light excitation is dependent on the RGS9?G?5 GTPase-activating complex located in the light-sensitive outer segment organelle. RGS9?G?5 is tethered to the outer segment membranes by its membrane anchor, R9AP. Recent studies indicated that RGS9?G?5 possesses targeting information that excludes it from the outer segment and that this information is overridden by association with R9AP, which allows outer segment targeting of the entire complex. It was also proposed that R9AP itself does not contain specific targeting information and instead is delivered to the outer segment in the same post-Golgi vesicles as rhodopsin, because they are the most abundant transport vesicles in photoreceptor cells. In this study, we revisited this concept by analyzing R9AP targeting in rods of wild-type and rhodopsin-knockout mice. We found that the R9AP targeting mechanism does not require the presence of rhodopsin and further demonstrated that R9AP is actively targeted in rods by its SNARE homology domain. PMID:25009288

  3. Septin6 and Septin7 GTP Binding Proteins Regulate AP-3- and ESCRT-Dependent Multivesicular Body Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Traikov, Sofia; Stange, Christoph; Wassmer, Thomas; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Salamero, Jean; Raposo, Graça; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Septins (SEPTs) form a family of GTP-binding proteins implicated in cytoskeleton and membrane organization, cell division and host/pathogen interactions. The precise function of many family members remains elusive. We show that SEPT6 and SEPT7 complexes bound to F-actin regulate protein sorting during multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis. These complexes bind AP-3, an adapter complex sorting cargos destined to remain in outer membranes of maturing endosomes, modulate AP-3 membrane interactions and the motility of AP-3-positive endosomes. These SEPT-AP interactions also influence the membrane interaction of ESCRT (endosomal-sorting complex required for transport)-I, which selects ubiquitinated cargos for degradation inside MVBs. Whereas our findings demonstrate that SEPT6 and SEPT7 function in the spatial, temporal organization of AP-3- and ESCRT-coated membrane domains, they uncover an unsuspected coordination of these sorting machineries during MVB biogenesis. This requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase LRSAM1, an AP-3 interactor regulating ESCRT-I sorting activity and whose mutations are linked with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. PMID:25380047

  4. APS Conference on Understanding the Biological Clock: From Genetics to Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Martin

    1996-01-01

    The Conference was designed to take advantage of the fusion of two intellectually dominant but heretofore separate lines of clock research, vertebrate physiology and invertebrate and microbial genetics. The APS Conference attracted 251 scientists, 68 of whom were students. In addition to the excellent speaker program organized by Dunlap and Loros, the attendees also submitted 93 volunteer abstracts that were programmed in poster sessions. Thirty-four percent of the submitted abstracts were first authorized by a female student or scientist.

  5. Cloning and characterisation of hAps1 and hAps2, human diadenosine polyphosphate-metabolising Nudix hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Nick R; McLennan, Alexander G; Safrany, Stephen T

    2002-01-01

    Background The human genome contains at least 18 genes for Nudix hydrolase enzymes. Many have similar functions to one another. In order to understand their roles in cell physiology, these proteins must be characterised. Results We have characterised two novel human gene products, hAps1, encoded by the NUDT11 gene, and hAps2, encoded by the NUDT10 gene. These cytoplasmic proteins are members of the DIPP subfamily of Nudix hydrolases, and differ from each other by a single amino acid. Both metabolise diadenosine-polyphosphates and, weakly, diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. An apparent polymorphism of hAps1 has also been identified, which leads to the point mutation S39N. This has also been characterised. The favoured nucleotides were diadenosine 5',5"'-pentaphosphate (kcat/Km = 11, 8 and 16 × 103M-1s-1 respectively for hAps1, hAps1-39N and hAps2) and diadenosine 5',5"'-hexaphosphate (kcat/Km = 13, 14 and 11 × 103M-1s-1 respectively for hAps1, hAps1-39N and hAps2). Both hAps1 and hAps2 had pH optima of 8.5 and an absolute requirement for divalent cations, with manganese (II) being favoured. Magnesium was not able to activate the enzymes. Therefore, these enzymes could be acutely regulated by manganese fluxes within the cell. Conclusions Recent gene duplication has generated the two Nudix genes, NUDT11 and NUDT10. We have characterised their gene products as the closely related Nudix hydrolases, hAps1 and hAps2. These two gene products complement the activity of previously described members of the DIPP family, and reinforce the concept that Ap5A and Ap6A act as intracellular messengers. PMID:12121577

  6. Visualising Ancient Architecture using Animating Line Drawings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maic Masuch; Thomas Strothotte

    1998-01-01

    We present a visualisation of an medieval palace as an ap- plication for a new rendering and animation tool which is capable of rendering images in the style of line drawings. In contrast to other systems, we are able to generate frame- to-frame coherent line drawings in order to render an ani- mation. The application of this presentation illustrates t

  7. CEACAM6 as detected by the AP11 antibody is a marker notable for mucin-producing adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok-Jun; Son, Seung-Myoung; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Lee, Yong-Moon; Kim, Min-Young; Choi, Jae-Woon; Lee, Sang-Jeon; Song, Young-Jin; Kim, Hak Soon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Shin, See-Ok; Song, Hyung Geun

    2015-02-01

    A new monoclonal antibody recognizing CEACAM6, which we named AP11, was generated by immunizing BALB/c mice with phytohemagglutinin-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This study aims to evaluate whether CEACAM6 can serve as a tumor marker using AP11. We examined the expression of CEACAM6 with AP11 in 11 human carcinoma cell lines by flow cytometry and 439 human tissues including 282 tumor tissues and 157 normal tissues by immunohistochemistry. CEACAM6 epitope recognized by AP11 was well preserved in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Adenocarcinomas of the stomach (86%), colorectum (95%), pancreas (100%), and lung (83%), urinary bladder (100%), and mucinous ovarian tumors (88%) had a high rate of CEACAM6 immunoreactivity. We observed a variable expression of CEACAM6 in hepatocellular carcinomas (35%), squamous cell carcinomas of the lung (60%), renal cell carcinomas (14%), urothelial carcinomas (13%), serous carcinomas of the ovary (17%), and breast carcinomas (11%). Small-cell carcinomas of the lung, prostatic adenocarcinomas, papillary thyroid carcinomas, malignant melanomas, giant cell tumors, and osteosarcomas were negative for CEACAM6. All normal tissues of various organs were negative for CEACAM6. In conclusion, CEACAM6 as detected by AP11, may serve as a marker for mucin-producing adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract and ovary as well as non-small cell lung cancer. Thus, AP11 represents a valuable diagnostic tool for detecting CEACMA6-positive cancers. PMID:25427744

  8. Butyrate Produced by Commensal Bacteria Potentiates Phorbol Esters Induced AP-1 Response in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nepelska, Malgorzata; Cultrone, Antonietta; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Vermulugesan; Blottière, Hervé M.

    2012-01-01

    The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells. PMID:23300800

  9. APS, an adaptor protein containing PH and SH2 domains, is associated with the PDGF receptor and c-Cbl and inhibits PDGF-induced mitogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yokouchi, M; Wakioka, T; Sakamoto, H; Yasukawa, H; Ohtsuka, S; Sasaki, A; Ohtsubo, M; Valius, M; Inoue, A; Komiya, S; Yoshimura, A

    1999-01-21

    Previously we cloned a novel adaptor protein, APS (adaptor molecules containing PH and SH2 domains) which was tyrosine phosphorylated in response to c-kit or B cell receptor stimulation. Here we report that APS was expressed in some human osteosarcoma cell lines, markedly so in SaOS-2 cells, and was tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to several growth factors, including platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Ectopic expression of the wild type APS, but not C-terminal truncated APS, in NIH3T3 fibroblasts suppressed PDGF-induced MAP kinase (Erk2) activation, c-fos and c-myc induction as well as cell proliferation. In vitro binding experiments suggest that APS bound to the beta type PDGF receptor, mainly via phosphotyrosine 1021 (pY1021). Indeed, tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma, which has been demonstrated to bind to pY1021, but not that of PI3 kinase and associated proteins, was reduced in APS transformants. PDGF induced phosphorylation of the tyrosine residue of APS close to the C-terminal end. In vitro and in vivo binding experiments indicate that the tyrosine phosphorylated C-terminal region of APS bound to c-Cbl, which has been shown to be a negative regulator of tyrosine kinases. Since coexpression of c-Cbl with wild type APS, but not C-terminal truncated APS, synergistically inhibited PDGF-induced c-fos promoter activation, c-Cbl could be a mechanism of inhibitory action of APS on PDGF receptor signaling. PMID:9989826

  10. Modeling of Decelerating and Steady State Turbulent Gas-Solids Dilute Phase Flow of Large Particles in a Vertical Pneumatic Transport Line.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paccione, John D.

    Decelerating and steady state turbulent dilute phase flow has been studied using one millimeter glass spheres in a 28.45 mm ID grounded stainless steel transport line. The analysis used the one dimensional two-fluid model containing continuity and individual phase momentum balances from the work of Capes and Nakamura (14), (84) and an analytical representation of the experimental pressure profile to produce a standard analytical procedure. Steady state slip Reynolds numbers ranged from 461 to 986 and the pipe Reynolds number was of the order of 20,000. Experimental observations and literature evidence is presented to support the existence of a particle free region near the wall making it possible to neglect particle wall friction effects in the model. The fluid-wall effect was modeled assuming turbulent pipe flow in a smooth tube without particles because the entrained spheres do not impart momentum to the tube wall. The steady state drag coefficient C_ {DN} decreases from values at Re _{p} = 461 which essentially match the standard drag curve to that of 0.13 at Re_ {p} = 986. The deviation between C _{DN} and the standard drag curve are attributed to freestream turbulence. These findings invalidate the use of the standard drag curve for modeling vertical pneumatic transport. The decelerating drag coefficient (C_ {DD}) has been correlated in terms of the modulus of deceleration, solids concentration and the particle to gas density ratio. The effect of deceleration on the drag coefficient is shown to be small relative to that of freestream turbulence. An analytical expression was developed which relates the pressure drop across the deceleration region to the inlet voidage.

  11. NF-?B inhibition significantly upregulates the norepinephrine transporter system, causes apoptosis in pheochromocytoma cell lines and prevents metastasis in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Pacak, Karel; Sirova, Marta; Giubellino, Alessio; Lencesova, Lubomira; Csaderova, Lucia; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are specific types of neuroendocrine tumors that originate in the adrenal medulla or sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Although these tumors are intensively studied, a very effective treatment for metastatic PHEO or PGL has not yet been established. Preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for these tumors are very much required. Therefore, in the present study we tested the effect of triptolide (TTL), a potent nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) inhibitor, on the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter system (NET), considered to be the gatekeeper for the radiotherapeutic agent 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). We measured changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NET and correlated them with proapoptotic factors and metastasis inhibition. The study was carried out on three different stable pheochromocytoma cell lines. We found that blocking NF-?B with TTL or capsaicin (KPSC) increased both NET mRNA and protein levels. Involvement of NF-?B in the upregulation of NET was verified by mRNA silencing of this site and also by using NF-?B antipeptide. Moreover, MIBG transport was increased in TTL-treated cells and in vivo treatment with TTL significantly reduced metastatic burden in a metastatic animal model of pheochromocytoma. The present study for the first time shows mechanistically how NF-?B inhibitors can be successfully used in the treatment of metastatic PHEO/PGL by a significant upregulation of NET to increase the efficacy of 131I-MIBG and by the induction of apoptosis. PMID:22407736

  12. CSU, FULLERTON CREDIT FOR EXTERNAL EXAMS (AP, IB, CLEP) ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAMS (AP) SCORE UNITS COURSE CREDIT GEN EDUC BEGIN DATE END DATE

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    CSU, FULLERTON CREDIT FOR EXTERNAL EXAMS (AP, IB, CLEP) ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAMS (AP) SCORE UNITS ENGL 101 GE I.B 3 ENGL 105 GE III.B.2 Updated 11/30/10 #12;CSU, FULLERTON CREDIT FOR EXTERNAL EXAMS (AP, IB, CLEP) ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAMS (AP) SCORE UNITS COURSE CREDIT GEN EDUC BEGIN DATE END DATE AP

  13. Glucose-Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Metal Vapour Synthesis Are Electively Internalized in a Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cell Line Expressing GLUT1 Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Evangelisti, Claudio; Vitulli, Giovanni; Schiavi, Eleonora; Marzano, Cristina; Ferretti, Anna M.; Salvadori, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) can have a variety of biomedical applications due to their visualization properties through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and heating with radio frequency or alternating magnetic fields. In the oncological field, coating IONP with organic compounds to provide specific features and to achieve the ability of binding specific molecular targets appears to be very promising. To take advantage of the high avidity of tumor cells for glucose, we report the development of very small glucose-coated IONP (glc-IONP) by employing an innovative technique, Metal Vapor Synthesis (MVS). Moreover, we tested the internalization of our gl-IONP on a tumor line, BxPC3, over-expressing GLUT 1 transporter. Both glc-IONP and polyvinylpyrrolidone-IONP (PVP-IONP), as control, were prepared with MVS and were tested on BxPC3 at various concentrations. To evaluate the role of GLUT-1 transporter, we also investigated the effect of adding a polyclonal anti-GLUT1 antibody. After proper treatment, the iron value was assessed by atomic absorption spectrometer, reported in mcg/L and expressed in mg of protein. Our IONP prepared with MVS were very small and homogeneously distributed in a narrow range (1.75-3.75 nm) with an average size of 2.7 nm and were super-paramagnetic. Glc-IONP were internalized by BxPC3 cells in a larger amount than PVP-IONP. After 6h of treatment with 50 mcg/mL of IONPs, the content of Fe was 1.5 times higher in glc-IONP-treated cells compared with PVP-IONP-treated cells. After 1h pre-treatment with anti-GLUT1, a reduction of 41% cellular accumulation of glc-IONP was observed. Conversely, the uptake of PVP-IONPs was reduced only by 14% with antibody pretreatment. In conclusion, MVS allowed us to prepare small, homogeneous, super-paramagnetic glc-IONP, which are electively internalized by a tumor line over-expressing GLUT1. Our glc-IONP appear to have many requisites for in vivo use. PMID:25874906

  14. Multipassband photometric mapping of three fast rotating stars: HII 1883, AP 86 and AP 226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbin, A. I.; Sakhibullin, N. A.; Gabdeev, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    The analysis of multipassband photometry was carried out for three rapidly rotating stars: HII 1883, AP 86 and AP 226. Two different approaches were used for starspot mapping. In the first approach the stellar spottedness is approximated by set of circular spots. Spot parameters (coordinates of the spot center, radius and temperature) are searched by fitting of observed light curves. The idea of the second approach is consisted in partition of the stellar surface into small areas. Searching of the temperature distribution is carried out by the fitting of the observed light curves. Stellar atmosphere theory was used for modeling of the theoretical light curves in both techniques.

  15. APS, an adaptor protein containing PH and SH2 domains, is associated with the PDGF receptor and c-Cbl and inhibits PDGF-induced mitogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Yokouchi; Toru Wakioka; Hiroshi Sakamoto; Hideo Yasukawa; Satoshi Ohtsuka; Atsuo Sasaki; Motoaki Ohtsubo; Mindaugas Valius; Akio Inoue; Setsuro Komiya; Akihiko Yoshimura

    1999-01-01

    Previously we cloned a novel adaptor protein, APS (adaptor molecules containing PH and SH2 domains) which was tyrosine phosphorylated in response to c-kit or B cell receptor stimulation. Here we report that APS was expressed in some human osteosarcoma cell lines, markedly so in SaOS-2 cells, and was tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to several growth factors, including platelet derived growth factor

  16. NF-?B inhibition significantly upregulates the norepinephrine transporter system, causes apoptosis in pheochromocytoma cell lines and prevents metastasis in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Pacak, Karel; Sirova, Marta; Giubellino, Alessio; Lencesova, Lubomira; Csaderova, Lucia; Laukova, Marcela; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2012-11-15

    Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are specific types of neuroendocrine tumors that originate in the adrenal medulla or sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Although these tumors are intensively studied, a very effective treatment for metastatic PHEO or PGL has not yet been established. Preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for these tumors are very much required. Therefore, in this study we tested the effect of triptolide (TTL), a potent nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) inhibitor, on the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter (NET) system, considered to be the gatekeeper for the radiotherapeutic agent 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). We measured changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NET and correlated them with proapoptotic factors and metastasis inhibition. The study was performed on three different stable PHEO cell lines. We found that blocking NF-?B with TTL or capsaicin increased both NET mRNA and protein levels. Involvement of NF-?B in the upregulation of NET was verified by mRNA silencing of this site and also by using NF-?B antipeptide. Moreover, in vivo treatment with TTL significantly reduced metastatic burden in an animal model of metastatic PHEO. The present study for the first time shows how NF-?B inhibitors could be successfully used in the treatment of metastatic PHEO/PGL by a significant upregulation of NET to increase the efficacy of 131I-MIBG and by the induction of apoptosis. PMID:22407736

  17. Adaptor Protein Complexes AP-1 and AP-3 Are Required by the HHV-7 Immunoevasin U21 for Rerouting of Class I MHC Molecules to the Lysosomal Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Kimpler, Lisa A.; Glosson, Nicole L.; Downs, Deanna; Gonyo, Patrick; May, Nathan A.; Hudson, Amy W.

    2014-01-01

    The human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) U21 gene product binds to class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and reroutes them to a lysosomal compartment. Trafficking of integral membrane proteins to lysosomes is mediated through cytoplasmic sorting signals that recruit heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which in turn mediate protein sorting in post-Golgi vesicular transport. Since U21 can mediate rerouting of class I molecules to lysosomes even when lacking its cytoplasmic tail, we hypothesize the existence of a cellular protein that contains the lysosomal sorting information required to escort class I molecules to the lysosomal compartment. If such a protein exists, we expect that it might recruit clathrin adaptor protein complexes as a means of lysosomal sorting. Here we describe experiments demonstrating that the ? adaptins from AP-1 and AP-3 are involved in U21-mediated trafficking of class I molecules to lysosomes. These experiments support the idea that a cellular protein(s) is necessary for U21-mediated lysosomal sorting of class I molecules. We also examine the impact of transient versus chronic knockdown of these adaptor protein complexes, and show that the few remaining ? subunits in the cells are eventually able to reroute class I molecules to lysosomes. PMID:24901711

  18. Parallel heat transport in reversed shear magnetic field configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazevski, D.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.

    2012-03-01

    Transport in magnetized plasmas is a key problem in controlled fusion, space plasmas, and astrophysics. Three issues make this problem particularly challenging: (i) The extreme anisotropy between the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field), ?, and the perpendicular, ?, conductivities (?/? may exceed 10^10 in fusion plasmas); (ii) Magnetic field lines chaos; and (iii) Nonlocal parallel transport. We have recently developed a Lagrangian Green's function (LG) method to solve the local and non-local parallel (?/?->?) transport equation applicable to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields. footnotetext D. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chac'on, PRL, 106, 195004 (2011); D. del-Castillo-Negrete, L. Chac'on, Phys. Plasmas, APS Invited paper, submitted (2011). The proposed method overcomes many of the difficulties faced by standard finite different methods related to the three issues mentioned above. Here we apply the LG method to study transport in reversed shear configurations. We focus on the following problems: (i) separatrix reconnection of magnetic islands and transport; (ii) robustness of shearless, q'=0, transport barriers; (iii) leaky barriers and shearless Cantori.

  19. Ozone mitigation tests at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Wang Zhibi

    1996-09-01

    Ozone is generated in the APS experimental stations whenever the x-ray beam has a chance to interact with air. Ozone concentrations in an experimental station have to be below a certain defined limit (current OSHA regulations specify 0.08 ppm as the maximum limit) before an experimenter can reenter the hutch. This limit is said to be currently under study for a downward adjustment. One method of depleting the ozone generated in an experimental station is mitigation through either adsorption or direct destruction. In recent tests, both methods were tried using commercially available units. Test results and some analytical predictions are presented.

  20. The Type Ic Hypernova SN 2002ap

    E-print Network

    P. A. Mazzali; J. Deng; K. Maeda; K. Nomoto; H. Umeda; K. Hatano; K. Iwamoto; Y. Yoshii; Y. Kobayashi; T. Minezaki; M. Doi; K. Enya; H. Tomita; S. J. Smartt; K. Kinugasa; H. Kawakita; K. Ayani; T. Kawabata; H. Yamaoka; Y. L. Qiu; K. Motohara; C. L. Gerardy; R. Fesen; K. S. Kawabata; M. Iye; N. Kashikawa; G. Kosugi; Y. Ohyama; M. Takada-Hidai; G. Zhao; R. Chornock; A. V. Filippenko; S. Benetti; M. Turatto

    2002-05-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic data of the energetic Type Ic supernova (SN) 2002ap are presented, and the properties of the SN are investigated through models of its spectral evolution and its light curve. The SN is spectroscopically similar to the "hypernova" SN 1997ef. However, its kinetic energy [$\\sim (4-10) \\times 10^{51}$ erg] and the mass ejected (2.5-5 $M_{\\odot}$) are smaller, resulting in a faster-evolving light curve. The SN synthesized $\\sim 0.07 M_{\\odot}$ of $^{56}$Ni, and its peak luminosity was similar to that of normal SNe. Brightness alone should not be used to define a hypernova, whose defining character, namely very broad spectral features, is the result of a high kinetic energy. The likely main-sequence mass of the progenitor star was 20-25 $M_{\\odot}$, which is also lower than that of both hypernovae SNe 1997ef and 1998bw. SN 2002ap appears to lie at the low-energy and low-mass end of the hypernova sequence as it is known so far. Observations of the nebular spectrum, which is expected to dominate by summer 2002, are necessary to confirm these values.

  1. The Type Ic Hypernova SN 2002ap

    E-print Network

    Mazzali, P A; Maeda, K; Nomoto, K; Umeda, H; Hatano, K; Iwamoto, K; Yoshii, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Minezaki, T; Doi, M; Enya, K; Tomita, H; Smartt, S J; Kinugasa, K; Kawakita, H; Ayani, K; Kawabata, T; Yamaoka, H; Qiu, Y L; Motohara, K; Gerardy, C L; Fesen, R A; Kawabata, K S; Iye, M; Kashikawa, N; Kosugi, G; Ohyama, Y; Takada-Hidai, M; Zhao, G; Chornock, R; Filippenko, A V; Benetti, S; Turatto, M

    2002-01-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic data of the energetic Type Ic SN 2002ap are presented, and the properties of the SN are investigated through models of its spectral evolution and its light curve. The SN is spectroscopically similar to the "hypernova" SN 1997ef. However, its kinetic energy [$\\sim (4-10) \\times 10^{51}$ erg] and the mass ejected (2.5-5 $M_{\\odot}$) are smaller, resulting in a faster-evolving light curve. The SN synthesised $\\sim 0.07 M_{\\odot}$ of $^{56}$Ni, and its peak luminosity was similar to that of normal SNe. Brightness alone should not be used to define a hypernova, whose defining character, namely very broard spectral features, are the result of a high kinetic energy. The likely main-sequence mass of the progenitor star was 20-25 $M_{\\odot}$, which is also lower than that of both hypernovae SNe 1997ef and 1998bw. SN 2002ap appears to lie at the low-energy and low-mass end of the hypernova sequence as it is known so far. Observations of the nebular spectrum, which is expected to dominate b...

  2. On the Mechanisms for Defeating AP Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Z.; Dekel, E.; Ashuach, Y.; Yeshurun, Y.

    The important mechanisms for defeating armor piercing (AP) projectiles are reviewed in this paper. These mechanisms are based on the compressive strength of the target material (its inherent resistance to penetration) and on the asymmetrical forces which it exerts on the threat, through proper geometrical arrangements. We discuss the basic features of the resistance to penetration, starting with the classical analysis of the cavity expansion process in elasto-plastic solids. This property of the target is responsible for the deceleration of hard cored projectiles and for the erosion of long rods, under normal impact conditions. We then discuss the asymmetrical interaction of AP projectiles with inclined plates (metals and polymers) and with ceramic spheres. These asymmetric forces are responsible for their deflection and breakup. Our work combines experimental observations with numerical simulations and engineering models, which enhance the understanding of the various phenomena encountered in these complex situations. This understanding is necessary for optimizing the performance of any armor design against a given threat.

  3. The APS control system network upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K. v.; Leibfritz, D.; McDowell, W. P.

    1999-10-22

    When it was installed,the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system network was at the state-of-the-art. Different aspects of the system have been reported at previous meetings [1,2]. As loads on the controls network have increased due to newer and faster workstations and front-end computers, we have found performance of the system declining and have implemented an upgraded network. There have been dramatic advances in networking hardware in the last several years. The upgraded APS controls network replaces the original FDDI backbone and shared Ethernet hubs with redundant gigabit uplinks and fully switched 10/100 Ethernet switches with backplane fabrics in excess of 20 Gbits/s (Gbps). The central collapsed backbone FDDI concentrator has been replaced with a Gigabit Ethernet switch with greater than 30 Gbps backplane fabric. Full redundancy of the system has been maintained. This paper will discuss this upgrade and include performance data and performance comparisons with the original network.

  4. Mutagenesis of cysteine 81 prevents dimerization of the APS1 subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and alters diurnal starch turnover in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Hädrich, Nadja; Hendriks, Janneke H M; Kötting, Oliver; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Feil, Regina; Zeeman, Samuel C; Gibon, Yves; Schulze, Waltraud X; Stitt, Mark; Lunn, John E

    2012-04-01

    Many plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, retain a substantial portion of their photosynthate in leaves in the form of starch, which is remobilized to support metabolism and growth at night. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyses the first committed step in the pathway of starch synthesis, the production of ADP-glucose. The enzyme is redox-activated in the light and in response to sucrose accumulation, via reversible breakage of an intermolecular cysteine bridge between the two small (APS1) subunits. The biological function of this regulatory mechanism was investigated by complementing an aps1 null mutant (adg1) with a series of constructs containing a full-length APS1 gene encoding either the wild-type APS1 protein or mutated forms in which one of the five cysteine residues was replaced by serine. Substitution of Cys81 by serine prevented APS1 dimerization, whereas mutation of the other cysteines had no effect. Thus, Cys81 is both necessary and sufficient for dimerization of APS1. Compared to control plants, the adg1/APS1(C81S) lines had higher levels of ADP-glucose and maltose, and either increased rates of starch synthesis or a starch-excess phenotype, depending on the daylength. APS1 protein levels were five- to tenfold lower in adg1/APS1(C81S) lines than in control plants. These results show that redox modulation of AGPase contributes to the diurnal regulation of starch turnover, with inappropriate regulation of the enzyme having an unexpected impact on starch breakdown, and that Cys81 may play an important role in the regulation of AGPase turnover. PMID:22098298

  5. 45. SELAH LINE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING END OF LINE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. SELAH LINE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING END OF LINE AT LARSON FRUIT COMPANY - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  6. Oscillations of kinks on dislocation lines in crystals and low-temperature transport anomalies as a ``passport'' of newly-induced defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhov-Deglin, L. P.; Mukhin, S. I.

    2011-10-01

    The possible interpretation of experimental data on low-temperature anomalies in weakly deformed metallic crystals prepared form ultra-pure lead, copper, and silver, as well as in crystals of 4He is discussed within the previously proposed theoretical picture of dislocations with dynamical kinks. In the case of pure metals the theoretical predictions give a general picture of interaction of conduction electrons in a sample with newly-introduced dislocations, containing dynamic kinks in the Peierls potential relief. In the field of random stresses appearing due to plastic deformation of a sample, kinks on the dislocation line form a set of one-dimensional oscillators in potential wells of different shapes. In the low temperature region at low enough density of defects pinning kinks the inelastic scattering of electrons on kinks should lead to deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law. In particular, the inelastic scattering on kinks should result in a quadratic temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity in a metallic sample along preferential directions of dislocation axes. In the plane normal to the dislocation axis the elastic large-angle scattering of electrons is prevalent. The kink pinning by a point defect or by additional dislocations as well as the sample annealing leading to the disappearance of kinks should induce suppression of transport anomalies. Thus, the energy interval for the spectrum of kink oscillations restricted by characteristic amplitude of the Peierls relief is a "passport of deformation history" for each specific sample. For instance, in copper the temperature/energy region of the order of 1 K corresponds to it. It is also planned to discuss in the other publication applicability of mechanism of phonon scattering on mobile dislocation kinks and pinning of kinks by impurities in order to explain anomalies of phonon thermal conductivity of 4He crystals and deformed crystals of pure lead in a superconducting state.

  7. The AP2-like gene NsAP2 from water lily is involved in floral organogenesis and plant height.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Teng, Nianjun; Chen, Yu; Chen, Fadi

    2012-07-01

    APETALA2 (AP2) genes are ancient and widely distributed among the seed plants, and play an important role during the plant life cycle, acting as key regulators of many developmental processes. In this study, an AP2 homologue, NsAP2, was characterized from water lily (Nymphaea sp. cv. 'Yellow Prince') and is believed to be rather primitive in the evolution of the angiosperms. In situ RNA hybridization showed that NsAP2 transcript was present in all regions of the floral primordium, but had the highest level in the emerging floral organ primordium. After the differentiation of floral organs, NsAP2 was strongly expressed in sepals and petals, while low levels were found in stamens and carpels. The NsAP2 protein was suggested to be localized in the cell nucleus by onion transient expression experiment. Overexpression of NsAP2 in Arabidopsis led to more petal numbers, and Arabidopsis plants expressing NsAP2 exhibited higher plant height, which may be a result of down-regulated expression of GA2ox2 and GA2ox7. Our results indicated that the NsAP2 protein may function in flower organogenesis in water lily, and it is a promising gene for plant height improvement. PMID:22591856

  8. The challenging SED of AP Librae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, David; Giebels, Berrie; Fortin, Pascal

    2012-08-01

    Matching the broad-band emission of active galaxies with the predictions of theoretical models can be used to derive constraints on the properties of the emitting region and to probe the physical processes involved. AP Librae is the third low frequency peaked BL Lac (LBL) detected at very high energy (VHE, E>100GeV) by an Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope; most VHE BL Lacs (34 out of 39) belong to the high-frequency and intermediate-frequency BL Lac classes (HBL and IBL). LBL objects tend to have a higher luminosity with lower peak frequencies than HBLs or IBLs. The characterization of their time-averaged spectral energy distribution is challenging for emission models such as synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models.

  9. Transcriptional Repression of the ?7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit Gene (CHRNA7) by Activating Protein-2? (AP-2?)*

    PubMed Central

    Finlay-Schultz, Jessica; Canastar, Andrew; Short, Margaret; El Gazzar, Mohamed; Coughlan, Christina; Leonard, Sherry

    2011-01-01

    The CHRNA7 gene, which encodes the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7*nAChR), has been implicated as a candidate gene in schizophrenia. Expression of the ?7*nAChR mRNA and protein are reduced in multiple regions of post-mortem brain from patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Transcriptional regulation may therefore be an important mechanism for the regulation of this gene. A 230-bp proximal promoter fragment, necessary for transcription in cultured neuroblastoma cells, was used to study a putative AP-2? binding site. Mutation of the site indicates that AP-2? plays a negative role in regulating CHRNA7 transcription. This was confirmed through knockdown and overexpression of AP-2?. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) identified positive DNA-protein interaction at this same site, and supershift assays indicate that the complex includes AP-2?. The interaction was confirmed in cells using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). DNA methylation was discovered as an anomalous mechanism for CHRNA7 regulation in one cell line. These studies suggest a role for AP-2? regulation of CHRNA7 mRNA expression in multiple tissues during development. PMID:21979958

  10. R9AP Overexpression Alters Phototransduction Kinetics in iCre75 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sundermeier, Thomas R.; Vinberg, Frans; Mustafi, Debarshi; Bai, Xiaodong; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Determine the impact of rod photoreceptor-specific expression of Cre recombinase on the kinetics of phototransduction in the mouse eye and identify changes in gene expression that underlie any observed phenotypic differences. Methods. Transretinal ERG and single-cell suction electrode recordings were used to measure the kinetics of phototransduction in a mouse line exhibiting rod photoreceptor–specific Cre recombinase expression, and the results were compared with those from control non–Cre-expressing littermates. Gene expression changes were evaluated using RNA sequencing transcriptome analysis. The pattern of expression of Rgs9bp was determined by mapping sequencing reads to the mouse genome and performing 3?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3?-RACE). Results. Expression of the rod-specific iCre75 transgene was accompanied by accelerated phototransduction inactivation, likely due to overexpression of the Rgs9bp gene, which encodes the Rgs9 anchor protein (R9AP). R9AP upregulation stabilized the RGS9 GAP complex, altering phototransduction kinetics. 3?-Race identified an abundant, unexpected Rgs9bp-Prm1 fusion mRNA in Cre-expressing mouse retinas, which was determined to be derived from a second transgene present in the iCre75 line. Conclusions. Here we report the presence of a second, R9AP-expressing transgene in the iCre75 mouse line, leading to altered kinetics of phototransduction. These results highlight an important caveat that must be considered when utilizing this mouse line for rod photoreceptor–specific gene loss of function studies. PMID:24526444

  11. Characterization of three B-cell lymphoma cell lines from chemotherapy resistant patients with respect to in vitro sensitivity to 21 antitumor agents, ABC-transporter expression and cellular redox status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Bracht; Thomas Kiefer; Gottfried Dölken; Patrick J. Bednarski

    2007-01-01

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to characterize three new, recently established non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines (GUMBUS, DOGUM,\\u000a and DOGKIT), isolated from patients developing high-clinical resistance to cytotoxic therapy, with respect to sensitivity\\u000a toward 21 antitumor drugs from different classes of action, expression of three ABC transporters: P glycoprotein (Pgp) (MDR1\\u000a and ABCB1), multidrug resistance related proteins (MRP1) (ABCC1), and

  12. The APS SASE FEL : modeling and code comparison.

    SciTech Connect

    Biedron, S. G.

    1999-04-20

    A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

  13. Comparison of BD Phoenix AP Workflow with Vitek 2?

    PubMed Central

    Junkins, Alan D.; Arbefeville, Sophie S.; Howard, Wanita J.; Richter, Sandra S.

    2010-01-01

    The BD Phoenix AP instrument reduced the manual setup time for the Phoenix system by 50%. For batches of 14 organisms, the average manual manipulation time per isolate was 89.5 s for BD Phoenix by the use of the AP instrument and 101 s for Vitek 2 (P < 0.001). PMID:20220158

  14. Comparison of BD Phoenix AP Workflow with Vitek 2.

    PubMed

    Junkins, Alan D; Arbefeville, Sophie S; Howard, Wanita J; Richter, Sandra S

    2010-05-01

    The BD Phoenix AP instrument reduced the manual setup time for the Phoenix system by 50%. For batches of 14 organisms, the average manual manipulation time per isolate was 89.5 s for BD Phoenix by the use of the AP instrument and 101 s for Vitek 2 (P<0.001). PMID:20220158

  15. 75 FR 75666 - Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ...applications for the AP Test Fee FY 2011 competition...funding under this program. In order to afford as many...we are reopening the AP Test Fee FY 2011 competition...application. All information in the September 1, 2010...g., braille, large print, audiotape, or...

  16. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - PAVED AND UNPAVED ROAD DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for paved and unpaved roads which are incorporated into AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness information. As re...

  17. Towards a Strategic Plan: Summary of APS Strategic Planning Meeting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-08-01

    This article is on pages 113 and 116-120 of the PDF file. This article presents a summary of the APS five year stratigic plan based on membership surveys, financial analysis and observations compiled by an independent consulting firm. The plan contains 12 topics which reflect the direction and improvements APS leadership wishes to see occur.

  18. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - LANDFILLS (COMBUSTION CONTROLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for landfills, in particular for combustion devices fed by landfill gas, for incorporation into AP-42. AP-42 is a massive collection of information concerning processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and co...

  19. Adaptive changes of extracellular amino acid concentrations in mouse dorsal striatum by 4-AP-induced cortical seizures.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Takata, N; Shinohara, Y; Hirase, H

    2015-06-01

    The striatum is a major target of cerebral cortical output. The cortico-striatal projection has been well described, however, the neurochemical changes that occur in the striatum after prolonged cortical hyperactivation remain to be investigated. In this study, extracellular levels of glutamate, GABA, and alanine levels were measured in the dorsal striatum using microdialysis in anesthetized mice at resting condition and during 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced cortical seizures. After topical application of 4-AP on the primary motor cortex that induced cortical seizures, the extracellular level of striatal GABA increased by 40% in 60min. By contrast, the extracellular level of striatal glutamate decreased by 20%. Moreover, the surface amounts of striatal glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), the major astrocytic high-affinity glutamate transporters, tended to increase by cortical seizures in 60min, suggesting a recruitment of the glutamate transporters from internal stores. 4-AP also resulted in a steady increase of alanine levels which are thought to reflect glutamate and pyruvate metabolism in neurons and astrocytes. These observations possibly delineate adaptive changes of striatal metabolism by severe cortical seizures. PMID:25818552

  20. Pharmacological regulation of AP-1 transcription factor DNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Pennypacker, K R; Hong, J S; McMillian, M K

    1994-05-01

    The AP-1 transcription factor family consists of two groups of proteins, fos-related antigens (fra) and jun proteins. These transcription factors are usually expressed at low basal levels but they can be dramatically induced in a variety of cell types by many different stimuli, in which the quantity of AP-1 transcription factor and the DNA binding activity also rise. The quantity and DNA binding activity of transcription factors are not always at low levels. For example, early in brain development a high basal expression of AP-1 DNA binding activity exists. Similarly, adult rat adrenal gland contains high levels of AP-1 DNA binding activity whose regulation appears to be through post-translational modification (i.e., phosphorylation). Thus, AP-1 DNA binding activity is modulated in a developmental and tissue-specific manner. PMID:8181665

  1. APS team works smarter, cuts substation construction costs by 36%

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    An aggressive, cost-cutting, team of T D employees at Arizona Public Service Co (APS) is building a new distribution substation in Phoenix for less than half the original cost that APS planners had calculated for the project's land, labor and materials. Scheduled for service in June of this year, APS analysts had originally projected land, labor and materials costs for the 20-MVA Bell substation at nearly $1.7-million-not including major equipment such as transformers, circuit breakers, and switches. However, after studying the project, an empowered APS crew was able to slash 36% off the original estimate-more than $610,000. What's more, APS spokesmen say that its new approach to substation construction and design has given its engineers and construction crews a laundry list of additional ideas to try out on future substation ventures. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Using IB/AP exams to meet Honors College requirements Students who pass IB and AP exams will receive credit through the College of Charleston for the

    E-print Network

    Mitchener, W. Garrett

    Using IB/AP exams to meet Honors College requirements Students who pass IB and AP exams to discuss IB/AP transfer credit and the courses that must be completed prior to graduation. The full list of IB and AP exams accepted by CofC can be found at http

  3. Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1501 Leadership and Leading for Groups and Organizations | Dr. David Colcleugh 1 APS 1501HF Leadership and Leading for Groups and Organizations

    E-print Network

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1501 Leadership and Leading for Groups and Organizations | Dr. David Colcleugh 1 APS 1501HF Leadership and Leading for Groups and Organizations Syllabus Fall 2014 APS 1501: Engineers leading change to build a better world. #12;Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1501 Leadership and Leading

  4. Tank 241-AP-105, cores 208, 209 and 210, analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-10-24

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-AP-105. Push mode core segments were removed from Risers 24 and 28 between July 2, 1997, and July 14, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-AP-105 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1997) and Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, or total organic carbon (TOC) analysis exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP and DQO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group, and are not considered in this report. Appearance and Sample Handling Two cores, each consisting of four segments, were expected from Tank 241-AP-105. Three cores were sampled, and complete cores were not obtained. TSAP states core samples should be transported to the laboratory within three calendar days from the time each segment is removed from the tank. This requirement was not met for all cores. Attachment 1 illustrates subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis and identifies their sources. This reference also relates tank farm identification numbers to their corresponding 222-S Laboratory sample numbers.

  5. Transcriptional complexity and roles of Fra-1/AP-1 at the uPA/Plau locus in aggressive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moquet-Torcy, Gabriel; Tolza, Claire; Piechaczyk, Marc; Jariel-Encontre, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Plau codes for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), critical in cancer metastasis. While the mechanisms driving its overexpression in tumorigenic processes are unknown, it is regulated by the AP-1 transcriptional complex in diverse situations. The AP-1 component Fra-1 being overexpressed in aggressive breast cancers, we have addressed its role in the overexpression of Plau in the highly metastatic breast cancer model cell line MDA-MB231 using ChIP, pharmacological and RNAi approaches. Plau transcription appears controlled by 2 AP-1 enhancers located -1.9 (ABR-1.9) and -4.1 kb (ABR-4.1) upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) of the uPA-coding mRNA, Plau-001, that bind Fra-1. Surprisingly, RNA Pol II is not recruited only at the Plau-001 TSS but also upstream in the ABR-1.9 and ABR-4.1 region. Most Pol II molecules transcribe short and unstable RNAs while tracking down toward the TSS, where there are converted into Plau-001 mRNA-productive species. Moreover, a minority of Pol II molecules transcribes a low abundance mRNA of unknown function called Plau-004 from the ABR-1.9 domain, whose expression is tempered by Fra-1. Thus, we unveil a heretofore-unsuspected transcriptional complexity at Plau in a reference metastatic breast cancer cell line with pleiotropic effects for Fra-1, providing novel information on AP-1 transcriptional action. PMID:25200076

  6. Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP) and an 0-AP/HTPB-Based Propellant

    SciTech Connect

    BEHRENS JR.,RICHARD; MINIER,LEANNA M.G.

    1999-10-25

    A study to characterize the low-temperature reactive processes for o-AP and an AP/HTPB-based propellant (class 1.3) is being conducted in the laboratory using the techniques of simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results presented in this paper are a follow up of the previous work that showed the overall decomposition to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The decomposition is characterized by the occurrence of one major event that consumes up to {approx}35% of the AP, depending upon particle size, and leaves behind a porous agglomerate of AP. The major gaseous products released during this event include H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl. The recent efforts provide further insight into the decomposition processes for o-AP. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates (GFRs) for the products indicate that the major decomposition event consists of three chemical channels. The first and third channels are affected by the pressure in the reaction cell and occur at the surface or in the gas phase above the surface of the AP particles. The second channel is not affected by pressure and accounts for the solid-phase reactions characteristic of o-AP. The third channel involves the interactions of the decomposition products with the surface of the AP. SEM images of partially decomposed o-AP provide insight to how the morphology changes as the decomposition progresses. A conceptual model has been developed, based upon the STMBMS and SEM results, that provides a basic description of the processes. The thermal decomposition characteristics of the propellant are evaluated from the identities of the products and the temporal behaviors of their GFRs. First, the volatile components in the propellant evolve from the propellant as it is heated. Second, the hot AP (and HClO{sub 4}) at the AP-binder interface oxidize the binder through reactions that preferentially strip the hydrogen from the binder and yield HCl and H{sub 2}O with some oxidation of the carbon from the binder. Third, the o-AP in the propellant decomposes in the same manner as in neat o-AP. Finally, AP-derived gaseous products interact with other ingredients in the propellant.

  7. APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - Monitoring System Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort; Dimitri Hochard

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), along with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Pubic Service (APS), is monitoring the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant to determine the costs to produce hydrogen fuels (including 100% hydrogen as well as hydrogen and compressed natural gas blends) for use by fleets and other operators of advanced-technology vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cost data will be used as benchmark data by technology modelers as well as research and development programs. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 18 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen per day by electrolysis. It can store up to 155 kg of hydrogen at various pressures up to 6,000 psi. The dispenser island can fuel vehicles with 100% hydrogen at 5,000 psi and with blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas at 3,600 psi. The monitoring system was designed to track hydrogen delivery to each of the three storage areas and to monitor the use of electricity on all major equipment in the Pilot Plant, including the fuel dispenser island. In addition, water used for the electrolysis process is monitored to allow calculation of the total cost of plant operations and plant efficiencies. The monitoring system at the Pilot Plant will include about 100 sensors when complete (50 are installed to date), allowing for analysis of component, subsystems, and plant-level costs. The monitoring software is mostly off-the-shelve, with a custom interface. The majority of the sensors input to the Programmable Automation Controller as 4- to 20-mA analog signals. The plant can be monitored over of the Internet, but the control functions are restricted to the control room equipment. Using the APS general service plan E32 electric rate of 2.105 cents per kWh, during a recent eight-month period when 1,200 kg of hydrogen was produced and the plant capacity factor was 26%, the electricity cost to produce one kg of hydrogen was $3.43. However, the plant capacity factor has been increasing, with a recent one-month high of 49%. If a plant capacity factor of 70% can be achieved with the present equipment, the cost of electricity would drop to $2.39 per kg of hydrogen. In this report, the power conversion (76.7%), cell stack (53.1%), and reverse osmosis system (7.14%) efficiencies are also calculated, as is the water cost per kg of hydrogen produced ($0.10 per kg). The monitoring system has identified several areas having the potential to lower costs, including using an reverse osmosis system with a higher efficiency, improving the electrolysis power conversion efficiency, and using air cooling to replace some or all chiller cooling. These activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory for the AVTA, which is part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  8. APS Position Statements- APS Guiding Principles for the Care and Use of Vertebrate Animals in Research and Training

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-07-16

    The Guiding Principles for the Care and Use of Vertebrate Animals in Research and Training are an updated version of a document first adopted by the APS Council in 1953. The Guiding Principles represent a code of ethics for APS members who work with animals. They provide a framework intended to promote the humane treatment of animals and are also used to evaluate research submitted for publication in APS journals. The update is intended to clarify certain elements of the Guiding Principles and make them easier to apply in practical situations. In addition, because the Guiding Principles are based upon U.S. animal welfare requirements, the update adds provisions to address the fact that other countries have different animal welfare requirements. This change was needed because of the increasing number of physiologists from around the world who are joining the APS and submitting articles for publication in APS journals.

  9. Enhancing and Archiving the APS Catalog of the POSS I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.

    2003-01-01

    We have worked on two different projects: 1) Archiving the APS Catalog of the POSS I for distribution to NASA's NED at IPAC, SIMBAD in France, and individual astronomers and 2) The automated morphological classification of galaxies. We have completed archiving the Catalog into easily readable binary files. The database together with the software to read it has been distributed on DVD's to the national and international data centers and to individual astronomers. The archived Catalog contains more than 89 million objects in 632 fields in the first epoch Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. Additional image parameters not available in the original on-line version are also included in the archived version. The archived Catalog is also available and can be queried at the APS web site (URL: http://aps.umn.edu) which has been improved with a much faster and more efficient querying system. The Catalog can be downloaded as binary datafiles with the source code for reading it. It is also being integrated into the SkyQuery system which includes the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 2MASS, and the FIRST radio sky survey. We experimented with different classification algorithms to automate the morphological classification of galaxies. This is an especially difficult problem because there are not only a large number of attributes or parameters and measurement uncertainties, but also the added complication of human disagreement about the adopted types. To solve this problem we used 837 galaxy images from nine POSS I fields at the North Galactic Pole classified by two independent astronomers for which they agree on the morphological types. The initial goal was to separate the galaxies into the three broad classes relevant to issues of large scale structure and galaxy formation and evolution: early (ellipticals and lenticulars), spirals, and late (irregulars) with an accuracy or success rate that rivals the best astronomer classifiers. We also needed to identify a set of parameters derived from the digitized images that separate the galaxies by type. The human eye can easily recognize complicated patterns in images such as spiral arms which can be spotty, blotchy affairs that are difficult for automated techniques. A galaxy image can potentially be described by hundreds of parameters, all of which may have some relation to the morphological type. In the set of initial experiments we used 624 such parameters, in two colors, blue and red. These parameters include the surface brightness and color measured at different radii, ratios of these parameters at different radii, concentration indices, Fourier transforms and wavelet decomposition coefficients. We experimented with three different classes of classification algorithms; decision trees, k-nearest neighbors, and support vector machines (SVM). A range of experiments were conducted and we eventually narrowed the parameters to 23 selected parameters. SVM consistently outperformed the other algorithms with both sets of features. By combining the results from the different algorithms in a weighted scheme we achieved an overall classification success of 86%.

  10. KIC 7582608: a new Kepler roAp star with frequency variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.; Smalley, B.; Kurtz, D. W.; Southworth, J.; Cunha, M. S.; Clubb, K. I.

    2014-09-01

    We analyse the fifth rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star reported in the Kepler field, KIC 7582608, discovered with the SuperWASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) project. The object shows a high-frequency pulsation at 181.7324 d-1 (P = 7.9 min) with an amplitude of 1.45 mmag, and low-frequency rotational modulation corresponding to a period of 20.4339 d with an amplitude of 7.64 mmag. Spectral analysis confirms the Ap nature of the target, with characteristic lines of Eu II, Nd III and Pr III present. The spectra are not greatly affected by broadening, which is consistent with the long rotational period found from photometry. From our spectral observations we derive a lower limit on the mean magnetic field modulus of = 3.05 ± 0.23 kG. Long cadence Kepler observations show a frequency quintuplet split by the rotational period of the star, typical for an oblique pulsator. We suggest the star is a quadrupole pulsator with a geometry such that i ˜ 66° and ? ˜ 33°. We detect frequency variations of the pulsation in both the WASP and Kepler data sets on many time-scales. Linear, non-adiabatic stability modelling allows us to constrain a region on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where the pulsations are unstable, an area consistent with observations.

  11. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    49 ? Transportation ? 3 ? 2011-10-01 ? 2011-10-01 ? false ? Service lines: Plastic. ? 192.375 ? Section 192.375 ? Transportation ? Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) ? PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ?...

  12. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    49 ? Transportation ? 3 ? 2013-10-01 ? 2013-10-01 ? false ? Service lines: Plastic. ? 192.375 ? Section 192.375 ? Transportation ? Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) ? PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ?...

  13. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    49 ? Transportation ? 3 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Service lines: Plastic. ? 192.375 ? Section 192.375 ? Transportation ? Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) ? PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ?...

  14. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    49 ? Transportation ? 3 ? 2014-10-01 ? 2014-10-01 ? false ? Service lines: Plastic. ? 192.375 ? Section 192.375 ? Transportation ? Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) ? PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ?...

  15. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    49 ? Transportation ? 3 ? 2012-10-01 ? 2012-10-01 ? false ? Service lines: Plastic. ? 192.375 ? Section 192.375 ? Transportation ? Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) ? PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ?...

  16. Differential requirements for AP-2 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Conner, Sean D; Schmid, Sandra L

    2003-09-01

    AP-2 complexes are key components in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). They trigger clathrin assembly, interact directly with cargo molecules, and recruit a number of endocytic accessory factors. Adaptor-associated kinase (AAK1), an AP-2 binding partner, modulates AP-2 function by phosphorylating its mu2 subunit. Here, we examined the effects of adenoviral-mediated overexpression of WT AAK1, kinase-dead, and truncation mutants in HeLa cells, and show that AAK1 also regulates AP-2 function in vivo. WT AAK1 overexpression selectively blocks transferrin (Tfn) receptor and LRP endocytosis. Inhibition was kinase independent, but required the full-length AAK1 as truncation mutants were not inhibitory. Although changes in mu2 phosphorylation were not detected, AAK1 overexpression significantly decreased the phosphorylation of large adaptin subunits and the normally punctate AP-2 distribution was dispersed, suggesting that AAK1 overexpression inhibited Tfn endocytosis by functionally sequestering AP-2. Surprisingly, clathrin distribution and EGF uptake were unaffected by AAK1 overexpression. Thus, AP-2 may not be stoichiometrically required for coat assembly, and may have a more cargo-selective function in CME than previously thought. PMID:12952931

  17. Mapping of the spontaneous deletion in the Ap3d1 gene of mocha mice: fast and reliable genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Drasbek, Kim Ryun; Holm, Mai Marie; Delenclos, Marion; Jensen, Kimmo

    2008-01-01

    Background The mocha mouse carries a spontaneous deletion in the Ap3d1 gene, encoding the delta 1 subunit of the adaptor related protein complex 3, (Ap3d1), and subsequently lack the expression of functional AP-3. This leads to a deficiency in vesicle transport and storage, which affects neurotransmitter vesicle turnover and release in the central nervous system. Since the genomic sequence of the Ap3d1 gene of mocha mouse is not known, precise mapping of the deletion as well as reliable genotyping protocols are lacking. Findings We sequenced the Ap3d1 gene (HGNC GeneID: 8943) around the deletion site in the mocha mouse and revealed a 10639 bp deletion covering exon 2 to 6. Subsequently, new PCR primers were designed yielding a reliable genotyping protocol of both newborn and adult tissue. To examine the genotypes further, hippocampal neurons were cultured from mocha and control mice. Patch-clamp recordings showed that mocha neurons had a higher input resistance, and that autaptic EPSC in mocha cultures depressed faster and stronger as compared with control cultures. Conclusion Our study reports the sequence of the deleted part of the Ap3d1 gene in mocha mice, as well as a reliable PCR-based genotyping protocol. We cultured hippocampal neurons from control and mocha mice, and found a difference in input resistance of the neurons, and in the synaptic short-term plasticity of glutamatergic autapses showing a larger synaptic depression than controls. The described procedures may be useful for the future utilization of the mocha mouse as a model of defective vesicle biogenesis. Importantly, as genotyping by eye color is complicated in newborn mice, the designed protocol is so fast and reliable that newborn mice could rapidly be genotyped and hippocampal neurons dissociated and cultured, which is normally best done at P0-P2. PMID:19032734

  18. [blank line] [blank line

    E-print Network

    Cho, Sung-Bae

    (NodeNew=K=Yes) decision threshold " ?" NodeNew=K . , BN . , NodeNew=K NodeAnswer . 4. 4.1 m4650 . Windows 6.0 , GPS GPS , . SASOM . Acknowledgments [blank line] 2010 ( ) (2010-0018948). [blank line] [1] Butler, M. (2011., Mantyjarvi, J., Kela, J., Keranen, H. and Malm, E.-J. (2003). "Managing Context Information in Mobile Devices

  19. KCAT, Xradia, ALS and APS Performance Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, A; Martz, H; Brown, W

    2004-09-30

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of components, subassemblies and assemblies of millimeter-size extent with micrometer-size features (mesoscale). These mesoscale objects include materials that vary widely in composition, density, geometry and embedded features. Characterizing these mesoscale objects is critical for corroborating the physics codes that underlie LLNL's Stockpile Stewardship mission. In this report we present results from our efforts to quantitatively characterize the performance of several x-ray systems in an effort to benchmark existing systems and to determine which systems may have the best potential for our mesoscale imaging needs. Several different x-ray digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT) systems exist that may be applicable to our mesoscale object characterization requirements, including microfocus and synchrotron systems. The systems we have benchmarked include KCAT (LLNL developed) and Xradia {mu}XCT (Xradia, Inc., Concord, CA), both microfocus systems, and Beamline 1-ID at the Advance Photon Source (APS) and the Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), both synchrotron based systems. The ALS Tomography Beamline is a new installation, and the data presented and analyzed here is some of the first to be acquired at the facility. It is important to note that the ALS system had not yet been optimized at the time we acquired data. Results for each of these systems has been independently documented elsewhere. In this report we summarize and compare the characterization results for these systems.

  20. Beam instability studies at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.

    1994-10-01

    The Argonne Advanced Photon Source, APS (Fig. 1), is a 7-GeV positron storage ring with a circumference of 1104 m. It has a ``third generation, DBA or Chasman-Green`` lattice composed of 40 sectors each having a {approximately}6 m long zero-dispersion straight-section for accommodating insertion devices. Neighboring straight-sections are connected by a 360{degrees}/40 = 9{degrees} double-bend-achromatic bending section designed to produce the smallest emittance attainable with reasonable component parameter values and dynamic apertures. Thus, it is a very strongly focusing lattice with v{sub x} = 35.22 and v{sub y} = 14.30. The beam chamber of the storage ring including all rf, vacuum and photon beam components is designed to ensure that a beam current > 100 mA can be stably stored. We expect that the maximum stable beam current could be as high as 300 mA. This paper will give some details of the studies and computations to ensure the stability of such a beam. The discussions will be organized in the following three parts: Coupled-bunch instability caused by the higher-order modes (HOMs) of the rf cavities; Single-bunch instability due to the resistive wall impedance; and Single-bunch instability due to broadband impedances arising from beam chamber irregularities.

  1. Eastman, AP start on coal unit

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-25

    Eastman Chemical and Air Products and Chemicals (AP) have started construction of a $214-million, coal-to-methanol demonstration unit at Eastmans site in Kingsport, TN. The project is part of the Department of Energy`s clean coal technology program and is receiving $93 million in federal support. The demonstration unit-which will have a methanol capacity of 260 tons/day-will use novel catalyst technology for converting coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) to methanol. Unlike conventional technology that processes syngas through a fixed bed of dry catalyst particles, the liquid-phase methanol process converts the syngas in a single vessel containing catalysts suspended in mineral oil. The companies say the innovation allows the process to better able handle the gases from coal gasifiers and is more stable and reliable than existing processes. Eastman says it will use the methanol produced by the plant as a chemical feedstock. It currently uses methanol as an intermediate in making acetic anhydride and dimethyl terephthalate. In addition, the companies say the methanol will be evaluated as a feedstock in making methyl tert-butyl ether for reformulated fuels. Eastman also says it will evaluate coproducing dimethyl ether (DME) with the methanol. DME can be used as a fuel additive or blended with methanol for a chemical feedstock, according to Eastman.

  2. High Pressure Reverse Flow APS Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    A design and test demonstration effort was undertaken to evaluate the concept of the reverse flow engine for the APS engine application. The 1500 lb (6672 N) thrust engine was designed to operate on gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen propellants at a mixture ratio of 4 and to achieve the objective performance of 435 sec (4266 Nsec/kg) specific impulse. Superimposed durability requirements called for a million-cycle capability with 50 hours duration. The program was undertaken as a series of tasks including the initial preliminary design, design of critical test components and finally, the design and demonstration of an altitude engine which could be used interchangeably to examine operating parameters as well as to demonstrate the capability of the concept. The program results are reported with data to indicate that all of the program objectives were met or exceeded within the course of testing on the program. The analysis effort undertaken is also reported in detail and supplemented with test data in some cases where prior definitions could not be made. The results are contained of these analyses as well as the test results conducted throughout the course of the program. Finally, the test data and analytical results were combined to allow recommendations for a flight weight design. This preliminary design effort is also detailed.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the human manganese superoxide dismutase gene: the role of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and activating protein-2 (AP-2).

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yong; Porntadavity, Sureerut; St Clair, Daret K

    2002-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) plays an important role in regulating cellular redox conditions. Expression of MnSOD has been shown to protect against damage by oxidative stress and to suppress the malignant phenotype of human cancer cells. We have previously cloned the human MnSOD (SOD2) gene and analysed its 5' proximal promoter, which has been characterized by a lack of a TATA or CAAT box and the presence of multiple GC boxes. To define further the molecular mechanisms for the regulation of MnSOD expression, multiple transcription factor-binding motifs containing overlapping specificity protein 1 (Sp1)- and activator protein (AP)-2-binding sites were identified by DNase I footprinting analysis. Functional studies in three cell lines with different levels of Sp1 and AP-2 proteins suggested that the cellular levels of these proteins may differentially regulate transcription via GC-binding motifs in the human SOD2 promoter. Co-transfection of an Sp1 expression vector resulted in an increase in the transcription of the promoter-driven reporter gene. In contrast, co-transfection of the AP-2 expression vector caused a decrease in transcription. Direct mutagenesis analysis of Sp1- and AP-2-binding sites showed that Sp1 is essential for transcription of the human SOD2 gene, whereas AP-2 plays a negative role in the transcription. Immunoprecipitation of Sp1 and AP-2 proteins demonstrated that Sp1 interacts with AP-2 in vivo. Two-hybrid analysis revealed that interaction between Sp1 and AP-2 plays both a positive and negative role in the transcription of the reporter gene in vivo. Taken together, our data indicate that AP-2 down-regulates transcription of the human SOD2 gene via its interaction with Sp1 within the promoter region. These findings, coupled with our previous observation that several cancer cell lines have mutations in the promoter region of the human MnSOD gene, which lead to an increase in an AP-2-binding site and a decrease in the promoter activity, signal the importance of understanding the promoter structure and the regulation of the human SOD2 gene by Sp1 and AP-2. PMID:11853549

  4. AP-1-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Persicaria chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Young-Jin; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Yang, Woo Seok; Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Han Gyung; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoon, Keejung; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Persicaria chinensis L. has been prescribed to cure numerous inflammatory disorders. We previously analyzed the bioactivity of the methanol extract of this plant (Pc-ME) against LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and found that it prevented HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The purpose of the current study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which Pc-ME inhibits activator protein- (AP-) 1 activation pathway and mediates its hepatoprotective activity. To investigate the putative therapeutic properties of Pc-ME against AP-1-mediated inflammation and hepatotoxicity, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 and U937 cells, a monocyte-like human cell line, and an LPS/D-galactosamine- (D-GalN-) induced acute hepatitis mouse model were employed. The expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin- (IL-) 1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) was significantly diminished by Pc-ME. Moreover, Pc-ME reduced AP-1 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and differentiated U937 cells. Additionally, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of Pc-ME pretreated orally in a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-intoxicated acute liver injury by demonstrating the significant reduction in elevated serum AST and ALT levels and histological damage. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that Pc-ME could function as an antihepatitis remedy suppressing MAPK/AP-1-mediated inflammatory events. PMID:25878717

  5. A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

    1999-10-25

    A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders.

  6. Quercetin Modulates NF-? B and AP1\\/JNK Pathways to Induce Cell Death in Human Hepatoma Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Belén Granado-Serrano; María Angeles Martín; Laura Bravo; Luis Goya; Sonia Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid, has been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties, but the precise molecular mechanisms of action are not thoroughly elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of quercetin (50 ? M) on two main transcription factors (NF-? B and AP-1) related to survival\\/proliferation pathways in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) over time.

  7. Dale M. Meade APS Spring Meeting

    E-print Network

    for a D-T Fusion Reactor D+ T+ He++ Alpha 20 % The self-heating rate is ~ (nT) ~ p for T between 10 - 25 keV The pressure profile depends on heating rate and transport profile. Neutron 80 % PExt Q = PFusion

  8. Engaging Cuban Physicists Through the APS/CPS Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Irving A.; Lerch, Irving A.

    In his reflections on Cuban physics, Marcelo Alonso urges APS to take steps to promote interactions between Cuban and US physicists. As an introduction to Marcello's essay, this note will summarize past and current activities.

  9. Exercise Physiology-Fisiologia del Ejercicio - 2012 APS Video Contest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Facundo Mendes Garrido Abregu (Universidad de Buenos Aires)

    2012-05-02

    The Viewer's Choice award-winning video from the 2012 APS Video Contest. This video, which is recorded in english with spanish subtitles, describes cardiovasuclar adaptations that occur during exercise.

  10. 76 FR 10269 - AP1000 Design Certification Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ...is discussed below: Editorial Changes Westinghouse requested changes to the AP1000 DCD to correct spelling, punctuation, grammar, designations, and references. None of these changes is intended to make any substantive changes to the certified...

  11. An improved model for the combustion of AP composite propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents several improvements to the BDP model of steady-state burning of AP composite solid propellants. The Price-Boggs-Derr model of AP monopropellant burning is incorporated to represent the AP. A separate energy equation is written for the binder to permit a different surface temperature from the AP; this includes an analysis of the sharing of primary diffusion flame energy, and correction of a BDP model inconsistency in treating the binder regression rate. A method for assembling component contributions to calculate the burning rates of multimodal propellants is also presented. Results are shown in the form of representative burning rate curves, comparisons with data, and calculated internal details of interest. Ideas for future work are discussed in an Appendix.

  12. A Review of AP Calculus Graphing Calculator Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Review material on graphing calculator use from the College Board AP Calculus Course Description. The problems are mostly AB level. The page also contains a brief historical remark about Maria Gaetana Agnesi.

  13. The Arabidopsis Cell Plate-Associated Dynamin-Like Protein, ADL1Ap, Is Required for Multiple Stages of Plant Growth and Development1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung-Ho; Busse, James S.; Dickey, Carrie; Rancour, David M.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamin and dynamin-like proteins are GTP-binding proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. In soybean, a 68-kD dynamin-like protein called phragmoplastin has been shown to be associated with the cell plate in dividing cells (Gu and Verma, 1996). Five ADL1 genes encoding dynamin-like proteins related to phragmoplastin have been identified in the completed Arabidopsis genome. Here we report that ADL1Ap is associated with punctate subcellular structures and with the cell plate in dividing cells. To assess the function of ADL1Ap we utilized a reverse genetic approach to isolate three separate Arabidopsis mutant lines containing T-DNA insertions in ADL1A. Homozygous adl1A seeds were shriveled and mutant seedlings arrested soon after germination, producing only two leaf primordia and severely stunted roots. Immunoblotting revealed that ADL1Ap expression was not detectable in the mutants. Despite the loss of ADL1Ap, the mutants did not display any defects in cytokinesis, and growth of the mutant seedlings could be rescued in tissue culture by the addition of sucrose. Although these sucrose-rescued plants displayed normal vegetative growth and flowered, they set very few seeds. Thus, ADL1Ap is critical for several stages of plant development, including embryogenesis, seedling development, and reproduction. We discuss the putative role of ADL1Ap in vesicular trafficking, cytokinesis, and other aspects of plant growth. PMID:11351070

  14. A Novel AP-1 Site Is Critical for Maximal Induction of the Follicle-stimulating Hormone ? Gene by Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone*

    PubMed Central

    Coss, Djurdjica; Jacobs, Suzanne B. R.; Bender, Cheryl E.; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) synthesis is a central point of convergence for signals controlling reproduction. The FSH? subunit is primarily regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), gonadal steroids, and activin. Here, we identify elements in the mouse FSH? promoter responsible for GnRH-mediated induction utilizing the L?T2 cell line that endogenously expresses FSH. The proximal 398 bp of the mouse FSH? promoter is sufficient for response to GnRH. This response localizes primarily to an AP-1 half-site (?72/?69) juxtaposed to a CCAAT box, which binds nuclear factor-Y. Both elements are required for AP-1 binding, creating a novel AP-1 site. Multimers of this site confer GnRH induction, and mutation or internal deletion of this site reduces GnRH induction by 35%. The same reduction was achieved using a dominant negative Fos protein. This is the only functional AP-1 site identified in the proximal 398 bp, since its mutation eliminates FSH? induction by c-Fos and c-Jun. GnRH regulation of the FSH? gene occurs through induction of multiple Fos and Jun isoforms, forming at least four different AP-1 molecules, all of which bind to this site. Mitogen-activated protein kinase activity is required for induction of FSH? and JunB protein. Finally, AP-1 interacts with nuclear factor-Y, which occupies its overlapping site in vivo. PMID:14570911

  15. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  16. Tonic suppression of adrenal AP-1 activity by glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Burke, Z; Carter, D

    1996-09-18

    The AP-1 transcription factor is a variable complex of Fos and Jun nuclear phosphoproteins that is induced in many cell types. AP-1 interacts with transcription factors of different classes, including the nuclear steroid hormone receptors, an interaction that is often mutually antagonistic and thereby serves to integrate different cellular signalling events. In addition to direct, molecular interactions between AP-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), there is also evidence that the two signalling pathways may interact at different levels, but in vivo interactions of this nature have not been well characterized. We have investigated a unique cellular context for GR/AP-1 interactions, namely in the adrenal gland of the rat where the production of glucocorticoids leads to extremely high local levels of glucocorticoids, and where high constitutive AP-1 activity (as determined by in vitro DNA binding activity) has been demonstrated. We have now shown that depletion of glucocorticoid production in rats with the 11-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor, metyrapone, results in increased adrenal AP-1 activity. The demonstrated 5-fold increase is reversed by prior treatment with the glucocorticoid agonist, dexamethasone, and is largely localized to the adrenal medullary region. Further experiments have shown that c-Jun and JunD are the principal components of adrenal AP-1 in the basal state, but a change in jun-B expression appears to underly the metyrapone-induced increase in AP-1 activity. In situ hybridization analysis has shown that glucocorticoid depletion is associated with a dramatic increase in adrenal medullary junB mRNA, and using immunoblotting we have demonstrated a similar increase in nuclear levels of both the 43 kD JunB protein, and an associated phosphorylated JunB. Our use of a pharmacological intervention to demonstrate tonic suppression of adrenal medullary JunB expression by glucocorticoids has provided evidence of a nuclear mechanism that may have physiological relevance as an adaptive response to fluctuating levels of glucocorticoids. PMID:8902845

  17. Again, Maryland Ranks #1 in Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    For a second year in a row, Maryland ranked first nationwide in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP (Advanced Placement) exam. A score of 3 or higher on the 5-point scale is considered mastery of college-level work. Maryland also continues to show strong gains in the number of students taking an AP exam,…

  18. An architecture of highly parallel computer AP 1000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Ishihata; Takeshi Horie; Satoshi Inano; Toshiyuki Shimizu; S. Kato

    1991-01-01

    A highly parallel computer with distributed memory called the AP1000 has been developed. The system consists of 64 and 1024 processing elements and three independent networks called the torus network (T-net), broadcast network (B-net), and synchronization network (S-net). The design goal for the AP1000 is to attain low-latency, high-throughput communication. To reduce the overall communication latency, a message controller and

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the distribution of AP2/ERF transcription factors reveals duplication and CBFs genes elucidate their potential function in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) is one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide. The entire cabbage genome sequence and more than fifty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. However a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between cabbage and Arabidopsis; therefore, Arabidopsis is a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Transcription factors (TFs) are important regulators involved in plant development and physiological processes and the AP2/ERF protein family contains transcriptional factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development, as well as response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. However, no detailed expression profile of AP2/ERF-like genes is available for B. oleracea. Results In the present study, 226 AP2/ERF TFs were identified from B. oleracea based on the available genome sequence. Based on sequence similarity, the AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into five groups (DREB, ERF, AP2, RAV and Soloist) and 15 subgroups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic construction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns and interaction network were then predicted and analyzed. AP2/ERF transcription factor expression levels exhibited differences in response to varying abiotic stresses based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). BoCBF1a, 1b, 2, 3 and 4, which were highly conserved in Arabidopsis and B. rapa CBF/DREB genes families were well characterized. Expression analysis enabled elucidation of the molecular and genetic level expression patterns of cold tolerance (CT) and susceptible lines (CS) of cabbage and indicated that all BoCBF genes responded to abiotic stresses. Conclusions Comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of AP2/ERF superfamily genes and BoCBF family genes in B. oleracea is required to fully elucidate AP2/ERF, which will provide rich resources and opportunities to understand abiotic stress tolerance in crops. PMID:24888752

  20. Pulsation in the atmosphere of the roAp star HD 24712. I. Spectroscopic observations and radial velocity measurements

    E-print Network

    T. Ryabchikova; M. Sachkov; W. W. Weiss; T. Kallinger; O. Kochukhov; S. Bagnulo; I. Ilyin; J. D. Landstreet; F. Leone; G. Lo Curto; T. Luftinger; D. Lyashko; A. Magazzu

    2006-11-28

    We have investigated the structure of the pulsating atmosphere of one of the best studied rapidly oscillating Ap stars, HD 24712. For this purpose we analyzed spectra collected during 2001-2004. An extensive data set was obtained in 2004 simultaneously with the photometry of the Canadian MOST mini-satellite. This allows us to connect directly atmospheric dynamics observed as radial velocity variations with light variations seen in photometry. We directly derived for the first time and for different chemical elements, respectively ions, phase shifts between photometric and radial velocity pulsation maxima indicating, as we suggest, different line formation depths in the atmosphere. This allowed us to estimate for the first time the propagation velocity of a pulsation wave in the outer stellar atmosphere of a roAp star to be slightly lower than the sound speed. We confirm large pulsation amplitudes (150-400 m/s) for REE lines and the Halpha core, while spectral lines of the other elements (Mg, Si, Ca, and Fe-peak elements) have nearly constant velocities. We did not find different pulsation amplitudes and phases for the lines of rare-earth elements before and after the Balmer jump, which supports the hypothesis of REE concentration in the upper atmosphere above the hydrogen line-forming layers. We also discuss radial velocity amplitudes and phases measured for individual spectral lines as tools for a 3D tomography of the atmosphere of HD 24712.

  1. The ap-2 clathrin adaptor mediates endocytosis of an inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptor in human NK cells.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Amanda K; Alvarez Arias, Diana A; Oshinsky, Jennifer; James, Ashley M; Serebriiskii, Ilya; Campbell, Kerry S

    2014-11-01

    Stable surface expression of human inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) is critical for controlling NK cell function and maintaining NK cell tolerance toward normal MHC class I(+) cells. Our recent experiments, however, have found that Ab-bound KIR3DL1 (3DL1) readily leaves the cell surface and undergoes endocytosis to early/recycling endosomes and subsequently to late endosomes. We found that 3DL1 internalization is at least partially mediated by an interaction between the ?2 subunit of the AP-2 clathrin adaptor complex and ITIM tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic domain of 3DL1. Disruption of the 3DL1/?2 interaction, either by mutation of the ITIM tyrosines in 3DL1 or mutation of ?2, significantly diminished endocytosis and increased surface expression of 3DL1 in human primary NK cells and cell lines. Furthermore, we found that the 3DL1/AP-2 interaction is diminished upon Ab engagement with the receptor, as compared with untreated cells. Thus, we have identified AP-2-mediated endocytosis as a mechanism regulating the surface levels of inhibitory KIRs through their ITIM domains. Based on our results, we propose a model in which nonengaged KIRs are internalized by this mechanism, whereas engagement with MHC class I ligand would diminish AP-2 binding, thereby prolonging stable receptor surface expression and promoting inhibitory function. Furthermore, this ITIM-mediated mechanism may similarly regulate the surface expression of other inhibitory immune receptors. PMID:25238755

  2. Transcription factor AP2 and monoaminergic functions in the central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Damberg

    2005-01-01

    Summary. In the central nervous system, transcription factor AP-2 family is one of the critical regulatory factors for neural gene expression and neuronal development. Several genes in the monoaminergic systems display AP-2 binding sites in regulatory regions. In addition, brainstem levels of transcription factor AP-2? and AP-2? are positively correlated to monoamine measures in rat forebrain, suggesting a regulatory role

  3. The Secret Gripes of Professor Klein: An AP-IB By Jay Mathews

    E-print Network

    Klein, David

    The Secret Gripes of Professor Klein: An AP-IB Drama By Jay Mathews Washington Post Staff Writer's analysis of AP and IB did not turn out the way either of them hoped. On June 4, Klein submitted his report on two courses, AP Calculus AB and IB Mathematics SL. Klein's analysis of AP and IB math was more

  4. Crystal Structure of the Bifunctional ATP Sulfurylase APS kinase from the Chemolithotrophic

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Andrew J.

    and adenosine-5-phosphosul- fate (APS) kinase activities. These enzymes are usually segregated on two separate-phosphoadenosine-5- phosphosulfate; ATS, ATP sulfurylase; APS, adenosine-5- phosphosulfate; ASK, APS kinase. ECrystal Structure of the Bifunctional ATP Sulfurylase ­ APS kinase from the Chemolithotrophic

  5. Target and peripheral dose during patient repositioning with the Gamma Knife automatic positioning system (APS) device.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan-Anh; Stanley, Thomas R; Malhotra, Harish K; De Boer, Steven F; Prasad, Dheerendra; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2010-01-01

    The GammaPlan treatment planning system does not account for the leakage and scatter dose during APS repositioning. In this study, the dose delivered to the target site and its periphery from the defocus stage and intershot couch transit (couch motion from the focus to defocus position and back) associated with APS repositioning are measured for the Gamma Knife model 4C. A stereotactic head-frame was attached to a Leksell 16 cm diameter spherical phantom with a calibrated ion chamber at its center. Using a fiducial box, CT images of the phantom were acquired and registered in the GammaPlan treatment planning system to determine the coordinates of the target (center of the phantom). An absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the 50% isodose line was prescribed to the target site for all measurements. Plans were generated for the 8, 14 and 18 mm collimator helmets to determine the relationship of measured dose to the number of repositions of the APS system and to the helmet size. The target coordinate was identical throughout entire study and there was no movement of the APS between various shots. This allowed for measurement of intershot transit dose at the target site and its periphery. The couch was paused in the defocus position, allowing defocus dose measurements at the intracranial target and periphery. Measured dose increases with frequency of repositioning and with helmet collimator size. During couch transit, the target receives more dose than peripheral regions; however, in the defocus position, the greatest dose is superior to the target site. The automatic positioning system for the Leksell Gamma Knife model 4C results in an additional dose of up to 3.87 +/- 0.07%, 4.97 +/- 0.04%, and 5.71 +/- 0.07% to the target site; its periphery receives additional dose that varies depending on its position relative to the target. There is also dose contribution to the patient in the defocus position, where the APS repositions the patient from one treatment coordinate to another. This may be important for treatment areas around critical structures within the brain. Further characterization of the defocus and transit exposures and development of a dose calculation algorithm to account for these doses would improve the accuracy of the delivered plan. PMID:20160701

  6. Ad Hoc Positioning System (APS) Using AOA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragos Niculescu; B. R. Badrinath

    2003-01-01

    AoA(Angle of Arrival) is a well known method used for positioning in providing services such as E911, and for other military and civil radio-location applications, such as sonars and radars. Although devices such as GPS receivers and digital compasses provide good positioning and orientation outdoors, there are many applications re- quiring the same facilities indoors, where line of sight ac-

  7. TRANSPORTATION (1:100,000 SCALE) - PIPE AND TRANSMISSION (NEUSE RIVER BASIN, NC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pipelines, transmission lines, and miscellaneous transportation features from USGS 100,000-scale Digital Line Graphs (DLG) Transportation for Neuse River Watershed study area. Purpose: To define miscellaneous transportation lines in Neuse River Watershed study area. The ...

  8. Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

    2006-04-01

    From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware-software combined hybrid approach because of a too limited phase space of a single RFID for any meaningful encryption approach. Furthermore, a useful biological lesson is not to put all eggs in one basket, "if you don't get it all, you can't hack it". According to the Radar physics, we can choose the amplitude, the frequency, the phase, the polarization, and two radiation energy supply principles, the capacitance coupling (~6m) and the inductance coupling (<1m), to code the pair of tags differently. A casual skimmer equipped with single-mode reader can not read all. We consider near-field and mid-field applications each in this paper. The near-field is at check-out counters or the convey-belt inventory involving sensitive and invariant data. The mid-field search & rescue involves not only item/person identification, but also the geo-location. If more RF power becomes cheaper & portable for longer propagation distance in the near future, then a triangulation with pair of secured readers, located at known geo-locations, could interrogate and identify items/persons and their locations in a GPS-blind environment.

  9. Plastid-cytosol partitioning and integration of metabolic pathways for APS/PAPS biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Anne-Sophie; Kopriva, Stanislav; Takahashi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Plants assimilate sulfate from the environment to synthesize biologically active sulfur-containing compounds required for growth and cellular development. The primary steps of sulfur metabolism involve sequential enzymatic reactions synthesizing adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). Recent finding suggests that an adenosine nucleotide transport system facilitating the exchange of PAPS and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate across the plastid envelope is essential for establishing an intimate connection between the plastidic and cytosolic sulfate assimilation pathways in plants. Subcellular partitioning and integration of metabolic pathways provide focal points for investigating metabolic flux regulations. This perspective article presents an integrative view of sulfur metabolic flux control mechanisms with an emphasis on subcellular partitioning of APS/PAPS biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25657651

  10. Relativistic Supernovae have Shorter-lived Central Engines or More Extended Progenitors: The Case of SN 2012ap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margutti, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Soderberg, A. M.; Guidorzi, C.; Morsony, B. J.; Sanders, N.; Chakraborti, S.; Ray, A.; Kamble, A.; Drout, M.; Parrent, J.; Zauderer, A.; Chomiuk, L.

    2014-12-01

    Deep, late-time X-ray observations of the relativistic, engine-driven, type Ic SN 2012ap allow us to probe the nearby environment of the explosion and reveal the unique properties of relativistic supernova explosions (SNe). We find that on a local scale of ~0.01 pc the environment was shaped directly by the evolution of the progenitor star with a pre-explosion mass-loss rate of \\dot{M} <5 × 10-6 {M? yr-1}, in line with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and the other relativistic SN 2009bb. Like sub-energetic GRBs, SN 2012ap is characterized by a bright radio emission and evidence for mildly relativistic ejecta. However, its late-time (?t ? 20 days) X-ray emission is ~100 times fainter than the faintest sub-energetic GRB at the same epoch, with no evidence for late-time central engine activity. These results support theoretical proposals that link relativistic SNe like 2009bb and 2012ap with the weakest observed engine-driven explosions, where the jet barely fails to break out. Furthermore, our observations demonstrate that the difference between relativistic SNe and sub-energetic GRBs is intrinsic and not due to line-of-sight effects. This phenomenology can either be due to an intrinsically shorter-lived engine or to a more extended progenitor in relativistic SNe.

  11. Modulation of Basal and Peptide Hormone-Stimulated Na+ Transport by Membrane Cholesterol Content in the A6 Epithelial Cell Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron West; Bonnie Blazer-Yost

    2005-01-01

    These studies examined the effect of altering plasma membrane cholesterol on basal Na+ flux as well as on the natriferic responses to the peptide hormones, insulin and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) in the A6 model renal cell line. Membrane cholesterol concentrations were depleted or enriched using methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD) or a M?CD\\/cholesterol inclusion complex respectively. Effects of changes in the apical and

  12. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor is expressed in penis of adult rat and retrogradely transported in penile parasympathetic and sensory nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antti Laurikainen; Jukka O. Hiltunen; Sampsa Vanhatalo; Erik Klinge; Mart Saarma

    2000-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a member of the GDNF family of neurotrophic factors, promotes the survival and function of several neuronal populations in the peripheral and central nervous system. In the present study, expression of GDNF mRNA in the shaft of adult rat penis is demonstrated. In situ hybridization revealed GDNF mRNA expression in cells lying in the

  13. Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NF?B and AP1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is the outer skin of an evergreen tall tree belonging to the family Lauraceae containing several active components such as essential oils (cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde), tannin, mucus and carbohydrate. They have various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor activity. Previously, we have reported that anti-cancer effect of cinnamon extracts is associated with modulation of angiogenesis and effector function of CD8+ T cells. In this study, we further identified that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is also link with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity by inhibiting the activities NF?B and AP1 in mouse melanoma model. Methods Water soluble cinnamon extract was obtained and quality of cinnamon extract was evaluated by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis. In this study, we tested anti-tumor activity and elucidated action mechanism of cinnamon extract using various types of tumor cell lines including lymphoma, melanoma, cervix cancer and colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Results Cinnamon extract strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro and induced active cell death of tumor cells by up-regulating pro-apoptotic molecules while inhibiting NF?B and AP1 activity and their target genes such as Bcl-2, BcL-xL and survivin. Oral administration of cinnamon extract in melanoma transplantation model significantly inhibited tumor growth with the same mechanism of action observed in vitro. Conclusion Our study suggests that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is directly linked with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity and inhibition of NF?B and AP1 activities and their target genes in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Hence, further elucidation of active components of cinnamon extract could lead to development of potent anti-tumor agent or complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of diverse cancers. PMID:20653974

  14. EFFLUX TRANSPORTERS: Newly Appreciated

    E-print Network

    , from bacteria to humans (2, 3). In many cases, these transporters act as a first line of defense, and they can be the last defense via their role in expelling the toxicant metabolites. This article also

  15. Functional Analysis of the Two Brassica AP3 Genes Involved in Apetalous and Stamen Carpelloid

    E-print Network

    Yanfeng Zhang; Xuefang Wang; Wenxue Zhang; Fei Yu; Jianhua Tian; Dianrong Li

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) are B genes which encode MADS-box transcription factors and specify petal and stamen identities. In the current study, the stamen carpelloid (SC) mutants, HGMS and AMS, of B. rapa and B. napus were investigated and two types of AP3 genes, B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b, were functional characterized. B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b share high similarity in amino acid sequences except for 8 residues difference located at the C-terminus. Loss of this 8 residues in B.AP3.b led to the change of PI-derived motifs. Meanwhile, B.AP3.a specified petal and stamen development, whereas B.AP3.b only specified stamen development. In B. rapa, the mutations of both genes generated the SC mutant HGMS. In B. napus that contained two B.AP3.a and two B.AP3.b, loss of the two B.AP3.a functions was the key reason for the apetalous mutation, however, the loss-of-function in all four AP3 was related to the SC mutant AMS. We inferred that the 8 residues or the PI-derived motif in AP3 gene probably relates to petal formation.

  16. Functional analysis of the two Brassica AP3 genes involved in apetalous and stamen carpelloid phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Xuefang; Zhang, Wenxue; Yu, Fei; Tian, Jianhua; Li, Dianrong; Guo, Aiguang

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) are B genes which encode MADS-box transcription factors and specify petal and stamen identities. In the current study, the stamen carpelloid (SC) mutants, HGMS and AMS, of B. rapa and B. napus were investigated and two types of AP3 genes, B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b, were functional characterized. B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b share high similarity in amino acid sequences except for 8 residues difference located at the C-terminus. Loss of this 8 residues in B.AP3.b led to the change of PI-derived motifs. Meanwhile, B.AP3.a specified petal and stamen development, whereas B.AP3.b only specified stamen development. In B. rapa, the mutations of both genes generated the SC mutant HGMS. In B. napus that contained two B.AP3.a and two B.AP3.b, loss of the two B.AP3.a functions was the key reason for the apetalous mutation, however, the loss-of-function in all four AP3 was related to the SC mutant AMS. We inferred that the 8 residues or the PI-derived motif in AP3 gene probably relates to petal formation. PMID:21738595

  17. AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    O’ Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, III, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim; (OHSU- Cancer Instit.); (ARIAD)

    2010-09-07

    Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABL{sup T315I} mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and preclinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multitargeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABL{sup T315I}-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML.

  18. CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and MDR1 in human small and large intestinal cell lines suitable for drug transport studies.

    PubMed

    Engman, H A; Lennernäs, H; Taipalensuu, J; Otter, C; Leidvik, B; Artursson, P

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to find a cell culture model of the intestinal epithelium for use in studies of CYP3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism of drugs and also for studies of the interplay between CYP3A4 metabolism and P-glycoprotein efflux. For this purpose, the expression of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and MDR1 mRNA was studied in three cell lines of the normal human intestinal epithelium and three transformed cell lines of colonic (Caco-2) origin. Surprisingly, only transformed cell lines were induced by 1alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (D3) to express high amounts of CYP3A4. In contrast to the original findings for this model, the monolayer integrity was maintained during D3 treatment. Levels of CYP3A mRNA expression in Caco-2 and TC7 cells differed dramatically. The highest levels of CYP3A4 and lowest levels of CYP3A5 mRNA expression were observed in D3 treated Caco-2 cells of high passage numbers, resulting in a CYP3A4/3A5 expression ratio greater than fourfold higher than that seen in TC7 cells. Functional studies, using the CYP3A probe testosterone, showed that CYP3A activity was completely absent only in uninduced Caco-2 cells. After D3 induction, high levels of the metabolite were produced in both cell lines (149.4 +/- 12.3 and 86.5 +/- 3.8 pmol 6beta-OH testosterone/min/mg cellular protein from 75 microM testosterone in Caco-2 and TC7 cells, respectively). The maximum velocity (Vmax) and the apparent Michaelis constant (Km) for the 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone by CYP3A4 in intact Caco-2 monolayers were similar to those obtained from human intestinal microsomes. Only minor changes in P-glycoprotein activity were observed when the metabolically stable P-glycoprotein substrate celiprolol was used. In conclusion, these results show that the features of the generally available Caco-2 cell line from American Type Culture Collection make it suitable for studies of CYP3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism and also for studies of the interplay between CYP3A4 and drug efflux mechanisms. PMID:11745731

  19. Incorporating the APS Catalog of the POSS I and Image Archive in ADS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary purpose of this contract was to develop the software to both create and access an on-line database of images from digital scans of the Palomar Sky Survey. This required modifying our DBMS (called Star Base) to create an image database from the actual raw pixel data from the scans. The digitized images are processed into a set of coordinate-reference index and pixel files that are stored in run-length files, thus achieving an efficient lossless compression. For efficiency and ease of referencing, each digitized POSS I plate is then divided into 900 subplates. Our custom DBMS maps each query into the corresponding POSS plate(s) and subplate(s). All images from the appropriate subplates are retrieved from disk with byte-offsets taken from the index files. These are assembled on-the-fly into a GIF image file for browser display, and a FITS format image file for retrieval. The FITS images have a pixel size of 0.33 arcseconds. The FITS header contains astrometric and photometric information. This method keeps the disk requirements manageable while allowing for future improvements. When complete, the APS Image Database will contain over 130 Gb of data. A set of web pages query forms are available on-line, as well as an on-line tutorial and documentation. The database is distributed to the Internet by a high-speed SGI server and a high-bandwidth disk system. URL is http://aps.umn.edu/IDB/. The image database software is written in perl and C and has been compiled on SGI computers with MIX5.3. A copy of the written documentation is included and the software is on the accompanying exabyte tape.

  20. JNK/AP-1 pathway is involved in tumor necrosis factor-? induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in MCF7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yongmei; Wang, Shui; Sun, Yujie; Matt, Young; Colburn, Nancy H.; Shu, Yongqian; Han, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in breast tumor angiogenesis. And tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a positive regulator of VEGF. This study was aimed to identify the signalling pathway of TNF-? in VEGF expression regulation in breast cancer cell line MCF7. Using luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that TNF-? significantly increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional activity in the MCF7 cells. The expression of the AP-1 family members c-Jun, c-Fos and JunB and phosphorylation levels of c-Jun were upregulated by TNF-?, whereas other AP-1 family members Fra-1, Fra-2, and JunD were unaffected. The activation of AP-1 was associated with the formation of p-c-Jun-c-Jun and p-c-Jun-JunB homodimers. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not P38 and ERK were elevated by TNF-? in MCF7 cells. TNF-? potently upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of VEGF, which were significantly reversed by JNK inhibitor SP600125. Finally using chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assays, we found that p-c-Jun bound to the VEGF promoter and regulated VEGF transcription directly. These data suggest that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? is a critical regulator of VEGF expression in breast cancer cells, at least partially via a JNK and AP-1 dependent pathway. PMID:19553068

  1. Different Involvement of Promoter Methylation in the Expression of Organic Cation/Carnitine Transporter 2 (OCTN2) in Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Qiang; Qu, Jian; Zhan, Min; Wu, Lan-Xiang; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Lou, Xiao-Ya; Fu, Li-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2) is responsible for the cellular uptake of the antineoplastic agent, oxaliplatin. Epigenetic modification is a possible mechanism of altered drug-transporter expression in cancers, leading to altered efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, the mechanisms governing OCTN2 regulation are not completely understood. In this study, the low levels of OCTN2 in HepG2 and LS174T cells were elevated by the demethylating reagent, decitabine (DCA). To further reveal the epigenetic mechanism of down-regulation of OCTN2, we found that Region-1 within the OCTN2 promoter (spanning ?354 to +85) was a determinant of OCTN2 expression in a luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite genomic sequencing showed that the degree of individual methylated CpG sites within this region was inversely correlated with the levels of OCTN2 in different cancer cells. Application of DCA to HepG2 and LS174T cells reversed the hypermethylation status of the OCTN2 promoter and increased OCTN2 expression, enhancing cellular uptake of oxaliplatin. Thus, we identified that promoter methylation is responsible for epigenetic down-regulation of OCTN2 in HepG2 and LS174T cells. Given the essential role of OCTN2 in cancer cell uptake of chemotherapeutics, and thus treatment efficacy, pretreatment with a demethylating reagent is a possible strategy for optimizing pharmacotherapies against cancers. PMID:24146874

  2. The Relationship between AP[R] Exam Performance and College Outcomes. Research Report No. 2009-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Xiong, Xinhui

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the relationship between students' Advanced Placement Program[R] (AP[R]) performance in AP English Language, Biology, Calculus, and U.S. History, and their subsequent college success. For each AP Exam studied, students were divided into three groups according to their AP Exam performance (no AP Exam taken, score of 1 or 2,…

  3. Cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cherbas, Lucy; Gong, Lei

    2014-06-15

    We review the properties and uses of cell lines in Drosophila research, emphasizing the variety of lines, the large body of genomic and transcriptional data available for many of the lines, and the variety of ways the lines have been used to provide tools for and insights into the developmental, molecular, and cell biology of Drosophila and mammals. PMID:24434506

  4. APS/123-QED Metallic coatings of MEMS at low temperatures

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    APS/123-QED Metallic coatings of MEMS at low temperatures: stress, elasticity and non from low temperature techniques to extract a phase-resolved measurement of the first mechanical in terms of surface stress, additional mass, additional elasticity and damping. Analytic theoretical

  5. APS Represented at the National Association of Biology Teachers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-02-01

    This is an article from The Physiologist. "Margaret Shain and Tonya Smith, both current Mentor/Instructors for the 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Fellowship for science teachers, assisted Education Office members, Scarletta Whitsett and Mel Limson, and represented the APS at the National Association of Biology Teachers 2007 Professional Development Conference at the end of November in Atlanta, GA."

  6. 8 | NewScientist | 28 January 2012 RALPHWILSON/AP

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    8 | NewScientist | 28 January 2012 RALPHWILSON/AP Fracking is causing a furore in the US and Europe is scarce DRILLING INTO THE UNKNOWN SPECIALREPORT/FRACKING #12;28 January 2012 | NewScientist | 9 "Neighbours of new fracking operations complain of breathing difficulties and nausea" 100s of metres 1000s

  7. Conceptualizing Ideal Circuit Elements in the AP Physics C Syllabus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Morse

    2005-01-01

    Does it ever bother you that emfs, resistors, and inductors add in series, but capacitors add in parallel? Does it bother your students? The AP Physics C syllabus for electricity and magnetism specifies the mathematical models students are expected to not merely memorize but to understand. Over time, my students' questions have made me rethink my conceptual and mathematical understanding

  8. C-A/AP/#245 Electron gun for RHIC EBIS

    E-print Network

    C-A/AP/#245 July 2006 Electron gun for RHIC EBIS Alexander Pikin Collider-Accelerator Department Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY 11973 #12;Electron gun for RHIC EBIS Alexander Pikin 1. Introduction The method of forming the electron beam in a new gun for RHIC EBIS is the same as is being used for a Test

  9. Automated Procurement System (APS) revised project management plan (DS-03)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Diane R.

    1995-01-01

    The Project Plan is the governing document for the implementation of the Automated Procurement System (APS). It includes a description of the proposed system, describes the work to be done, establishes a schedule of deliverables, and discusses the major standards and procedures to be followed.

  10. Tank 241-AP-106 tank characterization plan: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, B.D.

    1994-11-17

    Tank 241-AP-106 (AP-106) is a candidate feed tank which is expected to be processed at the 242-A Evaporator. Three issues related to the overall concern of the evaporator must be evaluated: compatibility of the candidate waste with respect to feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator requirements; safety parameters of the candidate waste tank to avoid a facility condition which is outside the safety boundaries; and compliance of the waste as dictated by regulations from various government and environmental agencies. The characterization efforts of this Tank Characterization Plan are focused on the resolution of the issues above. To evaluate the potential for waste incompatibility with the feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator, as well as relevant safety issues, analyses will be performed on the grab samples obtained from tank AP-106. These analyses are discussed in Section 4.0. Once the characterization of tank AP-106 has been performed, the waste compatibility and safety assessment shall be conducted. This effort is discussed elsewhere.

  11. A process definition repository based on step AP 213

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    Over the years, in the context of numerically controlled machined part manufacturing, the loss, misinterpretation, and redundancy of re-inputting manufacturing instructions and data during the evolution of a product design into the finished product has been a resource depleting and costly endeavor. It is the intent of this project to utilize the emerging standards from the International Standards Organization, ISO 10303 Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data, commonly referred to as STEP, to store and retrieve process planning information for a set of production work instructions. The project focuses on the utilization of the 1995 version of the Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 10303-213:1995 (E) Application protocol: Numerical control process plans for machined parts (AP213). This project illustrates the methodologies used to build an object-oriented Process Definition Repository (PDR), describes both the benefits and shortcomings experienced in implementing AP213, and recommends enhancements to AP213 for process planning information. The deliverable will be a Part 21 data file, based on the application-interpreted model for AP213 and integrated with product design data.

  12. Approximate entropy (ApEn) as a complexity measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincus, Steve

    1995-03-01

    Approximate entropy (ApEn) is a recently developed statistic quantifying regularity and complexity, which appears to have potential application to a wide variety of relatively short (greater than 100 points) and noisy time-series data. The development of ApEn was motivated by data length constraints commonly encountered, e.g., in heart rate, EEG, and endocrine hormone secretion data sets. We describe ApEn implementation and interpretation, indicating its utility to distinguish correlated stochastic processes, and composite deterministic/ stochastic models. We discuss the key technical idea that motivates ApEn, that one need not fully reconstruct an attractor to discriminate in a statistically valid manner—marginal probability distributions often suffice for this purpose. Finally, we discuss why algorithms to compute, e.g., correlation dimension and the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy, often work well for true dynamical systems, yet sometimes operationally confound for general models, with the aid of visual representations of reconstructed dynamics for two contrasting processes.

  13. The New AP Chemistry Exam: Its Rationale, Content, and Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Paul D.; Kugel, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013-2014 academic year marks the rollout of the redesigned advanced placement (AP) chemistry course and exam. There have been many questions as to why the course was redesigned and how the new examination will differ from its legacy version. In this article we give a brief overview of the legacy course and examine why a redesign occurred in…

  14. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  15. ECE 572 Optoelectronics Instructor: A.P. DeFonzo

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    ECE 572 Optoelectronics Fall 2011 Instructor: A.P. DeFonzo Text: The Physics of Solar Cells . Methods of managing light will be introduced. Strategies for high efficiencies will be discussed Emitting Diode Power Generation Cell Characteristics Photons in , electrons Out: Basis Principles Electrons

  16. Effective Teaching Strategies for Open Enrollment Honors and AP Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winebrenner, Susan

    2006-01-01

    A trend is emerging to open enrollment for honors and AP classes to all students who wish to take them. Teachers of these open enrollment classes may be facing several dilemmas. How can the high standards and academic rigor of the course be maintained? How can students who struggle to learn be supported in their endeavors to keep up with the…

  17. Our Organic World Pre-AP Chemistry-Project

    E-print Network

    Our Organic World Pre-AP Chemistry-Project Purpose: To study specific areas of organic chemistry research and group planning, the team will provide a lesson and visual that will teach the concept. A LEARNING BOX will be made to teach the lesson to a feeder school elementary class. All items

  18. ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED TRIVALENT ARSENICALS. Z Drobna1, I Jaspers2, D J Thomas3 and M Styblo1. 1Department of Pediatrics; 2Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3US EPA, RTP, NC, USA....

  19. Some recent results for the roAp stars

    E-print Network

    D. W. Kurtz

    1998-05-05

    Three topics are discussed: 1) Photometric observations of the rapidly oscillating Ap stars have shown that the pulsation amplitude drops dramatically as a function of wavelength from the blue to the red. A theoretical derivation, plus modelling, indicates that this is because the vertical wavelength of the pulsation mode is short compared to the scale height of the atmosphere; in fact, it indicates that we are seeing a pulsation node in the observable atmosphere. Radial velocity observations, and theoretical calculations now support this. The implication for other research on CP stars is that this can provide observational constraints on the atmospheric structure independent of traditional spectral analysis. 2) Luminosities of roAp stars can be determined from asteroseismology. A recent comparison of such asteroseismic luminosities with HIPPARCOS luminosities is shown. This suggests that roAp stars have lower temperatures and/or smaller radii than previous models have used, or that the magnetic fields in these stars alter the frequency separations. 3) The latest results of our long-term monitoring of the pulsation frequencies in certain roAp stars are discussed. There is a clear cyclic variability to the pulsation cavity, hence the sound speed and/or sound travel time (radius) of these stars. This might be indicative of magnetic cycles at a level that magnetic measurements cannot currently detect, although there is no theoretical support for such an idea.

  20. The AP-1 transcription factor Batf controls TH17 differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Schraml, Barbara U.; Hildner, Kai; Ise, Wataru; Lee, Wan-Ling; Smith, Whitney A.-E.; Solomon, Ben; Sahota, Gurmukh; Sim, Julia; Mukasa, Ryuta; Cemerski, Saso; Hatton, Robin D.; Stormo, Gary D.; Weaver, Casey T.; Russell, John H.; Murphy, Theresa L.; Murphy, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factors are dimers of Jun, Fos, MAF and activating transcription factor (ATF) family proteins characterized by basic region and leucine zipper domains1. Many AP-1 proteins contain defined transcriptional activation domains (TADs), but Batf and the closely related Batf3 (refs 2, 3) contain only a basic region and leucine zipper and have been considered inhibitors of AP-1 activity3–8. Here we show that Batf is required for the differentiation of IL-17-producing T helper (TH17) cells9. TH17 cells comprise a CD4+ T cell subset that coordinates inflammatory responses in host defense but is pathogenic in autoimmunity10–13.Batf ?/?mice have normal TH1 and TH2 differentiation, but show a defect in TH17 differentiation, and are resistant to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).Batf ?/?T cells fail to induce known factors required for TH17 differentiation, such as ROR?t11 and the cytokine IL-21 (refs 14–17). Neither addition of IL-21 nor overexpression of ROR?t fully restores IL-17 production in Batf?/? T cells. The IL-17 promoter is Batf-responsive, and upon TH17 differentiation, Batf binds conserved intergenic elements in the IL-17A/F locus and to the IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22 (ref 18) promoters. These results demonstrate that the AP-1 protein Batf plays a critical role in TH17 differentiation. PMID:19578362

  1. Error characteristics of ad hoc positioning systems (aps)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drago? Niculescu; Badri Nath

    2004-01-01

    APS algorithms use the basic idea of distance vector routing to find positions in an ad hoc network using only a fraction of landmarks, for example GPS enabled nodes. All the nodes in the network are assumed to have the possibility of measuring: range, angle of arrival (AOA), orientation, or a combination of them. We give a lower bound for

  2. BNL-81971-2009-IR C-A/AP/#343

    E-print Network

    ;Multipacting simulation study for 56 MHz Quarter Wave Resonator using 2D code Damayanti Naik, Ilan Ben-Zvi Abstract A beam excited 56 MHz Radio Frequency (RF) Niobium Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) has been proposedBNL-81971-2009-IR C-A/AP/#343 January 2009 Multipacting simulation study for 56 MHz Quarter Wave

  3. Fuel Cell Application Problems: Study Guide for AP Chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cox, Brian A.

    This study guide is intended for 10th-12th grade AP chemistry students studying fuel cell technology. Applicable National Science Education Standards are included in the document. The study guide includes a comparison of gasoline and hydrogen, a section on kinetic molecular theory, a section on electrochemistry and material on hydrogen fuel cells. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  4. APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellowship Awards Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

    2012-04-01

    This article is on page 48 of The Physiologist, April 2012. Since its inception in 1987, the APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellowship Program has awarded more than 810 travel fellowships to over 555 undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral students and to faculty members at minority institutions.

  5. Ramp tuning of the APS booster synchrotron magnet power supplies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Milton; J. A. Carwardine

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration cycle of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) booster synchrotron is completed within 250 ms and is repeated at 2 Hz. The currents in the quadrupole and sextupole magnets must track the dipole current to within tight tolerances if the beam is to remain stable during acceleration. In order to meet the performance specifications, a monitoring system, online with

  6. Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

  7. A Highly Flexible Bunch Compressor for the APS LEUTL FEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Borland; John Lewellen; Steve Milton

    2000-01-01

    The LEUTL FEL at the APS has achieved gain at 530 nm with peak beam current \\\\~100 A. In an effort to push to 120 nm and beyond, we have designed and are commissioning a bunch compressor to increase the peak current to 600 A or more. The bunch compressor uses a four-dipole chicane at an energy of 100 to

  8. Optimization of AP Placement and Channel Assignment in Wireless LANs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youngseok Lee; Kyoungae Kim; Yanghee Choi

    2002-01-01

    The design of a wireless local area network (WLAN) has an important issue of determining the optimal placement of access points (APs) and assignment of channels to them. WLAN services in the outdoor as well as indoor environments should be designed in order to achieve the maximum coverage and through- put. To provide the maximum coverage for WLAN service areas,

  9. Iodine Volatility and pH Control in the AP-600 Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.

    1998-10-01

    Two design-basis accidents for the AP-600 reactor are formulated and evaluate~ in which significant bypass of the principal pH control system occurs. Some iodine released from the reactor primary system is retained in the Incontainment Refaeling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) water, never entering the containment where trisodium phosphate produces a high pH. Some of this iodine is volatilized and is transported into the reactor containment airspace. in the worst case, a small fraction is released to the environment at design-basis leak rate, yielding a total cumulative iodine release at 30 days of 0.0352 mol (0.023% of core iodine inventory) due to the iodine volatilization bypassing the pH control system. No fission product removal in the containment atmosphere (i.e., natural deposition sprays) is considered.

  10. AP4 is required for mitogen- and c-MYC-induced cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Jackstadt, Rene; Hermeking, Heiko

    2014-09-15

    AP4 represents a c-MYC-inducible bHLH-LZ transcription factor, which displays elevated expression in many types of tumors. We found that serum-starved AP4-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were unable to resume proliferation and showed a delayed S-phase entry after restimulation. Furthermore, they accumulated as tetraploid cells due to a cytokinesis defect. In addition, AP4 was required for c-MYC-induced cell cycle re-entry. AP4-deficient MEFs displayed decreased expression of CDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2), which we characterized as a conserved and direct AP4 target. Activation of an AP4 estrogen receptor fusion protein (AP4-ER) enhanced proliferation of human diploid fibroblasts in a CDK2-dependent manner. However, in contrast to c-MYC-ER, AP4-ER activation was not sufficient to induce cell cycle re-entry or apoptosis in serum-starved MEFs. AP4-deficiency was accompanied by increased spontaneous and c-MYC-induced DNA damage in MEFs. Furthermore, c-MYC-induced apoptosis was decreased in AP4-deficient MEFs, suggesting that induction of apoptosis by c-MYC is linked to its ability to activate AP4 and thereby cell cycle progression. Taken together, these results indicate that AP4 is a central mediator and coordinator of cell cycle progression in response to mitogenic signals and c-MYC activation. Therefore, inhibition of AP4 function may represent a therapeutic approach to block tumor cell proliferation. PMID:25261373

  11. C. Petrone et al.: "Magnetic measurement of the model magnet QD0 designed for the CLIC final focus beam transport line." CERN TE-MSC Internal Note, EDMS Nr: 1184196

    E-print Network

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Petrone, Carlo; Russenschuck, Stephan; Walckiers, Louis

    2012-01-01

    This note presents the results of the magnetic measurements performed on QD0, model magnet for the final focus transport line for CLIC (Fig. 1). This high-gradient, hybrid quadrupole has a yoke length of 0.1 m and an aperture of 8.3 mm. ND2Fe14B Permanent magnet blocks provide a gradient of 150 T/m, which can be further increased to 530 T/m when the four coils are excited to 18.3 A. The request was to measure the strength of the field and the multipole coefficients at different currents. The measurement of the field strength, by means of the single stretched wire system, was done in December 2011 in the I8 laboratory. The measurement of the multipole was done by means of the oscillating wire system [1][2].

  12. AP Theory IV: Intrinsic Topological Quantum Langlands Theory

    E-print Network

    H. E. Winkelnkemper

    2010-10-25

    Without using any moduli, sheaves, stacks, nor any analytic, nor category-type arguments, we exhibit an analogue to Geometric Langlands Theory in an entirely model-independent, non-perturbative,purely smooth topological context in Artin Presentation Theory. A basic initial feature is that AP Theory, as a whole, is already, ab initio, a universal canonical 2D sigma-model, targeting smooth, compact, simply-connected 4-manifolds with a connected boundary, and its topological Planckian quantum starting point, as well as its cone-like, infinitely-generated at each stage, graded group of homology-preserving, but topology-changing transitions/interactions, exhibit the most general qualitative S-duality. We first point out the numerous mathematically rigorous, model-free, (i.e., intrinsic), topological AP analogues with the heuristic Kapustin-Witten version of Geometric Langlands theory, as well as the crucial differences between the two theories. The latter have to exist since AP Theory deals, a priori, essentially only with discrete group-theoretic presentation theory, not Lie group representation theory, not with category nor moduli theory, does not need classical SUSY, nor Feynman integrals, lattice models, etc., and furthermore is model-independent and characteristic of real dimension four. It will become clear that AP Langlands theory is a model-independent, cone-like, graded, compact completion and topological 'envelope' of 4D N=4 SUSY YM theory, their starting point, anchored, kept in place, so to speak, by a purely discrete group-theoretic analogue of Donaldson/Seiberg-Witten theory. Due to its discrete group-theoretic conceptual simplicity and universality, the AP Langlands program should also be considered to be a new type of intrinsic model-free symmetry, a universal Erlanger Program for Modern Physics.

  13. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed...

  14. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed...

  15. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed...

  16. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed...

  17. The Ap3b1 gene regulates the ocular melanosome biogenesis and tyrosinase distribution differently from the Hps1 gene.

    PubMed

    Jing, Renwei; Dong, Xuan; Li, Kailin; Yan, Jie; Chen, Xiangyuan; Feng, Lijun

    2014-11-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder in humans and mice. The pearl (pe) mouse, a mouse model for the human HPS-2, bears a mutation in Ap3b1 gene. Here we investigated the pigmentation in eyes of pearl (pe) mice, and compared it with our previously published data in pale ear (ep) mice. We revealed that the hypopigmentation in eyes of pearl mice was more severe than pale ear mice, especially in the neural crest-derived tissues. However, the total tyrosinase activity in eyes of pearl mice was stronger than pale ear mice, suggesting that the degradation of aberrantly transported tyrosinase in eyes of pearl mice was weaker than that of pale ear mice. Furthermore, the pigmentation in eyes of mice doubly heterozygous for Hps1 and Ap3b1 genes was similar to the wild-type, while the hypopigmentation in iris of double mutant mice was more severe than either single mutant. Besides, we found several previously reported characters in pale ear mice, including macromelanosomes in the neural crest-derived melanocytes and increased accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE, were absent in pearl mice. Our study indicates that Ap3b1 gene play distinct roles in melanin production and tyrosinase distribution compared with Hps1 gene. PMID:25160823

  18. APS Presents Awards for the Best Physiology Project at Local Summer Science Camp

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

    2012-10-01

    This article is on page 174-175 of The Physiologist, October 2012. APS members continue to judge and present Science Fair Awards on behalf of the APS at local and regional science fairs for precollege students across the nation.

  19. Synaptic and genomic responses to JNK and AP-1 signaling in Drosophilaneurons

    E-print Network

    Narayanan, Radhakrishnan

    Background: The transcription factor AP-1 positively controls synaptic plasticity at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Although in motor neurons, JNK has been shown to activate AP-1, a positive regulator of growth and ...

  20. Exploring Mars: The Ares Payload Service (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

    1999-08-01

    In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the design notably an improved re-entry cooling system and fueling stability analysis were done this year. More technical detail and a proposed international consortium to develop the SSTO is presented in another session of this year's Mars convention. We believe that there will be no human exploration of Mars based on the Shuttle or Expendable launch vehicles, and no resources available except for a cooperative international program. However, just as the world is learning to cooperate in peacekeeping, we hold out the hope that similar cooperation will develop for Mars exploration. With that in mind, this year we asked the question- "How will the human mission get to Mars if it has to use the SsTO for transportation?"

  1. E6AP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase negatively regulates granulopoiesis by targeting transcription factor C/EBP? for ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation

    PubMed Central

    Pal, P; Lochab, S; Kanaujiya, J K; Kapoor, I; Sanyal, S; Behre, G; Trivedi, A K

    2013-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP?) is an important transcription factor involved in granulocytic differentiation. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that E6-associated protein (E6AP), an E3 ubiquitin ligase targets C/EBP? for ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation and thereby negatively modulates its functions. Wild-type E6AP promotes ubiquitin dependent proteasome degradation of C/EBP?, while catalytically inactive E6-associated protein having cysteine replaced with alanine at amino-acid position 843 (E6AP-C843A) rather stabilizes it. Further, these two proteins physically associate both in non-myeloid (overexpressed human embryonic kidney epithelium) and myeloid cells. We show that E6AP-mediated degradation of C/EBP? protein expression curtails its transactivation potential on its target genes. Noticeably, E6AP degrades both wild-type 42?kDa CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (p42C/EBP?) and mutant isoform 30?kDa CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (p30C/EBP?), this may explain perturbed p42C/EBP?/p30C/EBP? ratio often observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We show that overexpression of catalytically inactive E6AP-C843A in C/EBP? inducible K562- p42C/EBP?-estrogen receptor (ER) cells inhibits ?-estradiol (E2)-induced C/EBP? degradation leading to enhanced granulocytic differentiation. This enhanced granulocytic differentiation upon E2-induced activation of C/EBP? in C/EBP? stably transfected cells (?-estradiol inducible K562 cells stably expressing p42C/EBP?-ER (K562-C/EBP?-p42-ER)) was further substantiated by siE6AP-mediated knockdown of E6AP in both K562-C/EBP?-p42-ER and 32dcl3 (32D clone 3, a cell line widely used model for in vitro study of hematopoietic cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis) cells. Taken together, our data suggest that E6AP targeted C/EBP? protein degradation may provide a possible explanation for both loss of expression and/or functional inactivation of C/EBP? often experienced in myeloid leukemia. PMID:23598402

  2. RelAp43, a Member of the NF-?B Family Involved in Innate Immune Response against Lyssavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Tangy, Frédéric; Weil, Robert; Bourhy, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    NF-?B transcription factors are crucial for many cellular processes. NF-?B is activated by viral infections to induce expression of antiviral cytokines. Here, we identified a novel member of the human NF-?B family, denoted RelAp43, the nucleotide sequence of which contains several exons as well as an intron of the RelA gene. RelAp43 is expressed in all cell lines and tissues tested and exhibits all the properties of a NF-?B protein. Although its sequence does not include a transactivation domain, identifying it as a class I member of the NF-?B family, it is able to potentiate RelA-mediated transactivation and stabilize dimers comprising p50. Furthermore, RelAp43 stimulates the expression of HIAP1, IRF1, and IFN-? - three genes involved in cell immunity against viral infection. It is also targeted by the matrix protein of lyssaviruses, the agents of rabies, resulting in an inhibition of the NF-?B pathway. Taken together, our data provide the description of a novel functional member of the NF-?B family, which plays a key role in the induction of anti-viral innate immune response. PMID:23271966

  3. The magnetic fields of Ap stars from high resolution Stokes IQUV spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvester, James

    In this thesis we describe the acquisition of high resolution time resolved spectropolarimetric observations of 7 (bright and well understood) Ap stars in Stokes IQUV using the ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the 2m Telescope Bernard Lyot at Pic du Midi Observatory. We compare these observations with those obtained a decade earlier using the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter to confirm consistency with the older data and provide evidence that both ESPaDOnS and Narval perform as expected in all Stokes parameters. We demonstrate that our refined longitudinal magnetic field and linear polarisation measurements for these 7 stars are of much greater quality than was previously obtained with MuSiCoS and that the global magnetic properties of these stars are stable over a long timescale. The ultimate aim of these new data is to provide a basis from which mapping of both the magnetic field and abundance structures can be performed on our target stars. We then describe magnetic field mapping of the Ap star alpha 2 CVn using these data. This mapping is achieved with the use of tomographic inversion of Doppler-broadened Stokes IQUV profiles of a large variety of spectral lines using the INVERS10 Magnetic Doppler imaging code. We show that not only are the new magnetic field maps of alpha 2 CVn consistent with a previous generation of maps of alpha 2 CVn, but that the same magnetic field topology can be derived from a variety of atomic line sets. This indicates that the magnetic field we derive for alpha2 CVn is a realistic representation of the star's true magnetic topology. Finally we investigate surface abundance structures for alpha 2 CVn for various chemical elements. We investigate the correlation between the location of these abundance features and the magnetic field of alpha 2 CVn. We will demonstrate that whilst the magnetic field plays a role in the formation of abundance structures, the current theoretical framework does not fully explain what we find from our maps. Ultimately this work motivates future mapping of Ap stars by confirming the reliability of both the instrument and associated data and the mapping technique itself.

  4. ENGINEERING+AMINOR HOW TO PURSUE A MINOR AP/IB CREDIT SUMMER SEMESTERS

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    14 ENGINEERING+AMINOR HOW TO PURSUE A MINOR · AP/IB CREDIT · SUMMER SEMESTERS DOUBLE COUNTING, as long as they plan ahead and map out a clear objective with the help of an advisor. AP/IB CREDIT courses that can be replaced with AP/IB credit include math, chemistry, biol- ogy and even a General

  5. AP STAR AWARDS Who is the shining star in your department?

    E-print Network

    AP STAR AWARDS Who is the shining star in your department? Give them the honor they deserve! Deadline for application is February 4, 2011 The AP Stars award was created to express appreciation professionals on campus? Previous AP Stars recipients are not eligible to win again for two (2) years after

  6. Using a Classroom Response System to Improve Multiple-Choice Performance in AP[R] Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Participation in rigorous high school courses such as Advanced Placement (AP[R]) Physics increases the likelihood of college success, especially for students who are traditionally underserved. Tackling difficult multiple-choice exams should be part of any AP program because well-constructed multiple-choice questions, such as those on AP exams and…

  7. APS: 125 Years of Progress of Physiology as a Scientific Discipline and a Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Robert G.; Frank, Martin; Ra'anan, Alice; Matyas, Marsha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, CA, included events to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the founding of the American Physiological Society (APS) and reflect on the recent accomplishments of the society. Most of the APS activities in the past quarter century were guided by a series of strategic plans. Membership in the APS…

  8. Diadenosine polyphosphates (Ap3A and Ap4A) behave as alarmones triggering the synthesis of enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pietrowska-Borek, Ma?gorzata; Nuc, Katarzyna; Zielezi?ska, Ma?gorzata; Guranowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    It is known that cells under stress accumulate various dinucleoside polyphosphates, compounds suggested to function as alarmones. In plants, the phenylpropanoid pathways yield metabolites protecting these organisms against various types of stress. Observations reported in this communication link these two phenomena and provide an example of a metabolic “addressee” for an “alarm” signaled by diadenosine triphosphate (Ap3A) or diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A). In response to added Ap3A or Ap4A, seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana incubated in full nutrition medium increased both the expression of the genes for and the specific activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, enzymes that control the beginning of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Neither adenine mononucleotides (AMP, ADP or ATP) nor adenosine evoked such effects. Reactions catalyzed in vitro by these enzymes were not affected by Ap3A or Ap4A. PMID:23650569

  9. [Effect of diadenosine oligophosphates (Ap4A and Ap3A) and their phosphonate analogs on catalytic properties of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli].

    PubMed

    Biriukov, A P; Zakharova, O D; Lavrik, O I

    1987-09-01

    The influence of P1,P3-bis(5'-adenosyl)triphosphate (Ap3A), P1,P4-bis(5'-adenosyl)tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and its analogues, containing a residue of methylenediphosphonic acid in various positions of the oligophosphate chain, on the reactions catalysed by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli MRE-600 has been studied. The compounds do not affect significantly the rate of ATP-[32P]PPi-exchange nor maintain this reaction in the absence of ATP. The diadenosineoligophosphates are shown to be noncompetitive inhibitors of ATP in the tRNA aminoacylation by phenylalanine (for Ap4A Ki = 1,45.10(-3) M). The phosphonate analogues of Ap4A inhibit the synthesis of Ap3A depending on their structure. The conclusion is thus drawn that the E. coli MRE-600 phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase does not interact property with Ap4A and its phosphonate analogues. PMID:3322289

  10. Down-regulation of the expression and function of the transporter associated with antigen processing in murine tumor cell lines expressing IL-10.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Onfray, F; Charo, J; Petersson, M; Freland, S; Noffz, G; Qin, Z; Blankenstein, T; Ljunggren, H G; Kiessling, R

    1997-10-01

    The MHC class I molecules present antigenic peptides to CTL. The peptides are delivered to the secretory pathway by TAP, which is formed by the association of MHC-encoded TAP1 and TAP2 gene products. Tumor cells incubated or transfected with IL-10 had decreased but peptide-inducible expression of MHC class I, decreased sensitivity to MHC class I-restricted CTL, and increased NK sensitivity. We here demonstrate that IL-10 expression in the murine lymphoma RMA inhibits the TAP-dependent translocation of peptides to the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in accumulation of immature MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequently low expression of cell surface MHC class I molecules. This finding is explained by a down-regulation of expression of TAP1 and TAP2, observed in IL-10-transfected RMA cells as well as in IL-10-transfected P815 mastocytoma cells. In the J558L plasmacytoma cell line, constitutively expressing high levels of IL-10, increased TAP-dependent translocation of peptides and expression of cell surface MHC class I could be induced by IL-10 antisense expression. IL-10 is the first example to demonstrate that a cytokine can decrease the expression and function of the TAP1/2 molecular complex and, in more general terms, the first example of a cytokine with an inhibitory effect on MHC class I-mediated Ag presentation. PMID:9317117

  11. Theoretical model of the plasma edge. II. Transport along the open field lines of a magnetic island belt associated with the ionization instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogister, A. L. M.; Hasselberg, G.

    1993-12-01

    For pt.I, see ibid, p.1799-1816 (1993). To the ionization instability described in Part I correspond odd phi, even br eigenfunctions leading, as for the tearing mode, to a magnetic island belt centred about the rational magnetic surface q = m < qa (q is the safety factor; m is the mode number). Plasma dumping on the target plates, along the island magnetic field lines, releases the neutrals, the ionization of which drives the instability. This self-consistent model of the plasma edge yields the electron temperature on the last closed equilibrium magnetic surface and the particle confinement time, which are compared with the values measured in TEXTOR and other tokamaks; interestingly, the value obtained for ?p is very reminiscent of the heuristic energy confinement time expression proposed by Kaye and Goldston(1985). Theory also predicts an equilibrium bifurcation at high power, corresponding to a reduction, and then a collapse, of the island width. The hypothesis that the (L mode) island belt be hooked up to the machine's structure is briefly discussed

  12. Susceptibility of muridae cell lines to ecotropic murine leukemia virus and the cationic amino acid transporter 1 viral receptor sequences: implications for evolution of the viral receptor.

    PubMed

    Kakoki, Katsura; Shinohara, Akio; Izumida, Mai; Koizumi, Yosuke; Honda, Eri; Kato, Goro; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-06-01

    Ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (Eco-MLVs) infect mouse and rat, but not other mammalian cells, and gain access for infection through binding the cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1). Glycosylation of the rat and hamster CAT1s inhibits Eco-MLV infection, and treatment of rat and hamster cells with a glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, enhances Eco-MLV infection. Although the mouse CAT1 is also glycosylated, it does not inhibit Eco-MLV infection. Comparison of amino acid sequences between the rat and mouse CAT1s shows amino acid insertions in the rat protein near the Eco-MLV-binding motif. In addition to the insertion present in the rat CAT1, the hamster CAT1 has additional amino acid insertions. In contrast, tunicamycin treatment of mink and human cells does not elevate the infection, because their CAT1s do not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif. To define the evolutionary pathway of the Eco-MLV receptor, we analyzed CAT1 sequences and susceptibility to Eco-MLV infection of other several murinae animals, including the southern vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis), large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), and Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus). Eco-MLV infection was enhanced by tunicamycin in these cells, and their CAT1 sequences have the insertions like the hamster CAT1. Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian CAT1s suggested that the ancestral CAT1 does not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif, like the human CAT1, and the mouse CAT1 is thought to be generated by the amino acid deletions in the third extracellular loop of CAT1. PMID:24469466

  13. A linear MOSFET regulator for improving performance of the booster ramping power supplies at the APS.

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, G.; Deriy, B.; Wang, J.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

    2008-01-01

    The APS booster ring uses ramping power supplies to power the sextupole, quadrupole, and dipole magnets as the beam energy ramps up linearly to 7 GeV. Due to the circuit topology used, those supplies are unable to follow the linear ramp to the desired accuracy. The best regulation achieved is 0.25% while 0.1% is desired. In addition to the unsatisfying regulation, those supplies are sensitive to AC line perturbation and are not able to reject AC line noises of more than a few tens of hertz. To improve the performance, a linear MOSFET regulation system using paralleled MOSFET devices in series with the power supply is proposed. The system uses a realtime current feedback loop to force the MOSFETs to work in the linear operation mode. By using this linear MOSFET regulator, the voltage drop on MOSFETs, and hence the voltage imposed on magnets, can be regulated very quickly. As a result, the regulation of the magnet current can be improved significantly. So far the simulation results show that with the linear regulator, the current regulation can be improved to better than 0.1%. Because of the high bandwidth of the linear regulator, it can reduce the harmonic content in the output current as well as reject the AC line disturbance. This paper discusses the circuit topology, the regulation method, and the simulation results.

  14. Relation between the Li spots, dipolar magnetic field and other variable phenomena in the roAp star HD 83368

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N.

    The detection of remarkable variations in the profile of the resonance doublet Li I 6708 Å with rotational phase of the roAp star HD 83368 (North et al. 1998) prompted us to consider the behaviour of other characteristics of this star. The observational data on magnetic field (Heff), brightness and amplitude of rapid light oscillations of HD 83368 are analyzed. A clear synchronism appears between the variations of the Li line intensity, brightness, magnetic field and pulsation amplitude with rotational phase, which can be explained in terms of a spotted rotator model. Reference: North P., Polosukhina N., Malanushenko V., Hack M., 1998, A&A 333, 644

  15. Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) Dependent Parallel Arrivals (DPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Colin L.

    2012-01-01

    The Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) team at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing a concept of operations to extend the current APS concept to support dependent approaches to parallel or converging runways along with the required pilot and controller procedures and pilot interfaces. A staggered operations capability for the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) tool was developed and designated as ASTAR10. ASTAR10 has reached a sufficient level of maturity to be validated and tested through a fast-time simulation. The purpose of the experiment was to identify and resolve any remaining issues in the ASTAR10 algorithm, as well as put the concept of operations through a practical test.

  16. Status of APS 1-Mwe Parabolic Trough Project

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Brosseau, D.; Kolb, G.; Moore, L.; Cable, R.; Price, H.

    2005-11-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is currently installing new power facilities to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources that will satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). During FY04, APS began construction on a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. Site preparation and construction activities continued throughout much of FY05, and startup activities are planned for Fall 2005 (with completion early in FY06). The plant will be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than the conventional steam Rankine cycle plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  17. Real-time orbit feedback at the APS.

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J.

    1998-06-18

    A real-time orbit feedback system has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source in order to meet the stringent orbit stability requirements. The system reduces global orbit motion below 30Hz by a factor of four to below 5{micro}m rms horizontally and 2{micro}m rms vertically. This paper focuses on dynamic orbit stability and describes the all-digital orbit feedback system that has been implemented at the APS. Implementation of the global orbit feedback system is described and its latest performance is presented. Ultimately, the system will provide local feedback at each x-ray source point using installed photon BPMs to measure x-ray beam position and angle directly. Technical challenges associated with local feedback and with dynamics of the associated corrector magnets are described. The unique diagnostic capabilities provided by the APS system are discussed with reference to their use in identifying sources of the underlying orbit motion.

  18. Diffusion and Settling in Ap/Bp Stars

    E-print Network

    S. Turcotte

    2003-04-23

    Ap/Bp stars are magnetic chemically peculiar early A and late B type stars of the main sequence. They exhibit peculiar surface abundance anomalies that are thought to be the result of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. The physics of diffusion in these stars are reviewed briefly and some model predictions are discussed. While models reproduce some observations reasonably well, more work is needed before the behavior of diffusing elements in a complex magnetic field is fully understood.

  19. Wide intrascene dynamic range CMOS APS using dual sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orly Yadid-Pecht; Eric R. Fossum

    1997-01-01

    A CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) that achieves wide intrascene dynamic range using dual sampling is reported. A 64×64 element prototype sensor with dual output architecture was fabricated using a 1.2 ?m n-well CMOS process with 20.4 ?m pitch photodiode-type active pixels. The sensor achieves an intrascene dynamic range of 109 dB without nonlinear companding

  20. Advanced Practicals (AP, VP) in the Department of Biology at the Winter Term 14/15 Stand: 14.07.14 (Valid for the study programs: Bachelor Biowissenschaften, Master BioSciences, Master of Education, Diplom-Biophysik)

    E-print Network

    Pinnau, René

    Advanced Practicals (AP, VP) in the Department of Biology at the Winter Term 14/15 Stand: 14 Expression General Zoology with Zoology/Membrane Transport BIO-ZOO- 05-L-7 BP/M 6 WE Plant Pathology I Plant B/MEd/M 6 WE TBA Biochemie (Biochemistry) Biochemistry CHE-400- 150-L-0 M 4 TBA TBA Plant Physiology

  1. Packaging design criteria, transfer and disposal of 102-AP mixer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1994-11-23

    A mixer pump installed in storage tank 241-AP-102 (102-AP) has failed. This pump is referred to as the 102-AP mixer pump (APMP). The APMP will be removed from 102-AP 1 and a new pump will be installed. The main purpose of the Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to establish criteria necessary to design and fabricate a shipping container for the transfer and storage of the APMP from 102-AP. The PDC will be used as a guide to develop a Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP).

  2. Alignment and commissionig of the APS beamline front ends

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; barraza, J.; Ramanathan, M.; Chang, J.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1995-12-31

    Fifteen out of forty phase-one beamline front ends have been installed in the storage-ring tunnel at the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS). For the front-end installation, a four-step alignment process was designed and consists of (1) prealigning the front-end components with support tables in the preassembly area, (2) installing the components with tables in the storage-ring tunnel and aligning relative to the APS global telescope survey network, (3) confirming the alignment using a tooling laser alignment system, and (4) performing adjustments with the synchrotron-radiation beam during commissioning. The laser alignment system and the prealignment data- base have been of great importance for the expedient maintenance of front-end components. These tools are very important to a large synchrotron radiation facility such as the APS, since they make a quick alignment setup possible and minimize alignment time inside the tunnel. This paper will present the four-step alignment process, the laser alignment system, and discuss the alignment confirmation results. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Work plan, AP-102 mixer pump removal and pump replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, R.F.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this work plan is to plan the steps and estimate the costs required to remove the failed AP-102 mixer pump, and to plan and estimate the cost of the necessary design and specification work required to order a new, but modified, mixer pump including the pump and pump pit energy absorbing design. The main hardware required for the removal of the mixer is as follows: a flexible receiver and blast shield; a metal container for the pulled mixer pump; and a trailer and strongback to haul and manipulate the container. Additionally: a gamma scanning device will be needed to detect the radioactivity emanating from the mixer as it is pulled from the tank; a water spray system will be required to remove tank waste from the surface of the mixer as it is pulled from the AP-102 tank; and a lifting yoke to lift the mixer from the pump pit (the SY-101 Mixer Lifting Yoke will be used). A ``green house`` will have to be erected over the AP-102 pump pit and an experienced Hoisting and Rigging crew must be assembled and trained in mixer pump removal methods before the actual removal is undertaken.

  4. Long-term stability of the APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Error, J.

    1999-10-26

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation synchrotrons light source, was commissioned in 1995 at Argonne ''National Laboratory and has been fully-operational for beamline users since 1997. The APS storage ring can accommodate up to 68 user beamlines; about 70% of the available beamlines are currently in use by various collaborative access teams (CATS). The 7-GeV synchrotrons light source produces light in the soft to hard x-ray range that is used for research in such areas as x-ray instrumentation; material, chemical and atomic sciences; biology; and geo/soil/ environmental sciences. For the successful operation of an x-ray light source such as the Advanced Photon Source, the long-term stability of the concrete floor supporting the beam components and user beamlines is crucial. Settlements impact the orbit and location of the x-ray source points as well as the position of the x-ray beamlines. This paper compares the results of two successive resurveys of the APS accelerator components performed in 1995 and 1998.

  5. Long-term stability of the APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Error, J.

    2000-03-16

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, was commissioned in 1995 at Argonne National Laboratory and has been fully operational for beamline users since 1997. The APS storage ring can accommodate up to 68 user beamlines; about 70% of the available beamlines are currently in use by various collaborative access teams (CATs). The 7-GeV synchrotron light source produces light in the soft to hard x-ray range that is used for research in such areas as x-ray instrumentation; material, chemical and atomic sciences; biology; and geo/soil/environmental sciences. For the successful operation of an x-ray light source such as the Advanced Photon Source, the long-term stability of the concrete floor supporting the beam components and user beamlines is crucial. Settlements impact the orbit and location of the x-ray source points as well as the position of the x-ray beamlines. This paper compares the results of two successive resurveys of the APS accelerator components performed in 1995 and 1998.

  6. On-line atomic data access

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Nash, J.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The need for atomic data is one which continues to expand in a wide variety of applications including fusion energy, astrophysics, laser- produced plasma research, and plasma processing. Modern computer database and communications technology nables this data to be placed on-line and obtained by users of the Internet. Presented here is a summary of the observations and conclusions regarding such on-line atomic data access derived from a forum held at the Tenth APS Topical Conference on Atomic Processes in Plasmas.

  7. AP4 is a mediator of epithelial–mesenchymal transition and metastasis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jackstadt, Rene; Röh, Simone; Neumann, Jens; Jung, Peter; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Horst, David; Berens, Christian; Bornkamm, Georg W.; Kirchner, Thomas; Menssen, Antje

    2013-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor AP4/TFAP4/AP-4 is encoded by a c-MYC target gene and displays up-regulation concomitantly with c-MYC in colorectal cancer (CRC) and numerous other tumor types. Here a genome-wide characterization of AP4 DNA binding and mRNA expression was performed using a combination of microarray, genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation, next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatic analyses. Thereby, hundreds of induced and repressed AP4 target genes were identified. Besides many genes involved in the control of proliferation, the AP4 target genes included markers of stemness (LGR5 and CD44) and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) such as SNAIL, E-cadherin/CDH1, OCLN, VIM, FN1, and the Claudins 1, 4, and 7. Accordingly, activation of AP4 induced EMT and enhanced migration and invasion of CRC cells. Conversely, down-regulation of AP4 resulted in mesenchymal–epithelial transition and inhibited migration and invasion. In addition, AP4 induction was required for EMT, migration, and invasion caused by ectopic expression of c-MYC. Inhibition of AP4 in CRC cells resulted in decreased lung metastasis in mice. Elevated AP4 expression in primary CRC significantly correlated with liver metastasis and poor patient survival. These findings imply AP4 as a new regulator of EMT that contributes to metastatic processes in CRC and presumably other carcinomas. PMID:23752226

  8. Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1

    SciTech Connect

    Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa; San Filippo, Joseph San; Wiese, Claudia; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Begovic, Sead; Schild, David; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott; Sung, Patrick

    2010-11-05

    Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partner and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.

  9. Purification of recombinant nacre-associated mineralization protein AP7 fused with maltose-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chieh; Chang, Hsun-Hui; Mou, Yun; Chi, Peter; Chan, Jerry Chun Chung; Luo, Shih-Chi

    2014-08-01

    Formation of biominerals often involves specific proteins that modulate the process of matrix assembly, nucleation, and crystal growth. AP7 is an aragonite-associated protein of 7 kDa and is intrinsically disordered. The structural disorder of AP7 makes it very difficult to express in Escherchiacoli. In this work, we report the first successful expression and purification of recombinant AP7 using the maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion approach. We obtain a high-yield production of recombinant MBP-AP7 protein inE. coli (?60 mg/L). We also establish an efficient protocol to remove the MBP fusion protein by Factor Xa, followed by purification using size-exclusion chromatography. Characterization of the recombinant AP7 protein has been carried out using MALDI-TOF, peptide mass fingerprinting, and circular dichroism (CD). The mass data confirm that the purified recombinant protein is AP7. The CD data suggest that the recombinant AP7 protein exists as partially disordered structure at neutral pH. The calcium carbonate precipitation assay shows that both MBP-AP7 and AP7 exhibit morphological modification on calcite crystallites. The co-precipitation of MBP-tagged AP7 derivatives and calcium carbonate generate different types of AP7 composite calcite and vaterite crystals. This system should be helpful to establish a model for understanding the structure/function relationship between the protein and inorganic mineral interaction. PMID:24837160

  10. AP2 Gene Determines the Identity of Perianth Organs in Flowers of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Kunst, L.; Klenz, J. E.; Martinez-Zapater, J.; Haughn, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the floral morphology and ontogeny of three mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, Ap2-5, Ap2-6, and Ap2-7, that exhibit homeotic changes of the perianth organs because of single recessive mutations in the AP2 gene. Homeotic conversions observed are: sepals to carpels in all three mutants, petals to stamens in Ap2-5, and petals to carpels in Ap2-6. Our analysis of these mutants suggests that the AP2 gene is required early in floral development to direct primordia of the first and second whorls to develop as perianth rather than as reproductive organs. In addition, our results support one of the two conflicting hypotheses concerning the structures of the calyx and the gynoecium in the Brassicaceae. PMID:12359889

  11. Stimulation with the Aureobasidium pullulans-produced ?-glucan effectively induces interferon stimulated genes in macrophage-like cell lines.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Daisuke; Kawata, Koji; Aoki, Shiho; Uchiyama, Hirofumi; Okabe, Mitsuyasu; Miyazaki, Tadaaki; Kida, Hiroshi; Iwai, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    A ?-(1,3),(1,6)-D-glucan produced by A. pullulans (AP-PG) is known to be an immune stimulating agent. In this study, we demonstrate that the stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces the interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs) in macrophage-like cell lines. The ISGs, Mx1, ISG15, and viperin mRNAs were significantly increased in RAW264.7 cells after stimulation with AP-PG. The stimulation with AP-PG transiently induced IFN-? mRNA. However, the expression of viperin mRNA was also increased after stimulation with AP-PG even when new protein synthesis was completely blocked by treatment with cycloheximide. Further, in IFN-? receptor knockdown RAW264.7 cells, AP-PG stimulation more effectively induced viperin mRNA compared with that of IFN-? stimulation. The phosphorylation of Ser 727 in STAT1 involved in the enhancement of STAT1 activation was immediately increased after stimulation with AP-PG. In addition, viperin mRNA expression induced after stimulation with IFN-? was significantly increased by combined stimulation with AP-PG. These results suggest that stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces the ISGs through the induction of IFN and the enhancement of STAT1-mediated transcriptional activation. PMID:24759061

  12. Curcumin downregulates cell survival mechanisms in human prostate cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asok Mukhopadhyay; Carlos Bueso-Ramos; Devasis Chatterjee; Panayotis Pantazis; Bharat B Aggarwal

    2001-01-01

    While the role of nuclear transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) in cell proliferation, and of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in the suppression of apoptosis are known, their role in survival of prostate cancer cells is not well understood. We investigated the role of NF-?B and AP-1 in the survival of human androgen-independent (DU145) and -dependent (LNCaP) prostate cancer cell lines. Our

  13. NF-?B/AP-1-Targeted Inhibition of Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Depigmenting Compound AP736 Derived from Natural 1,3-Diphenylpropane Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Van Thai; Beak, Heung Soo; Kim, Eunji; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Hossen, Muhammad Jahangir; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Yong; Joo, Yung Hyup; Lee, Chang Seok; Choi, Joonho; Shin, Hong-Ju; Hong, Sungyoul; Shin, Song Seok

    2014-01-01

    AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO)/prostaglandin (PG) E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264.7 cells. AP736 was found to strongly inhibit the production of both NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AP736 strongly inhibited both LPS-induced morphological changes and FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake. Furthermore, AP736 also downregulated the expression of multiple inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, and interleukin- (IL-) 1? in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Transcription factor analysis, including upstream signalling events, revealed that both NF-?B and AP-1 were targeted by AP736 via inhibition of the IKK/I?B? and IRAK1/TAK1 pathways. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that AP736 is a potential anti-inflammatory drug due to its suppression of NF-?B-IKK/I?B? and AP-1-IRAK1/TAK1 signalling, which may make AP736 useful for the treatment of macrophage-mediated skin inflammation. PMID:25386046

  14. Novel Hybrid NN/HMM Modelling Techniques for On-line Handwriting Recognition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Novel Hybrid NN/HMM Modelling Techniques for On-line Handwriting Recognition Joachim Schenk for handwriting recognition. The tied posterior model ap- proximates the output probability density function baseline HMM. Keywords: On-line handwriting recognition, HMM, NN, hybrid, tandem, tied posteriors 1

  15. &p.1:Abstract The MADS domain proteins AP1, AP3, PI, and AG are required to specify the four classes of organs

    E-print Network

    Krizek, Beth

    the identity of two different organs in two adjacent floral whorls. They all share a 56-amino acid MADS domain (Goto and Meyerowitz 1994; Jack et al. 1992; Mandel et al. 1992; Yanofsky et al. 1990) while the other and Meyerowitz 1998; Weigel 1995). AP1, AP3, PI, and AG share a 56-amino acid MADS domain (64­73% sequence

  16. 29 CFR 779.114 - Transportation employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Commerce § 779.114 Transportation employees. Transportation employees of retail businesses, such as truck drivers or truck drivers' helpers, who regularly and recurrently cross State lines to make deliveries or to pick up goods for their...

  17. 29 CFR 779.114 - Transportation employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Commerce § 779.114 Transportation employees. Transportation employees of retail businesses, such as truck drivers or truck drivers' helpers, who regularly and recurrently cross State lines to make deliveries or to pick up goods for their...

  18. 29 CFR 779.114 - Transportation employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Commerce § 779.114 Transportation employees. Transportation employees of retail businesses, such as truck drivers or truck drivers' helpers, who regularly and recurrently cross State lines to make deliveries or to pick up goods for their...

  19. 29 CFR 779.114 - Transportation employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Commerce § 779.114 Transportation employees. Transportation employees of retail businesses, such as truck drivers or truck drivers' helpers, who regularly and recurrently cross State lines to make deliveries or to pick up goods for their...

  20. 29 CFR 779.114 - Transportation employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Commerce § 779.114 Transportation employees. Transportation employees of retail businesses, such as truck drivers or truck drivers' helpers, who regularly and recurrently cross State lines to make deliveries or to pick up goods for their...

  1. Scheduling for Multi-modal Cyclic Transport Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grzegorz Bocewicz; Zbigniew Banaszak

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns the domain of the multimodal transportation systems composed of buses, trains, trams and subways lines and focuses on the scheduling problems encountered in these systems. Transportation Network Infrastructure (TNI) can be modeled as a network of lines providing cyclic routes for particular kinds of stream-like moving transportation means. Lines are connected by common shared change stations. Depending

  2. electrifyingthefuture transportation

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    for transportation stresses the need for decarbonising transport as an essential part of building a low carbon futureelectrifyingthefuture transportation The UK Government's carbon reduction strategy programme of electrification and the potential introduction of diesel hybrids. The Department for Transport

  3. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  4. Zip Line

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-13

    In this design challenge activity, learners build a device to carry a Ping-Pong ball from the top of a zip line to the bottom in four seconds (or less!). Learners follow the design process to build the carrier that slides quickly down a zip line string, figure out how to keep something balanced, and identify ways to reduce friction.

  5. Multiplicity among chemically peculiar stars. II. Cool magnetic Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, F.; North, P.; Udry, S.; Babel, J.

    2002-10-01

    We present new orbits for sixteen Ap spectroscopic binaries, four of which might in fact be Am stars, and give their orbital elements. Four of them are SB2 systems: HD 5550, HD 22128, HD 56495 and HD 98088. The twelve other stars are: HD 9996, HD 12288, HD 40711, HD 54908, HD 65339, HD 73709, HD 105680, HD 138426, HD 184471, HD 188854, HD 200405 and HD 216533. Rough estimates of the individual masses of the components of HD 65339 (53 Cam) are given, combining our radial velocities with the results of speckle interferometry and with Hipparcos parallaxes. Considering the mass functions of 74 spectroscopic binaries from this work and from the literature, we conclude that the distribution of the mass ratio is the same for cool Ap stars and for normal G dwarfs. Therefore, the only differences between binaries with normal stars and those hosting an Ap star lie in the period distribution: except for the case of HD 200405, all orbital periods are longer than (or equal to) 3 days. A consequence of this peculiar distribution is a deficit of null eccentricities. There is no indication that the secondary has a special nature, like e.g. a white dwarf. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France. Tables 1 to 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/394/151 Appendix B is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  6. Higher-order modes in the APS storage ring waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, S.O.; Kustom, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    Twelve higher-order modes (HOMs) in the single-cell accelerating cavities for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring were calculated to have complex impedances that will cause coupled-bunched instabilities near or below the 300mA positron current which is the design goal. Some of these modes couple, through the coupling loop, from the storage ring cavity into the waveguide. This study investigates the transmission of these modes from the cavity into the waveguide. The standing wave ratio (VSWR) of a WR2300 hybrid waveguide component has been measured at each HOM frequency, and its effect on the transmitted modes in the waveguide is studied.

  7. APS beamline standard components handbook, Version 1. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, U.; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-02-01

    This Handbook in its current version (1.3) contains descriptions, specifications, and preliminary engineering design drawings for many of the standard components. The design status and schedules have been provided wherever possible. In the near future, the APS plans to update engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components and complete the Handbook. The completed version of this Handbook will become available to both the CATs and potential vendors. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  8. Activin promotes astrocytic differentiation of a multipotent neural stem cell line and an astrocyte progenitor cell line from murine central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motonobu Satoh; Hiromu Sugino; Touho Yoshida

    2000-01-01

    The effects of activin A were investigated on the development of a multipotent neural stem cell line (MEB5) and an astrocyte progenitor cell line (AP-16) that were established from murine central nervous system (CNS). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that each cell line expresses both type I and type II activin receptors and signaling molecules for activin, Smad2,

  9. AP1 binding to sorting signals and release from clathrin-coated vesicles is regulated by phosphorylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradipta Ghosh; Stuart Kornfeld

    2003-01-01

    he adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) sorts and packages membrane proteins into clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) at the TGN and endosomes. Here we show that this process is highly regulated by phosphorylation of AP-1 subunits. Cell fractionation studies revealed that membrane-associated AP-1 differs from cytosolic AP-1 in the phosphorylation status of its ? 1 and ? 1 subunits. AP-1 recruitment onto the

  10. Optimization of aerosol penetration through transport lines

    E-print Network

    Wong Luque, Fermin Samuel

    1992-01-01

    . A Stairmand disk and a fan were used in the entry region of the wind tunnel to mix the aerosols and create a uniform concentration profile in the center region of the wind tunnel. A perforated plate placed downstream of the entrance section...

  11. Loss of JUNB/AP-1 promotes invasive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, M K; Bakiri, L; Hasenfuss, S C; Wu, H; Morente, M; Wagner, E F

    2015-04-01

    Prostate cancer is a frequent cause of male death in the Western world. Relatively few genetic alterations have been identified, likely owing to disease heterogeneity. Here, we show that the transcription factor JUNB/AP-1 limits prostate cancer progression. JUNB expression is increased in low-grade prostate cancer compared with normal human prostate, but downregulated in high-grade samples and further decreased in all metastatic samples. To model the hypothesis that this downregulation is functionally significant, we genetically inactivated Junb in the prostate epithelium of mice. When combined with Pten (phosphatase and tensin homologue) loss, double-mutant mice were prone to invasive cancer development. Importantly, invasive tumours also developed when Junb and Pten were inactivated in a small cell population of the adult anterior prostate by topical Cre recombinase delivery. The resulting tumours displayed strong histological similarity with human prostate cancer. Loss of JunB expression led to increased proliferation and decreased senescence, likely owing to decreased p16(Ink4a) and p21(CIP1) in epithelial cells. Furthermore, the tumour stroma was altered with increased osteopontin and S100 calcium-binding protein A8/9 expression, which correlated with poor prognoses in patients. These data demonstrate that JUNB/AP-1 cooperates with PTEN signalling as barriers to invasive prostate cancer, whose concomitant genetic or epigenetic suppression induce malignant progression. PMID:25526087

  12. Designing an artificial pancreas architecture: the AP@home experience.

    PubMed

    Lanzola, Giordano; Toffanin, Chiara; Di Palma, Federico; Del Favero, Simone; Magni, Lalo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2014-11-28

    The latest achievements in sensor technologies for blood glucose level monitoring, pump miniaturization for insulin delivery, and the availability of portable computing devices are paving the way toward the artificial pancreas as a treatment for diabetes patients. This device encompasses a controller unit that oversees the administration of insulin micro-boluses and continuously drives the pump based on blood glucose readings acquired in real time. In order to foster the research on the artificial pancreas and prepare for its adoption as a therapy, the European Union in 2010 funded the AP@home project, following a series of efforts already ongoing in the USA. This paper, authored by members of the AP@home consortium, reports on the technical issues concerning the design and implementation of an architecture supporting the exploitation of an artificial pancreas platform. First a PC-based platform was developed by the authors to prove the effectiveness and reliability of the algorithms responsible for insulin administration. A mobile-based one was then adopted to improve the comfort for the patients. Both platforms were tested on real patients, and a description of the goals, the achievements, and the major shortcomings that emerged during those trials is also reported in the paper. PMID:25430423

  13. The high-energy ?-ray emission of AP Librae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzi?ska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzy?ski, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Klu?niak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, ?.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Finke, J.; Fortin, P.; Horan, D.

    2015-01-01

    The ?-ray spectrum of the low-frequency-peaked BL Lac (LBL) object AP Librae is studied, following the discovery of very-high-energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) ?-ray emission up to the TeV range by the H.E.S.S. experiment. This makes AP Librae one of the few VHE emitters of the LBL type. The measured spectrum yields a flux of (8.8 ± 1.5stat ± 1.8sys) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 above 130 GeV and a spectral index of ? = 2.65 ± 0.19stat ± 0.20sys. This study also makes use of Fermi-LAT observations in the high energy (HE, E> 100 MeV) range, providing the longest continuous light curve (5 years) ever published on this source. The source underwent a flaring event between MJD 56 306-56 376 in the HE range, with a flux increase of a factor of 3.5 in the 14 day bin light curve and no significant variation in spectral shape with respect to the low-flux state. While the H.E.S.S. and (low state) Fermi-LAT fluxes are in good agreement where they overlap, a spectral curvature between the steep VHE spectrum and the Fermi-LAT spectrum is observed. The maximum of the ?-ray emission in the spectral energy distribution is located below the GeV energy range.

  14. APS Archive Collaborative: Building Tools for Library Partnerships

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education)

    2009-09-29

    This is a poster from the 2008 NSDL annual meeting held in Washington, DC from September 30-October 2, 2008. The American Physiological Society (APS) Archive of Teaching Resources launched in April 2002 as a venue for colleague-to-colleague sharing. Since then, the Archive has grown into a collaborative digital library with resources catalogued by APS and three partners (HAPS, SDB, and NAHSEP). All partners used a common set of review and cataloging tools. In 2008, the Archive is being redesigned with new features for partner customization, expanded partnerships, and easier user access. New administration features allow partners to customize and handle their own submissions and reviews, including automatic email notifications. New submission features include partner-specific disciplines, keywords, special fields, and customized pages. New review features include partner-specific review criteria and forms. New search functions allow database searching via keyword (all text fields and vocabulary lists), advanced search (specific partner libraries and specific vocabularies), and browse (by disciplines, learning resource type and grade level). The personalized Â?My ArchiveÂ? retains previous functions (saving searches, saving resources to folders, sharing of folders) while also providing a listing of usersÂ? submissions and allowing users to track submissions through the review process. The new Archive will be open to Google searches; Login for the system will be required only for submissions and Â?My ArchiveÂ? features.

  15. Linking radio and gamma ray emission in Ap Librae

    E-print Network

    Hervet, O; Sol, H

    2015-01-01

    Ap Lib is one of the rare Low Synchrotron Peaked blazars detected so far at TeV energies. This type of source is not properly modelled by standard one-zone leptonic Synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) emission scenarios. The aim of this paper is to study the relevance of additional components which should naturally occur in a SSC scenario for a better understanding of the emission mechanisms, especially at very high energies (VHE). Methods. We use simultaneous data from a multi-wavelength campaign of Planck, Swift-UVOT and Swift-XRT telescopes carried out in February 2010, as well as quasi-simultaneous data of WISE, Fermi and H.E.S.S. taken in 2010. The multi-lambda emission of Ap Lib is modelled by a blob-in-jet SSC scenario including the contribution of the base of the VLBI extended jet, the radiative blob-jet interaction, the accretion disk and its associated external photon field. We show that signatures of a strong parsec-scale jet and of an accretion disk emission are present in the SED. We can link the obse...

  16. Large break LOCA calculations for the AP600 design

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.E.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents the application of RELAP5 to the calculation of a Large Break (200% doubled-ended rupture) Loss-of-Colant-Accident (LBLOCA) at the reactor vessel inlet for the proposed Westinghouse AP600 design. A parametric calculation was also performed to determine effects of loss of a complete Emergency Core Cooling system (ECCS) train. These calculations were performed over the core blowdown, refill, and reflood phases of the LBLOCA and did not address long term cooling. RELAP5 was shown to be adequate for system response calculation over the period of interest. The passive safety systems were predicted to effectively mitigate the consequences of LBLOCAs; the calculations showed less severe thermal responses than for a current generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. The two primary differences between the AP600 design and a current generation plant that affect LBLOCA response are the lower core thermal power, which results in lower temperatures during the blowdown phase, and the long duration accumulator injection, which provides ample core inventory makeup for final quenching.

  17. Image morphing based on mutual information and optimal mass transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Zhu; Yan Yang; Allen Tannenbaum; Steven Haker

    2004-01-01

    Time domain image interpolation, or image morphing, refers to a class of techniques for generating a series of smoothly changing intermediate images between two given related images. In this note, we present a novel approach based on the theory of optimal mass transport, using mutual informa- tion (MI) as the similarity measurement. The potential ap- plications also include image registration,

  18. Differential Proteomics Reveals Multiple Components in Retrogradely Transported

    E-print Network

    Fainzilber, Michael

    differential proteomics ap- proach in the freshwater mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis. This invertebrate model nervous injury-correlated retro- gradely transported proteins in nerves of the mollusk Lymnaea. A comprehensive of RGP51 expression by RNA interference inhibits regener- ative outgrowth of adult Lymnaea neurons

  19. Computa(onal Study of Neoclassical Transport in NSTX using GTC-NEO

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Computa(onal Study of Neoclassical Transport in NSTX using GTC-NEO M. S Experiment · Plasma Transport in NSTX · GTC-NEO Simula(on Results · Conclusions(on of the APS *S. M. Kaye et al., Nucl. Fusion, 53 (2013) 05/12 #12;Why GTC-NEO

  20. The Dopamine Transporter and Cocaine Medication Development: Drug Self-Administration in Nonhuman Primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEONARD L. HOWELL; KRISTIN M. WILCOX

    2001-01-01

    Despite intensive medication development efforts, no effective pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse has demonstrated efficacy for long-term use. Given the obvious importance of the dopa- mine transporter in the addictive properties of cocaine, the development and use of compounds that target the dopamine transporter represents a reasonable approach for the pharma- cological treatment of cocaine abuse. The therapeutic ap- proach of

  1. JNK/AP-1 pathway is involved in tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in MCF7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yongmei; Wang, Shui; Sun, Yujie; Matt, Young; Colburn, Nancy H; Shu, Yongqian; Han, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in breast tumor angiogenesis. And tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a positive regulator of VEGF. This study was aimed to identify the signalling pathway of TNF-alpha in VEGF expression regulation in breast cancer cell line MCF7. Using luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that TNF-alpha significantly increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional activity in the MCF7 cells. The expression of the AP-1 family members c-Jun, c-Fos and JunB and phosphorylation levels of c-Jun were upregulated by TNF-alpha, whereas other AP-1 family members Fra-1, Fra-2, and JunD were unaffected. The activation of AP-1 was associated with the formation of p-c-Jun-c-Jun and p-c-Jun-JunB homodimers. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not P38 and ERK were elevated by TNF-alpha in MCF7 cells. TNF-alpha potently upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of VEGF, which were significantly reversed by JNK inhibitor SP600125. Finally using chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assays, we found that p-c-Jun bound to the VEGF promoter and regulated VEGF transcription directly. These data suggest that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha is a critical regulator of VEGF expression in breast cancer cells, at least partially via a JNK and AP-1 dependent pathway. PMID:19553068

  2. Blimp1 Activation by AP-1 in Human Lung Cancer Cells Promotes a Migratory Phenotype and Is Inhibited by the Lysyl Oxidase Propeptide

    PubMed Central

    Trackman, Philip C.; Kirsch, Kathrin H.; Sonenshein, Gail E.

    2012-01-01

    B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1) is a master regulator of B cell differentiation, and controls migration of primordial germ cells. Recently we observed aberrant Blimp1 expression in breast cancer cells resulting from an NF-?B RelB to Ras signaling pathway. In order to address the question of whether the unexpected expression of Blimp1 is seen in other epithelial-derived tumors, we selected lung cancers as they are frequently driven by Ras signaling. Blimp1 was detected in all five lung cancer cell lines examined and shown to promote lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Interrogation of microarray datasets demonstrated elevated BLIMP1 RNA expression in lung adenocarcinoma, pancreatic ductal carcinomas, head and neck tumors as well as in glioblastomas. Involvement of Ras and its downstream kinase c-Raf was confirmed using mutant and siRNA strategies. We next addressed the issue of mechanism of Blimp1 activation in lung cancer. Using knockdown and ectopic expression, the role of the Activator Protein (AP)-1 family of transcription factors was demonstrated. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed binding to identified AP-1 elements in the BLIMP1 promoter of ectopically expressed c-Jun and of endogenous AP-1 subunits following serum stimulation. The propeptide domain of lysyl oxidase (LOX-PP) was identified as a tumor suppressor, with ability to reduce Ras signaling in lung cancer cells. LOX-PP reduced expression of Blimp1 by binding to c-Raf and inhibiting activation of AP-1, thereby attenuating the migratory phenotype of lung cancer cells. Thus, Blimp1 is a mediator of Ras/Raf/AP-1 signaling that promotes cell migration, and is repressed by LOX-PP in lung cancer. PMID:22438909

  3. Toxic epidermal necrolysis related to AP (pemetrexed plus cisplatin) and gefitinib combination therapy in a patient with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ji-Jie; Ma, Shu-Xiang; Hou, Xue; Wang, Zhao; Zeng, Yin-Duo; Qin, Tao; Dinglin, Xiao-Xiao; Chen, Li-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare acute life-threatening mucocutaneous disorder that is mostly drug-related (80%-95%). It is clinically characterized as a widespread sloughing of the skin and mucosa. AP regimen (pemetrexed plus cisplatin) has been the preferred first-line chemotherapy for metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Gefitinib, a small-molecule epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has already been recommended as a first-line treatment in EGFR-mutant metastatic NSCLC. We report rare presentation of TEN involving adverse effects of AP and gefitinib combination treatment in a 42-year-old woman diagnosed with metastatic NSCLC harboring an EGFR mutation. On the 21st day after administration of the first cycle of AP regimen and the 8th day after the initiation of gefitinib treatment, she developed an acne-like rash, oral ulcer, and conjunctivitis, which later became blisters and ultimately denuded. The characteristic clinical courses were decisive for the diagnosis of TEN. Treatment with systemic steroids and immunoglobulin as well as supportive treatment led to an improvement of her general condition and a remarkable recovery. PMID:25418188

  4. Toxic epidermal necrolysis related to AP (pemetrexed plus cisplatin) and gefitinib combination therapy in a patient with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ji-Jie; Ma, Shu-Xiang; Hou, Xue; Wang, Zhao; Zeng, Yin-Duo; Qin, Tao; Dinglin, Xiao-Xiao; Chen, Li-Kun

    2015-02-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare acute life-threatening mucocutaneous disorder that is mostly drug-related (80%-95%). It is clinically characterized as a widespread sloughing of the skin and mucosa. AP regimen (pemetrexed plus cisplatin) has been the preferred first-line chemotherapy for metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Gefitinib, a small-molecule epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has already been recommended as a first-line treatment in EGFR-mutant metastatic NSCLC. We report rare presentation of TEN involving adverse effects of AP and gefitinib combination treatment in a 42-year-old woman diagnosed with metastatic NSCLC harboring an EGFR mutation. On the 21st day after administration of the first cycle of AP regimen and the 8th day after the initiation of gefitinib treatment, she developed an acne-like rash, oral ulcer, and conjunctivitis, which later became blisters and ultimately denuded. The characteristic clinical courses were decisive for the diagnosis of TEN. Treatment with systemic steroids and immunoglobulin as well as supportive treatment led to an improvement of her general condition and a remarkable recovery. PMID:25418188

  5. Number Line

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Clarity Innovations, Inc.

    2013-11-22

    This iOS app helps students to visualize number sentences and create models for addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division. The number line can be adjusted to represent multiples of numbers from one to one hundred.

  6. Poverty Lines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank has released the November 1997 issue of Poverty Lines, a newsletter that summarizes current research studies on poverty. The latest issue looks at how public works programs can help people who are poor.

  7. Number Line

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-27

    In this brief article the numerous uses of the number line are detailed: counting, measurement, addition, subtraction, decimals, and fractions. The article contains visual representations of the some of the concepts and links to related topics.

  8. Beau's Lines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A A A Beau's lines (crosswise nail plate grooves) are due to severe illness or certain medications. ... occur along the fingernails and the toenails. The grooves extending across the nail plate often span its ...

  9. Acyl-CoA synthetase catalyzes the synthesis of diadenosine hexaphosphate (Ap6A).

    PubMed

    Fontes, R; Günther Sillero, M A; Sillero, A

    1999-03-01

    The synthesis of diadenosine hexaphosphate (Ap6A), a potent vasoconstrictor, is catalyzed by acyl-CoA synthetase from Pseudomonas fragi. In a first step AMP is transferred from ATP to tetrapolyphosphate (P4) originating adenosine pentaphosphate (p5A) which, subsequently, is the acceptor of another AMP moiety from ATP generating diadenosine hexaphosphate (Ap6A). Diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) were also synthesized in the course of the reaction. In view of the variety of biological effects described for these compounds the potential capacity of synthesis of diadenosine polyphosphates by the mammalian acyl-CoA synthetases may be relevant. PMID:10385004

  10. Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

    2014-07-01

    The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development. PMID:24566692

  11. AP Selection Algorithm for Real-Time Communications through Mixed WLAN Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Yasufumi; Higashino, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi; Komaki, Shozo

    Recent rapid development of high-speed wireless access technologies has created mixed WLAN (Wireless LAN) environments where QoS capable APs coexist with legacy APs. To provide QoS guarantee in this mixed WLAN environment, this paper proposes a new AP selection algorithm. The proposed algorithm assigns an STA (Station) to an AP in the overall WLAN service area. Simulation results show improvement in the VoIP performance in terms of an eMOS (estimated Mean Opinion Score) value and the FTP throughput compared to conventional algorithms.

  12. Oxime derivatives related to AP18: Agonists and antagonists of the TRPA1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Defalco, Jeff; Steiger, Daniel; Gustafson, Amy; Emerling, Daniel E; Kelly, Michael G; Duncton, Matthew A J

    2010-01-01

    AP18 1 was recently disclosed as an antagonist of the TRPA1 receptor by the research group of Patapoutian. However, no detailed structure-activity relationships around 1 have been disclosed. Thus, a small number of oximes related to AP18 were examined in order to characterize the determinants of TRPA1 activity. Congeners of AP18 were found to possess both agonist and antagonist activity, suggesting that AP18 may behave as a covalent antagonist of the TRPA1 ion-channel. PMID:19945872

  13. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF gene family in Salix arbutifolia

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Guodong; Sui, Jinkai; Zeng, Yanfei; He, Caiyun; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    AP2/ERF genes encode transcriptional regulators with a variety of functions in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, there are no detailed classification and expression profiles for AP2/ERF genes in Salix. In this study, a comprehensive computational analysis identified 173 AP2/ERF superfamily genes in willow (Salix arbutifolia), by using in silico cloning methods with the use of the AP2/ERF conserved domain amino acid sequence of Arabidopsis thaliana as a probe. Based on the results of phylogenetic analyses and the number of AP2/ERF domains, the AP2/ERF genes were classified into four groups: AP2, RAV, ERF and Soloist. The expression profile was analyzed using transcriptome data from different tissues. A comparative analysis of AP2/ERF superfamily genes among Salix, Populus and Arabidopsis was performed. The Salix DREB, AP2 and RAV groups had a similar number to those in Arabidopsis, and the size of the ERF subfamily in Salix was about 1.4-fold that of Arabidopsis. The Salix DREB subfamily was smaller compared to Populus, while the other families were similar in size to those in Populus. These results will be useful for future functional analyses of the ERF family genes.

  14. The appearance of beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, D.C.

    1993-05-01

    The combination of an existing graphics package with a large program like TRANSPORT has often resulted in considerable modification to the large program. Use of other graphics package has resulted in essentially having to repeat the work. This difficulty has been avoided in a modification of TRANSPORT which produce layouts of beam lines. Drawings of the reference trajectory and three-dimensional images of all magnets are made by the graphics package TOP DRAWER. Nothing specific to TOP DRAWER or any other graphics has been incorporated into TRANSPORT. If a user is with a different graphics package he or she can then begin usage of this alternate package essentially immediately.

  15. 49 CFR 1248.4 - Originating and connecting line traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS FREIGHT COMMODITY STATISTICS § 1248.4 Originating and connecting line traffic. (a) Revenue freight reported as received from connecting...

  16. 49 CFR 1248.4 - Originating and connecting line traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS FREIGHT COMMODITY STATISTICS § 1248.4 Originating and connecting line traffic. (a) Revenue freight reported as received from connecting...

  17. 49 CFR 1248.4 - Originating and connecting line traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS FREIGHT COMMODITY STATISTICS § 1248.4 Originating and connecting line traffic. (a) Revenue freight reported as received from connecting...

  18. 49 CFR 1248.4 - Originating and connecting line traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS FREIGHT COMMODITY STATISTICS § 1248.4 Originating and connecting line traffic. (a) Revenue freight reported as received from connecting...

  19. 49 CFR 1248.4 - Originating and connecting line traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS FREIGHT COMMODITY STATISTICS § 1248.4 Originating and connecting line traffic. (a) Revenue freight reported as received from connecting...

  20. Regulation of auxin transport by aminopeptidases and endogenous flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A; Peer, W A; Taiz, L

    2000-08-01

    The 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-binding protein is a putative negative regulator of polar auxin transport that has been shown to block auxin efflux from both whole plant tissues and microsomal membrane vesicles. We previously showed that NPA is hydrolyzed by plasma-membrane amidohydrolases that co-localize with tyrosine, proline, and tryptophan-specific aminopeptidases (APs) in the cotyledonary node, hypocotyl-root transition zone and root distal elongation zone of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings. Moreover, amino acyl-beta-naphthylamide (aa-NA) conjugates resembling NPA in structure have NPA-like inhibitory activity on growth, suggesting a possible role of APs in NPA action. Here we report that the same aa-NA conjugates and the AP inhibitor bestatin also block auxin efflux from seedling tissue. Bestatin and, to a lesser extent, some aa-NA conjugates were more effective inhibitors of low-affinity specific [3H]NPA-binding than were the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol but had no effect on high-affinity binding. Since the APs are inhibited by flavonoids, we compared the localization of endogenous flavonoids and APs in seedling tissue. A correlation between AP and flavonoid localization was found in 5- to 6-d-old seedlings. Evidence that these flavonoids regulate auxin accumulation in vivo was obtained using the flavonoid-deficient mutant, tt4. In whole-seedling [14C]indole-3-acetic acid transport studies, the pattern of auxin distribution in the tt4 mutant was shown to be altered. The defect appeared to be in auxin accumulation, as a considerable amount of auxin escaped from the roots. Treatment of the tt4 mutant with the missing intermediate naringenin restored normal auxin distribution and accumulation by the root. These results implicate APs and endogenous flavonoids in the regulation of auxin efflux. PMID:10987549