Science.gov

Sample records for aps transport lines

  1. AP stars with resolved magnetically split lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, G.; Lanz, T.

    1992-03-01

    New high-resolution spectroscopic observations of Ap stars with resolved magnetically split spectral lines are presented. Six new such stars have been discovered: HD 2453, HD 9996, HD 18078, HD 50169, HD 137949, and HD 192678. This raises the total number of known Ap stars with resolved magnetically split lines to 21. The spectral line profiles observed in two more stars, HD 111133 and HD 147010, are strongly affected by the magnetic field, but they are not fully resolved, due to nonnegligible rotational Doppler effect. Observations of fairly sharp-lined Ap stars whose lines are unresolved are also presented. The relative difference between the equivalent widths of the Fe II lines 6147.7 A and 6149.2 A is shown to increase with the mean magnetic field modulus. The existence of a simple, unambiguous correlation between the mean magnetic field modulus and the index Z of Geneva photometry, which had previously been advocated, is not confirmed. At most, stars with large negative values of Z may be more prone to have strong magnetic fields, but the evidence for this is not statistically strong.

  2. Raising the acceptance of the AP2-line

    SciTech Connect

    Trbojevic, D.

    1989-04-05

    The 120 GeV Main Ring proton beam collides with the target at the end of the AP-1 line and creates antiprotons and other secondary particles. The AP-2 line transfers the negative particles from the target to the Debuncher. To provide a bigger antiproton stack size in the Accumulator, both the Debuncher as well as the AP-2 line acceptance have to be raised. This is a proposal for the improvement of the AP-2 line acceptance. The first part of the memo presents an acceptance examination of the existing AP-2 line by computer simulation, while the second presents a short proposal for aperture corrections. The computer program TURTLE was used to trace antiprotons through the AP-2 line without taking into account other negative charged particles. Betatron functions were obtained from the output of the SYNCH computer program. The SYNCH program was also used to check the dispersion match between the AP-2 line and the Debuncher. 3 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Basolateral sorting of the Mg²? transporter CNNM4 requires interaction with AP-1A and AP-1B.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yusuke; Funato, Yosuke; Miki, Hiroaki

    2014-12-12

    Ancient conserved domain protein/cyclin M (CNNM) 4 is an evolutionarily conserved Mg(2+) transporter that localizes at the basolateral membrane of the intestinal epithelia. Here, we show the complementary importance of clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1A and AP-1B in basolateral sorting of CNNM4. We first confirmed the basolateral localization of both endogenous and ectopically expressed CNNM4 in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells, which form highly polarized epithelia in culture. Single knockdown of ?1B, a cargo-recognition subunit of AP-1B, did not affect basolateral localization, but simultaneous knockdown of the ?1A subunit of AP-1A abrogated localization. Mutational analyses showed the importance of three conserved dileucine motifs in CNNM4 for both basolateral sorting and interaction with ?1A and ?1B. These results imply that CNNM4 is sorted to the basolateral membrane by the complementary function of AP-1A and AP-1B. PMID:25449265

  4. Discovery of 17 new sharp-lined Ap stars with magnetically resolved lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyhammer, L. M.; Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.; Martinez, P.

    2008-09-01

    Chemically peculiar A stars (Ap) are extreme examples of the interaction of atomic element diffusion processes with magnetic fields in stellar atmospheres. The rapidly oscillating Ap stars provide a means for studying these processes in three dimensions and are at the same time important for studying the pulsation excitation mechanism in A stars. As part of the first comprehensive, uniform, high-resolution spectroscopic survey of Ap stars, which we are conducting in the Southern hemisphere with the Michigan Spectral Catalogues as the basis of target selection, we report here the discovery of 17 new magnetic Ap stars having spectroscopically resolved Zeeman components from which we derive magnetic field moduli in the range 3-30kG. Among these are (1) the current second strongest known magnetic A star, (2) a double-lined Ap binary with a magnetic component and (3) an A star with particularly peculiar and variable abundances. Polarimetry of these stars is needed to constrain their field geometries and to determine their rotation periods. We have also obtained an additional measurement of the magnetic field of the Ap star HD92499. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, as part of programmes 078.D-0080(A), 078.D-0192(A), 072.D-0138(A). E-mail: lmfreyhammer@uclan.ac.uk

  5. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

    1995-05-01

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real'' beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS.

  6. Genome-wide Analysis of AP-3–dependent Protein Transport in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vikram C.; Daboussi, Lydia; Lorenz, Todd C.

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex mediates cargo-selective transport to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. To identify proteins that function in AP-3–mediated transport, we performed a genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for defects in the vacuolar maturation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a cargo of the AP-3 pathway. Forty-nine gene deletion strains were identified that accumulated precursor ALP, many with established defects in vacuolar protein transport. Maturation of a vacuolar membrane protein delivered via a separate, clathrin-dependent pathway, was affected in all strains except those with deletions of YCK3, encoding a vacuolar type I casein kinase; SVP26, encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export receptor for ALP; and AP-3 subunit genes. Subcellular fractionation and fluorescence microscopy revealed ALP transport defects in yck3? cells. Characterization of svp26? cells revealed a role for Svp26p in ER export of only a subset of type II membrane proteins. Finally, ALP maturation kinetics in vac8? and vac17? cells suggests that vacuole inheritance is important for rapid generation of proteolytically active vacuolar compartments in daughter cells. We propose that the cargo-selective nature of the AP-3 pathway in yeast is achieved by AP-3 and Yck3p functioning in concert with machinery shared by other vacuolar transport pathways. PMID:19116312

  7. Proton-dependent glutamine uptake by aphid bacteriocyte amino acid transporter ApGLNT1.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel R G; Wilson, Alex C C; Luetje, Charles W

    2015-10-01

    Aphids house large populations of the gammaproteobacterial symbiont Buchnera aphidicola in specialized bacteriocyte cells. The combined biosynthetic capability of the holobiont (Acyrthosiphon pisum and Buchnera) is sufficient for biosynthesis of all twenty protein coding amino acids, including amino acids that animals alone cannot synthesize; and that are present at low concentrations in A. pisum's plant phloem sap diet. Collaborative holobiont amino acid biosynthesis depends on glutamine import into bacteriocytes, which serves as a nitrogen-rich amino donor for biosynthesis of other amino acids. Recently, we characterized A. pisum glutamine transporter 1 (ApGLNT1), a member of the amino acid/auxin permease family, as the dominant bacteriocyte plasma membrane glutamine transporter. Here we show ApGLNT1 to be structurally and functionally related to mammalian proton-dependent amino acid transporters (PATs 1-4). Using functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, combined with two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology we demonstrate that ApGLNT1 is electrogenic and that glutamine induces large inward currents. ApGLNT1 glutamine induced currents are dependent on external glutamine concentration, proton (H+) gradient across the membrane, and membrane potential. Based on these transport properties, ApGLNT1-mediated glutamine uptake into A. pisum bacteriocytes can be regulated by changes in either proton gradients across the plasma membrane or membrane potential. PMID:26028424

  8. Optical observations of the broad-lined type Ic supernova SN 2012ap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Xu-Lin; Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Chen, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The optical observations of the type Ic supernova (SN Ic) SN 2012ap in NGC 1729 are presented. A comparison with other SNe Ic indicates that SN 2012ap is highly reddened (with E(B — V)host~0.8 mag) and may represent one of the most luminous SNe Ic ever observed, with an absolute V-band peak magnitude of ~ -19.3±0.5 mag after extinction correction. The near-maximum-light spectrum shows wide spectral features that are typical of broad-lined SNe Ic. One interesting feature in the spectrum is the appearance of some narrow absorption features that can be attributed to the diffuse interstellar bands, consistent with the large reddening inferred from the photometric method. Based on the light curves and the spectral data, we estimate that SN 2012ap produced a 56Ni mass of ~ 0.3 ± 0.1Msolar 1 in the explosion, with an ejecta mass of 2.4-0.7+0.7Msolar and a kinetic energy of EK = 1.1-0.4+0.4 × 1052 erg. The properties of its progenitor are also briefly discussed.

  9. NSLS-II Transport Line Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

    2012-05-20

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

  10. Engagement of CD99 Reduces AP-1 Activity by Inducing BATF in the Human Multiple Myeloma Cell Line RPMI8226

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Minchan; Pak, Hyo-Kyung; Park, Seo-Jeong; Lee, A-Neum; Park, Young-Soo; Lee, Hyangsin; Lee, Hyunji; Kim, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Kyung Jin; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Chung, Yoo-Sam

    2015-01-01

    CD99 signaling is crucial to a diverse range of biological functions including survival and proliferation. CD99 engagement is reported to augment activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity through mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways in a T-lymphoblastic lymphoma cell line Jurkat and in breast cancer cell lines. In this study, we report that CD99 differentially regulated AP-1 activity in the human myeloma cell line RPMI8226. CD99 was highly expressed and the CD99 engagement led to activation of the MAP kinases, but suppressed AP-1 activity by inducing the expression of basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like (BATF), a negative regulator of AP-1 in RPMI8226 cells. By contrast, engagement of CD99 enhanced AP-1 activity and did not change the BATF expression in Jurkat cells. CD99 engagement reduced the proliferation of RPMI8226 cells and expression of cyclin 1 and 3. Overall, these results suggest novel CD99 functions in RPMI8226 cells. PMID:26557810

  11. Development and evaluation of human AP endonuclease inhibitors in melanoma and glioma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, M Z; Vyjayanti, V N; Laughton, C A; Dekker, L V; Fischer, P M; Wilson, D M; Abbotts, R; Shah, S; Patel, P M; Hickson, I D; Madhusudan, S

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Modulation of DNA base excision repair (BER) has the potential to enhance response to chemotherapy and improve outcomes in tumours such as melanoma and glioma. APE1, a critical protein in BER that processes potentially cytotoxic abasic sites (AP sites), is a promising new target in cancer. In the current study, we aimed to develop small molecule inhibitors of APE1 for cancer therapy. Methods: An industry-standard high throughput virtual screening strategy was adopted. The Sybyl8.0 (Tripos, St Louis, MO, USA) molecular modelling software suite was used to build inhibitor templates. Similarity searching strategies were then applied using ROCS 2.3 (Open Eye Scientific, Santa Fe, NM, USA) to extract pharmacophorically related subsets of compounds from a chemically diverse database of 2.6 million compounds. The compounds in these subsets were subjected to docking against the active site of the APE1 model, using the genetic algorithm-based programme GOLD2.7 (CCDC, Cambridge, UK). Predicted ligand poses were ranked on the basis of several scoring functions. The top virtual hits with promising pharmaceutical properties underwent detailed in vitro analyses using fluorescence-based APE1 cleavage assays and counter screened using endonuclease IV cleavage assays, fluorescence quenching assays and radiolabelled oligonucleotide assays. Biochemical APE1 inhibitors were then subjected to detailed cytotoxicity analyses. Results: Several specific APE1 inhibitors were isolated by this approach. The IC50 for APE1 inhibition ranged between 30 n and 50??. We demonstrated that APE1 inhibitors lead to accumulation of AP sites in genomic DNA and potentiated the cytotoxicity of alkylating agents in melanoma and glioma cell lines. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that APE1 is an emerging drug target and could have therapeutic application in patients with melanoma and glioma. PMID:21266972

  12. 2-D axisymmetric line transport

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J.I.; Dykema, P.G. ); Klein, R.I. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Astronomy)

    1990-11-20

    The methods used in the ALTAIR code for computing the transfer of spectral line radiation in two-dimensional axially-symmetric geometry are described. ALTAIR uses a variable-Eddington-tensor approach, in which the transfer equation of non-coherent line scattering is written in moment form, and the moments are closed with an assumed tensor relating the monochromatic pressure tensor and energy density; this Eddington tensor is obtained self-consistently using an accurate angle-dependent solution of the transfer equation. The finite element method for solving the moment system, and the discontinuous finite element method for solving the S{sub n} equation of transfer are described. Two applications of the method are discussed: line formation in uniform cylinders with different length-diameter ratios, and monochromatic transfer on an irregular x-y mesh (the Mordant test problem). 13 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Trafficking of the Menkes copper transporter ATP7A is regulated by clathrin-, AP-2–, AP-1–, and Rab22-dependent steps

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Zoe G.; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio; Howell, Gareth J.; Levecque, Clotilde; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Sztul, Elizabeth; Monaco, Anthony P.

    2013-01-01

    The transporter ATP7A mediates systemic copper absorption and provides cuproenzymes in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) with copper. To regulate metal homeostasis, ATP7A constitutively cycles between the TGN and plasma membrane (PM). ATP7A trafficking to the PM is elevated in response to increased copper load and is reversed when copper concentrations are lowered. Molecular mechanisms underlying this trafficking are poorly understood. We assess the role of clathrin, adaptor complexes, lipid rafts, and Rab22a in an attempt to decipher the regulatory proteins involved in ATP7A cycling. While RNA interference (RNAi)–mediated depletion of caveolin 1/2 or flotillin had no effect on ATP7A localization, clathrin heavy chain depletion or expression of AP180 dominant-negative mutant not only disrupted clathrin-regulated pathways, but also blocked PM-to-TGN internalization of ATP7A. Depletion of the ? subunits of either adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) or AP-1 using RNAi further provides evidence that both clathrin adaptors are important for trafficking of ATP7A from the PM to the TGN. Expression of the GTP-locked Rab22aQ64L mutant caused fragmentation of TGN membrane domains enriched for ATP7A. These appear to be a subdomain of the mammalian TGN, showing only partial overlap with the TGN marker golgin-97. Of importance, ATP7A remained in the Rab22aQ64L-generated structures after copper treatment and washout, suggesting that forward trafficking out of this compartment was blocked. This study provides evidence that multiple membrane-associated factors, including clathrin, AP-2, AP-1, and Rab22, are regulators of ATP7A trafficking. PMID:23596324

  14. BEAM TRANSPORT LINES FOR THE BSNS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    This paper presents the design of two beam transport lines at the BSNS: one is the injection line from the Linac to the RCS and the other is the target line from the RCS to the target station. In the injection beam line, space charge effects, transverse halo collimation, momentum tail collimation and debunching are the main concerned topics. A new method of using triplet cells and stripping foils is used to collimate transverse halo. A long straight section is reserved for the future upgrading linac and debuncher. In the target beam line, large halo emittance, beam stability at the target due to kicker failures and beam jitters, shielding of back-scattering neutrons from the target are main concerned topics. Special bi-gap magnets will be used to reduce beam losses in the collimators in front of the target.

  15. Moisture Transport Through Sprayed Concrete Tunnel Linings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar; Geving, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Waterproofing of permanent sprayed concrete tunnel linings with sprayed membranes in a continuous sandwich structure has been attempted since 2000 and has seen increased use in some countries. The main function of a sprayed membrane from a waterproofing perspective is to provide crack bridging and hence prevent flow of liquid water into the tunnel through cracks and imperfections in the concrete material. However, moisture can migrate through the concrete and EVA-based membrane materials by capillary and vapor diffusion mechanisms. These moisture transport mechanisms can have an influence on the degree of saturation, and may influence the pore pressures in the concrete material as well as risk of freeze-thaw damage of the concrete and membrane. The paper describes a detailed study of moisture transport material parameters, moisture condition in tunnel linings and climatic conditions tunnels in hard rock in Norway. These data have been included in a hygrothermal simulation model in the software WUFI for moisture transport to substantiate moisture transport and long-term effects on saturation of the concrete and membrane material. The findings suggest that EVA-based membranes exhibit significant water absorption and vapor transport properties although they are impermeable to liquid water flow. State-of-the-art sprayed concrete material applied with the wet mix method exhibits very low hydraulic conductivities, lower than 10-14 m/s, thus saturated conductive water flow is a very unlikely dominant transport mechanism. Moisture transport through the lining structure by capillary flow and vapor diffusion are calculated to approximately 3 cm3/m2 per day for lining thicknesses in the range of 25-35 cm and seasonal Nordic climate variations. The calculated moisture contents in the tunnel linings from the hygrothermal simulations are largely in agreement with the measured moisture contents in the tunnel linings. The findings also indicate that the concrete material exhibits a reduction of saturation on the immediate inside of the membrane. Near the location of the waterproofing membrane on either side, the concrete material exhibits degrees of capillary saturation between 85 and 95 %. Moisture content in the membrane is found to be consistently in the range of 12-17 % by weight, corresponding to a degree of saturation of 30-35 %. Possible effects of such moisture contents are lower risk of freezing degradation, higher tensile bonding strengths at the membrane interfaces, and a reduced risk of pore pressure in the concrete material.

  16. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Adenoviral delivery of A-FOS, an AP-1 dominant negative, selectively inhibits drug resistance in two human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bonovich, Maria; Olive, Michelle; Reed, Eddie; O'Connell, Brian; Vinson, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor has been linked to chemotherapeutic resistance. To assess the clinical efficacy of AP-1 inhibition toward reversing drug resistance, we have developed an adenovirus expressing a dominant negative that inhibits AP-1 DNA binding, namedAdA-FOS. We examined the consequence of AdA-FOS infection on two paired human cancer cell lines, each pair consisting of a parental cell and the drug- resistant derivative. The first pair of cells is the parental human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and the cisplatin-resistant A2780/CP70 cell line. The second pair of cells is the parental epidermal carcinoma cell line KB8 and the multidrug-resistant (mdr) KB85 cell line. Because of an association of up-regulated AP-1 activity with their drug resistance, these cell lines were considered good targets of AdA-FOS therapy. Following infection of the drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cells, we observed a significant decrease in cell viability of KB85 and A2780/CP70 cells at drug doses normally not lethal to the cell. The parental cell lines, A2780 and KB8 cells, were not similarly affected by AdA-FOS. This decrease in viability was specific to AdA-FOS as an adenovirus control (Advector) did not reverse drug resistance. Although the efficiency of AdA- FOS in therapy would need to be further analyzed with other cisplatin-resistant and mdr cell lines, these results suggest that AP-1 is a therapeutic molecular target and that inhibition of AP-1 DNA binding may be of clinical value in treating chemotherapeutic resistance. PMID:11916245

  18. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA 2012ap AND CARRIERS OF DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Sanders, Nathan E.; Drout, Maria R.; Kamble, Atish; Chakraborti, Sayan; Kirshner, Robert P.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Pickering, Timothy E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Marion, G. H. Howie; Vinko, Jozsef; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Mazzali, Paolo; Maeda, Keiichi; and others

    2014-02-10

    Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption features observed in optical and near-infrared spectra that are thought to be associated with carbon-rich polyatomic molecules in interstellar gas. However, because the central wavelengths of these bands do not correspond to electronic transitions of any known atomic or molecular species, their nature has remained uncertain since their discovery almost a century ago. Here we report on unusually strong DIBs in optical spectra of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN 2012ap that exhibit changes in equivalent width over short (? 30 days) timescales. The 4428 Å and 6283 Å DIB features get weaker with time, whereas the 5780 Å feature shows a marginal increase. These nonuniform changes suggest that the supernova is interacting with a nearby source of DIBs and that the DIB carriers possess high ionization potentials, such as small cations or charged fullerenes. We conclude that moderate-resolution spectra of supernovae with DIB absorptions obtained within weeks of outburst could reveal unique information about the mass-loss environment of their progenitor systems and provide new constraints on the properties of DIB carriers.

  19. Interaction between the Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova 2012ap and Carriers of Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Sanders, Nathan E.; Drout, Maria R.; Kamble, Atish; Chakraborti, Sayan; Pickering, Timothy E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Mazzali, Paolo; Maeda, Keiichi; Marion, G. H. Howie; Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2014-02-01

    Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption features observed in optical and near-infrared spectra that are thought to be associated with carbon-rich polyatomic molecules in interstellar gas. However, because the central wavelengths of these bands do not correspond to electronic transitions of any known atomic or molecular species, their nature has remained uncertain since their discovery almost a century ago. Here we report on unusually strong DIBs in optical spectra of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN 2012ap that exhibit changes in equivalent width over short (lsim 30 days) timescales. The 4428 Å and 6283 Å DIB features get weaker with time, whereas the 5780 Å feature shows a marginal increase. These nonuniform changes suggest that the supernova is interacting with a nearby source of DIBs and that the DIB carriers possess high ionization potentials, such as small cations or charged fullerenes. We conclude that moderate-resolution spectra of supernovae with DIB absorptions obtained within weeks of outburst could reveal unique information about the mass-loss environment of their progenitor systems and provide new constraints on the properties of DIB carriers.

  20. Assessment of costimulation and coinhibition in a triple parameter T cell reporter line: Simultaneous measurement of NF-?B, NFAT and AP-1.

    PubMed

    Jutz, Sabrina; Leitner, Judith; Schmetterer, Klaus; Doel-Perez, Iago; Majdic, Otto; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina; Paster, Wolfgang; Huppa, Johannes B; Steinberger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Engagement of the T cell receptor complex reprograms T cells for proliferation, cytokine production and differentiation towards effector cells. This process depends on activating costimulatory signals and is counteracted by coinhibitory molecules. Three transcription factors, namely NF-?B, NFAT and AP-1, have a major role in inducing the transcriptional program that is required for T cell activation and differentiation. Here we describe the generation of a triple parameter reporter based on the human Jurkat T cell line, where response elements for NF-?B, NFAT and AP-1 drive the expression of the fluorescent proteins CFP, eGFP and mCherry, respectively. The emission spectra of these proteins allow simultaneous assessment of NF-?B, NFAT and AP-1 activity in response to stimulation. Ligation of the TCR complex induced moderate reporter activity, which was strongly enhanced upon coengagement of the costimulatory receptors CD2 or CD28. Moreover, we have generated and tested triple parameter reporter cells that harbor costimulatory and inhibitory receptors not endogenously expressed in the Jurkat cells. In these experiments we could show that engagement of the costimulatory molecule 4-1BB enhances NF-?B and AP-1 activity, whereas coinhibition via PD-1 or BTLA strongly reduced the activation of NF-?B and NFAT. Engagement of BTLA significantly inhibited AP-1, whereas PD-1 had little effect on the activation of this transcription factor. Our triple parameter reporter T cell line is an excellent tool to assess the effect of costimulatory and coinhibitory receptors on NF-?B, NFAT and AP-1 activity and has a wide range of applications beyond the evaluation of costimulatory pathways. PMID:26780292

  1. Investigation of Rare-Earth Elements in the Atmosphere of the roAp Star HD 134214: Nd II, Nd III, and Gd II Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailytskaya, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution spectra are used to investigate the abundance of rare-earth elements (REE) in the atmosphere of the magnetic, rapidly oscillating, chemically peculiar (roAp) star HD134214. The neodymium abundance is investigated using the lines of neodymium in the first and second ionization states. Disruption of ionization equilibrium REE (mismatch of the contents determined according to the lines of singly and doubly ionized atoms) is found in the atmosphere of the roAp star. Excess abundance of the rare-earth elements (relative to the Sun) is found. The results of an abundance analysis of REE and some other elements are presented. The modulus and the components Br /Bm of the magnetic field are determined.

  2. HOPS Interacts with Apl5 at the Vacuole Membrane and Is Required for Consumption of AP-3 Transport Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Angers, Cortney G.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptor protein complexes (APs) are evolutionarily conserved heterotetramers that couple cargo selection to the formation of highly curved membranes during vesicle budding. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AP-3 mediates vesicle traffic from the late Golgi to the vacuolar lysosome. The HOPS subunit Vps41 is one of the few proteins reported to have a specific role in AP-3 traffic, yet its function remains undefined. We now show that although the AP-3 ? subunit, Apl5, binds Vps41 directly, this interaction occurs preferentially within the context of the HOPS docking complex. Fluorescence microscopy indicates that Vps41 and other HOPS subunits do not detectably colocalize with AP-3 at the late Golgi or on post-Golgi (Sec7-negative) vesicles. Vps41 and HOPS do, however, transiently colocalize with AP-3 vesicles when these vesicles dock at the vacuole membrane. In cells with mutations in HOPS subunits or the vacuole SNARE Vam3, AP-3 shifts from the cytosol to a membrane fraction. Fluorescence microscopy suggests that this fraction consists of post-Golgi AP-3 vesicles that have failed to dock or fuse at the vacuole membrane. We propose that AP-3 remains associated with budded vesicles, interacts with Vps41 and HOPS upon vesicle docking at the vacuole, and finally dissociates during docking or fusion. PMID:19741093

  3. Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B.

    1997-06-01

    This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

  4. Cationicity-Enhanced Analogues of the Antimicrobial Peptides, AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, from the Venom of the Scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, Display Potent Growth Modulation Effects on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Ge, Lilin; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The non disulphide-bridged peptides (NDBPs) of scorpion venoms are attracting increased interest due to their structural heterogeneity and broad spectrum of biological activities. Here, two novel peptides, named AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, have been identified in the lyophilised venom of the Arabian scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, through “shotgun” molecular cloning of their biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs. The respective mature peptides, predicted from these cloned cDNAs, were subsequently isolated from the same venom sample using reverse phase HPLC and their identities were confirmed by use of mass spectrometric techniques. Both were found to belong to a family of highly-conserved scorpion venom antimicrobial peptides - a finding confirmed through the biological investigation of synthetic replicates. Analogues of both peptides designed for enhanced cationicity, displayed enhanced potency and spectra of antimicrobial activity but, unlike the native peptides, these also displayed potent growth modulation effects on a range of human cancer cell lines. Thus natural peptide templates from venom peptidomes can provide the basis for rational analogue design to improve both biological potency and spectrum of action. The diversity of such templates from such natural sources undoubtedly provides the pharmaceutical industry with unique lead compounds for drug discovery. PMID:25332684

  5. Cationicity-enhanced analogues of the antimicrobial peptides, AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, from the venom of the scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, display potent growth modulation effects on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Ge, Lilin; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The non disulphide-bridged peptides (NDBPs) of scorpion venoms are attracting increased interest due to their structural heterogeneity and broad spectrum of biological activities. Here, two novel peptides, named AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, have been identified in the lyophilised venom of the Arabian scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, through "shotgun" molecular cloning of their biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs. The respective mature peptides, predicted from these cloned cDNAs, were subsequently isolated from the same venom sample using reverse phase HPLC and their identities were confirmed by use of mass spectrometric techniques. Both were found to belong to a family of highly-conserved scorpion venom antimicrobial peptides - a finding confirmed through the biological investigation of synthetic replicates. Analogues of both peptides designed for enhanced cationicity, displayed enhanced potency and spectra of antimicrobial activity but, unlike the native peptides, these also displayed potent growth modulation effects on a range of human cancer cell lines. Thus natural peptide templates from venom peptidomes can provide the basis for rational analogue design to improve both biological potency and spectrum of action. The diversity of such templates from such natural sources undoubtedly provides the pharmaceutical industry with unique lead compounds for drug discovery. PMID:25332684

  6. TRANSPORT OF WASTE SIMULANTS IN PJM VENT LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Z

    2007-02-21

    The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.

  7. Earthquake Early Warning Systems for Transportation Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, F.; Titzschkau, T.; Hilbring, D.; Bonn, G.; Buchmann, A.; Hohnecker, E.

    2009-12-01

    We analyze the potential of earthquake early warning for railway systems. With the rapid availability of earthquake parameters emergency measures before the strong-motion phase can be initiated. A flexible standard-based architecture is specified in EWS Transport to ensure future reusability of the design. The principle of functionality has been realized in an online demonstrator (http://ews-transport.iitb.fraunhofer.de). The federal state of Baden-Württemberg (BW), located in the south-west of Germany, serves as test area because of the availability of GIS railway data, knowledge of the railway operational system and information on the local geology. Different earthquake and sensor network scenarios are considered for implementing a large number of low-cost sensors in or near railway tracks. Earthquake parameters are extracted from the sensor network via artificial neural net technology. Estimates of magnitude, hypocenter and peak ground acceleration (PGA) are computed as soon as one station is triggered and are continuously updated using the incoming information from all triggered and not yet triggered stations. Alert maps displaying estimated PGA values are provided rapidly during the ongoing earthquake. Closed and speed reduced track segments for which the estimated PGA exceeds thresholds above which train operation must be considered unsafe are displayed instantly. Immediately after an event, shake maps based on the PGA values determined from the actual seismograms of each station are available for damage projection based on a damage catalogue, which contains various infrastructure elements together with their seismically relevant attributes.The EWS Transport information system is designed according to the principles of an open architecture with standard-based interfaces of system components. These interfaces ensure the flexible and easy exchange of components. The architecture document is set-up according to the ISO “Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing”. The architecture takes into account the standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), especially those of the Sensor Web Enablement Group (Sensor Observation Service, Observation & Measurement Model). OGC standard services used in this workflow include Sensor Observation Service, Web Processing Service, Web Feature Service and Web Mapping Service. The results are visualized online in a Web mapping client where the different result layers (alert, hazard, shake, damage map) can be analyzed together with base layers (sensor stations, railway tracks, topography).

  8. Generalized emittance measurements in a beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Skelly, J.; Gardner, C.; Luccio, A.; Kponou, A.; Reece, K.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by the need to commission 3 beam transport lines for the new AGS Booster project, we have developed a generalized emittance-measurement program; beam line specifics are entirely resident in data tables, not in program code. For instrumentation, the program requires one or more multi-wire profile monitors; one or multiple profiles are acquired from each monitor, corresponding to one or multiple tunes of the transport line. Emittances and Twiss parameters are calculated using generalized algorithms. The required matix descriptions of the beam optics are constructed by an on-line general beam modeling program. Design of the program, its algorithms, and initial experience with it will be described. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The AP-3 adaptor complex mediates sorting of yeast and mammalian PQ-loop-family basic amino acid transporters to the vacuolar/lysosomal membrane

    PubMed Central

    Llinares, Elisa; Barry, Abdoulaye Oury; André, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The limiting membrane of lysosomes in animal cells and that of the vacuole in yeast include a wide variety of transporters, but little is known about how these proteins reach their destination membrane. The mammalian PQLC2 protein catalyzes efflux of basic amino acids from the lysosome, and the similar Ypq1, ?2, and ?3 proteins of yeast perform an equivalent function at the vacuole. We here show that the Ypq proteins are delivered to the vacuolar membrane via the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) trafficking pathway, which requires the AP-3 adaptor complex. When traffic via this pathway is deficient, the Ypq proteins pass through endosomes from where Ypq1 and Ypq2 properly reach the vacuolar membrane whereas Ypq3 is missorted to the vacuolar lumen via the multivesicular body pathway. When produced in yeast, PQLC2 also reaches the vacuolar membrane via the ALP pathway, but tends to sort to the vacuolar lumen if AP-3 is defective. Finally, in HeLa cells, inhibiting the synthesis of an AP-3 subunit also impairs sorting of PQLC2 to lysosomes. Our results suggest the existence of a conserved AP-3-dependent trafficking pathway for proper delivery of basic amino acid exporters to the yeast vacuole and to lysosomes of human cells. PMID:26577948

  10. Transporting hot oil by a new concept in insulated lines

    SciTech Connect

    Matteelli, R.; Brambilla, M.; Pierangeli, P.

    1986-07-01

    Heavy fuel oil, heated to 60/sup 0/C, is transported to the Porto Tolle power plant, near Ravenna, Italy, through an 8-mi, 22-in. insulated pipe line system. The authors tell how Snamprogetti's patented pipe insulation system was used to connect a man-made island in the Adriatic Sea to the power plant.

  11. Proposed Magnet Alignment Changes for AP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, James

    2001-02-02

    AP-1 was built to connect the Antiproton Source with the Main Ring accelerator. The beamline was designed to support modes of operation at both 8 GeV and 120 GeV kinetic energy. During the days of Main Ring operation, 120 GeV beam was extracted through the field region of a Lambertson at F-17 and transported approximately 174 meters to the production target. This 'pbar production' mode required a lattice that would focus the proton beam to a small spot size on the target to maximize antiproton yield. The AP-1 line would also be reconfigured to operate at 8 GeV to support antiproton transfers and tuning cycles with protons. The AP-1 line is also connected to the Accumulator via AP-3, so the lattices of these beamlines needed to be compatible. After the Main Injector was built to replace the Main Ring, a beamline was required to connect it with the Antiproton Source. Designers chose to combine beam transfers of 150 GeV protons to the Tevatron, 120 GeV protons to AP-1, 120 GeV protons to Switchyard and 8 GeV proton tune-up or antiproton transfers via AP-1 into the P1 and P2 lines. The P2 line resides in the Main Ring tunnel enclosure between F-0 and F-17 and utilizes original Main Ring magnets. The lattice was designed to duplicate the Twiss parameters of the old Main Ring at F-17, including the large horizontal beta and dispersion functions. The addition of the P1 and P2 lines add almost an additional 1,000 meters and an extra Lambertson magnet (at F0) to beam transfers to and from the Main Injector versus the Main Ring. Although Lambertson magnets are still used to extract beam from the Main Injector, the Lambertson at F-17 was no longer required. Unfortunately, the limited aperture C-magnets at F-17 remained, necessitated by the P3 line which is intended to provide beam to Switchyard for future 'Meson 120' operation. The C-magnets are one of the limiting horizontal apertures in the AP-1 line due to the combination of small physical aperture and the large horizontal beta and dispersion functions. Most of the AP-1 magnets were originally used in Switchyard. Apertures of these magnets are adequate for high energy operation, but have apertures that are smaller than magnets traditionally used in other 8 GeV transfer lines. This makes the AP-1 line unusually sensitive to alignment and steering errors. In addition, the lattice constraints imposed by the beamlines attached to AP-1 does not allow much freedom in suppressing the lattice functions at key locations to reduce the beam size.

  12. Transport mechanisms of the large neutral amino acid L-phenylalanine in the human intestinal epithelial caco-2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Berger, V; Larondelle, Y; Trouet, A; Schneider, Y J

    2000-11-01

    The transepithelial transport and the intracellular accumulation of the large neutral amino acid L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) were studied in monolayers of Caco-2 cells, cultivated in a bicameral insert system, to characterize the mechanisms involved in the absorption of this essential amino acid by the human intestinal mucosa. In our model, L-Phe was transported selectively in the apical (AP)-to-basolateral (BL) direction. AP-to-BL transport of L-Phe was temperature dependent and Na(+) independent, increased in the absence of protein synthesis and showed competition with large neutral and cationic amino acids. By contrast, transport in the BL-to-AP direction mainly resulted from passive movement (probably paracellular passage and transcellular diffusion). L-Phe accumulation into Caco-2 cells was higher from the BL pole than from the AP pole and characterized by the incorporation of most of the accumulated molecules into newly synthesized proteins. In addition, L-Phe accumulation was Na(+) dependent from both poles, whereas only accumulation from the AP pole was sensitive to inhibition by both large neutral and cationic amino acids. These results suggest that the processes involved in AP-to-BL transport and AP accumulation of this amino acid are very different from those involved in BL-to-AP transport and BL accumulation. PMID:11053521

  13. Gibberellin Concentration and Transport in Genetic Lines of Pea 1

    PubMed Central

    Proebsting, William M.; Hedden, Peter; Lewis, Mervyn J.; Croker, Stephen J.; Proebsting, Lena N.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of the Na and Le loci on gibberellin (GA) content and transport in pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoots were studied. GA1, GA8, GA17, GA19, GA20, GA29, GA44, GA8 catabolite, and GA29 catabolite were identified by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in extracts of expanding and fully expanded tissues of line C79-338 (Na Le). Quantification of GAs by gas chromatography-single-ion monitoring using deuterated internal standards in lines differing at the Na and Le alleles showed that na reduced the contents of GA19, GA20, and GA29 on average to <3% and of GA1 and GA8 to <30% of those in corresponding Na lines. In expanding tissues from Na le lines, GA1 and GA8 concentrations were reduced to approximately 10 and 2%, respectively, and GA29 content increased 2- to 3-fold compared with those in Na Le plants. There was a close correlation between stem length and the concentrations of GA1 or GA8 in shoot apices in all six genotypes investigated. In na/Na grafts, internode length and GA1 concentration of nana scions were normalized, the GA20 content increased slightly, but GA19 levels were unaffected. Movement of labeled GAs applied to leaves on Na rootstocks indicated that GA19 was transported poorly to apices of na scions compared with GA20 and GA1. Our evidence suggests that GA20 is the major transported GA in peas. Images Figure 2 PMID:16653128

  14. Establishment and characterization of cetuximab resistant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines: focus on the contribution of the AP-1 transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Boeckx, Carolien; Blockx, Lina; de Beeck, Ken Op; Limame, Ridha; Camp, Guy Van; Peeters, Marc; Vermorken, Jan B; Specenier, Pol; Wouters, An; Baay, Marc; Lardon, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Background: After an initial response to EGFR targeted therapy, secondary resistance almost invariably ensues, thereby limiting the clinical benefit of the drug. Hence, it has been recognized that the successful implementation of targeted therapy in the treatment of HNSCC cancer is very much dependent on predictive biomarkers for patient selection. Methods: We generated an in vitro model of acquired cetuximab resistance by chronically exposing three HNSCC cell lines to increasing cetuximab doses. Gene expression profiles of sensitive parental cells and resistant daughter cells were compared using microarray analysis. Growth inhibitory experiments were performed with an HB-EGF antibody and the MMP inhibitor, both in combination with cetuximab. Characteristics of EMT were analyzed using migration and invasion assays, immunofluorescent vimentin staining and qRT-PCR for several genes involved in this process. The function of the transcription factor AP-1 was investigated using qRT-PCR for several genes upregulated or downregulated in cetuximab resistant cells. Furthermore, anchorage-independent growth was investigated using the soft agar assay. Results: Gene expression profiling shows that cetuximab resistant cells upregulate several genes, including interleukin 8, the EGFR ligand HB-EGF and the metalloproteinase ADAM19. Cytotoxicity experiments with neutralizing HB-EGF antibody could not induce any growth inhibition, whereas an MMP inhibitor inhibited cell growth in cetuximab resistant cells. However, no synergetic effects combined with cetuximab could be observed. Cetuximab resistant cells showed traits of EMT, as witnessed by increased migratory potential, increased invasive potential, increased vimentine expression and increased expression of several genes involved in EMT. Furthermore, expression of upregulated genes could be repressed by the treatment with apigenin. The cetuximab resistant LICR-HN2 R10.3 cells tend to behave differently in cell culture, forming spheres. Therefore, soft agar assay was performed and showed more and larger colonies when challenged with cetuximab compared to PBS challenged cells. Conclusions: In summary, our results indicate that increased expression of the ligand HB-EGF could contribute to resistance towards cetuximab in our cetuximab resistant HNSCC cells. Furthermore, several genes upregulated or downregulated in cetuximab resistant cells are under control of the AP-1 transcription factor. However, more studies are warranted to further unravel the role of AP-1 in cetuximab resistance. PMID:26269754

  15. THE BROAD-LINED Type Ic SN 2012ap AND THE NATURE OF RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVAE LACKING A GAMMA-RAY BURST DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Sanders, N. E.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Pickering, T. E.; Kawabata, K.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Stritzinger, M. D.; and others

    2015-01-20

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from –13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of –17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ≈ 20,000 km s{sup –1} that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v ≳ 27,000 km s{sup –1}). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ∼2.7 M {sub ☉}, a kinetic energy of ∼1.0 × 10{sup 52} erg, and a {sup 56}Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M {sub ☉}. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] λλ6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z ≳ Z {sub ☉}, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B – V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  16. The Broad-lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-Ray Burst Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Sanders, N. E.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Pickering, T. E.; Kawabata, K.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Marion, G. H.; Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ≈ 20,000 km s-1 that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v >~ 27,000 km s-1). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ~2.7 M ⊙, a kinetic energy of ~1.0 × 1052 erg, and a 56Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M ⊙. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] λλ6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z >~ Z ⊙, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B - V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  17. Line-by-line transport calculations for Jupiter entry probes. [of radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.; Cooper, D. M.; Park, C.; Prakash, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations of the radiative transport for a condition near peak heating for entry of the Galileo probe into the Jovian atmosphere are described. The discussion includes a thorough specification of the atomic and molecular input data used in the calculations that could be useful to others working in the field. The results show that the use of spectrally averaged cross sections for diatomic absorbers such as CO and C2 in the boundary layer can lead to an underestimation (by as much as 29%) of the spectral flux at the stagnation point. On the other hand, for the turbulent region near the cone frustum on the probe, the flow tends to be optically thin, and the spectrally averaged results commonly used in coupled radiative transport-flow field calculations are in good agreement with the present line-by-line results. It is recommended that these results be taken into account in sizing the final thickness of the Galileo's heat shield.

  18. PIPELINES, TRANSMISSION LINES, AND MISCELLANEOUS TRANSPORTATION FEATURES DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of pipelines, transmission lines, and miscellaneous transportation features for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was p...

  19. Thyroid hormone transport in a human glioma cell line.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, E; Lakshmanan, M; Pontecorvi, A; Robbins, J

    1990-03-01

    The uptake of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) was studied in human glioma cells (Hs 683) and compared with that in several other neural cell lines. At 25 degrees C or 37 degrees C, total cell uptake rose rapidly and reached equilibrium within 60 min. The glioma cells had the highest uptake: 47.6 fmol of L-T3 and 43.4 fmol of L-T4 per 10(6) cells at 37 degrees C. These were inhibited 77% and 72%, respectively, by excess unlabeled hormone. Uptake in the nuclei reached equilibrium between 90 and 120 min and was also highest in glioma cells: 1.46 fmol of L-T3 and 0.49 fmol of L-T4 per 10(6) cells. When expressed as percent of total cell uptake, however, glioma cells had the lowest values (3.1% for L-T3 and 1.1% for L-T4). Also in contrast to other cell lines, glioma cells transported L-T4 almost as effectively as L-T3. D-T3 and D-T4 total cell uptake was 86% and 96% lower than that of the respective L-isomers, and the nuclear uptake as a fraction of the cell uptake was similar. Kinetic analysis of the initial rate of cell uptake gave Vmax values for D-T3 and D-T4 that were 97% and 98% lower than for the L-isomers. Antimycin and monodansylcadaverine decreased the Vmax as well as the equilibrium cell and nuclear uptake of the L-isomers. The apparent nuclear affinity constant for L-T4 in intact cells was inhibited 90% in the presence of antimycin, whereas no effect was observed in isolated nuclei.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2328825

  20. 77 FR 11192 - Fannin Rural Rail Transportation District-Lease and Operation Exemption-Line of Texas Department...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Fannin Rural Rail Transportation District--Lease and Operation Exemption--Line of Texas Department of Transportation Fannin Rural Rail Transportation District (FRRTD),...

  1. APS Science 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-30

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

  2. Targeting mitochondrial citrate transport in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ali Burak; Ak, Handan; Atay, Sevcan; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Lipogenesis is considered to be a very important aspect of cancer metabolism and targeting de novo lipid synthesis or related pathways are among novel approaches to treat cancer. Many targets of the pathway including ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase have been evaluated for their potential in cancer treatment. However the role of citrate transport protein (CTP), another important component of lipogenesis pathway, is not well known for cancer metabolism and cell survival. Here we report that while chemical inhibition of CTP reduces cytoplasmic citrate levels and limits breast cancer cell viability effectively, siRNA based inhibition had little effect on both. We also compared the effects of CTP inhibition with ACLY and found that the inhibition of ACLY reduced cytoplasmic citrate levels and limited cell viability more effectively than CTP inhibition. Finally we have demonstrated that neither cell cycle arrest nor autophagy was induced in cells treated with CTP or ACLY siRNA. Inhibitions triggered apoptosis but only slightly. Growth inhibitory effects do not occur in normal mammary epithelial MCF-10A cell line. PMID:25511512

  3. Aaptamines from the Marine Sponge Aaptos sp. Display Anticancer Activities in Human Cancer Cell Lines and Modulate AP-1-, NF-?B-, and p53-Dependent Transcriptional Activity in Mouse JB6 Cl41 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Sergey N.; Shubina, Larisa K.; Kuzmich, Alexandra S.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Keller-von Amsberg, Gunhild; Honecker, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Aaptamine (8,9-dimethoxy-1H-benzo[de][1,6]naphthyridine) is a marine natural compound possessing antioxidative, antimicrobial, antifungal, and antiretroviral activity. Earlier, we have found that aaptamine and its derivatives demonstrate equal anticancer effects against the human germ cell cancer cell lines NT2 and NT2-R and cause some changes in the proteome of these cells. In order to explore further the mechanism of action of aaptamine and its derivatives, we studied the effects of aaptamine (1), demethyl(oxy)aaptamine (2), and isoaaptamine (3) on human cancer cell lines and on AP-1-, NF-?B-, and p53-dependent transcriptional activity in murine JB6 Cl41 cells. We showed that compounds 1–3 demonstrate anticancer activity in THP-1, HeLa, SNU-C4, SK-MEL-28, and MDA-MB-231 human cancer cell lines. Additionally, all compounds were found to prevent EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of murine JB6 Cl41 cells. Nuclear factors AP-1, NF-?B, and p53 are involved in the cellular response to high and nontoxic concentrations of aaptamine alkaloids 1–3. Furthermore, inhibition of EGF-induced JB6 cell transformation, which is exerted by the compounds 1–3 at low nontoxic concentrations of 0.7–2.1??M, cannot be explained by activation of AP-1 and NF-?B. PMID:25215281

  4. Game transport protocol: lightweight reliable transport protocol for massive interactive on-line game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pack, Sangheon; Hong, Eunsil; Choi, Yanghee; Park, llkyu; Kim, Jong-Sung; Ko, D.

    2002-12-01

    With the advent of high-speed access network technologies such as ADSL, increasing numbers of Internet users are participating in various interactive multimedia applications. Among these, the most popular are the massively interactive on-line games, or MMPOGs. In MMPOGs, a large amount of event data is associated with various control objects. This event data has different characteristics from that which is generally used on the Internet. Namely, events occur very frequently with short inter-arrival times and their size is quite small, because they only contain control information. Most commercial MMPOGs use TCP or UDP as the transport protocol for the event data. However, since TCP is such a heavy protocol, due to its complex congestion control algorithm and byte-oriented window scheme, it is difficult to support many concurrent users. On the other hand, UDP is a relatively lightweight protocol, but there are no functions available which permit reliable transmission and session management. In this paper, we propose a new transport protocol, Game Transport Protocol (GTP), which is designed for the transmission of the event data used by MMPOGs. GTP supports several functions designed to meet the various requirements of MMPOGs. Firstly, GTP uses a packet-based window scheme not a byte-based window scheme as in the case of TCP. This scheme is quite simple and suitable for the small size of the event data. Also, GTP performs session management and retransmission using GTP control blocks, and supports an adaptive retransmission scheme that controls the maximum number of retransmissions according to the real-time priority, in order to meet the time constraints of the event data. Although GTP is a specialized transport protocol, optimized for MMPOGs, it could also be utilized as a transport protocol for other interactive multimedia applications.

  5. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY... regulations related to air transportation. The Enforcement Office, including its Aviation Consumer Protection... civil rights of air travelers, and to ensure safe and adequate service in air transportation. Filing...

  6. Effects of Escherichia coli Challenge and Transport Stress on Hematology and Serum Chemistry Values of Three Genetic Lines of Turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Males and females from 3 genetic lines of turkeys were compared for their response to an Escherichia coli airsac challenge followed by transport stress (Transport). The turkey lines were a slow growing line selected for increased egg production (Egg line), a fast growing line selected for increased...

  7. Transport line for beam generated by ITEP Bernas ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, S. V.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Pershin, V. I.; Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Poole, H. J.

    2006-03-01

    A joint research and development program is underway to investigate beam transport systems for intense steady-state ion sources for ion implanters. Two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV are investigated using a modified Bernas ion source with an indirectly heated cathode. Results are presented for simulations of electrostatic systems performed to investigate the transportation of ion beams over a wide mass range: boron to decaborane.

  8. Transport line for beam generated by ITEP Bernas ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Petrenko, S.V.; Kropachev, G.N.; Kuibeda, R.P.; Kulevoy, T.V.; Pershin, V.I.; Masunov, E.S.; Polozov, S.M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B.M.; Poole, H.J.

    2006-03-15

    A joint research and development program is underway to investigate beam transport systems for intense steady-state ion sources for ion implanters. Two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV are investigated using a modified Bernas ion source with an indirectly heated cathode. Results are presented for simulations of electrostatic systems performed to investigate the transportation of ion beams over a wide mass range: boron to decaborane.

  9. Studies of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam in a solenoid based beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

    2012-11-15

    A self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to study the transport properties of a space-charge-dominated multispecies beam propagating through a solenoid-based low energy beam transport line. The evolution of the beam radius and emittance growth of each species arising due to the nonlinear space-charge forces has been investigated. The self-consistent PIC simulation shows the formation of hollow density profiles of subdominant unwanted species around the primary beam, downstream of the transport line. We have utilized this effect for efficient removal of unwanted species by making use of a slit at a suitable location in the beam line.

  10. Operation of the APS rf gun.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1998-09-11

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has a thermionic-cathode rf gun system capable of providing beam to the APS linac. The gun system consists of a 1.6-cell thermionic-cathode rf gun, a fast kicker for beam current control, and an alpha magnet for bunch compression and injection into the APS linac line. This system is intended for use both as an injector for positron creation, and as a first beam source for the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) project [1]. The first measured performance characteristics of the gun are presented.

  11. 8 CFR 233.2 - Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LINES § 233.2 Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous territory or adjacent islands. Form I-420 shall be signed in duplicate and forwarded to the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transportation lines bringing aliens to...

  12. 8 CFR 233.2 - Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LINES § 233.2 Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous territory or adjacent islands. Form I-420 shall be signed in duplicate and forwarded to the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation lines bringing aliens to...

  13. 8 CFR 233.2 - Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LINES § 233.2 Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous territory or adjacent islands. Form I-420 shall be signed in duplicate and forwarded to the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation lines bringing aliens to...

  14. 8 CFR 233.2 - Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LINES § 233.2 Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous territory or adjacent islands. Form I-420 shall be signed in duplicate and forwarded to the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation lines bringing aliens to...

  15. An automated system for measuring the mass flowrate of powders in transport lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Howard; Morgan, Morris B., III; Prapas, Demetrios K.; Rubel, Glen O.

    1990-08-01

    A new automated particle transport (APT) system has been developed for studying the dissemination of bulk powders into deagglomerated aerosols. It consists of a 1.12-inch ID transport line with a spout-fluidized bed feeder. The particles are transported from an aerated annulus into the transport line and collected in a closed can or bag filter. Two separate feed lines supply the air necessary to operate the transport line and aerate the particles in order that they flow smoothly into the transport line. An IBM PC AT computer clone equipped with a data translation DT 2806 multifunction input-output board and A to D and D to A modules (DTX 311 and 328) is used for both control and data acquisition. A fluid mechanical model of the flow has been developed and the APT system will be used to verify it. Experiments will be conducted to measure the choking velocity, drag coefficient, fluid and particle flowrates, and pressure distribution in the line.

  16. Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheng-wu; Qi, Rui; Li, Xiao-fang; Liu, Zhi-xiong

    2014-10-25

    Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum. PMID:25149019

  17. The Mechanical Design for the DARHT-II Downstream Beam Transport Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westenskow, Glen

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-msec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The down-stream beam transport line is approximately 20-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 15 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several speciality magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and to the beam dumps. There are two high power beam dumps, which are designed to absorb 80-kJ per pulse during accelerator start-up and operation. Aspects of the mechanical design of these elements are presented.

  18. Spin- and valley-polarized transport across line defects in monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkin, Artem; Yazyev, Oleg V.

    2016-01-01

    We address the ballistic transmission of charge carriers across ordered line defects in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides. Our study reveals the presence of a transport gap driven by spin-orbit interactions, spin and valley filtering, both stemming from a simple picture of spin and momentum conservation, as well as the electron-hole asymmetry of charge-carrier transmission. Electronic transport properties of experimentally observed ordered line defects in monolayer MoS2, in particular, the vacancy lines and inversion domain boundaries, are further investigated using first-principles Green's function methodology. Our calculations demonstrate the possibility of achieving nearly complete spin polarization of charge carriers in nanoelectronic devices based on engineered periodic line defects in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, thus suggesting a practical scheme for all-electric control of spin transport.

  19. Numerical simulation of the 48Ca5+ ions transport along the U-400 cyclotron's injection line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. S.; Gulbekian, G. G.; Kazarinov, N. Yu.; Shevtsov, V. F.; Tikhomirov, A. V.

    2001-12-01

    The numerical simulation of the 48Ca5+ ions beam transport along the U-400 cyclotron's injection line has been carried out. Space charge effects of multi-charged ions spectrum extracted from ECR-source and the longitudinal beam compression influence of two bunchers (sine and line types) on the transverse beam dynamics have been taken into consideration in the process of the beam transport optimization. The simulation results are compared for two injection line schemes: of presently utilized line and its reconstructed variant. The injection line reconstruction does not require any new ion-optic elements. It assumes the exception of the 102° horizontal bending magnet from the present injection line. Eventually this reconstruction will give meaningful transport line shortening. According to produced simulation the expected transmission efficiency from the ECR-source to the cyclotron's spiral inflector entrance along the reconstructed injection line will be essentially increased, as well as appreciably more 48Ca5+ beam intensity level will be provided.

  20. Opening AP to All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a school's effort to open Advanced Placement (AP) to all by challenging its students to take the leap into AP courses. Samuel W. Wolfson High School, on the south side of Jacksonville, Florida, is one of 27 schools in five cities across the country that chose to participate in a College Board initiative called EXCELerator.…

  1. 76 FR 37191 - Texas Department of Transportation-Acquisition Exemption-Line of Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board Texas Department of Transportation--Acquisition Exemption--Line of Union... Company (UP) 1.28 miles of rail line on UP's Bonham Subdivision between mileposts 127.5 and 128.78, in...\\ \\2\\ TxDOT was authorized to acquire UP's interest in a connecting rail line between mileposts...

  2. Generic effluent monitoring system certification for AP-40 exhauster stack

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Davis, W.E.; Bussell, J.H.; Maughan, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as applied to the AP-40 exhauster stack, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/AP-40 system meets all applicable performance criteria. The contaminant mixing tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at the wind tunnel facility, 331-H Building, using a mockup of the actual stack. The particle sample transport tests were conducted by PNNL at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The AP-40 stack is typical of several 10-in. diameter stacks that discharge the filtered ventilation air from tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles. Unrelated to the performance criteria, it was found that the record sample filter holder exhibited symptoms of sample bypass around the particle collection filter. This filter holder should either be modified or replaced with a different type. 10 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. THE BOOSTER APPLICATION FACILITY (BAF) BEAM TRANSPORT LINE OF BNL-AGS BOOSTER.

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS,N.; BROWN,K.A.; CULLEN,J.R.; LEE,Y.Y.; MCNERNEY,A.J.; PILE,P.H.; ROSER,T.; SOUKAS,A.; TUOZZOLO,J.E.

    1999-03-29

    An experimental facility, to irradiate materials with energetic ion beams, has been proposed to be built at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The BAF facility will mainly consist of the AGS-Booster slow extraction, of a beam transport line, and a target room. The beam transport line will transport the slow extracted beam of the AGS-Booster to the target location for the irradiation of various materials and specimens. A variety of ion beams like (p, {sup 28}Si, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 197}Au) in the energy range of 0.04 to 3.07 GeV/nucleon will be transported by the BAF line which is designed to provide variable beam spot sizes on the BAF target with sizes varying from 2.0 cm to 20.0 cm in diameter. The beam spot sizes will include 95% of the beam intensity with the beam distributed normally (Gaussian) on the target area. It is also possible by introducing magnetic octupoles at specified locations along the beam transport line, to modify the distribution on the BAF target and provide well confined beams with rectangular cross section and with uniform distribution on the target.

  4. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II¹

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M. A.

    2011-10-06

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. With Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  5. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II¹

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M. A.

    2011-10-06

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. With Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  6. Sintering boat transport system for the SAF line. [Secure Automated Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Egli, W.; Bogart, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line will be a remotely operated process for the manufacture of breeder reactor fuel pins. The sintering boat transport system will service the pellet operations. Since the Boat Transport System will be the major link between several subsystem operations, reliability and ease of maintenance are prime requirements for the design. A prototypic version of the Boat Transport System was designed, built and tested to verify the operability of the selected approach. Extensive testing provided valuable input to the final design and substantiated the soundness of the concept.

  7. Characterization of the in vitro retrograde transport of MPR46.

    PubMed

    Medigeshi, Guruprasad Ramarao; Schu, Peter

    2003-11-01

    The mannose 6-phosphate receptor MPR46 mediates sorting of lysosomal enzymes and recycles between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. We characterized the retrograde transport of MPR46 from endosomes to the TGN by an in vitro transport assay using mouse fibroblast cell lines. Sulfation of a modified MPR46 upon entering the TGN is measured. The in vitro retrograde transport is time-, temperature-, ATP- and cytosol-dependent. Transport requires the SNARE proteins Vti1a and Syntaxin 16 and the Rab family member Rab6. The transport is sensitive to GTP gamma S, brefeldin A and independent of TIP47. These data indicate that MPR46 follows an early endosome-to-TGN route. Transport is inhibited by MPR46 tail peptide comprising the acidic cluster-di-leucine sorting motif to which adaptor proteins AP-1 and AP-3 bind. Transport depends on cytosolic AP-3, but not on cytosolic AP-1. Residual membrane-associated AP-1 may have masked a requirement for cytosolic AP-1. The competence of membranes from AP-1-deficient cells for endosome-to-TGN transport in vitro was severely compromised. PMID:14617361

  8. APS Science 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

    2007-05-24

    In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged from work at the APS, to complement the tremendous output of work in basic science, which often has payoff in technology but over decades rather than years. Highlights in this report also reflect the relevance of APS work to Department of Energy missions, for example a route to more efficient fuel cells (page xx mr-88-073113) addresses the energy challenge, and natural approaches to cleaning up the environment.

  9. AP-2? inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth and migration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenhuan; Chen, Cheng; Liang, Zhongheng; Qiu, Junlu; Li, Xinxin; Hu, Xiang; Xiang, Shuanglin; Ding, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Transcription factor AP-2? is involved in many types of human cancers, but its role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis is largely unknown. In this study, we found that expression of AP-2? was low in 40% of human hepatocellular cancers compared with adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. Moreover, AP-2? expression was low or absent in hepatocellular cancer cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, SMMC-7721 and MHHC 97-H). Human liver cancer cell lines SMMC-7721 and Hep3B stably overexpressing AP-2? were established by lentiviral infection and puromycin screening, and the ectopic expression of AP-2? was able to inhibit hepatocellular cancer cell growth and proliferation by cell viability, MTT assay and liquid colony formation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, AP-2? overexpression decreased liver cancer cell migration and invasion as assessed by wound healing and Transwell assays, increasing the sensitivity of liver cancer cells to cisplatin analyzed by MTT assays. Also AP-2? overexpression suppressed the sphere formation and renewed the ability of cancer stem cells. Finally, we found that AP-2? is epigenetically modified and modulates the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), ?-catenin, p53, EMT, and CD133 expression in liver cancer cell lines. These results suggested that AP-2? expression is low in human hepatocellular cancers by regulating multiple signaling to affect hepatocellular cancer cell growth and migration. Therefore, AP-2? might represent a novel potential target in human hepatocellular cancer therapy. PMID:26780928

  10. THE ONSITE ON-LINE CALCULATORS AND TRAINING FOR SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators called "OnSite" for assessing transport of environmental contaminants in the subsurface. The purpose of these calculators is to provide methods and data for common calculations used in assessing impacts from subsurface contaminatio...

  11. RISK ASSESSMENT ANALYSES USING EPA'S ON-LINE SITE-SPECIFIC TRANSPORT MODELS AND FIELD DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators and transport models to aid in risk assessment for subsurface contamination. The calculators (www.epa.gov/athens/onsite) provide several levels of tools and data. These include tools for generating commonly-used model input param...

  12. 8 CFR 241.9 - Notice to transportation line of alien's removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice to transportation line of alien's removal. 241.9 Section 241.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  13. 8 CFR 241.24 - Notice to transportation line of alien's exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice to transportation line of alien's exclusion. 241.24 Section 241.24 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for...

  14. Differential sensitivities to lactate transport inhibitors of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Morais-Santos, Filipa; Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Pinheiro, Sílvia; Vieira, André F; Paredes, Joana; Schmitt, Fernando C; Baltazar, Fátima; Pinheiro, Céline

    2014-02-01

    The tumour microenvironment is known to be acidic due to high glycolytic rates of tumour cells. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) play a role in extracellular acidification, which is widely known to be involved in tumour progression. Recently, we have described the upregulation of MCT1 in breast carcinomas and its association with poor prognostic variables. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of lactate transport inhibition in human breast cancer cell lines. The effects of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, quercetin and lonidamine on cell viability, metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were assessed in a panel of different breast cancer cell lines. MCT1, MCT4 and CD147 were differently expressed among the breast cancer cell lines and, as expected, different sensitivities were observed for the three inhibitors. Interestingly, in the most sensitive cell lines, lactate transport inhibition induced a decrease in cell proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as an increase in cell death. Results were validated by silencing MCT1 expression using siRNA. The results obtained here support targeting of lactate transport as a strategy to treat breast cancer, with a special emphasis on the basal-like subtype, which so far does not have a specific molecular therapy. PMID:24174370

  15. Focused transport of energetic particles along magnetic field lines draped around a coronal mass ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Lee, M. A.; Klecker, B.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Evidence is presented for focused transport of energetic particles along magnetic field lines draped around a coronal mass ejection. This evidence was obtained with the University of Maryland/Max-Planck-Institute experiment on the ISEE-3 spacecraft during the decay phase of the June 6, 1979, solar particle event. During the early portion of the decay phase of this event, interplanetary magnetic field lines were apparently draped around a coronal mass ejection, leading to a small focusing length on the western flank where ISEE 3 was located. A period of very slow decrease of particle intensity was observed, along with large sunward anisotropy in the solar wind frame, which is inconsistent with predictions of the standard Fokker-Planck equation models for diffusive transport. It was found possible to fit the observations, assuming that focused transport dominates and that the particle pitch angle scattering is isotropic.

  16. Transport and dosimetric solutions for the ELIMED laser-driven beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amato, A.; Candiano, G.; Cuttone, G.; Giove, D.; Korn, G.; Krasa, J.; Leanza, R.; Manna, R.; Maggiore, M.; Marchese, V.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Sabini, M. G.; Schillaci, F.; Tramontana, A.; Valastro, L.; Velyhan, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within 2017, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) transport beam-line and dosimetric systems for laser-generated beams will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), inside the ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser-Ion Acceleration) interaction room. The beam-line will be composed of two sections: one in vacuum, devoted to the collecting, focusing and energy selection of the primary beam and the second in air, where the ELIMED beam-line dosimetric devices will be located. This paper briefly describes the transport solutions that will be adopted together with the main dosimetric approaches. In particular, the description of an innovative Faraday Cup detector with its preliminary experimental tests will be reported.

  17. Sherwood/APS 2006 Conference

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Drake

    2009-07-28

    The International Sherwood Theory Meeting is a yearly meeting that focuses on the theory of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. There are many topics of common interest in fusion plasma systems and space and astrophysical plasmas. These common topics include such key topics as magnetic reconnection, the dynamo, turbulence and transport and particle heating and acceleration. One of the major participants of the April APS meeting is the APS Division of Astrophysics (DAP). The goal of having the Sherwood Meeting jointly with the April meeting was to promote discussion of topics of common interest in fusion and space and astrophysics. Scientists from the DAP, the Division of Plasma Physics (DPP), the Topical Group on Plasma Astrophysics (GPAP) and Sherwood worked together closely to produce a joint program that addressed areas of common interest. Four sessions of invited talks were sponsored jointly by the DAP, DPP and GPAP on laboratory experiments related to astrophysics. Plasma scientists working in theory and computation play a key role in connecting these laboratory experiments to the very disparate conditions found in fusion and astrophysical systems. Thus, the attendees of the Sherwood Theory meeting were critical to facilitating this effort at cross-disciplinary communication. Noteworthy were the selection of two of the prestigious plenary talks at the joint meeting on plasma topics - one related to the gyrokinetic modeling of turbulence and the other related to the structure of collisionless shocks. It is rare to see even a single plenary talk on plasma physics at the APS April Meeting. There were additional costs associated with hosting a joint meeting. The Office of Fusion Energy Sciences contributed $3000 in partial support of this meeting. This funding covered part of the costs of the poster boards and A. V. equipment that was used in the presentation of nearly 200 scientific papers related to magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The APS waived its indirect costs on this funding as part of their effort to support this joint meeting.

  18. The experimental chemotherapeutic N6-furfuryladenosine (kinetin-riboside) induces rapid ATP depletion, genotoxic stress, and CDKN1A(p21) upregulation in human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Christopher M; Bair, Warner B; Ley, Stephanie; Lamore, Sarah D; Azimian, Sara; Wondrak, Georg T

    2009-04-01

    Cytokinins and cytokinin nucleosides are purine derivatives with potential anticancer activity. N(6)-furfuryladenosine (FAdo, kinetin-riboside) displays anti-proliferative and apoptogenic activity against various human cancer cell lines, and FAdo has recently been shown to suppress tumor growth in murine xenograft models of human leukemia and melanoma. In this study, FAdo-induced genotoxicity, stress response gene expression, and cellular ATP depletion were examined as early molecular consequences of FAdo exposure in MiaPaCa-2 pancreas carcinoma, A375 melanoma, and other human cancer cell lines. FAdo, but not adenosine or N(6)-furfuryladenine (FA), displayed potent anti-proliferative activity that was also observed in human primary fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Remarkably, massive ATP depletion and induction of genotoxic stress as assessed by the alkaline comet assay occurred within 60-180min of exposure to low micromolar concentrations of FAdo. This was followed by rapid upregulation of CDKN1A and other DNA damage/stress response genes (HMOX1, DDIT3, and GADD45A) as revealed by expression array and Western analysis. Pharmacological and siRNA-based genetic inhibition of adenosine kinase (ADK) suppressed FAdo cytotoxicity and also prevented ATP depletion and p21 upregulation suggesting the importance of bioconversion of FAdo into the nucleotide form required for drug action. Taken together our data suggest that early induction of genotoxicity and energy crisis are important causative factors involved in FAdo cytotoxicity. PMID:19186174

  19. APS Science 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

    2010-05-01

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report), the challenge of sustainable energy provides an opportunity for expanded involvement with industrial research. We were privileged to recruit several outstanding new leaders at the APS. Linda Young, from Argonne's Chemical Sciences Division, became the new Director of the X-ray Science Division (XSD). Chris Jacobsen (from Stony Brook University) has been added to Linda's team as an XSD Associate Division Director, joining George Srajer. Alexander (Sasha) Zholents (formerly of Berkeley Lab) became Director of the Accelerator Systems Division. Sasha is the inventor of the short-pulse x-ray scheme that we plan to implement in the APS-U to obtain very high average brightness, broadband, 1-ps x-ray pulses. Walter Lowe (formerly of Howard University) has taken a new position as senior advisor for outreach and development of the user community. Walter's role is to increase the diversity of the user community (with diversity read broadly to include users, institutions, and technical disciplines that are underrepresented at APS). Walter is also leading an effort to increase access for industrial users. I am confident that we have in place a great team to help our users and the APS take fullest advantage of the APS-U opportunity. In planning with users for the proposed APS-U, we focused on the need to study 'real materials under real conditions in real time' on spatial and temporal scales unavailable today. Only by studying materials as they are made-or as they perform-in difficult environments can we solve the grand challenge of higher-performance, sustainable materials for energy and health. The proposed APS-U will improve the brightness of penetrating x-rays produced by the APS over 100 times, and support our efforts in developing state-of-the-art instruments to address these challenges.

  20. Transport characteristics of zolmitriptan in a human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lushan; Zeng, Su

    2007-05-01

    The intestinal absorption characteristics and the efflux mechanisms of zolmitriptan, a new generation and highly selective 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist used in the acute oral treatment of migraine, were investigated. A human intestinal cell line, Caco-2, was used as an in-vitro model of the intestinal mucosa to assess transepithelial transport of zolmitriptan. In the Caco-2 cells, the absorptive transport of zolmitriptan was pH dependent and the transport was enhanced at weakly alkali pH on the apical side. No concentration dependence and saturation were observed for the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical transport of zolmitriptan at a concentration of 0.1-10 mM. The permeability ratio value was about 1.5-2.6 at a concentration of 0.1-2.0 mM. Inhibition experiments using verapamil, nifedipine and nimodipine as inhibitors were studied and indicated that P-glycoprotein participated in the transport of zolmitriptan. Inhibition of the Na+-H+ exchanger with amiloride resulted in a significant increase in absorption and a slight inhibition in secretion. This suggests that the Na+-H+ exchanger may be involved in the transport of zolmitriptan. The results indicated that the transport of zolmitriptan was mediated by both passive diffusion and active transport. A series of drug-drug interaction experiments were carried out between zolmitriptan and some drugs that may be co-administrated with zolmitriptan in the clinic. The results indicated that flunarizine, cetirizine, propranolol and atenolol potently decreased both the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical transport rate of zolmitriptan. Cimetidine and aspirin slightly inhibited the apical-to-basolateral transport of zolmitriptan, but significantly decreased the basolateral-to-apical transport of zolmitriptan. Thus, the absorption drug-drug interactions should be considered when these drugs are co-administrated with zolmitriptan in the clinic. PMID:17524230

  1. Linings with optimum heat-emission surfaces for cars receiving and transporting incandescent coke

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlyar, B.D.; Pleshkov, P.I.; Gadyatskii, V.G.

    1992-12-31

    The least reliable components of the cars which receive and transport incandescent coke are the lining plates. This applies to both the quenching cars used for wet quenching and the hot-coke cars used in the dry cooling process. Technical advances have been described whereby the life of car linings is prolonged by increasing heat emission from the lining plate surfaces. As the heat emission level is enhanced the mean plate temperature is lowered and the lining life thereby prolonged; moreover, the between-servicings period is prolonged. This involves providing fins on the non-working (outer) plate surfaces. The problem of optimizing the size and shape of the fins with reference to heat emission remains unsolved: the requirement is maximum heat emission from plates of a given weight, or conversely minimum plate weight for a given heat emission level. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Experience with the NEG (nonevaporable getter) strips at the Brookhaven heavy ion transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H.C.; Benjamin, J.; Stattel, P.; Feigenbaum, I.; Manni, M.

    1988-01-01

    The AGS and the Tandem Van de Graaff, two valuable physics assets, are now jointed together by a transport line of 700 m in length. This line allows heavy ions from the Tandem, up to a fully striped silicon (M = 28) to be injected into the AGS and accelerated to energies of approximately 15 GeVamu. New areas of physics research at very high nuclear densities can now be studied using some of the extensive experimental facilities already existing at the AGS. With the addition of a booster synchrotron between the Tandem and the AGS, all heavier ions up to gold can also be accelerated. To minimize the beam loss due to charge exchange between the partially stripped heaviest ions (i.e. Au + 33 at 1 MeVamu) and the residual gas molecules, a vacuum of 10 /sup /minus/8/ Torr is required for this transport line. To achieve this vacuum, we have opted to use the combination of small ion pumps (20 1s diode type) and simple geometry was implemented which offers low cost (<$200m), easy installation and maintenance. Pressures of 10 /sup /minus/10/ and low 10 /sup /minus/9/ Torr have been maintained over the last two years following the initial activation. This paper describes the NEG strip system, and the experience obtained during the installation and the operation of this 700m heavy ion transport line (HITL).

  3. Selective transport between heterogeneous hyphal compartments via the plasma membrane lining septal walls of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Bleichrodt, Robert-Jan; Vinck, Arman; Read, Nick D; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-09-01

    Hyphae of ascomycetes are compartmentalized by septa. The central pore in these septa allows for cytoplasmic streaming. However, many of these pores are closed by Woronin bodies in Aspergillus, which prevents cytoplasmic mixing and thus maintains hyphal heterogeneity. Here, glucose uptake and transport was studied in Aspergillus niger. Glucose uptake was higher in the hyphal population with high transcriptional activity when compared to the population with low transcriptional activity. Glucose was transported from the colony center to the periphery, but not vice versa. This unidirectional flow was similar in the wild-type and the ?hexA strain that does not form Woronin bodies. This indicated that septal plugging by Woronin bodies does not impact long distance glucose transport. Indeed, the glucose analogue 2-NBDG (2-(N-[7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl]amino)-2-deoxyglucose) translocated to neighboring hyphal compartments despite Woronin body mediated plugging of the septum that separated these compartments. Notably, 2-NBDG accumulated in septal cross walls, indicating that intercompartmental glucose transport is mediated by transporters that reside in the plasma membrane lining the septal cross-wall. The presence of such transporters would thus enable selective transport between heterogeneous compartments. PMID:26212073

  4. Tuning spin polarization and spin transport of zigzag graphene nanoribbons by line defects.

    PubMed

    Tang, G P; Zhang, Z H; Deng, X Q; Fan, Z Q; Zhu, H L

    2015-01-01

    From first-principles methods, the spin-dependent electronic properties of zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) with a line defect (558-defect) are investigated systematically and compared to those of the pristine ZGNR. Results show that the line defect possesses an obvious tuning effect on the spin-polarization of the edge carbon atoms of the defective ZGNRs, and the spin-polarization and spin-transport are sensitive to the position of line defects. The defective ZGNRs can realize a transition from antiferromagnetism (AFM) to ferrimagnetism and ferromagnetism (FM) via changing the position of line defects from the center to the zigzag edge of ZGNRs. More importantly, when the line defect is located at the one edge, the defective ZGNRs exhibit the long-range magnetic ordering at edges with a high Curie temperature up to 276 K, and the defective ZGNR system can generate a high-performance spin-filter effect in the large bias range, 0.0-0.5 V. Such a sensitive modulation for the spin-polarization and spin-transport holds great promise for applications of the graphene-based systems in nano-scale spintronic devices. PMID:25407715

  5. Transport mechanisms for vitamin C in the JAR human placental choriocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Prasad, P D; Huang, W; Wang, H; Leibach, F H; Ganapathy, V

    1998-02-01

    We investigated the transport pathways available for the uptake of vitamin C in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line, JAR. These cells were found to possess the capacity to accumulate the vitamin when presented either in the oxidized form (dehydroascorbic acid) or in the reduced form (ascorbate). Dithiothreitol and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) were used to maintain vitamin C as ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid, respectively. The uptake of these two forms of vitamin C in JAR cells was found to occur by different mechanisms. The uptake of the dehydroascorbic acid was Na(+)-independent and was mediated by facilitative glucose transporters as evidenced from the inhibition of the uptake process by glucose. On the other hand, the uptake of ascorbate was Na(+)-dependent and was not sensitive to inhibition by glucose. Substitution of Na+ with other monovalent cations abolished the uptake of ascorbate completely. The uptake process was, however, not influenced by anions. Kinetic analysis indicated the presence of a single saturable transport system for ascorbate with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 22 +/- 1 microM. The dependence of the uptake rare of ascorbate on Na+ concentration exhibited sigmoidal kinetics, suggesting interaction of more than one Na+ ion with the transporter. The Hill coefficient for the Na+ interaction was 2, indicating that the Na(+)-dependent ascorbate transport is electrogenic. The Na(+)-dependent stimulation of ascorbate uptake was primarily due to an increase in the affinity of the transporter for ascorbate in the presence of Na+. It is concluded that the JAR placental trophoblast cell line expresses two different transport systems for vitamin C: one for the reduced form of the vitamin ascorbate; and the other for the oxidized form of the vitamin dehydroascorbic acid. PMID:9528682

  6. Transport line for a multi-staged laser-plasma acceleration: DACTOMUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chancé, Antoine; Delferrière, Olivier; Schwindling, Jérôme; Bruni, Christelle; Delerue, Nicolas; Specka, Arnd; Cros, Brgitte; Maynard, Gillies; Paradkar, Bhooshan S.; Mora, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Laser-plasma acceleration is one of the most promising techniques to reach very high acceleration gradients up to a few hundreds of GeV/m. In order to push this acceleration scheme in the domain of the very high energies, the CILEX project was launched with the laser APOLLON. One of the main topics of this project is to study multi-staged acceleration. It consists in generating and pre-accelerating electrons in a first laser-plasma stage, to transport them up to a second stage where the electrons are accelerated again thanks to another laser pulse. The DACTOMUS project, based on a collaboration CEA-IRFU, CEA-IRAMIS, LAL, LPGP, LULI and LLR, aims at the study and realization of such a transfer line between these two stages. Firstly, a prototype will be developed and tested by the groups of CEA-IRAMIS-SPAM, LPGP, and LULI on the UHI100 facility (CEA-SPAM). This collaboration must enable to realize the first acceleration stage. For the transport line prototype, the main difficulties are to realize a very compact and energy accepting line with diagnostics to characterize the electron beam. We will present here the optics of this line, its performances and the inserted diagnostics.

  7. Fluorescence-Based Transport Assays Revisited in a Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Caetano-Pinto, Pedro; Janssen, Manoe J; Gijzen, Linda; Verscheijden, Laurens; Wilmer, Martijn J G; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2016-03-01

    Apical transport is key in renal function, and the activity of efflux transporters and receptor-mediated endocytosis is pivotal in this process. The conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line (ciPTEC) endogenously expresses these systems. Here, we used ciPTEC to investigate the activity of three major efflux transporters, viz., breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as well as protein uptake through receptor-mediated endocytosis, using a fluorescence-based setup for transport assays. To this end, cells were exposed to Hoechst33342, chloromethylfluorescein-diacetate (CMFDA), and calcein-AM in the presence or absence of model inhibitors for BCRP (KO143), P-gp (PSC833), or MRPs (MK571). Overexpression cell lines MDCKII-BCRP and MDCKII-P-gp were used as positive controls, and membrane vesicles overexpressing one transporter were used to determine substrate and inhibitor specificities. Receptor-mediated endocytosis was investigated by determining the intracellular accumulation of fluorescently labeled receptor-associated protein (RAP-GST). In ciPTEC, BCRP and P-gp showed similar expressions and activities, whereas MRP4 was more abundantly expressed. Hoechst33342, GS-MF, and calcein are retained in the presence of KO143, MK571, and PSC833, showing clearly redundancy between the transporters. Noteworthy is the fact that both KO143 and MK571 can block BCRP, P-gp, and MRPs, whereas PSC833 appears to be a potent inhibitor for BCRP and P-gp but not the MRPs. Furthermore, ciPTEC accumulates RAP-GST in intracellular vesicles in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was reduced in megalin-deficient cells. In conclusion, fluorescent-probe-based assays are fast and reproducible in determining apical transport mechanisms, in vitro. We demonstrate that typical substrates and inhibitors are not specific for the designated transporters, reflecting the complex interactions that can take place in vivo. The set of tools we describe are also compatible with innovative kidney culture models and allows studying transport mechanisms that are central to drug absorption, disposition, and detoxification. PMID:26871298

  8. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP

  9. Expression of xenobiotic transporters in the human renal proximal tubule cell line RPTEC/TERT1.

    PubMed

    Aschauer, Lydia; Carta, Giada; Vogelsang, Nadine; Schlatter, Eberhard; Jennings, Paul

    2015-12-25

    The kidney is a major target for drug-induced injury, primarily due the fact that it transports a wide variety of chemical entities into and out of the tubular lumen. Here, we investigated the expression of the main xenobiotic transporters in the human renal proximal tubule cell line RPTEC/TERT1 at an mRNA and/or protein level. RPTEC/TERT1 cells expressed OCT2, OCT3, OCTN2, MATE1, MATE2, OAT1, OAT3 and OAT4. The functionality of the OCTs was demonstrated by directional transport of the fluorescent dye 4-Di-1-ASP. In addition, P-glycoprotein activity in RPTEC/TERT1 cells was verified by fluorescent dye retention in presence of various P-glycoprotein inhibitors. In comparison to proliferating cells, contact inhibited RPTEC/TERT1 cells expressed increased mRNA levels of several ABC transporter family members and were less sensitive to cyclosporine A. We conclude that differentiated RPTEC/TERT1 cells are well suited for utilisation in xenobiotic transport and pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:25500123

  10. Organelle Transport in Cultured Drosophila Cells: S2 Cell Line and Primary Neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Vladimir I.

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila S2 cells plated on a coverslip in the presence of any actin-depolymerizing drug form long unbranched processes filled with uniformly polarized microtubules. Organelles move along these processes by microtubule motors. Easy maintenance, high sensitivity to RNAi-mediated protein knock-down and efficient procedure for creating stable cell lines make Drosophila S2 cells an ideal model system to study cargo transport by live imaging. The results obtained with S2 cells can be further applied to a more physiologically relevant system: axonal transport in primary neurons cultured from dissociated Drosophila embryos. Cultured neurons grow long neurites filled with bundled microtubules, very similar to S2 processes. Like in S2 cells, organelles in cultured neurons can be visualized by either organelle-specific fluorescent dyes or by using fluorescent organelle markers encoded by DNA injected into early embryos or expressed in transgenic flies. Therefore, organelle transport can be easily recorded in neurons cultured on glass coverslips using living imaging. Here we describe procedures for culturing and visualizing cargo transport in Drosophila S2 cells and primary neurons. We believe that these protocols make both systems accessible for labs studying cargo transport. PMID:24300413

  11. Dynamics of chaotic magnetic lines: Intermittency and noble internal transport barriers in the tokamap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misguich, J. H.

    2001-05-01

    A purely magnetic approach is used to describe internal transport barriers (ITB's) observed in tokamaks, generally "around" rational values of the safety factor q, and even in ohmic and positive shear situations. An Hamiltonian twist map "tokamap" is used to describe magnetic line section points in a poloidal (?,?) plane in presence of a magnetic perturbation of strength L, inducing the appearance of magnetic islands and chaotic zones ("incomplete chaos"). For a low value of L<1, before breaking of the boundary circle on the plasma edge, a regular zone with robust magnetic surfaces is found in the plasma core, surrounded by two chaotic regions, separated by a transport barrier across which a magnetic line performs an intermittent motion. By using number theory and convergent rational island chains along Fibonacci series, the ITB is identified as composed of two permeable Cantori (broken Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser surfaces) with "most noble" q values. No paradox however exists with experimental observations identifying the barriers as being "near" rational q values: this is also the case here for the two Cantori, but, more precisely, on neighboring most noble q values. Dispersion studies for an ensemble of magnetic lines in the large L regime where the boundary circle has been broken, shows an asymptotic radial subdiffusion, with different transient regimes. Comparison is performed with the flux diffusion in the standard map.

  12. A new optical design for the BNL isotope production transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Raparia, D.; Mapes, M.; Tsoupas, N.

    1996-10-01

    The 200 MeV linac at BNL has recently been upgraded. As a result, 2.5 times more average beam current can be delivered to the Brookhaven Isotope Resource Center (BIRC), formerly called BLIP, a facility which produces radionuclides and radiopharmaceutical for the medical community, and also supports a research program seeking more effective diagnostic and therapeutic agents. The optics of the beam transport line to BIRC was redesigned to (a) reduce transverse fluctuations of the beam at the target due to any linac energy fluctuations, (b) produce a flat beam distribution at the target, in order to avoid melting certain target materials, and (c) handle the higher beam intensity while keeping radiation levels low. A profile monitor was also modified to monitor the flatness of the beam using the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). The above improvements will be described, and results of the commissioning of the line during the 1996 running period will be discussed.

  13. Transmission line model for strained quantum well lasers including carrier transport and carrier heating effects.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mingjun; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports a new model for strained quantum well lasers, which are based on the quantum well transmission line modeling method where effects of both carrier transport and carrier heating have been included. We have applied this new model and studied the effect of carrier transport on the output waveform of a strained quantum well laser both in time and frequency domains. It has been found that the carrier transport increases the turn-on, turn-off delay times and damping of the quantum well laser transient response. Also, analysis in the frequency domain indicates that the carrier transport causes the output spectrum of the quantum well laser in steady state to exhibit a redshift which has a narrower bandwidth and lower magnitude. The simulation results of turning-on transients obtained by the proposed model are compared with those obtained by the rate equation laser model. The new model has also been used to study the effects of pump current spikes on the laser output waveforms properties, and it was found that the presence of current spikes causes (i) wavelength blueshift, (ii) larger bandwidth, and (iii) reduces the magnitude and decreases the side-lobe suppression ratio of the laser output spectrum. Analysis in both frequency and time domains confirms that the new proposed model can accurately predict the temporal and spectral behaviors of strained quantum well lasers. PMID:26974607

  14. Transport of tetraethylammonium by a kidney cell line (LLC-PK sub 1 )

    SciTech Connect

    Fauth, C.; Rossier, B.; Roch-Ramel, F. )

    1988-03-01

    The authors investigated whether the LLC-PK{sub 1} epithelial cell lines (which shows many characteristics of proximal tubular cells) also is capable of transporting an organic ion. Suspended LLC-PK{sub 1} cells accumulated tetraethylammonium (TEA). The uptake showed characteristics of a facilitated mechanism; TEA uptake was saturable and temperature-dependent and was inhibited by other organic cations. Quinine and mepiperphenidol were the most potent inhibitors, whereas N{sup 1}-methylnicotinamide and morphine inhibited the transport system only slightly at doses of 10{sup {minus}3} M. Basolateral-to-apical TEA flux through LLC-PK{sub 1} monolayers was five to six times larger than that of mannitol, a nontransported compound, whereas apical-to-basolateral TEA and mannitol fluxes were equal. Only the basolateral-to-apical TEA flux was inhibited by quinine. Under similar experimental conditions, no transport of p-aminohippuric acid was observed. It is concluded that LLC-PK{sub 1} cells are able to transport TEA, as do cells of the proximal tubule.

  15. Characterization of multidrug transporter-mediated efflux of avermectins in human and mouse neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Abigail M; Mistry, Pratibha; Wright, Jayne; Williams, Faith M; Brown, Colin D A

    2015-06-15

    ABC transporters play an important role in the disposition of avermectins in several animal species. In this study the interactions of three key avermectins, abamectin, emamectin and ivermectin, with human and mouse homologues of MDR1 (ABCB1/Abcb1a) and MRP (ABCC/Abcc), transporters endogenously expressed by human SH-SY5Y and mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells were investigated. In both cell lines, retention of the fluorescent dye H33342 was found to be significantly increased in the presence of avermectins and cyclosporin A. These effects were shown to be unresponsive to the BCRP inhibitor Ko-143 and therefore MDR1/Mdr1-dependent. Avermectins inhibited MDR1/Mdr1a-mediated H33342 dye efflux, with apparent Ki values of 0.24±0.08 and 0.18±0.02?M (ivermectin); 0.60±0.07 and 0.56±0.02?M (emamectin) and 0.95±0.08 and 0.77±0.25?M (abamectin) in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, respectively. There were some apparent affinity differences for MDR1 and Mdr1a within each cell line (affinity for ivermectin>emamectin?abamectin, P<0.05 by One-Way ANOVA), but importantly, the Ki values for individual avermectins for human MDR1 or mouse Mdr1a were not significantly different. MK571-sensitive retention of GSMF confirmed the expression of MRP/Mrp efflux transporters in both cell lines. Avermectins inhibited MRP/Mrp-mediated dye efflux with IC50 values of 1.58±0.51 and 1.94±0.72?M (ivermectin); 1.87±0.57 and 2.74±1.01?M (emamectin) and 2.25±0.01 and 1.68±0.63?M (abamectin) in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, respectively. There were no significant differences in IC50 values between individual avermectins or between human MRP and mouse Mrp. Kinetic data for endogenous human MDR1/MRP isoforms in SH-SY5Y cells and mouse Mdr1a/b/Mrp isoforms in N2a cells are comparable for the selected avermectins. All are effluxed at concentrations well above 0.05-0.1?M ivermectin detected in plasma (Ottesen and Campbell, 1994; Ottesen and Campbell, 1994) This is an important finding in the light of toxicity seen in the Mdr1-deficient animal models CF-1 mice, Mdr1ab (-/-) double knockout mice and Collie dogs. We also confirm MRP/Mrp-mediated avermectin transport in both N2a and SH-SY5Y cell lines. PMID:25865432

  16. Theoretical study of electron transport through ?-stacked ethylbenzene lines bonded to a Si surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeu, Manuel; Wolkow, Robert; Guo, Hong

    2009-03-01

    Recently, experimental techniques were developed for lines of ?-stacked ethylbenzene molecules to self-assemble on an H-terminated Si (100) surface in the laboratory of one of the authors. In this work, we use density functional theory (DFT) combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF) to model electron transport through these ethylbenzene lines to determine if they could be used as molecular wires. In our calculations, the molecules are bonded to an H-terminated Si (100) surface and are bridging two Al leads. The transmission spectrum and its associated scattering states are determined by the NEGF-DFT technique. The presence of the Si substrate is found to play an important role for conduction: there is a dominant transmission peak near the Fermi level which is contributed by the Si substrate and not the ?-stacked molecular line. The low-bias resistance is found to increase exponentially with the length of the molecular line, indicating a tunneling behavior in conduction.

  17. The IPNS accelerator 50 MeV and 500 MeV transport lines

    SciTech Connect

    Dooling, J.C.; Brumwell, F.R.; McMichael, G.E.

    1997-08-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) accelerator delivers up to 500 MeV protons to a depleted uranium target producing spallation neutrons for material science and other research. A 70-80 ns bunch strikes the target at a rate of 30 Hz with an average beam current of 15 {mu}A. The 50 MeV and 500 MeV beam lines transport protons from the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) to the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) and from the RCS to the Neutron Generating Source (NGS) target, respectively. Through over 15 years of operation, the accelerator has been highly reliable with the 5 billionth pulse on target recorded March 12, 1997. During this time, IPNS operators have discovered tunes for various parts of the DTL/RCS accelerator allowing for continual improvement in average current delivered to the target; however, in numerous cases this has been achieved by moving significantly away from the original design parameters. A new attempt is being made to analyze the lines and develop computer models that can be used to alleviate some of the undesirable features of the present {open_quotes}best tune.{close_quotes} In the 500 MeV line, higher order elements will be included in the modeling with the goal of providing a uniform power density profile at the NGS target. This paper describes features of the present lines, and progress-to-date in analyzing and improving them.

  18. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Ana; Airey, David; Thompson, Brent; Zhu, C; Rinchik, Eugene M; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Erikson, Keith; Blakely, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  19. Beam Transport of 4 GeV Protons from AGS to the Proton Interrogation Target of the Neutrino Line (Z_line) and Effect of the Air on the Transported Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; Ahrens, L.; Pile, P.; Thieberger, P.; Murray, M.M.

    2008-10-01

    As part of the preparation for the Proton Interrogation Experiment, we have calculated the beam optics for the transport of 4 GeV protons, from the AGS extraction point, to the 'Cross-Section Target Wheel 1' and to the 'Proton Interrogation Target'. In this technical note we present three possible beam-transports each corresponding to a particular Fast Extracted Beam W B setup of the AGS. In addition we present results on the effect of the atmospheric air, (which fills the drift space of the last 100 [m] of the transport line), on the size of the beam, at two locations along the drift space, one location at the middle of the drift space and the other at the end where the 'Proton Interrogation Target' is placed. All the beam transports mentioned above require the removal of the WD1 dipole magnet, which is the first magnet of the W-line, because it acts as a limiting beam aperture, and the magnet is not used in the beam transport. An alternative solution of a beam transport, which does not require the removal of the WD1 magnet, is also presented. In this solution, which models the transport line using the TURTLE computer code[7], the vertical beam sizes at the location of the WD1 magnet is minimized to allow 'lossless' beam transport at the location of the WD1 magnet. A similar solution, but using a MAD model of the line, is also presented.

  20. 19 CFR 18.9 - Examination by inspectors of trunk line associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination by inspectors of trunk line associations or agents of the Surface Transportation Board. 18.9 Section 18.9 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT General Provisions...

  1. Optimization of solenoid based low energy beam transport line for high current H+ beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, R.; Singh, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Roy, S.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2015-02-01

    A 20 MeV, 30 mA CW proton linac is being developed at BARC, Mumbai. This linac will consist of an ECR ion source followed by a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and Drift tube Linac (DTL). The low energy beam transport (LEBT) line is used to match the beam from the ion source to the RFQ with minimum beam loss and increase in emittance. The LEBT is also used to eliminate the unwanted ions like H2+ and H3+ from entering the RFQ. In addition, space charge compensation is required for transportation of such high beam currents. All this requires careful design and optimization. Detailed beam dynamics simulations have been done to optimize the design of the LEBT using the Particle-in-cell code TRACEWIN. We find that with careful optimization it is possible to transport a 30 mA CW proton beam through the LEBT with 100% transmission and minimal emittance blow up, while at the same time suppressing unwanted species H2+ and H3+ to less than 3.3% of the total beam current.

  2. Methotrexate influx via folate transporters into alveolar epithelial cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Kawami, Masashi; Miyamoto, Mioka; Yumoto, Ryoko; Takano, Mikihisa

    2015-08-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a drug used for the treatment of certain cancers as well as rheumatoid arthritis, sometimes induces serious interstitial lung injury. Although lung toxicity of MTX is related to its accumulation, the information concerning MTX transport in the lungs is lacking. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying MTX influx into human alveolar epithelial cell line A549. MTX influx into A549 cells was time-, pH-, and temperature-dependent and showed saturation kinetics. The influx was inhibited by folic acid with IC50 values of 256.1 ?M at pH 7.4 and 1.6 ?M at pH 5.5, indicating that the mechanisms underlying MTX influx would be different at these pHs. We then examined the role of two folate transporters in MTX influx, reduced folate carrier (RFC) and proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT). The expression of RFC and PCFT mRNAs in A549 cells was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In addition, MTX influx was inhibited by thiamine monophosphate, an RFC inhibitor, at pH 7.4, and by sulfasalazine, a PCFT inhibitor, at pH 5.5. These results indicated that RFC and PCFT are predominantly involved in MTX influx into A549 cells at pH 7.4 and pH 5.5, respectively. PMID:26190800

  3. Design, Modeling and Simulations in the RACE Project: Preliminary study for the development of a transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Maidana, C. O.; Hunt, A. W.; Beller, D.; Folkman, K.

    2007-02-12

    As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiment (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25 MeV electron beam from a Linear Accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible divergence problem) different parameters and models were studied before a final design could be submitted for assembly. This report shows the first results obtained from different simulations of the transport line optics and dynamics.

  4. Citrate transport in the human prostate epithelial PNT2-C2 cell line: electrophysiological analyses.

    PubMed

    Mycielska, Maria E; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2004-09-15

    Although prostate synthesizes and releases large amounts of citrate, the mechanism of the release is not well understood. Most known citrate transporters mediate uptake of citrate from extracellular space and, consequently, are driven by the transmembrane Na+ gradient, which would not be appropriate for prostatic function. In the present study, we investigated citrate transport in a normal human prostate cell line, PNT2-C2, using mainly electrophysiological methods. Intracellular application of citrate through the patch pipette in the whole-cell recording mode induced an outward current whilst in response to extracellular citrate an inward current was recorded. Membrane currents induced by citrate were bigger than those elicited by other (equimolar) Krebs cycle intermediates. Both inward and outward citrate-induced currents had the same ionic dependence, inhibitor profile and reversal potential. In particular, the currents were strongly dependent on the transmembrane K+ gradient. Uptake and release of citrate and their K+ dependence were confirmed by spectrophotometric enzyme analyses. Citrate-induced membrane currents were also sensitive to pH, consistent with the transporter preferring the trivalent form. Application of intracellular Zn2+ generated an outward current which had the same quantitative K+ dependence as the citrate-induced currents. Extracellular application of a membrane-permeant Zn2+ chelator generated an inward current. These experiments suggested that m-aconitase was tonically active in PNT2-C2 cells. Determination of 'forward' and 'reverse' K+ stoichiometry both suggested a citrate: K+ ratio of 1: 4. We conclude that normal prostatic epithelial cells possess an electrogenic citrate transporter which mediates the cotransfer of 1 trivalent citrate anion alongside 4 K+ out of cells and thus generates a net outward current. PMID:15254154

  5. Citrate transport in the human prostate epithelial PNT2-C2 cell line: electrophysiological analyses

    PubMed Central

    Mycielska, Maria E; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2004-01-01

    Although prostate synthesizes and releases large amounts of citrate, the mechanism of the release is not well understood. Most known citrate transporters mediate uptake of citrate from extracellular space and, consequently, are driven by the transmembrane Na+ gradient, which would not be appropriate for prostatic function. In the present study, we investigated citrate transport in a normal human prostate cell line, PNT2-C2, using mainly electrophysiological methods. Intracellular application of citrate through the patch pipette in the whole-cell recording mode induced an outward current whilst in response to extracellular citrate an inward current was recorded. Membrane currents induced by citrate were bigger than those elicited by other (equimolar) Krebs cycle intermediates. Both inward and outward citrate-induced currents had the same ionic dependence, inhibitor profile and reversal potential. In particular, the currents were strongly dependent on the transmembrane K+ gradient. Uptake and release of citrate and their K+ dependence were confirmed by spectrophotometric enzyme analyses. Citrate-induced membrane currents were also sensitive to pH, consistent with the transporter preferring the trivalent form. Application of intracellular Zn2+ generated an outward current which had the same quantitative K+ dependence as the citrate-induced currents. Extracellular application of a membrane-permeant Zn2+ chelator generated an inward current. These experiments suggested that m-aconitase was tonically active in PNT2-C2 cells. Determination of ‘forward’ and ‘reverse’ K+ stoichiometry both suggested a citrate: K+ ratio of 1 : 4. We conclude that normal prostatic epithelial cells possess an electrogenic citrate transporter which mediates the cotransfer of 1 trivalent citrate anion alongside 4 K+ out of cells and thus generates a net outward current. PMID:15254154

  6. Hydrogen transport diagnostics by atomic and molecular emission line profiles simultaneously measured for large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Shikama, T.; Hasuo, M.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.

    2013-01-15

    We observe the Balmer-{alpha}, -{beta}, and -{gamma} lines of hydrogen atoms and Q branches of the Fulcher-{alpha} band of hydrogen molecules simultaneously with their polarization resolved for large helical device. From the fit including the line splits and the polarization dependences by the Zeeman effect, the emission locations, intensities, and the temperatures of the atoms and molecules are determined. The emission locations of the hydrogen atoms are determined outside but close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS). The results are consistent with a previous work (Phys. Plasmas 12, 042501 (2005)). On the other hand, the emission locations of the molecules are determined to be in the divertor legs, which is farer from those of the atoms. The kinetic energy of the atoms is 1 {approx} 20 eV, while the rotational temperature of molecules is {approx}0.04 eV. Additionally, substantial wings, which originate from high velocity atoms and are not reproduced by the conventional spectral analysis, are observed in the Balmer line profiles. We develop a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of the atoms and molecules. The model reproduces the differences of the emission locations of the atoms and molecules when their initial temperatures are assumed to be 3 eV and 0.04 eV, respectively. From the model, the wings of the Balmer-{alpha} line is attributed to the high velocity atoms exist deep inside the LCFS, which are generated by the charge exchange collisions with hot protons there.

  7. Lysosomal Targeting of Cystinosin Requires AP-3.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, Zuzanna; Névo, Nathalie; Thomas, Lucie; Bailleux, Anne; Chauvet, Véronique; Benmerah, Alexandre; Antignac, Corinne

    2015-07-01

    Cystinosin is a lysosomal cystine transporter defective in cystinosis, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. It is composed of seven transmembrane (TM) domains and contains two lysosomal targeting motifs: a tyrosine-based signal (GYDQL) in its C-terminal tail and a non-classical motif in its fifth inter-TM loop. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we showed that the GYDQL motif specifically interacted with the μ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3). Moreover, cell surface biotinylation and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that cystinosin was partially mislocalized to the plasma membrane (PM) in AP-3-depleted cells. We generated a chimeric CD63 protein to specifically analyze the function of the GYDQL motif. This chimeric protein was targeted to lysosomes in a manner similar to cystinosin and was partially mislocalized to the PM in AP-3 knockdown cells where it also accumulated in the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes. Together with the fact that the surface levels of cystinosin and of the CD63-GYDQL chimeric protein were not increased when clathrin-mediated endocytosis was impaired, our data show that the tyrosine-based motif of cystinosin is a 'strong' AP-3 interacting motif responsible for lysosomal targeting of cystinosin by a direct intracellular pathway. PMID:25753619

  8. Differences in the expression of endogenous efflux transporters in MDR1-transfected versus wildtype cell lines affect P-glycoprotein mediated drug transport

    PubMed Central

    Kuteykin-Teplyakov, Konstantin; Luna-Tortós, Carlos; Ambroziak, Kamila; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux assays are widely used to identify Pgp substrates. The kidney cell lines Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-II and LLC-PK1, transfected with human MDR1 (ABCB1) are used to provide recombinant models of drug transport. Endogenous transporters in these cells may contribute to the activities of recombinant transporters, so that drug transport in MDR1-transfected cells is often corrected for the transport obtained in parental (wildtype) cells. However, expression of endogenous transporters may vary between transfected and wildtype cells, so that this correction may cause erroneous data. Here, we have measured the expression of endogenous efflux transporters in transfected and wildtype MDCK-II or LLC cells and the consequences for Pgp-mediated drug transport. Experimental approach: Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we determined the expression of endogenous Mdr1 mRNA and other efflux transporters in wildtype and MDR1-transfected MDCK-II and LLC cells. Transcellular transport was measured with the test substrate vinblastine. Key results: In MDR1-transfected MDCK cells, expression of endogenous (canine) Mdr1 and Mrp2 (Abcc2) mRNA was markedly lower than in wildtype cells, whereas MDR1-transfected LLC cells exhibited comparable Mdr1 but strikingly higher Mrp2 mRNA levels than wildtype cells. As a consequence, transport of vinblastine by human Pgp in efflux experiments was markedly underestimated when transport in MDR1-transfected MDCK cells was corrected for transport obtained in wildtype cells. This problem did not occur in LLC cells. Conclusions and implications: Differences in the expression of endogenous efflux transporters between transfected and wildtype MDCK cells provide a potential bias for in vitro studies on Pgp-mediated drug transport. PMID:20590635

  9. A new medium energy beam transport line for the proton injector of AGS-RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Briscoe, B.; Fite, J.; LoDestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2010-09-12

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a 750 keV medium energy beam transport line between the 201 MHz 750 keV proton RFQ and the 200 MeV Alvarez DTL is being modified to get a better transmission of the beam. Within a tight space, high field gradient quadrupoles (65 Tm) and newly designed steering magnets (6.5 mm in length) will be installed considering the cross-talk effects. Also a new half wave length 200 MHz buncher is being prepared. The beam commissioning will be done in this year. To enhance the performance of the proton linacs, the MEBT is being modified. New quadrupole magnets, steering magnets and a half wave length buncher as shown in Figure 7 will be installed and be commissioned soon.

  10. Identification of transport pathways for citric acid cycle intermediates in the human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Weerachayaphorn, Jittima; Pajor, Ana M

    2008-04-01

    Citric acid cycle intermediates are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract through carrier-mediated mechanisms, although the transport pathways have not been clearly identified. This study examines the transport of citric acid cycle intermediates in the Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cell line, often used as a model of small intestine. Inulin was used as an extracellular volume marker instead of mannitol since the apparent volume measured with mannitol changed with time. The results show that Caco-2 cells contain at least three distinct transporters, including the Na+-dependent di- and tricarboxylate transporters, NaDC1 and NaCT, and one or more sodium-independent pathways, possibly involving organic anion transporters. Succinate transport is mediated mostly by Na+-dependent pathways, predominantly by NaDC1, but with some contribution by NaCT. RT-PCR and functional characteristics verified the expression of these transporters in Caco-2 cells. In contrast, citrate transport in Caco-2 cells occurs by a combination of Na+-independent pathways, possibly mediated by an organic anion transporter, and Na+-dependent mechanisms. The non-metabolizable dicarboxylate, methylsuccinate, is also transported by a combination of Na+-dependent and -independent pathways. In conclusion, we find that multiple pathways are involved in the transport of di- and tricarboxylates by Caco-2 cells. Since many of these pathways are not found in human intestine, this model may be best suited for studying Na+-dependent transport of succinate by NaDC1. PMID:18194662

  11. The AP-1 transcription factor homolog Pf-AP-1 activates transcription of multiple biomineral proteins and potentially participates in Pinctada fucata biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiangnan; Cheng, Minzhang; Xiang, Liang; Liang, Jian; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important bZIP transcription factor that regulates a series of physiological processes by specifically activating transcription of several genes, and one of its well-chartered functions in mammals is participating in bone mineralization. We isolated and cloned the complete cDNA of a Jun/AP-1 homolog from Pinctada fucata and called it Pf-AP-1. Pf-AP-1 had a highly conserved bZIP region and phosphorylation sites compared with those from mammals. A tissue distribution analysis showed that Pf-AP-1 was ubiquitously expressed in P. fucata and the mRNA level of Pf-AP-1 is extremely high in mantle. Pf-AP-1 expression was positively associated with multiple biomineral proteins in the mantle. The luciferase reporter assay in a mammalian cell line showed that Pf-AP-1 significantly up-regulates the transcriptional activity of the promoters of KRMP, Pearlin, and Prisilkin39. Inhibiting the activity of Pf-AP-1 depressed the expression of multiple matrix proteins. Pf-AP-1 showed a unique expression pattern during shell regeneration and pearl sac development, which was similar to the pattern observed for biomineral proteins. These results suggest that the Pf-AP-1 AP-1 homolog is an important transcription factor that regulates transcription of several biomineral proteins simultaneously and plays a role in P. fucata biomineralization, particularly during pearl and shell formation. PMID:26404494

  12. The AP-1 transcription factor homolog Pf-AP-1 activates transcription of multiple biomineral proteins and potentially participates in Pinctada fucata biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiangnan; Cheng, Minzhang; Xiang, Liang; Liang, Jian; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important bZIP transcription factor that regulates a series of physiological processes by specifically activating transcription of several genes, and one of its well-chartered functions in mammals is participating in bone mineralization. We isolated and cloned the complete cDNA of a Jun/AP-1 homolog from Pinctada fucata and called it Pf-AP-1. Pf-AP-1 had a highly conserved bZIP region and phosphorylation sites compared with those from mammals. A tissue distribution analysis showed that Pf-AP-1 was ubiquitously expressed in P. fucata and the mRNA level of Pf-AP-1 is extremely high in mantle. Pf-AP-1 expression was positively associated with multiple biomineral proteins in the mantle. The luciferase reporter assay in a mammalian cell line showed that Pf-AP-1 significantly up-regulates the transcriptional activity of the promoters of KRMP, Pearlin, and Prisilkin39. Inhibiting the activity of Pf-AP-1 depressed the expression of multiple matrix proteins. Pf-AP-1 showed a unique expression pattern during shell regeneration and pearl sac development, which was similar to the pattern observed for biomineral proteins. These results suggest that the Pf-AP-1 AP-1 homolog is an important transcription factor that regulates transcription of several biomineral proteins simultaneously and plays a role in P. fucata biomineralization, particularly during pearl and shell formation. PMID:26404494

  13. Magnetophoretic Transport Line System for Rapid On-Chip Attomole Protein Detection.

    PubMed

    Bejhed, Rebecca S; Tian, Bo; Eriksson, Kristofer; Brucas, Rimantas; Oscarsson, Sven; Strömberg, Mattias; Svedlindh, Peter; Gunnarsson, Klas

    2015-09-22

    A lab-on-a-chip traveling wave magnetophoresis approach for sensitive and rapid protein detection is reported. In this method, a chip-based magnetic microarray comprising lines of micrometer-sized thin film magnetic elements was used to control the movement of magnetic beads (MBs). The MBs and the chip were functionalized, forming a sandwich-type assay. The MBs were transported across a detection area, and the presence of target molecules resulted in the immobilization of MBs within this area. Target quantification was accomplished by MB counting in the detection area using an optical microscope. In order to demonstrate the versatility of the microarray, biotinylated antiavidin was selected as the target protein. In this case, avidin-functionalized MBs and an avidin-functionalized detection area were used. With a total assay time of 1 to 1.5 h (depending on the labeling approach used), a limit of detection in the attomole range was achieved. Compared to on-chip surface plasmon resonance biodetection systems, our method has a larger dynamic range and is about a factor of 500 times more sensitive. Furthermore, our MB transportation system can operate in any chip-based biosensor platform, thereby significantly improving traditional biosensors. PMID:26309059

  14. High current density negative ion source for beam line transport study

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim Dudnikov; Charles W Schmidt and James Wendt

    2001-07-25

    The Fermilab Electron Cooling Program requires a 20-m solenoidal region to interact 8-GeV antiprotons with an escorting beam of 4.3-MeV electrons to improve the phase-space quality of the antiproton beam. The solenoidal section with additional transport lines to take and return a 0.5-A electron beam from an electrostatic accelerator, for energy recovery, must be precisely aligned and adjusted. For the initial setup and study, and later testing of this line, a 12.4-keV H{sup {minus}} beam can be used to simulate the 4.3 MeV electron beam. For this purpose a high-brightness H{sup {minus}} ion source has been developed and tested. The source, a semiplanatron type, with a hollow cathode discharge and spherical cathode focusing of the emitted ions to the emission aperture has given an emission current density up to 0.7 A/cm{sup 2}. Continuous operation of 4 weeks has been demonstrated. Such an optimized source could have many applications for tandem accelerators, ion beam lithography and ion implantation.

  15. Cascades of Transient Pores in Giant Vesicles: Line Tension and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Karatekin, Erdem; Sandre, Olivier; Guitouni, Hicham; Borghi, Nicolas; Puech, Pierre-Henri; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

    2003-01-01

    Under ordinary circumstances, the membrane tension of a giant unilamellar vesicle is essentially nil. Using visible light, we stretch the vesicles, increasing the membrane tension until the membrane responds by the sudden opening of a large pore (several micrometers in size). Only a single pore is observed at a time in a given vesicle. However, a cascade of transient pores appear, up to 30–40 in succession, in the same vesicle. These pores are transient: they reseal within a few seconds as the inner liquid leaks out. The membrane tension, which is the driving force for pore opening, is relaxed with the opening of a pore and the leakage of the inner liquid; the line tension of the pore's edge is then able to drive the closure of a pore. We use fluorescent membrane probes and real-time videomicroscopy to study the dynamics of the pores. These can be visualized only if the vesicles are prepared in a viscous solution to slow down the leakout of the internal liquid. From measurements of the closure velocity of the pores, we are able to infer the line tension, 𝒯. We have studied the effect of the shape of inclusion molecules on 𝒯. Cholesterol, which can be modeled as an inverted cone-shaped molecule, increases the line tension when incorporated into the bilayers. Conversely, addition of cone-shaped detergents reduces 𝒯. The effect of some detergents can be dramatic, reducing 𝒯by two orders of magnitude, and increasing pore lifetimes up to several minutes. We give some examples of transport through transient pores and present a rough measurement of the leakout velocity of the inner liquid through a pore. We discuss how our results can be extended to less viscous aqueous solutions which are more relevant for biological systems and biotechnological applications. PMID:12609875

  16. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  17. Addendum: ``Hard X-Rays and Gamma Rays from Type Ia Supernovae'' (ApJ, 492, 228 [1998])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Peter; Wheeler, J. C.

    2004-04-01

    We report a subtle error in the normalization of the absolute flux published in our original article (hereafter HWK98), and some minor updates. The normalization problem is related to the post-processing. As a consequence, the reported line fluxes are too large at early times. Note that Figure 1 of P. Höflich (ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]) has been transferred from HWK98. Results of previous papers are not affected (E. Müller, P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]; P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]). For calculating the ?-ray spectra, the ?-ray transport is solved via a Monte Carlo code that produces an output file containing the Eddington flux, the energy input by radioactive decay and escape probability, ?, of ?-ray photons. In a postprocessing step, the spectrum is renormalized and convolved with the instrumental response function of the ?-ray telescope. A two-step procedure is used to obtain the emergent spectra to separate the CPU-intensive Monte Carlo transport calculation from the ``fast'' second step, allowing us to study the influence of the instrument on the observables (e.g., E. Müller, P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998

  18. Functional description of APS beamline front ends

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.

    1993-02-01

    Traditional synchrotron sources were designed to produce bending magnet radiation and have proven to be an essential scientific tool. Currently, a new generation of synchrotron sources is being built that will be able to accommodate a large number of insertion device (ID) and high quality bending magnet (BM) sources. One example is the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. The research and development effort at the APS is designed to fully develop the potential of this new generation of synchrotron sources. Of the 40 straight sections in the APS storage ring, 34 will be available for IDs. The remaining six sections are reserved for the storage ring hardware and diagnostics. Although the ring incorporates 80 BMs, only 40 of them can be used to extract radiation. The accelerator hardware shadows five of these 40 bending magnets, so the maximum number of BM sources on the lattice is 35. Generally, a photon beamline consists of four functional sections. The first section is the ID or the BM, which provides the radiation source. The second section, which is immediately outside the storage ring but inside a concrete shielding tunnel, is the front end, which is designed to control, define, and/or confine the x-ray beam. In the case of the APS, the front ends are designed to confine the photon beam. The third section, just outside the concrete shielding tunnel and on the experimental floor, is the first optics enclosure, which contains optics to filter and monochromatize the photon beam. The fourth section of a beamline consists of beam transports, additional optics, and experiment stations to do the scientific investigations. This document describes only the front ends of the APS beamlines.

  19. AP-42 REVISION: COKE OVENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors" (AP-42) has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1972. Supplements to AP-42 have been routinely published to add new emission source categories and to update existing emission factor...

  20. AP1000 Design for Security

    SciTech Connect

    Long, L.B.; Cummins, W.E.; Winters, J.W.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are protected from potential security threats through a combination of robust structures around the primary system and other vital equipment, security systems and equipment, and defensive strategy. The overall objective for nuclear power plant security is to protect public health and safety by ensuring that attacks or sabotage do not challenge the ability to safely shutdown the plant or protect from radiological releases. In addition, plants have systems, features and operational strategies to cope with external conditions, such as loss of offsite power, which could be created as part of an attack. Westinghouse considered potential security threats during design of the AP1000 PWR. The differences in plant configuration, safety system design, and safe shutdown equipment between existing plants and AP1000 affect potential vulnerabilities. This paper provides an evaluation of AP1000 with respect to vulnerabilities to security threats. The AP1000 design differs from the design of operating PWRs in the US in the configuration and the functional requirements for safety systems. These differences are intentional departures from conventional PWR designs which simplify plant design and enhance overall safety. The differences between the AP1000 PWR and conventional PWRs can impact vulnerabilities to security threats. The NRC addressed security concerns as part of their reviews for AP1000 Design Certification, and did not identify any security issues of concern. However, much of the detailed security design information for the AP1000 was deferred to the combined Construction and Operating License (COL) phase as many of the security issues are site-specific. Therefore, NRC review of security issues related to the AP1000 is not necessarily complete. Further, since the AP1000 plant design differs from existing PWRs, it is not obvious that the analyses and assessments prepared for existing plants also apply to the AP1000. We conclude that, overall, the AP1000 is less vulnerable to security threats such as malevolent use of vehicles (land, water or air), than are conventional PWRs. Further, the AP1000 is less vulnerable to external events (e.g., loss of transmission) than conventional PWRs. For some of the threats evaluated the AP1000 is comparable to conventional PWRs, while for other threats the AP1000 is inherently less vulnerable. (authors)

  1. NOS1AP in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Brzustowicz, Linda M

    2008-04-01

    NOS1AP is an attractive candidate gene for schizophrenia susceptibility. Linkage and association studies from multiple samples drawn from different populations indicate that a schizophrenia susceptibility gene is located in the region of chromosome 1 containing NOS1AP. Increased NOS1AP expression is observed in postmortem samples from individuals with schizophrenia. NOS1AP binds to neuronal nitric oxide synthase and synapsin, other candidate genes for schizophrenia, and may disrupt signal transduction through the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor complex, leading to hypofunctioning of that system. In this review, I present the evidence supporting NOS1AP as a schizophrenia susceptibility gene, with a focus on explaining the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence obtained from each type of study that has been conducted. PMID:18474209

  2. The inhibitory effects of fluoroquinolones on L-carnitine transport in placental cell line BeWo.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takeshi; Yasuda, Satoru; Osaka, Yuki; Asari, Masaru; Kobayashi, Masaki; Itagaki, Shirou; Iseki, Ken

    2008-03-01

    L-Carnitine plays an important role in lipid metabolism by facilitating the transport of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial inner membrane followed by fatty acid beta-oxidation. It is known that members of the OCTN family play an important role in L-carnitine transport in the placenta. Investigation of drug-drug or drug-nutrient interaction in the placenta is important for establishment of safety drug medication during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of fluoroquinolones, inhibitors of OCTN2, on L-carnitine transport in the placenta which is known to have a high expression level of OCTN2. We investigated the inhibitory effect of five fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin (CPFX), gatifloxacin (GFLX), ofloxacin (OFLX), levofloxacin (LVFX) and grepafloxacin (GPFX), on L-carnitine transport mediated by OCTN2 in placental cell line BeWo cells. We found that all of the fluoroquinolones inhibited L-carnitine transport, GPFX being the strongest inhibitor. We also found that the inhibitory effects of LVFX and GPFX depended on their existence ratio of zwitterionic forms as, we reported previously. Furthermore, we elucidated the LVFX transport mechanism in BeWo cells. LVFX was transported actively by transporters. However, we found that LVFX transport was Na+-independent and l-carnitine had no inhibitory effect on LVFX transport, suggesting that LVFX acts as inhibitor of OCTN2, not as a substrate for OCTN2. PMID:17977676

  3. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scisciò, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Antici, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.

  4. APS controls overview

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The APS accelerator control system described in this report is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and interfaces to hardware. The operator interface is a UNIX-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The user has the ability to generate and alter control displays and to access the alarm handler, the archiver, interactive control programs, custom code, and other tools. The TCP/EP networking protocol has been selected as the underlying protocol for the control system network. TCP/EP is a commercial standard and readily available from network hardware vendors. Its implementation is independent of the particular network medium selected to implement the controls network. In the development environment copper Ethernet is the network medium; however, in the actual implementation a fiber-based system using hub technology will be utilized. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system.

  5. Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Mustapha, B.; Savard, G.

    2015-01-09

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×10{sup 5} as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS.

  6. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, L. Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria ; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell'università 2, 35020 Legnaro ; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  7. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  8. Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Mustapha, B.; Savard, G.

    2015-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×105 as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS.

  9. Effects of line defects on spin-dependent electronic transport of zigzag MoS2 nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin-Mei; Long, Meng-Qiu; Cui, Li-Ling; Yang, Kai-Wei; Zhang, Dan; Ding, Jia-Feng; Xu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear spin-dependent transport properties in zigzag molybdenum-disulfide nanoribbons (ZMNRs) with line defects are investigated systematically using nonequilibrium Green's function method combined with density functional theory. The results show that the line defects can enhance the electronic transfer ability of ZMNRs. The types and locations of the line defects are found critical in determining the spin polarization and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the line defected ZMNRs. For the same defect type, the total currents of the ribbons with the line defects in the centers are lager than those on the edges. And for the same location, the total currents of the systems with the sulfur (S) line defect are larger than the according systems with the molybdenum (Mo) line defect. All the considered systems present magnetism properties. And in the S line defected systems, the spin reversal behaviors can be observed. In both the spin-up and spin-down states of the Mo line defected systems, there are obvious negative differential resistance behaviors. The mechanisms are proposed for these phenomena.

  10. Noble internal transport barriers and radial subdiffusion of toroidal magnetic lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misguich, J. H.; Reuss, J.-D.; Constantinescu, D.; Steinbrecher, G.; Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Weyssow, B.; Balescu, R.

    2003-11-01

    Internal transport barriers (ITB's) observed in tokamaks are described by a purely magnetic approach. Magnetic line motion in toroidal geometry with broken magnetic surfaces is studied from a previously derived Hamiltonian map in situation of incomplete chaos. This appears to reproduce in a realistic way the main features of a tokamak, for a given safety factor profile and in terms of a single parameter L representing the amplitude of the magnetic perturbation. New results are given concerning the Shafranov shift as function of L. The phase space (psi ,θ ) of the "tokamap" describes the poloidal section of the line trajectories, where psi is the toroidal flux labelling the surfaces. For small values of L, closed magnetic surfaces exist (KAM tori) and island chains begin to appear on rational surfaces for higher values of L, with chaotic zones around hyperbolic points, as expected. Island remnants persist in the chaotic domain for all relevant values of L at the main rational q-values. Single trajectories of magnetic line motion indicate the persistence of a central protected plasma core, surrounded by a chaotic shell enclosed in a double-sided transport barrier: the latter is identified as being composed of two Cantori located on two successive “most-noble” numbers values of the perturbed safety factor, and forming an internal transport barrier (ITB). Magnetic lines which succeed to escape across this barrier begin to wander in a wide chaotic sea extending up to a very robust barrier (as long as Lprecsim 1) which is identified mathematically as a robust KAM surface at the plasma edge. In this case the motion is shown to be intermittent, with long stages of pseudo-trapping in the chaotic shell, or of sticking around island remnants, as expected for a continuous time random walk. For values of Lsucceq 1, above the escape threshold, most magnetic lines succeed to escape out of the external barrier which has become a permeable Cantorus. Statistical analysis of a large number of trajectories, representing the evolution of a bunch of magnetic lines, indicate that the flux variable psi asymptotically grows in a diffusive manner as (L2t) with a L2 scaling as expected, but that the average radial position rm(t) asymptotically grows as (L2t)^{1/4} while the mean square displacement around this average radius asymptotically grows in a subdiffusive manner as (L2t)^{1/2}. This result shows the slower dispersion in the present incomplete chaotic regime, which is different from the usual quasilinear diffusion in completely chaotic situations. For physical times t_{\\varphi } of the order of the escape time defined by xm(t_{\\varphi })sim 1, the motion appears to be superdiffusive, however, but less dangerous than the generally admitted quasi-linear diffusion. The orders of magnitude of the relevant times in Tore Supra are finally discussed. Barrières internes de transport " nobles " et sous-diffusion radiale des lignes magnétiques toroïdales Les barrières internes de transport observées dans les tokamaks sont décrites ici dans une approche purement magnétique. Le mouvement des lignes magnétiques en géométrie toroïdale avec brisure des surfaces magnétiques est étudié à partir d'une application hamiltonienne "tokamap" développée précédemment en situation de chaos incomplet, et dans laquelle le "temps" est représenté par la coordonnée toroïdale. Cette application reproduit de façon réaliste les principales caractéristiques d'un tokamak, pour un profil donné du facteur de sécurité q, et en terme d'un seul paramètre L représentant l'amplitude de la perturbation magnétique. On obtient des résultats nouveaux concernant le déplacement de Shafranov en fonction de L. L'espace des phases (psi,θ) du "tokamap" décrit la section poloïdale des trajectoires des lignes, où psisim r^2 est le flux toroïdal caractérisant les surfaces magnétiques (proportionnel au carré du rayon r de cette surface). Pour de faibles valeurs de L, des surfaces magnétiques fermées existent (tores de KAM) et des chaînes d'îlots commencent à apparaître sur les surfaces rationnelles pour des valeurs de L supérieures, avec, comme attendu, des zones chaotiques autour des points hyperboliques. Des résidus d'îlots magnétiques persistent dans le domaine chaotique pour toutes les valeurs de L, sur les surfaces caractérisées par les principales valeurs rationnelles de q. Des trajectoires individuelles de ligne magnétique indiquent la persistance d'un cœur protégé au sein du plasma, entouré d'une couche chaotique, incluse dans une double barrière de transport : celle-ci est composée de deux Cantori situés sur deux valeurs successives du facteur de sécurité perturbé que l'on a pu identifier comme étant les nombres "les plus nobles", formant ainsi une barrière de transport interne. Les lignes magnétiques qui réussissent à s'échapper à travers cette barrière commencent à voyager dans une vaste mer chaotique qui s'étend jusqu'à une barrière très robuste (tant que Lprecsim 1) qui a été identifiée mathématiquement comme étant une surface KAM robuste au bord du plasma. Dans ce cas le mouvement observé est intermittent, avec de longues périodes de pseudo-piégeage dans la couche chaotique, ou du collage (sticking) autour des îlots résiduels, comme attendu pour une marche aléatoire en temps continu. Pour des valeurs de Lsucceq 1, au-dessus du seuil d'échappement, la plupart des lignes magnétiques parviennent à s'échapper à travers la barrière externe qui est devenue un Cantorus perméable. L'analyse statistique d'un grand nombre de trajectoires, représentant l'évolution d'un faisceau de lignes magnétiques, indique qu'en moyenne la variable de flux psi croît asymptotiquement de manière diffusive (comme L^2t) avec une loi d'échelle en L^2 comme attendu, mais avec une position radiale moyenne r_m(t) croissant asymptotiquement comme (L^2t)^{1/4}, tandis que le déplacement quadratique moyen autour de ce rayon moyen croît asymptotiquement de manière sous-diffusive comme (L^2t)^{1/2}. Ce résultat indique une dispersion plus lente dans le cas étudié d'un régime de chaos incomplet, qui est différente de la diffusion quasi-linéaire en situation de chaos complet. Pour des temps physiques t_{\\varphi} de l'ordre du temps d'échappement, défini par r_m(t_{\\varphi}) sim 1, le mouvement apparaît comme super-diffusif, mais cependant moins " dangereux " que la diffusion quasi-linéaire généralement admise. On discute finalement les ordres de grandeur des temps caractéristiques dans le tokamak TORE SUPRA.

  11. A search for rapid pulsations among nine luminous Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyhammer, L. M.; Kurtz, D. W.; Cunha, M. S.; Mathys, G.; Elkin, V. G.; Riley, J. D.

    2008-04-01

    The rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars are of importance for studying the atmospheric structure of stars where the process of chemical element diffusion is significant. We have performed a survey for rapid oscillations in a sample of nine luminous Ap stars, selected from their location in the colour-magnitude diagram as more evolved main-sequence Ap stars that are inside the instability strip for roAp stars. Until recently this region was devoid of stars with observed rapid pulsations. We used the Very Large Telescope UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph to obtain high time resolution spectroscopy to make the first systematic spectroscopic search for rapid oscillations in this region of the roAp instability strip. We report nine null detections with upper limits for radial velocity amplitudes of 20-65ms-1 and precisions of ? = 7-20ms-1 for combinations of Nd and Pr lines. Cross-correlations confirm these null results. At least six stars are magnetic and we provide magnetic field measurements for four of them, of which three are newly discovered magnetic stars. It is found that four stars have magnetic fields smaller than ~2kG, which according to theoretical predictions might be insufficient for suppressing envelope convection around the magnetic poles for more evolved Ap stars. Suppression of convection is expected to be essential for the opacity mechanism acting in the hydrogen ionization zone to drive the high-overtone roAp pulsations efficiently. Our null results suggest that the more evolved roAp stars may require particularly strong magnetic fields to pulsate. Three of the studied stars do, however, have magnetic fields stronger than 5kG. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, as part of programmes 075.D-0145 (A), 078.D-0080(A), 072.D-0138(A) and 077.D-0150(A). E-mail: lmfreyhammer@uclan.ac.uk

  12. The APS machine protection system (MPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fuja, R.; Berg, B.; Arnold, N.

    1996-08-01

    The machine protection system (MPS) that protects the APS storage ring vacuum chamber from x-ray beams, is active. There are over 650 sensors monitored and networked through the MPS system. About the same number of other process variables are monitored by the much slower EPICS control system, which also has an input to the rf abort chain. The MPS network is still growing with the beam position limits detection system coming on-line. The network configuration, along with a limited description of individual subsystems, is presented.

  13. Bending of protonema cells in a plastid glycolate/glycerate transporter knockout line of Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Jin; Takechi, Katsuaki; Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Moriyama, Yasuko; Sato, Hiroshi; Takio, Susumu; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis LrgB (synonym PLGG1) is a plastid glycolate/glycerate transporter associated with recycling of 2-phosphoglycolate generated via the oxygenase activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). We isolated two homologous genes (PpLrgB1 and B2) from the moss Physcomitrella patens. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PpLrgB1 was monophyletic with LrgB proteins of land plants, whereas PpLrgB2 was divergent from the green plant lineage. Experiments with PpLrgB-GFP fusion proteins suggested that both PpLrgB1 and B2 proteins were located in chloroplasts. We generated PpLrgB single (∆B1 and ∆B2) and double (∆B1/∆B2)-knockout lines using gene targeting of P. patens. The ∆B1 plants showed decreases in growth and photosynthetic activity, and their protonema cells were bent and accumulated glycolate. However, because ∆B2 and ∆B1/∆B2 plants showed no obvious phenotypic change relative to the wild-type or ∆B1 plants, respectively, the function of PpLrgB2 remains unclear. Arabidopsis LrgB could complement the ∆B1 phenotype, suggesting that the function of PpLrgB1 is the same as that of AtLrgB. When ∆B1 was grown under high-CO2 conditions, all novel phenotypes were suppressed. Moreover, protonema cells of wild-type plants exhibited a bending phenotype when cultured on media containing glycolate or glycerate, suggesting that accumulation of photorespiratory metabolites caused P. patens cells to bend. PMID:25793376

  14. APS Initiatives for Broadening Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodapp, Theodore

    2013-03-01

    Women currently earn only about 20% of physics degrees, while African Americans and Hispanic Americans combined - representing 34% of the US population in their 20's - earn only 9% and 5-6% of the Bachelor and Doctoral degrees respectively. To address these disparities, and improve conditions for everyone who studies physics, the APS devotes significant resources to addressing these concerns and to enabling individuals and groups to work with the APS to advance these goals. In this presentation, I will outline several of our most significant programs, give data that informs decisions to adopt programs, and describe current plans. Included in this is the new APS Bridge Program (www.APSBridgeProgram.org) for increasing underrepresented minority participation at the PhD level, the APS Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics (go.aps.org/cuwip), and the APS Minority Scholars Program (www.MinoritiesInPhysics.org). Please bring your ideas and concerns for how we might improve participation for all.

  15. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-switched transport services. 69.713 Section 69.713 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION..., traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. (a) Scope. This paragraph governs requests for...)(2) of this chapter. (3) The traffic-sensitive components of tandem-switched transport services,...

  16. Lattice design and beam dynamics studies of the high energy beam transport line in the RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Jeon, Dong-O.

    2015-12-01

    In RAON heavy ion accelerator, beams generated by superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS) or Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) system are accelerated by lower energy superconducting linac and high energy superconducting linac. The accelerated beams are used in the high energy experimental hall which includes bio-medical and muon-SR facilities, after passing through the high energy beam transport lines. At the targets of those two facilities, the stable and small beams meeting the requirements rigorously are required in the transverse plane. Therefore the beams must be safely sent to the targets and simultaneously satisfy the two requirements, the achromatic condition and the mid-plane symmetric condition, of the targets. For this reason, the lattice design of the high energy beam transport lines in which the long deflecting sections are included is considered as a significant issue in the RAON accelerator. In this paper, we will describe the calculated beam optics satisfying the conditions and present the result of particle tracking simulations with the designed lattice of the high energy beam transport lines in the RAON accelerator. Also, the orbit distortion caused by the machine imperfections and the orbit correction with correctors will be discussed.

  17. Transport of levofloxacin in a kidney epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1: interaction with organic cation transporters in apical and basolateral membranes.

    PubMed

    Ohtomo, T; Saito, H; Inotsume, N; Yasuhara, M; Inui, K I

    1996-03-01

    The interactions of levofloxacin, a pyridonecarboxylic acid antibacterial drug, with the organic cation transport systems expressed in a pig kidney epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1, were examined. The transcellular transport of tetraethylammonium was remarkably inhibited by levofloxacin, accompanied by a marked increase in the cellular accumulation of tetraethylammonium in the LLC-PK1, monolayers grown on collagen-coated membrane filters. The results obtained by efflux and uptake of tetraethylammonium revealed that levofloxacin drastically inhibited the apical transport activity rather than the basolateral uptake of tetraethylammonium. Under conditions in which the apical efflux of tetraethylammonium was blocked by pretreatment with p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate, levofloxacin showed a moderate inhibitory effect against the basolateral uptake of tetraethylammonium. Transepithelial flux of levofloxacin from the basolateral side to the apical side was much greater than the flux in the opposite direction. The flux of levofloxacin was influenced by the apical side pH, resulting in a decreased cellular accumulation by lowering pH. The basal-to-apical transport and cellular accumulation of levofloxacin were not inhibited by either tetraethylammonium or cimetidine. These results suggested that levofloxacin interacts with the apical H+/organic cation antiport system to a greater extent than with the basolateral system. However, transcellular transport of levofloxacin would be mediated by the transport systems which are distinct from the systems for tetraethylammonium in LLC-PK1 cells. PMID:8786545

  18. Contactless transport of matter in the first five resonance modes of a line-focused acoustic manipulator.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-02-01

    The first five resonance modes for transport of matter in a line-focused acoustic levitation system are investigated. Contactless transport was achieved by varying the height between the radiating plate and the reflector. Transport and levitation of droplets in particular involve two limits of the acoustic forces. The lower limit corresponds to the minimum force required to overcome the gravitational force. The upper limit corresponds to the maximum acoustic pressure beyond which atomization of the droplet occurs. As the droplet size increases, the lower limit increases and the upper limit decreases. Therefore to have large droplets levitated, relatively flat radiation pressure amplitude during the translation is needed. In this study, using a finite element model, the Gor'kov potential was calculated for different heights between the reflector and the radiating plate. The application of the Gor'kov potential was extended to study the range of droplet sizes for which the droplets can be levitated and transported without atomization. It was found that the third resonant mode (H(3)-mode) represents the best compromise between high levitation force and smooth pattern transition, and water droplets of millimeter radius can be levitated and transported. The H(3)-mode also allows for three translation lines in parallel. PMID:22352478

  19. A demonstration of a transportable radio interferometric surveying system with 3-cm accuracy on a 307-m base line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, K. M.; Macdoran, P. F.; Thomas, J. B.; Fliegel, H. F.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Batelaan, P. D.; Paine, S. R.; Newsted, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    A precision geodetic measurement system (Aries, for Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying) based on the technique of very long base line interferometry has been designed and implemented through the use of a 9-m transportable antenna and the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Communications Complex at Goldstone, California. A series of experiments designed to demonstrate the inherent accuracy of a transportable interferometer was performed on a 307-m base line during the period from December 1973 to June 1974. This short base line was chosen in order to obtain a comparison with a conventional survey with a few-centimeter accuracy and to minimize Aries errors due to transmission media effects, source locations, and earth orientation parameters. The base-line vector derived from a weighted average of the measurements, representing approximately 24 h of data, possessed a formal uncertainty of about 3 cm in all components. This average interferometry base-line vector was in good agreement with the conventional survey vector within the statistical range allowed by the combined uncertainties (3-4 cm) of the two techniques.

  20. Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

  1. The interaction of celecoxib with MDR transporters enhances the activity of mitomycin C in a bladder cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An in vitro model was developed to understand if celecoxib could synergize with Mitomycin C (MMC), commonly used for the prevention of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer recurrence, and eventually elucidate if the mechanism of interaction involves multi drug resistance (MDR) transporters. Methods UMUC-3, a non COX-2 expressing bladder cancer cell line, and UMUC-3-CX, a COX-2 overexpressing transfectant, as well as 5637, a COX-2 overexpressing cell line, and 5637si-CX, a non COX-2 expressing silenced 5637 cell line, were used in the present study. The expression of COX-2 and MDR pumps (P-gp, MDR-1 and BCRP) was explored through western blot. The anti-proliferative effect of celecoxib and MMC was studied with MTT test. Three biological permeability assays (Drug Transport Experiment, Substrate Transporter Inhibition, and ATP cell depletion) were combined to study the interaction between MDR transporters and celecoxib. Finally, the ability of celecoxib to restore MMC cell accumulation was investigated. Results The anti-proliferative effect of celecoxib and MMC were investigated alone and in co-administration, in UMUC-3, UMUC-3-CX, 5637 and 5637si-CX cells. When administered alone, the effect of MMC was 8-fold greater in UMUC-3. However, co-administration of 1 ?M, 5 ?M, and 10 ?M celecoxib and MMC caused a 2,3-fold cytotoxicity increase in UMUC-3-CX cell only. MMC cytotoxicity was not affected by celecoxib co-administration either in 5637, or in 5637si-CX cells. As a result of all finding from the permeability experiments, celecoxib was classified as P-gp unambiguous substrate: celecoxib is transported by MDR pumps and interferes with the efflux of MMC. Importantly, among all transporters, BCRP was only overexpressed in UMUC-3-CX cells, but not in 5637 and 5637si-CX. Conclusions The UMUC-3-CX cell line resembles a more aggressive phenotype with a lower response to MMC compared to the wt counterpart. However, the administration of celecoxib in combination to MMC causes a significant and dose dependent gain of the anti-proliferative activity. This finding may be the result of a direct interaction between celecoxib and MDR transporters. Indeed, BCRP is overexpressed in UMUC-3-CX, but not in UMUC-3, 5637, and 5637si-CX, in which celecoxib is ineffective. PMID:23705854

  2. Enhancement of glucose transport by selected plant foods in muscle cell line L6.

    PubMed

    Noipha, K; Ratanachaiyavong, S; Ninla-Aesong, P

    2010-08-01

    Glucose uptake activity of 11 plant foods was assessed in L6 myotubes. Among them onion and ginger showed potent enhancement of glucose transport. This effect required new protein synthesis of glucose transporters. In addition, onion-induced glucose uptake in L6 myotubes was mediated through activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. PMID:20510475

  3. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. (a) Scope. This paragraph governs requests for... §§ 69.152, 69.153, and 69.154. (2) Services in the traffic-sensitive basket, as described in § 61.42(d)(2) of this chapter. (3) The traffic-sensitive components of tandem-switched transport services,...

  4. In-situ characterization of wastewater flow and transport from at-grade line sources to shallow groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldeyohannes, A. O.; Kachanoski, R. G.; Dyck, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    A better understanding of multidimensional unsaturated and saturated flow and transport under boundary conditions typical of on-site wastewater disposal systems is required to assess the risk to groundwater contamination. The main objective of this research is to characterize in-situ wastewater flow and transport from at-grade line sources on a shallow groundwater conditions. The research site was conducted at Wetaskiwin Rest Stop, Alberta, Canada, where ultraviolet disinfected wastewater has been disposed off to the ground via pressurized at-grade line sources since 2007. The site was characterized for wastewater plume and temporal groundwater fluctuation by using Electromagnetic induction (EM31) and (EM38); and by grid of 74 water table wells, 14 piezometers and 11 transducers. Groundwater was analyzed for selected tracers (pH, EC and Cl) and some microbiology (e.g. E. coli). From the results wastewater plume was identified; and wastewater plume center of mass and average flow direction were estimated. Along the horizontal plume center of mass, 30 monitoring wells in 10 nests and 31 temperature sensors in 5 nests were installed to get vertical resolution of the wastewater plume and to track contaminant transport over time. Results, implications and plans for future investigations will be presented. The research output will benefit future research on contaminant fate and transport and groundwater risk assessment plans. Key words: On-site wastewater treatment/disposal system, Wastewater plume, Groundwater contamination.

  5. AP Human Geography and Success on the AP Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncone, John; Newhalfen, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Classroom projects that explore culture and globalization enhance the curriculum and help students see how geography directly connects to their lives. These authors contend that a project-based approach can supplement the teaching of an AP Human Geography course, and visualize this course as an essential tool for students to truly understand how…

  6. AP Human Geography and Success on the AP Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncone, John; Newhalfen, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Classroom projects that explore culture and globalization enhance the curriculum and help students see how geography directly connects to their lives. These authors contend that a project-based approach can supplement the teaching of an AP Human Geography course, and visualize this course as an essential tool for students to truly understand how…

  7. Percolation, tie-lines, and the microstructural determinants of charge transport in semicrystalline conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spakowitz, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Semiconducting polymers play an important role in a wide range of optical and electronic material applications. It is widely accepted that the polymer ordering impacts charge transport in such devices. However, the connection between molecular ordering and device performance is difficult to predict due to the current need for a mathematical theory of the physics that dictates charge transport in semiconducting polymers. Here, we present a new analytical and computational description in which the morphology of individual polymer chains is dictated by well-known statistical models and the electronic coupling between units is determined using Marcus theory. This effort combines our research group's modeling efforts in polymer conformational properties and reaction-diffusion phenomena to address the multiscale dynamics of charge transport in a heterogeneous material. The resulting model is capable of bridging molecular-level charge transport mechanisms to large scale transport behavior, thus facilitating direct comparison with experiments. The multiscale transport of charges in these materials (high mobility at short length scales, low mobility at long length scales) is naturally described with our framework. Additionally, the dependence of mobility with electric field and temperature is explained in terms of conformational variability and spatial correlation. Our model offers a predictive approach to connecting processing conditions with transport behavior.

  8. Influence of a hot and humid environment on thermal transport across the interface between a Ag thin-film line and a substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Noguchi, Kyohei; Saka, Masumi

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the reliability of Ag thin-film lines for a wide range of applications in electronic devices, knowledge of the thermal transport across the interface between the line and the underlying substrate is of great importance. This is because such thermal transport significantly affects the temperature distribution in the line, the electrical performance of the line and the service life of the device the line is installed on. In this work, we examine the influence of a hot and humid environment on the thermal transport across the interface between a Ag thin-film line and a substrate. By performing a series of current-stressing experiments using the four-point probe method at atmospheric conditions (296 K and 30 RH%) on a Ag thin-film line for different durations of exposure to a hot and humid environment (323 K and 90 RH%), the electrical resistivity was found to increase with the exposure duration. Such an increase is believed to be the result of a decrease in the interfacial thermal conductance, which indicates less thermal transport from the line to the substrate. Moreover, by observing the surface morphology changes in the line and conducting a one-dimensional electro-thermal analysis, such variations can be attributed to the generation and growth of voids within the line, which hinder heat transfer from the line to the substrate through the interface.

  9. Charged-particle beam diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

    1992-10-01

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e{sup {minus}}, e{sup +}) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world`s brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

  10. Expression of AP-2 alpha in SV40 immortalized human lung fibroblasts is associated with a distinct pattern of cytosine methylation in the AP-2 alpha promoter.

    PubMed

    Zhu, C H; Huang, Y; Broman, M T; Domann, F E

    2001-05-28

    Activator protein-2 alpha (AP-2 alpha) is a cell type-specific, developmentally regulated, transcription factor that has been implicated as a critical regulator of gene expression during vertebrate development and carcinogenesis. We found that AP-2 alpha was differentially expressed in the normal human lung fibroblast cell strains WI38, MRC-5 and their respective SV40-transformed cell counterparts WI38-VA, MRC-5VA. Since CpG methylation within genetic regulatory regions has been implicated as a mechanism of gene regulation, we investigated the CpG methylation status of the AP-2 alpha gene promoter in these cells. High resolution mapping of methylated cytosines revealed that differential expression of the AP-2 alpha gene in normal human lung fibroblasts and their SV40-transformed counterparts was associated with distinct patterns of cytosine methylation in the AP-2 alpha promoter just 5' to the transcription initiation site. Site-specific methylation was positively correlated with increased AP-2 alpha gene expression in both transformed cell lines investigated. Interestingly, one of the two major centers of hypermethylation in the transformed cells encompassed the cis-element for the AP-2 repressing transcription factor AP-2rep (KLF12). Finally, a sequence variation in human lung fibroblasts relative to the published sequence revealed a previously unidentified AP-2 binding site at position -528 with respect to the transcription initiation site that overlapped the AP-2rep site. Our results suggest that transcriptional activation of AP-2 alpha in the SV40-transformed cells is mediated, at least in part, by site-specific methylation of a negative regulatory cis-element in the AP-2 alpha promoter. PMID:11406275

  11. Bidirectional FcRn-dependent IgG transport in a polarized human intestinal epithelial cell line

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Bonny L.; Badizadegan, Kamran; Wu, Zhen; Ahouse, Jeremy C.; Zhu, Xiaoping; Simister, Neil E.; Blumberg, Richard S.; Lencer, Wayne I.

    1999-01-01

    The MHC class I–related Fc receptor, FcRn, mediates the intestinal absorption of maternal IgG in neonatal rodents and the transplacental transport of maternal IgG in humans by receptor-mediated transcytosis. In mice and rats, expression of FcRn in intestinal epithelial cells is limited to the suckling period. We have recently observed, however, clear expression of FcRn in the adult human intestine, suggesting a function for FcRn in intestinal IgG transport beyond neonatal life in humans. We tested this hypothesis using the polarized human intestinal T84 cell line as a model epithelium. Immunocytochemical data show that FcRn is present in T84 cells in a punctate apical pattern similar to that found in human small intestinal enterocytes. Solute flux studies show that FcRn transports IgG across T84 monolayers by receptor-mediated transcytosis. Transport is bidirectional, specific for FcRn, and dependent upon endosomal acidification. These data define a novel bidirectional mechanism of IgG transport across epithelial barriers that predicts an important effect of FcRn on IgG function in immune surveillance and host defense at mucosal surfaces. PMID:10510331

  12. Numerical and experimental study of atomic transport and Balmer line intensity in Linac4 negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, T. Nishida, K.; Hatayama, A.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.

    2015-04-08

    Time structure of Balmer H{sub ?} line intensity in Linac4 RF plasma has been analyzed by the combined simulation model of atomic transport and Collisional-Radiative models. As a preliminary result, time variation of the line intensity in the ignition phase of RF plasma is calculated and compared with the experimental results by photometry. For the comparison, spatial distribution of the local H{sub ?} photon emission rate at each time is calculated from the numerical model. The contribution of the local photon emission rates to the observed line intensity via optical viewing port is also investigated by application of the mock-up of the optical viewing port and the known light source. It has been clarified from the analyses that the higher and the lower peaks of the H{sub ?} line intensity observed during 1 RF cycle is mainly due to the different spatial distributions in the electron energy distribution function and the resultant local photon emission rate. These results support previous suggestion that the existence of the capacitive electric field in axial direction leads to the higher/lower peaks of the line intensity.

  13. Numerical and experimental study of atomic transport and Balmer line intensity in Linac4 negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, T.; Mattei, S.; Nishida, K.; Lettry, J.; Hatayama, A.

    2015-04-01

    Time structure of Balmer H? line intensity in Linac4 RF plasma has been analyzed by the combined simulation model of atomic transport and Collisional-Radiative models. As a preliminary result, time variation of the line intensity in the ignition phase of RF plasma is calculated and compared with the experimental results by photometry. For the comparison, spatial distribution of the local H? photon emission rate at each time is calculated from the numerical model. The contribution of the local photon emission rates to the observed line intensity via optical viewing port is also investigated by application of the mock-up of the optical viewing port and the known light source. It has been clarified from the analyses that the higher and the lower peaks of the H? line intensity observed during 1 RF cycle is mainly due to the different spatial distributions in the electron energy distribution function and the resultant local photon emission rate. These results support previous suggestion that the existence of the capacitive electric field in axial direction leads to the higher/lower peaks of the line intensity.

  14. On the abundance of Europium. [in Ap and Am stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartoog, M. R.; Cowley, C. R.; Adelman, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    The inclusion of the effects of hyperfine splitting can significantly lower the abundance estimate of Eu from singly ionized lines which lie on the flat portion of the curve of growth. In the 21 cool Ap stars studied by Adelman and the five Am stars studied by Smith, the Eu abundance was reduced by 0.4 dex on the average. In individual cases, the reductions were as great as 0.9 dex. This makes the Eu abundance comparable to that of its neighboring rare earths Sm and Gd in the Ap stars and less than Sm and Gd in the Am stars, but still substantially overabundant with respect to solar values.

  15. Obesity-Linked Homologues TfAP-2 and Twz Establish Meal Frequency in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael J.; Goergen, Philip; Rajendran, Jayasimman; Zheleznyakova, Galina; Hägglund, Maria G.; Perland, Emelie; Bagchi, Sonchita; Kalogeropoulou, Argyro; Khan, Zaid; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2014-01-01

    In all animals managing the size of individual meals and frequency of feeding is crucial for metabolic homeostasis. In the current study we demonstrate that the noradrenalin analogue octopamine and the cholecystokinin (CCK) homologue Drosulfakinin (Dsk) function downstream of TfAP-2 and Tiwaz (Twz) to control the number of meals in adult flies. Loss of TfAP-2 or Twz in octopaminergic neurons increased the size of individual meals, while overexpression of TfAP-2 significantly decreased meal size and increased feeding frequency. Of note, our study reveals that TfAP-2 and Twz regulate octopamine signaling to initiate feeding; then octopamine, in a negative feedback loop, induces expression of Dsk to inhibit consummatory behavior. Intriguingly, we found that the mouse TfAP-2 and Twz homologues, AP-2β and Kctd15, co-localize in areas of the brain known to regulate feeding behavior and reward, and a proximity ligation assay (PLA) demonstrated that AP-2β and Kctd15 interact directly in a mouse hypothalamus-derived cell line. Finally, we show that in this mouse hypothalamic cell line AP-2β and Kctd15 directly interact with Ube2i, a mouse sumoylation enzyme, and that AP-2β may itself be sumoylated. Our study reveals how two obesity-linked homologues regulate metabolic homeostasis by modulating consummatory behavior. PMID:25187989

  16. Bicarbonate-dependent chloride transport drives fluid secretion by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jiajie; Liao, Jie; Huang, Junwei; Robert, Renaud; Palmer, Melissa L; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; O'Grady, Scott M; Hanrahan, John W

    2012-01-01

    Anion and fluid secretion are both defective in cystic fibrosis (CF); however, the transport mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Cl− and HCO3− secretion was measured using genetically matched CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient and CFTR-expressing cell lines derived from the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3. Forskolin stimulated the short-circuit current (Isc) across voltage-clamped monolayers, and also increased the equivalent short-circuit current (Ieq) calculated under open-circuit conditions. Isc was equivalent to the HCO3− net flux measured using the pH-stat technique, whereas Ieq was the sum of the Cl− and HCO3− net fluxes. Ieq and HCO3− fluxes were increased by bafilomycin and ZnCl2, suggesting that some secreted HCO3− is neutralized by parallel electrogenic H+ secretion. Ieq and fluid secretion were dependent on the presence of both Na+ and HCO3−. The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide abolished forskolin stimulation of Ieq and HCO3− secretion, suggesting that HCO3− transport under these conditions requires catalysed synthesis of carbonic acid. Cl− was the predominant anion in secretions under all conditions studied and thus drives most of the fluid transport. Nevertheless, 50–70% of Cl− and fluid transport was bumetanide-insensitive, suggesting basolateral Cl− loading by a sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1)-independent mechanism. Imposing a transepithelial HCO3− gradient across basolaterally permeabilized Calu-3 cells sustained a forskolin-stimulated current, which was sensitive to CFTR inhibitors and drastically reduced in CFTR-deficient cells. Net HCO3− secretion was increased by bilateral Cl− removal and therefore did not require apical Cl−/HCO3− exchange. The results suggest a model in which most HCO3− is recycled basolaterally by exchange with Cl−, and the resulting HCO3−-dependent Cl− transport provides an osmotic driving force for fluid secretion. PMID:22777674

  17. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  18. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  19. Coaching in the AP Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Many parallels exist between quality coaches and quality classroom teachers--especially AP teachers, who often feel the pressure to produce positive test results. Having developed a series of techniques and strategies for building a team-oriented winning culture on the field, Jim Fornaciari writes about how he adapted those methods to work in the…

  20. The Clathrin Adaptor Complex AP-1 Binds HIV-1 and MLV Gag and Facilitates Their Budding

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Grégory; Segura-Morales, Carolina; Molle, Dorothee; Lopez-Vergès, Sandra; Begon-Pescia, Christina; Cazevieille, Chantal; Schu, Peter; Bertrand, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    Retroviral assembly is driven by Gag, and nascent viral particles escape cells by recruiting the machinery that forms intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies. In this study, we show that the clathrin adaptor complex AP-1 is involved in retroviral release. The absence of AP-1? obtained by genetic knock-out or by RNA interference reduces budding of murine leukemia virus (MLV) and HIV-1, leading to a delay of viral propagation in cell culture. In contrast, overexpression of AP-1? enhances release of HIV-1 Gag. We show that the AP-1 complex facilitates retroviral budding through a direct interaction between the matrix and AP-1?. Less MLV Gag is found associated with late endosomes in cells lacking AP-1, and our results suggest that AP-1 and AP-3 could function on the same pathway that leads to Gag release. In addition, we find that AP-1 interacts with Tsg101 and Nedd4.1, two cellular proteins known to be involved in HIV-1 and MLV budding. We propose that AP-1 promotes Gag release by transporting it to intracellular sites of active budding, and/or by facilitating its interactions with other cellular partners. PMID:17538020

  1. Generation of a cre recombinase-conditional Nos1ap over-expression transgenic mouse.

    PubMed

    Auer, Dallas R; Sysa-Shah, Polina; Bedja, Djahida; Simmers, Jessica L; Pak, Evgenia; Dutra, Amalia; Cohn, Ronald; Gabrielson, Kathleen L; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Kapoor, Ashish

    2014-06-01

    Polymorphic non-coding variants at the NOS1AP locus have been associated with the common cardiac, metabolic and neurological traits and diseases. Although, in vitro gene targeting-based cellular and biochemical studies have shed some light on NOS1AP function in cardiac and neuronal tissue, to enhance our understanding of NOS1AP function in mammalian physiology and disease, we report the generation of cre recombinase-conditional Nos1ap over-expression transgenic mice (Nos1ap (Tg)). Conditional transgenic mice were generated by the pronuclear injection method and three independent, single-site, multiple copies integration event-based founder lines were selected. For heart-restricted over-expression, Nos1ap (Tg) mice were crossed with Mlc2v-cre and Nos1ap transcript over-expression was observed in left ventricles from Nos1ap (Tg); Mlc2v-cre F1 mice. We believe that with the potential of conditional over-expression, Nos1ap (Tg) mice will be a useful resource in studying NOS1AP function in various tissues under physiological and disease states. PMID:24563304

  2. Low Earth orbit assessment of proton anisotropy using AP8 and AP9 trapped proton models.

    PubMed

    Badavi, Francis F; Walker, Steven A; Santos Koos, Lindsey M

    2015-04-01

    The completion of the International Space Station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community with an ideal evaluation and testing facility for future long duration human activities in space. Ionized and secondary neutral particles radiation measurements inside ISS form the ideal tool for validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear reaction cross sections and transport codes. Studies using thermo-luminescent detectors (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TPEC), and computer aided design (CAD) models of early ISS configurations confirmed that, as input, computational dosimetry at low Earth orbit (LEO) requires an environmental model with directional (anisotropic) capability to properly describe the exposure of trapped protons within ISS. At LEO, ISS encounters exposure from trapped electrons, protons and geomagnetically attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). For short duration studies at LEO, one can ignore trapped electrons and ever present GCR exposure contributions during quiet times. However, within the trapped proton field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of proton exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensity of trapped particles. Among the established trapped models are the historic AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution to ISS, this work ignores the AE8 and AE9 components of the models and couples a measurement derived anisotropic trapped proton formalism to omnidirectional output from the AP8 and AP9 models, allowing the assessment of the differences between the two proton models. The assessment is done at a target point within the ISS-11A configuration (circa 2003) crew quarter (CQ) of Russian Zvezda service module (SM), during its ascending and descending nodes passes through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). The anisotropic formalism incorporates the contributions of proton narrow pitch angle (PA) and east-west (EW) effects. Within SAA, the EW anisotropy results in different level of exposure to each side of the ISS Zvezda SM, allowing angular evaluation of the anisotropic proton spectrum. While the combined magnitude of PA and EW effects at LEO depends on a multitude of factors such as trapped proton energy, orientation and altitude of the spacecraft along the velocity vector, this paper draws quantitative conclusions on the combined anisotropic magnitude differences within ISS SM target point between AP8 and AP9 models. PMID:26177846

  3. Cell kinetics of differentiation of Na/sup +/-dependent hexose transport in a cultured renal epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.S.; Weiss, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Fully differentiated cells of the renal proximal tubule have the capability of taking up hexoses across their apical borders by transport coupled to the Na/sup +/-electrochemical gradient. This property is also found in postconfluent cultures of the cloned cell line LLC-PK/sub 1/, a morphologically polarized line of renal cells. Postconfluent cells develop the Na/sup +/-dependent capacity to transport hexoses at their apical surface. This function is not observable during the growth phase of the cultures. To analyze the developmental process at the cellular level a method has been derived to separate transporting cells, expressing the differentiated function, from nontransporting cells. The method is based on the swelling of the cells accompanying the uptake of the nonmetabolizable glucose analog alpha methylglucoside. The swollen cells have a lower buoyant density than the undifferentiated cells and may be separated from them on density gradients. Analysis of the distribution of cells on such gradients shows that after the cells reach confluence the undifferentiated subpopulation is recruited onto the differentiation pathway with a rate constant of 0.2 per day, that 5 to 7 days are required for a cell to traverse this pathway to the fully differentiated state, and that once the maximum uptake capacity is achieved the cells do not develop further.

  4. APS beamline standard components handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  5. Transepithelial transport of putrescine across monolayers of the human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2

    PubMed Central

    Milovic, Vladan; Turchanowa, Lyudmila; Stein, Jürgen; Caspary, Wolfgang F.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the transepithelial transport characteristics of the polyamine putrescine in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers to elucidate the mechanisms of the putrescine intestinal absorption. METHODS: The transepithelial transport and the cellular accumulation of putrescine was measured using Caco-2 cell monolayers grown on permeable filters. RESULTS: Transepithelial transport of putrescine in physiological concentrations ( > 0.5 mM) from the apical to basolateral side was linear. Intracellular accumulation of putrescine was higher in confluent than in fully differentiated Caco-2 cells, but still negligible (less than 0.5%) of the overall transport across the monolayers in apical to basolateral direction.EGF enhanced putrescine accumulation in Caco-2 cells by four fold, as well as putrescine conversion to spermidine and spermine by enhancing the activity of S adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. However, EGF did not have any significant influence on putrescine flux across the Caco- 2 cell monolayers. Excretion of putrescine from Caco-2 cells into the basolateral medium did not exceed 50 picomoles, while putrescine passive flux from the apical to the basolateral chamber, contributed hundreds of micromoles polyamines to the basolateral chamber. CONCLUSION: Transepithelial transport of putrescine across Caco-2 cell monolayers occurs in passive diffusion, and is not influenced when epithelial cells are stimulated to proliferate by a potent mitogen such as EGF. PMID:11819759

  6. The Adaptor Complex AP-4 Regulates Vacuolar Protein Sorting at the trans-Golgi Network by Interacting with VACUOLAR SORTING RECEPTOR1.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kentaro; Shirakawa, Makoto; Shimono, Yuki; Kunieda, Tadashi; Fukao, Yoichiro; Koumoto, Yasuko; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Shimada, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes play critical roles in protein sorting among different post-Golgi pathways by recognizing specific cargo protein motifs. Among the five AP complexes (AP-1-AP-5) in plants, AP-4 is one of the most poorly understood; the AP-4 components, AP-4 cargo motifs, and AP-4 functional mechanism are not known. Here, we identify the AP-4 components and show that the AP-4 complex regulates receptor-mediated vacuolar protein sorting by recognizing VACUOLAR SORTING RECEPTOR1 (VSR1), which was originally identified as a sorting receptor for seed storage proteins to target protein storage vacuoles in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). From the vacuolar sorting mutant library GREEN FLUORESCENT SEED (GFS), we isolated three gfs mutants that accumulate abnormally high levels of VSR1 in seeds and designated them as gfs4, gfs5, and gfs6. Their responsible genes encode three (AP4B, AP4M, and AP4S) of the four subunits of the AP-4 complex, respectively, and an Arabidopsis mutant (ap4e) lacking the fourth subunit, AP4E, also had the same phenotype. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that these four proteins form a complex in vivo. The four mutants showed defects in the vacuolar sorting of the major storage protein 12S globulins, indicating a role for the AP-4 complex in vacuolar protein transport. AP4M bound to the tyrosine-based motif of VSR1. AP4M localized at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) subdomain that is distinct from the AP-1-localized TGN subdomain. This study provides a novel function for the AP-4 complex in VSR1-mediated vacuolar protein sorting at the specialized domain of the TGN. PMID:26546666

  7. Time resolved spectroscopy of the cool Ap star HD 213637*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present an analysis of high time resolution spectra of the chemically peculiar Ap star HD 213637. The star shows rapid radial velocity variations with a period close to the photometric pulsation period. Radial velocity pulsation amplitudes vary significantly for different rare earth elements. The highest pulsation amplitudes belong to lines of Tb III (˜360 m s-1), Pr II (˜250 m s-1) and Pr III (˜230 m s-1). We did not detect any pulsations from spectral lines of Eu II and in Hα, in contrast to many other roAp stars. We also did not find radial velocity pulsations using spectral lines of other chemical elements, including Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba. There are phase shifts between the maxima of pulsation amplitudes of different rare earth elements and ions, which is evidence of an outwardly running magneto-acoustic wave propagating through the upper stellar atmosphere.

  8. A generalized framework for in-line energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Griesheimer, D. P.; Stedry, M. H.

    2013-07-01

    A rigorous treatment of energy deposition in a Monte Carlo transport calculation, including coupled transport of all secondary and tertiary radiations, increases the computational cost of a simulation dramatically, making fully-coupled heating impractical for many large calculations, such as 3-D analysis of nuclear reactor cores. However, in some cases, the added benefit from a full-fidelity energy-deposition treatment is negligible, especially considering the increased simulation run time. In this paper we present a generalized framework for the in-line calculation of energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo transport simulations. This framework gives users the ability to select among several energy-deposition approximations with varying levels of fidelity. The paper describes the computational framework, along with derivations of four energy-deposition treatments. Each treatment uses a unique set of self-consistent approximations, which ensure that energy balance is preserved over the entire problem. By providing several energy-deposition treatments, each with different approximations for neglecting the energy transport of certain secondary radiations, the proposed framework provides users the flexibility to choose between accuracy and computational efficiency. Numerical results are presented, comparing heating results among the four energy-deposition treatments for a simple reactor/compound shielding problem. The results illustrate the limitations and computational expense of each of the four energy-deposition treatments. (authors)

  9. Different Behavioral and Physiological Response in two Genetic Lines of Laying Hens Following Transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological and behavioral response to transportation stress were examined in chickens selected for high group productivity and survivability (HGPS) resulting from reduced cannibalism and flightiness in colony cages and in chickens from Dekalb XL (DXL) commercial strain. At 13 wks of age, 96 pulle...

  10. Paracellular Transport through Healthy and Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cell Lines – Do We Have a Proper Model?

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Nelly; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Günzel, Dorothee; Schillers, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported recently that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) besides transcellular chloride transport, also controls the paracellular permeability of bronchial epithelium. The aim of this study was to test whether overexpressing wtCFTR solely regulates paracellular permeability of cell monolayers. To answer this question we used a CFBE41o– cell line transfected with wtCFTR or mutant F508del-CFTR and compered them with parental line and healthy 16HBE14o– cells. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular fluorescein flux were measured under control and CFTR-stimulating conditions. CFTR stimulation significant decreased TER in 16HBE14o– and also in CFBE41o– cells transfected with wtCFTR. In contrast, TER increased upon stimulation in CFBE41o– cells and CFBE41o– cells transfected with F508del-CFTR. Under non-stimulated conditions, all four cell lines had similar paracellular fluorescein flux. Stimulation increased only the paracellular permeability of the 16HBE14o– cell monolayers. We observed that 16HBE14o– cells were significantly smaller and showed a different structure of cell-cell contacts than CFBE41o– and its overexpressing clones. Consequently, 16HBE14o– cells have about 80% more cell-cell contacts through which electrical current and solutes can leak. Also tight junction protein composition is different in ‘healthy’ 16HBE14o– cells compared to ‘cystic fibrosis’ CFBE41o– cells. We found that claudin-3 expression was considerably stronger in 16HBE14o– cells than in the three CFBE41o– cell clones and thus independent of the presence of functional CFTR. Together, CFBE41o– cell line transfection with wtCFTR modifies transcellular conductance, but not the paracellular permeability. We conclude that CFTR overexpression is not sufficient to fully reconstitute transport in CF bronchial epithelium. Hence, it is not recommended to use those cell lines to study CFTR-dependent epithelial transport. PMID:24945658

  11. Adaptor protein complexes and intracellular transport

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Yoon; Guo, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    The AP (adaptor protein) complexes are heterotetrameric protein complexes that mediate intracellular membrane trafficking along endocytic and secretory transport pathways. There are five different AP complexes: AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 are clathrin-associated complexes; whereas AP-4 and AP-5 are not. These five AP complexes localize to different intracellular compartments and mediate membrane trafficking in distinct pathways. They recognize and concentrate cargo proteins into vesicular carriers that mediate transport from a donor membrane to a target organellar membrane. AP complexes play important roles in maintaining the normal physiological function of eukaryotic cells. Dysfunction of AP complexes has been implicated in a variety of inherited disorders, including: MEDNIK (mental retardation, enteropathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, ichthyosis and keratodermia) syndrome, Fried syndrome, HPS (Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome) and HSP (hereditary spastic paraplegia). PMID:24975939

  12. The Role of the Clathrin Adaptor AP-1: Polarized Sorting and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The selective transport of proteins or lipids by vesicular transport is a fundamental process supporting cellular physiology. The budding process involves cargo sorting and vesicle formation at the donor membrane and constitutes an important process in vesicular transport. This process is particularly important for the polarized sorting in epithelial cells, in which the cargo molecules need to be selectively sorted and transported to two distinct destinations, the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Adaptor protein (AP)-1, a member of the AP complex family, which includes the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A and the epithelium-specific AP-1B, regulates polarized sorting at the trans-Golgi network and/or at the recycling endosomes. A growing body of evidence, especially from studies using model organisms and animals, demonstrates that the AP-1-mediated polarized sorting supports the development and physiology of multi-cellular units as functional organs and tissues (e.g., cell fate determination, inflammation and gut immune homeostasis). Furthermore, a possible involvement of AP-1B in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as Crohn's disease and cancer, is now becoming evident. These data highlight the significant contribution of AP-1 complexes to the physiology of multicellular organisms, as master regulators of polarized sorting in epithelial cells. PMID:25387275

  13. The Role of the Clathrin Adaptor AP-1: Polarized Sorting and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The selective transport of proteins or lipids by vesicular transport is a fundamental process supporting cellular physiology. The budding process involves cargo sorting and vesicle formation at the donor membrane and constitutes an important process in vesicular transport. This process is particularly important for the polarized sorting in epithelial cells, in which the cargo molecules need to be selectively sorted and transported to two distinct destinations, the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Adaptor protein (AP)-1, a member of the AP complex family, which includes the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A and the epithelium-specific AP-1B, regulates polarized sorting at the trans-Golgi network and/or at the recycling endosomes. A growing body of evidence, especially from studies using model organisms and animals, demonstrates that the AP-1-mediated polarized sorting supports the development and physiology of multi-cellular units as functional organs and tissues (e.g., cell fate determination, inflammation and gut immune homeostasis). Furthermore, a possible involvement of AP-1B in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and cancer, is now becoming evident. These data highlight the significant contribution of AP-1 complexes to the physiology of multicellular organisms, as master regulators of polarized sorting in epithelial cells. PMID:25387275

  14. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  15. An AP Calculus Classroom Amusement Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the school year, AP Calculus teachers strive to teach course content comprehensively and swiftly in an effort to finish all required material before the AP Calculus exam. As early May approaches and the AP Calculus test looms, students and teachers nervously complete lessons, assignments, and assessments to ensure student preparation.…

  16. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  17. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A.; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Midttun, Øystein; University of Oslo, Oslo

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  18. The APS in Public Affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2000-04-01

    Although the American Physical Society was created for the interchange of scientific ideas, the call to the founding meeting included the observation that the organization "could not fail to have an important influence in all matters affecting the interest of physicists". However for most of its history APS did not behave like "just another interest group in American society". Instead, at the beginning, it limited itself to such successful initiatives as the creation of the Bureau of Standards and such unsuccessful ones as adoption of the metric system. After World War II, speaking out on behalf of the freedom of science and scientists, such as Astin, Condon, and Oppenheimer, became important. In the 1970's, pushed by members, the Society became more "political", sponsoring sessions and studies on defense issues, taking a stand for the Equal Rights Amendment and creating the Panel on Public Affairs and the Forum on Physics and Society. Only in the last fifteen years has the APS unabashedly lobbied for the economic interests of physics and physicists. Adopting this new, if unavoidable role may have unintended consequences for the willingness and effectiveness of APS in speaking out on other public issues.

  19. The APS control system network

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K.V.; McDowell, W.P.

    1995-12-31

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the {open_quotes}Standard Model.{close_quotes} The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions.

  20. Going below the line: creating transportable brands for Australia's dark market

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate non-point-of-sale cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents. Results: The tobacco industry has continued to market their products despite severe restrictions on legal marketing activity. They made careful plans to circumvent regulation well in advance. In preparation for bans, they chose and strengthened existing brands to enable their continued success in a dark market and prepared the consumer for bans by increasing their spending on below the line activities. Bans reduced the industry's effectiveness and efficiency. After bans new brand launches stopped: instead key existing brands were strengthened via alterations to the product, line extensions, and stretching loopholes in the legislation as far as possible. In line with the general trend towards integrated marketing, a range of activities have been used in combination, including guerrilla marketing, advertising in imported international magazines, altering the pack, sponsorships, brand stretching, event promotions, lifestyle premiums, and the development of corporate websites. Conclusions: The tobacco industry acknowledges that marketing restrictions have an impact, validating their continued use in tobacco control. The industry is extremely creative in circumventing these marketing restrictions, requiring tobacco marketing regulations to be informed by marketing expertise, regularly updated, and to adopt the broadest possible scope. Tobacco control advocates, particularly those communicating with young people, could learn from the creativity of the tobacco industry. PMID:14645953

  1. BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 Proteins Function in Concert with Rab38 and Rab32 Proteins to Mediate Protein Trafficking to Lysosome-related Organelles*

    PubMed Central

    Bultema, Jarred J.; Ambrosio, Andrea L.; Burek, Carolyn L.; Di Pietro, Santiago M.

    2012-01-01

    Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) are synthesized in specialized cell types where they largely coexist with conventional lysosomes. Most of the known cellular transport machinery involved in biogenesis are ubiquitously expressed and shared between lysosomes and LROs. Examples of common components are the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelle complex (BLOC)-2. These protein complexes control sorting and transport of newly synthesized integral membrane proteins from early endosomes to both lysosomes and LROs such as the melanosome. However, it is unknown what factors cooperate with the ubiquitous transport machinery to mediate transport to LROs in specialized cells. Focusing on the melanosome, we show that the ubiquitous machinery interacts with cell type-specific Rab proteins, Rab38 and Rab32, to facilitate transport to the maturing organelle. BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 coimmunoprecipitated with Rab38 and Rab32 from MNT-1 melanocytic cell extracts. BLOC-2, AP-3, AP-1, and clathrin partially colocalized with Rab38 and Rab32 by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy in MNT-1 cells. Rab38- and Rab32-deficient MNT-1 cells displayed abnormal trafficking and steady state levels of known cargoes of the BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 pathways, the melanin-synthesizing enzymes tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1. These observations support the idea that Rab38 and Rab32 are the specific factors that direct the ubiquitous machinery to mediate transport from early endosomes to maturing LROs. Additionally, analysis of tyrosinase-related protein-2 and total melanin production indicates that Rab32 has unique functions that cannot be carried out by Rab38 in melanosome biogenesis. PMID:22511774

  2. Anomalous, quasilinear, and percolative regimes for magnetic-field-line transport in axially symmetric turbulence

    PubMed

    Zimbardo; Veltri; Pommois

    2000-02-01

    We studied a magnetic turbulence axisymmetric around the unperturbed magnetic field for cases having different ratios l( ||)/l( perpendicular). We find, in addition to the fact that a higher fluctuation level deltaB/B(0) makes the system more stochastic, that by increasing the ratio l( ||)/l( perpendicular) at fixed deltaB/B(0), the stochasticity increases. It appears that the different transport regimes can be organized in terms of the Kubo number R=(deltaB/B(0))(l( ||)/l( perpendicular)). The simulation results are compared with the two analytical limits, that is the percolative limit and the quasilinear limit. When R<1 weak chaos, closed magnetic surfaces, and anomalous transport regimes are found. When R approximately 1 the diffusion regime is Gaussian, and the quasilinear scaling of the diffusion coefficient D( perpendicular) approximately (deltaB/B(0))(2) is recovered. Finally, for R>1 the percolation scaling of the diffusion coefficient D( perpendicular) approximately (deltaB/B(0))(0.7) is obtained. PMID:11046480

  3. AP reclamation and reuse in RSRM propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miks, Kathryn F.; Harris, Stacey A.

    1995-01-01

    A solid propellant ingredient reclamation pilot plant has been evaluated at the Strategic Operations of Thiokol Corporation, located in Brigham City, Utah. The plant produces AP wet cake (95 percent AP, 5 percent water) for recycling at AP vendors. AP has been obtained from two standard propellant binder systems (PBAN and HTPB). Analytical work conducted at Thiokol indicates that the vendor-recrystallized AP meets Space Shuttle propellant specification requirements. Thiokol has processed 1-, 5-, and 600-gallon propellant mixes with the recrystallized AP. Processing, cast, cure, ballistic, mechanical, and safety properties have been evaluated. Phillips Laboratory static-test-fired 70-pound and 800-pound BATES motors. The data indicate that propellant processed with reclaimed AP has nominal properties.

  4. Ion transport and barrier function in a telomerase-immortalized human nondysplastic, Barrett's cell line (BAR-T).

    PubMed

    Jovov, Biljana; Orlando, Geraldine S; Tobey, Nelia A; Brown, Karen L; Djukic, Zorka; Carson, John L; Brighton, Louisa E; Orlando, Roy C

    2009-01-01

    Barrett's specialized columnar epithelium (SCE) replaces reflux-damaged squamous epithelium. The benefits of SCE lie in its superior protection of the esophagus against further reflux damage. It was shown that this protection is dependent on ion transport and barrier function of SCE. The risks of SCE lie in its higher predisposition to malignant transformation. An understanding of underlying mechanisms of both processes would benefit considerably from greater knowledge of the structure and function of native SCE - the latter recently advanced by the availability of a telomerase-immortalized, nonneoplastic, human Barrett's cell line (BAR-T). Some of BAR-T characteristics for growth and differentiation have been described recently, but not its capacity to serve as a model for ion transport and barrier function of SCE. To determine the latter, BAR-T cells were grown in enriched media, seeded on permeable supports, and subjected to electrical, biochemical, and morphologic study. HET-1A (esophageal epithelial cell line), a nonneoplastic, human esophageal squamous cell line, was also studied for comparison. BAR-T, but not HET-1A cells in HEPES Ringer solution behaved as polarized monolayers with the capacity for ion transport and barrier function. This was evident electrically with a volt-ohm meter (EVOM),which recorded in BAR-T a resting potential difference of 2.0 +/- 0.2 mV, Isc of 17.4 +/- 3.3 microAmps/cm2 and resistance of 103 +/- 12 ohms x cm2. Further, Isc in BAR-T was inhibitable by exposure to Na-free solution, serosal ouabain, and luminal 4-acetamido4'-isothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid. Expression of tight junction genes were determined in BAR-T and HET-1A cells using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, with expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) set at 1 as reference. Claudins 1, 4, and 12 were prominently expressed in BAR-T (0.2-0.6 of ZO-1), while claudins 1, 11, and 12 were prominently expressed in HET-1A(0.1-0.8 of ZO-1). BAR-T, but not HET-1A, expressed claudins 4, 8, 16, 18, and 23, and HET-1A, but not BAR-T, expressed claudins 11, 15, and 20. Protein expression of prominently expressed claudins in BAR-T correlated with mRNA expression. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy localized claudins 1 and 4 in BAR-T to cell membranes and claudin 18, specifically to the tight junction. Membrane polarization was also documented in BAR-T by immunolocalization of NaK,ATPase to the basolateral membrane. BAR-T, but not HET-1A cells grown on permeable supports form a polarized monolayer with both ion transport and barrier function. Since a number of features of BAR-T are similar to Barrett's SCE and distinct from HET-1A, the BAR-T cell line represents a valuable resource for the study of ion transport and barrier function of nondysplastic SCE. PMID:19673046

  5. Variability of Balmer Profiles in Magnetic Ap/Bp Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyavin, G.; Lee, B.-C.; Shulyak, D.; Han, I.; Kochukhov, O.; Khang, D.-I.; Kim, K.-M.

    2007-06-01

    A set of high precision measurements of weak variations of hydrogen lines in spectra of seven magnetic Ap/Bp stars was carried out using the BOES echelle spectrograph of the Bohuynsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (South Korea). A weak (1-2 %) periodic variability of the Balmer line wings has been detected in the spectra of 2 program stars. Upper limits of possible variations are presented for the remaining 5 objects. We discuss the discovered variability in the framework of model atmospheres with magnetic force terms included. The periodic changes in the Balmer profiles are caused by perturbations in atmospheres of Ap/Bp stars due to their rotationally modulated non-force-free magnetic fields.

  6. Effects of Transport Inhibitors on the Cellular Uptake of Carboxylated Polystyrene Nanoparticles in Different Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Tiago; Varela, Juan; Lynch, Iseult; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to play a vital role in the rapidly developing field of nanomedicine, creating innovative solutions and therapies for currently untreatable diseases, and providing new tools for various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and gene therapy. In order to optimize the efficacy of nanoparticle (NP) delivery to cells, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms by which NPs are internalized by cells, as this will likely determine their ultimate sub-cellular fate and localisation. Here we have used pharmacological inhibitors of some of the major endocytic pathways to investigate nanoparticle uptake mechanisms in a range of representative human cell lines, including HeLa (cervical cancer), A549 (lung carcinoma) and 1321N1 (brain astrocytoma). Chlorpromazine and genistein were used to inhibit clathrin and caveolin mediated endocytosis, respectively. Cytochalasin A and nocodazole were used to inhibit, respectively, the polymerisation of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Uptake experiments were performed systematically across the different cell lines, using carboxylated polystyrene NPs of 40 nm and 200 nm diameters, as model NPs of sizes comparable to typical endocytic cargoes. The results clearly indicated that, in all cases and cell types, NPs entered cells via active energy dependent processes. NP uptake in HeLa and 1321N1 cells was strongly affected by actin depolymerisation, while A549 cells showed a stronger inhibition of NP uptake (in comparison to the other cell types) after microtubule disruption and treatment with genistein. A strong reduction of NP uptake was observed after chlorpromazine treatment only in the case of 1321N1 cells. These outcomes suggested that the same NP might exploit different uptake mechanisms to enter different cell types. PMID:21949717

  7. Development and Characterization of a Novel Mouse Line Humanized for the Intestinal Peptide Transporter PEPT1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, but not colon, of mammals and found to mediate the uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs from the intestinal lumen. However, species differences have been observed in both the expression (and localization) of PEPT1 and its substrate affinity. With this in mind, the objectives of this study were to develop a humanized PEPT1 mouse model (huPEPT1) and to characterize hPEPT1 expression and functional activity in the intestines. Thus, after generating huPEPT1 mice in animals previously nulled for mouse Pept1, phenotypic, PCR, and immunoblot analyses were performed, along with in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies with a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar). Overall, the huPEPT1 mice had normal survival rates, fertility, litter size, gender distribution, and body weight. There was no obvious behavioral or pathological phenotype. The mRNA and protein profiles indicated that huPEPT1 mice had substantial PEPT1 expression in all regions of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) along with low but measurable expression in both proximal and distal segments of the colon. In agreement with PEPT1 expression, the in situ permeability of GlySar in huPEPT1 mice was similar to but lower than wildtype animals in small intestine, and greater than wildtype mice in colon. However, a species difference existed in the in situ transport kinetics of jejunal PEPT1, in which the maximal flux and Michaelis constant of GlySar were reduced 7-fold and 2- to 4-fold, respectively, in huPEPT1 compared to wildtype mice. Still, the in vivo function of intestinal PEPT1 appeared fully restored (compared to Pept1 knockout mice) as indicated by the nearly identical pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration–time profiles following a 5.0 nmol/g oral dose of GlySar to huPEPT1 and wildtype mice. This study reports, for the first time, the development and characterization of mice humanized for PEPT1. This novel transgenic huPEPT1 mouse model should prove useful in examining the role, relevance, and regulation of PEPT1 in diet and disease, and in the drug discovery process. PMID:25148225

  8. A three-channel LED driver with single line transportation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Caideng; Du, Yiying; Jiang, Qiao; Zhou, Yun; Lv, Jian

    2012-10-01

    Designed a three-channel LED driver, realized the single-wire transmission of cascade signal between the drive IC of LED. Including the MCU digital interface, date register, clock synchronization, PWM grayscale adjustment circuit, as well as high voltage driver circuit for LED, etc… The driver control LED displaying 256 gray. Chip will generate synchronous sampling clock signals according to the received serial signals, when 24 bits dates have been received, the output pin begins to transport the dates followed-up which are automotive shaped to the input of the next chip. When the date receiving becomes low level that represent RESET, the red, green and blue channels will export different signals based on different input dates. Through the external MCU, it is realized the Separate luminance, and by connecting chips in series it achieved the control of outdoor big screen' colorful display. The automatic shaping forward technique makes the number of chips cascading immune to the limitations of signal transmission, but only limited by the refresh speed.

  9. Gas Transport and Density Control in the HYLIFE Heavy-Ion Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Debonnel, Christophe S.; Welch, Dale R.; Rose, David V.; Lawrence, Simon S.Yu; Peterson, Per F

    2003-05-15

    The effective propagation and focusing of heavy-ion beams in the final-focus magnet region of inertial fusion target chambers require controlling the background gas density and pressure in the beam tubes. Liquid vortexes will coat the inside of the tubes next to the beam ports and will help eliminate the need for mechanical shutters to mitigate the venting of target chamber background gas into the final-focus magnet region. Before the neutralizing region, the beam space charge is high, and ablation and target debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region may cause voltage breakdown. Previous studies focused on evaluating the amount of target chamber debris reaching the entrance of the beam ports. The TSUNAMI code has now been used to assess the density, temperature, and velocity of the vortex debris transported {approx}3 m up the beam tubes and reaching the final-focus magnet region, assuming that the liquid vortexes are perfectly absorbing surfaces. To further mitigate debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region, and prevent voltage breakdown, a 'magnetic shutter' has been envisaged to divert the debris out of the final-focus region. This shutter will prevent the hot ablation debris from reaching the magnet region and, coupled to some ionizing scheme, will conveniently suppress early ingression of debris into the final-focus magnet region.

  10. A transverse emittance and acceptance measurement system in a low-energy beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, H. Miyawaki, N.; Kurashima, S.; Okumura, S.

    2014-02-15

    A transverse beam emittance and acceptance measurement system has been developed to visualize the relationship between the injected beam emittance and the acceptance of a cyclotron. The system is composed of a steering magnet, two pairs of slits to limit the horizontal and vertical phase-space, a beam intensity detector just behind the slits for the emittance measurement, and a beam intensity detector in the cyclotron for the acceptance measurement. The emittance is obtained by scanning the slits and measuring the beam intensity distribution. The acceptance is obtained by measuring the distribution of relative beam transmission by injecting small emittance beams at various positions in a transverse phase-space using the slits. In the acceptance measurement, the beam from an ion source is deflected to the defined region by the slits using the steering magnet so that measurable acceptance area covers a region outside the injection beam emittance. Measurement tests were carried out under the condition of accelerating a beam of {sup 16}O{sup 6+} from 50.2 keV to 160 MeV. The emittance of the injected beam and the acceptance for accelerating and transporting the beam to the entrance of the extraction deflector were successfully measured. The relationship between the emittance and acceptance is visualized by displaying the results in the same phase-plane.

  11. Effect of subdominant species on the evolution of intense primary beam in a low energy beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

    2013-08-15

    The dynamics of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam with different distributions has been studied in a solenoid based low energy beam transport line using a particle-in-cell simulation method. Results are presented in wide parameter regimes covering emittance dominated as well as space charge dominated multispecies beams consisting of p, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams. Simulation shows the formation of hollow distribution of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams around the desired proton beam and separation is more distinct as the fraction of proton is increased. The hollow formation is almost independent of combination of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams, once the fraction of proton beam is fixed. The emittance growth of proton is found to increase sharply in the space-charge-dominated regime and is more in the cases where proton fraction is low.

  12. The Li-7 and Be-7 deexcitation lines: Probes for accelerated particle transport models in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Ronald J.; Hua, X.-M.; Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

    1989-01-01

    The photon energy spectrum of a spectral feature composed of the 429 and 478 keV gamma-ray lines from Li-7 and Be-7 (produced by interactions of flare-accelerated alpha particles with ambient He in the solar atmosphere) depends on the angular distribution of the interacting accelerated particles. This spectrum is calculated for limb and disc-centered flares using a loop model for the transport of the ions. In this model, the flux tube magnetic field is constant in the corona and converges in the chromosphere to the photosphere. Magnetic mirroring and MHD pitch-angle scattering are both taken into account. Comparison of these results with data from other experiments is presented.

  13. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  14. Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasmas along open magnetic field lines: Plasma profile variation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Zehua; Tang Xianzhu

    2012-08-15

    Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along an open magnetic field line is characterized by strong temperature anisotropy, which is driven by two effects. The first is magnetic moment conservation in a non-uniform magnetic field, which can transfer energy between parallel and perpendicular degrees of freedom. The second is decompressional cooling of the parallel temperature due to parallel flow acceleration by conventional presheath electric field which is associated with the sheath condition near the wall surface where the open magnetic field line intercepts the discharge chamber. To the leading order in gyroradius to system gradient length scale expansion, the parallel transport can be understood via the Chew-Goldbeger-Low (CGL) model which retains two components of the parallel heat flux, i.e., q{sub n} associated with the parallel thermal energy and q{sub s} related to perpendicular thermal energy. It is shown that in addition to the effect of magnetic field strength (B) modulation, the two components (q{sub n} and q{sub s}) of the parallel heat flux play decisive roles in the parallel variation of the plasma profile, which includes the plasma density (n), parallel flow (u), parallel and perpendicular temperatures (T{sub Parallel-To} and T{sub Up-Tack }), and the ambipolar potential ({phi}). Both their profile (q{sub n}/B and q{sub s}/B{sup 2}) and the upstream values of the ratio of the conductive and convective thermal flux (q{sub n}/nuT{sub Parallel-To} and q{sub s}/nuT{sub Up-Tack }) provide the controlling physics, in addition to B modulation. The physics described by the CGL model are contrasted with those of the double-adiabatic laws and further elucidated by comparison with the first-principles kinetic simulation for a specific but representative flux expander case.

  15. Tank 241AP104 Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-11-09

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AP-104. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AP-104 required to provide sample material to the Waste Treatment Contractor. Grab samples will be obtained from riser 001 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives and ICD-23. The 222-S Laboratory will receive samples; composite the samples; perform chemical analyses on composite samples; and provide samples to the Waste Treatment Contractor and the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory at the 222-S Laboratory Complex will perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AP-104 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. The Waste Treatment Contractor will perform process verification and waste form qualification tests. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the L & H DQO process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plan (Person 2000) and are not within the scope of this SAP. This report provides the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AP-104.

  16. Intermediate-break LOCA analyses for the AP600 design

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Lime, J.F.

    1995-07-01

    A postulated double-ended guillotine break of a direct-vessel-injection line in an AP600 plant has been analyzed. This event is characterized as an intermediate break loss-of-coolant accident (IBLOCA). Most of the insights regarding the response of the AP600 safety systems to the postulated accident are derived from calculations performed with the TRAC-PFl/MOD2 code. However, complementary insights derived from a scaled experiment conducted in the ROSA facility, as well as insights based upon calculations by other codes, are also presented. The key processes occurring in an AP600 during a IBLOCA are primary coolant system depressurization, inventory depletion, inventory replacement via emergency core coolant injection, continuous core cooling, and long-term decay heat rejection to the atmosphere. Based upon the calculated and experimental results, the AP600 will not experience a core heat up and will reach a safe shutdown state using only safety-class equipment. Only the early part of the long-term cooling period initiated by In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank injection was evaluated Thus, the observation that the core is continuously cooled should be verified for the latter phase of the long-term cooling period, the interval when sump injection and containment cooling processes are important.

  17. Sorting of Pmel17 to melanosomes through the plasma membrane by AP1 and AP2: evidence for the polarized nature of melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Julio C.; Watabe, Hidenori; Chi, An; Rouzaud, Francois; Chen, Kevin G.; Vieira, Wilfred D.; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Berens, Werner; Nagashima, Kunio; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Appella, Ettore; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adaptor proteins (AP) play important roles in the sorting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network, but how they function in the sorting of various melanosome-specific proteins such as Pmel17, an essential structural component of melanosomes, in melanocytes is unknown. We characterized the processing and trafficking of Pmel17 via adaptor protein complexes within melanocytic cells. Proteomics analysis detected Pmel17, AP1 and AP2, but not AP3 or AP4 in early melanosomes. Real-time PCR, immunolabeling and tissue in-situ hybridization confirmed the coexpression of AP1 isoforms μ1A and μ1B (expressed only in polarized cells) in melanocytes and keratinocytes, but expression of μ1B is missing in some melanoma cell lines. Transfection with AP1 isoforms (μ1A or μ1B) showed two distinct distribution patterns that involved Pmel17, and only μ1B was able to restore the sorting of Pmel17 to the plasma membrane in cells lacking μ1B expression. Finally, we established that expression of μ1B is regulated physiologically in melanocytes by UV radiation or DKK1. These results show that Pmel17 is sorted to melanosomes by various intracellular routes, directly or indirectly through the plasma membrane, and the presence of basolateral elements in melanocytes suggests their polarized nature. PMID:16492709

  18. Characterization of the transport of. cap alpha. -methylaminoisobutyric acid by a human intestinal cell line (HT-29)

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, L.; Dantzig, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    Under certain growth conditions, the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 exhibits intestinal enterocyte-like properties. The differentiated cells possess a brush border with the enzyme markers (aminopeptidase and sucrase) normally associated with the intestine. To aid in the characterization of the transport properties of these cells, the uptake of a non-metabolizable amino acid analog, /sup 14/C-..cap alpha..-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) as examined in the HT-29-Al subclone which possesses a brush border. The cells exhibited a time-dependent uptake of MeAIB which was concentrative and sodium-dependent. The pH optimum for uptake was about 7.8. Uptake was inhibited by low temperature, 1 mM ouabain, or 0.5 mM dinitrophenol. A 1 hr-preincubation of the cells in an isotonic KCl solution resulted in a decreased uptake rate, suggesting that a negative membrane potential is important for MeAIB uptake. The rate of 0.5 mM MeABIB uptake was inhibited by 40 to 90% by 5 mM of certain small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Pro, Gly, met but not by acidic or basic amino acids such as Asp, Glu, Arg or Lys. The uptake of MeAIB appears to be mediated by an amino acid transport carrier similar to the A-system described previously for Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  19. Functional Identification and Characterization of the Brassica Napus Transcription Factor Gene BnAP2, the Ortholog of Arabidopsis Thaliana APETALA2

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Zhiyong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Lijun; Yu, Jingyin; Lu, Changming; Wei, Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    BnAP2, an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, has been isolated from Brassica napus cultivar Zhongshuang 9. The cDNA of BnAP2, with 1, 299 bp in length, encoded a transcription factor comprising of 432 amino acid residues. Results from complementary experiment indicated that BnAP2 was completely capable of restoring the phenotype of Arabidopsis ap2-11 mutant. Together with the sequence and expression data, the complementation data suggested that BnAP2 encodes the ortholog of AtAP2. To address the transcriptional activation of BnAP2, we performed transactivation assays in yeast. Fusion protein of BnAP2 with GAL4 DNA binding domain strongly activated transcription in yeast, and the transactivating activity of BnAP2 was localized to the N-terminal 100 amino acids. To further study the function of BnAP2 involved in the phenotype of B. napus, we used a transgenic approach that involved targeted RNA interference (RNAi) repression induced by ihp-RNA. Floral various phenotype defectives and reduced female fertility were observed in B. napus BnAP2-RNAi lines. Loss of the function of BnAP2 gene also resulted in delayed sepal abscission and senescence with the ethylene-independent pathway. In the strong BnAP2-RNAi lines, seeds showed defects in shape, structure and development and larger size. Strong BnAP2-RNAi and wild-type seeds initially did not display a significant difference in morphology at 10 DAF, but the development of BnAP2-RNAi seeds was slower than that of wild type at 20 DAF, and further at 30 DAF, wild-type seeds were essentially at their final size, whereas BnAP2-RNAi seeds stopped growing and developing and gradually withered. PMID:22479468

  20. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  1. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-23

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.

  2. Inhibition of AP-1 transcriptional activity blocks the migration, invasion, and experimental metastasis of murine osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Leaner, Virna D; Chick, Jeffrey F; Donninger, Howard; Linniola, Ilona; Mendoza, Arnulfo; Khanna, Chand; Birrer, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    A well-characterized murine osteosarcoma model for metastasis and invasion was used in this study to determine the role of AP-1 in the progression of this disease. We analyzed K12 and K7M2 cells, two clonally related murine osteosarcoma cell lines that have been characterized as low metastatic or high metastatic, respectively, for AP-1 components and activity. AP-1 DNA binding was similar between the two cell lines; however AP-1 transcriptional activity was enhanced by 3- to 5-fold in K7M2 cells relative to that in K12 cells. The AP-1 complexes in K12 and K7M2 cells was composed primarily of cJun, JunD, FosB, Fra1, and Fra2, with the contribution of individual components in the complex varying between the two cell lines. In addition, an increase in phosphorylated cJun, JNK activity, and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was associated with the more metastatic osteosarcoma phenotype. The significance of AP-1 activation was confirmed by conditional expression of TAM67, a dominant negative mutant of cJun. Under conditions where TAM67 inhibited AP-1 activity in K7M2 cells, migration and invasion potential was significantly blocked. Tam67 expression in aggressive osteosarcoma cells decreased long-term in vivo experimental metastasis and increased survival of mice. This study shows that differences in metastatic activity can be due to AP-1 activation. The inhibition of AP-1 activity may serve as a therapeutic tool in the management of osteosarcoma. PMID:19074613

  3. Glutathione peroxidase-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Lei; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Coleman, Mitchell C.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Wertz, Philip W.; Domann, Frederick E. . E-mail: frederick-domann@uiowa.edu

    2006-12-29

    In this study, we found a role for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. UVA irradiation not only increased AP-2{alpha}, but also caused accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the cell culture media, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself could induce the expression of AP-2{alpha}. By catalyzing the removal of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from cells through over-expression of GPx-1, induction of AP-2{alpha} expression by UVA was abolished. Induction of transcription factor AP-2{alpha} by UVA had been previously shown to be mediated through the second messenger ceramide. We found that not only UVA irradiation, but also H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself caused increases of ceramide in HaCaT cells, and C2-ceramide added to cells induced the AP-2{alpha} signaling pathway. Finally, forced expression of GPx-1 eliminated UVA-induced ceramide accumulation as well as AP-2{alpha} expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that GPx-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression by suppressing the accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING OF TANKS 241-AN-102 & 241-AP-107 & 241-AP-108 IN SUPPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

    2008-11-20

    This report presents the results of the corrosion rates that were measured using electrochemical methods for tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102), 241-AP-107 (AP 107), and 241-AP-108 (AP-108) performed under test plant RPP-PLAN-38215. The steel used as materials of construction for AN and AP tank farms was A537 Class 1. Test coupons of A537 Class 1 carbon steel were used for corrosion testing in the AN-107, AP-107, and AP-108 tank waste. Supernate will be tested from AN-102, AP-107, and Ap-108. Saltcake testing was performed on AP-108 only.

  5. R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

  6. Search for chromospheric MG II emission in Ap-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seggewiss, W.

    1990-03-01

    Observations of the Mg II h and k line resonance doublet in the spectra of 10 of the latest Ap-type stars show no sign of emission cores in the broad absorption lines. Thus, the Mg II lines give no evidence for chromospheric activity in peculiar A-type stars; the present observations sharpen the boarder between active and non-active stars. This fact is discussed in connection with the problem of the onset of chromospheres and transition zones in A- and F-type main-sequence stars. Special attention is paid to the question of Alfvenic heating in the atmospheres of rapidly oscillating Ap-type stars.

  7. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in AP4S1 cause mild fever-sensitive seizures, developmental delay and spastic paraplegia through loss of AP-4 complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Hardies, Katia; May, Patrick; Djémié, Tania; Tarta-Arsene, Oana; Deconinck, Tine; Craiu, Dana; Helbig, Ingo; Suls, Arvid; Balling, Rudy; Weckhuysen, Sarah; De Jonghe, Peter; Hirst, Jennifer

    2015-04-15

    We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole-genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene, encoding the σ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). The effect of the predicted loss-of-function variants (p.Gln46Profs*9 and p.Arg97*) was further investigated in a patient's fibroblast cell line. We show that the premature stop mutations in AP4S1 result in a reduction of all AP-4 subunits and loss of AP-4 complex assembly. Recruitment of the AP-4 accessory protein tepsin, to the membrane was also abolished. In retrospect, the clinical phenotype in the family is consistent with previous reports of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. Our study reports the second family with mutations in AP4S1 and describes the first two patients with loss of AP4S1 and seizures. We further discuss seizure phenotypes in reported patients, highlighting that seizures are part of the clinical manifestation of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. We also hypothesize that endosomal trafficking is a common theme between heritable spastic paraplegia and some inherited epilepsies. PMID:25552650

  8. Coaching Strategies for AP: Building a Successful AP European History Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The October 2013 special issue of "Social Education" dealt with almost all AP social studies subjects, but omitted AP European History. This is one of the most fascinating AP subjects for students and teachers alike. In this article, the author shares his experiences since hewas given the responsibility of building his school's…

  9. Coaching Strategies for AP: Building a Successful AP European History Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The October 2013 special issue of "Social Education" dealt with almost all AP social studies subjects, but omitted AP European History. This is one of the most fascinating AP subjects for students and teachers alike. In this article, the author shares his experiences since hewas given the responsibility of building his school's…

  10. A novel dopamine transporter transgenic mouse line for identification and purification of midbrain dopaminergic neurons reveals midbrain heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Apuschkin, Mia; Stilling, Sara; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Sørensen, Gunnar; Fortin, Guillaume; Herborg Hansen, Freja; Eriksen, Jacob; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Egerod, Kristoffer; Gether, Ulrik; Rickhag, Mattias

    2015-10-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons are a heterogeneous cell group, composed of functionally distinct cell populations projecting to the basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex and limbic system. Despite their functional significance, the midbrain population of DAergic neurons is sparse, constituting only 20 000-30 000 neurons in mice, and development of novel tools to identify these cells is warranted. Here, a bacterial artificial chromosome mouse line [Dat1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)] from the Gene Expression Nervous System Atlas (GENSAT) that expresses eGFP under control of the dopamine transporter (DAT) promoter was characterized. Confocal microscopy analysis of brain sections showed strong eGFP signal reporter in midbrain regions and striatal terminals that co-localized with the DAergic markers DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Thorough quantification of co-localization of the eGFP reporter signal with DAT and TH in the ventral midbrain showed that a vast majority of eGFP-expressing neurons are DAergic. Importantly, expression profiles also revealed DAergic heterogeneity when comparing substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Dat1-eGFP mice showed neither change in synaptosomal DA uptake nor altered levels of DAT and TH in both striatum and midbrain. No behavioural difference between Dat1-eGFP and wild-type was found, suggesting that the strain is not aberrant. Finally, cell populations highly enriched in DAergic neurons can be obtained from postnatal mice by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and the sorted neurons can be cultured in vitro. The current investigation demonstrates that eGFP expression in this mouse line is selective for DAergic neurons, suggesting that the Dat1-eGFP mouse strain constitutes a promising tool for delineating new aspects of DA biology. PMID:26286107

  11. The status of APS, BESSRC, and NEET.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Dunford, R. W.; Esbensen, H.; Gemmell, D. S.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Rutt, U.; Southworth, S. H.

    1999-03-10

    We present a brief summary of the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and of the facilities at two of the APS sectors operated by the Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotrons Radiation Center (BESSRC). This is followed by a report on recent measurements at BESSRC on the phenomenon of Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition (NEET).

  12. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - WILDLAND FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is aimed at consolidating, selecting, and disseminating the most appropriate data and methods for estimating air emissions from wildfires and prescribed burns. The product will replace a current section of AP-42, but may not take the precise form of an AP-42 secti...

  13. Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination and scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  14. APS-DPP Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Donald

    1998-11-01

    Through its membership and their respectful institutions, the APS-DPP continues to be recognized for its education and outreach efforts. Each year starting with the 1988 DPP annual meeting, DPP and the APS Office of Education have jointly sponsored a "Science Teachers' Day." Beginning in 1994, a companion "Plasma Physics Expo" has been held during the same week of the November meeting. Both events continue to receive uniformly enthusiastic responses from teachers and students who participate. These two events are not only supported financially by APS and APS-DPP but also by APS-DPP member contributions and by contributions of the major plasma physics and fusion research institutions. Recently, the DPP Interdivisional and Public Affairs Committee was re-named the DPP Science Education Committee (see DPP Newsletter, Spring 1998) to reflect the importance that the DPP puts on education and outreach. Nevertheless, as Andrew Sessler, APS President, said in the Education Outreach special insert of the January APS News "We have many education and outreach activities in the areas of K -12 education . . . but very few APS members are aware of what we are doing . . . ." This paper is an attempt to communicate to the DPP members who have not participated in DPP's education and outreach activities a summary of what is being accomplished in this area, what is being planned for the future, and how does one participate in these activities.

  15. 5 Fundamental Misconceptions about AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattimore, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses fundamental misunderstandings about Advanced Placement (AP)courses, which are intended to provide high-school students with an academic college experience, typically at the level of an introductory college course. Popular misconceptions include: (1) AP is about memorization and does not require students to think critically;…

  16. Lysosomal localization of GLUT8 in the testis – the EXXXLL motif of GLUT8 is sufficient for its intracellular sorting via AP1- and AP2-mediated interaction

    PubMed Central

    Diril, Muhammed Kasim; Schmidt, Stefan; Krauß, Michael; Gawlik, Verena; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schürmann, Annette; Haucke, Volker; Augustin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The class III sugar transport facilitator GLUT8 co-localizes with the lysosomal protein LAMP1 in heterologous expression systems. GLUT8 carries a [D/E]XXXL[L/I]-type dileucine sorting signal that has been postulated to retain the protein in an endosomal/lysosomal compartment via interactions with clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes. However, contradictory findings have been described regarding the subcellular localization of the endogenous GLUT8 and the adaptor proteins that interact with its dileucine motif. Here we demonstrate that endogenous GLUT8 is localized in a late endosomal/lysosomal compartment of spermatocytes and spermatids, and that the adaptor complexes AP1 and AP2, but not AP3 or AP4, interact with its N-terminal intracellular domain (NICD). In addition, fusion of the GLUT8 NICD to the tailless lumenal domain of the IL-2 receptor alpha chain (TAC) protein (interleukin-2 receptor ? chain) targeted the protein to intracellular membranes, indicating that its N-terminal dileucine signal is sufficient for endosomal/lysosomal targeting of the transporter. The localization and targeting of GLUT8 show striking similarities to sorting mechanisms reported for lysosomal proteins. Therefore, we suggest a potential role for GLUT8 in the so far unexplored substrate transport across intracellular membranes. Structured digital abstract MINT-7035377: GLUT8 (uniprotkb:Q9JIF3) physically interacts (MI:0915) with AP2 (uniprotkb:P62944) by pull down (MI:0096) MINT-7035218: GLUT8 (uniprotkb:Q9JIF3) physically interacts (MI:0915) with AP1 (uniprotkb:O43747) by pull down (MI:0096) MINT-7035273: GLUT8 (uniprotkb:Q9JIF3) physically interacts (MI:0915) with AP1 (uniprotkb:P22892) by pull down (MI:0096) MINT-7035235: GLUT8 (uniprotkb:Q9JIF3) physically interacts (MI:0915) with AP1 (uniprotkb:Q8R525) by pull down (MI:0096) MINT-7035360: GLUT8 (uniprotkb:Q9JIF3) physically interacts (MI:0915) with AP2 (uniprotkb:Q9DBG3) by pull down (MI:0096) MINT-7035789, MINT-7035807: lamp1 (uniprotkb:P11438) and GLUT8 (uniprotkb:Q9JIF3) colocalize (MI:0403) by fluorescence microscopy (MI:0416) MINT-7039929, MINT-7039945: lamp2 (uniprotkb:P17047) and GLUT8 (uniprotkb:Q9JIF3) colocalize (MI:0403) by fluorescence microscopy (MI:0416) PMID:19523115

  17. Differential Mitochondrial Electron Transport through the Cyanide-Sensitive and Cyanide-Insensitive Pathways in Isonuclear Lines of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile, Male Fertile, and Restored Petunia1

    PubMed Central

    Connett, Marie B.; Hanson, Maureen R.

    1990-01-01

    Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida [Hook] Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines. PMID:16667667

  18. Identification of a novel cell-penetrating peptide targeting human glioblastoma cell lines as a cancer-homing transporter.

    PubMed

    Higa, Moritoshi; Katagiri, Chiaki; Shimizu-Okabe, Chigusa; Tsumuraya, Tomoyuki; Sunagawa, Masanori; Nakamura, Mariko; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Takayama, Chitoshi; Kondo, Eisaku; Matsushita, Masayuki

    2015-02-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) as a novel biomedical delivery system have been highly anticipated, since they can translocate across biological membranes and are capable of transporting their cargo inside live cells with minimal invasiveness. However, non-selective internalization in various cell types remains a challenge in the clinical application of CPPs, especially in cancer treatment. In this study, we attempted to identify novel cancer-homing CPPs to target glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which is often refractory and resistant to treatment. We screened for CPPs showing affinity for the human GBM cell line, U87MG, from an mRNA display random peptide library. One of the candidate peptides which amino-acid sequence was obtained from the screening showed selective cell-penetrating activity in U87MG cells. Conjugation of the p16(INK4a) functional peptide to the GBM-selective CPP induced cellular apoptosis and reduced phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein levels. This indicates that the CPP was capable of delivering a therapeutic molecule into U87MG cells inducing apoptosis. These results suggest that the novel CPP identified in this study permeates with high affinity into GBM cells, revealing it to be a promising imaging and therapeutic tool in the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:25562654

  19. Spectral Line Variations in the Ap Star HD 42536

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, G. S. D.; Jayakumr, K.; Velu, C.; Sujatha, S.

    2003-03-01

    The Sr-Cr type chemically peculiar star HD 42536 (= HR 2195) was observed with the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope. Kavalur during the period of November 1998 to April 1999. A total of 46 spectrograms were obtained in the wavelength region of 3900 Å to 4300 Å at a linear dispersion of 0.65 Å per pixel. The equivalent widths of Sr (4077) and Cr (4172) have been found to be varying with a period of 0.58 ± 0.02 day, the amplitudes being about 100 mÅ and 60 mÅ respectively. This period is a resonance value of the peroid given by Manfroid and Mathys (1985).

  20. Design of a high-current low-energy beam transport line for an intense D-T/D-D neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Wang, Junrun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jianyi; Xia, Li; Zhang, Jie; Ding, Yanyan; Jiang, Bing; Huang, Zhiwu; Ma, Zhanwen; Wei, Zheng; Qian, Xiangping; Xu, Dapeng; Lan, Changlin; Yao, Zeen

    2016-03-01

    An intense D-T/D-D neutron generator is currently being developed at the Lanzhou University. The Cockcroft-Walton accelerator, as a part of the neutron generator, will be used to accelerate and transport the high-current low-energy beam from the duoplasmatron ion source to the rotating target. The design of a high-current low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line and the dynamics simulations of the mixed beam were carried out using the TRACK code. The results illustrate that the designed beam line facilitates smooth transportation of a deuteron beam of 40 mA, and the number of undesired ions can be reduced effectively using two apertures.

  1. AP-1A controls secretory granule biogenesis and trafficking of membrane secretory granule proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bonnemaison, Mathilde; Bäck, Nils; Lin, Yimo; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Mains, Richard; Eipper, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The adaptor protein 1A complex (AP-1A) transports cargo between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In professional secretory cells, AP-1A also retrieves material from immature secretory granules (SGs). The role of AP-1A in SG biogenesis was explored using AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells expressing reduced levels of the AP-1A μ1A subunit. A two-fold reduction in μ1A resulted in a decrease in TGN cisternae and immature SGs and the appearance of regulated secretory pathway components in non-condensing SGs. Although basal secretion of endogenous SG proteins was unaffected, secretagogue-stimulated release was halved. The reduced μ1A levels interfered with the normal trafficking of carboxypeptidase D (CPD) and peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase-1 (PAM-1), integral membrane enzymes that enter immature SGs. The non-condensing SGs contained POMC products and PAM-1, but not CPD. Based on metabolic labeling and secretion experiments, the cleavage of newly synthesized PAM-1 into PHM was unaltered, but PHM basal secretion was increased in sh-μ1A PAM-1 cells. Despite lacking a canonical AP-1A binding motif, yeast two-hybrid studies demonstrated an interaction between the PAM-1 cytosolic domain and AP-1A. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments with PAM-1 mutants revealed an influence of the luminal domains of PAM-1 on this interaction. Thus, AP-1A is crucial for normal SG biogenesis, function and composition. PMID:25040637

  2. ABC AND SLC TRANSPORTER EXPRESSION AND POT SUBSTRATE CHRACTERIZATION ACROSS THE HUMAN CMEC/D3 BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER CELL LINE

    PubMed Central

    Carl, Stephen M.; Lindley, David J.; Couraud, Pierre O.; Weksler, Babette B.; Romero, Ignacio; Mowery, Stephanie A.; Knipp, Gregory T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Initial studies indicate that the newly developed hCMEC/D3 cell line may prove to be a useful model for studying the physiology of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium. The purpose of this study was to assess the mRNA expression of several ABC and SLC transporters, with an emphasis on the Proton-Coupled Oligopeptide Transporter Superfamily (POT) transporters in this immortalized BBB cell model. The transport kinetics of POT-substrates was also evaluated. Methods The hCMEC/D3 cell line was maintained in a modified EGM-2 medium in collagenated culture flasks and passaged every 3–4 days at approximately 85%–95% confluence. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of a variety of ABC and SLC transporters was evaluated using qRT-PCR arrays, while additional qRT-PCR primers were designed to assess the expression of POT members. The transport kinetics of mannitol and urea were utilized to quantitatively estimate the intercellular pore radius, while POT substrate transport was also determined to assess the suitability of the cell model from a drug screening perspective. Optimization of the cell line was attempted by culturing with on laminin and fibronectin enhanced collagen and in the presence of excess Ca2+. Results HCMEC/D3 cells express both hPHT1 and hPHT2, while little to no expression of either hPepT1 or hPepT2 was observed. The relative expression of other ABC and SLC transporters is discussed. While POT substrate transport does suggest suitability for BBB drug permeation screening, the relative intercellular pore radius was estimated at 19Å, significantly larger than that approximated in vivo. Culturing with extracellular matrix proteins did not alter mannitol permeability. Conclusion These studies characterized this relevant human hCMEC/D3 BBB cell line with respect to both the relative mRNA expression of various ABC and SLC transporters, and its potential utility as an in vitro screening tool for brain permeation. Additional studies are required to adequately determine the potential to establish an in vivo correlation. PMID:20524699

  3. Over-expression of the PaAP1 gene from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Kaichun

    2013-02-15

    A homologue of SQUAMOSA/APETALA1, designated PaAP1, was isolated from Prunus avium by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full length of PaAP1 cDNA is 753 bp, and it codes for a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PaAP1 belongs to the MADS-box gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAP1 shared the highest identity with SQUA/AP1 homologues from Prunus serrulata. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that PaAP1 was expressed at high levels in petal, sepal, style, and flower buds, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To characterize the functions of PaAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis transformed with 35S::PaAP1. A total of 8 transgenic T(1) lines with an early flowering phenotype were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio of flowering time was observed in the T(2) generation of 4 lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an SQUA/AP1 homolog from P. avium and suggests that PaAP1 is potentially useful for shortening the juvenile period in sweet cherry. PMID:23206932

  4. Development of the AP Technology Through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmier, F.; Martin, O.; Gariepy, R.

    2015-02-01

    This article presents the historical development of the AP Technology (Aluval, Voreppe, France) pot series starting with the AP13 in the 1960s, followed by the AP18 and the AP30 in the 1980s and 1990s. For most of the modern-era technology, from the late 1970s on, development has been based on a three-stage pattern, the first one being the pot modeling, followed by the pot prototype stage, and then the industrial stage, which fully validated the technology. This development pattern has proven to be successful since it has led to the very robust AP Technology pot design generation and a large number of greenfield smelters built in the 1990-2010 selected the AP Technology design. AP60 is the latest of this series: The development at the prototype level was initiated in the 1990s and is presented in the article. It is now followed by the first industrial realization at Jonquière with the startup in late 2013 and the full validation of the technology in mid-2014. The development of APXe, which aims at very low energy consumption, uses many common elements pertaining to the AP60 design and is presented in the article. AP Technology has also addressed the need for continuous and fast improvement of pot performances adapted to each existing client or site specifics; for this purpose, a new development methodology has recently emerged thanks to the very high modeling capabilities. This methodology, based on the validation of "technology bricks" and their integration in the final design following a strict process, is presented in the last section of this article.

  5. Incorporating Ninth-Grade PSAT/NMSQT® Scores into AP Potential™ Predictions for AP® European History and AP World History. Statistical Report 2014-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiuyuan; Patel, Priyank; Ewing, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Historically, AP Potential™ correlations and expectancy tables have been based on 10th-and 11th-grade PSAT/NMSQT® examinees and 11th-and 12th-grade AP® examinees for all subjects (Zhang, Patel, & Ewing,2014; Ewing, Camara, & Millsap, 2006; Camara & Millsap, 1998). However, a large number of students take AP European History and AP…

  6. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples, 7AP-99-1, 7AP-99-3 and 7AP-99-4 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    BELL, K.E.

    1999-08-12

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107) grab samples taken in May 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-107 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999. Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. Interim data were provided earlier to River Protection Project (RPP) personnel, however, the data presented here represent the official results. No notification limits were exceeded.

  7. Expression, purification, crystallization and structure of human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2)

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, Eric; Tardie, Mark; Carty, Maynard; Brown Phillips, Tracy; Wang, Ing-Kae; Soeller, Walt; Qiu, Xiayang Karam, George

    2006-11-01

    The crystal structure of human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2) with a bound palmitate is reported at 1.5 Å resolution. Human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2) belongs to a family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins involved in the transport and storage of lipids. Here, the crystal structure of human aP2 with a bound palmitate is described at 1.5 Å resolution. Unlike the known crystal structure of murine aP2 in complex with palmitate, this structure shows that the fatty acid is in a folded conformation and that the loop containing Phe57 acts as a lid to regulate ligand binding by excluding solvent exposure to the central binding cavity.

  8. Knockdown of CDK2AP1 in primary human fibroblasts induces p53 dependent senescence.

    PubMed

    Alsayegh, Khaled N; Gadepalli, Venkat S; Iyer, Shilpa; Rao, Raj R

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin Dependent Kinase-2 Associated Protein-1 (CDK2AP1) is known to be a tumor suppressor that plays a role in cell cycle regulation by sequestering monomeric CDK2, and targeting it for proteolysis. A reduction of CDK2AP1 expression is considered to be a negative prognostic indicator in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and also associated with increased invasion in human gastric cancer tissue. CDK2AP1 overexpression was shown to inhibit growth, reduce invasion and increase apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effect of CDK2AP1 downregulation in primary human dermal fibroblasts. Using a short-hairpin RNA to reduce its expression, we found that knockdown of CDK2AP1 in primary human fibroblasts resulted in reduced proliferation and in the induction of senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage of cells in the S phase and an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Immunocytochemical analysis also revealed that the CDK2AP1 knockdown significantly increased the percentage of cells that exhibited γ-H2AX foci, which could indicate presence of DNA damage. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in increased mRNA levels of p53, p21, BAX and PUMA and p53 protein levels. In primary human fibroblasts in which p53 and CDK2AP1 were simultaneously downregulated, there was: (a) no increase in senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity, (b) decrease in the number of cells in the G1-phase and increase in number of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, and (c) decrease in the mRNA levels of p21, BAX and PUMA when compared with CDK2AP1 knockdown only fibroblasts. Taken together, this suggests that the observed phenotype is p53 dependent. We also observed a prominent increase in the levels of ARF protein in the CDK2AP1 knockdown cells, which suggests a possible role of ARF in p53 stabilization following CDK2AP1 knockdown. Altogether, our results show that knockdown of CDK2AP1 in primary human fibroblasts reduced proliferation and induced premature senescence, with the observed phenotype being p53 dependent. PMID:25785833

  9. A Semi-automated Abundance Survey of Ap Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Martin P.; Kurtz, Don; Elkin, Vladimir; Bruntt, Hans

    2015-08-01

    We have carried out an abundance analysis on the high-resolution spectra of approximately 350 Ap stars collected between 2007 and 2010 on the FEROS Echelle (Fibre-led, Extended Range, Echelle ) spectrograph housed at the 2.2-m telescope at European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile. We employed the VWA package (vsin I, wavelength shift, abundance analysis) for preliminary selection of spectral lines, and a semi-automated set of routines which we developed in the programming language IDL, to calculate the equivalent widths and abundances of ions of Iron and the rare earth elements Neodymium and Praseodymium using the WIDTH program and NEMO model atmospheres. Initial results are presented, which reinforce the correlation between iron abundance and effective temperature, from an over-abundance in the late Bp stars, to under-abundant in the early F stars. Results also suggest that the disequilibrium in abundances of the first and second ionisation stages of these ions in the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars may a consequence of the relatively cool temperatures of those stars, rather than a signature of pulsation.

  10. Overexpression of BpAP1 induces early flowering and produces dwarfism in Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haijiao; Wang, Shan; Jiang, Jing; Liu, Guifeng; Li, Huiyu; Chen, Su; Xu, Huanwen

    2014-08-01

    The involvement of APETALA1 (AP1) in the flowering transition has been the focus of much research. Here, we produced Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula (birch) lines that overexpressed BpAP1 using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation; we obtained five independent 35S::BpAP1 transgenic lines. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern, northern and western analyses were used to identify the transformants. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), BpAP1 expression in roots, shoots, leaves and terminal buds of 35S::BpAP1 transgenic lines was significantly higher than that in the wild type (WT, P < 0.01). The average height of 2-year-old 35S::BpAP1 plants was significantly lower (41.17%) than that of non-transgenic plants. In the 35S::BpAP1 lines, inflorescences emerged successively beginning 2 months after transplanting. In addition, the length-diameter ratio of fully developed male and female inflorescences were both significantly less than those of the WT (P < 0.05), i.e. the morphological characteristic was stubby. The male inflorescences emerged early, with empty, draped anthers, and pollen was rarely produced, whereas the female floret structure was not different from WT. The pistils developed normally and could accept pollen, leading to the production of hybrid progeny (F1 ). F1 plants completed flowering within only 1 year after sowing. We demonstrate that BpAP1 can be inherited through sexual reproduction. Overexpression of BpAP1 caused early flowering and dwarfism; these lines had an obviously shortened juvenile phase. These results greatly increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the flowering transition and enhance genetic studies of birch traits, and they open up new possibilities for the breeding of birch and other woody plants. PMID:24200078

  11. Search for chromospheric MG II emission in Ap-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seggewiss, W.

    1986-09-01

    The 1985 microfiche edition of the low-dispersion IUE spectra has been searched for emission in the Mg II h,k resonance lines of peculiar A-type stars (Ap, Am, ? Boo). All published spectra show the Mg II h,k lines in absorption. The absence of emission is confirmed by comparison with 53 high-dispersion spectra available from the IUE archives. Moreover, high-dispersion spectra reveal no sign of a chromosphere for three Ap stars for which weak X-ray emission has been reported.

  12. Time-resolved spectroscopy of the rapidly oscillating Ap star KIC 10195926

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Shibahashi, H.; Saio, H.

    2014-10-01

    We report an analysis of high time resolution spectra of the chemically peculiar Ap star KIC 10195926 obtained with the Subaru telescope. We find that the star has low overabundances of rare earth elements compared with other rapidly oscillating Ap stars. We found only upper limits for pulsations from spectral lines of rare earth and other chemical elements. Pulsation was found only for the narrow core of the H? line with an amplitude of 171 ± 41 m s-1 and with the frequency corresponding to photometric frequency obtained from Kepler observations.

  13. AP1S3 Mutations Are Associated with Pustular Psoriasis and Impaired Toll-like Receptor 3 Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Setta-Kaffetzi, Niovi; Simpson, Michael A.; Navarini, Alexander A.; Patel, Varsha M.; Lu, Hui-Chun; Allen, Michael H.; Duckworth, Michael; Bachelez, Hervé; Burden, A. David; Choon, Siew-Eng; Griffiths, Christopher E.M.; Kirby, Brian; Kolios, Antonios; Seyger, Marieke M.B.; Prins, Christa; Smahi, Asma; Trembath, Richard C.; Fraternali, Franca; Smith, Catherine H.; Barker, Jonathan N.; Capon, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotetramer that promotes vesicular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes. The knockout of most murine AP-1 complex subunits is embryonically lethal, so the identification of human disease-associated alleles has the unique potential to deliver insights into gene function. Here, we report two founder mutations (c.11T>G [p.Phe4Cys] and c.97C>T [p.Arg33Trp]) in AP1S3, the gene encoding AP-1 complex subunit ?1C, in 15 unrelated individuals with a severe autoinflammatory skin disorder known as pustular psoriasis. Because the variants are predicted to destabilize the 3D structure of the AP-1 complex, we generated AP1S3-knockdown cell lines to investigate the consequences of AP-1 deficiency in skin keratinocytes. We found that AP1S3 silencing disrupted the endosomal translocation of the innate pattern-recognition receptor TLR-3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and resulted in a marked inhibition of downstream signaling. These findings identify pustular psoriasis as an autoinflammatory phenotype caused by defects in vesicular trafficking and demonstrate a requirement of AP-1 for Toll-like receptor homeostasis. PMID:24791904

  14. AP1S3 mutations are associated with pustular psoriasis and impaired Toll-like receptor 3 trafficking.

    PubMed

    Setta-Kaffetzi, Niovi; Simpson, Michael A; Navarini, Alexander A; Patel, Varsha M; Lu, Hui-Chun; Allen, Michael H; Duckworth, Michael; Bachelez, Hervé; Burden, A David; Choon, Siew-Eng; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Kirby, Brian; Kolios, Antonios; Seyger, Marieke M B; Prins, Christa; Smahi, Asma; Trembath, Richard C; Fraternali, Franca; Smith, Catherine H; Barker, Jonathan N; Capon, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotetramer that promotes vesicular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes. The knockout of most murine AP-1 complex subunits is embryonically lethal, so the identification of human disease-associated alleles has the unique potential to deliver insights into gene function. Here, we report two founder mutations (c.11T>G [p.Phe4Cys] and c.97C>T [p.Arg33Trp]) in AP1S3, the gene encoding AP-1 complex subunit σ1C, in 15 unrelated individuals with a severe autoinflammatory skin disorder known as pustular psoriasis. Because the variants are predicted to destabilize the 3D structure of the AP-1 complex, we generated AP1S3-knockdown cell lines to investigate the consequences of AP-1 deficiency in skin keratinocytes. We found that AP1S3 silencing disrupted the endosomal translocation of the innate pattern-recognition receptor TLR-3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and resulted in a marked inhibition of downstream signaling. These findings identify pustular psoriasis as an autoinflammatory phenotype caused by defects in vesicular trafficking and demonstrate a requirement of AP-1 for Toll-like receptor homeostasis. PMID:24791904

  15. Cell Autonomous Roles for AP-2? in Lens Vesicle Separation and Maintenance of the Lens Epithelial Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Pontoriero, Giuseppe F.; Deschamps, Paula; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Wong, Ryan; Yang, Ying; Zavadil, Jiri; Cvekl, Ales; Sullivan, Shelley; Williams, Trevor; West-Mays, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have created a conditional deletion of AP-2? in the developing mouse lens (Le-AP-2? mutants) to determine the cell-autonomous requirement(s) for AP-2? in lens development. Embryonic and adult Le-AP-2? mutants exhibited defects confined to lens placode derivatives, including a persistent adhesion of the lens to the overlying corneal epithelium (or lens stalk). Expression of known regulators of lens vesicle separation, including Pax6, Pitx3, and Foxe3 was observed in the Le-AP-2? mutant lens demonstrating that these genes do not lie directly downstream of AP-2?. Unlike germ-line mutants, Le-AP-2? mutants did not exhibit defects in the optic cup, further defining the tissue specific role(s) for AP-2? in eye development. Finally, comparative microarray analysis of lenses from the Le-AP-2? mutants vs. wild-type littermates revealed differential expression of 415 mRNAs, including reduced expression of genes important for maintaining the lens epithelial cell phenotype, such as E-cadherin. PMID:18224708

  16. APS Activities with Other Professional Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slakey, Francis

    2006-03-01

    In 1981, the APS Council issued a statement that opposed ``equal time'' presentation in public school science classes of creationism and evolution. The statement clarified that ``Scientific inquiry and religious beliefs are two distinct elements of the human experience. Attempts to present them in the same context can only lead to misunderstandings of both.'' The APS Council revisited the issue in 1999 when a school board in Kansas attempted to eliminate the Big Bang, among other issues, from the science curriculum. Since that time, the APS has been more directly involved in confronting efforts that would dilute the teaching of science in public school science classes. This talk will review the APS activities and describe a developing multi-science society activity.

  17. Meet the APS Editors Coffee Break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    The APS Journal Editors invite you to join them for conversation and light refreshments. The Editors will be available to answer questions, discuss your ideas, and listen to your comments about the journals. All are welcome to attend.

  18. Supplementation of 2-Ap, Zn and La Improves 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline Concentrations in Detached Aromatic Rice Panicles In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Meiyang; Pan, Shenggang; Tian, Hua; Xiao, Lizhong; Zhong, Keyou; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic rice is highly prized by consumers worldwide due to its special aromatic character. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) is considered to be the single most important volatile compound responsible for aroma in aromatic rice. The present study demonstrated the effects of 2-AP, zinc (Zn) and lanthanum (La) on the 2-AP concentration of detached aromatic rice panicles in vitro. Detached panicles from three well-known aromatic cultivars, Guixiangzhan, Pin14, and Pin 15, were cultured separately in basic culture medium supplemented with 2-AP, Zn and La, and 2-AP concentrations were assessed at 7 and 14 days after culture (DAC). The results show that supplementation of 2-AP, Zn and La in the basic culture medium significantly increases the accumulation of proline. 2-AP concentration and the activity of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) were also increased in rice grains. Zn concentrations were also found to be higher when Zn was added to the basic culture medium, and La concentrations in grains were too low to be measured. Additionally, grain 2-AP concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with proline concentrations, ProDH activities in grains and 2-AP in culture medium. In summary, higher grain 2-AP concentrations might be due to Zn- and La-induced increases in proline concentrations and ProDH activities, as well as the direct uptake and transportation of 2-AP from the culture medium. Furthermore, application of both Zn and La might be helpful for improving aroma formation in rice. However, interactions of both these elements with the complex process of 2-AP formation remain to be explored. PMID:26910246

  19. Loss of AP-5 results in accumulation of aberrant endolysosomes: defining a new type of lysosomal storage disease

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jennifer; Edgar, James R.; Esteves, Typhaine; Darios, Frédéric; Madeo, Marianna; Chang, Jaerak; Roda, Ricardo H.; Dürr, Alexandra; Anheim, Mathieu; Gellera, Cinzia; Li, Jun; Züchner, Stephan; Mariotti, Caterina; Stevanin, Giovanni; Blackstone, Craig; Kruer, Michael C.; Robinson, Margaret S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptor proteins (AP 1–5) are heterotetrameric complexes that facilitate specialized cargo sorting in vesicular-mediated trafficking. Mutations in AP5Z1, encoding a subunit of the AP-5 complex, have been reported to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), although their impact at the cellular level has not been assessed. Here we characterize three independent fibroblast lines derived from skin biopsies of patients harbouring nonsense mutations in AP5Z1 and presenting with spastic paraplegia accompanied by neuropathy, parkinsonism and/or cognitive impairment. In all three patient-derived lines, we show that there is complete loss of AP-5 ? protein and a reduction in the associated AP-5 µ5 protein. Using ultrastructural analysis, we show that these patient-derived lines consistently exhibit abundant multilamellar structures that are positive for markers of endolysosomes and are filled with aberrant storage material organized as exaggerated multilamellar whorls, striated belts and ‘fingerprint bodies’. This phenotype can be replicated in a HeLa cell culture model by siRNA knockdown of AP-5 ?. The cellular phenotype bears striking resemblance to features described in a number of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Collectively, these findings reveal an emerging picture of the role of AP-5 in endosomal and lysosomal homeostasis, illuminates a potential pathomechanism that is relevant to the role of AP-5 in neurons and expands the understanding of recessive HSPs. Moreover, the resulting accumulation of storage material in endolysosomes leads us to propose that AP-5 deficiency represents a new type of LSDs. PMID:26085577

  20. Loss of AP-5 results in accumulation of aberrant endolysosomes: defining a new type of lysosomal storage disease.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Jennifer; Edgar, James R; Esteves, Typhaine; Darios, Frédéric; Madeo, Marianna; Chang, Jaerak; Roda, Ricardo H; Dürr, Alexandra; Anheim, Mathieu; Gellera, Cinzia; Li, Jun; Züchner, Stephan; Mariotti, Caterina; Stevanin, Giovanni; Blackstone, Craig; Kruer, Michael C; Robinson, Margaret S

    2015-09-01

    Adaptor proteins (AP 1-5) are heterotetrameric complexes that facilitate specialized cargo sorting in vesicular-mediated trafficking. Mutations in AP5Z1, encoding a subunit of the AP-5 complex, have been reported to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), although their impact at the cellular level has not been assessed. Here we characterize three independent fibroblast lines derived from skin biopsies of patients harbouring nonsense mutations in AP5Z1 and presenting with spastic paraplegia accompanied by neuropathy, parkinsonism and/or cognitive impairment. In all three patient-derived lines, we show that there is complete loss of AP-5 ζ protein and a reduction in the associated AP-5 µ5 protein. Using ultrastructural analysis, we show that these patient-derived lines consistently exhibit abundant multilamellar structures that are positive for markers of endolysosomes and are filled with aberrant storage material organized as exaggerated multilamellar whorls, striated belts and 'fingerprint bodies'. This phenotype can be replicated in a HeLa cell culture model by siRNA knockdown of AP-5 ζ. The cellular phenotype bears striking resemblance to features described in a number of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Collectively, these findings reveal an emerging picture of the role of AP-5 in endosomal and lysosomal homeostasis, illuminates a potential pathomechanism that is relevant to the role of AP-5 in neurons and expands the understanding of recessive HSPs. Moreover, the resulting accumulation of storage material in endolysosomes leads us to propose that AP-5 deficiency represents a new type of LSDs. PMID:26085577

  1. Cytotoxic activity of the titanium alkoxide (OPy)2Ti(4AP)2 against cancer colony forming cells

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Elizabeth A.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Raymond, Rebecca; Farrington, Jacqueline; Verschraegen, Claire; Shaheen, Montaser; Hromas, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Summary A novel family of titanium alkoxides with two stable pyridinemethoxide moieties bound to a titanium metal center were synthesized and tested for cytotoxic activity on a variety of cancer cell lines using colony formation assays. One compound, (OPy)2Ti(4AP)2, where OPy is NC5H5CH2O , and 4AP is 4-aminophenoxide (−OC6H5(NH2)-4), demonstrated increased cytotoxicity in breast, colon, and pancreatic cancer cell lines at 100 nanomolar levels with only short exposures. Further, (OPy)2Ti(4AP)2 had activity in colon and pancreatic cancer cell lines that are usually resistant to chemotherapy. This demonstrates that these titanium compounds may have a role in anti-cancer therapy, similar to platinum-based compounds, and the (OPy)2Ti(4AP)2 compound specifically deserves further investigation as an anti-cancer agent in chemo-resistant solid tumors. PMID:20820908

  2. Reciprocal regulation among miR395, APS and SULTR2;1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gang; Yu, Diqiu

    2010-10-01

    Sulfur element plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development. Recently, we have demonstrated that miR395 is crucial for the sulfate homeostasis through regulating the sulfate uptake, transport and assimilation in Arabidopsis thaliana. miR395 controls the sulfate concentration in the shoot by targeting three ATP sulfurylase genes (APS), which encode the first enzymes catalyzing sulfate activation in sulfur assimilation pathway. Furthermore, miR395 also regulates the transport of sulfate between leaves. Under sulfate starvation conditions, up-regulated miR395 represses the expression of SULTR2;1, which then confined the transport of sulfate from mature to young leaves. Of note, transcript expression analysis suggested that, unlike APS1 and APS4 mRNA, APS3 and shoot SULTR2;1 is in accordance with miR395 in response to sulfate deprivation. We proposed that the differential regulation of targets by miR395 may be required for adaptation to the sulfate deficiency environment. In addition, our results revealed that there is reciprocal regulation between SULTR2;1 and APS genes through miR395. PMID:20935495

  3. Jumbo battery-powered cargo transporter begins work at flying tigers: latest in growing line of heavy-duty electric vehicles for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    A first-of-its-kind lead battery-powered cargo transporter has been placed in service by Flying Tigers Line, Inc., temporarily for test in Chicago. The jumbo electric transporter, being used by Flying Tigers to more economically and efficiently load and unload its planes is described. The recent introducing of this 31,000-lb. gross weight (including batteries) tractor-flatbed roller combination electric vehicle is the latest in a growing number of heavy-duty electrics coming into wide-spread use in the airline, ocean shipping, mining, agricultural, manufacturing, and other industries.

  4. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer.

    PubMed

    Winklehner, D; Leitner, D; Cole, D; Machicoane, G; Tobos, L

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations. PMID:24593473

  5. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D. Cole, D.; Machicoane, G.; Tobos, L.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

  6. Analysis of large scale tests for AP-600 passive containment cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, W.T.; Chien, T.H.; Sun, J.G.; Chao, B.T.

    1997-07-01

    One unique feature of the AP-600 is its passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which is designed to maintain containment pressure below the design limit for 72 hours without action by the reactor operator. During a design-basis accident, i.e., either a loss-of-coolant or a main steam-line break accident, steam escapes and comes in contact with the much cooler containment vessel wall. Heat is transferred to the inside surface of the steel containment wall by convection and condensation of steam and through the containment steel wall by conduction. Heat is then transferred from the outside of the containment surface by heating and evaporation of a thin liquid film that is formed by applying water at the top of the containment vessel dome. Air in the annual space is heated by both convection and injection of steam from the evaporating liquid film. The heated air and vapor rise as a result of natural circulation and exit the shield building through the outlets above the containment shell. All of the analytical models that are developed for and used in the COMMIX-ID code for predicting performance of the PCCS will be described. These models cover governing conservation equations for multicomponents single phase flow, transport equations for the {kappa}-{epsilon} two-equation turbulence model, auxiliary equations, liquid-film tracking model for both inside (condensate) and outside (evaporating liquid film) surfaces of the containment vessel wall, thermal coupling between flow domains inside and outside the containment vessel, and heat and mass transfer models. Various key parameters of the COMMIX-ID results and corresponding AP-600 PCCS experimental data are compared and the agreement is good. Significant findings from this study are summarized.

  7. Kepler observations of rapidly oscillating Ap, ? Scuti and ? Doradus pulsations in Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balona, L. A.; Cunha, M. S.; Kurtz, D. W.; Brandão, I. M.; Gruberbauer, M.; Saio, H.; Östensen, R.; Elkin, V. G.; Borucki, W. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Koch, D. G.; Bryson, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of the A5p star KIC 8677585 obtained during the Kepler 10-d commissioning run with 1-min time resolution show that it is a rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star with several frequencies with periods near 10 min. In addition, a low frequency at 3.142 d-1 is also clearly present. Multiperiodic ? Doradus (? Dor) and ? Scuti (? Sct) pulsations, never before seen in any Ap star, are present in Kepler observations of at least three other Ap stars. Since ? Dor pulsations are seen in Ap stars, it is likely that the low frequency in KIC 8677585 is also a ? Dor pulsation. The simultaneous presence of both ? Dor and roAp pulsations and the unexpected detection of ? Sct and ? Dor pulsations in Ap stars present new opportunities and challenges for the interpretation of these stars. Since it is easy to confuse Am and Ap stars at classification dispersions, the nature of these Ap stars in the Kepler field needs to be confirmed.

  8. The limitations of renal epithelial cell line HK-2 as a model of drug transporter expression and function in the proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Sarah E; Chung, Git W; van Loon, Ellen; Bakar, Nur S; Dalzell, Abigail M; Brown, Colin D A

    2012-12-01

    Acquiring a mechanistic understanding of the processes underlying the renal clearance of drug molecules in man has been hampered by a lack of robust in vitro models of human proximal tubules. Several human renal epithelial cell lines derived from the renal cortex are available, but few have been characterised in detail in terms of transporter expression. This includes the HK-2 proximal tubule cell line, which has been used extensively as a model of nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of drug transporters in HK-2 cells and their suitability as an in vitro model of the human proximal tubule. qPCR showed no mRNA expression of the SLC22 transporter family (OAT1, OAT3, OCT2) in HK-2 cells compared to renal cortex samples. In contrast, SLC16A1 (MCT1), which is important in the uptake of monocarboxylates, and SLCO4C1 (OATP4C1) were expressed in HK-2 cells. The functional expression of these transporters was confirmed by uptake studies using radiolabelled prototypic substrates DL-lactate and digoxin, respectively. The mRNA expression of apical membrane efflux transporters ABCB1 (MDR1) and several members of the ABCC family (multidrug resistance proteins, MRPs) was shown by qPCR. ABCG1 (BCRP) was not detected. The efflux of Hoechst 33342, a substrate for MDR1, was blocked by MDR1 inhibitor cyclosporin A, suggesting the functional expression of this transporter. Similarly, the efflux of the MRP-specific fluorescent dye glutathione methylfluorescein was inhibited by the MRP inhibitor MK571. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that HK-2 cells are of limited value as an in vitro model of drug transporter expression in the human proximal tubule. PMID:23014881

  9. Transfected MDCK cell line with enhanced expression of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as a model to study their role in drug transport and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Deep; Budda, Balasubramanyam; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and utilize MDCK cell line expressing CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as an in vitro model for evaluating drug-herb and drug-drug of abuse interactions. MDCK cell line simultaneously expressing P-gp and CYP3A4 (MMC) was developed and characterized by using expression and activity studies. Cellular transport study of 200 ?M cortisol was performed to determine their combined activity. The study was carried across MDCK-WT, MDCK-MDR1 and MMC cell lines. Similar studies were also carried out in the presence of 50 ?M naringin and 3 ?M morphine. Samples were analyzed by HPLC for drug and its CYP3A4 metabolite. PCR, qPCR and Western blot studies confirmed the enhanced expression of the proteins in the transfected cells. The Vivid CYP3A4 assay and ketoconazole inhibition studies further confirmed the presence of active protein. Apical to basal transport of cortisol was found to be 10- and 3-fold lower in MMC as compared to MDCK-WT and MDCK-MDR1 respectively. Higher amount of metabolite was formed in MMC than in MDCK-WT, indicating enhanced expression of CYP3A4. Highest cortisol metabolite formation was observed in MMC cell line due to the combined activities of CYP3A4 and P-gp. Transport of cortisol increased 5-fold in the presence of naringin in MMC and doubled in MDCK-MDR1. Cortisol transport in MMC was significantly lower than that in MDCK-WT in the presence of naringin. The permeability increased 3-fold in the presence of morphine, which is a weaker inhibitor of CYP3A4. Formation of 6?-hydroxy cortisol was found to decrease in the presence of morphine and naringin. This new model cell line with its enhanced CYP3A4 and P-gp levels in addition to short culture time can serve as an invaluable model to study drug-drug interactions. This cell line can also be used to study the combined contribution of efflux transporter and metabolizing enzymes toward drug-drug interactions. PMID:22676443

  10. Deletion mutants of AP-1 adaptin subunits display distinct phenotypes in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Takeuchi, Mai; Sugiura, Reiko; Sio, Susie O; Kuno, Takayoshi

    2009-08-01

    Adaptins are subunits of the heterotetrameric (beta/mu/gamma/sigma) adaptor protein (AP) complexes that are involved in clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking. Here, we show that in Schizosaccharomyces pombe the deletion strains of each individual subunit of the AP-1 complex [Apl2 (beta), Apl4 (gamma), Apm1 (mu) and Aps1 (sigma)] caused distinct phenotypes on growth sensitivity to temperature or drugs. We also show that the Deltaapm1 and Deltaapl2 mutants displayed similar but more severe phenotypes than those of Deltaaps1 or Deltaapl4 mutants. Furthermore, the Deltaapl2Deltaaps1 and Deltaapl2Deltaapl4 double mutants displayed synthetic growth defects, whereas the Deltaaps1Deltaapl4 and Deltaapl2Deltaapm1 double mutants did not. In pull-down assay, Apm1 binds Apl2 even in the absence of Aps1 and Apl4, and Apl4 binds Aps1 even in the absence of Apm1 and Apl2. Consistently, the deletion of any subunit generally caused the disassociation of the heterotetrameric complex from endosomes, although some subunits weakly localized to endosomes. In addition, the deletion of individual subunits caused similar endosomal accumulation of v-SNARE synaptobrevin Syb1. Altogether, results suggest that the four subunits are all essential for the heterotetrameric complex formation and for the AP-1 function in exit transport from endosomes. PMID:19624755

  11. Expression of Na+-dependent citrate transport in a strongly metastatic human prostate cancer PC-3M cell line: regulation by voltage-gated Na+ channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Mycielska, Maria E; Palmer, Christopher P; Brackenbury, William J; Djamgoz, Mustafa BA

    2005-01-01

    Prostate is a unique organ which synthesizes and releases large amounts of citrate. It has been shown that in metastatic prostate cancer, the amount of citrate in prostatic fluid is significantly reduced, approaching the level normally found in blood. In our previous study, we characterized electrophysiologically the mechanism of citrate transport in a normal prostatic epithelial (PNT2-C2) cell line. It was concluded that the cells expressed a novel transporter carrying 1 citrate3? together with 4 K+, primarily out of cells. In the present study, we aimed similarly to characterize the mechanism(s) of citrate transport in a strongly metastatic human prostate cancer (PC-3M) cell line and to compare this with the previous data. Citrate transport in PC-3M cells was found to be both Na+ and K+ dependent. Intracellular application of citrate produced an outward current that was primarily K+ dependent whilst extracellular citrate elicited an inward current that was mainly Na+ dependent. The electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics of the citrate outward current were similar to the K+-dependent citrate transporter found in the PNT2-C2 cells. On the other hand, the inward citrate current had a markedly different reversal potential, ionic characteristics, inhibitor profile and pH sensitivity. Preincubation of the PC-3M cells (24 or 48 h) with the voltage-gated Na+ channel (VGSC) blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) significantly reduced the Na+ sensitivity of the citrate current, up-regulated VGSC mRNA expression but did not change the partial permeability of the membrane to Na+. It was concluded (a) that PC-3M cells express a K+-dependent transporter (carrying citrate outward), similar to that found in normal prostate epithelial cells, as well as (b) a Na+-dependent transporter (carrying citrate inward). The molecular nature of the latter was investigated by RT-PCR; the three known Na+-dependent citrate/dicarboxylate transporters could not be detected. VGSC activity, which itself has been associated with metastatic prostate cancer, had a differential effect on the two citrate transporters, down-regulating the expression of the Na+-dependent component whilst enhancing the K+-dependent citrate transporter. PMID:15611019

  12. HD 97394: a magnetic Ap star with high cerium overabundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.

    2011-08-01

    We report a spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar Ap star HD 97394. The stellar spectrum is rich in lines of rare earth elements with large overabundances, especially cerium, gadolinium and europium. Enhancement of the abundances of these rare earths shows this star to be one of the most peculiar stars. Very large overabundances were found for lines of Ce III and Eu III. Abundances obtained from second ionization lines of Nd, Ce and Eu are about 2 dex higher than for those of the first ionization. From partially split Zeeman components of the Fe II 6149.258 Å line and from synthetic modelling, a global magnetic field of 3.1 kG was measured. We tested for pulsation of the star with high time resolution spectroscopy obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope. We place an upper limit to any pulsation amplitude of 30-40 m s-1 for individual lines of rare earth elements, of 10-20 m s-1 for the combination of several lines, and of 6-10 m s-1 for cross-correlation over large spectral bands. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, as part of programmes 080.D-0191(A) and 078.D-0080(A).

  13. Copernicus observations of the Ap star Epsilon Ursae Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallama, A. D.; Molnar, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Spectral scans of the Ap star Epsilon UMa made with the Copernicus satellite show strong line blanketing from profuse Cr II and Fe II lines. In the spectral region covering 1900 to 3000 A, about 500 lines are present which suppress the apparent continuum by at least 15-30%. An accurate line-identification list is compiled showing Eu II present in addition to Mn II and Ni II. The identification of Eu II, however, rests on very stringent identification limits for Fe II. If these are relaxed, the existence of Eu II is dubious. There are no broad features in this spectral region which would suggest strong photoionization discontinuities by metals, but one feature near 2137 A might contain the photoionization edge due to Cr I 5S lying 0.94 eV above the ground level. However, a significant correlation between the line-blanketing strength and the amplitude of the OAO-2 ultraviolet light curves was found such that both monotonically increase in the same proportion toward shorter wavelengths. This gives additional strength to the suggestion that variations in the metal line-blanketing cause the observed photometric variations.

  14. Transport Inhibition of Digoxin Using Several Common P-gp Expressing Cell Lines Is Not Necessarily Reporting Only on Inhibitor Binding to P-gp

    PubMed Central

    Lumen, Annie Albin; Li, Libin; Li, Jiben; Ahmed, Zeba; Meng, Zhou; Owen, Albert; Ellens, Harma; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Bentz, Joe

    2013-01-01

    We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health), Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown). These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1) bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2) partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3) aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while highly permeable P-gp substrates such as amprenavir, quinidine, ketoconazole and verapamil do not, regardless of whether they actually use the basolateral transporter. PMID:23976943

  15. Pulsation properties of the rapidly oscillating Ap star 10Aquilae (HD176232)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.

    2008-05-01

    We have studied the pulsation behaviour of radial velocities of individual spectral lines of different chemical elements for the well known, bright rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star 10Aql (HD176232) based on high-quality Very Large Telescope spectra. We found that only lines of rare earth elements and the narrow H? core show detectable rapid variations of radial velocity with the known photometric pulsation period, 11.7min. The highest pulsation amplitudes of more than 0.5kms-1 are found for rather weak lines of TbIII and DyIII. The pulsational phases obtained for lines of TbIII and DyIII differ by ? rad, perhaps an indication of a radial node between their line-forming layers. Weak lines of SmII also display amplitudes near 0.5kms-1. Surprisingly, the lines of PrIII show the lowest detected pulsation amplitude in strong contrast with the majority of roAp stars for which this ion has some of the highest radial velocity amplitudes. Lines of NdIII with different intensities have pulsation amplitudes different to the weaker lines that are formed more deeply in the atmosphere having higher amplitudes. Line bisectors for strong NdIII line profiles show significant changes of phase, and even phase jumps for some lines, indicating complex variations in the pulsation phase as a function of atmospheric depth. The low-measured rotational velocity of this star indicates that there is little Doppler resolution of the line profiles, hence that the large range of pulsation amplitudes and phases of radial velocities determined for line bisectors are primarily caused by atmospheric depth effects. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, as part of programme 077.D-0150(A). E-mail: velkin@uclan.ac.uk

  16. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, F.H.

    1997-12-22

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed.

  17. Application of CMOS APS in star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi; Wang, Yefan; Yang, Jingyi; Hao, Zhihang

    2002-09-01

    Small satellites are now capable of performing missions that require accurate attitude determination and control. However, low weight, size, power, and cost requirements limit the types of attitude sensors that can be used on a small craft, making attitude estimation difficult. In particular, star trackers -- often the attitude sensors of choice for spacecraft, ballistic missile etc., are not practical for small satellites, and CMOS APS is a good substitute for attitude sensors. Some of the technical advantages of CMOS APS are no blooming, low power consumption, direct digital output, small size and little support circuitry, simple to design, etc. This paper discusses the application probability of CMOS APS technology in star tracker for use in small satellites. A ground-based prototype vision system based on CMOS APS has been built to demonstrate the advantages of using CMOS APS in star tracker. Resolving capability, noise, radiation hardening and some other characteristics are discussed in detail. CMOS image sensor is sure to be a potential replacement of CCD in the field of attitude sensors.

  18. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

  19. Endosomal and AP-3-Dependent Vacuolar Trafficking Routes Make Additive Contributions to Candida albicans Hyphal Growth and Pathogenesis▿†

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Glen E.

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans mutants deficient in vacuolar biogenesis are defective in polarized hyphal growth and virulence. However, the specific vacuolar trafficking routes required for hyphal growth and virulence are unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two trafficking routes deliver material from the Golgi apparatus to the vacuole. One occurs via the late endosome and is dependent upon Vps21p, while the second bypasses the endosome and requires the AP-3 complex, including Aps3p. To determine the significance of these pathways in C. albicans hyphal growth and virulence, aps3Δ/Δ, vps21Δ/Δ, and aps3Δ/Δ vps21Δ/Δ mutant strains were constructed. Analysis of vacuolar morphology and localization of the vacuolar protein Mlt1p suggests that C. albicans Aps3p and Vps21p mediate two distinct transport pathways. The vps21Δ/Δ mutant has a minor reduction in hyphal elongation, while the aps3Δ/Δ mutant has no defect in hyphal growth. Interestingly, the aps3Δ/Δ vps21Δ/Δ double mutant has dramatically reduced hyphal growth. Overexpression of the Ume6p transcriptional activator resulted in constitutive hyphal growth of wild-type, aps3Δ/Δ, and vps21Δ/Δ strains and formation of highly vacuolated subapical compartments. Thus, Ume6p-dependent transcriptional responses are sufficient to induce subapical vacuolation. However, the aps3Δ/Δ vps21Δ/Δ mutant formed mainly pseudohyphae that lacked vacuolated compartments. The aps3Δ/Δ strain was virulent in a mouse model of disseminated infection; the vps21Δ/Δ mutant failed to kill mice but persisted within kidney tissue, while the double mutant was avirulent and cleared from the kidneys. These results suggest that while the AP-3 pathway alone has little impact on hyphal growth or virulence, it is much more significant when endosomal trafficking is disrupted. PMID:20870878

  20. E6-AP/UBE3A Protein Acts as a Ubiquitin Ligase toward SOX9 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Takako; Kishino, Tetsuya; Stephen, Shelley; Eberspaecher, Heidi; Maki, Sayumi; Takigawa, Masaharu; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Yasuda, Hideyo

    2013-01-01

    SOX9 is a transcription factor that acts as a key regulator at various stages of cartilage differentiation. There is ample evidence that intracellular SOX9 protein levels are tightly regulated both by sumoylation and by degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Using a proteomics approach, here we report the identification of a SOX9-binding protein, E6-AP/UBE3A, that may act as a ubiquitin ligase toward Sox9. E6-AP bound SOX9 through the region consisting mostly of its high mobility group domain in vitro. In nuclear lysates, FLAG-tagged E6-AP coprecipitated with Sox9 and its high mobility group domain. This finding was estimated using nuclear lysates from a chondrocytic cell line that endogenously expresses E6-AP and SOX9. Accordingly, ectopically expressed E6-AP and SOX9 colocalized in the nucleus. We show that E6-AP ubiquitinates SOX9 in vitro and in vivo and that SOX9 levels are enhanced after addition of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Similar, siRNA knockdown of E6-AP and the E2 ligase Ubc9 increased cellular SOX9 amounts, supporting the notion that SOX9 may be ubiquitinated in hypertrophic chondrocytes by E6-AP and degraded by proteasomes. This is in accordance with the distribution of SOX9 levels, which are high in proliferating and prehypertrophic chondrocytes but low in hypertrophic chondrocytes, whereas E6-AP levels are high in hypertrophic chondrocytes and low in prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Furthermore, E6-AP-deficient mice showed SOX9 accumulation in chondrocytes and the brain. These findings support the concept that E6-AP regulates SOX9 levels in developing cartilage by acting as a ubiquitin ligase. PMID:24155239

  1. APS storage ring vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. The chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660

    SciTech Connect

    Giarrusso, M.

    2014-05-09

    In this work I present the determination of chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660, a possible rapid oscillating star. As all the magnetic chemically peculiar objects, it presents CNO underabundance and overabundance of iron peak elements of ?100 times and of rare earths up to 4 dex with respect to the Sun. The determination was based on the conversion of the observed equivalent widths into abundances simultaneously to the determination of effective temperature and gravity. Since the Balmer lines of early type stars are very sensitive to the surface gravity while the flux distribution is sensitive to the effective temperature, I have adopted an iterative procedure to match the H{sub ?} line profile and the observed UV-Vis-NIR magnitudes of HD94660 looking for a consistency between the metallicity of the atmosphere model and the derived abundances. From my spectroscopic analysis, this star belongs to the no-rapid oscillating class.

  3. Comparison of a CCD and an APS for soft X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Graeme; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Clark, A.; Dhesi, S. S.; Maneuski, D.; Marchal, J.; Steadman, P.; Tartoni, N.; Turchetta, R.

    2011-12-01

    We compare a new CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) to a Princeton Instruments PIXIS-XO: 2048B Charge Coupled Device (CCD) with soft X-rays tested in a synchrotron beam line at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). Despite CCDs being established in the field of scientific imaging, APS are an innovative technology that offers advantages over CCDs. These include faster readout, higher operational temperature, in-pixel electronics for advanced image processing and reduced manufacturing cost. The APS employed was the Vanilla sensor designed by the MI3 collaboration and funded by an RCUK Basic technology grant. This sensor has 520 x 520 square pixels, of size 25 ?m on each side. The sensor can operate at a full frame readout of up to 20 Hz. The sensor had been back-thinned, to the epitaxial layer. This was the first time that a back-thinned APS had been demonstrated at a beam line at DLS. In the synchrotron experiment soft X-rays with an energy of approximately 708 eV were used to produce a diffraction pattern from a permalloy sample. The pattern was imaged at a range of integration times with both sensors. The CCD had to be operated at a temperature of -55°C whereas the Vanilla was operated over a temperature range from 20°C to -10°C. We show that the APS detector can operate with frame rates up to two hundred times faster than the CCD, without excessive degradation of image quality. The signal to noise of the APS is shown to be the same as that of the CCD at identical integration times and the response is shown to be linear, with no charge blooming effects. The experiment has allowed a direct comparison of back thinned APS and CCDs in a real soft x-ray synchrotron experiment.

  4. 78 FR 21817 - Amendment of Restricted Area R-6601; Fort A.P. Hill, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... limits and increase the time of designation of restricted area R-6601, Fort A.P. Hill, VA, (77 FR 35308... ``significant rule'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  5. Mutations in ap1b1 Cause Mistargeting of the Na+/K+-ATPase Pump in Sensory Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Clemens Grisham, Rachel; Kindt, Katie; Finger-Baier, Karin; Schmid, Bettina; Nicolson, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The hair cells of the inner ear are polarized epithelial cells with a specialized structure at the apical surface, the mechanosensitive hair bundle. Mechanotransduction occurs within the hair bundle, whereas synaptic transmission takes place at the basolateral membrane. The molecular basis of the development and maintenance of the apical and basal compartments in sensory hair cells is poorly understood. Here we describe auditory/vestibular mutants isolated from forward genetic screens in zebrafish with lesions in the adaptor protein 1 beta subunit 1 (ap1b1) gene. Ap1b1 is a subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1, which has been implicated in the targeting of basolateral membrane proteins. In ap1b1 mutants we observed that although the overall development of the inner ear and lateral-line organ appeared normal, the sensory epithelium showed progressive signs of degeneration. Mechanically-evoked calcium transients were reduced in mutant hair cells, indicating that mechanotransduction was also compromised. To gain insight into the cellular and molecular defects in ap1b1 mutants, we examined the localization of basolateral membrane proteins in hair cells. We observed that the Na+/K+-ATPase pump (NKA) was less abundant in the basolateral membrane and was mislocalized to apical bundles in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Accordingly, intracellular Na+ levels were increased in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Our results suggest that Ap1b1 is essential for maintaining integrity and ion homeostasis in hair cells. PMID:23593334

  6. An immortalized human blood-nerve barrier endothelial cell line for in vitro permeability studies

    PubMed Central

    Yosef, Nejla; Ubogu, Eroboghene E.

    2012-01-01

    Solute and macromolecular transport studies may elucidate nutritional requirements and drug effects in healthy and diseased peripheral nerves. Endoneurial endothelial cells are specialized microvascular cells that form the restrictive blood-nerve barrier (BNB). Primary human endoneurial endothelial cells (pHEndECs) are difficult to isolate, limiting their widespread availability for biomedical research. We developed a simian virus-40 large T-antigen (SV40-LTA) immortalized human BNB cell line via stable transfection of low passage pHEndECs and observed continuous growth in culture for >45 population doublings. As observed with pHEndECs, the immortalized BNB endothelial cells were Ulex Europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1)-positive and endocytosed low density lipoprotein, but lost von Willebrand factor (vWF) expression. Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT), large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1), creatine transporter (CRT) and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1) mRNA expression were retained at all passages with loss of alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression after passages 16-20. Compared with an SV40-LTA immortalized human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cell line, there was increased ?-GT protein expression, equivalent expression of organic anion transporting polypeptide-C (OATP-C), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT-3), MCT-1 and LAT-1, and reduced expression of AP, CRT and P-gp by the BNB cell line at passage 20. Further studies demonstrated lower transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER: ~181 ?.cm2 vs. 191 ?.cm2), equivalent permeability to fluoresceinated sodium (4.84% vs. 4.39%) and lower permeability to fluoresceinated high molecular weight (70 kDa) dextran (0.39% vs. 0.52%) by the BNB cell line. This cell line retained essential molecular and biophysical properties suitable for in vitro peripheral nerve permeability studies. PMID:23104242

  7. Crystal structure of ribonuclease A.d(ApTpApApG) complex. Direct evidence for extended substrate recognition.

    PubMed

    Fontecilla-Camps, J C; de Llorens, R; le Du, M H; Cuchillo, C M

    1994-08-26

    The crystal structure of the complex between ribonuclease A and d(ApTpApApG) has been solved by x-ray crystallography using the molecular replacement method. The model includes, besides the enzyme, the d(ApTpApA) 5'-segment (A1T2A3A4) and 68 solvent molecules. The R-factor for the strongest 87% of the measured data that partially extends to 2.3-A resolution is 0.207. The A1 position is well defined; the 5'-O of the deoxyribose establishes a hydrogen bond with a solvent molecule that is, in turn, bonded to the epsilon-amino group of Lys66. The base (B0 site) is well ordered; it interacts with a symmetry-related enzyme molecule. In the crystal, the phosphate group at the p0 site has no direct charge compensation. However, Lys66 is not too far, and, in solution, it could bind to it. The T2 (R1B1p1) site is occupied as in other complex structures, and it is defined by very good electron density. The A3 site shows that the adenine moiety interacts with Asn71 and Gln69 and that the phosphate at p2 forms a salt bridge with Lys7. The most consistent model for the base of A4 (B3), both in terms of electron density and stereochemistry, shows that it forms a hydrogen bond with Gln69 and a g-g- array with the base at B2. The stacking of B2 and B3 may be a general feature of the binding of polyribonucleotides to ribonuclease A. The side chains of Gln69, Asn71, and Glu111 may thus constitute a malleable binding site capable of establishing various hydrogen bonds depending on the nature of the stacked bases. There is no evidence for the 3' G5 site in the electron density map. PMID:8063789

  8. The Clathrin Adaptor AP-1A Mediates Basolateral Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Gravotta, Diego; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Mattera, Rafael; Deborde, Sylvie; Banfelder, Jason R.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Summary Clathrin and the epithelial-specific clathrin adaptor AP-1B mediate basolateral trafficking in epithelia. However, several epithelia lack AP-1B and mice knocked-out for AP-1B are viable, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms that control basolateral polarity. Here, we demonstrate a distinct role of the ubiquitous clathrin adaptor AP-1A in basolateral protein sorting. Knock-down of AP-1A causes missorting of basolateral proteins in MDCK cells but only after knock-down of AP-1B, suggesting that AP-1B can compensate for lack of AP-1A. AP-1A localizes predominantly to the TGN and its knock-down promotes spillover of basolateral proteins into common recycling endosomes, the site of function of AP-1B, suggesting complementary roles of both adaptors in basolateral sorting. Yeast two-hybrid assays detect interactions between the basolateral signal of TfR and the medium subunits of both AP-1A and AP-1B. The basolateral sorting function of AP-1A reported here establishes AP-1 as a major regulator of epithelial polarity. PMID:22516199

  9. 76 FR 6328 - Official Release of the January 2011 AP-42 Method for Estimating Re-Entrained Road Dust From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... emissions model for SIPs and regional conformity purposes (75 FR 9411) and of the MOVES2010a and EMFAC models for transportation conformity hot-spot analyses (75 FR 79370). The January 2011 AP-42 method... grace period in the preamble to the 1993 transportation conformity rule (58 FR 62211): EPA and DOT...

  10. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - TRANSPORTABILITY FACTORS FOR FUGITIVE DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a table of factors, one for each county in the US, reflecting the portion of fugitive dust removed very close to the source via impaction on vegetation and similar mechanisms. Factors were based on land cover in area (county or grid cell) A praft final product was...

  11. Structuring the AP Art History Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herscher, Walter R.

    2013-01-01

    While AP (Advanced Placement) Art History may be taught within the art department in many schools, social studies teachers are equally capable of teaching the course well. They have the historical background to discuss the reasons for changes in art styles. A teacher's preparation is similar to teaching a course stressing political history,…

  12. College Board Readies Plans for AP Audits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the educators mixed reviews regarding the audit system planned by the College Board to scrutinize high school Advanced Placement courses. Teachers of AP courses are required to submit materials to the College Board proving that their course syllabuses meet the program's curricular requirements. It is the most extensive…

  13. APS deposition facility upgrades and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Ray; Shi, Bing; Erdmann, Mark; Izzo, Scott; Assoufid, Lahsen; Goetze, Kurt; Mooney, Tim; Lauer, Kenneth

    2014-09-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has recently invested resources to upgrade or replace aging deposition systems with modern equipment. Of the three existing deposition systems, one will receive an upgrade, while two are being replaced. A design which adds a three-substrate planetary for the APS rotary deposition system is almost complete. The replacement for the APS large deposition system, dubbed the "Modular Deposition System", has been conceptually designed and is in the procurement process. Eight cathodes will sputter horizontally on mirrors up to 1.5 meters in length. This new instrument is designed to interface with ion-milling instruments and various metrology equipment for ion-beam figuring. A third linear machine, called the APS Profile Coating System, has two cathodes and is designed to accept substrates up to 200mm in length. While this machine is primarily intended for fabrication of figured KB mirrors using the profile-coating technique, it has also been used to produce multilayer monochromators for beamline use.

  14. The Promise of AP World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  15. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

  16. Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and…

  17. The Promise of AP World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  18. Teaching Journalistic Style with the "AP Stylebook."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNicola, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Argues for exposing journalism students to a standard stylebook like the "AP Stylebook." Notes that, besides covering aspects of style, the stylebook is a source of useful information and may stimulate worthwhile discussion as it addresses issues of "political correctness." (SR)

  19. Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and…

  20. Tank 241-AP-106, grab samples, 6AP-96-1 through 6AP-96-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. This document presents the analytical results for three samples (6AP-96-1, 6AP-96-2 and 6AP-96-3) taken from riser 1 @ 150{degrees} of tank 241-AP-1 06 on September 12, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1996) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler, 1995).

  1. Identification of AP80978, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of hepatitis C virus replication that targets NS4B.

    PubMed

    Dufner-Beattie, Jodi; O'Guin, Andrew; O'Guin, Stephanie; Briley, Aaron; Wang, Bin; Balsarotti, Jennifer; Roth, Robert; Starkey, Gale; Slomczynska, Urszula; Noueiry, Amine; Olivo, Paul D; Rice, Charles M

    2014-06-01

    A small-molecule inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) designated AP89652 was identified by screening a compound library with an HCV genotype 1b subgenomic replicon assay. AP89652 contains two chiral centers, and testing of two syn enantiomers revealed that activity in the replicon assay resided with only one, AP80978, whose 50% effective concentration (EC50) (the concentration at which a 50% reduction in Renilla luciferase levels was observed relative to an untreated control) was 630 nM. AP80978 was inhibitory against HCV genotypes 1a and 1b but not genotype 2a. In a replicon clearance assay, the potency and clearance rate of AP80978 were similar to those of telaprevir (VX950) and cyclosporine (CsA). AP80978 was nontoxic when tested against a panel of human cell lines, and inhibitory activity was HCV specific in that there was limited activity against negative-strand viruses, an alphavirus, and flaviviruses. By selection of resistant replicons and assessment of activity in genotype 1b/2a intergenotypic replicons, the viral protein target of this compound was identified as NS4B. NS4B F98V/L substitutions were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis as AP80978 resistance-associated mutations. When tested against HCV produced in cell culture, the compound was significantly more potent than other HCV inhibitors, including VX950, CsA, and 2'-C-methyladenosine (2'C-meA). In addition, AP80977, the enantiomer that was inactive in the replicon assay, had activity against the virus, although it was lower than the activity of AP80978. These results suggest that AP80978 has the potential to be optimized into an effective antiviral drug and is a useful tool to further study the role of NS4B in HCV replication. PMID:24709254

  2. Induction of cells differentiation and ABC transporters expression by a myco-estrogen, zearalenone, in human choriocarcinoma cell line (BeWo).

    PubMed

    Prouillac, Caroline; Videmann, Bernadette; Mazallon, Michelle; Lecoeur, Sylvaine

    2009-09-19

    The mycotoxin zearalenone, produced by Fusarium species, is a worldwide contaminant of concern in cereals and other plant products. Due to its estrogenic activity, zearalenone (ZEA) is known to have toxicological effect in animals on reproductive system and the placental transfer of ZEA was suggested by in vivo studies. Although passive diffusion is the principal transport mechanism across the placenta, several carrier-mediated transport protein such as ABC transporter (P-gp, MRP1, MRP2, BCRP) have been identified in the placenta. In this work, we have investigated the effect of ZEA on trophoblast differentiation and ABC transporter expression by using an in vitro model of transplacental barrier, the BeWo cell line. In the presence of 10 microM ZEA morphological (syncytium formation) and biochemical (hCG secretion) differentiation of BeWo cells were observed after a 48h exposure. Results were compared to 17beta-estradiol (E2) and an inducer of syncytialisation (forskolin). The influence of cell differentiation and ZEA exposure on expression profiles of major ABC transporters was investigated in BeWo cells: expression of mRNA MRP1, MRP2 and BCRP was induced after 24h of ZEA exposure. Induction of P-gp, MRP1, and MRP2 protein was observed after 48h of ZEA exposure. Similar results were obtained after forskolin exposure. Our study reported for the first time the implication of a food contaminant in biological effect and ABC transporter expression modulation in human choriocarcinoma cells. PMID:19580841

  3. Radiation transport analyses in support of the SNS Target Station Neutron Beam Line Shutters Title I Design

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.M.; Pevey, R.E.; Lillie, R.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    2000-12-01

    A detailed radiation transport analysis of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) shutters is important for the construction of the SNS because of its impact on conventional facility design, normal operation of the facility, and maintenance operations. Thus far the analysis of the SNS shutter travel gaps has been completed. This analysis was performed using coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations.

  4. Effect of Magnetic Fringe Field and Interference on Beam Matching in a Medium Energy Beam Transport Line of the Spallation Neutron Source Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Guang; Zhang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    A Medium-Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line is employed in the SNS linac to match the beam from an RFQ to a DTL and to perform other functions. The MEBT lattice consists of fourteen electromagnetic quadrupoles and other devices. The quads have very small aspect ratios (steel length over aperture diameter), and they are densely packed in the lattice. Significant fringe fields and magnetic interference cause difficulties in beam matching. We have performed 3D simulations of the magnets, computed their optical properties, and compared their performance with what predicted by simple hard edge models. This paper reports our findings and a general solution to the problem.

  5. Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Toru; Higa, Shinji; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Naka, Tetsuji; Ogata, Atsushi; Shima, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Minoru; Yamadori, Tomoki; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio . E-mail: ttanak@imed3.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2006-02-03

    Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1.

  6. Organic anion transporter 2 transcript variant 1 shows broad ligand selectivity when expressed in multiple cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Hotchkiss, Adam G.; Berrigan, Liam; Pelis, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2) is likely important for renal and hepatic drug elimination. Three variants of the OAT2 peptide sequence have been described – OAT2 transcript variant 1 (OAT2-tv1), OAT2 transcript variant 2 (OAT2-tv2), and OAT2 transcript variant 3 (OAT2-tv3). Early studies helping to define the ligand selectivity of OAT2 failed to identify the variant used, and the studies used several heterologous expression systems. In preliminary studies using OAT2-tv1, we failed to observe transport of several previously identified substrates, leading us to speculate that ligand selectivity of OAT2 differs with variant and/or heterologous expression system. The purpose was to further investigate the ligand selectivity of the OAT2 variants expressed in multiple cell types. We cloned OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2, but were unsuccessful at amplifying mRNA for OAT2-tv3 from human kidney. OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2 were individually expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK), Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. mRNA for OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2 was demonstrated in each cell type transfected with the respective construct, indicating their expression. OAT2-tv1 trafficked to the plasma membrane of all three cell types, but OAT2-tv2 did not. OAT2-tv1 transported penciclovir in all three cell types, but failed to transport para-aminohippurate, succinate, glutarate, estrone-3-sulfate, paclitaxel or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate – previously identified substrates of OAT2-tv2. Not surprising given its lack of plasma membrane expression, OAT2-tv2 failed to transport any of the organic solutes examined, including penciclovir. Penciclovir transport by OAT2-tv1 was sensitive to large (e.g., cyclosporine A) and small (e.g., allopurinol) organic compounds, as well as organic anions, cations and neutral compounds, highlighting the multiselectivity of OAT2-tv1. The potencies with which indomethacin, furosemide, cyclosporine A and cimetidine inhibited OAT2-tv1 are in good agreement with previous studies using this variant, but inconsistent with studies using OAT2 with an unidentified sequence. This study shows that organic molecules with diverse physicochemical properties interact with OAT2-tv1, making it a likely site of drug interactions. Many previously identified substrates of OAT2 are not transported by OAT2-tv1, suggesting that variant and/or expression system may contribute. Future work should establish the expression pattern and ligand selectivity of OAT2-tv3. PMID:26500550

  7. Conditional depletion of intellectual disability and Parkinsonism candidate gene ATP6AP2 in fly and mouse induces cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Dubos, Aline; Castells-Nobau, Anna; Meziane, Hamid; Oortveld, Merel A W; Houbaert, Xander; Iacono, Giovanni; Martin, Christelle; Mittelhaeuser, Christophe; Lalanne, Valérie; Kramer, Jamie M; Bhukel, Anuradha; Quentin, Christine; Slabbert, Jan; Verstreken, Patrik; Sigrist, Stefan J; Messaddeq, Nadia; Birling, Marie-Christine; Selloum, Mohammed; Stunnenberg, Henk G; Humeau, Yann; Schenck, Annette; Herault, Yann

    2015-12-01

    ATP6AP2, an essential accessory component of the vacuolar H+ ATPase (V-ATPase), has been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and Parkinsonism. ATP6AP2 has been implicated in several signalling pathways; however, little is known regarding its role in the nervous system. To decipher its function in behaviour and cognition, we generated and characterized conditional knockdowns of ATP6AP2 in the nervous system of Drosophila and mouse models. In Drosophila, ATP6AP2 knockdown induced defective phototaxis and vacuolated photoreceptor neurons and pigment cells when depleted in eyes and altered short- and long-term memory when depleted in the mushroom body. In mouse, conditional Atp6ap2 deletion in glutamatergic neurons (Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mice) caused increased spontaneous locomotor activity and altered fear memory. Both Drosophila ATP6AP2 knockdown and Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mice presented with presynaptic transmission defects, and with an abnormal number and morphology of synapses. In addition, Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mice showed autophagy defects that led to axonal and neuronal degeneration in the cortex and hippocampus. Surprisingly, axon myelination was affected in our mutant mice, and axonal transport alterations were observed in Drosophila. In accordance with the identified phenotypes across species, genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mouse hippocampi revealed dysregulation of genes involved in myelination, action potential, membrane-bound vesicles and motor behaviour. In summary, ATP6AP2 disruption in mouse and fly leads to cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, mimicking aspects of the neuropathology associated with ATP6AP2 mutations in humans. Our results identify ATP6AP2 as an essential gene for the nervous system. PMID:26376863

  8. Conditional depletion of intellectual disability and Parkinsonism candidate gene ATP6AP2 in fly and mouse induces cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dubos, Aline; Castells-Nobau, Anna; Meziane, Hamid; Oortveld, Merel A.W.; Houbaert, Xander; Iacono, Giovanni; Martin, Christelle; Mittelhaeuser, Christophe; Lalanne, Valérie; Kramer, Jamie M.; Bhukel, Anuradha; Quentin, Christine; Slabbert, Jan; Verstreken, Patrik; Sigrist, Stefan J.; Messaddeq, Nadia; Birling, Marie-Christine; Selloum, Mohammed; Stunnenberg, Henk G.; Humeau, Yann; Schenck, Annette; Herault, Yann

    2015-01-01

    ATP6AP2, an essential accessory component of the vacuolar H+ ATPase (V-ATPase), has been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and Parkinsonism. ATP6AP2 has been implicated in several signalling pathways; however, little is known regarding its role in the nervous system. To decipher its function in behaviour and cognition, we generated and characterized conditional knockdowns of ATP6AP2 in the nervous system of Drosophila and mouse models. In Drosophila, ATP6AP2 knockdown induced defective phototaxis and vacuolated photoreceptor neurons and pigment cells when depleted in eyes and altered short- and long-term memory when depleted in the mushroom body. In mouse, conditional Atp6ap2 deletion in glutamatergic neurons (Atp6ap2Camk2aCre/0 mice) caused increased spontaneous locomotor activity and altered fear memory. Both Drosophila ATP6AP2 knockdown and Atp6ap2Camk2aCre/0 mice presented with presynaptic transmission defects, and with an abnormal number and morphology of synapses. In addition, Atp6ap2Camk2aCre/0 mice showed autophagy defects that led to axonal and neuronal degeneration in the cortex and hippocampus. Surprisingly, axon myelination was affected in our mutant mice, and axonal transport alterations were observed in Drosophila. In accordance with the identified phenotypes across species, genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Atp6ap2Camk2aCre/0 mouse hippocampi revealed dysregulation of genes involved in myelination, action potential, membrane-bound vesicles and motor behaviour. In summary, ATP6AP2 disruption in mouse and fly leads to cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, mimicking aspects of the neuropathology associated with ATP6AP2 mutations in humans. Our results identify ATP6AP2 as an essential gene for the nervous system. PMID:26376863

  9. Greenhouse evaluation of Bacillus subtilis AP-01 and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 in controlling tobacco diseases

    PubMed Central

    Maketon, Monchan; Apisitsantikul, Jirasak; Siriraweekul, Chatchai

    2008-01-01

    Two biological control agents, Bacillus subtilis AP-01 (Larminar™) and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 (Trisan™) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (Pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora nicotiana). Tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. Bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed with the biological control agents and for comparison purposes, two chemical fungicides. But for frogeye leaf spot, which is an airborne fungus, a spraying procedure for every treatment including a chemical fungicide was applied instead of drenching. Results showed that neither B. subtilis AP-01 nor T harzianum AP-001 alone could control the bacterial wilt, but when combined, their controlling capabilities were as effective as a chemical treatment. These results were also similar for damping-off disease when used in combination. In addition, the combined B. subtilis AP-01 and T. harzianum AP-001 resulted in a good frogeye leaf spot control, which was not significantly different from the chemical treatment. PMID:24031219

  10. Sorting of the Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid Precursor Protein Mediated by the AP-4 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Burgos, Patricia V.; Mardones, Gonzalo A.; Rojas, Adriana L.; daSilva, Luis L.P.; Prabhu, Yogikala; Hurley, James H.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2010-08-12

    Adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is the most recently discovered and least well-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes that mediate sorting of transmembrane cargo in post-Golgi compartments. Herein, we report the interaction of an YKFFE sequence from the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the {micro}4 subunit of AP-4. Biochemical and X-ray crystallographic analyses reveal that the properties of the APP sequence and the location of the binding site on 4 are distinct from those of other signal-adaptor interactions. Disruption of the APP-AP-4 interaction decreases localization of APP to endosomes and enhances {gamma}-secretase-catalyzed cleavage of APP to the pathogenic amyloid-{beta} peptide. These findings demonstrate that APP and AP-4 engage in a distinct type of signal-adaptor interaction that mediates transport of APP from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes, thereby reducing amyloidogenic processing of the protein.

  11. Unfolded protein response mediated JNK/AP-1 signal transduction, a target for ovarian cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gao-Feng; Cai, Zhen; Meng, Xiang-Kai; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Wei; Pang, Xiao-Yan; Dou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Researches have revealed several stressors, which could activate unfolded protein response (UPR) in cells. However, the survival or death pathway was determined by the duration of UPR exposure. Based on the UPR mediated death pathway, our study was aimed to investigate role of UPR on c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 (Ap-1) signal transduction in diindolylmethane (DIM) treated ovarian cancer cell lines. Activation of UPR proteins, UPR mediated apoptotic signaling proteins and expression level of EpCAM, JNK, Ap-1, Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 were measured. Protein and gene expression, transcription factor activity, and protein phosphorylation were measured using standard molecular biology techniques. Our results demonstrated DIM treatment had significantly increased the expression of Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress regulators such as Bip, IRE1, CHOP and activation of UPR related apoptotic proteins in ovarian cancer cells. Decreased expression of EpCAM and activity of AP-1 transcription factor were observed in DIM treated cells. The pharmacologic inhibitors of the JNK signal transduction pathway, suggest that the impact of EpCAM expression on AP-1 transcription factor activity is mediated through the JNK pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that UPR mediated JNK/Ap-1 signal transduction has a significant role in the regulation of apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells, and is a potential molecular target to enhance sensitivity of ovarian cancer to chemotherapy. PMID:26261528

  12. Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting Activator Protein 1 (AP-1)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases. PMID:24831826

  13. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for residential fireplaces and woodstoves which are incorporated into AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness infor...

  14. Clathrin Assembly Protein AP180 and CALM Differentially Control Axogenesis and Dendrite Outgrowth in Embryonic Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bushlin, Ittai; Petralia, Ronald S.; Wu, Fangbai; Harel, Asaff; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Mattson, Mark P.; Yao, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging data suggest that, much like epithelial cells, the polarized growth of neurons requires both the secretory and endocytic pathways. The clathrin assembly proteins AP180 and CALM are known to be involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but their roles in mammalian neurons, and, in particular, in developmental processes prior to synaptogenesis, are unknown. Here we provide evidence that AP180 and CALM play critical roles in establishing the polarity and controlling the growth of axons and dendrites in embryonic hippocampal neurons. Knockdown of AP180 primarily impairs axonal development, while reducing CALM levels results in dendritic dystrophy. Conversely, neurons that overexpress AP180 or CALM generate multiple axons. Ultrastructural analysis shows that CALM affiliates with wider range of intracellular trafficking organelles than does AP180. Functional analysis shows that endocytosis is reduced in both AP180-deficient and CALM-deficient neurons. Additionally, CALM-deficient neurons show disrupted secretory transport. Our data demonstrate previously unknown functions for AP180 and CALM in intracellular trafficking that is essential in the growth of neurons. PMID:18842885

  15. The Cryptosporidium parvum ApiAP2 gene family: insights into the evolution of apicomplexan AP2 regulatory systems

    PubMed Central

    Oberstaller, Jenna; Pumpalova, Yoanna; Schieler, Ariel; Llinás, Manuel; Kissinger, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    We provide the first comprehensive analysis of any transcription factor family in Cryptosporidium, a basal-branching apicomplexan that is the second leading cause of infant diarrhea globally. AP2 domain-containing proteins have evolved to be the major regulatory family in the phylum to the exclusion of canonical regulators. We show that apicomplexan and perkinsid AP2 domains cluster distinctly from other chromalveolate AP2s. Protein-binding specificity assays of C. parvum AP2 domains combined with motif conservation upstream of co-regulated gene clusters allowed the construction of putative AP2 regulons across the in vitro life cycle. Orthologous Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) expression has been rearranged relative to the malaria parasite P. falciparum, suggesting ApiAP2 network rewiring during evolution. C. hominis orthologs of putative C. parvum ApiAP2 proteins and target genes show greater than average variation. C. parvum AP2 domains display reduced binding diversity relative to P. falciparum, with multiple domains binding the 5?-TGCAT-3?, 5?-CACACA-3? and G-box motifs (5?-G[T/C]GGGG-3?). Many overrepresented motifs in C. parvum upstream regions are not AP2 binding motifs. We propose that C. parvum is less reliant on ApiAP2 regulators in part because it utilizes E2F/DP1 transcription factors. C. parvum may provide clues to the ancestral state of apicomplexan transcriptional regulation, pre-AP2 domination. PMID:24957599

  16. The origin of light variability in Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krti?ka, J.; Mikulášek, Z.; Zverko, J.; Prvák, M.

    2014-11-01

    The usual photometric variability detected in Ap stars is that associated with rotation. It has long been surmised that redistribution of rotationally modulated flux in surface abundance spots is the cause of that type of variability. The redistribution is caused by bound-bound (line) and bound-free (continuum) transitions of various elements, in particular helium, silicon, iron, and (obviously) also rare-earth elements. With the availability of detailed abundance maps, complete atomic data, and detailed model atmospheres it has now become possible to simulate reliably the photometric variability due to rotation. This is demonstrated by the example of several CP stars. We generalise these result and discuss the importance of individual elements in terms of their dependence on effective temperature. We emphasise the importance of light curve prediction for testing surface abundance maps and the atomic data.

  17. The mitochondrial transport protein SLC25A43 affects drug efficacy and drug-induced cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    GABRIELSON, MARIKE; TINA, ELISABET

    2013-01-01

    The mitochondria have been identified as key players of apoptosis, cell proliferation and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of mitochondria in breast cancer and treatment failure remains unclear. We have previously shown a common deletion of the gene SLC25A43 in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. This gene is coding for a mitochondrial inner membrane transporter and, to date, little is known about the function of this protein. We have also found that low protein expression of SLC25A43 significantly correlates with a lower S phase fraction in HER2-positive breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether knockdown (KD) of SLC25A43 could have an effect on the cytotoxicity of different cytostatic drugs using MCF10A, MCF7 and BT-474 cells. Following siRNA-mediated KD of SLC25A43, one non-malignant and two breast cancer cell lines were exposed to the anthracycline epirubicin or the taxane paclitaxel. The HER2-positive breast cancer cells were also exposed to the targeted therapy trastuzumab and dual exposure to trastuzumab and paclitaxel. We found that KD of SLC25A43 resulted in a decreased cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel in the two cancer cell lines (P<0.05). Further analysis of cell cycle phase distribution showed that KD increased the paclitaxel-induced G2/M block in these two cell lines (P<0.05). KD of SLC25A43 also reduced the inhibitory effect of trastuzumab on cell proliferation in the HER2-positive cancer cell line BT-474 (P<0.05), and the drug-induced G0/G1 block (P<0.05). Moreover, SLC25A43 influenced the percentage of Ki-67-positive cells. Our findings demonstrate that the mitochondrial protein SLC25A43 affects drug efficacy and cell cycle regulation following drug exposure in breast cancer cell lines. PMID:23354756

  18. Electron stripping processes of H- ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganic, I. N.

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H- Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H- ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H- beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H- ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H- ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  19. Electron stripping processes of H(-) ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE.

    PubMed

    Draganic, I N

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H(-) Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H(-) ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H(-) beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H(-) ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H(-) ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line. PMID:26931993

  20. Cultural Diversity in AP Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Frances R.

    2006-01-01

    Teaching AP Art History is like running on a treadmill that is moving faster than a teacher can run. Many teachers are out of breath before the end of the term and wonder how in the world they can cover every chapter. Because time is short and art from pre-history through to the present, including the non-European traditions, must be covered, this…

  1. Cultural Diversity in AP Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Frances R.

    2006-01-01

    Teaching AP Art History is like running on a treadmill that is moving faster than a teacher can run. Many teachers are out of breath before the end of the term and wonder how in the world they can cover every chapter. Because time is short and art from pre-history through to the present, including the non-European traditions, must be covered, this…

  2. An Updated AP2 Beamline TURTLE Model

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, M.; O'Day, S.

    1991-08-23

    This note describes a TURTLE model of the AP2 beamline. This model was created by D. Johnson and improved by J. Hangst. The authors of this note have made additional improvements which reflect recent element and magnet setting changes. The magnet characteristics measurements and survey data compiled to update the model will be presented. A printout of the actual TURTLE deck may be found in appendix A.

  3. Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-04-19

    This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report.

  4. [Transplacental transport mechanisms of drugs for transplacental treatment of fetal tachyarrhythmia of MDCKII/MDCKII-BCRP cell line].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Jia-jia; Wang, Ting; Wang, Ling; Jiang, Xue-hua

    2015-03-01

    To study the transport mechanisms of drugs for transplacental treatment of fetal tachyarrhythmia, MDCKII-BCRP and MDCKII cell models was used. MDCKII-BCRP and MDCKII cell monolayer model was used to investigate the bi-direction transport of sotalol, propranolol, propafenone, procainamide and flecainide. Drug concentrations were measured by HPLC-UV or chemiluminescence. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)), efflux rate (R(E)) and net efflux rate (R(net)) were calculated. Drugs with R(net) greater than 1.5 were further investigated using cellular accumulation experiments with or without a BCRP inhibitor. The R(net) of sotalol, propranolol, propafenone and procainamide were less than 1.5, while R(net) of flecainide with concentrations of 20 and 5 ?mol x L(-1) were 1.6 and 1.9, respectively. The results showed that the transport of flecainide on MDCKII-BCRP cell monolayer could be mediated by BCRP; and the affinity increased when the concentration of flecainide decreased. Cellular accumulation experiments further suggested that accumulation of flecainide in MDCKII-BCRP cells was significantly lower than that in MDCKII cells in a concentration-dependent manner. BCRP inhibitor quercetin (50 ?mol x L(-1)) significantly increased the accumulation of flecainide in MDCKII-BCRP cells (P < 0.05). Our preliminary data showed that flecainide but not sotalol, propranolol, propafenone or procainamide can be a substrate of BCRP. Thus the effect of flecainide may be affected by the BCRP in the maternal placental trophoblast membrane layer when treating fetal tachyarrhythmia. PMID:26118109

  5. Single-Bunch Electron Cloud Effects in the GLC/NLC, US-Cold and TESLA Low Emittance Transport Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, D.

    2005-04-12

    This paper examines the severity of the electron cloud effects in the Low Emittance Transport (LET) of linear colliders including the Bunch-Compressor System (BCS) and Beam Delivery System (BDS). We examine the electron cloud effects in the normal-conducting GLC/NLC or X-Band, and the super-conducting US-Cold and TESLA linear collider designs through the use of specially developed computer simulation codes. An estimate of the critical cloud density is given for the BDS and BCS of the X-Band collider.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERCONDUCTING COMBINED FUNCTION MAGNETS FOR THE PROTON TRANSPORT LINE FOR THE J-PARC NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    NAKAMOTO, T.; AJIMA, Y.; FUJII, Y.; HIGASHI, N.; ICHIKAWA, A.; KIMURA, N.; KOBAYASHI, T.; MAKIDA, Y.; OGITSU, T.; OHHATA, H.; OKAMURA, T.; SASAKI, K.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Superconducting combined function magnets will be utilized for the 50 GeV, 750 kW proton beam line for the J-PARC neutrino experiment. The magnet is designed to provide a dipole field of 2.6 T combined with a quadrupole field of 19 T/m in a coil aperture of 173.4 mm at a nominal current of 7345 A. Two full-scale prototype magnets to verify the magnet performance were successfully developed. The first prototype experienced no training quench during the excitation test and good field quality was confirmed.

  7. CYLD Inhibits Tumorigenesis and Metastasis by Blocking JNK/AP1 Signaling at Multiple Levels

    PubMed Central

    de Marval, Paula Miliani; Lutfeali, Shazia; Jin, Jane Y.; Leshin, Benjamin; Selim, M. Angelica; Zhang, Jennifer Y.

    2011-01-01

    CYLD has been recognized as a tumor suppressor due to its dominant genetic linkage to multiple types of epidermal tumors and a range of other cancers. The molecular mechanisms governing CYLD control of skin cancer are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that K14-driven epidermal expression of a patient relevant and catalytically deficient CYLD truncation mutant (CYLDm) sensitized mice to skin tumor development in response to DMBA/TPA-challenge. Tumors developed on transgenic mice were prone to malignant progression and lymph node metastasis, and displayed increased activation of JNK and the downstream c-Jun and c-Fos proteins. Most importantly, topical application of a pharmacological JNK inhibitor significantly reduced tumor development and abolished metastasis in the transgenic mice. Further in line with these animal data, exogenous expression of CYLDm in A431, a human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line, markedly enhanced cell growth, migration and subcutaneous tumor growth in an AP1-depdendent manner. In contrast, expression of the wild type CYLD inhibited SCC tumorigenesis and AP1 function. Most importantly, CYLDm not only increased JNK activation but also induced an upregulation of K63-ubiquitination on both c-Jun and c-Fos, leading to sustained AP1 activation. Our findings uncovered c-Jun and c-Fos as novel CYLD-targets and underscore that CYLD controls epidermal tumorigenesis through blocking the JNK/AP1 signaling pathway at multiple levels. PMID:21478324

  8. A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Karmakar, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Dechoudhury, S.; Mondal, M.; Pandey, H. K.; Lavanyakumar, D.; Mandi, T. K.; Dutta, D. P.; Kundu Roy, T.; Bhowmick, D.; Sanyal, D.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Ray, A.; Ali, Md. S.; Bhattacharjee, S.

    2013-03-15

    Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms/molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms/molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of {sup 14}O (71 s), {sup 42}K (12.4 h), {sup 43}K (22.2 h), and {sup 41}Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10{sup 3} particles per second (pps). About 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} pps of 1.4 MeV {sup 14}O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

  9. 77 FR 24480 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program-Reopening the AP Test Fee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    .... ACTION: Notice reopening the AP Test Fee fiscal year 2012 competition. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.330B. SUMMARY: On February 15, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR... Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program--Reopening the AP Test Fee Fiscal...

  10. Auxin Transport and Ribosome Biogenesis Mutant/Reporter Lines to Study Plant Cell Growth and Proliferation under Altered Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valbuena, Miguel A.; Manzano, Ana I.; van Loon, Jack JWA.; Saez-Vasquez, Julio; Carnero-Diaz, Eugenie; Herranz, Raul; Medina, F. J.

    2013-02-01

    We tested different Arabidopsis thaliana strains to check their availability for space use in the International Space Station (ISS). We used mutants and reporter gene strains affecting factors of cell proliferation and cell growth, to check variations induced by an altered gravity vector. Seedlings were grown either in a Random Positioning Machine (RPM), under simulated microgravity (?g), or in a Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC), under hypergravity (2g). A combination of the two devices (?gRPM+LDC) was also used. Under all gravity alterations, seedling roots were longer than in control 1g conditions, while the levels of the nucleolar protein nucleolin were depleted. Alterations in the pattern of expression of PIN2, an auxin transporter, and of cyclin B1, a cell cycle regulator, were shown. All these alterations are compatible with previous space data, so the use of these strains will be useful in the next experiments in ISS, under real microgravity.

  11. Effects of eletron heating on the current driven electrostatic ion cyclotron instability and plasma transport processes along auroral field lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguli, Supriya B.; Mitchell, Horace G.; Palmadesso, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Fluid simulations of the plasma along auroral field lines in the return current region have been performed. It is shown that the onset of electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) related anomalous resistivity and the consequent heating of electrons leads to a transverse ion temperature that is much higher than that produced by the current driven EIC instability (CDICI) alone. Two processes are presented for the enhancement of ion heating by anomalous resistivity. The anomalous resistivity associated with the turbulence is limited by electron heating, so that CDICI saturates at transverse temperature that is substantially higher than in the absence of resistivity. It is suggested that this process demonstrates a positive feedback loop in the interaction between CDICI, anomalous resistivity, and parallel large-scale dynamics in the topside ionosphere.

  12. Transepithelial transport of bepridil in the human intestinal cell line, Caco-2, using two media, DMEMc and HBSS.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, F; Galmier, M J; Pognat, J F; Petit, J; Lartigue, C

    1999-04-30

    The purpose of this work was to study transepithelial transport of bepridil, an anticalcic agent, through monolayer cells Caco-2, using two experimental media with different chemical components. For experimentation, the measure of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) allowed us to evaluate the state of cells; and the quantities of bepridil have been quantified using a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system. First, when using the medium alone, without bepridil, Caco-2 cell integrity is, at least, maintained for 8 h using both media. However, for 24-h studies, only the DMEMc medium, rich in essential nutriments, allowed cell integrity to be maintained. Then, with bepridil in HBSS medium, the TEER measurement showed a dose-dependent toxic effect of bepridil, whereas in the DMEMc medium, the toxic effect was only found for the highest dose (12 microg). This difference is probably related to the high binding of bepridil to proteins of the DMEMc medium, therefore minimising the concentration of the free compound. The kinetics of bepridil result from two phenomena: first, an immediate passage of a slight part of bepridil through the cell barrier and second, a high retention of most of the bepridil dose in the cell level. The transfer of bepridil from the apical to the basolateral compartment appears quantitatively and kinetically different using DMEMc or HBSS medium. The retention of the compound in the 'filter with Caco-2 cells' compartment is higher in DMEMc medium (60% at 3 microg) than in HBSS medium (46% at 3 microg), and bepridil entering the basolateral compartment is delayed in the DMEMc medium. This study exhibits the importance of the selected medium on results and interpretation of data and the predominance of DMEMc to study the transport of lipophilic compounds highly retained in cells. PMID:10370216

  13. Proactive AP Selection Method Considering the Radio Interference Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taenaka, Yuzo; Kashihara, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Oie, Yuji

    In the near future, wireless local area networks (WLANs) will overlap to provide continuous coverage over a wide area. In such ubiquitous WLANs, a mobile node (MN) moving freely between multiple access points (APs) requires not only permanent access to the Internet but also continuous communication quality during handover. In order to satisfy these requirements, an MN needs to (1) select an AP with better performance and (2) execute a handover seamlessly. To satisfy requirement (2), we proposed a seamless handover method in a previous study. Moreover, in order to achieve (1), the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is usually employed to measure wireless link quality in a WLAN system. However, in a real environment, especially if APs are densely situated, it is difficult to always select an AP with better performance based on only the RSSI. This is because the RSSI alone cannot detect the degradation of communication quality due to radio interference. Moreover, it is important that AP selection is completed only on an MN, because we can assume that, in ubiquitous WLANs, various organizations or operators will manage APs. Hence, we cannot modify the APs for AP selection. To overcome these difficulties, in the present paper, we propose and implement a proactive AP selection method considering wireless link condition based on the number of frame retransmissions in addition to the RSSI. In the evaluation, we show that the proposed AP selection method can appropriately select an AP with good wireless link quality, i.e., high RSSI and low radio interference.

  14. AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant safety overview for spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gorgemans, J.; Mulhollem, L.; Glavin, J.; Pfister, A.; Conway, L.; Schulz, T.; Oriani, L.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J.

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and costs. The AP1000 design uses passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as AC power, component cooling water, service water or HVAC. Furthermore, these passive features 'fail safe' during a non-LOCA event such that DC power and instrumentation are not required. The AP1000 also has simple, active, defense-in-depth systems to support normal plant operations. These active systems provide the first level of defense against more probable events and they provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the probabilistic risk assessment. The AP1000 passive safety approach allows the plant to achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of an accident for 72 hours without operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the U.S. Utility Requirement Document and the European Utility Requirements for passive plants. Limited operator actions are required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool via passive means. In line with the AP1000 approach to safety described above, the AP1000 plant design features multiple, diverse lines of defense to ensure spent fuel cooling can be maintained for design-basis events and beyond design-basis accidents. During normal and abnormal conditions, defense-in-depth and other systems provide highly reliable spent fuel pool cooling. They rely on off-site AC power or the on-site standby diesel generators. For unlikely design basis events with an extended loss of AC power (i.e., station blackout) or loss of heat sink or both, spent fuel cooling can still be provided indefinitely: - Passive systems, requiring minimal or no operator actions, are sufficient for at least 72 hours under all possible pool heat load conditions. - After 3 days, several different means are provided to continue spent fuel cooling using installed plant equipment as well as off-site equipment with built-in connections. Even for beyond design basis accidents with postulated pool damage and multiple failures in the passive safety-related systems and in the defense-in-depth active systems, the AP1000 multiple spent fuel pool spray and fill systems provide additional lines of defense to prevent spent fuel damage. (authors)

  15. Comparative evaluation of transport mechanisms of trans-1-amino-3-[¹?F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid and L-[methyl-¹¹C]methionine in human glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masahiro; Oka, Shuntaro; Okudaira, Hiroyuki; Schuster, David M; Goodman, Mark M; Kawai, Keiichi; Shirakami, Yoshifumi

    2013-10-16

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with amino acid tracers is useful for the visualization and assessment of therapeutic effects on gliomas. Our purpose is to elucidate the transport mechanisms of trans-1-amino-3-[¹?F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (anti-[¹?F]FACBC) and L-[methyl-¹¹C]methionine ([¹¹C]Met) in normal human astrocytes (NHA), low-grade (Hs683, SW1088), and high-grade (U87MG, T98G) human glioma cell lines. Because the short half-lives of fluorine-18 and carbon-11 are inconvenient for in vitro experiments, trans-1-amino-3-fluoro[1-¹?C]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid (anti-[¹?C]FACBC) and L-[methyl-¹?C]methionine ([¹?C]Met) were used instead of the PET tracers. Time-course uptake experiments showed that uptake of anti-[¹?C]FACBC was 1.4-2.6 times higher than that of [¹?C]Met in NHA and low-grade glioma cells, and was almost equal to that of [¹?C]Met in high-grade glioma cells. To identify the amino acid transporters (AATs) involved in the transport of anti-[¹?C]FACBC and [¹?C]Met, we carried out competitive inhibition experiments using synthetic/naturally-occurring amino acids as inhibitors. We found that anti-[¹?C]FACBC uptake in the presence of Na? was strongly inhibited by L-glutamine and L-serine (the substrates for ASC system AATs), whereas L-phenylalanine and 2-amino-bicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH, the substrates for L system AATs) robustly inhibited Na?-independent anti-[¹?C]FACBC uptake. Regardless of Na?, [¹?C]Met uptake was inhibited strongly by L-phenylalanine and BCH. Moreover, the exchange transport activity of L-glutamine for anti-[¹?C]FACBC was stronger than that of BCH in the presence of Na?, whereas that for [¹?C]Met was almost equal to BCH. These results demonstrate that ASC and L are important transport systems for anti-[¹?F]FACBC uptake, while system L is predominantly involved in [¹¹C]Met transport in human astrocytes and glioma cells. PMID:23994214

  16. Science Education Reform and the Education Programs of the APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Ramon

    1998-11-01

    Science education in America is undergoing its greatest period of change since attempt at large-scale reforms in the 60s and 70s. APS members strongly believe that the APS should be involved in precollege science education reform, and the recent membership survey ranked this as the highest priority item for the APS. At the same time, many members are unaware of APS education initiatives. In this talk I will provide an overview of science education reform in the US today. I will then describe APS efforts to support reform in school systems around the country, as well as other APS education programs. APS members have played an active role in all of these programs. If science education reform is to succeed and make a lasting change in schools, the scientific community must be informed and engaged.

  17. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  18. MiniAp-4: A Venom-Inspired Peptidomimetic for Brain Delivery.

    PubMed

    Oller-Salvia, Benjamí; Sánchez-Navarro, Macarena; Ciudad, Sonia; Guiu, Marc; Arranz-Gibert, Pol; Garcia, Cristina; Gomis, Roger R; Cecchelli, Roméo; García, Jesús; Giralt, Ernest; Teixidó, Meritxell

    2016-01-11

    Drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a formidable challenge for therapies targeting the central nervous system. Although BBB shuttle peptides enhance transport into the brain non-invasively, their application is partly limited by lability to proteases. The present study proposes the use of cyclic peptides derived from venoms as an affordable way to circumvent this drawback. Apamin, a neurotoxin from bee venom, was minimized by reducing its complexity, toxicity, and immunogenicity, while preserving brain targeting, active transport, and protease resistance. Among the analogues designed, the monocyclic lactam-bridged peptidomimetic MiniAp-4 was the most permeable. This molecule is capable of translocating proteins and nanoparticles in a human-cell-based BBB model. Furthermore, MiniAp-4 can efficiently deliver a cargo across the BBB into the brain parenchyma of mice. PMID:26492861

  19. 27. WILEY CITY LINE, LOOKING WEST ON HENRYBRO LINE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. WILEY CITY LINE, LOOKING WEST ON HENRYBRO LINE FROM WIDE HOLLOW JUNCTION; LINE TO WILEY CITY DIVERGING LEFT - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  20. Cold-fusion television show angers APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2009-06-01

    Cold fusion has been controversial since its inception on 23 March 1989, when chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons at the University of Utah in the US announced that they had achieved a sustained nuclear-fusion reaction at room temperature. Two decades on, a US television documentary about the field has stirred up fresh debate after it linked the American Physical Society (APS) to an evaluation of some cold-fusion results by Robert Duncan, a physicist and vice chancellor of the University of Missouri.

  1. Role of AP-1 in Developmentally Regulated Lysosomal Trafficking in Trypanosoma brucei?

    PubMed Central

    Tazeh, Ngii N.; Silverman, Jason S.; Schwartz, Kevin J.; Sevova, Elitza S.; Sutterwala, Shaheen S.; Bangs, James D.

    2009-01-01

    African trypanosomes are the causative agents of human trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). The pathogenic stage of the parasite has unique adaptations to life in the bloodstream of the mammalian host, including upregulation of endocytic and lysosomal activities. We investigated stage-specific requirements for cytoplasmic adaptor/clathrin machinery in post-Golgi apparatus biosynthetic sorting to the lysosome using RNA interference silencing of the Tb?1 subunit of adaptor complex 1 (AP-1), in conjunction with immunolocalization, kinetic analyses of reporter transport, and quantitative endocytosis assays. Tb?1 silencing was lethal in both stages, indicating a critical function(s) for the AP-1 machinery. Transport of soluble and membrane-bound secretory cargoes was Tb?1 independent in both stages. In procyclic parasites, trafficking of the lysosomal membrane protein, p67, was disrupted, leading to cell surface mislocalization. The lysosomal protease trypanopain was also secreted, suggesting a transmembrane-sorting receptor for this soluble hydrolase. In bloodstream trypanosomes, both p67 and trypanopain trafficking were unaffected by Tb?1 silencing, suggesting that AP-1 is not necessary for biosynthetic lysosomal trafficking. Endocytosis in bloodstream cells was also unaffected, indicating that AP-1 does not function at the flagellar pocket. These results indicate that post-Golgi apparatus sorting to the lysosome is critically dependent on the AP-1/clathrin machinery in procyclic trypanosomes but that this machinery is not necessary in bloodstream parasites. We propose a simple model for stage-specific default secretory trafficking in trypanosomes that is consistent with the behavior of other soluble and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cargos and which is influenced by upregulation of endocytosis in bloodstream parasites as an adaptation to life in the mammalian bloodstream. PMID:19581441

  2. APS Conference on Understanding the Biological Clock: From Genetics to Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Martin

    1996-01-01

    The Conference was designed to take advantage of the fusion of two intellectually dominant but heretofore separate lines of clock research, vertebrate physiology and invertebrate and microbial genetics. The APS Conference attracted 251 scientists, 68 of whom were students. In addition to the excellent speaker program organized by Dunlap and Loros, the attendees also submitted 93 volunteer abstracts that were programmed in poster sessions. Thirty-four percent of the submitted abstracts were first authorized by a female student or scientist.

  3. Resveratrol rescues cAMP-dependent anionic transport in the cystic fibrosis pancreatic cell line CFPAC1

    PubMed Central

    Hamdaoui, Nabila; Baudoin-Legros, Maryvonne; Kelly, Mairead; Aissat, Abdel; Moriceau, Sandra; Vieu, Diane-Lore; Colas, Julien; Fritsch, Janine; Edelman, Aleksander; Planelles, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-dependent chloride channel in the plasma membrane of epithelia whose mutation is the cause of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). The most frequent CFTR mutation is deletion of Phe508 and this mutant protein (delF508CFTR) does not readily translocate to the plasma membrane and is rapidly degraded within the cell. We hypothesized that treating epithelial cells with resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic, phyto-ooestrogenic compound from grapes, could modulate both the expression and localization of CFTR. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cells endogenously expressing CFTR (MDCK1 and CAPAN1 cells) or delF508CFTR (CFPAC1 and airway epithelial cells, deriving from human bronchial biopsies) were treated with resveratrol for 2 or 18 h. The effect of this treatment on CFTR and delF508CFTR expression and localization was evaluated using RT-PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Halide efflux was measured with a fluorescent dye and with halide-sensitive electrodes. Production of interleukin-8 by these cells was assayed by ELISA. KEY RESULTS Resveratrol treatment increased CFTR expression or maturation in immunoblotting experiments in MDCK1 cells or in CFPAC1 cells. Indirect immunofluorescence experiments showed a shift of delF508CFTR localization towards the (peri)-membrane area in CFPAC1 cells and in human airway epithelial cells. A cAMP-dependent increase in membrane permeability to halide was detected in resveratrol-treated CFPAC1 cells, and was inhibited by a selective inhibitor of CFTR. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These results show that resveratrol modulated CFTR expression and localization and could rescue cAMP-dependent chloride transport in delF508CFTR cells. PMID:21366549

  4. Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along open magnetic field lines: Parallel heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Zehua; Tang Xianzhu

    2012-06-15

    In a long mean-free-path plasma where temperature anisotropy can be sustained, the parallel heat flux has two components with one associated with the parallel thermal energy and the other the perpendicular thermal energy. Due to the large deviation of the distribution function from local Maxwellian in an open field line plasma with low collisionality, the conventional perturbative calculation of the parallel heat flux closure in its local or non-local form is no longer applicable. Here, a non-perturbative calculation is presented for a collisionless plasma in a two-dimensional flux expander bounded by absorbing walls. Specifically, closures of previously unfamiliar form are obtained for ions and electrons, which relate two distinct components of the species parallel heat flux to the lower order fluid moments such as density, parallel flow, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, and the field quantities such as the magnetic field strength and the electrostatic potential. The plasma source and boundary condition at the absorbing wall enter explicitly in the closure calculation. Although the closure calculation does not take into account wave-particle interactions, the results based on passing orbits from steady-state collisionless drift-kinetic equation show remarkable agreement with fully kinetic-Maxwell simulations. As an example of the physical implications of the theory, the parallel heat flux closures are found to predict a surprising observation in the kinetic-Maxwell simulation of the 2D magnetic flux expander problem, where the parallel heat flux of the parallel thermal energy flows from low to high parallel temperature region.

  5. Na/Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCn1 in the Kidney Medullary Thick Ascending Limb Cell Line is Upregulated under Acidic Conditions and Enhances Ammonium Transport

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soojung; Lee, Hye Jeong; Yang, Han Soo; Thornell, Ian M.; Bevensee, Mark O.; Choi, Inyeong

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of bicarbonate transporters on ammonium/ammonia uptake in the medullary thick ascending limb cell line ST-1. Cells were treated with 1 mM ouabain and 0.2 mM bumetanide to minimize carrier-mediated NH4+ transport, and the intracellular accumulation of 14C-methylammonium/methylammonia (MA) was determined. In CO2?HCO3?-free solution, cells at normal pH briefly accumulated 14C-MA over 7 min and reached a plateau. In CO2?HCO3? solution, however, cells markedly accumulated 14C-MA over the experiment period of 30 min. This CO2?HCO3?-dependent accumulation was reduced by the bicarbonate transporter blocker 4,4’-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2’-disulfonate (DIDS; 0.5 mM). Replacing Cl– with gluconate reduced the accumulation but the reduction was more substantial in the presence of DIDS. Incubating cells at pH 6.8 (adjusted with NaHCO3 in 5% CO2) for 24 h lowered the mean steady-state intracellular pH to 6.96, significantly lower than 7.28 for controls. DIDS reduced 14C-MA accumulation in controls but had no effect after acidic incubation. Immunoblot showed that NBCn1 was upregulated after acidic incubation and in NH4Cl-containing media. The Cl/HCO3 exchanger AE2 was present but its expression remained unaffected by acidic incubation. Expressed in Xenopus oocytes, NBCn1 increased carrier-mediated 14C-MA transport, which was abolished by replacing Na+. Two-electrode voltage clamp of oocytes exhibited negligible current after NH4Cl application. These results suggest that DIDS-sensitive HCO3? extrusion normally governs NH4+/NH3 uptake in the MTAL cells. We propose that, under acidic conditions, DIDS-sensitive HCO3? extrusion is inactivated while NBCn1 is upregulated to stimulate NH4+ transport. PMID:20591978

  6. The mitochondrial transport protein SLC25A43 affects drug efficacy and drug-induced cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Marike; Tina, Elisabet

    2013-04-01

    The mitochondria have been identified as key players of apoptosis, cell proliferation and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of mitochondria in breast cancer and treatment failure remains unclear. We have previously shown a common deletion of the gene SLC25A43 in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. This gene is coding for a mitochondrial inner membrane transporter and, to date, little is known about the function of this protein. We have also found that low protein expression of SLC25A43 significantly correlates with a lower S phase fraction in HER2-positive breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether knockdown (KD) of SLC25A43 could have an effect on the cytotoxicity of different cytostatic drugs using MCF10A, MCF7 and BT-474 cells. Following siRNA-mediated KD of SLC25A43, one non-malignant and two breast cancer cell lines were exposed to the anthracycline epirubicin or the taxane paclitaxel. The HER2-positive breast cancer cells were also exposed to the targeted therapy trastuzumab and dual exposure to trastuzumab and paclitaxel. We found that KD of SLC25A43 resulted in a decreased cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel in the two cancer cell lines (P<0.05). Further analysis of cell cycle phase distribution showed that KD increased the paclitaxel-induced G2/M block in these two cell lines (P<0.05). KD of SLC25A43 also reduced the inhibitory effect of trastuzumab on cell proliferation in the HER2-positive cancer cell line BT-474 (P<0.05), and the drug-induced G0/G1 block (P<0.05). Moreover, SLC25A43 influenced the percentage of Ki-67-positive cells. Our findings demonstrate that the mitochondrial protein SLC25A43 affects drug efficacy and cell cycle regulation following drug exposure in breast cancer cell lines. PMID:23354756

  7. Transport of a Prolyl Endopeptidase Inhibitory Peptide across the Blood-Brain Barrier Demonstrated Using the hCMEC/D3 Cell Line Transcytosis Assay.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Maria; Moen, Lars Fredrik; Auty, Mark A E; Lea, Tor Erling

    2016-01-13

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains a significant hurdle for treatment of central nervous system (CNS) and mental health disorders. A prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) inhibitory peptide with the amino acid sequence proline-proline-leucine (PPL) was chemically synthesized labeled with 5-FAM and assessed using a transcytosis assay for its ability to cross the BBB. Transport of this peptide across the BBB was determined using an in vitro model of the human BBB, which utilizes the human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3). Uptake and transport of 5-FAM-PPL across the hCMEC/D3 cell model was determined using confocal microscopy and mass spectrometry. This is an important parameter in determining whether peptides may reach the target organ (i.e., the brain and central nervous system).This work assessed, for the first time, the ability of a food-derived PEP inhibitory peptide to cross the BBB without the use of animal models. PMID:26716467

  8. Comparison of In vitro Nanoparticles Uptake in Various Cell Lines and In vivo Pulmonary Cellular Transport in Intratracheally Dosed Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In present study, the potential drug delivery of nanoformulations was validated via the comparison of cellular uptake of nanoparticles in various cell lines and in vivo pulmonary cellular uptake in intratracheally (IT) dosed rat model. Nanoparticles were prepared by a bench scale wet milling device and incubated with a series of cell lines, including Caco-2, RAW, MDCK and MDCK transfected MDR1 cells. IT dosed rats were examined for the pulmonary cellular uptake of nanoparticles. The processes of nanoparticle preparation did not alter the crystalline state of the material. The uptake of nanoparticles was observed most extensively in RAW cells and the least in Caco-2 cells. Efflux transporter P-gp did not prevent cell from nanoparticles uptake. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles was also confirmed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cells and in bronchiolar epithelial cells, type II alveolar epithelial cells in the intratracheally administrated rats. The nanoparticles uptake in MDCK, RAW cells and in vivo lung epithelial cells indicated the potential applications of nanoformulation for poorly soluble compounds. The observed limited direct uptake of nanoparticles in Caco-2 cells suggests that the improvement in oral bioavailability by particle size reduction is via increased dissolution rate rather than direct uptake.

  9. Septin6 and Septin7 GTP binding proteins regulate AP-3- and ESCRT-dependent multivesicular body biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Traikov, Sofia; Stange, Christoph; Wassmer, Thomas; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Salamero, Jean; Raposo, Graça; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Septins (SEPTs) form a family of GTP-binding proteins implicated in cytoskeleton and membrane organization, cell division and host/pathogen interactions. The precise function of many family members remains elusive. We show that SEPT6 and SEPT7 complexes bound to F-actin regulate protein sorting during multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis. These complexes bind AP-3, an adapter complex sorting cargos destined to remain in outer membranes of maturing endosomes, modulate AP-3 membrane interactions and the motility of AP-3-positive endosomes. These SEPT-AP interactions also influence the membrane interaction of ESCRT (endosomal-sorting complex required for transport)-I, which selects ubiquitinated cargos for degradation inside MVBs. Whereas our findings demonstrate that SEPT6 and SEPT7 function in the spatial, temporal organization of AP-3- and ESCRT-coated membrane domains, they uncover an unsuspected coordination of these sorting machineries during MVB biogenesis. This requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase LRSAM1, an AP-3 interactor regulating ESCRT-I sorting activity and whose mutations are linked with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. PMID:25380047

  10. v-SNARE cellubrevin is required for basolateral sorting of AP-1B–dependent cargo in polarized epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Ian C.; Shteyn, Elina; Pypaert, Marc; Proux-Gillardeaux, Véronique; Kang, Richard S.; Galli, Thierry; Fölsch, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The epithelial cell–specific adaptor complex AP-1B is crucial for correct delivery of many transmembrane proteins from recycling endosomes to the basolateral plasma membrane. Subsequently, membrane fusion is dependent on the formation of complexes between SNARE proteins located at the target membrane and on transport vesicles. Although the t-SNARE syntaxin 4 has been localized to the basolateral membrane, the v-SNARE operative in the AP-1B pathway remained unknown. We show that the ubiquitously expressed v-SNARE cellubrevin localizes to the basolateral membrane and to recycling endosomes, where it colocalizes with AP-1B. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cellubrevin coimmunoprecipitates preferentially with syntaxin 4, implicating this v-SNARE in basolateral fusion events. Cleavage of cellubrevin with tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) results in scattering of AP-1B localization and missorting of AP-1B–dependent cargos, such as transferrin receptor and a truncated low-density lipoprotein receptor, LDLR-CT27. These data suggest that cellubrevin and AP-1B cooperate in basolateral membrane trafficking. PMID:17485489

  11. Septin6 and Septin7 GTP Binding Proteins Regulate AP-3- and ESCRT-Dependent Multivesicular Body Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Traikov, Sofia; Stange, Christoph; Wassmer, Thomas; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Salamero, Jean; Raposo, Graça; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Septins (SEPTs) form a family of GTP-binding proteins implicated in cytoskeleton and membrane organization, cell division and host/pathogen interactions. The precise function of many family members remains elusive. We show that SEPT6 and SEPT7 complexes bound to F-actin regulate protein sorting during multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis. These complexes bind AP-3, an adapter complex sorting cargos destined to remain in outer membranes of maturing endosomes, modulate AP-3 membrane interactions and the motility of AP-3-positive endosomes. These SEPT-AP interactions also influence the membrane interaction of ESCRT (endosomal-sorting complex required for transport)-I, which selects ubiquitinated cargos for degradation inside MVBs. Whereas our findings demonstrate that SEPT6 and SEPT7 function in the spatial, temporal organization of AP-3- and ESCRT-coated membrane domains, they uncover an unsuspected coordination of these sorting machineries during MVB biogenesis. This requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase LRSAM1, an AP-3 interactor regulating ESCRT-I sorting activity and whose mutations are linked with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. PMID:25380047

  12. Butyrate produced by commensal bacteria potentiates phorbol esters induced AP-1 response in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nepelska, Malgorzata; Cultrone, Antonietta; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Vermulugesan; Blottière, Hervé M

    2012-01-01

    The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells. PMID:23300800

  13. Butyrate Produced by Commensal Bacteria Potentiates Phorbol Esters Induced AP-1 Response in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nepelska, Malgorzata; Cultrone, Antonietta; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Vermulugesan; Blottière, Hervé M.

    2012-01-01

    The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells. PMID:23300800

  14. CEACAM6 as detected by the AP11 antibody is a marker notable for mucin-producing adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok-Jun; Son, Seung-Myoung; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Lee, Yong-Moon; Kim, Min-Young; Choi, Jae-Woon; Lee, Sang-Jeon; Song, Young-Jin; Kim, Hak Soon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Shin, See-Ok; Song, Hyung Geun

    2015-02-01

    A new monoclonal antibody recognizing CEACAM6, which we named AP11, was generated by immunizing BALB/c mice with phytohemagglutinin-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This study aims to evaluate whether CEACAM6 can serve as a tumor marker using AP11. We examined the expression of CEACAM6 with AP11 in 11 human carcinoma cell lines by flow cytometry and 439 human tissues including 282 tumor tissues and 157 normal tissues by immunohistochemistry. CEACAM6 epitope recognized by AP11 was well preserved in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Adenocarcinomas of the stomach (86%), colorectum (95%), pancreas (100%), and lung (83%), urinary bladder (100%), and mucinous ovarian tumors (88%) had a high rate of CEACAM6 immunoreactivity. We observed a variable expression of CEACAM6 in hepatocellular carcinomas (35%), squamous cell carcinomas of the lung (60%), renal cell carcinomas (14%), urothelial carcinomas (13%), serous carcinomas of the ovary (17%), and breast carcinomas (11%). Small-cell carcinomas of the lung, prostatic adenocarcinomas, papillary thyroid carcinomas, malignant melanomas, giant cell tumors, and osteosarcomas were negative for CEACAM6. All normal tissues of various organs were negative for CEACAM6. In conclusion, CEACAM6 as detected by AP11, may serve as a marker for mucin-producing adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract and ovary as well as non-small cell lung cancer. Thus, AP11 represents a valuable diagnostic tool for detecting CEACMA6-positive cancers. PMID:25427744

  15. Magnetic fields of the Ap stars

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, E.F.; Landstreet, J.D.

    1980-03-01

    We have conducted a survey of longitudinal magnetic fields (B/sub e/) among bright northern and southern Ap stars. The photoelectric technique used involves circular Zeeman polarimetry in the wings of H..beta... We find that the photoelectric B/sub e/ curves tend to be more harmonic than the photographic B/sub e/ curves. We have discovered magnetic fields in several rapidly rotating Ap stars. There is marginal statistical evidence to suggest that the rapid rotators might have surface magnetic fields smaller than the slow rotators; however, some very rapid rotators (P=0.5 days) can clearly have B/sub e/ extrema (approx.1 kilogauss) comparable to the extrema of slow rotators. We do not find serious evidence for irregular B/sub e/ variations, although we cannot exclude irregular variations of the order of 200 gauss in some stars. The astrophysical implications of our findings are briefly discussed. We have observed several Am and Hg-Mn stars, finding no evidence of magnetic fields.

  16. The APS control system network upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K. v.; Leibfritz, D.; McDowell, W. P.

    1999-10-22

    When it was installed,the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system network was at the state-of-the-art. Different aspects of the system have been reported at previous meetings [1,2]. As loads on the controls network have increased due to newer and faster workstations and front-end computers, we have found performance of the system declining and have implemented an upgraded network. There have been dramatic advances in networking hardware in the last several years. The upgraded APS controls network replaces the original FDDI backbone and shared Ethernet hubs with redundant gigabit uplinks and fully switched 10/100 Ethernet switches with backplane fabrics in excess of 20 Gbits/s (Gbps). The central collapsed backbone FDDI concentrator has been replaced with a Gigabit Ethernet switch with greater than 30 Gbps backplane fabric. Full redundancy of the system has been maintained. This paper will discuss this upgrade and include performance data and performance comparisons with the original network.

  17. RELAP5/MOD3 AP600 problems

    SciTech Connect

    Riemke, R.A.

    1993-08-01

    RELAP5/MOD3 is a reactor systems analysis code that has been developed jointly by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and a consortium consisting of several of the countries and domestic organizations that were members of the International Code Assessment and Applications Program (ICAP). The code is currently being used to simulate transients for the next generation of advanced light water reactors (ALWR`s). One particular reactor design is the Westinghouse AP600 pressurized water reactor (PWR), which consists of two hot legs and four cold legs as well as passive emergency core cooling (ECC) systems. Initial calculations with RELAP5/MOD3 indicated that the code was not as robust as RELAP5/MOD2.5 with regard to AP600 calculations. Recent modifications in the areas of condensation wall heat transfer, interfacial heat transfer in the presence of noncondensibles, bubbly flow interfacial heat transfer, and time smoothing of both interfacial drag and interfacial heat transfer have improved the robustness, although more reliability is needed.

  18. Evaluating EPA’s AP-42 development methodology to convert or rerate current AP-42 datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) published their new methodology for updating the Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42). The “Recommended Procedures for Development of Emissions Factors and Use of the WebFIRE Database” instructs that the ratings of the...

  19. A structural explanation for the binding of endocytic dileucine motifs by the AP2 complex

    PubMed Central

    Späte, Kira; Miller, Sharon E.; Evans, Philip R.; Höning, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Most transmembrane proteins are selected as transport vesicle cargo through the recognition of short, linear amino acid motifs in their cytoplasmic portions by vesicle coat proteins. In the case of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) the motifs are recognised by clathrin adaptors. The AP2 adaptor complex (subunits ?,?2,?2,?2) recognises both major endocytic motifs: Yxx? motifs 1 and [DE]xxxL[LI] acidic dileucine motifs. Here we describe the binding of AP2 to the endocytic dileucine motif from CD4 2. The major recognition events are the two leucine residues binding in hydrophobic pockets on ?2. The hydrophilic residue four residues upstream from the first leucine sits on a positively charged patch made from residues on ?2 and ? subunits. Mutations in key residues inhibit the binding of AP2 to ‘acidic dileucine’ motifs displayed in liposomes containing PtdIns4,5P2, but do not affect binding to Yxx? motifs via ?2. In the ‘inactive’ AP2 core structure 3, both motif binding sites are blocked by different parts of the ?2 subunit. To allow a dileucine motif to bind, the ?2 N-terminus is displaced and becomes disordered; however, in this structure the Yxx? binding site on ?2 remains blocked. PMID:19140243

  20. The role of c-Jun in the AP-1 activation induced by naturally occurring isothiocyanates.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Yao, S; Zhang, Y

    2005-09-01

    Despite strong evidence that isothiocyanates (ITCs) inhibit cancer development, there are also reports that some of them induce or promote carcinogenesis. The molecular basis of the latter is largely unknown. We report here that all three ITCs that caused urinary bladder cancer in rats, including allyl ITC, benzyl ITC, and phenethyl ITC, increased the transactivation of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and AP-1 DNA binding in human bladder cancer UM-UC-3 cells. Amongst all Fos and Jun family members examined, only were the levels of c-Jun and Fra-2 consistently elevated by the ITCs. However, whereas c-Jun was identified as the predominant component in the AP-1 DNA binding complex, Fra-2 was not detected, suggesting that c-Jun may be mainly responsible for ITC-induced AP-1 activation. c-Jun was also induced by the ITCs in other bladder cancer cell lines (both human and rat) and by their N-acetylcysteine derivatives--their main urinary metabolites. c-Jun induction by the ITCs appears to involve both transcriptional activation and protein phosphorylation; the latter resulted from activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase by the ITCs. Because c-Jun has been implicated in cancer development, including human bladder cancer, our data suggest that c-Jun activation may play an important role in ITC-induced bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:15989974

  1. Unexpected Heterodivalent Recruitment of NOS1AP to nNOS Reveals Multiple Sites for Pharmacological Intervention in Neuronal Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Li; Melero-Fernandez de Mera, Raquel M; Chen, Jia; Ba, Wei; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Zhang, Mingjie; Courtney, Michael J

    2015-05-13

    The protein NOS1AP/CAPON mediates signaling from a protein complex of NMDA receptor, PSD95 and nNOS. The only stroke trial for neuroprotectants that showed benefit to patients targeted this ternary complex. NOS1AP/nNOS interaction regulates small GTPases, iron transport, p38MAPK-linked excitotoxicity, and anxiety. Moreover, the nos1ap gene is linked to disorders from schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and autism to cardiovascular disorders and breast cancer. Understanding protein interactions required for NOS1AP function, therefore, has broad implications for numerous diseases. Here we show that the interaction of NOS1AP with nNOS differs radically from the classical PDZ docking assumed to be responsible. The NOS1AP PDZ motif does not bind nNOS as measured by multiple methods. In contrast, full-length NOS1AP forms an unusually stable interaction with nNOS. We mapped the discrepancy between full-length and C-terminal PDZ motif to a novel internal region we call the ExF motif. The C-terminal PDZ motif, although neither sufficient nor necessary for binding, nevertheless promotes the stability of the complex. It therefore potentially affects signal transduction and suggests that functional interaction of nNOS with NOS1AP might be targetable at two distinct sites. We demonstrate that excitotoxic pathways can be regulated, in cortical neuron and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rat, either by the previously described PDZ ligand TAT-GESV or by the ExF motif-bearing region of NOS1AP, even when lacking the critical PDZ residues as long as the ExF motif is intact and not mutated. This previously unrecognized heterodivalent interaction of nNOS with NOS1AP may therefore provide distinct opportunities for pharmacological intervention in NOS1AP-dependent signaling and excitotoxicity. PMID:25972165

  2. Stratification of chemical elements in the atmosphere of the Ap star 53 Camelopardalis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babel, J.; Lanz, T.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed abundance analysis of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ca, and Ti in the Ap star 53 Cam from IUE high-resolution spectra has been performed. It is found that UV lines give significantly lower abundance than visible lines for Cr and Fe. Theoretical spectra of Cr II line calculated with the stratified chromium abundance distributions predicted a priori by the diffusion-mass loss model match well both visible and UV lines. The spectral shape of the Ca II K line and its variation are well accounted for by the diffusion model with mass loss. A spectrum synthesis with a stratified abundance well reproduces the observations. These findings provide convincing evidence for stratification in the photosphere of 53 Cam.

  3. Using selenomethionyl derivatives to assign sequence in low-resolution structures of the AP2 clathrin adaptor.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bernard T; Graham, Stephen C; Owen, David J

    2016-03-01

    Selenomethionine incorporation is a powerful technique for assigning sequence to regions of electron density at low resolution. Genetic introduction of methionine point mutations and the subsequent preparation and crystallization of selenomethionyl derivatives permits unambiguous sequence assignment by enabling the placement of the anomalous scatterers (Se atoms) thus introduced. Here, the use of this approach in the assignment of sequence in a part of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex that is responsible for clathrin binding is described. AP2 plays a pivotal role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, a tightly regulated process in which cell-surface transmembrane proteins are internalized from the plasma membrane by incorporation into lipid-enclosed transport vesicles. AP2 binds cargo destined for internalization and recruits clathrin, a large trimeric protein that helps to deform the membrane to produce the transport vesicle. By selenomethionine labelling of point mutants, it was shown that the clathrin-binding site is buried within a deep cleft of the AP2 complex. A membrane-stimulated conformational change in AP2 releases the clathrin-binding site from autoinhibition, thereby linking clathrin recruitment to membrane localization. PMID:26960121

  4. Using selenomethionyl derivatives to assign sequence in low-resolution structures of the AP2 clathrin adaptor

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Bernard T.; Graham, Stephen C.; Owen, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Selenomethionine incorporation is a powerful technique for assigning sequence to regions of electron density at low resolution. Genetic introduction of methionine point mutations and the subsequent preparation and crystallization of selenomethionyl derivatives permits unambiguous sequence assignment by enabling the placement of the anomalous scatterers (Se atoms) thus introduced. Here, the use of this approach in the assignment of sequence in a part of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex that is responsible for clathrin binding is described. AP2 plays a pivotal role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, a tightly regulated process in which cell-surface transmembrane proteins are internalized from the plasma membrane by incorporation into lipid-enclosed transport vesicles. AP2 binds cargo destined for internalization and recruits clathrin, a large trimeric protein that helps to deform the membrane to produce the transport vesicle. By selenomethionine labelling of point mutants, it was shown that the clathrin-binding site is buried within a deep cleft of the AP2 complex. A membrane-stimulated conformational change in AP2 releases the clathrin-binding site from autoinhibition, thereby linking clathrin recruitment to membrane localization. PMID:26960121

  5. Tank 241-AP-108 grab sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-07

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) will identify characterization objectives for sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for tank 241-AP-108 (AP 108). It is written in accordance with the Tank 241-AP-108 Tank Characterization Plan, the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective, the 242-A Evaporator Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Data Quality Objectives, and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program.

  6. VLT observations of rapid radial velocity variations in roAp stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.

    2008-04-01

    We have studied 27 out of the 37 known roAp stars with high resolution spectroscopy using UVES on the ESO VLT. All 27 stars show rapid radial velocity variations with periods similar to those obtained by photometry. Highest pulsation amplitudes are seen for lines of rare earth elements and the H? core. For some stars other chemical species also have pulsation, but with smaller amplitudes. There are pulsational phase shifts between lines of different rare earth elements. Stars with stronger magnetic fields tend to have lower radial velocity pulsation amplitudes.

  7. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104

    SciTech Connect

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-02-25

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

  8. Fabrication of Functionally Graded SOFC by APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. Z.; Zhang, H. O.; Wang, G. L.; Xia, W. S.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric plasma spray (APS) was used to prepare the planar positive/electrolyte/negative (PEN) and mono-block layer built (MOLB) type PEN solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). On the basis of the spraying conditions optimized previously and the self-developed functionally graded powder feeder system, two types of PEN cells were fabricated. Then the microstructure and material composition of the PEN cells were analyzed. The results show that graded layers formed between the electrodes and electrolyte. Moreover, the material composition and the porosity of the graded layers vary gradually. In particular, the porosities of the resultant anode and cathode reach 32.74 and 32.24%, respectively. Using the AC complex impedance technique, the conductivity of the MOLB type composite electrode is tested. The electrical conductivity of the MOLB type composite electrode with the graded layers is larger than that without the graded layers.

  9. Investigation of the AP-42 sampling method.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hualiang; Kwigizile, Valerian; Karakouzian, Moses; James, David E; Etyemezian, Vic

    2008-11-01

    The AP-42 method has been recommended by the U.S. Environment Protection Agency to collect dust emission data. According to this method, the number of sampling sites needs to be determined first. At these sites, the dust will be collected based on plots drawn on the road surface. Apparently, there has been no systematic rule to follow to determine the number of sampling sites. In addition, it is not known whether the required number of plots and their sizes are validated based on real data. Mobile sampling technology can collect dust emission data at very close space intervals, which to some extent can be viewed as being close to actual dust emission data continuously distributed over roadway segments. With such data available, this study investigated the number of sampling sites and the number of plots and their sizes based on the optimal allocation sampling method and the Monte Carlo simulation method. The results from the optimal allocation method indicated that most of the sampling sites should be drawn from the local roads because the variance of emission and proportion of road segments of this roadway classification are significantly bigger than other roadway classifications. This observation may lead to the application of other cost-effective sampling approaches. The results from the Monte Carlo simulation method imply that clear patterns of improved estimation of emission factors versus plot number and size can be observed only for three roadway classifications, not for other classifications. This result indicates that the AP-42 method may not be applicable to some roadway classifications, and thus different data collection methods such as the mobile sampling technology may be necessary. PMID:19044158

  10. Glucose-Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Metal Vapour Synthesis Are Electively Internalized in a Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cell Line Expressing GLUT1 Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Evangelisti, Claudio; Vitulli, Giovanni; Schiavi, Eleonora; Marzano, Cristina; Ferretti, Anna M.; Salvadori, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) can have a variety of biomedical applications due to their visualization properties through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and heating with radio frequency or alternating magnetic fields. In the oncological field, coating IONP with organic compounds to provide specific features and to achieve the ability of binding specific molecular targets appears to be very promising. To take advantage of the high avidity of tumor cells for glucose, we report the development of very small glucose-coated IONP (glc-IONP) by employing an innovative technique, Metal Vapor Synthesis (MVS). Moreover, we tested the internalization of our gl-IONP on a tumor line, BxPC3, over-expressing GLUT 1 transporter. Both glc-IONP and polyvinylpyrrolidone-IONP (PVP-IONP), as control, were prepared with MVS and were tested on BxPC3 at various concentrations. To evaluate the role of GLUT-1 transporter, we also investigated the effect of adding a polyclonal anti-GLUT1 antibody. After proper treatment, the iron value was assessed by atomic absorption spectrometer, reported in mcg/L and expressed in mg of protein. Our IONP prepared with MVS were very small and homogeneously distributed in a narrow range (1.75-3.75 nm) with an average size of 2.7 nm and were super-paramagnetic. Glc-IONP were internalized by BxPC3 cells in a larger amount than PVP-IONP. After 6h of treatment with 50 mcg/mL of IONPs, the content of Fe was 1.5 times higher in glc-IONP-treated cells compared with PVP-IONP-treated cells. After 1h pre-treatment with anti-GLUT1, a reduction of 41% cellular accumulation of glc-IONP was observed. Conversely, the uptake of PVP-IONPs was reduced only by 14% with antibody pretreatment. In conclusion, MVS allowed us to prepare small, homogeneous, super-paramagnetic glc-IONP, which are electively internalized by a tumor line over-expressing GLUT1. Our glc-IONP appear to have many requisites for in vivo use. PMID:25874906

  11. The AP2-like gene NsAP2 from water lily is involved in floral organogenesis and plant height.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Teng, Nianjun; Chen, Yu; Chen, Fadi

    2012-07-01

    APETALA2 (AP2) genes are ancient and widely distributed among the seed plants, and play an important role during the plant life cycle, acting as key regulators of many developmental processes. In this study, an AP2 homologue, NsAP2, was characterized from water lily (Nymphaea sp. cv. 'Yellow Prince') and is believed to be rather primitive in the evolution of the angiosperms. In situ RNA hybridization showed that NsAP2 transcript was present in all regions of the floral primordium, but had the highest level in the emerging floral organ primordium. After the differentiation of floral organs, NsAP2 was strongly expressed in sepals and petals, while low levels were found in stamens and carpels. The NsAP2 protein was suggested to be localized in the cell nucleus by onion transient expression experiment. Overexpression of NsAP2 in Arabidopsis led to more petal numbers, and Arabidopsis plants expressing NsAP2 exhibited higher plant height, which may be a result of down-regulated expression of GA2ox2 and GA2ox7. Our results indicated that the NsAP2 protein may function in flower organogenesis in water lily, and it is a promising gene for plant height improvement. PMID:22591856

  12. Genome-Wide Identification of the Target Genes of AP2-O, a Plasmodium AP2-Family Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Izumi; Iwanaga, Shiroh; Kato, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Issei; Yuda, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Stage-specific transcription is a fundamental biological process in the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasite. Proteins containing the AP2 DNA-binding domain are responsible for stage-specific transcriptional regulation and belong to the only known family of transcription factors in Plasmodium parasites. Comprehensive identification of their target genes will advance our understanding of the molecular basis of stage-specific transcriptional regulation and stage-specific parasite development. AP2-O is an AP2 family transcription factor that is expressed in the mosquito midgut-invading stage, called the ookinete, and is essential for normal morphogenesis of this stage. In this study, we identified the genome-wide target genes of AP2-O by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and elucidate how this AP2 family transcription factor contributes to the formation of this motile stage. The analysis revealed that AP2-O binds specifically to the upstream genomic regions of more than 500 genes, suggesting that approximately 10% of the parasite genome is directly regulated by AP2-O. These genes are involved in distinct biological processes such as morphogenesis, locomotion, midgut penetration, protection against mosquito immunity and preparation for subsequent oocyst development. This direct and global regulation by AP2-O provides a model for gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites and may explain how these parasites manage to control their complex life cycle using a small number of sequence-specific AP2 transcription factors. PMID:26018192

  13. Genome-Wide Identification of the Target Genes of AP2-O, a Plasmodium AP2-Family Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Izumi; Iwanaga, Shiroh; Kato, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Issei; Yuda, Masao

    2015-05-01

    Stage-specific transcription is a fundamental biological process in the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasite. Proteins containing the AP2 DNA-binding domain are responsible for stage-specific transcriptional regulation and belong to the only known family of transcription factors in Plasmodium parasites. Comprehensive identification of their target genes will advance our understanding of the molecular basis of stage-specific transcriptional regulation and stage-specific parasite development. AP2-O is an AP2 family transcription factor that is expressed in the mosquito midgut-invading stage, called the ookinete, and is essential for normal morphogenesis of this stage. In this study, we identified the genome-wide target genes of AP2-O by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and elucidate how this AP2 family transcription factor contributes to the formation of this motile stage. The analysis revealed that AP2-O binds specifically to the upstream genomic regions of more than 500 genes, suggesting that approximately 10% of the parasite genome is directly regulated by AP2-O. These genes are involved in distinct biological processes such as morphogenesis, locomotion, midgut penetration, protection against mosquito immunity and preparation for subsequent oocyst development. This direct and global regulation by AP2-O provides a model for gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites and may explain how these parasites manage to control their complex life cycle using a small number of sequence-specific AP2 transcription factors. PMID:26018192

  14. Differential mitochondrial electron transport through the cyanide-sensitive and cyanide-insensitive pathways in isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile, male fertile, and restored petunia. [Petunia parodii L. S. M

    SciTech Connect

    Connett, M.B.; Hanson, M.R. )

    1990-08-01

    Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida (Hook) Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydoxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines.

  15. The transcriptional activation pattern of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) involving transcription factors AP-1 and C/EBP beta.

    PubMed

    Kirschning, C J; Unbehaun, A; Fiedler, G; Hallatschek, W; Lamping, N; Pfeil, D; Schumann, R R

    1997-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Binding Protein (LBP) is an acute phase protein with the ability to recognize bacterial LPS and transport it to the CD14 molecule or into HDL particles. It is synthesized in hepatocytes and secreted into the blood stream. LBP levels significantly rise during the acute phase response and levels of LBP may be important for an appropriate host reaction to bacterial challenge and for developing the sepsis syndrome. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of LBP regulation we investigated its transcription pattern and performed promoter studies under experimental conditions mimicking an acute phase scenario. In human hepatoma cell lines stimulation with IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and dexamethasone leads to strong transcriptional activation of the LBP gene in a dose- and time-dependent manner. IL-6 alone induces LBP significantly, whereas IL-1 beta mainly increases the IL-6 effect when applied in combination. Our results furthermore show that AP-1 and C/EBP beta are transcription factors involved in the activation of the LBP gene, as revealed by Luciferase reporter gene analysis and electromobility shift assays. Elucidating the mechanism of transcriptional activation of LBP potentially may help in understanding host-pathogen response patterns and mechanisms involved in the acute phase reaction and in the pathophysiology of sepsis. PMID:9442384

  16. Data-Based Decision Making: The Road to AP Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Duggan, Odette

    2012-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Lake Buena Vista, FL in July 2012. This presentation reviews concepts central to achieving equitable AP access and success for all willing and academically prepared students. We analyze trends in participation and performance by race/ethnicity from the AP Report to the Nation and…

  17. The 10th Annual AP® Report to the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, 2014

    2014-01-01

    From the moment students step into an Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) classroom, they notice the difference in the teacher's approach to the subject, in the attitude of their classmates, in the new way of thinking the curriculum requires. More than just a class, AP is a community of students and educators who are passionate, curious, and…

  18. APS Chapter 1 Evaluation Report. 1985-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Kathy; Kaemper, Jack

    In 1985-86, reading was identified as the supplemental instructional area of the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools (APS) for funding under the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act, Chapter 1. In all, 39 elementary schools, 13 middle schools, and 4 high schools in the APS qualified for Chapter 1 services; 4,317 elementary school…

  19. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - LANDFILLS (COMBUSTION CONTROLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for landfills, in particular for combustion devices fed by landfill gas, for incorporation into AP-42. AP-42 is a massive collection of information concerning processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and co...

  20. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - RUBBER PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for the rubber products industry which are appended to AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness information. As res...

  1. Standards and Excellence: Evidence from Advanced Placement (AP) Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of state exit exams on the student utilization of and performance on Advanced Placement (AP) exams. AP programs have become an increasingly popular way of providing fairly standardized and academically rigorous academic experiences that can prepare high school students for the transition to post-secondary schooling.…

  2. The APS SASE FEL : modeling and code comparison.

    SciTech Connect

    Biedron, S. G.

    1999-04-20

    A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

  3. Status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.; Berg, W.; Fuja, R.; Grelick, A.; Mavrogenes, G.; Nassiri, A.; Russell, T.; Wesolowski, W.

    1993-08-01

    A 2856-MHz S-band, 450-MeV electron/positron linear accelerator is the first part of the injector for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring. Construction of the APS linac is currently nearing completion, and commissioning will begin in July 1993. The linac and its current status are discussed in this paper.

  4. Development of a superconducting undulator for the APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Abliz, M.; Doose, C.; Fuerst, J.; Hasse, Q.; Kasa, M.; Lev, V.; Mezentsev, N.; Syrovatin, V.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Tsukanov, V.; Vasserman, I.; Gluskin, E.

    2013-03-01

    As the western hemisphere's premier x-ray synchrotron radiation source, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) continues to advance the state of the art in insertion device technology in order to maintain record high brightness, especially in the hard x-ray wavelength region. Due to the unique bunch pattern used for normal APS operations and its ultimate capabilities, the APS has chosen superconducting technology for its future hard x-ray undulator sources. In the last several years, the APS in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics has being developing the technology for planar, small-period superconducting undulators (SCUs). These developments include the design and construction of several prototypes and the construction of the necessary mechanical, vacuum, and cryogenic infrastructure at the APS site. Several prototypes of the SCU magnetic structure have been built and tested. The first SCU is assembled and will be installed in the APS storage ring at the end of 2012. Expected SCU performance in terms of x-ray brightness should noticeably exceed that of existing APS undulators. Immediately after commissioning, the SCU will be used at APS Sector 6 as the radiation source for high-energy x-ray studies.

  5. AccuNet/AP (Associated Press) Multimedia Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrence E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The AccuNet/AP Multimedia Archive is an electronic library containing the AP's current photos and a selection of pictures from their enormous print and negative library, as well as text and graphic material. It is composed of two photo databases as well as graphics, text, and audio databases. The features of this database are briefly described in…

  6. Mutagenesis of cysteine 81 prevents dimerization of the APS1 subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and alters diurnal starch turnover in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Hädrich, Nadja; Hendriks, Janneke H M; Kötting, Oliver; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Feil, Regina; Zeeman, Samuel C; Gibon, Yves; Schulze, Waltraud X; Stitt, Mark; Lunn, John E

    2012-04-01

    Many plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, retain a substantial portion of their photosynthate in leaves in the form of starch, which is remobilized to support metabolism and growth at night. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyses the first committed step in the pathway of starch synthesis, the production of ADP-glucose. The enzyme is redox-activated in the light and in response to sucrose accumulation, via reversible breakage of an intermolecular cysteine bridge between the two small (APS1) subunits. The biological function of this regulatory mechanism was investigated by complementing an aps1 null mutant (adg1) with a series of constructs containing a full-length APS1 gene encoding either the wild-type APS1 protein or mutated forms in which one of the five cysteine residues was replaced by serine. Substitution of Cys81 by serine prevented APS1 dimerization, whereas mutation of the other cysteines had no effect. Thus, Cys81 is both necessary and sufficient for dimerization of APS1. Compared to control plants, the adg1/APS1(C81S) lines had higher levels of ADP-glucose and maltose, and either increased rates of starch synthesis or a starch-excess phenotype, depending on the daylength. APS1 protein levels were five- to tenfold lower in adg1/APS1(C81S) lines than in control plants. These results show that redox modulation of AGPase contributes to the diurnal regulation of starch turnover, with inappropriate regulation of the enzyme having an unexpected impact on starch breakdown, and that Cys81 may play an important role in the regulation of AGPase turnover. PMID:22098298

  7. New Beam Position Monitor System Design for the APS Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, R.; Singh, O.; Arnold, N.

    2002-12-01

    Demands on the APS injector have evolved over the last few years to the point that an upgrade to the existing beam position monitor (BPM) electronics is required. The injector is presently being used as a source for both the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) project and the top-up mode of operation. These new requirements and the fact that many new rf receiver components are available at reasonable cost make this upgrade very desirable at this time. The receiver topology selected is a logarithmic processor, which is designed around the Analog Devices AD8313 log amplifier demodulation chip. This receiver will become the universal replacement for all injector applications measuring positions signals from 352 to 2856 MHz with minimum changes in hardware and without the use of a downconverter. The receiver design features integrated front-end gain and built-in self test. The data acquisition being considered at this time is a 100-MHz, 12-bit transient recorder digitizer. The latest experimental and commissioning data and results will be presented.

  8. Magnetic stars from a FEROS cool Ap star survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Nitschelm, C.

    2012-03-01

    New magnetic Ap stars with split Zeeman components are presented. These stars were discovered from observations with the Fibre-fed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (FEROS) spectrograph at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 2.2-m telescope. 15 new magnetic stars are analysed here. Several stars with very strong magnetic fields were found, including HD 70702 with a 15-kG magnetic field strength, and HD 168767 with a 16.5-kG magnetic field strength measured using split Zeeman components of spectral lines and by comparison with synthetic calculations. The physical parameters of the stars were estimated from photometric and spectroscopic data. Together with previously published results for stars with strong magnetic fields, the relationship between magnetic field strength and rotation period is discussed. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, as part of programmes 078.D-0080(A), 080.D- 0191(A), 081.D-2002(A), 082.D-0061(A), 083.D-0034(A) and 084.D-0067(A).

  9. Decision support facility for the APS control system.

    SciTech Connect

    Dohan, D. A.

    2001-11-12

    The Advanced Photon Source is now in its fifth year of routine beam production. The EPICS-based [1] control system has entered the phase in its life cycle where new control algorithms must be implemented under increasingly stringent operational and reliability requirements. The sheer volume of the control system ({approx}270,000 records, {approx}145 VME-based input-output controllers (IOCs), and {approx}7,000,000 lines of EPICS ASCII configuration code), presents a daunting challenge for code maintenance. The present work describes a relational database that provides an integrated view of the interacting components of the entire APS control system, including the IOC low-level logic, the physical wiring documentation, and high-level client applications. The database is extracted (booted) from the same operational CVS repository as that used to load the active IOCs. It provides site-wide decision support facilities to inspect and trace control flow and to identify client (e.g., user interface) programs involved at any selected point in the front-end logic. The relational database forms a basis for generalized documentation of global control logic and its connection with both the physical I/O and with external high-level applications.

  10. Evolutionary period changes in the rapidly oscillating Ap stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, Clayton H.; Kawaler, Steven D.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary computations of the asymptotic p-mode frequency spacings, and their time derivatives, are presented for a grid of evolutionary models of the rapidly oscillating Ap ('roAp') stars. It is shown how the frequency spacings depend on stellar mass, metallicity, and evolutionary stage. The frequency spacings observed in two of the roAp stars indicate that they either are main-sequence objects or have evolved off of the main sequence, depending on how the pulsation spectrum is interpreted. A way to remove this ambiguity is suggested: secular evolutionary changes in the pulsation frequencies may be measurable if the roAp stars have evolved off of the main sequence. In principle, this determination may be made for the roAp star HR 1217 with existing data.

  11. The development of beam current monitors in the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Lenkszus, F.; Rotela, E.

    1995-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source. The precision measurement of beam current is a challenging task in high energy accelerators, such as the APS, with a wide range of beam parameters and complicated noise, radiation, and thermal environments. The beam pulses in the APS injector and storage ring have charge ranging from 50pC to 25nC with pulse durations varying from 30ps to 30ns. A total of nine non- intercepting beam current monitors have been installed in the APS facility (excluding those in the linac) for general current measurement. In addition, several independent current monitors with specially designed redundant interlock electronics are installed for personnel safety and machine protection. This paper documents the design and development of current monitors in the APS,. discusses the commissioning experience in the past year, and presents the results of recent operations.

  12. The Relationship between AP® Exam Performance and College Outcomes. Research Report No. 2009-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Xiong, Xinhui

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the relationship between students' Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) performance in AP English Language, Biology, Calculus, and U.S. History, and their subsequent college success. For each AP Exam studied, students were divided into three groups according to their AP Exam performance (no AP Exam taken, score of 1 or 2, and a…

  13. The Impact of AP® Achievement Institute I on Students' AP Performance. Research Report No. 2012-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; Laitusis, Vytas

    2012-01-01

    The AP Achievement Institute I (APAI I) is a four-day professional development program offered to teachers and administrators by EXCELerator™, a district reform program operated by the College Board. The APAI I program is designed to help teachers develop effective AP instructional strategies for a diverse student body and to help district,…

  14. Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP) and an 0-AP/HTPB-Based Propellant

    SciTech Connect

    BEHRENS JR.,RICHARD; MINIER,LEANNA M.G.

    1999-10-25

    A study to characterize the low-temperature reactive processes for o-AP and an AP/HTPB-based propellant (class 1.3) is being conducted in the laboratory using the techniques of simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results presented in this paper are a follow up of the previous work that showed the overall decomposition to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The decomposition is characterized by the occurrence of one major event that consumes up to {approx}35% of the AP, depending upon particle size, and leaves behind a porous agglomerate of AP. The major gaseous products released during this event include H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl. The recent efforts provide further insight into the decomposition processes for o-AP. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates (GFRs) for the products indicate that the major decomposition event consists of three chemical channels. The first and third channels are affected by the pressure in the reaction cell and occur at the surface or in the gas phase above the surface of the AP particles. The second channel is not affected by pressure and accounts for the solid-phase reactions characteristic of o-AP. The third channel involves the interactions of the decomposition products with the surface of the AP. SEM images of partially decomposed o-AP provide insight to how the morphology changes as the decomposition progresses. A conceptual model has been developed, based upon the STMBMS and SEM results, that provides a basic description of the processes. The thermal decomposition characteristics of the propellant are evaluated from the identities of the products and the temporal behaviors of their GFRs. First, the volatile components in the propellant evolve from the propellant as it is heated. Second, the hot AP (and HClO{sub 4}) at the AP-binder interface oxidize the binder through reactions that preferentially strip the hydrogen from the binder and yield HCl and H{sub 2}O with some oxidation of the carbon from the binder. Third, the o-AP in the propellant decomposes in the same manner as in neat o-AP. Finally, AP-derived gaseous products interact with other ingredients in the propellant.

  15. Some ethylene biosynthesis and AP2/ERF genes reveal a specific pattern of expression during somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethylene production and signalling play an important role in somatic embryogenesis, especially for species that are recalcitrant in in vitro culture. The AP2/ERF superfamily has been identified and classified in Hevea brasiliensis. This superfamily includes the ERFs involved in response to ethylene. The relative transcript abundance of ethylene biosynthesis genes and of AP2/ERF genes was analysed during somatic embryogenesis for callus lines with different regeneration potential, in order to identify genes regulated during that process. Results The analysis of relative transcript abundance was carried out by real-time RT-PCR for 142 genes. The transcripts of ERFs from group I, VII and VIII were abundant at all stages of the somatic embryogenesis process. Forty genetic expression markers for callus regeneration capacity were identified. Fourteen markers were found for proliferating calli and 35 markers for calli at the end of the embryogenesis induction phase. Sixteen markers discriminated between normal and abnormal embryos and, lastly, there were 36 markers of conversion into plantlets. A phylogenetic analysis comparing the sequences of the AP2 domains of Hevea and Arabidopsis genes enabled us to predict the function of 13 expression marker genes. Conclusions This first characterization of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Hevea revealed dramatic regulation of the expression of AP2/ERF genes during the somatic embryogenesis process. The gene expression markers of proliferating callus capacity to regenerate plants by somatic embryogenesis should make it possible to predict callus lines suitable to be used for multiplication. Further functional characterization of these markers opens up prospects for discovering specific AP2/ERF functions in the Hevea species for which somatic embryogenesis is difficult. PMID:23268714

  16. Structural Basis of the Intracellular Sorting of the SNARE VAMP7 by the AP3 Adaptor Complex

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Helen M.; Evans, Philip R.; Schäfer, Ingmar B.; Gray, Sally R.; Sanderson, Christopher M.; Luzio, J. Paul; Peden, Andrew A.; Owen, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary VAMP7 is involved in the fusion of late endocytic compartments with other membranes. One possible mechanism of VAMP7 delivery to these late compartments is via the AP3 trafficking adaptor. We show that the linker of the ?-adaptin subunit of AP3 binds the VAMP7 longin domain and determines the structure of their complex. Mutation of residues on both partners abolishes the interaction in vitro and in vivo. The binding of VAMP7 to ?-adaptin requires the VAMP7 SNARE motif to be engaged in SNARE complex formation and hence AP3 must transport VAMP7 when VAMP7 is part of a cis-SNARE complex. The absence of ?-adaptin causes destabilization of the AP3 complex in mouse mocha fibroblasts and mislocalization of VAMP7. The mislocalization can be rescued by transfection with wild-type ?-adaptin but not by ?-adaptin containing mutations that abolish VAMP7 binding, despite in all cases intact AP3 being present and LAMP1 trafficking being rescued. PMID:22521722

  17. High Pressure Reverse Flow APS Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    A design and test demonstration effort was undertaken to evaluate the concept of the reverse flow engine for the APS engine application. The 1500 lb (6672 N) thrust engine was designed to operate on gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen propellants at a mixture ratio of 4 and to achieve the objective performance of 435 sec (4266 Nsec/kg) specific impulse. Superimposed durability requirements called for a million-cycle capability with 50 hours duration. The program was undertaken as a series of tasks including the initial preliminary design, design of critical test components and finally, the design and demonstration of an altitude engine which could be used interchangeably to examine operating parameters as well as to demonstrate the capability of the concept. The program results are reported with data to indicate that all of the program objectives were met or exceeded within the course of testing on the program. The analysis effort undertaken is also reported in detail and supplemented with test data in some cases where prior definitions could not be made. The results are contained of these analyses as well as the test results conducted throughout the course of the program. Finally, the test data and analytical results were combined to allow recommendations for a flight weight design. This preliminary design effort is also detailed.

  18. KCAT, Xradia, ALS and APS Performance Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, A; Martz, H; Brown, W

    2004-09-30

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of components, subassemblies and assemblies of millimeter-size extent with micrometer-size features (mesoscale). These mesoscale objects include materials that vary widely in composition, density, geometry and embedded features. Characterizing these mesoscale objects is critical for corroborating the physics codes that underlie LLNL's Stockpile Stewardship mission. In this report we present results from our efforts to quantitatively characterize the performance of several x-ray systems in an effort to benchmark existing systems and to determine which systems may have the best potential for our mesoscale imaging needs. Several different x-ray digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT) systems exist that may be applicable to our mesoscale object characterization requirements, including microfocus and synchrotron systems. The systems we have benchmarked include KCAT (LLNL developed) and Xradia {mu}XCT (Xradia, Inc., Concord, CA), both microfocus systems, and Beamline 1-ID at the Advance Photon Source (APS) and the Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), both synchrotron based systems. The ALS Tomography Beamline is a new installation, and the data presented and analyzed here is some of the first to be acquired at the facility. It is important to note that the ALS system had not yet been optimized at the time we acquired data. Results for each of these systems has been independently documented elsewhere. In this report we summarize and compare the characterization results for these systems.

  19. Lithium and Isotopic Ratio Li6/Li7 in Magnetic roAp Stars as an Indicator of Active Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N.; Shavrina, A.; Lyashko, D.; Nesvacil, N.; Drake, N.; Smirnova, M.

    2015-04-01

    The lines of lithium at 6708 Å and 6103 Å are analyzed in high resolution spectra of some sharp-lined and slowly rotating roAp stars. Three spectral synthesis codes— STARSP, ZEEMAN2, and SYNTHM—were used. New lines of rare earth elements (REE) from the DREAM database and the lines calculated on the basis of the NIST energy levels were included. Magnetic splitting and other line broadening processes were taken into account. For both lithium lines, the enhanced abundances of lithium in the atmospheres of the stars studied are obtained. The lithium abundance determined from the Li 6103 Å line is higher than that from the Li 6708 Å for all the stars. This may be evidence of vertical lithium stratification, abnormal temperature distribution, or unidentified blending of the 6103 Å line. Our work on two roAp stars, HD 83368 and HD 60435 (Shavrina et al. 2001) provides evidence of an enhanced lithium abundance near the magnetic-field poles. We can expect similar effects in the sharp-lined roAp stars. High lithium abundance for all the stars and the estimates of the 6Li/7Li ratio (0.2-0.5) can be explained by production of Li in the cosmic ray spallation reactions in the interstellar medium where the stars were born, and by preservation of the original 6Li and 7Li by strong magnetic fields of these stars. The values of the 6Li/7Li ratio expected from production by cosmic rays are about 0.5-0.8 (Knauth et al. 2003; Webber et al. 2002). New laboratory and theoretical gf-values for REE lines are necessary in order to refine our estimates of lithium abundances and the isotopic ratio.

  20. An Analysis of the Relationship between School-Level AP® Professional Development Activity and Subsequent Student AP Performance. Info to Go™ 2012-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitusis, Vytas

    2012-01-01

    The overarching purpose behind this evaluation was to gauge the impact of AP® professional development (PD) on AP student outcomes in a state with a significant rate of PD implementation. The evaluation attempted to predict the level of student AP performance by the number of AP professional development events attended by teachers in that school…

  1. The Relationship of AP® Teacher Practices and Student AP Exam Performance. Research Report No. 2007-5. ETS RR-05-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Pamela L.; Braun, Henry; Trapani, Catherine; Ponte, Eva; Powers, Don

    2008-01-01

    This report analyzes the relationship of Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) teacher practices and student performance on AP Biology and AP U.S. History Exams. Using a national survey of AP teachers, the study developed four models for each subject with public school teachers only and both public and nonpublic school teachers, using two standards of…

  2. APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - Monitoring System Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort; Dimitri Hochard

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), along with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Pubic Service (APS), is monitoring the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant to determine the costs to produce hydrogen fuels (including 100% hydrogen as well as hydrogen and compressed natural gas blends) for use by fleets and other operators of advanced-technology vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cost data will be used as benchmark data by technology modelers as well as research and development programs. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 18 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen per day by electrolysis. It can store up to 155 kg of hydrogen at various pressures up to 6,000 psi. The dispenser island can fuel vehicles with 100% hydrogen at 5,000 psi and with blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas at 3,600 psi. The monitoring system was designed to track hydrogen delivery to each of the three storage areas and to monitor the use of electricity on all major equipment in the Pilot Plant, including the fuel dispenser island. In addition, water used for the electrolysis process is monitored to allow calculation of the total cost of plant operations and plant efficiencies. The monitoring system at the Pilot Plant will include about 100 sensors when complete (50 are installed to date), allowing for analysis of component, subsystems, and plant-level costs. The monitoring software is mostly off-the-shelve, with a custom interface. The majority of the sensors input to the Programmable Automation Controller as 4- to 20-mA analog signals. The plant can be monitored over of the Internet, but the control functions are restricted to the control room equipment. Using the APS general service plan E32 electric rate of 2.105 cents per kWh, during a recent eight-month period when 1,200 kg of hydrogen was produced and the plant capacity factor was 26%, the electricity cost to produce one kg of hydrogen was $3.43. However, the plant capacity factor has been increasing, with a recent one-month high of 49%. If a plant capacity factor of 70% can be achieved with the present equipment, the cost of electricity would drop to $2.39 per kg of hydrogen. In this report, the power conversion (76.7%), cell stack (53.1%), and reverse osmosis system (7.14%) efficiencies are also calculated, as is the water cost per kg of hydrogen produced ($0.10 per kg). The monitoring system has identified several areas having the potential to lower costs, including using an reverse osmosis system with a higher efficiency, improving the electrolysis power conversion efficiency, and using air cooling to replace some or all chiller cooling. These activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory for the AVTA, which is part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  3. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Gasifier Tars: On-Line Monitoring of Tars with a Transportable Molecular-Beam Mass Spectrometer; Milestone Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.; Ratcliff, M.; Dayton, D.

    2002-05-01

    A method for evaluating catalytic tar decomposition in real time is presented. The effectiveness of two catalysts are compared. A key technical and economic barrier to commercialization of biomass gasification technologies is the removal of tars that are unavoidably formed in this thermochemical process. Tars contain fuel value; however, they are problematic in gas engines (both reciprocating and turbine) because they condense in the fuel delivery system, forming deposits that negatively affect operation and efficiency. These tars also combust with high luminosity, potentially forming soot particles. The conventional technology for tar removal is wet scrubbing. Although this approach has shown some success, there are significant equipment and operating costs associated with it. In order to prevent the generation of toxic wastewater, the tars must be separated and either disposed as hazardous waste or, preferably, combusted in the gasification plant. A conceptually better approach is catalytic steam reforming of the tars to hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO), effectively increasing the gasification efficiency and eliminating the problems mentioned above. In FY2000, Battelle Columbus Laboratories attempted to demonstrate integrated gasification-gas turbine operation using catalytic steam reforming of tars. NREL participated in those tests using the transportable molecular-beam mass spectrometer (TMBMS) to monitor the catalytic reactor's performance on-line [10]. Unfortunately, the pilot plant tests encountered operational problems that prevented conclusive determination of the efficacy of the selected catalyst (Battelle's DN34). In FY2001, NREL performed on-site tar steam reforming tests using a slip-stream of hot pyrolysis gas from the Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU), which was directed to a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor system designed expressly for this purpose. Supporting this effort, the TMBMS was employed to provide on-line analysis of the tar conversion. The gas composition changes were monitored by two identical gas chromatographs (GCs), and modified method 5 sampling was performed to obtain gravimetric conversion data. The combination of these analytical techniques provided definitive catalyst performance data, as well as linkage to previous and on-going work elsewhere. Two catalysts were tested: nickel (Ni) on potassium promoted alumina (Sued-Chemie C11-NK), used commercially for naphtha steam reforming, and alumina (Battelle's DN34) claimed to be effective for gasifier tar decomposition. In addition, sand was tested as an inert reference material.

  4. Enhancing and Archiving the APS Catalog of the POSS I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.

    2003-01-01

    We have worked on two different projects: 1) Archiving the APS Catalog of the POSS I for distribution to NASA's NED at IPAC, SIMBAD in France, and individual astronomers and 2) The automated morphological classification of galaxies. We have completed archiving the Catalog into easily readable binary files. The database together with the software to read it has been distributed on DVD's to the national and international data centers and to individual astronomers. The archived Catalog contains more than 89 million objects in 632 fields in the first epoch Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. Additional image parameters not available in the original on-line version are also included in the archived version. The archived Catalog is also available and can be queried at the APS web site (URL: http://aps.umn.edu) which has been improved with a much faster and more efficient querying system. The Catalog can be downloaded as binary datafiles with the source code for reading it. It is also being integrated into the SkyQuery system which includes the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 2MASS, and the FIRST radio sky survey. We experimented with different classification algorithms to automate the morphological classification of galaxies. This is an especially difficult problem because there are not only a large number of attributes or parameters and measurement uncertainties, but also the added complication of human disagreement about the adopted types. To solve this problem we used 837 galaxy images from nine POSS I fields at the North Galactic Pole classified by two independent astronomers for which they agree on the morphological types. The initial goal was to separate the galaxies into the three broad classes relevant to issues of large scale structure and galaxy formation and evolution: early (ellipticals and lenticulars), spirals, and late (irregulars) with an accuracy or success rate that rivals the best astronomer classifiers. We also needed to identify a set of parameters derived from the digitized images that separate the galaxies by type. The human eye can easily recognize complicated patterns in images such as spiral arms which can be spotty, blotchy affairs that are difficult for automated techniques. A galaxy image can potentially be described by hundreds of parameters, all of which may have some relation to the morphological type. In the set of initial experiments we used 624 such parameters, in two colors, blue and red. These parameters include the surface brightness and color measured at different radii, ratios of these parameters at different radii, concentration indices, Fourier transforms and wavelet decomposition coefficients. We experimented with three different classes of classification algorithms; decision trees, k-nearest neighbors, and support vector machines (SVM). A range of experiments were conducted and we eventually narrowed the parameters to 23 selected parameters. SVM consistently outperformed the other algorithms with both sets of features. By combining the results from the different algorithms in a weighted scheme we achieved an overall classification success of 86%.

  5. 46 CFR 171.015 - Location of margin line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of margin line. 171.015 Section 171.015... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS General § 171.015 Location of margin line. (a) A vessel with a... (FP) and the after perpendicular (AP) is at least 12 inches (30.5 cm), the margin line must be...

  6. 46 CFR 171.015 - Location of margin line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of margin line. 171.015 Section 171.015... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS General § 171.015 Location of margin line. (a) A vessel with a... (FP) and the after perpendicular (AP) is at least 12 inches (30.5 cm), the margin line must be...

  7. Effects of Bisphosphonates on Glucose Transport in a Conditionally Immortalized Rat Retinal Capillary Endothelial Cell Line (TR-iBRB Cells)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Na-Young; Park, Hyun-Joo; Kang, Young-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of bisphosphonates, anti-osteoporosis agents, on glucose uptake in retinal capillary endothelial cells under normal and high glucose conditions. The change of glucose uptake by pre-treatment of bisphosphonates at the inner blood-retinal barrier (iBRB) was determined by measuring cellular uptake of [3H]3-O-methyl glucose (3-OMG) using a conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB cells) under normal and high glucose conditions. [3H]3-OMG uptake was inhibited by simultaneous treatment of unlabeled D-glucose and 3-OMG as well as glucose transport inhibitor, cytochalasin B. On the other hand, simultaneous treatment of alendronate or pamidronate had no significant inhibitory effect on [3H]3-OMG uptake by TR-iBRB cells. Under high glucose condition of TR-iBRB cells, [3H]3-OMG uptake was increased at 48 h. However, [3H]3-OMG uptake was decreased significantly by pre-treatment of alendronate or pamidronate compared with the values for normal and high glucose conditions. Moreover, geranylgeraniol (GGOH), a mevalonate pathway intermediate, increased the uptake of [3H]3-OMG reduced by bisphosphonates pre-treatment. But, pre-treatment of histamine did not show significant inhibition of [3H]3-OMG uptake. The glucose uptake may be down regulated by inhibiting the mevalonate pathway with pre-treatment of bisphosphonates in TR-iBRB cells at high glucose condition. PMID:26759707

  8. Oscillations of kinks on dislocation lines in crystals and low-temperature transport anomalies as a ``passport'' of newly-induced defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhov-Deglin, L. P.; Mukhin, S. I.

    2011-10-01

    The possible interpretation of experimental data on low-temperature anomalies in weakly deformed metallic crystals prepared form ultra-pure lead, copper, and silver, as well as in crystals of 4He is discussed within the previously proposed theoretical picture of dislocations with dynamical kinks. In the case of pure metals the theoretical predictions give a general picture of interaction of conduction electrons in a sample with newly-introduced dislocations, containing dynamic kinks in the Peierls potential relief. In the field of random stresses appearing due to plastic deformation of a sample, kinks on the dislocation line form a set of one-dimensional oscillators in potential wells of different shapes. In the low temperature region at low enough density of defects pinning kinks the inelastic scattering of electrons on kinks should lead to deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law. In particular, the inelastic scattering on kinks should result in a quadratic temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity in a metallic sample along preferential directions of dislocation axes. In the plane normal to the dislocation axis the elastic large-angle scattering of electrons is prevalent. The kink pinning by a point defect or by additional dislocations as well as the sample annealing leading to the disappearance of kinks should induce suppression of transport anomalies. Thus, the energy interval for the spectrum of kink oscillations restricted by characteristic amplitude of the Peierls relief is a "passport of deformation history" for each specific sample. For instance, in copper the temperature/energy region of the order of 1 K corresponds to it. It is also planned to discuss in the other publication applicability of mechanism of phonon scattering on mobile dislocation kinks and pinning of kinks by impurities in order to explain anomalies of phonon thermal conductivity of 4He crystals and deformed crystals of pure lead in a superconducting state.

  9. A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V. G.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B. N.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O. A.; Moog, E. R.

    2000-06-01

    A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built, and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders.

  10. AP600 design certification thermal hydraulics testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hochreiter, L.E.; Piplica, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, have been developing an advanced light water reactor design; the AP600. The AP600 is a 1940 Mwt, 600Mwe unit which is similar to a Westinghouse two-loop Pressurized Water Reactor. The accumulated knowledge on reactor design to reduce the capital costs, construction time, and the operational and maintenance cost of the unit once it begins to generate electrical power. The AP600 design goal is to maintain an overall cost advantage over fossil generated electrical power.

  11. A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

    1999-10-25

    A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders.

  12. Protein Networks Supporting AP-3 Function in Targeting Lysosomal Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Baust, Thorsten; Anitei, Mihaela; Czupalla, Cornelia; Parshyna, Iryna; Bourel, Line; Thiele, Christoph; Krause, Eberhard

    2008-01-01

    The AP-3 adaptor complex targets selected transmembrane proteins to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. We reconstituted its preferred interaction with liposomes containing the ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-1 guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), specific cargo tails, and phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate, and then we performed a proteomic screen to identify new proteins supporting its sorting function. We identified ?30 proteins belonging to three networks regulating either AP-3 coat assembly or septin polymerization or Rab7-dependent lysosomal transport. RNA interference shows that, among these proteins, the ARF-1 exchange factor brefeldin A-inhibited exchange factor 1, the ARF-1 GTPase-activating protein 1, the Cdc42-interacting Cdc42 effector protein 4, an effector of septin-polymerizing GTPases, and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase IIIC3 are key components regulating the targeting of lysosomal membrane proteins to lysosomes in vivo. This analysis reveals that these proteins, together with AP-3, play an essential role in protein sorting at early endosomes, thereby regulating the integrity of these organelles. PMID:18287518

  13. Tank 241-AP-105, cores 208, 209 and 210, analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-10-24

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-AP-105. Push mode core segments were removed from Risers 24 and 28 between July 2, 1997, and July 14, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-AP-105 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1997) and Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, or total organic carbon (TOC) analysis exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP and DQO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group, and are not considered in this report. Appearance and Sample Handling Two cores, each consisting of four segments, were expected from Tank 241-AP-105. Three cores were sampled, and complete cores were not obtained. TSAP states core samples should be transported to the laboratory within three calendar days from the time each segment is removed from the tank. This requirement was not met for all cores. Attachment 1 illustrates subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis and identifies their sources. This reference also relates tank farm identification numbers to their corresponding 222-S Laboratory sample numbers.

  14. KIC 7582608: a new Kepler roAp star with frequency variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.; Smalley, B.; Kurtz, D. W.; Southworth, J.; Cunha, M. S.; Clubb, K. I.

    2014-09-01

    We analyse the fifth rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star reported in the Kepler field, KIC 7582608, discovered with the SuperWASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) project. The object shows a high-frequency pulsation at 181.7324 d-1 (P = 7.9 min) with an amplitude of 1.45 mmag, and low-frequency rotational modulation corresponding to a period of 20.4339 d with an amplitude of 7.64 mmag. Spectral analysis confirms the Ap nature of the target, with characteristic lines of Eu II, Nd III and Pr III present. The spectra are not greatly affected by broadening, which is consistent with the long rotational period found from photometry. From our spectral observations we derive a lower limit on the mean magnetic field modulus of = 3.05 ± 0.23 kG. Long cadence Kepler observations show a frequency quintuplet split by the rotational period of the star, typical for an oblique pulsator. We suggest the star is a quadrupole pulsator with a geometry such that i ˜ 66° and ? ˜ 33°. We detect frequency variations of the pulsation in both the WASP and Kepler data sets on many time-scales. Linear, non-adiabatic stability modelling allows us to constrain a region on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where the pulsations are unstable, an area consistent with observations.

  15. Analysis of an AP600 intermediate-size loss-of-coolant accident

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Lime, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    A postulated double-ended guillotine break of an AP600 direct-vessel-injection line has been analyzed. This event is characterized as an intermediate-break loss-of-coolant accident. Most of the insights regarding the response of the AP600 safety systems to the postulated accident are derived from calculations performed with the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 code. However, complementary insights derived from a scaled experiment conducted in the ROSA facility, as well as insights based upon calculations by other codes, are also presented. Based upon the calculated and experimental results, the AP600 will not experience a core heat up and will reach a safe shutdown state using only safety-class equipment. Only the early part of the long-term cooling period initiated by In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank injection was evaluated. Thus, the observation that the core is continuously cooled should be verified for the later phase of the long-term cooling period when sump injection and containment cooling processes are important.

  16. 30 Years of APS Congressional Fellows: Looking Back and Looking Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    In 1973 AAAS launched a Congressional Fellows Program, and APS was one of three founding participants. Since then, APS has funded one or two Fellows annually to work with a Congressional Committee or on the personal staff of a Member of Congress. These fellows individually and collectively have had and continue to have a large impact in Washington. Six Fellows from different periods of the 30-year program, including a current Member of Congress, will present their views and assessments of the Fellowship program. They will address how it affected them, what it has done for the country and how APS should plan for the future. There will be ample time for questions and discussion. Panelists: Ben Cooper, Association of Oil Pipe Lines (Fellow, 1973-74) Rush Holt, Member, House of Representatives (Fellow, 1982-83) Jane Alexander, Office of Naval Research (Fellow, 1986-87) Duncan Moore, University of Rochester (Fellow, 1993-94) Peter Rooney, House Committee on Science (Fellow, 1997-98) Sherri Stephan, Senate Committee on Government Affairs (Fellow, 2000-01)

  17. Time-dependent atomic diffusion in magnetic ApBp stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stift, M. J.; Alecian, G.

    2016-03-01

    Numerical modelling of surface abundance distributions in ApBp star atmospheres constitutes a challenging astrophysical problem. This paper is intended to deepen our understanding of how atomic diffusion affects the atmospheric structure of magnetic ApBp stars, and in particular how time-dependent calculations may be compared to the alternative method of estimating equilibrium stratifications. Our numerical calculations - with the stellar atmosphere adjusted self-consistently to the abundance profiles - show that final stationary solutions of the time-dependent diffusion problem (constant particle flux throughout the stellar atmosphere) are seemingly at variance with equilibrium stratifications (zero particle flux). In this work, we will provide some understanding of the origin of these differences and try to elucidate the as yet little explored behaviour of time-dependent atomic diffusion. To this purpose, we assess the influence of the boundary condition at the bottom of the atmosphere, we investigate how the stratifications depend on magnetic field angle and strength, and we have a look at possible interactions between different chemical elements. Based on a grid of atmospheric models and stratifications reflecting dipolar magnetic geometries, we also present predicted line profiles for different oblique rotator models. Finally, we shortly discuss the consequences of our findings for the interpretation of abundance maps of magnetic ApBp stars.

  18. 45-Day safety screening report for grab samples from Tank 241-AP-107

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.L.

    1995-03-08

    Three samples; 107-AP-1C, 107-AP-2c and 107-AP-3C; were received at 222-S Laboratory for analysis of DSC, TGA and visual appearance. Four additional samples; 107-AP-1D, 107-AP-2D, 107-AP-3D and 107-AP-6; were received for visual appearance only. No results exceeded the safety screen notification criteria. This report compiles the analytical results. Tank 241-AP-107 is a double-shell tank which is not on any of the four Watch Lists.

  19. roAp stars: surface lithium abundance distribution and magnetic field configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N.; Shulyak, D.; Shavrina, A.; Lyashko, D.; Drake, N. A.; Glagolevski, Yu.; Kudryavtsev, D.; Smirnova, M.

    2014-08-01

    High-resolution spectra obtained with the 6m BTA telescope, Russia, and with HARPS and VLT/UVES telescopes at ESO, Chile, were used for Doppler Imaging analysis of two roAp stars, HD 12098 and HD 60435, showing strong and variable Li resonance line in their spectra. We found that Li has highly inhomogeneous distribution on the surfaces of these stars. We compared our results with previously obtained Doppler Imaging mapping of two CP2 stars, HD 83368 and HD 3980, and discuss the correlation between the position of the high Li-abundance spots and magnetic field.

  20. QCD on the Massively Parallel Computer AP1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akemi, K.; Fujisaki, M.; Okuda, M.; Tago, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hioki, S.; Miyamura, O.; Takaishi, T.; Nakamura, A.; de Forcrand, Ph.; Hege, C.; Stamatescu, I. O.

    We present the QCD-TARO program of calculations which uses the parallel computer AP1000 of Fujitsu. We discuss the results on scaling, correlation times and hadronic spectrum, some aspects of the implementation and the future prospects.

  1. Engaging Cuban Physicists Through the APS/CPS Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Irving A.; Lerch, Irving A.

    In his reflections on Cuban physics, Marcelo Alonso urges APS to take steps to promote interactions between Cuban and US physicists. As an introduction to Marcello's essay, this note will summarize past and current activities.

  2. Tank characterization report for double shell tank 241-AP-104

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-07

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-AP-104. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  3. Time-weighted accumulations ap(. tau. ) and Kp(. tau. )

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, G.L. )

    1987-09-01

    The planetary geomagnetic indices Kp and ap are widely used in space geophysics. They provide an estimate of maximum magnetic perturbation within a 3-hour period. Many geophysical properties are clearly related to the indices, through energy transfer from a common disturbance source, but direct correlation is often lacking because of poor matching between the frequency of sampling and the physical response functions. The index ap({tau}) is a simple accumulation of the linear ap calculated with an attenuation factor {tau} included to take account of natural temporal relaxation. The case for ap({tau}) and the related Kp({tau}) is made using applications to the variability of the plasma environment in the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere. These examples of improved correlation suggest that time-weighted integration might profitably be applied to other indices.

  4. AP-1-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Persicaria chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Young-Jin; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Yang, Woo Seok; Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Han Gyung; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoon, Keejung; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Persicaria chinensis L. has been prescribed to cure numerous inflammatory disorders. We previously analyzed the bioactivity of the methanol extract of this plant (Pc-ME) against LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and found that it prevented HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The purpose of the current study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which Pc-ME inhibits activator protein- (AP-) 1 activation pathway and mediates its hepatoprotective activity. To investigate the putative therapeutic properties of Pc-ME against AP-1-mediated inflammation and hepatotoxicity, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 and U937 cells, a monocyte-like human cell line, and an LPS/D-galactosamine- (D-GalN-) induced acute hepatitis mouse model were employed. The expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin- (IL-) 1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) was significantly diminished by Pc-ME. Moreover, Pc-ME reduced AP-1 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and differentiated U937 cells. Additionally, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of Pc-ME pretreated orally in a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-intoxicated acute liver injury by demonstrating the significant reduction in elevated serum AST and ALT levels and histological damage. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that Pc-ME could function as an antihepatitis remedy suppressing MAPK/AP-1-mediated inflammatory events. PMID:25878717

  5. Seasonal characteristics of the large-scale moisture flux transport over the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, H.; Ammar, K.

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between the lower tropospheric (1000 to 850 hPa) large-scale moisture flux transport and the precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula (AP), on a seasonal basis, using the NCEP-NCAR gridded dataset for the 53-year period (1958-2010), is investigated. The lower tropospheric moisture flux divergence occurs due to the Hadley cell-based descending air over the AP, as well as due to the presence of Somali jet in dry season (June to September) for the southern (?22° N) AP domain, leading to significantly reduced precipitation in the AP. The AP thus acts more as a net transporter of moisture flux from adjacent Sea areas to nearby regions. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Artic Oscillation (AO) climatic indices are found to modulate significantly the net seasonal moisture flux into the AP region animating from the Mediterranean Sea, and the Arabian Sea, both for the northern (?22° N) and southern AP domains.

  6. The intermediate energy X-ray beamline at the APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McChesney, J. L.; Reininger, R.; Ramanathan, M.; Benson, C.; Srajer, G.; Abbamonte, P.; Campuzano, J. C.

    2014-05-01

    The optical design of the Intermediate Energy X-ray (IEX) beamline at the APS has been optimized to study emergent phenomena via angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSXS). Driven by the scientific requirements of these two techniques the beamline consists of two separate branchlines sharing the same source, heat absorbing optics and monochromator, but each having its own refocusing optics. The ARPES branch is optimized for a very high "resolving power" and a small spot at the sample; whereas, the RSXS branch is designed for high flux and a low beam divergence at the sample. The very high "resolving power" in the ARPES branch is achieved by using a monochromator which consists of a plane mirror and a variable line spacing grating that focuses the beam at all photon energies. A flux higher than 1010 photons/s at a "resolving power" better than 5×104 will be available at the sample position of the ARPES beamline on a spot size (FWHM) smaller than 21 × 4 ?m2 (hor.×ver.) for photon energies between 250 and 1660 eV. A second grating will increase the flux by more than a factor of 10 at a "resolving power" of 104. The flux expected at the RSXS branch for energies between 250 eV and 1900 eV is higher than 4×1012 photons/s at "resolving power" around 2.5×103. The expected spot in this branch is sub-millimeter and the beam divergence is less than 0.3 mrad (FWHM).

  7. Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP)

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, R.; Minier, L.

    1999-03-01

    Preliminary STMBMS and SEM results of the thermal decomposition of AP in the orthorhombic phase are presented. The overall decomposition is shown to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The data show that the physical and chemical processes can be probed and characterized utilizing SEM and STMBMS. The overall decomposition is characterized by three distinguishing features: an induction period, and accelerator period and a deceleratory period. The major decomposition event occurs in the subsurface of the AP particles and propagates towards the center of the particle with time. The amount of total decomposition is dependent upon particle size and increases from 23% for {approximately}50{micro}m-diameter AP to 33% for {approximately}200{micro}m-diameter AP. A conceptual model of the physical processes is presented. Insight into the chemical processes is provided by the gas formation rates that are measured for the gaseous products. To our knowledge, this is the first presentation of data showing that the chemical and physical decomposition processes can be identified from one another, probed and characterized at the level that is required to better understand the thermal decomposition behavior of AP. Future work is planned with the goal of obtaining data that can be used to develop a mathematical description for the thermal decomposition of o-AP.

  8. The (Very) Slow Rotation of Magnetic Ap Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, Gautier

    2015-08-01

    To this date, 34 magnetic Ap stars that have periods of variation longer than 30 days are known. They represent a considerable fraction of the total number of Ap stars whose period has been reliably determined. All the available evidence unambiguously indicates that the observed variations of those long-period Ap stars result from the changing aspect of their visible hemisphere as they rotate, thus that the oblique rotator model is applicable throughout the whole range of periods of variation of the Ap stars. We show that the periods of the most slowly rotating Ap stars must be of the order of 300 years, and that some may even be longer, possibly up to 1000 years. The 5 to 6 orders of magnitude spanned by the rotation periods of the Ap stars present a major challenge for the understanding of their origin and their evolution. To guide the theo- retical developments, observational hints may be found in possible differences between the magnetic properties of stars that have rotation periods in different ranges. Such differences are starting to emerge from the existing data. To increase their significance level, study of the longest-period stars must be continued over their full rotation cycle. Failure to secure observations now may leave critical data missing for several decades, or even centuries.

  9. An AP4B1 frameshift mutation in siblings with intellectual disability and spastic tetraplegia further delineates the AP-4 deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahpour, Hengameh; Alawi, Malik; Kortüm, Fanny; Beckstette, Michael; Seemanova, Eva; Komárek, Vladimír; Rosenberger, Georg; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The recently proposed adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) deficiency syndrome comprises a group of congenital neurological disorders characterized by severe intellectual disability (ID), delayed or absent speech, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and growth retardation. AP-4 is a heterotetrameric protein complex with important functions in vesicle trafficking. Mutations in genes affecting different subunits of AP-4, including AP4B1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4M1, have been reported in patients with the AP-4 deficiency phenotype. We describe two siblings from a non-consanguineous couple who presented with severe ID, absent speech, microcephaly, growth retardation, and progressive spastic tetraplegia. Whole-exome sequencing in the two patients identified the novel homozygous 2-bp deletion c.1160_1161delCA (p.(Thr387Argfs*30)) in AP4B1. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation in the siblings and revealed it in the heterozygous state in both parents. The AP4B1-associated phenotype has previously been assigned to spastic paraplegia-47. Identification of a novel AP4B1 alteration in two patients with clinical manifestations highly similar to other individuals with mutations affecting one of the four AP-4 subunits further supports the observation that loss of AP-4 assembly or functionality underlies the common clinical features in these patients and underscores the existence of the clinically recognizable AP-4 deficiency syndrome. PMID:24781758

  10. An AP4B1 frameshift mutation in siblings with intellectual disability and spastic tetraplegia further delineates the AP-4 deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdollahpour, Hengameh; Alawi, Malik; Kortüm, Fanny; Beckstette, Michael; Seemanova, Eva; Komárek, Vladimír; Rosenberger, Georg; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2015-02-01

    The recently proposed adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) deficiency syndrome comprises a group of congenital neurological disorders characterized by severe intellectual disability (ID), delayed or absent speech, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and growth retardation. AP-4 is a heterotetrameric protein complex with important functions in vesicle trafficking. Mutations in genes affecting different subunits of AP-4, including AP4B1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4M1, have been reported in patients with the AP-4 deficiency phenotype. We describe two siblings from a non-consanguineous couple who presented with severe ID, absent speech, microcephaly, growth retardation, and progressive spastic tetraplegia. Whole-exome sequencing in the two patients identified the novel homozygous 2-bp deletion c.1160_1161delCA (p.(Thr387Argfs*30)) in AP4B1. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation in the siblings and revealed it in the heterozygous state in both parents. The AP4B1-associated phenotype has previously been assigned to spastic paraplegia-47. Identification of a novel AP4B1 alteration in two patients with clinical manifestations highly similar to other individuals with mutations affecting one of the four AP-4 subunits further supports the observation that loss of AP-4 assembly or functionality underlies the common clinical features in these patients and underscores the existence of the clinically recognizable AP-4 deficiency syndrome. PMID:24781758

  11. Regulation of the glutamate transporter by amino acid deprivation and associated effects on the level of EAAC1 mRNA in the renal epithelial cell line NBL-I.

    PubMed Central

    Plakidou-Dymock, S; McGivan, J D

    1993-01-01

    The glutamate transport system of the bovine renal epithelial cell line NBL-1 was studied. The Km for Na(+)-dependent glutamate transport was found to be 13.8 +/- 2.4 microM (Vmax. 365 +/- 19.2 pmol/3 min per mg) and for Na(+)-dependent aspartate transport 4.5 +/- 1.1 microM (Vmax. 108 +/- 6.3 pmol/3 min per mg). The Km values are in close agreement with those expected for high-affinity Na(+)-dependent glutamate transport by System XAG-. Upon deprivation of amino acids, the Vmax. for Na+/aspartate co-transport rose to 203 +/- 6.0 pmol/3 min per mg (Km 3.8 +/- 0.5 microns). A probe was constructed to the high-affinity excitatory amino acid carrier (EAAC1) [Kanai and Hediger (1992) Nature (London) 360, 467-471]. The probe hybridized to a 3.5 kb transcript. On deprivation of amino acids, the level of EAAC1 mRNA decreased sharply before the measurable increase in transport levels, but was subsequently restored to control levels. A motif, which we propose is linked to amino acid deprivation, was found in the EAAC1 primary sequence. Images Figure 6 PMID:8240287

  12. Validation of the new trapped environment AE9/AP9/SPM at low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.

    2014-09-01

    The completion of the international space station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community an ideal proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport codes and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the space transportation system (STS; shuttle) provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code developments by indicating the need for an improved dynamic model of the low Earth orbit (LEO) trapped environment. Additional studies using thermo-luminescent detector (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) area monitors, and computer aided design (CAD) model of earlier ISS configurations, confirmed STS observations that, as input, computational dosimetry requires an environmental model with dynamic and directional (anisotropic) behavior, as well as an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) definition of the vehicle attitude and orientation along the orbit of ISS. At LEO, a vehicle encounters exposure from trapped particles and attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Within the trapped field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensities of the trapped particles during the solar quiet and active times. At active times, solar energetic particles (SEP) generated by solar flare or coronal mass ejection (CME) also contribute to the exposure at high northern and southern latitudes. Among the more established trapped models are the historic and popular AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s, the historic and less popular CRRES electron/proton, dating back to 1990s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. The AE9/AP9/SPM model is a major improvement over the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models. This model is derived from numerous measurements acquired over four solar cycles dating back to the 1970s, roughly representing 40 years of data collection. In contrast, the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models were limited to only a few months of measurements taken during the prior solar minima and maxima. The dual goal of this paper is to first validate the AE8/AP8 and AE9/AP9/SPM trapped models against ISS dosemetric measurements for a silicon based detector, to assess the improvements in the AE9/AP9/SPM model as compared to AE8/AP8 model. The validation is done at selected target points within ISS-6A configuration during its passage through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). For such validation, only the isotropic spectrum of either model is needed. As a second goal, the isotropic spectra of both trapped models are re-casted into anisotropic spectra by modulating them with a measurement derived angular formalism which is applicable to trapped protons. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution, the paper ignores the AE8 and AE9 component of the models and presents the angular validation of AP8 and AP9 against measurements from the compact environment anomaly sensor (CEASE) science instrument package, flown onboard the tri-service experiment-5 (TSX-5) satellite during the period of June 2000-July 2006. The spin stabilized satellite was flown in a 410 × 1710 km, 69° inclination orbit, allowing it to be exposed to a broad range of LEO regime. Particular emphasize is put on the validation of proton flux profiles at differential 40 MeV and integral >40 MeV, in the vicinity of SAA where protons exhibit east-west (EW) anisotropy and have a relatively narrow pitch angle distribution. Within SAA, the EW anisotropy results in different level of exposure to each side of CEASE instrument package, allowing the extraction of anisotropic proton spectra from the measurements. While the magnitude of the EW effect at LEO depends on a multitude of factors such as trapped proton energy, orientation of the spacecraft along the velocity vector and altitude of the spacecraft, for this part, the paper draws quantitative conclusions on t

  13. Past, Present, and Future of AP Chemistry: A Brief History of Course and Exam Alignment Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrogan, Serena

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Placement (AP) Program's commitment to continually enhance alignment with current best practices in college-level learning, the AP Program is currently evaluating and redesigning courses and exams, one of which launched during the 2013-2014 academic school year: AP chemistry. The history of the AP chemistry course and…

  14. Past, Present, and Future of AP Chemistry: A Brief History of Course and Exam Alignment Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrogan, Serena

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Placement (AP) Program's commitment to continually enhance alignment with current best practices in college-level learning, the AP Program is currently evaluating and redesigning courses and exams, one of which launched during the 2013-2014 academic school year: AP chemistry. The history of the AP chemistry course and…

  15. Are AP® Students More Likely to Graduate from College on Time? Research Report 2013-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Marini, Jessica P.; Shaw, Emily J.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the role of AP® Exam participation and performance on four-year college graduation in four years. Because students who take AP Exams can earn college credit while still in high school, it was expected that AP students would have higher four-year graduation rates. Moreover, it was expected that AP students who earned…

  16. Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

    2006-04-01

    From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware-software combined hybrid approach because of a too limited phase space of a single RFID for any meaningful encryption approach. Furthermore, a useful biological lesson is not to put all eggs in one basket, "if you don't get it all, you can't hack it". According to the Radar physics, we can choose the amplitude, the frequency, the phase, the polarization, and two radiation energy supply principles, the capacitance coupling (~6m) and the inductance coupling (<1m), to code the pair of tags differently. A casual skimmer equipped with single-mode reader can not read all. We consider near-field and mid-field applications each in this paper. The near-field is at check-out counters or the convey-belt inventory involving sensitive and invariant data. The mid-field search & rescue involves not only item/person identification, but also the geo-location. If more RF power becomes cheaper & portable for longer propagation distance in the near future, then a triangulation with pair of secured readers, located at known geo-locations, could interrogate and identify items/persons and their locations in a GPS-blind environment.

  17. Mobile docking of REMUS-100 equipped with USBL-APS to an unmanned surface vehicle: A performance feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Mario, II

    The overall objective of this work is to evaluate the ability of homing and docking an unmanned underwater vehicle (Hydroid REMUS 100 UUV) to a moving unmanned surface vehicle (Wave-Adaptive Modular Surface Vehicle USV) using a Hydroid Digital Ultra-Short Baseline (DUSBL) acoustic positioning system (APS), as a primary navigation source. An understanding of how the UUV can rendezvous with a stationary USV first is presented, then followed by a moving USV. Inherently, the DUSBL-APS is susceptible to error due to the physical phenomena of the underwater acoustic channel (e.g. ambient noise, attenuation and ray refraction). The development of an APS model has allowed the authors to forecast the UUV's position and the estimated track line of the USV as determined by the DUSBL acoustic sensor. In this model, focus is placed on three main elements: 1) the acoustic channel and sound ray refraction when propagating in an inhomogeneous medium; 2) the detection component of an ideal DUSBL-APS using the Neyman-Pearson criterion; 3) the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and receiver directivity impact on position estimation. The simulation tool is compared against actual open water homing results in terms of the estimated source position between the simulated and the actual USBL range and bearing information.

  18. Is Ap sub 4 A involved in DNA repair processes

    SciTech Connect

    Gilson, G.; Ebel, J.P.; Remy, P. )

    1988-07-01

    Hepatoma tissue culture (HTAC) cells were incubated in the presence of the alkylating agent N-methyl-N{prime}-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) to study the variations in the bisnucleosides polyphosphates (Ap{sub 4}X) pool size. A transient but sensitive accumulation of these compounds is observed; if 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) which is a potent inhibitor of the ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) is added after the MNNG treatment, a more pronounced and persistent accumulation of Ap{sub 4}X can be seen. A moderate heat-shock results also in a small accumulation of Ap{sub 4}X but the shape of the accumulation curve is quite different and the increase of the Ap{sub 4}X pool is not sensitive to the presence of 3AB. However, both MNNG treatment and hyperthermia cause a marked inhibition of protein synthesis. On the other hand, the ADPRT activity is enhanced in the presence of MNNG whereas hyperthermia has little or a slightly inhibitory effect on this activity. These results suggest that MNNG treatment triggers an Ap{sub 4}X accumulation in eukaryotic cells different from that observed after heat-shock and it seems likely that these compounds are involved in the DNA excision repair system in which the ADPRT enzyme is also implicated.

  19. Design and realization of linear APS-based sun sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, He; Zhang, Jianfu; Lv, Zhengxin; Yu, Chengwu; Jia, Jinzhong

    2013-10-01

    Linear APS-based sun sensor is a kind of sun sensor based on a linear array Active Pixel Sensor (APS) with low power consumption, small size, and small mass. It is integrated with optical, mechanical and electronic technologies. The main function of linear APS-based sun sensor is to realize two-axis measurement of solar aspect angle, determining the attitude of spacecraft. The image of the solar is projected on the linear image sensor through an N-shape aperture in front of it. By comparing the position shift of solar image projection on linear array APS, we can obtain the position of the sun relative to sensor. This paper analyzes the sources of system error and some specific solutions are proposed. The error compensation algorithm in the software designed makes the sun senor meet the accuracy requirements. The performance characteristics are as follows: FOV is +/-64°x+/-64° the accuracy of ?-axis is better than 0.02° (3?) in the FOV of less than 45°, and better than 0.03° (3?) in other FOV; the accuracy of ?-axis is better than 0.03° (3?) in the whole FOV. Linear APS-based sun sensor was successfully carried by satellite on orbit in October 2012. On-orbit testing showed that it operates normally and the data curves prove the accuracy meets requirements.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of the distribution of AP2/ERF transcription factors reveals duplication and CBFs genes elucidate their potential function in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) is one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide. The entire cabbage genome sequence and more than fifty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. However a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between cabbage and Arabidopsis; therefore, Arabidopsis is a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Transcription factors (TFs) are important regulators involved in plant development and physiological processes and the AP2/ERF protein family contains transcriptional factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development, as well as response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. However, no detailed expression profile of AP2/ERF-like genes is available for B. oleracea. Results In the present study, 226 AP2/ERF TFs were identified from B. oleracea based on the available genome sequence. Based on sequence similarity, the AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into five groups (DREB, ERF, AP2, RAV and Soloist) and 15 subgroups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic construction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns and interaction network were then predicted and analyzed. AP2/ERF transcription factor expression levels exhibited differences in response to varying abiotic stresses based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). BoCBF1a, 1b, 2, 3 and 4, which were highly conserved in Arabidopsis and B. rapa CBF/DREB genes families were well characterized. Expression analysis enabled elucidation of the molecular and genetic level expression patterns of cold tolerance (CT) and susceptible lines (CS) of cabbage and indicated that all BoCBF genes responded to abiotic stresses. Conclusions Comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of AP2/ERF superfamily genes and BoCBF family genes in B. oleracea is required to fully elucidate AP2/ERF, which will provide rich resources and opportunities to understand abiotic stress tolerance in crops. PMID:24888752

  1. APS storage ring vacuum system development

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Ferry, R.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.D.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, rf and insertion device systems. The vacuum system will operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr and is fabricated from aluminum. The system includes distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. An overview of the vacuum system design and details of selected development program results are presented. 5 refs.

  2. Plant resistance against the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii is mediated by MPK3 and MPK6 kinases, which are controlled by the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sidonskaya, Ekaterina; Schweighofer, Alois; Shubchynskyy, Volodymyr; Kammerhofer, Nina; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Meskiene, Irute

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes infect plants and form highly sophisticated feeding sites in roots. It is not known which plant cell signalling mechanisms trigger plant defence during the early stages of nematode parasitism. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are central components of protein phosphorylation cascades transducing extracellular signals to plant defence responses. MAPK phosphatases control kinase activities and the signalling outcome. The involvement and the role of MPK3 and MPK6, as well as the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1, is demonstrated during parasitism of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis. Our data reveal notable activation patterns of plant MAPKs and the induction of AP2C1 suggesting the attenuation of defence signalling in plant cells during early nematode infection. It is demonstrated that the ap2c1 mutant that is lacking AP2C1 is more attractive but less susceptible to nematodes compared with the AP2C1-overexpressing line. This implies that the function of AP2C1 is a negative regulator of nematode-induced defence. By contrast, the enhanced susceptibility of mpk3 and mpk6 plants indicates a positive role of stress-activated MAPKs in plant immunity against nematodes. Evidence is provided that phosphatase AP2C1, as well as AP2C1-targeted MPK3 and MPK6, are important regulators of plant–nematode interaction, where the co-ordinated action of these signalling components ensures the timely activation of plant defence. PMID:26438412

  3. Plant resistance against the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii is mediated by MPK3 and MPK6 kinases, which are controlled by the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sidonskaya, Ekaterina; Schweighofer, Alois; Shubchynskyy, Volodymyr; Kammerhofer, Nina; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Meskiene, Irute

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes infect plants and form highly sophisticated feeding sites in roots. It is not known which plant cell signalling mechanisms trigger plant defence during the early stages of nematode parasitism. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are central components of protein phosphorylation cascades transducing extracellular signals to plant defence responses. MAPK phosphatases control kinase activities and the signalling outcome. The involvement and the role of MPK3 and MPK6, as well as the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1, is demonstrated during parasitism of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis. Our data reveal notable activation patterns of plant MAPKs and the induction of AP2C1 suggesting the attenuation of defence signalling in plant cells during early nematode infection. It is demonstrated that the ap2c1 mutant that is lacking AP2C1 is more attractive but less susceptible to nematodes compared with the AP2C1-overexpressing line. This implies that the function of AP2C1 is a negative regulator of nematode-induced defence. By contrast, the enhanced susceptibility of mpk3 and mpk6 plants indicates a positive role of stress-activated MAPKs in plant immunity against nematodes. Evidence is provided that phosphatase AP2C1, as well as AP2C1-targeted MPK3 and MPK6, are important regulators of plant-nematode interaction, where the co-ordinated action of these signalling components ensures the timely activation of plant defence. PMID:26438412

  4. Ground vibration model studies for APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Koul, R.K.

    1994-07-01

    An analytical ground vibration model is developed for study of the vibration effects on the beam motion in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The different physical parameters associated with the wave characteristics and the vibration modes needed for the study are taken from the vibration studies carried out at the APS site. The implementation has been carried out using Mathematica{trademark}. The study is carried out for the frequency range 1--35 Hz, with a number of sources changing from one through ten. The program written in Mathematica{trademark}, calculates orbit distortion, beta wave change, tune change, dispersion change, and chromaticity change. However, the main parameter studied for the APS storage ring has been the orbit distortion. The merit factor associated with different modes excited by the vibrations has been calculated.

  5. The fundamental parameters of the Ap star 78 Virginis. Could 78 Vir be a rapidly oscillating Ap star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraut, K.; Cunha, M.; Brandão, I.; Loridat, J.; Mourard, D.; Meilland, A.; Nardetto, N.; McAlister, H.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Vargas, N.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Determining the effective temperature of Ap stars, including the roAp stellar pulsators, is a difficult task owing to their strong magnetic field and their related spotted surfaces. It is, however, an important step towards constraining models of their complex atmosphere and testing proposed pulsation excitation mechanisms. Aims: Using the unique angular resolution provided by long-baseline visible interferometry, we aim at deriving accurate angular diameters of a number of Ap targets, so as to determine their unbiased effective temperature (Teff) and their accurate position in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, to estimate their mass and age, and to test non-adiabatic pulsation models. Interferometric results on four Ap stars have been published in earlier works. Here we report the results on a fifth, significantly hotter star. Methods: We observed 78 Vir with the visible spectrograph VEGA installed at the combined focus of the CHARA long-baseline optical array. We derived the limb-darkened diameter of this Ap star from our interferometric measurements. Based on photometric and spectroscopic data available in the literature, we estimated the star's bolometric flux and used it, in combination with its parallax and angular diameter, to determine the star's luminosity and effective temperature. We then used the derived fundamental parameters to perform a non-adiabatic pulsation analysis. Results: We determined a limb-darkened angular diameter of 0.346 ± 0.006 mas and deduced a linear radius of R = 2.11 ± 0.04 R?. Considering a bolometric flux of 2.73 ± 0.20 10-7 erg/cm2/s we obtained a luminosity of L/L? = 27 ± 2 and an effective temperature of Teff = 9100 ± 190 K. The non-adiabatic pulsation modeling allows us to predict that high overtone pulsations could be excited in 78 Vir at frequencies ranging from 1.2 to 1.9 mHz, provided that the magnetic field is capable of suppressing envelope convection in the polar regions. Conclusions: Visible long-baseline interferometry is a unique means of deriving accurate fundamental parameters of Ap stars. The Ap star 78 Vir is found to be a promising roAp-star candidate and one that would allow us to extend recent tests on the roAp stars' excitation mechanism towards the blue edge of the instability strip. Asteroseismic data of this star would, therefore, be of strong interest. Based on observations made with the VEGA/CHARA spectro-interferometer.

  6. Piping benchmark problems for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bezler, P.; DeGrassi, G.; Braverman, J.; Wang, Y.K.

    1997-01-01

    To satisfy the need for verification of the computer programs and modeling techniques that will be used to perform the final piping analyses for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant, three benchmark problems were developed. The problems are representative piping systems subjected to representative dynamic loads with solutions developed using the methods being proposed for analysis for the AP600 standard design. It will be required that the combined license licensees demonstrate that their solutions to these problems are in agreement with the benchmark problem set.

  7. Primary anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APS): current concepts.

    PubMed

    Durrani, Omar M; Gordon, Caroline; Murray, Philip I

    2002-01-01

    Primary anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) is a thrombophilic state characterized by recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis, recurrent pregnancy loss, and the presence of circulating anti-phospholipid antibodies that may be responsible for thrombophilia and pregnancy morbidity. Ophthalmologic features are present in 15-88% of the patients with primary APS, thus ophthalmologists are one of the first physicians to whom the patient will present. An accurate diagnosis may save the patient from recurrent, potentially life-threatening thrombosis. In the U.S.A., an estimated 35,000 new cases of APS-related venous thrombosis occur each year in a population that is several decades younger than the patient population typically affected by thrombosis. Clinical features, such as chorea, transverse myelitis, cardiac valvular lesions, and accelerated atherosclerosis, are hypothesized to be due to a direct tissue-antibody interaction and cannot be explained purely by thrombosis. The use of recently proposed, well-defined diagnostic criteria, and better standardization of laboratory assays for the anti-phospholipid antibodies should help enable epidemiological surveys to establish the prevalence of these antibodies in patients with thrombosis and in the general population. Diagnosis of APS should be considered in all patients with recurrent systemic or ocular thrombosis in the absence of known risk factors. Several well-designed prospective studies show an increased risk of thrombosis in the presence of medium to high antibody level. With ocular involvement in as many as 88% of APS patients, an ophthalmic assessment should be an integral part of the clinical work-up of any patient with suspected or confirmed APS. The presence of isolated ocular thrombophilia with persistently elevated anti-phospholipid antibodies or lupus coagulant should confirm the diagnosis of APS. Management of these patients must be a multi-disciplinary effort with either a rheumatologist or a hematologist having the overall responsibility for coordinating treatment and monitoring the patient's immune status and anticoagulation. Treatment of isolated ocular thrombophilia in the presence of moderate to high titers of antiphospholipid antibodies should be on the same principles as patients with APS to prevent recurrent ocular or cerebral thrombosis. PMID:12052409

  8. Magnetic fields in A stars besides Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.

    2014-11-01

    I review ongoing efforts to understand the incidence of magnetism in intermediate-mass stars that are different from the magnetic Ap stars. This includes the search for magnetic fields in chemically peculiar stars of the Am and HgMn types as well as in normal A and late-B stars. I discuss different techniques for detecting weak stellar magnetic fields, and present a critical evaluation of recent magnetic detections in non-Ap stars. Special attention is given to the magnetic status of HgMn stars and to the discovery of weak polarization signatures in Sirius and Vega.

  9. Functional Characterization of a Vesicular Glutamate Transporter in an Interneuron That Makes Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Connections in a Molluscan Neural Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Alexeeva, Vera; Chen, Song-an; Yu, Ke; Due, Michael R.; Tan, Li-nuo; Chen, Ting-ting; Liu, Dan-dan; Cropper, Elizabeth C.; Vilim, Ferdinand S.; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding circuit function requires the characterization of component neurons and their neurotransmitters. Previous work on radula protraction in the Aplysia feeding circuit demonstrated that critical neurons initiate feeding via cholinergic excitation. In contrast, it is less clear how retraction is mediated at the interneuronal level. In particular, glutamate involvement was suggested, but was not directly confirmed. Here we study a suspected glutamatergic retraction interneuron, B64. We used the representational difference analysis (RDA) method to successfully clone an Aplysia vesicular glutamate transporter (ApVGLUT) from B64 and from a glutamatergic motor neuron B38. Previously, RDA was used to characterize novel neuropeptides. Here we demonstrate its utility for characterizing other types of molecules. Bioinformatics suggests that ApVGLUT is more closely related to mammalian VGLUTs than to Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans VGLUTs. We expressed ApVGLUT in a cell line, and demonstrated that it indeed transports glutamate in an ATP and proton gradient-dependent manner. We mapped the ApVGLUT distribution in the CNS using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Further, we demonstrated that B64 is ApVGLUT positive, supporting the idea that it is glutamatergic. Although glutamate is primarily an excitatory transmitter in the mammalian CNS, B64 elicits inhibitory PSPs in protraction neurons to terminate protraction and excitatory PSPs in retraction neurons to maintain retraction. Pharmacological data indicated that both types of PSPs are mediated by glutamate. Thus, glutamate mediates the dual function of B64 in Aplysia. More generally, our systematic approaches based on RDA may facilitate analyses of transmitter actions in small circuits with identifiable neurons. PMID:26085636

  10. Functional Characterization of a Vesicular Glutamate Transporter in an Interneuron That Makes Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Connections in a Molluscan Neural Circuit.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian; Alexeeva, Vera; Chen, Song-An; Yu, Ke; Due, Michael R; Tan, Li-Nuo; Chen, Ting-Ting; Liu, Dan-Dan; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Vilim, Ferdinand S; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2015-06-17

    Understanding circuit function requires the characterization of component neurons and their neurotransmitters. Previous work on radula protraction in the Aplysia feeding circuit demonstrated that critical neurons initiate feeding via cholinergic excitation. In contrast, it is less clear how retraction is mediated at the interneuronal level. In particular, glutamate involvement was suggested, but was not directly confirmed. Here we study a suspected glutamatergic retraction interneuron, B64. We used the representational difference analysis (RDA) method to successfully clone an Aplysia vesicular glutamate transporter (ApVGLUT) from B64 and from a glutamatergic motor neuron B38. Previously, RDA was used to characterize novel neuropeptides. Here we demonstrate its utility for characterizing other types of molecules. Bioinformatics suggests that ApVGLUT is more closely related to mammalian VGLUTs than to Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans VGLUTs. We expressed ApVGLUT in a cell line, and demonstrated that it indeed transports glutamate in an ATP and proton gradient-dependent manner. We mapped the ApVGLUT distribution in the CNS using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Further, we demonstrated that B64 is ApVGLUT positive, supporting the idea that it is glutamatergic. Although glutamate is primarily an excitatory transmitter in the mammalian CNS, B64 elicits inhibitory PSPs in protraction neurons to terminate protraction and excitatory PSPs in retraction neurons to maintain retraction. Pharmacological data indicated that both types of PSPs are mediated by glutamate. Thus, glutamate mediates the dual function of B64 in Aplysia. More generally, our systematic approaches based on RDA may facilitate analyses of transmitter actions in small circuits with identifiable neurons. PMID:26085636

  11. RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVAE HAVE SHORTER-LIVED CENTRAL ENGINES OR MORE EXTENDED PROGENITORS: THE CASE OF SN 2012ap

    SciTech Connect

    Margutti, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Soderberg, A. M.; Sanders, N.; Chakraborti, S.; Kamble, A.; Drout, M.; Parrent, J.; Zauderer, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Morsony, B. J.; Ray, A.; Chomiuk, L.

    2014-12-20

    Deep, late-time X-ray observations of the relativistic, engine-driven, type Ic SN 2012ap allow us to probe the nearby environment of the explosion and reveal the unique properties of relativistic supernova explosions (SNe). We find that on a local scale of ∼0.01 pc the environment was shaped directly by the evolution of the progenitor star with a pre-explosion mass-loss rate of M-dot <5×10{sup −6} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, in line with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and the other relativistic SN 2009bb. Like sub-energetic GRBs, SN 2012ap is characterized by a bright radio emission and evidence for mildly relativistic ejecta. However, its late-time (δt ≈ 20 days) X-ray emission is ∼100 times fainter than the faintest sub-energetic GRB at the same epoch, with no evidence for late-time central engine activity. These results support theoretical proposals that link relativistic SNe like 2009bb and 2012ap with the weakest observed engine-driven explosions, where the jet barely fails to break out. Furthermore, our observations demonstrate that the difference between relativistic SNe and sub-energetic GRBs is intrinsic and not due to line-of-sight effects. This phenomenology can either be due to an intrinsically shorter-lived engine or to a more extended progenitor in relativistic SNe.

  12. A kinesin-like protein, KatAp, in the cells of arabidopsis and other plants.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, B; Cyr, R J; Palevitz, B A

    1996-01-01

    The kinesin-like proteins (KLPs) are a large family of plus- or minus-end-directed microtubule motors important in intracellular transport, mitosis, meiosis, and development. However, relatively little is known about plant KLPs. We prepared an antibody against two peptides in the microtubule binding domain of an Arabidopsis KLP (KatAp) encoded by the KatA gene, one of a family of genes encoding KLPs whose motor domain is located near the C terminus of the polypeptide. Such KLPs typically move materials toward the minus end of microtubules. An immunoreactive band (Mr of 140,000) corresponding to KatAp was demonstrated with this antibody on immunoblots of Arabidopsis seedling extracts. During immunofluorescence localizations, the antibody produced weak, variable staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus of interphase Arabidopsis suspension cells but much stronger staining of the mitotic apparatus during division. Staining was concentrated near the midzone during metaphase and was retained there during anaphase. The phragmoplast was also stained. Similar localization patterns were seen in tobacco BY-2 cells. The antibody produced a single band (Mr of 130,000) in murine brain fractions prepared according to procedures that enrich for KLPs (binding to microtubules in the presence of AMP-PNP but not ATP). A similar fraction from carrot suspension cells yielded a cross-reacting polypeptide of similar apparent molecular mass. When dividing BY-2 cells were lysed in the presence of taxol and ATP, antibody staining moved rapidly toward the poles, supporting the presence of a minus-end motor. Movement did not occur without ATP, with AMP-PNP, or with ATP plus antibody. Our results indicate that the protein encoded by KatA, KatAp, is expressed in Arabidopsis and is specifically localized to the midzone of the mitotic apparatus and phragmoplast. A similar protein is also present in other species. PMID:8597656

  13. Identification of a functional AP1 element in the rat vasopressin gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masanori; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Asai, Masato; Takayasu, Shinobu; Taguchi, Takafumi; Itoi, Keiichi; Hashimoto, Kozo; Oiso, Yutaka

    2006-06-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is expressed in paraventricular, supraoptic, and suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus, where transcription of the AVP gene is activated by various forms of stress, such as hyperosmolality, inflammation, and photic stimulation. In vasopressinergic neurons, the expression of the Fos/Jun family proteins is known to be rapidly induced after these stimuli as well. However, it is still unknown whether these proteins actually mediate AVP gene expression. In this study we examined in vitro the role of Fos/Jun protein in transcriptional regulation of the AVP gene using the BE(2)M17 neuroblastoma cell line. We found that 5'-promoter activity of the rat AVP gene (-803/+26) markedly increased when all combinations of the Fos/Jun family proteins were overexpressed. Coexpression of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein-binding protein and steroid receptor coactivator-1a further enhanced the Fos/Jun-mediated transcription. Using site-directed mutagenesis and EMSA techniques, we identified an activation protein 1 (AP1)-like element (-134/-128; TGAATCA) in the AVP gene 5'-promoter region, which is the sole responsible site for the Fos/Jun-mediated transcription. We also found that 12-O-tetradecarbonyl phorbol 13-acetate stimulates AVP gene transcription partly via the AP1 site through the activation of ERK signaling. Together, these results suggest that a variety of Fos/Jun family member proteins stimulate transcription of the AVP gene through the AP1 site we identified. Furthermore, this effect may be activated by both protein kinase A and protein kinase C signaling pathways. PMID:16543367

  14. 76 FR 82079 - AP1000 Design Certification Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... any person. The NRC originally approved the AP1000 design certification in a final rule in 2006 (71 FR... notice of acceptance (ADAMS Accession No. ML073600743) in the Federal Register (73 FR 4926; January 28... applications: . Vogtle, Units 3 and 4......... Docket No. 05200025/6. 73 FR 33118. Bellefonte Nuclear...

  15. AP® Use in Admissions: A Response to Geiser and Santelices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In their 2004 paper "The role of Advanced Placement and honors courses in college admissions," (see ED492533) Saul Geiser and Veronica Santelices of the University of California, Berkeley, addressed the use of Advanced Placement Program (AP) and honors courses as a criterion for admission at the University of California system and…

  16. APS storage ring vacuum chamber: Section 1, Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Benaroya, R.; Roop, B.

    1995-07-01

    The vacuum characteristics of the APS storage ring vacuum chamber prototype, Section One (S1), is presented. The base pressure achieved was 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}, the welds contained no virtual or real leaks, the NeG strip mounting design and activation procedures have been determined, and S1 was found contaminated with hydrocarbons.

  17. 75 FR 75666 - Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ...: On September 1, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 53681) a notice inviting... in the September 1, 2010 notice (75 FR 53682-53683). We encourage eligible applicants to submit their... Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education...

  18. Time Trials--An AP Physics Challenge Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    2009-01-01

    I have come to the conclusion that for high school physics classroom and laboratory experiences, simpler is better! In this paper I describe a very simple and effective lab experience that my AP students have thoroughly enjoyed year after year. I call this lab exercise "Time Trials." The experiment is simple in design and it is a lot of fun for…

  19. Approximate entropy (ApEn) as a complexity measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincus, Steve

    1995-03-01

    Approximate entropy (ApEn) is a recently developed statistic quantifying regularity and complexity, which appears to have potential application to a wide variety of relatively short (greater than 100 points) and noisy time-series data. The development of ApEn was motivated by data length constraints commonly encountered, e.g., in heart rate, EEG, and endocrine hormone secretion data sets. We describe ApEn implementation and interpretation, indicating its utility to distinguish correlated stochastic processes, and composite deterministic/ stochastic models. We discuss the key technical idea that motivates ApEn, that one need not fully reconstruct an attractor to discriminate in a statistically valid manner—marginal probability distributions often suffice for this purpose. Finally, we discuss why algorithms to compute, e.g., correlation dimension and the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy, often work well for true dynamical systems, yet sometimes operationally confound for general models, with the aid of visual representations of reconstructed dynamics for two contrasting processes.

  20. The New AP Chemistry Exam: Its Rationale, Content, and Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Paul D.; Kugel, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013-2014 academic year marks the rollout of the redesigned advanced placement (AP) chemistry course and exam. There have been many questions as to why the course was redesigned and how the new examination will differ from its legacy version. In this article we give a brief overview of the legacy course and examine why a redesign occurred in…

  1. The APS Panel on Public Affairs and Federal Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Robert

    2013-03-01

    The Panel on Public Affairs (POPA) is the organ through which the APS seeks to provide high quality input to the Federal Government on issues with significant physics content, ranging from energy and environment to national security. I will describe POPA's evolving mission, some recent efforts and successes, and look at the agenda for the next few years.

  2. A process definition repository based on step AP 213

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    Over the years, in the context of numerically controlled machined part manufacturing, the loss, misinterpretation, and redundancy of re-inputting manufacturing instructions and data during the evolution of a product design into the finished product has been a resource depleting and costly endeavor. It is the intent of this project to utilize the emerging standards from the International Standards Organization, ISO 10303 Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data, commonly referred to as STEP, to store and retrieve process planning information for a set of production work instructions. The project focuses on the utilization of the 1995 version of the Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 10303-213:1995 (E) Application protocol: Numerical control process plans for machined parts (AP213). This project illustrates the methodologies used to build an object-oriented Process Definition Repository (PDR), describes both the benefits and shortcomings experienced in implementing AP213, and recommends enhancements to AP213 for process planning information. The deliverable will be a Part 21 data file, based on the application-interpreted model for AP213 and integrated with product design data.

  3. ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED TRIVALENT ARSENICALS. Z Drobna1, I Jaspers2, D J Thomas3 and M Styblo1. 1Department of Pediatrics; 2Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.

  4. Tead and AP1 Coordinate Transcription and Motility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangfan; Li, Huapeng; Rajurkar, Mihir; Li, Qi; Cotton, Jennifer L; Ou, Jianhong; Zhu, Lihua J; Goel, Hira L; Mercurio, Arthur M; Park, Joo-Seop; Davis, Roger J; Mao, Junhao

    2016-02-01

    The Tead family transcription factors are the major intracellular mediators of the Hippo-Yap pathway. Despite the importance of Hippo signaling in tumorigenesis, Tead-dependent downstream oncogenic programs and target genes in cancer cells remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize Tead4-mediated transcriptional networks in a diverse range of cancer cells, including neuroblastoma, colorectal, lung, and endometrial carcinomas. By intersecting genome-wide chromatin occupancy analyses of Tead4, JunD, and Fra1/2, we find that Tead4 cooperates with AP1 transcription factors to coordinate target gene transcription. We find that Tead-AP1 interaction is JNK independent but engages the SRC1-3 co-activators to promote downstream transcription. Furthermore, we show that Tead-AP1 cooperation regulates the activity of the Dock-Rac/CDC42 module and drives the expression of a unique core set of target genes, thereby directing cell migration and invasion. Together, our data unveil a critical regulatory mechanism underlying Tead- and AP1-controlled transcriptional and functional outputs in cancer cells. PMID:26832411

  5. APS Chapter 1 Evaluation Report 1984-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaemper, Jack; Morse, Kathy

    This report describes and evaluates the Albuquerque Public Schools (APS) 1984-85 Chapter 1 instructional program and its effect on student performance. The following information is reported or described: (1) conclusions and recommendations; (2) participating schools and cost summaries; (3) identification of eligible schools; (4) identification of…

  6. CMOS APS imaging system application in star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Jinguo; Li, Xuekui; Liu, Yaxia; Hao, Zhihang

    2005-01-01

    Small satellites are capable of performing space explore missions that require accurate attitude determination and control. However, low weight, size, power and cost requirements limit the types of attitude sensor of small craft, such as CCD, are not practical for small satellites. CMOS APS is a good substitute for attitude sensors of small craft. Some of the technical advantages of CMOS APS are no blooming, single power, low power consumption, small size and little support circuitry, direct digital output, simple to system design, in particular, radiation-hard characteristic compare with CCD. This paper discusses the application probability of CMOS APS in star tracker for small satellites, further more, a prototype ground-based star camera based on STAR250 CMOS image sensor has been built. In order to extract stars positions coordinates, subpixel accuracy centroiding algorithm has been developed and tested on some ground-based images. Moreover, the camera system star sensitivity and noise model are analyzed, and the system accuracy is been evaluated. Experimental results indicate that a star camera based on CMOS APS is a viable practical attitude sensor appropriate for space small satellites.

  7. The New AP Chemistry Exam: Its Rationale, Content, and Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Paul D.; Kugel, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013-2014 academic year marks the rollout of the redesigned advanced placement (AP) chemistry course and exam. There have been many questions as to why the course was redesigned and how the new examination will differ from its legacy version. In this article we give a brief overview of the legacy course and examine why a redesign occurred in…

  8. AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M., Ed.; Sonnert, Gerhard, Ed.; Tai, Robert H., Ed.; Klopfenstein, Kristin, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With an annual yearly growth rate of 9.3 percent over the last two decades, Advanced Placement courses have become a juggernaut in American high school education. AP courses are routinely perceived as an indicator of educational rigor, and many schools push to enroll low-income or minority students in these courses in the hope of preparing them…

  9. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  10. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  11. The AP Lever for Boosting Access, Success, and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roegman, Rachel; Hatch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Four New Jersey school districts worked together to increase student achievement by applying a number of strategies focused on getting traditionally underrepresented students to take more AP courses. The districts are members of the New Jersey Network of Superintendents (NJNS), comprising 15 superintendents who work together to develop systemwide…

  12. Eastern European Elites: Teaching about Aristocrats in the AP Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasson, Ellis Archer

    2003-01-01

    Free response question (FRQ) #5 in the 2002 Advanced Placement (AP) European history exam read as follows: "In what ways and to what extent did absolutism affect the power and status of the European nobility in the period 1650 to 1750. Use examples from at least 2 countries." This question, which is aimed at encouraging a comparative approach and…

  13. Automated Procurement System (APS) revised project management plan (DS-03)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Diane R.

    1995-01-01

    The Project Plan is the governing document for the implementation of the Automated Procurement System (APS). It includes a description of the proposed system, describes the work to be done, establishes a schedule of deliverables, and discusses the major standards and procedures to be followed.

  14. Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

  15. Tank 241-AP-106 tank characterization plan: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, B.D.

    1994-11-17

    Tank 241-AP-106 (AP-106) is a candidate feed tank which is expected to be processed at the 242-A Evaporator. Three issues related to the overall concern of the evaporator must be evaluated: compatibility of the candidate waste with respect to feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator requirements; safety parameters of the candidate waste tank to avoid a facility condition which is outside the safety boundaries; and compliance of the waste as dictated by regulations from various government and environmental agencies. The characterization efforts of this Tank Characterization Plan are focused on the resolution of the issues above. To evaluate the potential for waste incompatibility with the feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator, as well as relevant safety issues, analyses will be performed on the grab samples obtained from tank AP-106. These analyses are discussed in Section 4.0. Once the characterization of tank AP-106 has been performed, the waste compatibility and safety assessment shall be conducted. This effort is discussed elsewhere.

  16. Incorporating the APS Catalog of the POSS I and Image Archive in ADS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary purpose of this contract was to develop the software to both create and access an on-line database of images from digital scans of the Palomar Sky Survey. This required modifying our DBMS (called Star Base) to create an image database from the actual raw pixel data from the scans. The digitized images are processed into a set of coordinate-reference index and pixel files that are stored in run-length files, thus achieving an efficient lossless compression. For efficiency and ease of referencing, each digitized POSS I plate is then divided into 900 subplates. Our custom DBMS maps each query into the corresponding POSS plate(s) and subplate(s). All images from the appropriate subplates are retrieved from disk with byte-offsets taken from the index files. These are assembled on-the-fly into a GIF image file for browser display, and a FITS format image file for retrieval. The FITS images have a pixel size of 0.33 arcseconds. The FITS header contains astrometric and photometric information. This method keeps the disk requirements manageable while allowing for future improvements. When complete, the APS Image Database will contain over 130 Gb of data. A set of web pages query forms are available on-line, as well as an on-line tutorial and documentation. The database is distributed to the Internet by a high-speed SGI server and a high-bandwidth disk system. URL is http://aps.umn.edu/IDB/. The image database software is written in perl and C and has been compiled on SGI computers with MIX5.3. A copy of the written documentation is included and the software is on the accompanying exabyte tape.

  17. Trans-Golgi Network-Located AP1 Gamma Adaptins Mediate Dileucine Motif-Directed Vacuolar Targeting in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangfeng; Cai, Yi; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yonglun; Zhuang, Xiaohong; Li, Baiying

    2014-01-01

    Membrane proteins on the tonoplast are indispensible for vacuolar functions in plants. However, how these proteins are transported to the vacuole and how they become separated from plasma membrane proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar ion transporter1 (VIT1) as a reporter to study the mechanisms of tonoplast targeting. We showed that VIT1 reached the tonoplast through a pathway involving the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, trans-Golgi network (TGN), prevacuolar compartment, and tonoplast. VIT1 contains a putative N-terminal dihydrophobic type ER export signal, and its N terminus has a conserved dileucine motif (EKQTLL), which is responsible for tonoplast targeting. In vitro peptide binding assays with synthetic VIT1 N terminus identified adaptor protein complex-1 (AP1) subunits that interacted with the dileucine motif. A deficiency of AP1 gamma adaptins in Arabidopsis cells caused relocation of tonoplast proteins containing the dileucine motif, such as VIT1 and inositol transporter1, to the plasma membrane. The dileucine motif also effectively rerouted the plasma membrane protein SCAMP1 to the tonoplast. Together with subcellular localization studies showing that AP1 gamma adaptins localize to the TGN, we propose that the AP1 complex on the TGN mediates tonoplast targeting of membrane proteins with the dileucine motif. PMID:25351491

  18. The AP2-Like Gene OitaAP2 Is Alternatively Spliced and Differentially Expressed in Inflorescence and Vegetative Tissues of the Orchid Orchis italica

    PubMed Central

    Salemme, Marinella; Sica, Maria; Iazzetti, Giovanni; Gaudio, Luciano; Aceto, Serena

    2013-01-01

    The AP2/ERF proteins are plant-specific transcription factors involved in multiple regulatory pathways, from plant organ development to response to various environmental stresses. One of the mechanisms that regulates the AP2-like genes involves the microRNA miR172, which controls their activity at the post-transcriptional level. Extensive studies on AP2-like genes are available in many different species; however, in orchids, one of the largest plant families, studies are restricted to a few species, all belonging to the Epidendroideae subfamily. In the present study, we report the isolation of an AP2-like gene in the Mediterranean orchid Orchis italica (Orchidoideae). The OitaAP2 locus includes 10 exons and 9 introns, and its transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in the long OitaAP2 and the short OitaAP2_ISO isoforms, with the latter skipping exon 9. Both isoforms contain the conserved target site for miR172, whose action is demonstrated by the presence of cleaved OitaAP2 mRNA. The OitaAP2 and OitaAP2_ISO mRNAs are present in the tepals and lip before and after anthesis at different expression levels. In addition, the OitaAP2_ISO isoform is expressed in the ovary before pollination and in the root and stem. The isoform-specific expression pattern suggests a functional differentiation of the OitaAP2 alternatively spliced transcripts. The expression profile of miR172 is complementary to that of the OitaAP2 isoforms in inflorescence tissues before anthesis, whereas after anthesis and in ovary tissue before and after pollination, this relationship disappears, suggesting the existence of OitaAP2 inhibitory mechanisms in these tissues that differ from that involving miR172. PMID:24204832

  19. Molecular and biochemical characterisation of two aspartic proteinases TcAP1 and TcAP2 from Theobroma cacao seeds.

    PubMed

    Laloi, Maryse; McCarthy, James; Morandi, Olivia; Gysler, Christof; Bucheli, Peter

    2002-09-01

    Aspartic proteinase (EC 3.4.23) activity plays a pivotal role in the degradation of Theobroma cacao L. seed proteins during the fermentation step of cacao bean processing. Therefore, this enzyme is believed to be critical for the formation of the peptide and amino acid cocoa flavor precursors that occurs during fermentation. Using cDNA cloning and northern blot analysis, we show here that there are at least two distinct aspartic proteinase genes ( TcAP1 and TcAP2) expressed during cacao seed development. Both genes are expressed early during seed development and their mRNA levels decrease towards the end of seed maturation. TcAP2 is expressed at a much higher level than TcAP1, although the expression of TcAP1 increases slightly during germination. The proteins encoded by TcAP1 and TcAP2 are relatively different from each other (73% identity). This, and the fact that the two corresponding genes have different expression patterns, suggests that the TcAP1 and TcAP2 proteins may have different functions in the maturing seeds and during germination. Because the TcAP2 gene is expressed at a much higher level during seed development than TcAP1, it is likely that the TcAP2 protein is primarily responsible for the majority of the industrially important protein hydrolysis that occurs during cacao bean fermentation. Finally, TcAP2 has been functionally expressed in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The secreted recombinant protein is able to hydrolyse bovine haemoglobin at acidic pH and is sensitive to pepstatin A, confirming that TcAP2 encodes an aspartic proteinase, and strongly suggests that this gene encodes the well-characterized aspartic proteinase of mature cacao seeds. PMID:12244440

  20. Exploring Mars: The Ares Payload Service (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

    1999-08-01

    In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the design notably an improved re-entry cooling system and fueling stability analysis were done this year. More technical detail and a proposed international consortium to develop the SSTO is presented in another session of this year's Mars convention. We believe that there will be no human exploration of Mars based on the Shuttle or Expendable launch vehicles, and no resources available except for a cooperative international program. However, just as the world is learning to cooperate in peacekeeping, we hold out the hope that similar cooperation will develop for Mars exploration. With that in mind, this year we asked the question- "How will the human mission get to Mars if it has to use the SsTO for transportation?"

  1. Exploring Mars: the Ares Payload Service (APS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the design notably an improved re-entry cooling system and fueling stability analysis were done this year. More technical detail and a proposed international consortium to develop the SSTO is presented in another session of this year's Mars convention. We believe that there will be no human exploration of Mars based on the Shuttle or Expendable launch vehicles, and no resources available except for a cooperative international program. However, just as the world is learning to cooperate in peacekeeping, we hold out the hope that similar cooperation will develop for Mars exploration. With that in mind, this year we asked the question- "How will the human mission get to Mars if it has to use the SsTO for transportation?"

  2. Synthesis of an inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) affinity probe to study the interactome from a colon cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Yin, Meng-Xin; Catimel, Bruno; Gregory, Mark; Condron, Melanie; Kapp, Eugene; Holmes, Andrew B; Burgess, Antony W

    2016-03-14

    Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6 or IP6) is an important signalling molecule in vesicular trafficking, neurotransmission, immune responses, regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases, activation of ion channels, antioxidant functions and anticancer activities. An IP6 probe was synthesised from myo-inositol via a derivatised analogue, which was immobilised through a terminal amino group onto Dynabeads. Systematic analysis of the IP6 interactome has been performed using the IP6 affinity probe using cytosolic extracts from the LIM1215 colonic carcinoma cell line. LC/MS/MS analysis identified 77 proteins or protein complexes that bind to IP6 specifically, including AP-2 complex proteins and β-arrestins as well as a number of novel potential IP6 interacting proteins. Bioinformatic enrichment analysis of the IP6 interactome reinforced the concept that IP6 regulates a number of biological processes including cell cycle and division, signal transduction, intracellular protein transport, vesicle-mediated transport and RNA splicing. PMID:26840369

  3. Copper corrosion & clogging in APS deionized water cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Bijaya

    An extensive amount of work has been performed on copper corrosion in last century due to its abundant use in domestic and industrial water systems. However, work on copper corrosion in deionized water is very limited. The water cooling system of Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory uses deionized water containing very low dissolved oxygen (less than 10 ppb). Therefore, It is expected that copper corrosion would be less in this system. On the contrary, APS suffers significant clogging in its water cooling circuit resulting from the deposition of corrosion product and carries out frequent expensive maintenance to retain the required flow rate. The location of pH and corrosion potential of APS water cooling system is very close to the boundary condition of the two oxides (CuO and Cu 2O) of the Pourbaix diagram of copper. While a single phase presence of either of these two oxides is stable as a protective layer, a mixture of the two oxides is unstable. An unstable protective layer results in spalling of the oxide layer. A fluctuation in water chemistry (which is common in an industrial facility) triggers a phase transformation between these two oxides due to its near boundary values. It was observed that the location of pH and corrosion potential was away from the boundaries in high dissolved oxygen condition (more than 2000 ppm). Hence, the possibility of phase transformation becomes lesser in high dissolved oxygen condition than in low dissolved oxygen condition. A test station, that was a replica of the APS water cooling system, was used to perform experiments in both high and low oxygen condition. It was demonstrated that high oxygen condition results in less clogging than in low oxygen condition. Microstructural characterization was performed on the coupons from test station and on some components from APS to evaluate oxide surface and determine phases. Mechanism of the phase transformation was suggested.

  4. APS beamline standard components handbook. Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  5. Turbulence Transport and Dissipation in the Lower Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Holst, B.; Sokolov, I.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2012-12-01

    We present new improvements to our three-dimensional global two-temperature model of the solar corona that includes the transition region and upper chromosphere. In our previous study, we focused on the wave-energy injection, transmission and dissipation [I.V. Sokolov et al., submitted to Ap.J. (2012)]. We have now also included the wave reflection due to large-scale plasma inhomogeneities. This reflection leads to low-frequency cascade of Alfvén waves due to small-scale nonlinearities. In closed field line regions, the dissipation is enhanced since different wave polarities (Elsässer energy densities) can meet with equal amplitude, resulting in elevated temperatures. The electron heat conduction can subsequently transport this excess of energy deposition down to the chromosphere. We discuss the theoretical framework and contrast the resulting simulated multi-wavelength EUV images with the SDO/AIA observations for Carrington rotation 2107.

  6. KIC 7582608: a new Kepler roAp star with frequency variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, D. L.; Smalley, B.; Kurtz, D. W.; Southworth, J.; Cunha, M. S.; Clubb, K. I.

    2015-09-01

    We analyse the fifth roAp star reported in the Kepler field, KIC 7582608, discovered with the SuperWASP project. The object shows a high frequency pulsation at 181.7324d-1 (P = 7.9 min) with an amplitude of 1.45 mmag, and low frequency rotational modulation corresponding to a period of 20.4339 d. Spectral analysis confirms the Ap nature of the target, with characteristic lines of rare earth elements present. From our spectral observations we derive a lower limit on the mean magnetic field modulus of =3.05 ± 0.23 kG. Long Cadence Kepler observations show a frequency quintuplet split by the rotational period of the star, typical for an oblique pulsator. We suggest the star is a quadrupole pulsator with a geometry such that i ~ 66° and β ~ 33°. We detect frequency variations of the pulsation in both the WASP and Kepler data sets on many time scales. Linear, non-adiabatic stability modelling allows us to constrain a region on the HR diagram where the pulsations are unstable, an area consistent with observations.

  7. The discovery of two new rapidly oscillating Ap stars, HD92499 and HD143487

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.; Freyhammer, L. M.

    2010-05-01

    We report the discovery of short periodic radial velocity variations in the stars HD92499 and HD143487. Both stars show strong magnetic fields and large overabundances of rare earth elements and belong to the class of cool chemically peculiar stars of the main sequence. They are therefore new rapidly oscillating Ap stars. Pulsations were detected from analysis of high time resolution spectra obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope by using a cross-correlation method for large spectral bands and from combinations of lines belonging to rare earth elements. The amplitudes of the pulsations are small and do not exceed several dozens of ms-1 with periods of around 10min. The detection of such low amplitudes is important for the determination of which magnetic Ap stars pulsate, and which are constant, a distinction important for the understanding of the pulsation driving mechanism in these stars. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, as part of programmes 080.D-0191(A), 078.D-0192(A) and 078.D-0080(A). E-mail: velkin@uclan.ac.uk

  8. Analysis of N-16 concentration in primary cooling system of AP1000 power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul

    2015-04-16

    Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the primary reactor system. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant system during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (primary coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor system. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, primary pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.

  9. Analysis of N-16 concentration in primary cooling system of AP1000 power reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the primary reactor system. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant system during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on 16O(n,p)16N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (primary coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor system. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, primary pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.

  10. AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    O’Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, III, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim

    2010-09-07

    Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABL{sup T315I} mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and preclinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multitargeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABL{sup T315I}-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML.

  11. AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance

    PubMed Central

    O’Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABLT315I mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and pre-clinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multi-targeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABLT315I-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML. PMID:19878872

  12. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantier, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

  13. hPEPT1 is responsible for uptake and transport of Gly-Sar in the human bronchial airway epithelial cell-line Calu-3.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the apical uptake and transepithelial transport of Gly-Sar along with the expression of the di-/tripeptide transporters hPEPT1 and hPEPT2 in human Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells. The apical Gly-Sar uptake rate in Calu-3 cells followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km value of 1.3 +/- 0.3 mM and a Vmax value of 0.60 +/- 0.06 nmol cm(-2) min(-1). Transepithelial apical to basolateral transport of 50 microM [3H]-labelled Gly-Sar across the Calu-3 cell monolayer was pH-dependent. The Gly-Sar flux was significantly reduced in the presence of delta-aminolevulinic acid (2.5 mM), cephalexin (25 mM), and captopril (25 mM; p < 0.05, n = 3). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of both hPEPT1 and hPEPT2 mRNA in the Calu-3 cells. These findings were confirmed in healthy human bronchial cDNA. Restriction-endonuclease analysis identified hPEPT2 in Calu-3 cells to be the hPEPT2*1 haplotype. Western blotting demonstrated expression of the hPEPT1 protein (approximately 80 kDa), and the immunolabel was mainly localized in the apical membrane as judged by immunolocalization studies using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This work presents for the first time hPEPT1 and hPEPT2*1 expression in human Calu-3 cells. Surprisingly, the results indicate that Gly-Sar uptake and transport in Calu-3 cells are hPEPT1-mediated rather than hPEPT2-mediated. PMID:18094991

  14. The Relationship between AP[R] Exam Performance and College Outcomes. Research Report No. 2009-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Xiong, Xinhui

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the relationship between students' Advanced Placement Program[R] (AP[R]) performance in AP English Language, Biology, Calculus, and U.S. History, and their subsequent college success. For each AP Exam studied, students were divided into three groups according to their AP Exam performance (no AP Exam taken, score of 1 or 2,…

  15. Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Cherbas, Lucy; Gong, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We review the properties and uses of cell lines in Drosophila research, emphasizing the variety of lines, the large body of genomic and transcriptional data available for many of the lines, and the variety of ways the lines have been used to provide tools for and insights into the developmental, molecular, and cell biology of Drosophila and mammals. PMID:24434506

  16. NF-?B and AP-1 Connection: Mechanism of NF-?B-Dependent Regulation of AP-1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Shuichi; Niu, Jiangong; Schmidt, Christian; Sclabas, Guido M.; Peng, Bailu; Uwagawa, Tadashi; Li, Zhongkui; Evans, Douglas B.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Chiao, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factors regulate many important biological and pathological processes. Activation of NF-?B is regulated by the inducible phosphorylation of NF-?B inhibitor I?B by I?B kinase. In contrast, Fos, a key component of AP-1, is primarily transcriptionally regulated by serum responsive factors (SRFs) and ternary complex factors (TCFs). Despite these different regulatory mechanisms, there is an intriguing possibility that NF-?B and AP-1 may modulate each other, thus expanding the scope of these two rapidly inducible transcription factors. To determine whether NF-?B activity is involved in the regulation of fos expression in response to various stimuli, we analyzed activity of AP-1 and expression of fos, fosB, fra-1, fra-2, jun, junB, and junD, as well as AP-1 downstream target gene VEGF, using MDAPanc-28 and MDAPanc-28/I?B?M pancreatic tumor cells and wild-type, IKK1?/?, and IKK2?/? murine embryonic fibroblast cells. Our results show that elk-1, a member of TCFs, is one of the NF-?B downstream target genes. Inhibition of NF-?B activity greatly decreased expression of elk-1. Consequently, the reduced level of activated Elk-1 protein by extracellular signal-regulated kinase impeded constitutive, serum-, and superoxide-inducible c-fos expression. Thus, our study revealed a distinct and essential role of NF-?B in participating in the regulation of elk-1, c-fos, and VEGF expression. PMID:15314185

  17. Chromosome localization of human genes for clathrin adaptor polypeptides AP2 beta and AP50 and the clathrin-binding protein, VCP.

    PubMed

    Druck, T; Gu, Y; Prabhala, G; Cannizzaro, L A; Park, S H; Huebner, K; Keen, J H

    1995-11-01

    Clathrin-coated vesicles, involved in endocytosis and Golgi processing, have a surface lattice containing clathrin triskelia and stoichiometric amounts of additional components termed "assembly proteins," or APs. The AP form at the plasma membrane, AP2, is composed of two large subunits of 100-115 kDa, denoted AP2 alpha and AP2 beta, a medium chain of 50 kDa, designated AP50, and a small chain. We have determined human chromosomal locations of genes for a large AP2 beta (CLAPB1) and a medium (CLAPM1) AP subunit and of a novel clathrin-binding protein, VCP, that binds clathrin simultaneously with APs. Chromosomal in situ hybridization of a human genomic clone demonstrated that the CLAPM1 gene mapped to chromosome region 3q28. The gene for the CLAPB1 large subunit was mapped to 17q11.2-q12 by PCR amplification of an AP2 beta fragment from a panel of rodent-human hybrid DNAs. To map the human VCP sequence, a human-specific probe was made by RT-PCR of human mRNA using oligonucleotide primers from conserved regions of the porcine sequence. The amplified human fragment served as probe on Southern blots of hybrid DNAs to determine that the human VCP locus maps to chromosome region 9pter-q34. PMID:8595912

  18. 49 CFR 195.410 - Line markers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Line markers. 195.410 Section 195.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... (including area code) where the operator can be reached at all times. (b) Line markers are not required...

  19. The APS in 1977: Public Service in an Era of Limited Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pake, George E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the address of George E. Pake, 1977 president of the American Physical Society (APS), upon his retirement from that office. Discussed are APS activities, human rights, and federal funding of research. (SL)

  20. A Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cell Line with Stable Organic Anion Transporter 1 and 3 Expression Predictive for Antiviral-Induced Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nieskens, Tom T G; Peters, Janny G P; Schreurs, Marieke J; Smits, Niels; Woestenenk, Rob; Jansen, Katja; van der Made, Thom K; Röring, Melanie; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Wilmer, Martijn J; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2016-03-01

    Drug-induced nephrotoxicity still hampers drug development, because current translation from in vitro or animal studies to human lacks high predictivity. Often, renal adverse effects are recognized only during clinical stages of drug development. The current study aimed to establish a robust and a more complete human cell model suitable for screening of drug-related interactions and nephrotoxicity. In addition to endogenously expressed renal organic cation transporters and efflux transporters, conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC) were completed by transduction of cells with the organic anion transporter (OAT) 1 or OAT3. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting upon exposure to the OAT substrate fluorescein successfully enriched transduced cells. A panel of organic anions was screened for drug-interactions in ciPTEC-OAT1 and ciPTEC-OAT3. The cytotoxic response to the drug-interactions with antivirals was further examined by cell viability assays. Upon subcloning, concentration-dependent fluorescein uptake was found with a higher affinity for ciPTEC-OAT1 (Km?=?0.8?±?0.1 ?M) than ciPTEC-OAT3 (Km?=?3.7?±?0.5 ?M). Co-exposure to known OAT1 and/or OAT3 substrates (viz. para-aminohippurate, estrone sulfate, probenecid, furosemide, diclofenac, and cimetidine) in cultures spanning 29 passage numbers revealed relevant inhibitory potencies, confirming the robustness of our model for drug-drug interactions studies. Functional OAT1 was directly responsible for cytotoxicity of adefovir, cidofovir, and tenofovir, while a drug interaction with zidovudine was not associated with decreased cell viability. Our data demonstrate that human-derived ciPTEC-OAT1 and ciPTEC-OAT3 are promising platforms for highly predictive drug screening during early phases of drug development. PMID:26821801

  1. How to Find a Bug in Ten Thousand Lines Transport Solver? Outline of Experiences from AN Advection-Diffusion Code Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, K.; Bombardelli, F.

    2011-12-01

    Almost all natural phenomena on Earth are highly nonlinear. Even simplifications to the equations describing nature usually end up being nonlinear partial differential equations. Transport (ADR) equation is a pivotal equation in atmospheric sciences and water quality. This nonlinear equation needs to be solved numerically for practical purposes so academicians and engineers thoroughly rely on the assistance of numerical codes. Thus, numerical codes require verification before they are utilized for multiple applications in science and engineering. Model verification is a mathematical procedure whereby a numerical code is checked to assure the governing equation is properly solved as it is described in the design document. CFD verification is not a straightforward and well-defined course. Only a complete test suite can uncover all the limitations and bugs. Results are needed to be assessed to make a distinction between bug-induced-defect and innate limitation of a numerical scheme. As Roache (2009) said, numerical verification is a state-of-the-art procedure. Sometimes novel tricks work out. This study conveys the synopsis of the experiences we gained during a comprehensive verification process which was done for a transport solver. A test suite was designed including unit tests and algorithmic tests. Tests were layered in complexity in several dimensions from simple to complex. Acceptance criteria defined for the desirable capabilities of the transport code such as order of accuracy, mass conservation, handling stiff source term, spurious oscillation, and initial shape preservation. At the begining, mesh convergence study which is the main craft of the verification is performed. To that end, analytical solution of ADR equation gathered. Also a new solution was derived. In the more general cases, lack of analytical solution could be overcome through Richardson Extrapolation and Manufactured Solution. Then, two bugs which were concealed during the mesh convergence study uncovered with the method of false injection and visualization of the results. Symmetry had dual functionality: there was a bug, which was hidden due to the symmetric nature of a test (it was detected afterward utilizing artificial false injection), on the other hand self-symmetry was used to design a new test, and in a case the analytical solution of the ADR equation was unknown. Assisting subroutines designed to check and post-process conservation of mass and oscillatory behavior. Finally, capability of the solver also checked for stiff reaction source term. The above test suite not only was a decent tool of error detection but also it provided a thorough feedback on the ADR solvers limitations. Such information is the crux of any rigorous numerical modeling for a modeler who deals with surface/subsurface pollution transport.

  2. Iodine Volatility and pH Control in the AP-600 Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.

    1998-10-01

    Two design-basis accidents for the AP-600 reactor are formulated and evaluate~ in which significant bypass of the principal pH control system occurs. Some iodine released from the reactor primary system is retained in the Incontainment Refaeling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) water, never entering the containment where trisodium phosphate produces a high pH. Some of this iodine is volatilized and is transported into the reactor containment airspace. in the worst case, a small fraction is released to the environment at design-basis leak rate, yielding a total cumulative iodine release at 30 days of 0.0352 mol (0.023% of core iodine inventory) due to the iodine volatilization bypassing the pH control system. No fission product removal in the containment atmosphere (i.e., natural deposition sprays) is considered.

  3. Doppler mapping of four roAp stars with anomalous lithium abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N.; Shulyak, D.; Shavrina, A.; Lyashko, D.; Drake, N.; Glagolevsky, Y.; Kudryavtsev, D.; Smirnova, M.

    2014-11-01

    We present the first results from Doppler Imaging of two roAp stars, HD 12098 and HD 60435, that show strong and variable Li lines in their spectra. High-resolution spectra were obtained with the Russian 6-m BTA telescope, and with the HARPS and VLT/UVES instruments at ESO. We derived the surface abundance distribution of Li and Pr and analysed the correlation between the positions of the Li-abundance spots and magnetic field. We compare our results with Doppler Imaging mapping previously obtained for two CP2 stars, HD 83668 and HD 3980, and discuss the common properties of the locations of the ``Li spots'' on the surfaces of magnetic chemically peculiar A-type stars.

  4. Experience with a fluorescence-based beam position monitor at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Dufresne, E.M.; Guzman, J.A.; Clarke, R.; Dierker, S.B.; Arms, D.A.; Walko, D.A.

    2004-05-12

    We have recently redesigned the first crystal mount of our cryogenically cooled monochromator to reduce its sensitivity to pressure fluctuations in the cryogenic lines feeding the Si (111) crystal. With the use of a fluorescence-based X-ray beam position monitor (BPM) placed 19 m away from the monochromator, much operational experience has been gained on the sensitivity of the beam position and intensity to small changes in the cooling system. In this presentation, we will describe our X-ray BPM design and performance and will provide examples of changes that have made the beam position more stable on our beamline. One such change for example has been the top-up operation of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), which has reduced the thermal drifts associated with the ring current decay.

  5. Phase control and intra-pulse phase compensation of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Grelick, A.E.; Arnold, N.; Ko, K.; Sereno, N.; White, M.

    1995-07-01

    Rf power for the APS linear accelerator is provided by five klystrons, each of which feeds one linac ``sector,`` containing accelerating structures and SLED cavities. A VXI-based subsystem measures the phase of each sector of the linac with respect to a thermally stabilized reference line. The resulting information is used to control a linearized varactor phase shifter. Error correction is done by software, using operator-controllable parameters. A second phase shifter provides an intra-pulse correction to the phase of the klystron drive pulse. When the intra-pulse correction is applied, the resulting phase is flat to within 0.5{degrees} after 2.5 {mu}sec. A second correction, made after the PSK trigger to the SLED and during the filling of the accelerating structures, resulted in an energy gain of 5 MeV from a single sector.

  6. Transport by the (Na+,K+) ATPase: modulation by differentiation inducers and inhibition of protein synthesis in the MDCK kidney epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, B G; Lever, J E

    1985-06-01

    MDCK kidney epithelial cell cultures exposed to the differentiation inducer hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) for 24 hours exhibited a 50% decrease in transport activity per (Na+,K+)-ATPase molecule (turnover number) but an unchanged number of pump sites (Kennedy and Lever, 1984). Inhibition of protein synthesis by either 10 microM cycloheximide or 2 microM emetine blocked the inhibitory effects of HMBA on Na+/K+ pump efficiency assessed by measurements of [3H]-ouabain binding to intact cells, (Na+,K+) ATPase activity of detergent-activated cell extracts, and ouabain-sensitive Rb+ uptake. In the absence of inducer treatment, inhibition of protein synthesis increased Na+/K+ pump turnover number by twofold while maintaining Na+/K+ pump activity per cell at a constant level. Intracellular Na+ levels were decreased after cycloheximide treatment; therefore, pump stimulation was not due to substrate effects. Furthermore, cycloheximide effects of Rb+ uptake could be dissociated from effects on tight junctions. These observations suggest that the transport activity of the (Na+,K+) ATPase is tightly regulated by factors dependent on protein synthesis. PMID:2580848

  7. AP-3-dependent trafficking and disease: the first decade.

    PubMed

    Dell'Angelica, Esteban C

    2009-08-01

    The adaptor protein (AP)-3 complex defines a pathway for the intracellular trafficking of membrane-associated proteins in most eukaryotic cells. Ten years ago, genetic defects in AP-3 were linked to a human Mendelian disease, named Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, characterized by abnormal biogenesis and function of lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes and platelet dense granules. During recent years, research on this trafficking pathway has significantly expanded its horizons to include evolutionarily divergent eukaryotic models and to embrace functional genomics and proteomics approaches. These studies have brought into focus ideas about the specific roles of this pathway in protein trafficking and organelle biogenesis within the endosomal-lysosomal system. PMID:19497727

  8. Status of APS 1-Mwe Parabolic Trough Project

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Brosseau, D.; Kolb, G.; Moore, L.; Cable, R.; Price, H.

    2005-11-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is currently installing new power facilities to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources that will satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). During FY04, APS began construction on a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. Site preparation and construction activities continued throughout much of FY05, and startup activities are planned for Fall 2005 (with completion early in FY06). The plant will be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than the conventional steam Rankine cycle plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  9. Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) Dependent Parallel Arrivals (DPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Colin L.

    2012-01-01

    The Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) team at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing a concept of operations to extend the current APS concept to support dependent approaches to parallel or converging runways along with the required pilot and controller procedures and pilot interfaces. A staggered operations capability for the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) tool was developed and designated as ASTAR10. ASTAR10 has reached a sufficient level of maturity to be validated and tested through a fast-time simulation. The purpose of the experiment was to identify and resolve any remaining issues in the ASTAR10 algorithm, as well as put the concept of operations through a practical test.

  10. Comparison of the APS and UGIMAG Helmholtz coil systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carnegie, D.W.

    1994-05-09

    UGIMAG is manufacturing the NdFeB permanent magnet blocks to be used in undulator A now being assembled by STI Optronics. The authors would like to be able to compare measurements made at the plant with those made at ANL and potentially with those made at the STI facility. Since there are no permanent magnet standard samples, measurement systems are compared by trading sets of magnets set aside as standards. APS has ten NdFeB permanent magnet blocks supplied by Sumitomo that they use to make these comparisons. These magnet samples have been extensively measured on the APS system. The data include the three vector components of the total magnetic dipole moment of the blocks as well as the spherical coordinates of the vector.

  11. Introduction to Physics of the Universe in AP Physics Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Stephanie L.

    2006-12-01

    Often students have difficulty understanding the connections that must be made between old and new concepts. This curriculum is designed to lead AP Physics students through this process with gamma ray bursts. Students will participate in various discussions, demonstrations, exercises and activities that lead them through universe basics, life cycles of stars, black holes, the electromagnetic spectrum, and they will learn about various NASA observatories. Ultimately, this will result in a better understanding of how astrophysicists have come to understand the gamma ray burst. This series of lessons was created for the three to four weeks after the AP Physics exam. The curriculum was developed through gathering resources from various scientific organizations, developing new ideas and speaking with scientists at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The result is a manual of lesson plans, activities and answer keys for teachers to use in their own classrooms.

  12. Devic's syndrome and primary APS: a new immunological overlap.

    PubMed

    Squatrito, D; Colagrande, S; Emmi, L

    2010-10-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO or Devic's syndrome) is a rare autoimmune disease, previously considered a multiple sclerosis variant. The most important laboratory and clinical features are optic myelitis and transverse myelitis, associated with neuromyelitis optica-IgG antibody (NMO-IgG) positivity. Subsequent to this immunological test being available, different groups have described the not-so-rare comorbidity of neuromyelitis optica with other systemic autoimmune diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus with secondary anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) in particular. We describe a patient meeting both the classification criteria for primary APS and the new diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica. It's important to diagnose NMO syndrome as both optic neuritis and transverse myelitis were also considered neurological complications of antiphospholipid syndrome. NMO-IgG is a new and fundamental test to decide if immunosuppressant therapy is warranted for such patients. PMID:20504834

  13. Real-time orbit feedback at the APS.

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J.

    1998-06-18

    A real-time orbit feedback system has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source in order to meet the stringent orbit stability requirements. The system reduces global orbit motion below 30Hz by a factor of four to below 5{micro}m rms horizontally and 2{micro}m rms vertically. This paper focuses on dynamic orbit stability and describes the all-digital orbit feedback system that has been implemented at the APS. Implementation of the global orbit feedback system is described and its latest performance is presented. Ultimately, the system will provide local feedback at each x-ray source point using installed photon BPMs to measure x-ray beam position and angle directly. Technical challenges associated with local feedback and with dynamics of the associated corrector magnets are described. The unique diagnostic capabilities provided by the APS system are discussed with reference to their use in identifying sources of the underlying orbit motion.

  14. Diffusion and Settling in Ap/Bp Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, S

    2003-04-09

    Ap/Bp stars are magnetic chemically peculiar early A and late B type stars of the main sequence. They exhibit peculiar surface abundance anomalies that are thought to be the result of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. The physics of diffusion in these stars are reviewed briefly and some model predictions are discussed. While models reproduce some observations reasonably well, more work is needed before the behavior of diffusing elements in a complex magnetic field is fully understood.

  15. Linking radio and gamma-ray emission in Ap Librae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervet, O.; Boisson, C.; Sol, H.

    2015-06-01

    Ap Lib is one of the rare low-synchrotron-peaked blazars detected so far at TeV energies. This type of source is not properly modelled by standard one-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission scenarios. The aim of this paper is to study the relevance of additional components that should naturally occur in an SSC scenario for a better understanding of the emission mechanisms, especially at very high energies (VHE). We use simultaneous data from a multi-wavelength campaign of the Planck, Swift-UVOT, and Swift-XRT telescopes carried out in February 2010, as well as quasi-simultaneous data of WISE, Fermi, and HESS taken in 2010. The multi-lambda emission of Ap Lib is modelled by a blob-in-jet SSC scenario including the contribution of the base of the VLBI-extended jet, the radiative blob-jet interaction, the accretion disk, and its associated external photon field. We show that signatures of a strong parsec-scale jet and of an accretion disk emission are present in the spectral energy distribution. We can link the observational VLBI jet features from MOJAVE to parameters expected for a VHE-emitting blob accelerated near the jet base. The VHE emission appears to be dominated by the inverse-Compton effect of the blob relativistic electrons interacting with the jet synchrotron radiation. In this scenario, Ap Lib appears as an intermediate source between BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars. Ap Lib could be a bright representative of a specific class of blazars, in which the parsec-scale jet luminosity is no more negligible compared to the blob and contributes to the high-energy emission through inverse-Compton processes.

  16. College Completion: Comparing AP®, Dual-Enrolled, and Nonadvanced Students. Research Report 2014-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Kelly; Matos-Elefonte, Haifa; Ewing, Maureen; Patel, Priyank

    2014-01-01

    The study presented here is an investigation and comparison of the relationships between the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) and dual-enrolled high school courses and college outcomes. Previous research provides evidence that participation in AP, and subsequent success on AP Exams, is positively related to various college outcomes including an…

  17. APS: 125 Years of Progress of Physiology as a Scientific Discipline and a Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Robert G.; Frank, Martin; Ra'anan, Alice; Matyas, Marsha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, CA, included events to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the founding of the American Physiological Society (APS) and reflect on the recent accomplishments of the society. Most of the APS activities in the past quarter century were guided by a series of strategic plans. Membership in the APS…

  18. The magnetic fields of Ap stars from high resolution Stokes IQUV spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvester, James

    In this thesis we describe the acquisition of high resolution time resolved spectropolarimetric observations of 7 (bright and well understood) Ap stars in Stokes IQUV using the ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the 2m Telescope Bernard Lyot at Pic du Midi Observatory. We compare these observations with those obtained a decade earlier using the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter to confirm consistency with the older data and provide evidence that both ESPaDOnS and Narval perform as expected in all Stokes parameters. We demonstrate that our refined longitudinal magnetic field and linear polarisation measurements for these 7 stars are of much greater quality than was previously obtained with MuSiCoS and that the global magnetic properties of these stars are stable over a long timescale. The ultimate aim of these new data is to provide a basis from which mapping of both the magnetic field and abundance structures can be performed on our target stars. We then describe magnetic field mapping of the Ap star alpha 2 CVn using these data. This mapping is achieved with the use of tomographic inversion of Doppler-broadened Stokes IQUV profiles of a large variety of spectral lines using the INVERS10 Magnetic Doppler imaging code. We show that not only are the new magnetic field maps of alpha 2 CVn consistent with a previous generation of maps of alpha 2 CVn, but that the same magnetic field topology can be derived from a variety of atomic line sets. This indicates that the magnetic field we derive for alpha2 CVn is a realistic representation of the star's true magnetic topology. Finally we investigate surface abundance structures for alpha 2 CVn for various chemical elements. We investigate the correlation between the location of these abundance features and the magnetic field of alpha 2 CVn. We will demonstrate that whilst the magnetic field plays a role in the formation of abundance structures, the current theoretical framework does not fully explain what we find from our maps. Ultimately this work motivates future mapping of Ap stars by confirming the reliability of both the instrument and associated data and the mapping technique itself.

  19. Dynamic Regulation of AP-1 Transcriptional Complexes Directs Trophoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Lindsey N.; Rumi, M. A. Karim; Roby, Katherine F.

    2015-01-01

    Placentation is a process that establishes the maternal-fetal interface and is required for successful pregnancy. The epithelial component of the placenta consists of trophoblast cells, which possess the capacity for multilineage differentiation and are responsible for placenta-specific functions. FOS-like antigen 1 (FOSL1), a component of AP-1 transcription factor complexes, contributes to the regulation of placental development. FOSL1 expression is restricted to trophoblast giant cells and invasive trophoblast cells. In the present study, we characterized the FOSL1 regulatory pathway in rat trophoblast cells. Transcriptome profiling in control and FOSL1 knockdown cells identified FOSL1-dependent gene sets linked to endocrine and invasive functions. FOSL1 was shown to occupy AP-1 binding sites within these gene loci, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Complementary in vivo experiments using trophoblast-specific lentiviral delivery of FOSL1 short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) provided in vivo validation of FOSL1 targets. FOSL1 actions require a dimerization partner. Coimmunoprecipitation, coimmunolocalization, and ChIP analyses showed that FOSL1 interacts with JUNB and, to a lesser extent, JUN in differentiating trophoblast cells. Knockdown of FOSL1 and JUNB expression inhibited both endocrine and invasive properties of trophoblast cells. In summary, FOSL1 recruits JUNB to form AP-1 transcriptional complexes that specifically regulate the endocrine and invasive trophoblast phenotypes. PMID:26149388

  20. Shock Loading Studies of AP/AL/HTPB Based Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boteler, J. M.; Lindfors, A. J.

    1995-08-01

    The unreacted Hugoniots of three class 1.3 propellants have been investigated by shock compression experiments. Shock waves were generated by planar impact in a 75 mm single stage powder gun. Manganin and PVDF pressure gauges provided pressure-time histories to 200 kbar. The propellants were of similar formulation differing only in coarse AP particle size and the addition of a bum rate modifier (Fe2O3). All propellants contained 90% solids by weight and HTPB as binder. Results show negligible effect of AP particle size on shock response in contrast to the addition of Fe2O3 which appears to "stiffen" the host material. Within experimental error, the unreacted Hugoniots compare favorably to the solid AP Hugoniot. Five shock experiments were performed on propellant samples strained to induce in situ voids. The material state was quantified by uniaxial tension dilatometry. Experimental records suggest chemical reactivity behind the shock front. These results are discussed and compared to experimental studies reported previously.