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1

Design and initial tests of beam current monitoring systems for the APS transport lines  

SciTech Connect

The non-intercepting beam current monitoring systems suitable for a wide, range of beam parameters have been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines and high energy transport line. The positron or electron beam pulse in the transport lines wig have peak beam currents ranging from 8 mA to 29 A with pulse widths varying from 120 ps to 30 ns and pulse repetition rates from 2 Hz to 60 Hz. The peak beam current or total beam charge is measured with the fast or integrating current transformer, respectively, manufactured by Bergoz. In-house high speed beam signal processing electronics provide a DC level output proportional to the peak current or total charge for the digitizer input. The prototype systems were tested on the linacs which have beam pulse structures similar to that of the APS transport lines. This paper describes the design of beam signal processing electronics and grounding and shielding methods for current transformers. The results of the initial operations are presented. A short introduction on the preliminary design of current monitoring systems for the APS rings is also included.

Wang, Xucheng.

1992-01-01

2

Design and initial tests of beam current monitoring systems for the APS transport lines  

SciTech Connect

The non-intercepting beam current monitoring systems suitable for a wide, range of beam parameters have been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines and high energy transport line. The positron or electron beam pulse in the transport lines wig have peak beam currents ranging from 8 mA to 29 A with pulse widths varying from 120 ps to 30 ns and pulse repetition rates from 2 Hz to 60 Hz. The peak beam current or total beam charge is measured with the fast or integrating current transformer, respectively, manufactured by Bergoz. In-house high speed beam signal processing electronics provide a DC level output proportional to the peak current or total charge for the digitizer input. The prototype systems were tested on the linacs which have beam pulse structures similar to that of the APS transport lines. This paper describes the design of beam signal processing electronics and grounding and shielding methods for current transformers. The results of the initial operations are presented. A short introduction on the preliminary design of current monitoring systems for the APS rings is also included.

Wang, Xucheng

1992-12-01

3

Diagnostics for the APS undulator test line  

SciTech Connect

One of the research and development thrusts at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is to use an rf gun as a low-emittance electron source for injection into the 100- to 650-MeV linac subsystem and subsequent transport to an undulator test area. This configuration would combine the acceleration capability of the 200-MeV S-band electron linac and the in-line 450-MeV positron linac that normally provide positrons to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). A transport line that bypasses the PAR will bring the electrons to the undulator test area. Characterization techniques will be discussed for the electron beam with a normalized, rms emittance of <10 {pi} mm mrad (l{sigma}) at micropulse charges of up to 350 pC and micropulse durations of {approximately}5 ps (FWHM). Preservation of such beam properties will be critical. The diagnostics planned, with resolutions in parentheses, include the beam position monitors based on stripline pickups (100 {mu}m), current monitors based on a transformer (60 {mu}A), beam profile monitors (25 {mu}m FWHM), and bunch length monitor based on a streak camera (2 ps). Tests proposed include measurement of particle beam transport effects (at one-tenth the storage ring beam rigidity) caused by small undulator field errors.

Lumpkin, A.H.; Ciarlette, D.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Wang, X.

1993-11-01

4

High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam curr...

X. Wang M. Knott A. Lumpkin

1994-01-01

5

High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS)

X. Wang; M. Knott; A. Lumpkin

1994-01-01

6

High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS)

X. Wang; M. Knott; A. Lumpkin

1995-01-01

7

H-beta line variability in magnetic Ap stars. I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of photometric measurements of H-beta in several Ap stars are presented. Periodic variations are found certainly in Theta Aur and Alpha (2) CVn, and possibly in Phi Dra. For the other stars upper limits for variations of H-beta are determined. Observed amplitudes are transformed into variations of equivalent width assuming specific profile variations. The results show that variations of equivalent width of H-beta in the stars investigated are of the order of 10 percent or less.

Madej, J.; Jahn, K.; Stepien, K.

1984-01-01

8

High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real'' beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS.

Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

1995-05-01

9

High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line  

SciTech Connect

Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real`` beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS.

Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

1994-11-01

10

Accessing, Mining, and Archiving an On-line Database -- The APS Catalog of the POSS I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The APS Catalog of the POSS I is an on-line database of over 100 million stars and galaxies (http:\\/\\/aps.umn.edu). A unique subset of this database with over 218,000 galaxies within 30 degrees of the North Galactic Pole, the MAPS-NGP, is now available at our web site. This diameter--selected catalog (>= 10 arcsec) is the deepest galaxy catalog constructed over such

R. M. Humphreys; J. E. Cabanela; J. Kriessler

2000-01-01

11

Genome-wide Analysis of AP-3-dependent Protein Transport in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The evolutionarily conserved adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex mediates cargo-selective transport to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. To identify proteins that function in AP-3–mediated transport, we performed a genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for defects in the vacuolar maturation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a cargo of the AP-3 pathway. Forty-nine gene deletion strains were identified that accumulated precursor ALP, many with established defects in vacuolar protein transport. Maturation of a vacuolar membrane protein delivered via a separate, clathrin-dependent pathway, was affected in all strains except those with deletions of YCK3, encoding a vacuolar type I casein kinase; SVP26, encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export receptor for ALP; and AP-3 subunit genes. Subcellular fractionation and fluorescence microscopy revealed ALP transport defects in yck3? cells. Characterization of svp26? cells revealed a role for Svp26p in ER export of only a subset of type II membrane proteins. Finally, ALP maturation kinetics in vac8? and vac17? cells suggests that vacuole inheritance is important for rapid generation of proteolytically active vacuolar compartments in daughter cells. We propose that the cargo-selective nature of the AP-3 pathway in yeast is achieved by AP-3 and Yck3p functioning in concert with machinery shared by other vacuolar transport pathways.

Anand, Vikram C.; Daboussi, Lydia; Lorenz, Todd C.

2009-01-01

12

Accessing, Mining, and Archiving an On-line Database -- The APS Catalog of the POSS I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The APS Catalog of the POSS I is an on-line database of over 100 million stars and galaxies (http://aps.umn.edu). A unique subset of this database with over 218,000 galaxies within 30 degrees of the North Galactic Pole, the MAPS-NGP, is now available at our web site. This diameter--selected catalog (>= 10 arcsec) is the deepest galaxy catalog constructed over such a large area of the sky (3000 sq. degrees). The MAPS-NGP includes many additional parameters for the galaxy images not available in the APS Catalog. Working with members of our computer science department, we have developed a morphological classifier for galaxies that divides our galaxy type into three classes -- early, intermediate, and late. We have applied data mining techniques to identify the most useful image parameters for input into a neural network and decision--tree based classifier pipeline. We are also archiving the APS Catalog for distribution to astronomical data centers including NASA's ADC and SIMBAD at CDS. The extragalactic subset will be integrated into the NASA/IPAC extragalactic database(NED). The MAPS-NGP has already been provided to NED. The APS is supported by NASA's Applied Information Systems Research Program.

Humphreys, R. M.; Cabanela, J. E.; Kriessler, J.

2000-12-01

13

Functional characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae urea transport protein, ApUT.  

PubMed

Urea transporters (UTs) effect rapid flux of urea across biological membranes. In the mammalian kidney, UT activity is essential for effective urine concentration. In bacteria, UT-mediated urea uptake permits intracellular urease to degrade urea to ammonia and CO(2), a process that either buffers acid loads or provides nutrient nitrogen. We have characterized the urea transport channel protein ApUT from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Kinetic analysis of bacterial inside-out membranes enriched in ApUT showed approximately 28-fold increase in urea permeability (3.3 +/- 0.4 x 10(-4) cm/s) compared with control vesicles (0.11 +/- 0.02 x 10(-4) cm/s). In addition to urea, ApUT also conducts water. Urea and water transport across the channel was phloretin and mercury inhibitable, and the site of inhibition may be located on the cytoplasmic side of the protein. Glycerol and urea analogs, such as methylamine, dimethylurea, formamide, acetamide, methylurea, propanamide, and ethylamine did not permeate across ApUT. PMID:19144751

Godara, Geeta; Smith, Craig; Bosse, Janine; Zeidel, Mark; Mathai, John

2009-04-01

14

Aperture studies for the AP2 anti-proton Line at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The AP2 beamline transports anti-protons from the production target to the Debuncher ring. For many years the observed aperture has been smaller than that estimated from linear, on-energy optics. We have investigated possible reasons for the aperture restriction and have identified several possible sources, including residual vertical dispersion from alignment errors and chromatic effects due to very large chromatic lattice functions. We discuss the possible sources, suggest some remedies, and propose specific studies, where needed, to evaluate suspected problems.

Reichel, Ina; Zisman, Michael; Placidi, Massimo

2003-12-05

15

Development and evaluation of human AP endonuclease inhibitors in melanoma and glioma cell lines  

PubMed Central

Aims: Modulation of DNA base excision repair (BER) has the potential to enhance response to chemotherapy and improve outcomes in tumours such as melanoma and glioma. APE1, a critical protein in BER that processes potentially cytotoxic abasic sites (AP sites), is a promising new target in cancer. In the current study, we aimed to develop small molecule inhibitors of APE1 for cancer therapy. Methods: An industry-standard high throughput virtual screening strategy was adopted. The Sybyl8.0 (Tripos, St Louis, MO, USA) molecular modelling software suite was used to build inhibitor templates. Similarity searching strategies were then applied using ROCS 2.3 (Open Eye Scientific, Santa Fe, NM, USA) to extract pharmacophorically related subsets of compounds from a chemically diverse database of 2.6 million compounds. The compounds in these subsets were subjected to docking against the active site of the APE1 model, using the genetic algorithm-based programme GOLD2.7 (CCDC, Cambridge, UK). Predicted ligand poses were ranked on the basis of several scoring functions. The top virtual hits with promising pharmaceutical properties underwent detailed in vitro analyses using fluorescence-based APE1 cleavage assays and counter screened using endonuclease IV cleavage assays, fluorescence quenching assays and radiolabelled oligonucleotide assays. Biochemical APE1 inhibitors were then subjected to detailed cytotoxicity analyses. Results: Several specific APE1 inhibitors were isolated by this approach. The IC50 for APE1 inhibition ranged between 30 n and 50??. We demonstrated that APE1 inhibitors lead to accumulation of AP sites in genomic DNA and potentiated the cytotoxicity of alkylating agents in melanoma and glioma cell lines. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that APE1 is an emerging drug target and could have therapeutic application in patients with melanoma and glioma.

Mohammed, M Z; Vyjayanti, V N; Laughton, C A; Dekker, L V; Fischer, P M; Wilson, D M; Abbotts, R; Shah, S; Patel, P M; Hickson, I D; Madhusudan, S

2011-01-01

16

Trafficking of the Menkes copper transporter ATP7A is regulated by clathrin-, AP-2-, AP-1-, and Rab22-dependent steps  

PubMed Central

The transporter ATP7A mediates systemic copper absorption and provides cuproenzymes in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) with copper. To regulate metal homeostasis, ATP7A constitutively cycles between the TGN and plasma membrane (PM). ATP7A trafficking to the PM is elevated in response to increased copper load and is reversed when copper concentrations are lowered. Molecular mechanisms underlying this trafficking are poorly understood. We assess the role of clathrin, adaptor complexes, lipid rafts, and Rab22a in an attempt to decipher the regulatory proteins involved in ATP7A cycling. While RNA interference (RNAi)–mediated depletion of caveolin 1/2 or flotillin had no effect on ATP7A localization, clathrin heavy chain depletion or expression of AP180 dominant-negative mutant not only disrupted clathrin-regulated pathways, but also blocked PM-to-TGN internalization of ATP7A. Depletion of the ? subunits of either adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) or AP-1 using RNAi further provides evidence that both clathrin adaptors are important for trafficking of ATP7A from the PM to the TGN. Expression of the GTP-locked Rab22aQ64L mutant caused fragmentation of TGN membrane domains enriched for ATP7A. These appear to be a subdomain of the mammalian TGN, showing only partial overlap with the TGN marker golgin-97. Of importance, ATP7A remained in the Rab22aQ64L-generated structures after copper treatment and washout, suggesting that forward trafficking out of this compartment was blocked. This study provides evidence that multiple membrane-associated factors, including clathrin, AP-2, AP-1, and Rab22, are regulators of ATP7A trafficking.

Holloway, Zoe G.; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio; Howell, Gareth J.; Levecque, Clotilde; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Sztul, Elizabeth; Monaco, Anthony P.

2013-01-01

17

Trafficking of the Menkes copper transporter ATP7A is regulated by clathrin-, AP-2-, AP-1-, and Rab22-dependent steps.  

PubMed

The transporter ATP7A mediates systemic copper absorption and provides cuproenzymes in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) with copper. To regulate metal homeostasis, ATP7A constitutively cycles between the TGN and plasma membrane (PM). ATP7A trafficking to the PM is elevated in response to increased copper load and is reversed when copper concentrations are lowered. Molecular mechanisms underlying this trafficking are poorly understood. We assess the role of clathrin, adaptor complexes, lipid rafts, and Rab22a in an attempt to decipher the regulatory proteins involved in ATP7A cycling. While RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of caveolin 1/2 or flotillin had no effect on ATP7A localization, clathrin heavy chain depletion or expression of AP180 dominant-negative mutant not only disrupted clathrin-regulated pathways, but also blocked PM-to-TGN internalization of ATP7A. Depletion of the ? subunits of either adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) or AP-1 using RNAi further provides evidence that both clathrin adaptors are important for trafficking of ATP7A from the PM to the TGN. Expression of the GTP-locked Rab22aQ64L mutant caused fragmentation of TGN membrane domains enriched for ATP7A. These appear to be a subdomain of the mammalian TGN, showing only partial overlap with the TGN marker golgin-97. Of importance, ATP7A remained in the Rab22aQ64L-generated structures after copper treatment and washout, suggesting that forward trafficking out of this compartment was blocked. This study provides evidence that multiple membrane-associated factors, including clathrin, AP-2, AP-1, and Rab22, are regulators of ATP7A trafficking. PMID:23596324

Holloway, Zoe G; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio; Howell, Gareth J; Levecque, Clotilde; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Sztul, Elizabeth; Monaco, Anthony P

2013-06-01

18

Septin 7 forms a complex with CD2AP and nephrin and regulates glucose transporter trafficking  

PubMed Central

Podocytes are insulin-sensitive and take up glucose in response to insulin. This requires nephrin, which interacts with vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) on GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) and facilitates their fusion with the plasma membrane. In this paper, we show that the filament-forming GTPase septin 7 is expressed in podocytes and associates with CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) and nephrin, both essential for glomerular ultrafiltration. In addition, septin 7 coimmunoprecipitates with VAMP2. Subcellular fractionation of cultured podocytes revealed that septin 7 is found in both cytoplasmic and membrane fractions, and immunofluorescence microscopy showed that septin 7 is expressed in a filamentous pattern and is also found on vesicles and the plasma membrane. The filamentous localization of septin 7 depends on CD2AP and intact actin organization. A 2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake assay indicates that depletion of septin 7 by small interfering RNA or alteration of septin assembly by forchlorfenuron facilitates glucose uptake into cells and further, knockdown of septin 7 increased the interaction of VAMP2 with nephrin and syntaxin 4. The data indicate that septin 7 hinders GSV trafficking and further, the interaction of septin 7 with nephrin in glomeruli suggests that septin 7 may participate in the regulation of glucose transport in podocytes.

Wasik, Anita A.; Polianskyte-Prause, Zydrune; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Shaw, Andrey S.; Yates, John R.; Farquhar, Marilyn G.; Lehtonen, Sanna

2012-01-01

19

2-D axisymmetric line transport  

SciTech Connect

The methods used in the ALTAIR code for computing the transfer of spectral line radiation in two-dimensional axially-symmetric geometry are described. ALTAIR uses a variable-Eddington-tensor approach, in which the transfer equation of non-coherent line scattering is written in moment form, and the moments are closed with an assumed tensor relating the monochromatic pressure tensor and energy density; this Eddington tensor is obtained self-consistently using an accurate angle-dependent solution of the transfer equation. The finite element method for solving the moment system, and the discontinuous finite element method for solving the S{sub n} equation of transfer are described. Two applications of the method are discussed: line formation in uniform cylinders with different length-diameter ratios, and monochromatic transfer on an irregular x-y mesh (the Mordant test problem). 13 refs., 2 figs.

Castor, J.I.; Dykema, P.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Klein, R.I. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Astronomy)

1990-11-20

20

The NSNS high energy beam transport line  

SciTech Connect

In the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) design, a 180 meter long transport line connects the 1 GeV linac to an accumulator ring. The linac beam has a current of 28 mA, pulse length of 1 ms, and 60 hz rep rate. The high energy transport line consists of sixteen 60{degree} FODO cells, and accommodates a 90{degree} achromatic bend, an energy compressor, collimators, part of the injection system, and enough diagnostic devices to measure the beam quality before injection. To reduce the uncontrolled beam losses, this line has nine beam halo scrapers and very tight tolerances on both transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics under space charge conditions. The design of this line is presented.

Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Weng, W.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). AGS Dept.

1997-07-01

21

Westinghouse AP1000 internals heating rate distribution calculation using a 3D deterministic transport method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost reduction and reliability increase are systematically pursued systems and components; this requires, amongst other, the availability of sophisticated computer programs and detailed analysis models.As an example, the core shroud, the structure having the function to maintain the core centered on its axis, is being designed in the Westinghouse AP1000, differently from previous plants, as a highly heterogeneous structure. Its

Enrico Botta; Roberto Orsi

2006-01-01

22

Beam Dynamics Studies in the RACE Project: MH1 transport line --low power regime operation-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical nuclear system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible divergence problem) the MH1 transport line was designed. Beam dynamics studies followed the beam optics ones and we present in this paper the first results of such studies. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.C1.8

Maidana, Carlos; Hunt, Alan; Beller, Denis

2007-05-01

23

Golgi-Dependent Transport of Vacuolar Sorting Receptors Is Regulated by COPII, AP1, and AP4 Protein Complexes in Tobacco[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The cycling of vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs) between early and late secretory pathway compartments is regulated by signals in the cytosolic tail, but the exact pathway is controversial. Here, we show that receptor targeting in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) initially involves a canonical coat protein complex II–dependent endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi bulk flow route and that VSR–ligand interactions in the cis-Golgi play an important role in vacuolar sorting. We also show that a conserved Glu is required but not sufficient for rate-limiting YXX?-mediated receptor trafficking. Protein–protein interaction studies show that the VSR tail interacts with the ?-subunits of plant or mammalian clathrin adaptor complex AP1 and plant AP4 but not that of plant and mammalian AP2. Mutants causing a detour of full-length receptors via the cell surface invariantly cause the secretion of VSR ligands. Therefore, we propose that cycling via the plasma membrane is unlikely to play a role in biosynthetic vacuolar sorting under normal physiological conditions and that the conserved Ile-Met motif is mainly used to recover mistargeted receptors. This occurs via a fundamentally different pathway from the prevacuolar compartment that does not mediate recycling. The role of clathrin and clathrin-independent pathways in vacuolar targeting is discussed.

Gershlick, David C.; de Marcos Lousa, Carine; Foresti, Ombretta; Lee, Andrew J.; Pereira, Estela A.; daSilva, Luis L.P.; Bottanelli, Francesca; Denecke, Jurgen

2014-01-01

24

HOPS interacts with Apl5 at the vacuole membrane and is required for consumption of AP-3 transport vesicles.  

PubMed

Adaptor protein complexes (APs) are evolutionarily conserved heterotetramers that couple cargo selection to the formation of highly curved membranes during vesicle budding. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AP-3 mediates vesicle traffic from the late Golgi to the vacuolar lysosome. The HOPS subunit Vps41 is one of the few proteins reported to have a specific role in AP-3 traffic, yet its function remains undefined. We now show that although the AP-3 delta subunit, Apl5, binds Vps41 directly, this interaction occurs preferentially within the context of the HOPS docking complex. Fluorescence microscopy indicates that Vps41 and other HOPS subunits do not detectably colocalize with AP-3 at the late Golgi or on post-Golgi (Sec7-negative) vesicles. Vps41 and HOPS do, however, transiently colocalize with AP-3 vesicles when these vesicles dock at the vacuole membrane. In cells with mutations in HOPS subunits or the vacuole SNARE Vam3, AP-3 shifts from the cytosol to a membrane fraction. Fluorescence microscopy suggests that this fraction consists of post-Golgi AP-3 vesicles that have failed to dock or fuse at the vacuole membrane. We propose that AP-3 remains associated with budded vesicles, interacts with Vps41 and HOPS upon vesicle docking at the vacuole, and finally dissociates during docking or fusion. PMID:19741093

Angers, Cortney G; Merz, Alexey J

2009-11-01

25

Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios  

SciTech Connect

This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B. [and others

1997-06-01

26

Transport of Waste Simulants in PJM Vent Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or creep up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additiona...

Z. H. Qureshi

2007-01-01

27

Vacuum system control for the Heavy Ion Transport Line  

SciTech Connect

The Brookhaven AGS, 807 m in circumference, and the Tandem Van de Graaff are now joined together by a transport line, 600 m in length. This now allows heavy ions from the Tandem, up to fully stripped sulfur (M = 32) to be transported into the AGS and accelerated to 15 GeV/A. With the addition of a booster between the Tandem and the AGS in the near future, heavy ions such as gold (M = 200) can be accelerated to 30 Z/A GeV/A. This paper describes the HITL (Heavy Ion Transport Line) vacuum control system design and implementation.

Stattel, P.; Feigenbaum, I.; Hseuh, H.C.; Robinson, T.; Skelton, R.; Wong, V.

1987-01-01

28

TRANSPORT OF WASTE SIMULANTS IN PJM VENT LINES  

SciTech Connect

The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.

Qureshi, Z

2007-02-21

29

P4ATPase Requirement for AP1\\/Clathrin Function in Protein Transport from the trans-Golgi Network and Early Endosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Drs2p is a resident type 4 P-type ATPase (P4-ATPase) and potential phospholipid translocase of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) where it has beenimplicated in clathrin function. However, precise protein transport pathways requiring Drs2p and how it contributes to clathrin- coated vesicle budding remain unclear. Here weshow,a functional co-dependence between Drs2p and the AP-1 clathrin adaptor in protein sorting at the

Ke Liu; Kavitha Surendhran; Steven F. Nothwehr; Todd R. Graham

2008-01-01

30

Breeding of Selectable Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Lines Containing AP1 Gene with Enhanced Disease Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain marker-free transgenic rice with improved disease resistance, the AP1 gene of Capsicum annuum and hygromycin-resistance gene (HPT) were cloned into the two separate T-DNA regions of the binary vector pSB130, respectively, and introduced into the calli derived from the immature seeds of two elite japonica rice varieties, Guangling Xiangjing and Wuxiangjing 9, mediated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

Heng-xiu YU; Qiao-quan LIU; Ling WANG; Zhi-peng ZHAO; Li XU; Ben-li HUANG; Zhi-yun GONG; Shu-zhu TANG; Ming-hong GU

2006-01-01

31

The detection of the very low amplitude 16.2-min pulsation in individual lines of first ionization stage of rare earth elements in the roAp star ?CrB†  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With high precision spectroscopic data obtained with Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) we detect radial velocity pulsation with a period of 16.2min and with amplitudes of about 30ms-1 in individual lines of the first ionization stage of rare earth elements, and in H?, with typical precision in the range 2-8ms-1 for a single line, and better than 1ms-1 for some ensembles of lines. The second ionization stages of rare earth elements show weak or no detectable pulsation, while lines of FeI or FeII show no signal at high precision. An abundance analysis shows the rare earth elements to be overabundant by about 1dex, rather than the 2-3dex often seen in other rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars, and it shows the presence of the ionization disequilibrium for Nd and Pr that is typical of most roAp stars. The pulsational radial velocity curve reaches maximum for the lines of the rare earth elements before it does for H? which is opposite to the case for most other roAp stars with implications for the stratification level of the rare earth elements. Similarities between ?CrB and the longest period roAp star, HD116114, suggest that many more low-amplitude roAp stars await detection, with implications for understanding the pulsation driving mechanism and mode selection mechanism in these stars.

Kurtz, D. W.; Elkin, V. G.; Mathys, G.

2007-09-01

32

Evidence of active transport involvement in morphine transport via MDCKII and MDCK-PGP cell lines  

PubMed Central

Several transporters appear to be important in transporting various drugs. Many patients, who receive morphine as analgesic medication, also receive other medications with potency of changing morphine transport by affecting P-glycoprotein (P-GP) and oatp2 transport system. This could influence morphine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The aim of present study was to elucidate the transport mechanisms involved in transporting morphine via MDCKII and MDCK-PGP cells. Morphine permeability was examined in the presence of various compounds with ability in inhibiting different transport systems including: digoxin, probenecid and d- glucose. The effect of morphine concentration changes on its transport was also examined. Morphine concentration was measured using HPLC with electrochemical detector. Morphine permeability via a MDCK II cells was greater than sucrose permeability, and reduced when a P-GP expressed cell line was used. Its permeability was increased significantly in the presence of a strong P-GP inhibitor. Morphine permeability decreased significantly in the presence of digoxin but not in the presence of d-glucose or probenecid. These results showed that morphine was a P-GP substrate, and digoxin related transporters such as oatp2 were involved in its transport. Morphine was not substrate for glucose or probenecid-sensitive transporters.

Mashayekhi, S.O.; Sattari, M.R.; Routledge, P.A.

2010-01-01

33

Erratum: ``The Pure Rotational Line Emission of Ortho-Water Vapor in Comets. I. Radiative Transfer Model'' (ApJ, 615, 531 [2004])  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comet model presented in the paper is based on the radiation transfer code ratran (M. R. Hogerheijde & F. F. S. van der Tak, ApJ, 615, 531 [2004]), an accelerated Monte Carlo code to calculate the line excitation and the emerging line intensities. For a given density profile, ratran determines the level population and, in a second step, calculates the spectral line emission for a given telescope beam, source distance, and velocity resolution. The numerical simulations for water-line emission in cometary coma show that the line excitation varies considerably on radii smaller than the projected telescope beam at the source distance for the models and telescope parameter considered in the paper. Thus, in our calculation, the water excitation in the second step was incorrectly sampled and the emission predictions were inexact, particularly for weak, optically thin lines.4 This problem also resulted from a limitation of the ratran version with respect to the spatial sampling of the intensity distribution for a convolution with a telescope beam. The relevant part of the ratran code was corrected by the authors with the May 2003 release of their software (F. F. S. van der Tak 2006, private communication). To correct this issue, we redid the numerical models presented in the original paper using the May 2003 release of the ratran software and made tests to ensure that the spatial intensity distribution used to calculate the emission detected by a given telescope beam is sampled with a sufficient spatial resolution. The corrected version of the radiation transfer model does not affect the first step, where the level population is calculated; however, the beam-averaged line intensities calculated from the level populations are generally lower than quoted in the original paper. The impact is moderate for the ground-state transitions and for the models with a water production rate of Q29=1 (M1, M6, M7), but can be substantial for the emission in weak comets and the H218O transitions, as detailed below. For a given (measured) line intensity, the corrected model gives a water production rate that is larger than quoted in the original paper. Corrected versions of Figures 5 to 9 and Tables 4, 5, and 6 are given here, and the implications for the relevant sections in the paper are discussed (§ 4, Model for the SWAS Observations of C/1999 T1 McNaught-Hartley § 5, Line Predictions for Future Observatories; § 7, Summary). Along with the model results, we correct a typo in Table 4 (Q29=QH2O/1029 s-1 for models M3 and M5 is 0.01). For the SWAS observations of comet C/1999 T1 (McNaught-Hartley) made on 2001 February 2, the corrected model gives a water production rate of QH2O=(5.72+/-0.85)×1028 s-1 for xne=1.0 and QH2O=(7.36+/-1.15)×1028 s-1 for xne=0.2, where xne is the scaling factor for the electron abundance (see § 2.4 of the original paper). For the average of the data observed between 2001 March 1 and 8, the corrected water production rate is QH2O=(1.69+/-0.45)×1028 s-1 (xne=1.0) and QH2O=(1.99+/-0.55)×1028 s-1 (xne=0.2), respectively. This is larger by 10%-57% than the results quoted in the original paper, but is still within 20%-40% of the water-production rates published in F. Bensch et al. ApJ, 615, 531 [2004], where the model by D. Bockelée-Morvan (ApJ, 615, 531 [2004]) is used. The difference of 20%-40% is of the order of the model accuracy due to the uncertainties in the electron abundance (compare the results for xne=1.0 and xne=0.2). However, this residual discrepancy possibly reflects the different numerical codes used to calculate the line excitation and radiation transfer, an accelerated Monte Carlo in ratran vs. an escape probability formalism in the model by D. Bockelée-Morvan (ApJ, 615, 531 [2004]). The low ratio of the expansion velocity over the local line-width, of a factor of 3, is close to the limit where an escape probability formalism can be applied. Systematic differences are therefore expected for the water-rotational transitions of the most abundant isotopologue, H216O, where optical depths can

Bensch, F.; Bergin, E. A.

2007-04-01

34

Bending magnets for the CBA beam-transport line  

SciTech Connect

The beam-transport line from the AGS to CBA requires 68 large bending magnets, consisting of pure dipoles and two types of combined function gradient magnets. All three types were designed with magnetic-field calculation program POISSON, using the same exterior dimensions and coil package. The design goal of +-1% momentum acceptance for the transport line required a wide horizontal aperture, with a much-smaller vertical aperture for economy. Two prototypes of one gradient magnet were built, and a facility constructed to measure them and the later production magnets. Measurements were done using both a long coil and a point coil (Rawson-Lush gaussmeter). Preliminary results show ..delta..B/B < 0.2 x 10/sup -3/, ..delta..G/G < 0.3 x 10/sup -2/, and ..delta..B/sub 2//B < 0.3 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup -2/ over the beam aperture. Due to end effects, the actual gradient differs from the design gradient by 1%, which has been compensated for in the beam-line design.

Thern, R.E.

1983-01-01

35

Design of transport lines for uniforming beam distribution with octupoles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity distribution of a typical particle beam is an approximate Gaussian distribution while many applications require the beam to be uniform. Local bright spots on the targets for high-power Gaussian beams create difficult cooling problems and shorten the lifetime of the target. In this paper, we have theoretically studied uniformization of the transverse beam profile using two octupole magnets placed at particular locations in the beam transport line. The details about the requirements on magnet strength and phase advance will be shown. As an example, we take a set of China Spallation Neutron Source parameters to simulate the beam. The simulation result agrees well with theoretical formulas.

Guo, Y. Y.; Xu, G.

2013-02-01

36

Dehydroascorbic acid taken up by glucose transporters stimulates estradiol production through inhibition of JNK/c-Jun/AP1 signaling in JAR cells.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that the reduced form of vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid, AA) is able to induce the production of both steroid and peptide hormones in human choriocarcinoma cells. Here, we attempted to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of the oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), in steroidogenesis in primary human cytotrophoblasts and human choriocarcinoma cells. Messenger RNA and protein levels of steroidogenic enzymes including P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3?-HSD1), 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17?-HSD1) and aromatase were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blots, respectively. Progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) levels were determined by enzyme immunoassays. Knockdown of c-Jun was achieved by lentivirus-mediated shRNA, and signaling pathways implicated in DHA-induced steroidogenesis were examined by western blots and dual-luciferase assays. DHA dose-dependently induced the expression of steroidogenic enzymes including 3?-HSD1, 17?-HSD1 and aromatase at both mRNA and protein levels, and subsequently increased the production of E2 but not P4. These effects were synergized by diethylmaleate, a glutathione-depleting compound, and ?-tocopherol, a reducing agent, but robustly attenuated by inhibition of DHA transportation by phloretin or 2-deoxy-d-glucose. DHA time-dependently inhibited JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation, and dose-dependently reduced AP1 reporter activity. JNK signaling pathway-specific inhibitor SP600125 and c-Jun shRNA both significantly increased the expression of steroidogenic enzymes and E2 production regardless of the presence or absence of DHA. These findings suggest that DHA is able to induce steroidogenesis through inhibition of JNK/c-Jun/AP1 signaling, and may therefore play indispensable roles in pregnancy maintenance. PMID:24830780

Wang, Yongjie; Tang, Chao; Wu, Minglan; Pan, Yibin; Ruan, Hongfeng; Chen, Linling; Yao, Hongyi; Zhu, Haibin; Wu, Ximei

2014-08-01

37

APS Science 2007.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

Not Available

2008-05-30

38

PIPELINES, TRANSMISSION LINES, AND MISCELLANEOUS TRANSPORTATION FEATURES DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of pipelines, transmission lines, and miscellaneous transportation features for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was p...

39

Game transport protocol: lightweight reliable transport protocol for massive interactive on-line game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of high-speed access network technologies such as ADSL, increasing numbers of Internet users are participating in various interactive multimedia applications. Among these, the most popular are the massively interactive on-line games, or MMPOGs. In MMPOGs, a large amount of event data is associated with various control objects. This event data has different characteristics from that which is generally used on the Internet. Namely, events occur very frequently with short inter-arrival times and their size is quite small, because they only contain control information. Most commercial MMPOGs use TCP or UDP as the transport protocol for the event data. However, since TCP is such a heavy protocol, due to its complex congestion control algorithm and byte-oriented window scheme, it is difficult to support many concurrent users. On the other hand, UDP is a relatively lightweight protocol, but there are no functions available which permit reliable transmission and session management. In this paper, we propose a new transport protocol, Game Transport Protocol (GTP), which is designed for the transmission of the event data used by MMPOGs. GTP supports several functions designed to meet the various requirements of MMPOGs. Firstly, GTP uses a packet-based window scheme not a byte-based window scheme as in the case of TCP. This scheme is quite simple and suitable for the small size of the event data. Also, GTP performs session management and retransmission using GTP control blocks, and supports an adaptive retransmission scheme that controls the maximum number of retransmissions according to the real-time priority, in order to meet the time constraints of the event data. Although GTP is a specialized transport protocol, optimized for MMPOGs, it could also be utilized as a transport protocol for other interactive multimedia applications.

Pack, Sangheon; Hong, Eunsil; Choi, Yanghee; Park, llkyu; Kim, Jong-Sung; Ko, D.

2002-10-01

40

Characterization of ScAP-23, a new cell line from murine subcutaneous adipose tissue, identifies genes for the molecular definition of preadipocytes.  

PubMed

The 3T3-L1 model of in vitro adipogenesis has provided key insights into the molecular nature of this process. However, given that 3T3-L1 are of an embryonic origin, it is not clear to what extent they represent adipogenesis as it occurs in white adipose tissue (WAT). With the goal of better defining preadipocytes and adipogenesis in WAT, we have generated a new cell culture model from adipocyte precursors present in C57BL/6 mouse subcutaneous WAT. ScAP-23 preadipocytes show fibroblastic morphology, and on treatment with dexamethasone, 3-methylisobutylxanthine, insulin, and indomethacin, convert to nearly 100% adipocyte morphology. ScAP-23 adipocytes contain abundant lipid droplets and express transcripts for PPAR gamma, C/EBP family, and SREBP-1c transcription factors, SCD1, aFABP, ATGL, GLUT4, FAS, LDL, and GPDH, and are insulin responsive. Differential screening of 1,176 genes using nylon DNA arrays identified 10 transcripts enriched in ScAP-23 adipocytes vs. preadipocytes and 26 transcripts enriched in ScAP-23 preadipocytes vs. adipocytes. Semiquantitative or real-time PCR analyses identified a common cohort of 14 transcripts markedly downregulated in both ScAP-23 and 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. These included catenin-beta1, chemokine ligand-2, serine or cysteine peptidase inhibitor f1, aurora kinase B, thrombospondin2, and solute carrier-7a5. Five of these transcripts (Ccl2, Serpinf1, Aurkb, Thbs2, and Slc7a5) demonstrated at least a twofold increase in WAT from obese (ob/ob) mice compared with that of wild-type mice. This suggests that comparative gene expression studies of ScAP-23 and 3T3-L1 adipogenesis may be particularly fruitful in identifying preadipocyte-expressed genes that play a role in adipose tissue physiology and/or pathophysiology. PMID:17609412

Kim, Ji Young; Wu, Yu; Smas, Cynthia M

2007-10-22

41

Trans-Golgi network morphology and sorting is regulated by prolyl-oligopeptidase-like protein PREPL and the AP-1 complex subunit ?1A.  

PubMed

The AP-1 complex recycles between membranes and the cytoplasm and dissociates from membranes during clathrin-coated-vesicle uncoating, but also independently of vesicular transport. The ?1A N-terminal 70 amino acids are involved in regulating AP-1 recycling. In a yeast two-hybrid library screen we identified the cytoplasmic prolyl-oligopeptidase-like protein PREPL as an interaction partner of this domain. PREPL overexpression leads to reduced AP-1 membrane binding, whereas reduced PREPL expression increases membrane binding and impairs AP-1 recycling. Altered AP-1 membrane binding in PREPL-deficient cells mirrors the membrane binding of the mutant AP-1* complex, which is not able to bind PREPL. Colocalisation of PREPL with residual membrane-bound AP-1 can be demonstrated. Patient cell lines deficient in PREPL have an expanded trans-Golgi network, which could be rescued by PREPL expression. These data demonstrate PREPL as an AP-1 effector that takes part in the regulation of AP-1 membrane binding. PREPL is highly expressed in brain and at lower levels in muscle and kidney. Its deficiency causes hypotonia and growth hormone hyposecretion, supporting essential PREPL functions in AP-1-dependent secretory pathways. PMID:23321636

Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; Baltes, Jennifer; Creemers, John W M; Schu, Peter

2013-03-01

42

Two Novel Glycosides from the Fruits of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) Inhibit AP1 Transactivation and Cell Transformation in the Mouse Epidermal JB6 Cell Line1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni), a plant originally grown in the Hawaiian and Tahitian islands, has long been used by islanders to treat diseases, including cancer. Two novel glycosides, 6-O-(b-D-glucopy- ranosyl)-1-O-octanoyl-b-D-glucopyranose and asperulosidic acid, ex- tracted from the juice of noni fruits, were used to examine their effects on 12-O-tedtradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced AP-1 transactivation

Guangming Liu; Ann Bode; Wei-Ya Ma; Shengmin Sang; Chi-Tang Ho; Zigang Dong

2001-01-01

43

Two novel glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni) inhibit AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation in the mouse epidermal JB6 cell line.  

PubMed

The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni), a plant originally grown in the Hawaiian and Tahitian islands, has long been used by islanders to treat diseases, including cancer. Two novel glycosides, 6-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-O-octanoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose and asperulosidic acid, extracted from the juice of noni fruits, were used to examine their effects on 12-O-tedtradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation in mouse epidermal JB6 cells. The results indicated that both compounds were effective in suppressing TPA- or EGF-induced cell transformation and associated AP-1 activity. TPA- or EGF-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases or p38 kinases, was also blocked by the compounds, indicating that c-Jun N-terminal kinases were critical in mediating TPA- or EGF-induced AP-1 activity and subsequent cell transformation in JB6 cells. PMID:11479211

Liu, G; Bode, A; Ma, W Y; Sang, S; Ho, C T; Dong, Z

2001-08-01

44

The t(10;11)(p13;q14) in the U937 cell line results in the fusion of the AF10 gene and CALM, encoding a new member of the AP-3 clathrin assembly protein family.  

PubMed

The translocation t(10;11)(p13;q14) is a recurring chromosomal abnormality that has been observed in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia as well as acute myeloid leukemia. We have recently reported that the monocytic cell line U937 has a t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation. Using a combination of positional cloning and candidate gene approach, we cloned the breakpoint and were able to show that AF10 is fused to a novel gene that we named CALM (Clathrin Assembly Lymphoid Myeloid leukemia gene) located at 11q14. AF10, a putative transcription factor, had recently been cloned as one of the fusion partners of MLL. CALM has a very high homology in its N-terminal third to the murine ap-3 gene which is one of the clathrin assembly proteins. The N-terminal region of ap-3 has been shown to bind to clathrin and to have a high-affinity binding site for phosphoinositols. The identification of the CALM/AF10 fusion gene in the widely used U937 cell line will contribute to our understanding of the malignant phenotype of this line. PMID:8643484

Dreyling, M H; Martinez-Climent, J A; Zheng, M; Mao, J; Rowley, J D; Bohlander, S K

1996-05-14

45

A Fine Line Between Molecular Umbrella Transport and Ionophoric Activity  

PubMed Central

A persulfated molecular umbrella derived from one spermine, four lysine and eight deoxycholic acid molecules was found to exhibit ionophoric activity, as shown by pH discharge, and Na+ and Cl? transport experiments. In sharp contrast, a moderately more hydrophilic analog derived from cholic acid showed no such ionophoric activity. Both molecular umbrellas crossed liposomal membranes by passive transport with experimental rates that were similar. These findings show how the interactions between such amphomorphic molecules and phospholipid bilayers are a sensitive function of the umbrella’s hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB). They also raise the possibility of exploiting molecular umbrellas in fundamentally new ways.

Chen, Wen-Hua; Janout, Vaclav; Kondo, Masaharu; Mosoian, Arevik; Mosoyan, Goar; Perov, Ravil R.; Klotman, Mary E.

2009-01-01

46

A fine line between molecular umbrella transport and ionophoric activity.  

PubMed

A persulfated molecular umbrella derived from one spermine, four lysine, and eight deoxycholic acid molecules was found to exhibit ionophoric activity, as shown by pH discharge and Na(+) and Cl(-) transport experiments. In sharp contrast, a moderately more hydrophilic analogue derived from cholic acid showed no such ionophoric activity. Both molecular umbrellas crossed liposomal membranes by passive transport with experimental rates that were similar. These findings show how the interactions between such amphomorphic molecules and phospholipid bilayers are a sensitive function of the umbrella's hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB). They also raise the possibility of exploiting molecular umbrellas in fundamentally new ways. PMID:19689127

Chen, Wen-Hua; Janout, Vaclav; Kondo, Masaharu; Mosoian, Arevik; Mosoyan, Goar; Petrov, Ravil R; Klotman, Mary E; Regen, Steven L

2009-09-01

47

An automated system for measuring the mass flowrate of powders in transport lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new automated particle transport (APT) system has been developed for studying the dissemination of bulk powders into deagglomerated aerosols. It consists of a 1.12-inch ID transport line with a spout-fluidized bed feeder. The particles are transported from an aerated annulus into the transport line and collected in a closed can or bag filter. Two separate feed lines supply the air necessary to operate the transport line and aerate the particles in order that they flow smoothly into the transport line. An IBM PC AT computer clone equipped with a data translation DT 2806 multifunction input-output board and A to D and D to A modules (DTX 311 and 328) is used for both control and data acquisition. A fluid mechanical model of the flow has been developed and the APT system will be used to verify it. Experiments will be conducted to measure the choking velocity, drag coefficient, fluid and particle flowrates, and pressure distribution in the line.

Littman, Howard; Morgan, Morris B., III; Prapas, Demetrios K.; Rubel, Glen O.

1990-08-01

48

Bacterial swimming and oxygen transport near contact lines  

PubMed Central

Aerobic bacteria often live in thin fluid layers near solid–air–water contact lines, in which the biology of chemotaxis, metabolism, and cell–cell signaling is intimately connected to the physics of buoyancy, diffusion, and mixing. Using the geometry of a sessile drop, we demonstrate in suspensions of Bacillus subtilis the self-organized generation of a persistent hydrodynamic vortex that traps cells near the contact line. Arising from upward oxygentaxis and downward gravitational forcing, these dynamics are related to the Boycott effect in sedimentation and are explained quantitatively by a mathematical model consisting of oxygen diffusion and consumption, chemotaxis, and viscous fluid dynamics. The vortex is shown to advectively enhance uptake of oxygen into the suspension, and the wedge geometry leads to a singularity in the chemotactic dynamics near the contact line.

Tuval, Idan; Cisneros, Luis; Dombrowski, Christopher; Wolgemuth, Charles W.; Kessler, John O.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

2005-01-01

49

Numerical Modelling of Intense Electron Beam Transport in the Spiral Line Induction Accelerator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer simulation is used to study issues of intense electron beam transport arising in the context of the spiral line induction accelerator (SLIA), a device in which the beam is transported along an open-ended beam pipe, making multiple passes through ...

J. Krall S. Slinker M. Lampe G. Joyce

1992-01-01

50

Modulation of succinate transport in Hep G2 cell line by PKC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular uptake of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediates is very important for cellular metabolism. However, the transport pathways for these intermediates in liver cells are not well characterized. We have examined the transport of succinate and citrate in the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2 and found that it exhibited a higher rate of succinate compared to citrate

Piyarat Srisawang; Atip Chatsudthipong; Varanuj Chatsudthipong

2007-01-01

51

Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes.  

PubMed

Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to melanosomes are not clear. Here we exploit targeted mutagenesis of the acidic dileucine-based sorting signal in the pigment cell-specific protein OCA2 to dissect the relative roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in transport to melanosomes. We show that binding to AP-1 or AP-3 depends on the primary sequence of the signal and not its position within the cytoplasmic domain. Mutants that preferentially bound either AP-1 or AP-3 each trafficked toward melanosomes and functionally complemented OCA2 deficiency, but AP-3 binding was necessary for steady-state melanosome localization. Unlike tyrosinase, which also engages AP-3 for optimal melanosomal delivery, both AP-1- and AP-3-favoring OCA2 variants required BLOC-1 for melanosomal transport. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in OCA2 transport to melanosomes and indicate that BLOC-1 can cooperate with either adaptor during cargo sorting to LROs. PMID:22718909

Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Bennett, Dorothy C; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S; Marks, Michael S

2012-08-01

52

PSAT and AP Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through evaluation of 73 eleventh-grade students over three years, explores the extent to which standardized test scores and other academic factors predict success on the Advanced Placement (AP) exam in U.S. history. Finds that standardized scores, grade point average, and anticipated college majors are closely related to AP success. (CMK)

Palin, Raymond J.

2001-01-01

53

Opening AP to All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a school's effort to open Advanced Placement (AP) to all by challenging its students to take the leap into AP courses. Samuel W. Wolfson High School, on the south side of Jacksonville, Florida, is one of 27 schools in five cities across the country that chose to participate in a College Board initiative called EXCELerator.…

Gewertz, Catherine

2008-01-01

54

Transport studies for the spiral line induction accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the motion of electron beams of energies from 850 to 900 keY and currents from 300 to 1400 A as they pass through a 180-degree toroidal focussing channel configured with stellarator strong focussing fields as proposed by Roberson et aL for the stellatron variant of the betatron. Good agreement is shown between the measurements and calculations using the beam centroid equations of motion. The data give confidence that the low-dispersion stellarator bends under design in the Spiral Line Induction Accelerator development program will perform well.

Tiefenback, Michael G.; Bailey, Vernon L., Jr.; Edighoffer, John A.; Lidestri, Joseph P.; Putnam, Sidney D.

1990-04-01

55

Luteolin suppresses IL-1beta-induced cytokines and MMPs production via p38 MAPK, JNK, NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation in human synovial sarcoma cell line, SW982.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in tissue degradation in rheumatoid synovium and inflammatory cytokines are essential in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of luteolin in regulating interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-induced production of MMPs (MMP-1 and -3) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-6) in human synovial cell line, SW982. Treatment with luteolin at 1 or 10 microM significantly (P<0.05) inhibited IL-1beta-induced MMPs (MMP-1 and -3) and cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) production when measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) represent an attractive target for RA because they can regulate MMP and cytokine expression. The effects of luteolin on the activation of MAPKs and transcription factors were also examined in SW982 cells by ELISA. IL-1beta-induced JNK and p38 activation were inhibited by luteolin. Moreover, IL-1beta-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation were inhibited by luteolin. These results suggest that luteolin reduces the production of MMPs and cytokines in SW982 cells by inhibiting MAPKs (JNK and p38) and transcription factors (AP-1 and NF-kappaB). PMID:20600535

Choi, Eun Mi; Lee, Young Soon

2010-10-01

56

AP Chemistry: Course Revisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Fall 2013, The Advanced Placement Program will be replacing the existing AP Chemistry course with a new chemistry curriculum designed to foster greater conceptual understanding and more time engaged in scientific practices. This website offers an array of resources to support teachers and school administrators in adopting the new AP Chemistry. The framework shifts away from a traditional "content coverage" model to one that focuses on six key ideas in chemistry. Especially noteworthy is the greater emphasis on visualization of the particle nature of matter. Each learning objective explicitly combines content and one or more "thinking skills", intended to promote greater time engaged in scientific inquiry with less focus on mathematical routines. Resources available on this web page include the Curriculum Framework, FAQ's on the new AP Chemistry, Planning and Pacing Guides, teachers' forum, examples, and reference material on inquiry instruction. The changes to each course were guided by National Research Council and National Science Foundation recommendations, following several years of collaborations among university educators and master AP teachers. Editor's Note: The AP Physics course has also undergone major revision, replacing AP Physics B with two year-long courses, slated for adoption in Fall 2014. See "Related Materials" for a link to the College Board's website on AP Physics revisions.

57

APS Science 2006.  

SciTech Connect

In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged from work at the APS, to complement the tremendous output of work in basic science, which often has payoff in technology but over decades rather than years. Highlights in this report also reflect the relevance of APS work to Department of Energy missions, for example a route to more efficient fuel cells (page xx mr-88-073113) addresses the energy challenge, and natural approaches to cleaning up the environment.

Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

2007-05-24

58

Fano effects in electron transport through an armchair graphene nanoribbon with one line defect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron transport in an armchair graphene nanoribbon is theoretically investigated by considering the presence of one line defect. It is found that different-property Fano effects occur in electron transport through such a structure, which are determined by the nanoribbon width and the coupling manner between the line defect and the nanoribbon. The spectra of the density of electron states show that the line defect induces some localized quantum states around the Dirac point, and that the different localizations of these states lead to the abundant transport results. By analyzing the influence of the structure parameters, the Fano effects are described in detail. With the obtained results, we consider such a structure to be a promising candidate for nanoswitch.

Han, Yu; Sui, Xiao-Yan; Gong, Wei-Jiang

2013-06-01

59

Experience with NEG strips at the Brookhaven heavy ion transport line  

SciTech Connect

The AGS and the Tandem Van de Graaff, two valuable physics assets, are now joined together by a transport line 700 m in length. To minimize the beam loss due to charge exchange between the partially stripped heaviest ions and residual gas molecules, a vacuum of 10/sup -8/ Torr is required for this transport line. To achieve this vacuum, we have opted to use a combination of small ion pumps and distributed nonevaporable getter strips as pumps. Pressures on the 10/sup -10/ and low 10/sup -9/ Torr ranges have been maintained over the last two years following initial activation of the NEG strips. This paper describes the NEG strip system, and the experience obtained during the installation and operation of this 700 m heavy ion transport line. (AIP)

Hseuh, H.C.; Benjamin, J.; Stattel, P.; Feigenbaum, I.; Manni, M.

1988-09-30

60

AP Central: AP Biology Course Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For students and educators seeking to learn more about the world of biology, this website is the perfect resource. Created by the College Board, this site contains information designed to help individuals prepare for the AP Biology examination. The resources here include a guide to conducting investigative labs in the classroom, an overview of quantitative skills, and several other preparatory items. In the Classroom Resources area, visitors can look over curriculum modules and field trip suggestions among other tools. The "Related Articles" section features pieces such as "Mendel's Legacy," "Gastrulation: Shaping the Embryo," and "DNA and Computers-A Marriage Made in Heaven." The site is rounded out by a series of course overviews crafted specially for AP Biology instructors.

2013-04-05

61

Sherwood/APS 2006 Conference  

SciTech Connect

The International Sherwood Theory Meeting is a yearly meeting that focuses on the theory of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. There are many topics of common interest in fusion plasma systems and space and astrophysical plasmas. These common topics include such key topics as magnetic reconnection, the dynamo, turbulence and transport and particle heating and acceleration. One of the major participants of the April APS meeting is the APS Division of Astrophysics (DAP). The goal of having the Sherwood Meeting jointly with the April meeting was to promote discussion of topics of common interest in fusion and space and astrophysics. Scientists from the DAP, the Division of Plasma Physics (DPP), the Topical Group on Plasma Astrophysics (GPAP) and Sherwood worked together closely to produce a joint program that addressed areas of common interest. Four sessions of invited talks were sponsored jointly by the DAP, DPP and GPAP on laboratory experiments related to astrophysics. Plasma scientists working in theory and computation play a key role in connecting these laboratory experiments to the very disparate conditions found in fusion and astrophysical systems. Thus, the attendees of the Sherwood Theory meeting were critical to facilitating this effort at cross-disciplinary communication. Noteworthy were the selection of two of the prestigious plenary talks at the joint meeting on plasma topics - one related to the gyrokinetic modeling of turbulence and the other related to the structure of collisionless shocks. It is rare to see even a single plenary talk on plasma physics at the APS April Meeting. There were additional costs associated with hosting a joint meeting. The Office of Fusion Energy Sciences contributed $3000 in partial support of this meeting. This funding covered part of the costs of the poster boards and A. V. equipment that was used in the presentation of nearly 200 scientific papers related to magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The APS waived its indirect costs on this funding as part of their effort to support this joint meeting.

James F. Drake

2009-07-28

62

On-line laser spectroscopy with a cooled He-jet transport system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make nuclear size and shape determinations for short-lived nuclei, we are using a transport system with pure, cooled helium to carry radioactive atoms produced by heavy-ion reactions from the target chamber into a laser-spectroscopy chamber. The device is attached to a beam line of the Argonne Superconducting Heavy-Ion Linac. Upon leaving the transport system, the atoms form

D. Lewis; R. Evans; C. Davids; M. Finn; G. Greenlees; S. Kaufman

1982-01-01

63

Properties of excitatory amino acid transport in the human U373 astrocytoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we describe the presence of Na+-dependent high-affinity l-glutamate transport activity in the human U373 astrocytoma cell line. U373 cells exhibited a robust accumulation of l-glutamate which was predominantly (85%) extracellular Na+-dependent. Kinetic analysis of this transport activity revealed that the uptake followed first-order Michaelis–Menten kinetics and was high-affinity in nature. The kinetic parameters estimated by Eadie–Hofstee transformation

John Dunlop; Zhuangwei Lou; H. Beal McIlvain

1999-01-01

64

On-line coupling of volcanic ash and aerosols transport with multiscale meteorological models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large explosive volcanic eruptions can inject significant amounts of tephra and aerosols (e.g. SO2) into the atmosphere inducing a multi-scale array of physical, chemical and biological feedbacks within the environment. Effective coupled Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models capable to forecast on-line the spatial and temporal distribution of volcanic ash and aerosols are necessary to assess the magnitude of these feedback effects. However, due to several limitations (users from different communities, operational constrains, computational power, etc.), tephra transport models and NWP models have evolved independently. Within the framework of NEMOH(an Initial Training Network of the European Commission FP7 Program), we aim to quantify the feedback effects of volcanic ash clouds and aerosols emitted during large-magnitude eruptions on regional meteorology. As a first step, we have focused on the differences between the off-line hypothesis, currently assumed by tephra transport models (e.g. FALL3D), and the on-line approach, where transport and sedimentation of volcanic ash is coupled on-line to the NMMB (Non-hydrostatic Multiscale Meteorological model on a B grid) meteorological model; the evolution of the WRF-NMME meteorological model. We compared the spatiotemporal transport of volcanic ash particles simulated with the on-line coupled FALL3D-NMMB/BSC-CTM model with those from the off-line FALL3D model, by using the 2011 Cordón-Caulle eruption as a test-case and validating results against satellite data. Additionally, this presentation introduces the forthcoming steps to implement a sulfate aerosol module within the chemical transport module of the FALL3D-NMMB/BSC-CTM model, in order to quantify the feedback effects on the atmospheric radiative budget, particularly during large-magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions. Keywords: volcanic ash, SO2, FALL3D, NMMB, meteorology, on-line coupling, NEMOH.

Marti, Alejandro; Folch, Arnau; Jorba, Oriol

2014-05-01

65

Design of the beam transport line and injection system of the compact storage ring for TTX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we present the design of the beam transport line and injection system of the compact storage ring for the Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray (TTX) source. The layout of the beam transport line fits in with the limited available space. The injection system is simplified, consisting of only one single kicker; the stray field on the reference orbit is also reduced without the septum magnet. We choose a travelling wave kicker and present both 2D and 3D simulations for the structure design.

Xu, HaiSheng; Huang, WenHui

2011-12-01

66

Ultrahigh vacuum system of the heavy ion transport line at Brookhaven  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ions with an energy up to 8 MeV/A for S W and 1 MeV/A for Au TU from the 16 MV Tandem will be injected into the AGS for further acceleration to less than or equal to 15 GeV/A. A 600-meter beam transport line between the Tandem and the AGS has been designed and is under construction. This paper describes the design of the vacuum system of this transport line and the performance of the prototype vacuum sectors.

Hseuh, H.C.; Feigenbaum, I.; Manni, M.; Skelton, R.; Stattel, P.

1985-10-01

67

Ultrahigh vacuum system of the heavy ion transport line at Brookhaven  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ions with an energy up to 8 MeV/A for S/sup +16/ and 1 MeV/A for Au/sup +34/ from the 16 MV Tandem will be injected into the AGS for further acceleration to less than or equal to 15 GeV/A. A 600-meter beam transport line between the Tandem and the AGS has been designed and is under construction. This paper describes the design of the vacuum system of this transport line and the performance of the prototype vacuum sectors.

Hseuh, H.C.; Feigenbaum, I.; Manni, M.; Stattel, P.; Skelton, R.

1985-01-01

68

APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2008 APS Intersociety Meeting: The Integrative Biology of Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. The APS regularly awards Travel Fellowships for underrepresented minority scientists and students to attend APS scientific meetings with funds provided by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). These fellowships provide funds for registration, transportation, meals, and lodging. Seven fellows attended the APS Intersociety Meeting, ÃÂThe Biology of Exercise VÃÂ in Hilton Head, SC from September 24-27, 2008.

2009-02-01

69

Finasteride dose-dependently reduces the proliferation rate of the L nC ap human prostatic cancer cell line in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To assess the effects of finasteride, a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, and of classic antiandrogens on the growth rate of the LnCap human prostate carcinoma cell line, derived from a primary and well-differentiated neoplasm.Methods. Cell proliferation experiments in vitro with and without the antiandrogens cyproterone acetate, hydroxyflutamide, and finasteride in the 0.0001 to 10.0 ?M range.Results. The growth rate of the

Mauro Bologna; Paola Muzi; Leda Biordi; Claudio Festuccia; Carlo Vicentini

1995-01-01

70

Proliferation-dependent changes in amino acid transport and glucose metabolism in glioma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid imaging is increasingly being used for assessment of brain tumor malignancy, extent of disease, and prognosis. This study explores the relationship between proliferative activity, amino acid transport, and glucose metabolism in three glioma cell lines (U87, Hs683, C6) at different phases of growth in culture. Growth phase was characterized by direct cell counting, proliferation index determined by flow

Toshio Sasajima; Tadashi Miyagawa; Takamitsu Oku; Juri G. Gelovani; Ronald Finn; Ronald Blasberg

2004-01-01

71

Differential sensitivities to lactate transport inhibitors of breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The tumour microenvironment is known to be acidic due to high glycolytic rates of tumour cells. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) play a role in extracellular acidification, which is widely known to be involved in tumour progression. Recently, we have described the upregulation of MCT1 in breast carcinomas and its association with poor prognostic variables. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of lactate transport inhibition in human breast cancer cell lines. The effects of ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, quercetin and lonidamine on cell viability, metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were assessed in a panel of different breast cancer cell lines. MCT1, MCT4 and CD147 were differently expressed among the breast cancer cell lines and, as expected, different sensitivities were observed for the three inhibitors. Interestingly, in the most sensitive cell lines, lactate transport inhibition induced a decrease in cell proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as an increase in cell death. Results were validated by silencing MCT1 expression using siRNA. The results obtained here support targeting of lactate transport as a strategy to treat breast cancer, with a special emphasis on the basal-like subtype, which so far does not have a specific molecular therapy. PMID:24174370

Morais-Santos, Filipa; Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Pinheiro, Sílvia; Vieira, André F; Paredes, Joana; Schmitt, Fernando C; Baltazar, Fátima; Pinheiro, Céline

2014-02-01

72

Valley and subband-selective electronic transport through a line defect embedded carbon nanotube.  

PubMed

We theoretically demonstrate the possibility of realizing the valley and subband-selective electronic transport properties if line defects are embedded in an armchair carbon nanotube. The physical mechanism for such an interesting transport property is clearly due to the appearance of the special subband spanning two valleys without dispersion, caused by the presence of the line defect. In contrast to a perfect zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon, which was previously suggested to be a nanodevice prototype to manipulate the valley and subband degrees of freedom, our structure, the line defect embedded carbon nanotube, is less demanding for the current nanotechnique. Therefore, our theoretical investigation provides an alternative and feasible structure to design carbon-based nanoelectronic devices. PMID:23111801

Yao, Hai-Bo; Lü, Xiao-Ling; Niu, Jia-Sen; Zheng, Yi-Song

2012-11-28

73

Valley and subband-selective electronic transport through a line defect embedded carbon nanotube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically demonstrate the possibility of realizing the valley and subband-selective electronic transport properties if line defects are embedded in an armchair carbon nanotube. The physical mechanism for such an interesting transport property is clearly due to the appearance of the special subband spanning two valleys without dispersion, caused by the presence of the line defect. In contrast to a perfect zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon, which was previously suggested to be a nanodevice prototype to manipulate the valley and subband degrees of freedom, our structure, the line defect embedded carbon nanotube, is less demanding for the current nanotechnique. Therefore, our theoretical investigation provides an alternative and feasible structure to design carbon-based nanoelectronic devices.

Hai-Bo, Yao; Xiao-Ling, Lü; Jia-Sen, Niu; Yi-Song, Zheng

2012-11-01

74

Calculation of ion transport beam lines with stepwise change in beam parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diaphragms or slits (to limit the size of the ion beam) and degraders (to reduce the kinetic energy of ions) are often used in beam lines for ion transport. When an ion beam travels through these elements, parameters such as rms sizes, angle, and momentum spread change abruptly. This fact should be taken into account in calculating the subsequent sections of the beam line. Formulas are derived for determining new parameters of the ion beam immediately after its passage through those elements. The results of calculations are given regarding the transport of different kinds of heavy ions in the beam lines of the U400M cyclotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions intended for testing electronic microchips.

Kazarinov, N. Yu.; Kazacha, V. I.

2013-09-01

75

Establishment of optimized MDCK cell lines for reliable efflux transport studies.  

PubMed

Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with human MDR1 gene (MDCK-MDR1) encoding for P-glycoprotein (hPgp, ABCB1) are widely used for transport studies to identify drug candidates as substrates of this efflux protein. Therefore, it is necessary to rely on constant and comparable expression levels of Pgp to avoid false negative or positive results. We generated a cell line with homogenously high and stable expression of hPgp through sorting single clones from a MDCK-MDR1 cell pool using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To obtain control cell lines for evaluation of cross-interactions with endogenous canine Pgp (cPgp) wild-type cells were sorted with a low expression pattern of cPgp in comparison with the MDCK-MDR1. Expression of other transporters was also characterized in both cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Pgp function was investigated applying the Calcein-AM assay as well as bidirectional transport assays using (3) H-Digoxin, (3) H-Vinblastine, and (3) H-Quinidine as substrates. Generated MDCK-MDR1 cell lines showed high expression of hPgp. Control MDCK-WT cells were optimized in showing a comparable expression level of cPgp in comparison with MDCK-MDR1 cell lines. Generated cell lines showed higher and more selective Pgp transport compared with parental cells. Therefore, they provide a significant improvement in the performance of efflux studies yielding more reliable results. PMID:24532159

Gartzke, Dominik; Fricker, Gert

2014-04-01

76

The type Ic hypernova SN 2002ap  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the properties of the Type Ic supernova (SN) 2002ap through models of its spectral evolution and light curve (LC). Its spectra are similar to those of the “hypernova” SN 1997ef, showing unusually broad O i, Ca ii, Si ii and Fe ii P Cygni lines. However, its kinetiv energy [? (4 – 10) × 1051 ergs], and the

J. Deng; P. A. Mazzali; K. Maeda; K. Nomoto; H. Umeda; K. Hatano; K. Iwamoto; Y. Yoshii; Y. Kobayashi; T. Minezaki; M. Doi; K. Enya; H. Tomita; S. J. Smartt; K. Kinugasa; H. Kawakita; K. Ayani; T. Kawabata; H. Yamaoka; Y. L. Qiu; K. Motohara; C. L. Gerardy; R. Fesen; K. S. Kawabata; M. Iye; N. Kashikawa; G. Kosugi; Y. Ohyama; M. Takada-Hidai; G. Zhao; R. Chornock; A. V. Filippenko; S. Benetti; M. Turatto

2003-01-01

77

Experience with the NEG (nonevaporable getter) strips at the Brookhaven heavy ion transport line  

SciTech Connect

The AGS and the Tandem Van de Graaff, two valuable physics assets, are now jointed together by a transport line of 700 m in length. This line allows heavy ions from the Tandem, up to a fully striped silicon (M = 28) to be injected into the AGS and accelerated to energies of approximately 15 GeVamu. New areas of physics research at very high nuclear densities can now be studied using some of the extensive experimental facilities already existing at the AGS. With the addition of a booster synchrotron between the Tandem and the AGS, all heavier ions up to gold can also be accelerated. To minimize the beam loss due to charge exchange between the partially stripped heaviest ions (i.e. Au + 33 at 1 MeVamu) and the residual gas molecules, a vacuum of 10 /sup /minus/8/ Torr is required for this transport line. To achieve this vacuum, we have opted to use the combination of small ion pumps (20 1s diode type) and simple geometry was implemented which offers low cost (<$200m), easy installation and maintenance. Pressures of 10 /sup /minus/10/ and low 10 /sup /minus/9/ Torr have been maintained over the last two years following the initial activation. This paper describes the NEG strip system, and the experience obtained during the installation and the operation of this 700m heavy ion transport line (HITL).

Hseuh, H.C.; Benjamin, J.; Stattel, P.; Feigenbaum, I.; Manni, M.

1988-01-01

78

Advancing beyond AP Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)…

Hammond, Bruce G.

2009-01-01

79

APS power supply controls  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications.

Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

1994-03-31

80

Experimental modeling on the recyclable magnetically insulated transporting lines aimed at the IFE reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Kurchatov Institute, the series of IFE experiments is carried out on the S-300 high-current generator (3 MA, 100 ns, 0.15 Ohm). In this talk, the experimental results on the S-300 machine are presented, related to the study of operation of co-axial magnetically self-insulated transporting line, by the linear current flow density on the inner electrode surface up to

Yu. Kalinin; S. Anan'ev; Yu. Bakshaev; A. Bartov; P. Blinov; V. Bryzgunov; A. Chernenko; S. Danko; E. Kazakov; A. Kingsep; V. Korolev; V. Mizhiritsky; V. Smirnov; S. Tkachenko; M. Mazarakis; C. Olson

2007-01-01

81

Endogenous gene and protein expression of drug-transporting proteins in cell lines routinely used in drug discovery programs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the gene and protein expression profiles of important drug-transporting proteins in human cell lines commonly used for studies of drug transport mechanisms. Human cell lines used to transiently or stably express single transporters [HeLa, human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293] and leukemia cell lines used to study drug resistance by ATP-binding cassette transporters (HL-60, K562) were investigated and compared with organotypic cell lines (HepG2, Saos-2, Caco-2, and Caco-2 TC7). For gene expression studies, real-time polymerase chain reaction was used, whereas monospecific polyclonal antibodies were generated and used to investigate protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Thirty-six transporters were studied for gene expression, and nine were studied for protein expression. The antibodies were validated using expression patterns in human tissues. Finally, the function of one ubiquitously expressed transporter, MCT1/SLC16A1, was investigated using [(14)C]lactic acid as a substrate. In general, the adherent cell lines (HeLa, HEK293) displayed low transporter expression, and the expression patterns were barely affected by transfection. The leukemia cell lines (K562, HL-60) and Saos-2 also had low endogenous transporter expression, whereas the organotypic cell lines (HepG2 and Caco-2) showed higher expression of some transporters. Comparison of gene and protein expression profiles gave poor correlations, but better agreement was obtained for antibodies with a good validation score, indicating that antibody quality was a significant variable. It is noteworthy that the monocarboxylic acid-transporting protein MCT1 was significantly expressed in all and was functional in most of the cell lines, indicating that MCT1 may be a confounding factor when the transport of small anionic drugs is investigated. PMID:19741037

Ahlin, Gustav; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Karlsson, Johan; Szigyarto, Cristina Al-Khalili; Uhlén, Mathias; Artursson, Per

2009-12-01

82

Predominant role of plasma membrane monoamine transporters in monoamine transport in 1321N1, a human astrocytoma-derived cell line.  

PubMed

Monoamine neurotransmitters should be immediately removed from the synaptic cleft to avoid excessive neuronal activity. Recent studies have shown that astrocytes and neurons are involved in monoamine removal. However, the mechanism of monoamine transport by astrocytes is not entirely clear. We aimed to elucidate the transporters responsible for monoamine transport in 1321N1, a human astrocytoma-derived cell line. First, we confirmed that 1321N1 cells transported dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and histamine in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Kinetics analysis suggested the involvement of low-affinity monoamine transporters, such as organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 and 3 and plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT). Monoamine transport in 1321N1 cells was not Na(+) /Cl(-) dependent but was inhibited by decynium-22, an inhibitor of low-affinity monoamine transporters, which supported the importance of low-affinity transporters. RT-PCR assays revealed that 1321N1 cells expressed OCT3 and PMAT but no other neurotransmitter transporters. Another human astrocytoma-derived cell line, U251MG, and primary human astrocytes also exhibited the same gene expression pattern. Gene-knockdown assays revealed that 1321N1 and primary human astrocytes could transport monoamines predominantly through PMAT and partly through OCT3. These results might indicate that PMAT and OCT3 in human astrocytes are involved in monoamine clearance. PMID:24471494

Naganuma, Fumito; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Nakamura, Tadaho; Iida, Tomomitsu; Harada, Ryuichi; Mohsen, Attayeb S; Miura, Yamato; Yanai, Kazuhiko

2014-05-01

83

Physics AP B I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education (MITE), seeks to provide âÂÂhigh-quality, multimedia content on general education subjects to high school and college students.â This course, Advanced Placement Physics B I, is part one of a two semester course and contains study materials, lessons, and textbooks to help students prepare for the College Board AP Physics exam. Two course units, containing nine chapters in total, cover topics in Newtonian mechanics, fluid mechanics and thermal physics. Many of the chapters feature multimedia resources that employ a variety of interactive activities to help students absorb information. This is an excellent self-paced tool for students to use while preparing for the AP Physics exam, or as supplementary material for a physics course.

2008-07-08

84

Organelle transport in cultured Drosophila cells: S2 cell line and primary neurons.  

PubMed

Drosophila S2 cells plated on a coverslip in the presence of any actin-depolymerizing drug form long unbranched processes filled with uniformly polarized microtubules. Organelles move along these processes by microtubule motors. Easy maintenance, high sensitivity to RNAi-mediated protein knock-down and efficient procedure for creating stable cell lines make Drosophila S2 cells an ideal model system to study cargo transport by live imaging. The results obtained with S2 cells can be further applied to a more physiologically relevant system: axonal transport in primary neurons cultured from dissociated Drosophila embryos. Cultured neurons grow long neurites filled with bundled microtubules, very similar to S2 processes. Like in S2 cells, organelles in cultured neurons can be visualized by either organelle-specific fluorescent dyes or by using fluorescent organelle markers encoded by DNA injected into early embryos or expressed in transgenic flies. Therefore, organelle transport can be easily recorded in neurons cultured on glass coverslips using living imaging. Here we describe procedures for culturing and visualizing cargo transport in Drosophila S2 cells and primary neurons. We believe that these protocols make both systems accessible for labs studying cargo transport. PMID:24300413

Lu, Wen; Del Castillo, Urko; Gelfand, Vladimir I

2013-01-01

85

Characterization of L-glutamine transport by a human neuroblastoma cell line.  

PubMed

This study characterized the Na+-dependent transport of L-glutamine by a human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH. The Na+-dependent component represented >95% of the total glutamine uptake. Kinetic studies showed a single saturable high-affinity carrier with a Michaelis constant (K(m)) of 163 +/- 23 microM and a maximum transport velocity (Vmax) of 13,713 +/- 803 pmol x mg protein(-1) x min(-1). Glutamine uptake was markedly inhibited in the presence of L-alanine, L-asparagine, and L-serine. Li+ did not substitute for Na+. These data show that L-glutamine is predominantly taken up through system ASC. Glutamine deprivation resulted in the decrease of glutamine transport by a mechanism that decreased Vmax without affecting K(m). The expression of the system ASC subtype ASCT2 decreased in the glutamine-deprived group, whereas glutamine deprivation did not induce changes in system ASC subtype ASCT1 mRNA expression. Adaptive increases in Na+-dependent glutamate, Na+-dependent 2-(methylamino)isobutyric acid, and Na+-independent leucine transport were observed under glutamine-deprived conditions, which were completely blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. These mechanisms may allow cells to survive and even grow under nutrient-deprived conditions. PMID:11997238

Wasa, Masafumi; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Okada, Akira

2002-06-01

86

Compartmentalization of transport and phosphorylation of glucose in a hepatoma cell line  

PubMed Central

The first steps of glucose metabolism are carried out by members of the families of GLUTs (glucose transporters) and HKs (hexokinases). Previous experiments using the inhibitor of glucose transport, CB (cytochalasin B), revealed that compartmentalization of GLUTs and HKs is a major factor in the control of glucose uptake in L6 myotubes [Whitesell, Ardehali, Printz, Beechem, Knobel, Piston, Granner, Van Der Meer, Perriott and May (2003) Biochem. J. 370, 47–56]. In the present paper, we evaluate compartmentalization of GLUTs and HKs in a hepatoma cell line, H4IIE, which is characterized by excess GLUT activity, HKI in a particulate and a cytosolic fraction, and insignificant G6Pase (glucose-6-phosphatase) activity. The measured activity of glucose transport exceeded the rate of phosphorylation approx. 30-fold. Treatment with 25 ?M CB (Ki?3 ?M in H4IIE cells) paradoxically increased the excess of GLUTs over phosphorylation (GLUTs are inhibited 80%, while phosphorylation is inhibited 98%). The global relationships of the data could be reconciled most simply by a two-compartment model. In this model, phosphorylation of glucose is carried out by a subset of HK molecules supplied by a subset of GLUTs that are more sensitive to CB than the other GLUTs. The agent, DCC (dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide) caused HKI to translocate from the particulate compartment to the cytosolic compartment and potently inhibited glucose phosphorylation. The particulate compartment may represent the mitochondria, to which the more CB-sensitive GLUTs may control the transport of glucose.

2004-01-01

87

Transport of intense ion beams and space charge compensation issues in low energy beam lines (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Over the last few years, the interest of the international scientific community for high power accelerators in the megawatt range has been increasing. For such machines, the ion source has to deliver a beam intensity that ranges from several tens up to a hundred of mA. One of the major challenges is to extract and transport the beam while minimizing the emittance growth and optimizing its injection into the radio frequency quadrupole. Consequently, it is crucial to perform precise simulations and cautious design of the low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. In particular, the beam dynamics calculations have to take into account not only the space charge effects but also the space charge compensation of the beam induced by ionization of the residual gas. The physical phenomena occurring in a high intensity LEBT and their possible effects on the beam are presented, with a particular emphasis on space charge compensation. Then, beam transport issues in different kind of LEBTs are briefly reviewed. The SOLMAXP particle-in-cell code dedicated to the modeling of the transport of charge particles under a space charge compensation regime is described. Finally, beam dynamics simulations results obtained with SOLMAXP are presented in the case of international fusion materials irradiation facility injector.

Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.; Duperrier, R.; Gobin, R.; Nghiem, P. A. P.; Uriot, D. [CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2012-02-15

88

Transmission line model of carbon nanotubes: through the Boltzmann transport equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transmission line (TL) model of a carbon nanotube (CNT) is analyzed through the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). With the help of a numerical solution of the BTE, we study the kinetic inductance (LK), quantum capacitance (CQ) and resistivity (RS) of a CNT under a high frequency electric field. Values of LK and CQ obtained from BTE accord with the theoretical values, and the TL model is verified by transport theory for the first time. Moreover, our results show that the AC resistivity of CNTs deviates from DC, increasing along with shorter electric field wave length. This shows that changes in RS in the high frequency condition must be considered in the TL model.

Zhou, Fang

2011-06-01

89

On-line laser spectroscopy with a cooled He-jet transport system  

SciTech Connect

In order to make nuclear size and shape determinations for short-lived nuclei, we are using a transport system with pure, cooled helium to carry radioactive atoms produced by heavy-ion reactions from the target chamber into a laser-spectroscopy chamber. The device is attached to a beam line of the Argonne Superconducting Heavy-Ion Linac. Upon leaving the transport system, the atoms form a cooled atomic beam suitable for several high-sensitivity, high-precision spectroscopic techniques. We plan to use the photon-burst method which permits high-resolution hyperfine structure measurements with only a few atoms per second. The efficiency of the helium-jet system, the extension of the photon-burst method to slow and optically-pumped transitions, and the present status of the project are discussed.

Lewis, D.; Evans, R.; Davids, C.; Finn, M.; Greenlees, G.; Kaufman, S.

1982-01-01

90

Functional nucleoside transporters are required for gemcitabine influx and manifestation of toxicity in cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Gemcitabine (2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine) is a novel pyrimidine nucleoside drug with clinical efficacy in several common epithelial cancers. We have proposed that gemcitabine requires nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins to permeate the plasma membrane and to exhibit pharmacological activity. In humans, there are seven reported distinct NT activities varying in substrate specificity, sodium dependence, and sensitivity to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) and dipyridamole. To determine which NTs are required for gemcitabine-dependent growth inhibition, cultures from a panel of 12 cell lines with defined plasma membrane NT activities were incubated with different concentrations of gemcitabine. Cell proliferation was assessed by the sulforhodamine B assay and cell enumeration to identify the concentrations of gemcitabine that inhibited cell replication by 50% (IC50s). NT activity was a prerequisite for growth inhibition in vitro because: (a) the nucleoside transport-deficient cells were highly resistant to gemcitabine; and (b) treatment of cells that exhibited only equilibrative NT activity with NBMPR or dipyridamole increased resistance to gemcitabine by 39- to 1800-fold. These data suggested that the type of NT activities possessed by a cell may be an important determinant of its sensitivity to gemcitabine and that NT deficiency may confer significant gemcitabine resistance. We analyzed the uptake kinetics of [3H]gemcitabine by each of five human NT activities in cell lines that exhibited a single NT activity in isolation; transient transfection of the cDNAs encoding the human concentrative NT proteins (hCNT1 and hCNT2) was used to study the cit and cif activities, respectively. The efficiency of gemcitabine uptake varied markedly among the cell lines with single NTs: es approximately = cit > ei > cib > cif. The transportability of [3H]gemcitabine was demonstrated by reconstitution of the human es NT in proteoliposomes, confirming that gemcitabine permeation is a protein-mediated process. PMID:9766663

Mackey, J R; Mani, R S; Selner, M; Mowles, D; Young, J D; Belt, J A; Crawford, C R; Cass, C E

1998-10-01

91

Performance of the reaction-product transport line associated with the TOFI (Time-of-Flight Isochronous) spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A reaction-product transport line with a solid angle acceptance of 2.8 msr and a momentum-to-charge acceptance of 28% has been constructed to deliver neutron-rich nuclei produced in heavy-target fragmentation reactions to the Time-Of-Flight Isochronous (TOFI) spectrometer. The design and performance of the transport line, which incorporates a mass-to-charge filter to reduce the rate of uninteresting ions entering the spectrometer, is described.

Vaziri, K.; Wohn, F.K.; Vieira, D.J.; Wollnik, H.; Wouters, J.M.

1986-08-01

92

Hydrogen transport diagnostics by atomic and molecular emission line profiles simultaneously measured for large helical device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observe the Balmer-?, -?, and -? lines of hydrogen atoms and Q branches of the Fulcher-? band of hydrogen molecules simultaneously with their polarization resolved for large helical device. From the fit including the line splits and the polarization dependences by the Zeeman effect, the emission locations, intensities, and the temperatures of the atoms and molecules are determined. The emission locations of the hydrogen atoms are determined outside but close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS). The results are consistent with a previous work (Phys. Plasmas 12, 042501 (2005)). On the other hand, the emission locations of the molecules are determined to be in the divertor legs, which is farer from those of the atoms. The kinetic energy of the atoms is 1 ~ 20 eV, while the rotational temperature of molecules is ~0.04 eV. Additionally, substantial wings, which originate from high velocity atoms and are not reproduced by the conventional spectral analysis, are observed in the Balmer line profiles. We develop a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of the atoms and molecules. The model reproduces the differences of the emission locations of the atoms and molecules when their initial temperatures are assumed to be 3 eV and 0.04 eV, respectively. From the model, the wings of the Balmer-? line is attributed to the high velocity atoms exist deep inside the LCFS, which are generated by the charge exchange collisions with hot protons there.

Fujii, K.; Shikama, T.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.; Hasuo, M.

2013-01-01

93

Theoretical study of electron transport through ?-stacked ethylbenzene lines bonded to a Si surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, experimental techniques were developed for lines of ?-stacked ethylbenzene molecules to self-assemble on an H-terminated Si (100) surface in the laboratory of one of the authors. In this work, we use density functional theory (DFT) combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF) to model electron transport through these ethylbenzene lines to determine if they could be used as molecular wires. In our calculations, the molecules are bonded to an H-terminated Si (100) surface and are bridging two Al leads. The transmission spectrum and its associated scattering states are determined by the NEGF-DFT technique. The presence of the Si substrate is found to play an important role for conduction: there is a dominant transmission peak near the Fermi level which is contributed by the Si substrate and not the ?-stacked molecular line. The low-bias resistance is found to increase exponentially with the length of the molecular line, indicating a tunneling behavior in conduction.

Smeu, Manuel; Wolkow, Robert; Guo, Hong

2009-03-01

94

Noble internal transport barriers and radial subdiffusion of toroidal magnetic lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal transport barriers (ITB's) observed in tokamaks are described by a purely magnetic approach. Magnetic line motion in toroidal geometry with broken magnetic surfaces is studied from a previously derived Hamiltonian map in situation of incomplete chaos. This appears to reproduce in a realistic way the main features of a tokamak, for a given safety factor profile and in terms of a single parameter L representing the amplitude of the magnetic perturbation. New results are given concerning the Shafranov shift as function of L. The phase space (psi ,? ) of the "tokamap" describes the poloidal section of the line trajectories, where psi is the toroidal flux labelling the surfaces. For small values of L, closed magnetic surfaces exist (KAM tori) and island chains begin to appear on rational surfaces for higher values of L, with chaotic zones around hyperbolic points, as expected. Island remnants persist in the chaotic domain for all relevant values of L at the main rational q-values. Single trajectories of magnetic line motion indicate the persistence of a central protected plasma core, surrounded by a chaotic shell enclosed in a double-sided transport barrier: the latter is identified as being composed of two Cantori located on two successive “most-noble” numbers values of the perturbed safety factor, and forming an internal transport barrier (ITB). Magnetic lines which succeed to escape across this barrier begin to wander in a wide chaotic sea extending up to a very robust barrier (as long as Lprecsim 1) which is identified mathematically as a robust KAM surface at the plasma edge. In this case the motion is shown to be intermittent, with long stages of pseudo-trapping in the chaotic shell, or of sticking around island remnants, as expected for a continuous time random walk. For values of Lsucceq 1, above the escape threshold, most magnetic lines succeed to escape out of the external barrier which has become a permeable Cantorus. Statistical analysis of a large number of trajectories, representing the evolution of a bunch of magnetic lines, indicate that the flux variable psi asymptotically grows in a diffusive manner as (L2t) with a L2 scaling as expected, but that the average radial position rm(t) asymptotically grows as (L2t)^{1/4} while the mean square displacement around this average radius asymptotically grows in a subdiffusive manner as (L2t)^{1/2}. This result shows the slower dispersion in the present incomplete chaotic regime, which is different from the usual quasilinear diffusion in completely chaotic situations. For physical times t_{\\varphi } of the order of the escape time defined by xm(t_{\\varphi })sim 1, the motion appears to be superdiffusive, however, but less dangerous than the generally admitted quasi-linear diffusion. The orders of magnitude of the relevant times in Tore Supra are finally discussed. Barrières internes de transport " nobles " et sous-diffusion radiale des lignes magnétiques toroïdales Les barrières internes de transport observées dans les tokamaks sont décrites ici dans une approche purement magnétique. Le mouvement des lignes magnétiques en géométrie toroïdale avec brisure des surfaces magnétiques est étudié à partir d'une application hamiltonienne "tokamap" développée précédemment en situation de chaos incomplet, et dans laquelle le "temps" est représenté par la coordonnée toroïdale. Cette application reproduit de façon réaliste les principales caractéristiques d'un tokamak, pour un profil donné du facteur de sécurité q, et en terme d'un seul paramètre L représentant l'amplitude de la perturbation magnétique. On obtient des résultats nouveaux concernant le déplacement de Shafranov en fonction de L. L'espace des phases (psi,?) du "tokamap" décrit la section poloïdale des trajectoires des lignes, où psisim r^2 est le flux toroïdal caractérisant les surfaces magnétiques (proportionnel au carré du rayon r de cette surface). Pour de faibles valeurs de L, des surfaces magnétiques fermées

Misguich, J. H.; Reuss, J.-D.; Constantinescu, D.; Steinbrecher, G.; Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Weyssow, B.; Balescu, R.

2003-11-01

95

Summary test results of the particle-beam diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) subsystems  

SciTech Connect

During the first half of 1994, a number of the diagnostic systems for measurement of the charged-particle beam parameters throughout the subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been installed and tested. The particle beams eventually will involve 450-MeV to 7-GeV positrons and with different pulse formats. The first test and commissionin results for beam profiles, beam position monitors, loss rate monitors, current monitors, and synchrotron radiation photon monitors hve been obtained using 200- to 350-MeV electron beams injected into the subsystems. Data presented are principally from the transport lines and the positron accumulator ring.

Lumpkin, A.; Wang, X.; Sellyey, W.; Patterson, D.; Kahana, E.

1994-08-01

96

Autosomal recessive spastic tetraplegia caused by AP4M1 and AP4B1 gene mutation: Expansion of the facial and neuroimaging features.  

PubMed

Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP4) is a component of intracellular transportation of proteins, which is thought to have a unique role in neurons. Recently, mutations affecting all four subunits of AP4 (AP4M1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4B1) have been found to cause similar autosomal recessive phenotype consisting of tetraplegic cerebral palsy and intellectual disability. The aim of this study was analyzing AP4 genes in three new families with this phenotype, and discussing their clinical findings with an emphasis on neuroimaging and facial features. Using homozygosity mapping followed by whole-exome sequencing, we identified two novel homozygous mutations in AP4M1 and a homozygous deletion in AP4B1 in three pairs of siblings. Spastic tetraplegia, microcephaly, severe intellectual disability, limited speech, and stereotypic laughter were common findings in our patients. All patients also had similar facial features consisting of coarse and hypotonic face, bitemporal narrowing, bulbous nose with broad nasal ridge, and short philtrum which were not described in patients with AP4M1 and AP4B1 mutations previously. The patients presented here and previously with AP4M1, AP4B1, and AP4E1 mutations shared brain abnormalities including asymmetrical ventriculomegaly, thin splenium of the corpus callosum, and reduced white matter volume. The patients also had hippocampal globoid formation and thin hippocampus. In conclusion, disorders due to mutations in AP4 complex have similar neurological, facial, and cranial imaging findings. Thus, these four genes encoding AP4 subunits should be screened in patients with autosomal recessive spastic tetraplegic cerebral palsy, severe intellectual disability, and stereotypic laughter, especially with the described facial and cranial MRI features. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24700674

Tüysüz, Beyhan; Bilguvar, Kaya; Koçer, Naci; Yalç?nkaya, Cengiz; Ca?layan, Okay; Gül, Ece; Sahin, Sezgin; Comu, Sinan; Günel, Murat

2014-07-01

97

Evaluation of the internal high alumina cement mortar lining of ductile cast iron pipes used in sewage transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High alumina cement has been used to line the interior of ductile cast iron pipes intended for sewage transportation. Defects occurring in the production line include waves, ripples, knots, strip cracks, milky layers, crack network, non uniform thickness, breakage and roughness. The effect of the grain size of sand, the water\\/cement ratio, the sand\\/cement ratio and the percent citric acid

S. A. S. El-Hemaly; H. A. M. Abdallah; M. F. Abadir; H. H. El Sersy

2008-01-01

98

Line shape, transport and relaxation properties from intermolecular potential energy surfaces: The test case of CO2–Ar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new potential surfaces for CO2–Ar, obtained principally from the spectra of van der Waals complexes, are tested against measurements of pressure broadening and of transport and relaxation properties, none of which was used in the determination of the surfaces. Pressure broadening of both infrared and Raman lines is considered. The coupled states (CS) approximation is used for all line

Christine F. Roche; Alan S. Dickinson; Andreas Ernesti; Jeremy M. Hutson

1997-01-01

99

A Cell-Line-Specific Defect in the Intracellular Transport and Release of Assembled Retroviral Capsids  

PubMed Central

Retrovirus assembly involves a complex series of events in which a large number of proteins must be targeted to a point on the plasma membrane where immature viruses bud from the cell. Gag polyproteins of most retroviruses assemble an immature capsid on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane during the budding process (C-type assembly), but a few assemble immature capsids deep in the cytoplasm and are then transported to the plasma membrane (B- or D-type assembly), where they are enveloped. With both assembly phenotypes, Gag polyproteins must be transported to the site of viral budding in either a relatively unassembled form (C type) or a completely assembled form (B and D types). The molecular nature of this transport process and the host cell factors that are involved have remained obscure. During the development of a recombinant baculovirus/insect cell system for the expression of both C-type and D-type Gag polyproteins, we discovered an insect cell line (High Five) with two distinct defects that resulted in the reduced release of virus-like particles. The first of these was a pronounced defect in the transport of D-type but not C-type Gag polyproteins to the plasma membrane. High Five cells expressing wild-type Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) Gag precursors accumulate assembled immature capsids in large cytoplasmic aggregates similar to a transport-defective mutant (MA-A18V). In contrast, a larger fraction of the Gag molecules encoded by the M-PMV C-type morphogenesis mutant (MA-R55W) and those of human immunodeficiency virus were transported to the plasma membrane for assembly and budding of virions. When pulse-labeled Gag precursors from High Five cells were fractionated on velocity gradients, they sedimented more rapidly, indicating that they are sequestered in a higher-molecular-mass complex. Compared to Sf9 insect cells, the High Five cells also demonstrate a defect in the release of C-type virus particles. These findings support the hypothesis that host cell factors are important in the process of Gag transport and in the release of enveloped viral particles.

Parker, Scott D.; Hunter, Eric

2000-01-01

100

AP1 function and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AP-1 (activating protein-1) is a collective term referring to dimeric transcription factors composed of Jun, Fos or ATF (activating transcription factor) subunits that bind to a common DNA site, the AP-1-binding site. As the complexity of our knowledge of AP-1 factors has increased, our understanding of their physiological function has decreased. This trend, however, is beginning to be reversed due

Michael Karin; Zheng-gang Liu; Ebrahim Zandi

1997-01-01

101

Numerical modelling of intense electron beam transport in the spiral line induction accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer simulation is used to study issues of intense electron beam transport arising in the context of the spiral line induction accelerator (SLIA), a device in which the beam is transported along an open-ended beam pipe, making multiple passes through each accelerating cavity and traversing a 180 deg achromatic bend between passes. In the straight sections, the beam is transported on a solenoidal field; in the bends, the beam is subject to a vertical bending field and strong focusing stellarator fields, in addition to the solenoidal field. We show that the self-fields of the beam change the optimum vertical field in the bend but do not significantly affect the achromaticity of the bend. We find that magnetic matching elements are required, at the entrance and exit of each stellarator section, to minimize oscillations of the beam envelope and concomitant emittance growth. We show that matching can be accomplished satisfactorily with a single thick quadrupole lens. We determine the frequency and damping rate of envelope oscillations that result from mismatches, and resulting emittance growth. These are found to be sensitive functions of the beam radial profile. Simulation results are found to be in excellent agreement with experiments conducted recently at Pulse Sciences, Inc.

Krall, J.; Slinker, S.; Lampe, M.; Joyce, G.

1992-08-01

102

Design, modeling and simulations in the RACE project: First study for the development of a transport line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiment (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25 MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible divergence problem) different parameters and models were studied before a final design could be submitted for assembly. This report shows the results obtained from different simulations for different lattices of the transport line optics and dynamics.

Maidana, Carlos O.; Hunt, Alan W.; Beller, Denis; Folkman, Kevin

2006-06-01

103

Design, Modeling and Simulations in the RACE Project: Preliminary study for the development of a transport line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiment (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25 MeV electron beam from a Linear Accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible divergence problem) different parameters and models were studied before a final design could be submitted for assembly. This report shows the first results obtained from different simulations of the transport line optics and dynamics.

Maidana, C. O.; Hunt, A. W.; Beller, D.; Folkman, K.

2007-02-01

104

76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary...Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice and...notice announces the Department of Transportation's intention to...

2011-08-23

105

Fano effect and bound state in continuum in electron transport through an armchair graphene nanoribbon with line defect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron transport properties in an armchair graphene nanoribbon are theoretically investigated by considering the presence of line defect. It is found that the line defect causes the abundant Fano effects and bound state in continuum (BIC) in the electron transport process, which are tightly dependent on the width of the nanoribbon. By plotting the spectra of the density of electron states of the line defect, we see that the line defect induces some localized quantum states around the Dirac point and that the different localizations of these states lead to these two kinds of transport results. Next, the Fano effect and BIC phenomenon are detailedly described via the analysis about the influence of the structure parameters. According to the numerical results, we propose such a structure to be a promising candidate for graphene nanoswitch.

Gong, Wei-Jiang; Sui, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yan; Yu, Guo-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Hui

2013-07-01

106

Fano effect and bound state in continuum in electron transport through an armchair graphene nanoribbon with line defect.  

PubMed

: Electron transport properties in an armchair graphene nanoribbon are theoretically investigated by considering the presence of line defect. It is found that the line defect causes the abundant Fano effects and bound state in continuum (BIC) in the electron transport process, which are tightly dependent on the width of the nanoribbon. By plotting the spectra of the density of electron states of the line defect, we see that the line defect induces some localized quantum states around the Dirac point and that the different localizations of these states lead to these two kinds of transport results. Next, the Fano effect and BIC phenomenon are detailedly described via the analysis about the influence of the structure parameters. According to the numerical results, we propose such a structure to be a promising candidate for graphene nanoswitch. PACS: 81.05.Uw, 71.55.-i, 73.23.-b, 73.25.+i. PMID:23870061

Gong, Wei-Jiang; Sui, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yan; Yu, Guo-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Hui

2013-01-01

107

Fano effect and bound state in continuum in electron transport through an armchair graphene nanoribbon with line defect  

PubMed Central

Electron transport properties in an armchair graphene nanoribbon are theoretically investigated by considering the presence of line defect. It is found that the line defect causes the abundant Fano effects and bound state in continuum (BIC) in the electron transport process, which are tightly dependent on the width of the nanoribbon. By plotting the spectra of the density of electron states of the line defect, we see that the line defect induces some localized quantum states around the Dirac point and that the different localizations of these states lead to these two kinds of transport results. Next, the Fano effect and BIC phenomenon are detailedly described via the analysis about the influence of the structure parameters. According to the numerical results, we propose such a structure to be a promising candidate for graphene nanoswitch. PACS 81.05.Uw, 71.55.-i, 73.23.-b, 73.25.+i

2013-01-01

108

AP Physics 1 and AP Physics 2: Course Revisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Fall 2014, The Advanced Placement Program will be replacing AP Physics B with a two-year sequence designed to foster greater depth of conceptual understanding and more time engaged in inquiry-based learning. The new courses, AP Physics 1 and AP Physics 2, will be equivalent to the first and second semesters of a typical introductory, algebra-based college physics course. This website informs physics teachers and school administrators about what's changing in AP physics, from course scope to exam design. The framework shifts away from a traditional "content coverage" model to one that focuses on key ideas in introductory physics. The approach was developed to allow greater time engaged in the practice of science, with less focus on mathematical routines. Resources available on this web page include the Curriculum Framework, FAQ's on the new AP Physics, examples, and reference material on inquiry instruction. The changes to each course were guided by National Research Council and National Science Foundation recommendations, following several years of collaborations among university educators and master AP teachers. Editor's Note: The AP Chemistry course has also undergone major revision, slated for adoption in Fall 2013. See Related Materials for a link to the College Board's web page on AP Chemistry revisions.

109

AP Calculus BC II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education, this free online course covers all of the material outlined by the College Board as necessary to prepare students to pass the AP Calculus BC exam. This course is divided into two semesters and this course is the second of those two semesters, it is designed to "acquaint you with calculus principles such as derivatives, integrals, limits, approximation, applications and modeling, and sequences and series." The course is separated into three units: antiderivatives and definite integrals; application of integrals; and infinite sequences and series. Each lesson has objectives, readings, multimedia lectures, and assessments with answers. The site is also indexed by subject, which can be browsed alphabetically or sequentially. It is a great place for students to enhance their calculus skills or for educators to find supplementary materials for the classroom.

2008-07-09

110

Cyclic AMP and CaS -activated K transport in a human colonic epithelial cell line  

SciTech Connect

Addition of either vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) or the CaS ionophore, A23187, to confluent monolayers of the T84 epithelial cell line derived from a human colon carcinoma increased the rate of YWRb or USK efflux from preloaded cells. The effect of A23187 required extracellular CaS , while that of VIP correlated with its known effect on cyclic AMP production. Other agents which increased cyclic AMP production or mimicked its effect also increased YWRb efflux. VIP- or A23187-stimulated efflux was inhibited by 5 mM BaS or 1 mM quinidine, but not by 20 mM tetraethylammonium, 4 mM 4-aminopyridine, or 1 microM apamin. Under appropriate conditions, VIP and A23187 also increased the rate of YWRb or USK uptake. Stimulation of the initial rate of uptake by either agent required high intracellular K and was not markedly affected by the imposition of transcellular pH gradients. The effect of A23187, but not VIP or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, was refractory to depletion of cellular energy stores. A23187-stimulated uptake was not significantly affected by anion substitution, however, stimulation of uptake by VIP required the presence of a permeant anion. This result may be due to the simultaneous activation of a cyclic AMP-dependent Cl transport system. The kinetics of both VIP- and A23187-stimulated uptake and efflux were consistent with a channel-rather than a carrier-mediated K transport mechanism. The results also suggest that cyclic AMP and CaS may activate two different kinds of K transport systems. Finally, both transport systems have been localized to the basolateral membrane of T84 monolayers, a result compatible with their possible regulatory role in hormone-activated electrogenic Cl secretion.

McRoberts, J.A.; Beuerlein, G.; Dharmsathaphorn, K.

1985-11-15

111

Citrate transport in the human prostate epithelial PNT2-C2 cell line: electrophysiological analyses  

PubMed Central

Although prostate synthesizes and releases large amounts of citrate, the mechanism of the release is not well understood. Most known citrate transporters mediate uptake of citrate from extracellular space and, consequently, are driven by the transmembrane Na+ gradient, which would not be appropriate for prostatic function. In the present study, we investigated citrate transport in a normal human prostate cell line, PNT2-C2, using mainly electrophysiological methods. Intracellular application of citrate through the patch pipette in the whole-cell recording mode induced an outward current whilst in response to extracellular citrate an inward current was recorded. Membrane currents induced by citrate were bigger than those elicited by other (equimolar) Krebs cycle intermediates. Both inward and outward citrate-induced currents had the same ionic dependence, inhibitor profile and reversal potential. In particular, the currents were strongly dependent on the transmembrane K+ gradient. Uptake and release of citrate and their K+ dependence were confirmed by spectrophotometric enzyme analyses. Citrate-induced membrane currents were also sensitive to pH, consistent with the transporter preferring the trivalent form. Application of intracellular Zn2+ generated an outward current which had the same quantitative K+ dependence as the citrate-induced currents. Extracellular application of a membrane-permeant Zn2+ chelator generated an inward current. These experiments suggested that m-aconitase was tonically active in PNT2-C2 cells. Determination of ‘forward’ and ‘reverse’ K+ stoichiometry both suggested a citrate: K+ ratio of 1 : 4. We conclude that normal prostatic epithelial cells possess an electrogenic citrate transporter which mediates the cotransfer of 1 trivalent citrate anion alongside 4 K+ out of cells and thus generates a net outward current.

Mycielska, Maria E; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

2004-01-01

112

AP-42 REVISION: COKE OVENS  

EPA Science Inventory

The document "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors" (AP-42) has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1972. Supplements to AP-42 have been routinely published to add new emission source categories and to update existing emission factor...

113

Drug transporter expression profiling in chemoresistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Ovarian cancer is characterized by the higher mortality among gynecological cancers. In results of MDR development during chemotherapy cancer cells become resistant to further treatment. Microarray techniques can provide information about MDR development at gene expression level. ABC and SLC transporters are most important proteins responsible for this phenomenon. In this study changes of ABC and SLC genes expression pattern in drugs resistant sublines of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line were demonstrated. The cytostatic resistant sublines were generated by culture of A2780 cell line with an increasing concentration of the indicated drugs. As screening methods, we used Affymetrix U219 Human Genome microarrays. Independent t-tests were used to determinate statistical significances of results. Genes that expression levels were higher than assumed threshold (upregulated above threefold and downregulated under -3 fold) were visualized using scatter plot method, selected and listed in table. Between the ABC genes increased expression of seven genes and decreased expression of three genes were observed. Expression of two genes was increased or decreased depending on the cell line. We observed significant (more than tenfold) increase in expression of four ABC genes: ABCA8, ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCG2 and decreased expression of ABCA3 gene. We also observed changes in expression of 32 SLC genes. Between them we observe increased expression of 17 genes and decreased expression of 15 genes. Expression of four genes was increased or decreased dependent on cell line. The expression of nine SLC genes increased or decreased very significantly (more than tenfold). Five genes were significantly upregulated: SLC2A9, SLC16A3, SLC16A14, SLC38A4 and SLC39A8. Four additional genes were significantly downregulated: SLC2A14, SLC6A15, SLC8A1 and SLC27A2. Expression profiles of these genes give strong arguments for assumption of correlation between expression of ABC and SLC genes and drug resistance phenomenon. Identifying correlations between specific drug transporters and cytostatic drug resistance will require further investigation. PMID:24814220

Januchowski, Rados?aw; Zawierucha, Piotr; Ruci?ski, Marcin; Andrzejewska, Ma?gorzata; Wojtowicz, Karolina; Nowicki, Micha?; Zabel, Maciej

2014-05-01

114

Characterization of immortalized choroid plexus epithelial cell lines for studies of transport processes across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier  

PubMed Central

Background Two rodent choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines, Z310 and TR-CSFB, were compared with primary rat CP epithelial cells and intact CP tissue with respect to transport protein expression, function and tight junction (TJ) formation. Methods For expression profiles of transporters and TJ proteins, qPCR and western blot analysis were used. Uptake assays were performed to study the functional activity of transporters and TJ formation was measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and visualized by electron microscopy. Results The expression of known ATP-binding cassette (Abc) transporter and solute carrier (Slc) genes in CP was confirmed by qPCR. Primary cells and cell lines showed similar, but overall lower expression of Abc transporters and absent Slc expression when compared to intact tissue. Consistent with this Mrp1, Mrp4 and P-gp protein levels were higher in intact CP compared to cell lines. Functionality of P-gp and Mrp1 was confirmed by Calcein-AM and CMFDA uptake assays and studies using [3H]bis-POM-PMEA as a substrate indicated Mrp4 function. Cell lines showed low or absent TJ protein expression. After treatment of cell lines with corticosteroids, RNA expression of claudin1, 2 and 11 and occludin was elevated, as well as claudin1 and occludin protein expression. TJ formation was further investigated by freeze-fracture electron microscopy and only rarely observed. Increases in TJ particles with steroid treatment were not accompanied by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Conclusion Taken together, immortalized cell lines may be a tool to study transport processes mediated by P-gp, Mrp1 or Mrp4, but overall expression of transport proteins and TJ formation do not reflect the situation in intact CP tissue.

2010-01-01

115

Pulsed Beam Chopper for the 750 keV Transport Line at MMF of INR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A traveling wave beam chopper for the 750 keV H^+, H^- ions the INR Linac injector transport line is presented. The chopper consists of a helix and a ground plates that gives a possibility to combine deflector and absorber functions without deflecting voltage increasing. The deflecting voltage is up to 4.5 kV the aperture is 4 cm, the length is 80 cm. The 8 ? cm mrad unnormalized emittance beam is deflected and absorbed at water-cooled ground plate. Available chopped beam rise and fall times are less than 20 ns. The special shape of the ground plate is used for secondary electron emission preventing during H^- beam deflection. The deflecting structure and electronic circuits are presented, theoretical and experimental results are discussed.

Novikov, A. V.; Ostroumov, P. N.

1997-05-01

116

On the universality of asymptotic limits in the theory of field line diffusion and perpendicular transport of energetic particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the random walk of magnetic field lines in astrophysical plasmas. Based on the standard theory of field line diffusion we show that there are two asymptotic limits. In these limits field line wandering is universal because in both regimes the field line diffusion coefficient depends only on fundamental length scales and absolute magnetic field strengths. As examples we discuss the field line diffusion coefficient for different prominent turbulence models namely the slab model, the two-dimensional model, and the Goldreich-Sridhar model. We show that the field line diffusion coefficient for the latter model agrees with the results obtained for slab and two-dimensional turbulence in limiting cases. We also discuss the transport of energetic particles perpendicular with respect to the mean magnetic field. Based on the unified nonlinear transport theory we consider again asymptotic limits. It is shown that one can identify four different regimes in which the transport is again universal. In all four cases perpendicular transport only depends on fundamental length scales of turbulence, magnetic field values, and the parallel diffusion coefficient.

Shalchi, A.

2014-04-01

117

High current density negative ion source for beam line transport study  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Electron Cooling Program requires a 20-m solenoidal region to interact 8-GeV antiprotons with an escorting beam of 4.3-MeV electrons to improve the phase-space quality of the antiproton beam. The solenoidal section with additional transport lines to take and return a 0.5-A electron beam from an electrostatic accelerator, for energy recovery, must be precisely aligned and adjusted. For the initial setup and study, and later testing of this line, a 12.4-keV H{sup {minus}} beam can be used to simulate the 4.3 MeV electron beam. For this purpose a high-brightness H{sup {minus}} ion source has been developed and tested. The source, a semiplanatron type, with a hollow cathode discharge and spherical cathode focusing of the emitted ions to the emission aperture has given an emission current density up to 0.7 A/cm{sup 2}. Continuous operation of 4 weeks has been demonstrated. Such an optimized source could have many applications for tandem accelerators, ion beam lithography and ion implantation.

Vadim Dudnikov; Charles W Schmidt and James Wendt

2001-07-25

118

APS controls overview  

SciTech Connect

The APS accelerator control system described in this report is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and interfaces to hardware. The operator interface is a UNIX-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The user has the ability to generate and alter control displays and to access the alarm handler, the archiver, interactive control programs, custom code, and other tools. The TCP/EP networking protocol has been selected as the underlying protocol for the control system network. TCP/EP is a commercial standard and readily available from network hardware vendors. Its implementation is independent of the particular network medium selected to implement the controls network. In the development environment copper Ethernet is the network medium; however, in the actual implementation a fiber-based system using hub technology will be utilized. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system.

NONE

1996-02-01

119

Temperature-sensitive transport of glycoproteins to the surface of a variant mouse lymphoma cell line.  

PubMed Central

The expression of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) glycoproteins on the surface of stably infected mouse lymphoma cell line W7MG1 is dramatically increased by glucocorticoid hormones. A variant cell line, W7M.TS1, was selected from W7MG1 for its lack of expression of MMTV glycoproteins on the cell surface in response to treatment with glucocorticoid. Hormonal stimulation of MMTV RNA levels and hormone-induced cytolysis occurred normally in the variant cells. Furthermore, the rates of production of the precursor and mature forms of MMTV glycoproteins in the presence of glucocorticoid were similar in variant and wild-type cells. However, the accumulation of MMTV glycoproteins on the cell surface after hormone treatment was delayed by about 8 h in the variant relative to wild-type cells. The steady-state level of a constitutively expressed cellular protein, T200, on the variant cell surface was comparable to that on wild-type cells. However, in pulse-chase experiments, the appearance of newly synthesized T200 on the cell surface was delayed in the variant compared with wild-type cells. Another glucocorticoid hormone response, removal of H-2 class I antigens from the cell surface, was also delayed in the variant relative to wild-type cells, suggesting that turnover or internalization of cell surface glycoproteins may also be affected in the variant. The defects in the variant cell line were observed at 37 degrees C, but not at 31 degrees C; the variant cells grew normally at both temperatures. This variant phenotype defines a new genetic entity that is important for transport of glycoproteins between internal microsomal compartments and the cell surface. Images

Nori, M; Stallcup, M R

1988-01-01

120

Cascades of Transient Pores in Giant Vesicles: Line Tension and Transport  

PubMed Central

Under ordinary circumstances, the membrane tension of a giant unilamellar vesicle is essentially nil. Using visible light, we stretch the vesicles, increasing the membrane tension until the membrane responds by the sudden opening of a large pore (several micrometers in size). Only a single pore is observed at a time in a given vesicle. However, a cascade of transient pores appear, up to 30–40 in succession, in the same vesicle. These pores are transient: they reseal within a few seconds as the inner liquid leaks out. The membrane tension, which is the driving force for pore opening, is relaxed with the opening of a pore and the leakage of the inner liquid; the line tension of the pore's edge is then able to drive the closure of a pore. We use fluorescent membrane probes and real-time videomicroscopy to study the dynamics of the pores. These can be visualized only if the vesicles are prepared in a viscous solution to slow down the leakout of the internal liquid. From measurements of the closure velocity of the pores, we are able to infer the line tension, 𝒯. We have studied the effect of the shape of inclusion molecules on 𝒯. Cholesterol, which can be modeled as an inverted cone-shaped molecule, increases the line tension when incorporated into the bilayers. Conversely, addition of cone-shaped detergents reduces 𝒯. The effect of some detergents can be dramatic, reducing 𝒯by two orders of magnitude, and increasing pore lifetimes up to several minutes. We give some examples of transport through transient pores and present a rough measurement of the leakout velocity of the inner liquid through a pore. We discuss how our results can be extended to less viscous aqueous solutions which are more relevant for biological systems and biotechnological applications.

Karatekin, Erdem; Sandre, Olivier; Guitouni, Hicham; Borghi, Nicolas; Puech, Pierre-Henri; Brochard-Wyart, Francoise

2003-01-01

121

Effect of Cisplatin on Transepithelial Resistance and Ion Transport in the A6 Renal Epithelial Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cisplatin is a platinum-containing antitumour agent, the usefulness of which is limited by nephrotoxicity. In the present study, we examined the effects of cisplatin on the established renal epithelial A6 cell line, which forms a polarized monolayer in vitro with active transmembrane ion transport. The effect of cisplatin (0–800 ?m) on transepithelial ion transport and transepithelial resistance (TER) was monitored

B Faurskov; H. F Bjerregaard

1999-01-01

122

APS Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2010 APS Conferences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From The Physiologist. Four travel fellows received funding to attend the 2010 APS Intersociety Meeting, ÃÂGlobal Change and Global Science: Comparative Physiology in a Changing World,ÃÂ from August 4-7, 2010 in Westminster, CO. Four travel fellows received funding to attend the APS Conference, ÃÂInflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease,ÃÂ from August 25-28, 2010 also in Westminster, CO. The application reviews were led by Committee Member, Johana Vallejo-Elias.

2010-12-01

123

AP Central: Genetics Accountability Box  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this simple demonstration, teachers can present the concepts of genetic diseases, probability, and ethics. Students can discuss other genetic problems using this model that are align with questions found on the AP Biology exam.

Carl Koch (Benedictine University and Waubonsee Community College;)

2003-06-01

124

Learning about Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS)  

MedlinePLUS

... travel through the blood stream, causing embolic events. Lupus and Other Autoimmune Disorders APS is classified within ... have an additional autoimmune disorder, most commonly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). About 30-40 percent of individuals ...

125

Ion transport in an immortalized rat submandibular cell line SMG-C6.  

PubMed

The immortalized rat submandibular epithelial cell line, SMG-C6, cultured on porous tissue culture supports, forms polarized, tight-junction epithelia facilitating bioelectric characterization in Ussing chambers. The SMG-C6 epithelia generated transepithelial resistances of 956+/-84Omega.cm2 and potential differences (PD) of -16.9 +/- 1.5mV (apical surface negative) with a basal short-circuit current (Isc) of 23.9 +/- 1.7 microA/cm2 (n = 69). P2 nucleotide receptor agonists, ATP or UTP, applied apically or basolaterally induced a transient increase in Isc, followed by a sustained decreased below baseline value. The peak DeltaIsc increase was partly sensitive to Cl- and K+ channel inhibitors, DPC, glibenclamide, and tetraethylammonium (TEA) and was completely abolished following Ca2+ chelation with BAPTA or bilateral substitution of gluconate for Cl-. The major component of basal Isc was sensitive to apical Na+ replacement or amiloride (half-maximal inhibitory concentration 392 nM). Following pretreatment with amiloride, ATP induced a significantly greater Isc; however, the poststimulatory decline was abolished, suggesting an ATP-induced inhibition of amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport. Consistent with the ion transport properties found in Ussing chambers, SMG-C6 cells express the rat epithelial Na+ channel alpha-subunit (alpha-rENaC). Thus, cultured SMG-C6 cells produce tight polarized epithelia on permeable support with stimulated Cl- secretory conductance and an inward Isc accounted for by amiloride-sensitive Na+ absorption. PMID:10998197

Castro, R; Barlow-Walden, L; Woodson, T; Kerecman, J D; Zhang, G H; Martinez, J R

2000-10-01

126

Monte Carlo simulation for excessive Balmer line broadening generated by transport of fast H Atoms in an abnormal glow discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo code for fast hydrogen atom transport and generating of excessively Doppler broadened profiles based on the collision model is presented. Results for the initial monoenergetic atom beam and for a more realistic energy distribution of H atoms are reported. Line profiles obtained from the simulation are compared to our experimentally obtained data. Initial energy distribution for atoms is approximately calculated from the measured line profiles while the initial angle distribution was taken to be cosine. Balmer alpha intensity was found to exponentially decay in the negative glow region, which concurs with the experimental results. These agreements between the simulation and experiment support the collision model for excessive line broadening.

Cvetanovi?, N.; Obradovi?, B. M.; Kuraica, M. M.

2009-02-01

127

A cognate dopamine transporter-like activity endogenously expressed in a COS-7 kidney-derived cell line.  

PubMed

The activity of the dopamine transporter is an important mechanism for the maintenance of normal dopaminergic homeostasis by rapidly removing dopamine from the synaptic cleft. In kidney-derived COS-7, COS-1 and HEK-293 but not in other mammalian cell lines (CHO, Y1, Ltk-), we have characterized a putative functional dopamine transporter displaying a high affinity (Km approximately 250 nM) and a low capacity (approximately 0.1 pmol/10(5) cells/min) for [3H]dopamine uptake. Uptake displayed a pharmacological profile clearly indicative of the neuronal dopamine transporter. Estimated Ki values of numerous substrates and inhibitors for the COS-dopamine transporter and the cloned human neuronal transporter (human dopamine transporter) correlate well with the exception of a few notable compounds, including the endogenous neurotransmitter dopamine, the dopamine transporter inhibitor GBR 12,909 and the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine. As with native neuronal and cloned dopamine transporters, the uptake velocity was sodium-sensitive and reduced by phorbol ester pre-treatment. Two mRNA species of 3.8 and 4.0 kb in COS-7 cells were revealed by Northern blot analysis similar in size to that seen in native neuronal tissue. A reverse-transcribed PCR analysis confirmed the existence of a processed dopamine transporter. However, no immunoreactive proteins of expected dopamine transporter molecular size or [3H]WIN 35,428 binding activity were detected. A partial cDNA of 1.3 kb, isolated from a COS-1 cDNA library and encoding transmembrane domains 1-6, displayed a deduced amino acid sequence homology of approximately 96% to the human dopamine transporter. Taken together, the data suggest the existence of a non-neuronal endogenous high affinity dopamine uptake system sharing strong functional and molecular homology to that of the cloned neuronal dopamine transporter. PMID:10371159

Sugamori, K S; Lee, F J; Pristupa, Z B; Niznik, H B

1999-05-21

128

APS Initiatives for Broadening Participation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Women currently earn only about 20% of physics degrees, while African Americans and Hispanic Americans combined -- representing 34% of the US population in their 20's -- earn only 9% and 5-6% of the Bachelor and Doctoral degrees respectively. To address these disparities, and improve conditions for everyone who studies physics, the APS devotes significant resources to addressing these concerns and to enabling individuals and groups to work with the APS to advance these goals. In this presentation, I will outline several of our most significant programs, give data that informs decisions to adopt programs, and describe current plans. Included in this is the new APS Bridge Program (www.APSBridgeProgram.org) for increasing underrepresented minority participation at the PhD level, the APS Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics (go.aps.org/cuwip), and the APS Minority Scholars Program (www.MinoritiesInPhysics.org). Please bring your ideas and concerns for how we might improve participation for all.

Hodapp, Theodore

2013-03-01

129

Radiological considerations in the operation of the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) is a facility that uses the existing APS linac to accelerate electrons up to an energy of 700 MeV. These electrons are transported through the Pm into a portion of the booster synchrotrons and on into the LEUTL main enclosure (MIL 97). Figure 1 shows the layout of the LEUTL building, which consists of

Moe

1998-01-01

130

Vasopressin-dependent coupling between sodium transport and water flow in a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line.  

PubMed

Water balance is achieved through the ability of the kidney to control water reabsorption in the connecting tubule and the collecting duct. In a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line (mCCD(c11)), physiological concentrations of arginine vasopressin increased both electrogenic, amiloride-sensitive, epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-mediated sodium transport measured by the short-circuit current (Isc) method and water flow (Jv apical to basal) measured by gravimetry with similar activation coefficient K(1/2) (6 and 12?pM, respectively). Jv increased linearly according to the osmotic gradient across the monolayer. A small but highly significant Jv was also measured under isoosmotic conditions. To test the coupling between sodium reabsorption and water flow, mCCD(c11) cells were treated for 24?h under isoosmotic condition with either diluent, amiloride, vasopressin or vasopressin and amiloride. Isc, Jv, and net chemical sodium fluxes were measured across the same monolayers. Around 30% of baseline and 50% of vasopressin-induced water flow is coupled to an amiloride-sensitive, ENaC-mediated, electrogenic sodium transport, whereas the remaining flow is coupled to an amiloride-insensitive, nonelectrogenic sodium transport mediated by an unknown electroneutral transporter. The mCCD(c11) cell line is a first example of a mammalian tight epithelium allowing quantitative study of the coupling between sodium and water transport. Our data are consistent with the 'near isoosmotic' fluid transport model. PMID:21178974

Gaeggeler, Hans-Peter; Guillod, Yann; Loffing-Cueni, Dominique; Loffing, Johannes; Rossier, Bernard C

2011-04-01

131

AP1 Regulation of Proliferation and Initiation of Apoptosis in Erythropoietin-Dependent Erythroid Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor AP1 has been implicated in the induction of apoptosis in cells in response to stress factors and growth factor withdrawal. We report here that AP1 is necessary for the induction of apoptosis following hormone withdrawal in the erythropoietin (EPO)-dependent erythroid cell line HCD57. AP1 DNA binding activity increased upon withdrawal of HCD57 cells from EPO. A dominant

SARAH M. JACOBS-HELBER; AMITTHA WICKREMA; MICHAEL J. BIRRER; STEPHEN T. SAWYER

1998-01-01

132

Control units for APS power supplies  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) accelerator facility is made up of five major subsystems in addition to the linac: the positron accumulator ring (PAR), low energy transport (LET), booster synchrotron (SYNCH), high energy transport (HET), the storage ring (SR). Each subsystem has multiple magnet power supply combinations, some requiring multiple of operation. These magnet and power supply combinations computer controlled and monitored. The power supply control unit (PSCU) is the first layer of hardware and software above the power supply itself and is described in this paper. The description includes the basic philosophy for each of operation and how it influences the topology and of implementing control. The design of the analog reference blocks (ARBs) influenced the design of other custom functions well as the feedback controls for vibration and other dynamic corrections. The command set supported by the PSCU is discussed.

Despe, O.D.; Saunders, C.; McGhee, D.G.

1993-07-01

133

Mechanisms of cellular uptake, intracellular transportation, and degradation of CIGB-300, a Tat-conjugated peptide, in tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

CIGB-300 is a cyclic synthetic peptide that induces apoptosis in malignant cells, elicits antitumor activity in cancer animal models, and shows tumor reduction signs when assayed in first-in-human phase I trial in patients with cervical tumors. CIGB-300 impairs phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 through targeting the substrate's phosphoacceptor domain. CIGB-300 was linked to the cell penetrating peptide Tat to facilitate the delivery into cells. Previously, we showed that CIGB-300 had a differential antiproliferative behavior in different tumor cell lines. In this work, we studied differential antiproliferative behavior in terms of cellular uptake, intracellular transportation, and degradation in tumor cell lines with dissimilar sensitivity to CIGB-300. The internalization of CIGB-300 was studied in different malignant cell lines. We found that the cell membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as main receptors for extracellular CIGB-300 uptake. The most sensitive tumor cell lines showed higher intracellular incorporation of CIGB-300 in comparison to less sensitive cell lines. Furthermore, CIGB-300 uptake is time- and concentration-dependent in all studied cell lines. It was shown that CIGB-300 has the ability to penetrate cells mainly by direct membrane translocation. However, a minor proportion of the peptide uses an energy-dependent endocytic pathway mechanism to gain access into cells. CIGB-300 is internalized and transported into cells preferentially by caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Lysosomes are involved in CIGB-300 degradation; highly sensitive cell lines showed degradation at earlier times compared to low sensitive cells. Altogether, our data suggests a mechanism of internalization, vesicular transportation, and degradation for CIGB-300 in tumor cells. PMID:24773585

Benavent Acero, Fernando R; Perera Negrin, Yasser; Alonso, Daniel F; Perea, Silvio E; Gomez, Daniel E; Farina, Hernán G

2014-06-01

134

Transport of digoxin by human P-glycoprotein expressed in a porcine kidney epithelial cell line (LLC-PK1).  

PubMed

This article represents the first evidence that the renal secretion of the commonly used drug, digoxin, is mediated by P-glycoprotein. In this study, it was demonstrated that digoxin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein, and the mechanism of a clinically important drug interaction, such as digoxin-quinidine, was elucidated. Human P-glycoprotein was expressed on the apical membrane of the porcine kidney epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1 by transfecting with human MDR1 cDNA. The expression and function of P-glycoprotein were confirmed by Southern and Western blotting, RNase protection assay, immunostaining and transporting activity for vinblastine. The transepithelial transport of [3H]digoxin was measured across the cell monolayers grown on microporous polycarbonate membrane filters. The transfectant cells exhibited markedly greater basal-to-apical transport and less apical-to-basal transport than the host cells, and the former was 8-fold greater than the latter. The augmented transepithelial transport resulted from the increased efflux from cells to apical side. This oriented transport was inhibited by the presence of 20 microM vinblastine, quinidine or verapamil. The rate of efflux to the apical side was 2-fold greater than that to the basal side. Quinidine inhibited the efflux to the apical side but did not affect transport into the basal side. These findings demonstrate that digoxin is transported by human P-glycoprotein, which is a previously undiscovered drug transport system in the kidney other than organic cation and anion transport systems, and suggest a molecular mechanism for the renal tubular secretion of digoxin as well as clinically important digoxin-quinidine interaction via P-glycoprotein. PMID:1359120

Tanigawara, Y; Okamura, N; Hirai, M; Yasuhara, M; Ueda, K; Kioka, N; Komano, T; Hori, R

1992-11-01

135

AP Chemistry Course Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people with a penchant for benzene rings and other topics, the AP Chemistry Course site is a great resource. Designed for both educators and students, the site contains resources for teaching to the AP exam as well as a wealth of other items. Interested parties should explore the Classroom Resources where they will find seven different lab activities, such as "Misconceptions and Issues in Quantum Theory" and "Women Scientists of the Manhattan Project.â Additionally, the site features Other Core Resources which includes an open forum for educators along with some basic overviews for crafting a one-semester course in chemistry.

136

A Three-Dimensional Simulation of a Tropical Squall Line: Convective Organization and Thermodynamic Vertical Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional convective-scale simulations of an African squall line, observed during the French COPT 81 experiment, are presented. Three simulations with different representations of large-scale forcing are performed on a domain of 50 km (along the line) by 80 km (across the line). They exhibit a similar circulation pattern characteristic of a squall line, but differ in intensity. The first simulation

Jean-Luc Redelsperger; Jean-Philippe Lafore

1988-01-01

137

GCC185 plays independent roles in Golgi structure maintenance and AP-1-mediated vesicle tethering  

PubMed Central

GCC185 is a long coiled-coil protein localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) that functions in maintaining Golgi structure and tethering mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR)–containing transport vesicles en route to the Golgi. We report the identification of two distinct domains of GCC185 needed either for Golgi structure maintenance or transport vesicle tethering, demonstrating the independence of these two functions. The domain needed for vesicle tethering binds to the clathrin adaptor AP-1, and cells depleted of GCC185 accumulate MPRs in transport vesicles that are AP-1 decorated. This study supports a previously proposed role of AP-1 in retrograde transport of MPRs from late endosomes to the Golgi and indicates that docking may involve the interaction of vesicle-associated AP-1 protein with the TGN-associated tethering protein GCC185.

Brown, Frank C.; Schindelhaim, Carmel H.

2011-01-01

138

Increased Cat3-mediated cationic amino acid transport functionally compensates in Cat1 knockout cell lines.  

PubMed

Arginine transport is important for a number of biological processes in vertebrates, and its transport may be rate-limiting for the production of nitric oxide. The majority of L-Arg transport is mediated by System y+, although several other carriers have been kinetically defined. System y+ cationic amino acid transport is mediated by proteins encoded by a family of genes, Cat1, Cat2, and Cat3. High affinity L-arginine transport was investigated in embryonic fibroblast cells derived from Cat1 knockout mice that lack functional Cat1. Both wild type and knockout cells transport arginine with comparable Km and Vmax. However, the apparent affinity for lysine transport was 2.4 times lower in Cat1(-/-) cells when compared with wild type cells, a property characteristic of Cat3-mediated transport. Northern analysis-documented Cat2 mRNA increased 2-fold, whereas Cat3 mRNA levels increased 11-fold in Cat1(-/-) relative to Cat1(+/+) cells. The low affinity Cat2a mRNA was not detectably expressed in these cells. Even though Cat3 expression is normally limited to adult brain, there was a large increase in the amount of Cat3 protein present at the plasma membrane of Cat1(-/-) embryonic fibroblast cells. These results suggest that Cat3 compensates for the loss of functional Cat1 in cells derived from Cat1 knockout mice and mediates the majority of high affinity arginine transport. PMID:9614060

Nicholson, B; Sawamura, T; Masaki, T; MacLeod, C L

1998-06-12

139

The interaction of celecoxib with MDR transporters enhances the activity of mitomycin C in a bladder cancer cell line  

PubMed Central

Background An in vitro model was developed to understand if celecoxib could synergize with Mitomycin C (MMC), commonly used for the prevention of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer recurrence, and eventually elucidate if the mechanism of interaction involves multi drug resistance (MDR) transporters. Methods UMUC-3, a non COX-2 expressing bladder cancer cell line, and UMUC-3-CX, a COX-2 overexpressing transfectant, as well as 5637, a COX-2 overexpressing cell line, and 5637si-CX, a non COX-2 expressing silenced 5637 cell line, were used in the present study. The expression of COX-2 and MDR pumps (P-gp, MDR-1 and BCRP) was explored through western blot. The anti-proliferative effect of celecoxib and MMC was studied with MTT test. Three biological permeability assays (Drug Transport Experiment, Substrate Transporter Inhibition, and ATP cell depletion) were combined to study the interaction between MDR transporters and celecoxib. Finally, the ability of celecoxib to restore MMC cell accumulation was investigated. Results The anti-proliferative effect of celecoxib and MMC were investigated alone and in co-administration, in UMUC-3, UMUC-3-CX, 5637 and 5637si-CX cells. When administered alone, the effect of MMC was 8-fold greater in UMUC-3. However, co-administration of 1 ?M, 5 ?M, and 10 ?M celecoxib and MMC caused a 2,3-fold cytotoxicity increase in UMUC-3-CX cell only. MMC cytotoxicity was not affected by celecoxib co-administration either in 5637, or in 5637si-CX cells. As a result of all finding from the permeability experiments, celecoxib was classified as P-gp unambiguous substrate: celecoxib is transported by MDR pumps and interferes with the efflux of MMC. Importantly, among all transporters, BCRP was only overexpressed in UMUC-3-CX cells, but not in 5637 and 5637si-CX. Conclusions The UMUC-3-CX cell line resembles a more aggressive phenotype with a lower response to MMC compared to the wt counterpart. However, the administration of celecoxib in combination to MMC causes a significant and dose dependent gain of the anti-proliferative activity. This finding may be the result of a direct interaction between celecoxib and MDR transporters. Indeed, BCRP is overexpressed in UMUC-3-CX, but not in UMUC-3, 5637, and 5637si-CX, in which celecoxib is ineffective.

2013-01-01

140

Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

2013-03-01

141

Distributed Hierarchical Control for Railway Passenger-Dedicated Line Intelligent Transportation System Based on Multi-Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Through detailed analysis of control problem of railway passenger-dedicated line intelligent transportation system, a distributed\\u000a hierarchical control method was proposed by blending the factitious division of hierarchical system and the natural division\\u000a of distributed control system. This method is based on the hierarchical control theory of large scale system, and includes\\u000a three levels: the organization level, the coordination level, and

Jingdong Sun; Yao Wang; Shan Wang

2010-01-01

142

The new Cyclone 18\\/9 beam transport line at the CNA (Sevilla) for high energy PIXE applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cyclone 18\\/9 cyclotron system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Sevilla, Spain) is commonly used to create short life radioisotopes for PET applications. Besides, an external beam transport line has been recently installed in one of the target ports with two major purposes: to study the effects of 18MeV protons irradiation on the behaviour of electronic devices for space

J. García López; I. Ortega-Feliu; Y. Morilla; A. Ferrero

2008-01-01

143

Positive influence of AP-2? transcription factor on cadherin gene expression and differentiation of the ocular surface  

PubMed Central

The family of transcription factors Activating protein-2 (AP-2) are known to play important roles in numerous developmental events, including those associated with differentiation of stratified epithelia. However, to date, the influence of the AP-2 genes on endogenous gene expression in the stratified epithelia and how this affects differentiation has not been well defined. The following study examines the detailed expression of the AP-2? and AP-2? proteins in the stratified epithelia of the ocular surface, including that in the cornea and developing eyelids. The effect of altered levels of the AP-2? gene on ocular surface differentiation was also examined using a corneal epithelial cell line and AP-2? chimeric mice. Immunolocalization studies revealed that, while AP-2? was broadly expressed throughout all cell layers of the stratified corneal epithelium, AP-2? expression was confined to cell compartments more basally located. AP-2? was also highly expressed in the less differentiated cell layers of the eyelid epidermis. Overexpression of the AP-2? gene in the corneal cell line, SIRC, resulted in a dramatic change in cell phenotype including a clumping growth behavior that was distinct from the smooth monolayer of the parent cell line. Accompanying this change was an up-regulation in levels of the cell adhesion molecule, N-cadherin. Examination of the ocular surface of AP-2? chimeric mice, derived from a mixed population of AP-2??/? and AP-2?+/+, revealed that a down-regulation in E-cadherin expression is correlated with location of the AP-2??/? null cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that AP-2? participates in regulating differentiation of the ocular surface through induction in cadherin expression.

Sivak, Jeremy M.; Papagiotas, Steve S.; Kim, Jennifer; Nottoli, Timothy; Williams, Trevor; Fini, M. Elizabeth

2008-01-01

144

APS undergraduate brainstorming summit report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IN 2004, the Education Committee was charged with seeking additional strategies to increase the exposure of undergraduate students to physiology studies and careers. Following a reaffirmation of this charge in the 2006 strategic plan, the American Physiological Society (APS) hosted an undergraduate brainstorming summit in late September of 2006.

PhD Robert G. Carroll (East Carolina State University Department of Physiology); PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education); Van Doze (University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences Pharmacology, Physiology, and Therapeutics); PhD Richard Faircloth (Anne Arundel Community College Dept. of Biology); Patricia Finkenstadt (Phoenix College); PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences)

2007-12-09

145

Paracellular Transport through Healthy and Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cell Lines - Do We Have a Proper Model?  

PubMed

It has been reported recently that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) besides transcellular chloride transport, also controls the paracellular permeability of bronchial epithelium. The aim of this study was to test whether overexpressing wtCFTR solely regulates paracellular permeability of cell monolayers. To answer this question we used a CFBE41o- cell line transfected with wtCFTR or mutant F508del-CFTR and compered them with parental line and healthy 16HBE14o- cells. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular fluorescein flux were measured under control and CFTR-stimulating conditions. CFTR stimulation significant decreased TER in 16HBE14o- and also in CFBE41o- cells transfected with wtCFTR. In contrast, TER increased upon stimulation in CFBE41o- cells and CFBE41o- cells transfected with F508del-CFTR. Under non-stimulated conditions, all four cell lines had similar paracellular fluorescein flux. Stimulation increased only the paracellular permeability of the 16HBE14o- cell monolayers. We observed that 16HBE14o- cells were significantly smaller and showed a different structure of cell-cell contacts than CFBE41o- and its overexpressing clones. Consequently, 16HBE14o- cells have about 80% more cell-cell contacts through which electrical current and solutes can leak. Also tight junction protein composition is different in 'healthy' 16HBE14o- cells compared to 'cystic fibrosis' CFBE41o- cells. We found that claudin-3 expression was considerably stronger in 16HBE14o- cells than in the three CFBE41o- cell clones and thus independent of the presence of functional CFTR. Together, CFBE41o- cell line transfection with wtCFTR modifies transcellular conductance, but not the paracellular permeability. We conclude that CFTR overexpression is not sufficient to fully reconstitute transport in CF bronchial epithelium. Hence, it is not recommended to use those cell lines to study CFTR-dependent epithelial transport. PMID:24945658

Molenda, Natalia; Urbanova, Katarina; Weiser, Nelly; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Günzel, Dorothee; Schillers, Hermann

2014-01-01

146

Paracellular Transport through Healthy and Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cell Lines - Do We Have a Proper Model?  

PubMed Central

It has been reported recently that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) besides transcellular chloride transport, also controls the paracellular permeability of bronchial epithelium. The aim of this study was to test whether overexpressing wtCFTR solely regulates paracellular permeability of cell monolayers. To answer this question we used a CFBE41o– cell line transfected with wtCFTR or mutant F508del-CFTR and compered them with parental line and healthy 16HBE14o– cells. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular fluorescein flux were measured under control and CFTR-stimulating conditions. CFTR stimulation significant decreased TER in 16HBE14o– and also in CFBE41o– cells transfected with wtCFTR. In contrast, TER increased upon stimulation in CFBE41o– cells and CFBE41o– cells transfected with F508del-CFTR. Under non-stimulated conditions, all four cell lines had similar paracellular fluorescein flux. Stimulation increased only the paracellular permeability of the 16HBE14o– cell monolayers. We observed that 16HBE14o– cells were significantly smaller and showed a different structure of cell-cell contacts than CFBE41o– and its overexpressing clones. Consequently, 16HBE14o– cells have about 80% more cell-cell contacts through which electrical current and solutes can leak. Also tight junction protein composition is different in ‘healthy’ 16HBE14o– cells compared to ‘cystic fibrosis’ CFBE41o– cells. We found that claudin-3 expression was considerably stronger in 16HBE14o– cells than in the three CFBE41o– cell clones and thus independent of the presence of functional CFTR. Together, CFBE41o– cell line transfection with wtCFTR modifies transcellular conductance, but not the paracellular permeability. We conclude that CFTR overexpression is not sufficient to fully reconstitute transport in CF bronchial epithelium. Hence, it is not recommended to use those cell lines to study CFTR-dependent epithelial transport.

Weiser, Nelly; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Gunzel, Dorothee; Schillers, Hermann

2014-01-01

147

Transepithelial transport in cell culture: d Glucose transport by a pig kidney cell line (LLC-PK 1 )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The pig kidney cell line LLC-PK1 cultured on a collagen coated membrane filter formed a continuous sheet of oriented asymmetrical epithelial cells joined by occluding junctions. A transepithelial electrical potential (PD) and short-circuit current (SCC) were dependent on the presence of Na and sugar in the apical bathing solution. In the presence of 5.5mm d-glucose, a PD of 2.8 mV,

Dayton S. Misfeldt; Martin J. Sanders

1981-01-01

148

Cement-lined pipes for water lubricated transport of heavy oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents different strategies for preventing oil from fouling the walls of core-annular flow pipelines and also for restart from an unexpected pipeline shut-down. The most promising of these strategies is to use cement-lined pipes. Experiments presented here show that hydrated cement-lined pipes are highly oleophobic and therefore resist fouling for long term. A pilot scale cement-lined core-annular flow

Michael S. Arney; Geraldo S. Ribeiro; Emilio Guevara; Runyan Bai; Daniel D. Joseph

1996-01-01

149

Magnetic field-line wandering and cross-field transport of Solar Energetic Particles in a Parker-field geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unsolved problem of the large longitudinal spread of energetic particles early in a solar event is addressed by solving a Fokker-Planck (FP) type kinetic equation in a Parker spiral field by means of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The importance of including field-line meandering within a FP description has recently been emphasized by Laitinen et al (2013). While they used a uniform background magnetic field, here random walking magnetic field lines are superimposed on a Parker spiral configuration. The new model is compared to the standard heliospheric transport model solution. The longitudinal extent of a Solar Energetic Particle event, as observed at 1 AU from the Sun, is modeled to allow for comparisons to recent multi-spacecraft observations. We conclude that the particle propagation along meandering field lines is of importance for the first hours of a solar energetic particle event.

Effenberger, F.; Laitinen, T. L.; Kopp, A.; Dalla, S.; Marsh, M.

2013-12-01

150

Novel on-line supervisory technique for Q-factor in the optical supervisory channel of optical transport network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a novel hierarchical model of optical transport network (OTN) and discusses the functional architecture of optical supervisory channel (OSC) with a Q-factor on-line supervision module which can provide a reliable evidence for the transmission quality of operation, administration and maintenance (OA&M) signals in the OSC subsystem of OTN. The quality indication of OSC signals is transferred to the network management system (NMS). The principles of Q-factor detection by a numerical calculation method are presented, and also, an on-line supervisory scheme based on DSP and high-speed A/D chip techniques is set up. The results indicate that the tendency of the calculated Q values matches the actual BER, and it's feasible and accurate to implement Q-factor on-line supervision in OSC of OTN.

Tang, Yong; Sun, Xiaohan; Zhang, Mingde; Ding, Dong

2001-10-01

151

Containment integrity analysis for the Westinghouse Advanced AP600  

SciTech Connect

Since 1987, Westinghouse has been performing containment cooling analyses in support of the advanced AP600 plant design. This analysis effort was intended to verify the feasibility of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) features of the AP600 design, which is being jointly developed by Westinghouse, Burns and Roe Company, and Avondale Industries. To support this goal, the response of the AP600 containment has been analyzed for a large-break loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and for a large steam line break (SLB). These cases were chosen based on the characteristic mass and energy releases each scenario would impose on the containment, with LOCA releases taxing the long-term heat-removal aspects while the SLB release typically defines the limiting short-term response. The transient results indicate that the PCCS design is feasible and capable of removing sufficient heat to limit containment pressure to within acceptable limits.

Gagnon, A.F.; Howe, K.S. (Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1989-11-01

152

The Electronic ApJ Letters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In its 100th year, the Astrophysical Journal has gone to electronic publication of the Letters section. Starting with the July, 1995, issues the full text of the Letters can be found at http://www.aas.org/ApJ/. The electronic journal is published every 10 days and comes out one month before the issue date of the paper version. The special features of the electronic version include linking to the abstracts of the astronomical literature through the Astrophysics Data System, a strong search engine, easy navigation within the electronic version and forward referencing. These features and other functionality, which has been added as a result of reader feedback, make the electronic ApJ Letters the most effective scholarly journal on the World Wide Web today. As of January, 1996, a new version of the Letters with even more functionality will be made available and will be demonstrated at the San Antonio meeting. Future plans are to bring the full Astrophysical Journal plus the Supplements on line by January 1997. At that point 40 percent of the world's astronomical literature will be available electronicaly. Remember, user's comments will help to shape the future directions of the electronic journals.

Boyce, P. B.

1995-12-01

153

The AP-2 family of transcription factors  

PubMed Central

The AP-2 family of transcription factors consists of five different proteins in humans and mice: AP-2?, AP-2?, AP-2?, AP-2? and AP-2?. Frogs and fish have known orthologs of some but not all of these proteins, and homologs of the family are also found in protochordates, insects and nematodes. The proteins have a characteristic helix-span-helix motif at the carboxyl terminus, which, together with a central basic region, mediates dimerization and DNA binding. The amino terminus contains the transactivation domain. AP-2 proteins are first expressed in primitive ectoderm of invertebrates and vertebrates; in vertebrates, they are also expressed in the emerging neural-crest cells, and AP-2?-/- animals have impairments in neural-crest-derived facial structures. AP-2? is indispensable for kidney development and AP-2? is necessary for the formation of trophectoderm cells shortly after implantation; AP-2? and AP-2? levels are elevated in human mammary carcinoma and seminoma. The general functions of the family appear to be the cell-type-specific stimulation of proliferation and the suppression of terminal differentiation during embryonic development.

Eckert, Dawid; Buhl, Sandra; Weber, Susanne; Jager, Richard; Schorle, Hubert

2005-01-01

154

Detecting protected layer-3 rogue APs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unauthorized rogue access points (APs), such as those brought into a corporate campus by employees, pose a security threat as they may be poorly managed or insufficiently secured. Any attacker in the vicinity can easily get onto the internal network through a rogue AP, bypassing all perimeter security measures. Existing detection solutions work well for detecting layer-2 rogue APs. It

Hongda Yin; Guanling Chen; Jie Wang

2007-01-01

155

Two peptides, TsAP-1 and TsAP-2, from the venom of the Brazilian yellow scorpion, Tityus serrulatus: evaluation of their antimicrobial and anticancer activities.  

PubMed

Here we report two novel 17-mer amidated linear peptides (TsAP-1 and TsAP-2) whose structures were deduced from cDNAs cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library of the Brazilian yellow scorpion, Tityus serrulatus. Both mature peptides were structurally-characterised following their location in chromatographic fractions of venom and synthetic replicates of each were subjected to a range of biological assays. The peptides were each active against model test micro-organisms but with different potencies. TsAP-1 was of low potency against all three test organisms (MICs 120-160 ?M), whereas TsAP-2 was of high potency against the Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 5 ?M) and the yeast, Candida albicans (10 ?M). Haemolytic activity of TsAP-1 was low (4% at 160 ?M) and in contrast, that of TsAP-2 was considerably higher (18% at 20 ?M). Substitution of four neutral amino acid residues with Lys residues in each peptide had dramatic effects on their antimicrobial potencies and haemolytic activities, particularly those of TsAP-1. The MICs of the enhanced cationic analogue (TsAP-S1) were 2.5 ?M for S. aureus/C. albicans and 5 ?M for E. coli but with an associated large increase in haemolytic activity (30% at 5 ?M). The same Lys residue substitutions in TsAP-2 produced a dramatic effect on its MIC for E. coli lowering this from >320 ?M to 5 ?M. TsAP-1 was ineffective against three of the five human cancer cell lines tested while TsAP-2 inhibited the growth of all five. Lys residue substitution of both peptides enhanced their potency against all five cell lines with TsAp-S2 being the most potent with IC50 values ranging between 0.83 and 2.0 ?M. TsAP-1 and TsAP-2 are novel scorpion venom peptides with broad spectrum antimicrobial and anticancer cell activities the potencies of which can be significantly enhanced by increasing their cationicity. PMID:23770440

Guo, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Chengbang; Du, Qiang; Wei, Ran; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

2013-09-01

156

Transcriptional activation of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 in the pre-B cell line Ea3.123.  

PubMed Central

Uptake and storage of monoamines in secretory granules is accomplished by vesicular monoamine transporters, and it is likely that vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is important for histamine transport in vivo. In the present study we have used the pre-B-cell line Ea3.123 to investigate the mechanisms involved in the transcriptional activation of the VMAT2 gene. In Ea3.123 cells, VMAT2 mRNA abundance was increased following mobilization of intracellular calcium, and this increased mRNA expression was paralleled by changes in l-histidine decarboxylase mRNA, suggesting that VMAT2 may be responsible for sequestration of histamine into secretory vesicles in this cell line. We cloned the 5'-flanking region of the VMAT2 gene and determined its transcriptional start site by primer extension of rat VMAT2 mRNA. There was no TATA or TATA-like sequence upstream of this region; instead there were GC-rich elements, Ca2+/cAMP-response-element- and SP1-binding motifs. Approx. 900 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site was a purine-pyrimidine repeat sequence that may form a Z-DNA structure. A series of 5'-deletional VMAT2-promoter segments cloned upstream of a luciferase reporter were capable of driving transcription and indicated the presence of multiple regulatory elements, while stimulation with ionomycin or PMA resulted in an increased level of the transcriptional activity of the 5'-promoter segments studied.

Watson, F; Deavall, D G; Macro, J A; Kiernan, R; Dimaline, R

1999-01-01

157

Simulation of the transport of Rn222 using on-line and off-line global models at different horizontal resolutions: a detailed comparison with measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-lived radionuclide Rn222 is emitted at a fairly constant rate from the continents and is a good surrogate for studying the transport of "air pollution" from polluted continental areas to clean, remote regions. The large concentration gradients of 2 3 orders of magnitude which exist between the continents and the remote atmosphere present a major challenge to the modelling of horizontal and vertical atmospheric transport. We use the global off-line tracer transport model TM3 at 3 different resolutions. Input to the model consists of meteorological data for the year 1993 obtained from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The same meteorological data is used to constrain the climate model ECHAM4-T42-L19. Using these meteorological data, Rn222 simulations are used to evaluate and document model performance and associated uncertainties. High time-resolution measurements made at 2 continental stations, 2 stations under continental influence and 4 remote sites, and aircraft measurements obtained during the NARE aircraft campaign are used for a detailed comparison.Although in specific regions there are inter-model differences of up to a factor of 2 in the calculated boundary layer concentrations, these differences are not translated into a better performance of either model for the stations used for comparison. We generally obtain high correlations of model results and measurements; these range from r= 0.6 0.8 for the continental and coastal stations and 0.5 0.6 for the remote sites. Calculated mean concentrations and corresponding standard deviations generally agree favourably with observations, lending credibility to the usefulness of our models for evaluating transport of air pollutants from continental sources to remote regions. The main cause of model deviations is probably related to uncertainties in the meteorological input data set provided by the ECMWF model and to a lesser extent by our knowledge of the spatial distribution of Rn222 emissions and uncertainties involving sub-grid scale parameterization of vertical transport, e.g., diffusion and convection.

Dentener, Frank; Feichter, Johann; Jeuken, Ad

1999-07-01

158

Molecular evolution of the AP2 subfamily.  

PubMed

The AP2 (APETALA2)/EREBP (Ethylene Responsive Element Binding Protein) multigene family includes developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors. AP2/EREBP genes are divided into two subfamilies: AP2 genes with two AP2 domains and EREBP genes with a single AP2/ERF (Ethylene Responsive Element Binding Factor) domain. Based on previous phylogenetic analyses, AP2 genes can be divided into two clades, AP2 and ANT groups. To clarify the molecular evolution of the AP2 subfamily, we isolated and sequenced genes with two AP2 domains from three gymnosperms, Cycas revoluta, Ginkgo biloba, and Gnetum parvifolium,as well as from the moss Physcomitrella patens. Expressions of AP2-like genes, including AP2, in Arabidopsis thaliana are regulated by the microRNA miR172. We found that the target site of miR172 is significantly conserved in gymnosperm AP2 homologs, suggesting that regulatory mechanisms of gene expression using microRNA have been conserved over the three hundred million years since the divergence of gymnosperm and flowering plant lineages. We inferred a phylogenetic relationship of these genes with the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and seed-plant genes available in public DNA databases. The phylogenetic tree showed that the AP2 subfamily diverged into the AP2 and ANT groups before the last common ancestor of land plants and after C. reinhardtii diverged from the land-plant lineage. The tree also indicated that each AP2 and ANT group further diverged into several clades through gene duplications prior to the divergence of gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:16388920

Shigyo, Mikao; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Ito, Motomi

2006-02-01

159

An Agent-based Transportation Route Planning Method for Led Fabricating Line and Its Evaluation Using Lagrangian Relaxation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most of Light Emitting Diode (LED) semiconductor fabricating line, AGVs (Automated Guided Vehicles) are used to transport the products between the facilities in order to ensure dust-free operation in the transportation systems. It has been demanded to realize the route planning system which speedily derives a feasible transportation route so that each AGV does not interfere with other AGVs. In this paper, we applied an agent-based optimization method for the route planning problems with multiple AGVs in LED fabricating bay in which the total transportation time is minimized. In the agent-based method, each AGV agent independently searches its candidate of route. The imitated pheromone is effectively used to generate the route which avoids the collision among AGVs. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the lower bound of the original problem is obtained by using the Lagrangian relaxation technique. The performances of the proposed method are evaluated by using the value of duality gap for a large scale problem. The effectiveness of the agent-based optimization method is demonstrated.

Nishi, Tatsushi; Sotobayashi, Ken; Ando, Masakazu; Konishi, Masami

160

Compound and Perpendicular Diffusion of Cosmic Rays and Random Walk of the Field Lines. I. Parallel Particle Transport Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Chapman-Kolmogorov equation description of compound transport of cosmic rays due to random walk of the magnetic field lines, and for a range of models for particle transport along the field, is developed. The probability distribution, Pp, for the particle propagation along the field corresponds to either (1) a ballistic or scatter-free model, (2) a parallel diffusion model, or (3) a telegrapher equation model. The probability distribution function (pdf) describing the magnetic field statistics, PFRW, is assumed to be Gaussian. These models are used to discuss features of the dropout events in the low-energy, solar cosmic-ray intensity observed by Mazur et al. We show that the Chuvilgin and Ptuskin transport equation for compound diffusion, at sufficiently late times, can be written as a fractional Fokker-Planck equation, involving ordinary diffusion parallel to the mean magnetic field and compound diffusion of the particles normal to the field. The Green's function solution of the equation and the corresponding spatial moments of the particle transport, both parallel and perpendicular to the field, are obtained. The two-dimensional pdf for compound diffusion across the field is obtained as an inverse Laplace transform, or as a real integral.

Webb, G. M.; Zank, G. P.; Kaghashvili, E. Kh.; le Roux, J. A.

2006-11-01

161

APS Presents Awards at 2008 ABRCMS Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article in The Physiologist. APS Presents Awards at Annual ABRCMS Conference APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2008 APS Intersociety Meeting: The Integrative Biology of Exercise Education Special Sessions at Experimental Biology 2009 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- APS Presents Awards at Annual ABRCMS Conference The APS presented awards to minority undergraduate researchers and was a major conference sponsor at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS) at DisneyÃÂs Coronado Springs Resort, Lake Buena Vista, FL from November 5-9, 2008.

2009-02-01

162

Microarray-based detection and expression analysis of ABC and SLC transporters in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Multiple drug resistance of cancer cells is multifactorial. A microarray technique may provide information about new candidate genes playing a role in drug resistance. Drug membrane transporters from ABC and SLC families play a main role in this phenomenon. This study demonstrates alterations in ABC and SLC gene expression levels in methotrexate, cisplatin, doxorubicin, vincristine, topotecan and paclitaxel-resistant variant of W1 ovarian cancer cell line. Resistant W1 cell lines were derived by stepwise selection of cells in increasing concentration of drugs. Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Human Genome U219 Array Strip was used for hybridizations. Statistical significance was determined by independent sample t-test. The genes having altered expression levels in drug-resistant sublines were selected and filtered by scater plot. Genes up/downregulated more than threefolds were selected and listed. Among ABC genes, seven were upregulated and three were downregulated. Three genes: ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCG2 were upregulated very significantly (over tenfold). One ABCA8 was significantly downregulated. Among 38 SLC genes, 18 were upregulated, 16 were downregulated and four were up- or downregulated dependent on the cell line. Expression of 10 SLC genes was changed very significantly (over tenfold). Four genes were significantly increased: SLC6A1, SLC9A2, SLC12A1, SLC16A6 and six genes were significantly decreased: SLC2A14, SLC7A3, SLC7A8, SLC7A11, SLC16A14, SLC38A9. Based on the expression profiles, our results provide a preliminary insight into the relationship between drug resistance and expression of membrane transporters involved in drug resistance. Correlation of specific drug transporter with drug resistance requires further analysis. PMID:23462296

Januchowski, Rados?aw; Zawierucha, Piotr; Andrzejewska, Ma?gorzata; Ruci?ski, Marcin; Zabel, Maciej

2013-04-01

163

Localization of the AP-3 adaptor complex defines a novel endosomal exit site for lysosomal membrane proteins  

PubMed Central

The adaptor protein (AP) 3 adaptor complex has been implicated in the transport of lysosomal membrane proteins, but its precise site of action has remained controversial. Here, we show by immuno-electron microscopy that AP-3 is associated with budding profiles evolving from a tubular endosomal compartment that also exhibits budding profiles positive for AP-1. AP-3 colocalizes with clathrin, but to a lesser extent than does AP-1. The AP-3– and AP-1–bearing tubular compartments contain endocytosed transferrin, transferrin receptor, asialoglycoprotein receptor, and low amounts of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and the lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) 1 and 2. Quantitative analysis revealed that of these distinct cargo proteins, only LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are concentrated in the AP-3–positive membrane domains. Moreover, recycling of endocytosed LAMP-1 and CD63 back to the cell surface is greatly increased in AP-3–deficient cells. Based on these data, we propose that AP-3 defines a novel pathway by which lysosomal membrane proteins are transported from tubular sorting endosomes to lysosomes.

Peden, Andrew A.; Oorschot, Viola; Hesser, Boris A.; Austin, Cary D.; Scheller, Richard H.; Klumperman, Judith

2004-01-01

164

AP reclamation and reuse in RSRM propellant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solid propellant ingredient reclamation pilot plant has been evaluated at the Strategic Operations of Thiokol Corporation, located in Brigham City, Utah. The plant produces AP wet cake (95 percent AP, 5 percent water) for recycling at AP vendors. AP has been obtained from two standard propellant binder systems (PBAN and HTPB). Analytical work conducted at Thiokol indicates that the vendor-recrystallized AP meets Space Shuttle propellant specification requirements. Thiokol has processed 1-, 5-, and 600-gallon propellant mixes with the recrystallized AP. Processing, cast, cure, ballistic, mechanical, and safety properties have been evaluated. Phillips Laboratory static-test-fired 70-pound and 800-pound BATES motors. The data indicate that propellant processed with reclaimed AP has nominal properties.

Miks, Kathryn F.; Harris, Stacey A.

1995-01-01

165

Dynamics of intracellular clathrin/AP1- and clathrin/AP3-containing carriers.  

PubMed

Clathrin/AP1- and clathrin/AP3-coated vesicular carriers originate from endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. Here, we report the real-time visualization of these structures in living cells reliably tracked by rapid, three-dimensional imaging with the use of a spinning-disk confocal microscope. We imaged relatively sparse, diffraction-limited, fluorescent objects containing chimeric fluorescent protein (clathrin light chain, ? adaptor subunits, or dynamin2) with a spatial precision of up to ~30 nm and a temporal resolution of ~1 s. The dynamic characteristics of the intracellular clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 carriers are similar to those of endocytic clathrin/AP2 pits and vesicles; the clathrin/AP1 coats are, on average, slightly shorter-lived than their AP2 and AP3 counterparts. We confirmed that although dynamin2 is recruited as a burst to clathrin/AP2 pits immediately before their budding from the plasma membrane, we found no evidence supporting a similar association of dynamin2 with clathrin/AP1 or clathrin/AP3 carriers at any stage during their lifetime. We found no effects of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function or the K44A dominant-negative mutant of dynamin on AP1 and AP3 dynamics. This observation suggests that an alternative budding mechanism, yet to be discovered, is responsible for the scission step of clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 carriers. PMID:23103167

Kural, Comert; Tacheva-Grigorova, Silvia K; Boulant, Steeve; Cocucci, Emanuele; Baust, Thorsten; Duarte, Delfim; Kirchhausen, Tom

2012-11-29

166

Erratum: ``An Extensive Collection of Stellar Wind X-Ray Source Region Emission Line Parameters, Temperatures, Velocities, and Their Radial Distributions as Obtained from Chandra Observations of 17 OB Stars'' (ApJ, 668, 456 [2007])  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major objective of the paper was to provide a detailed tabulation of the observed HETGS X-ray emission-line flux ratios. We presented the MEG and HEG He-like f/i line ratios, the H-like to He-like (H/He) line ratios, and the He-like G-ratios. The stellar wind spatial locations of the X-ray sources were derived from the f/i ratios, and their associated X-ray temperatures were obtained from the H/He ratios (THHe). This information was used to verify the correlations between Rfir and R?=1 (Fig. 6) and THHe and Rfir (Fig. 8). However, we have realized that some of our tabulated uncertainties for these line ratios were underestimated, primarily for those lines with low-S/N data. Hence, the primary purpose of this erratum is to provide a tabulation of the corrected line ratios and their uncertainties. The details of our line fitting procedure are discussed in § 3.3. All uncertainties were determined using standard ?2 statistics (e.g., P. R. Bevington, 1969, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences [New York: McGraw-Hill]). First, we would like to clarify a statement in § 3.3 (second paragraph), which states that all parameter uncertainties were determined from 90% confidence regions, but in actuality all uncertainties were established using 68% confidence regions. With regards to the main point of this erratum, we found that our algorithm for determining the ?2 covariance matrix which is used to determine the uncertainties of the fitting parameters had an indexing error in the coding logic which produced errors in some of the off-diagonal terms. From our detailed examination of the code, we found that certain cases were especially vulnerable to this coding error, in particular, those cases where the ?2 normalization ranges were large (i.e., low-S/N data). This code correction has also produced changes in some of the line ratios and their derived quantities (e.g., Rfir and THHe). The algorithm has been corrected and the affected Tables (Tables 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7) have been updated and are given in corrected form in this erratum. We also corrected a few entries that were originally tabulated incorrectly, and some data were removed, as they did not satisfy our S/N criterion, i.e., the HEG S XV f/i data for ? Ori, the MEG S XV f/i data for ? Oph, and the HEG Mg XI and Si XIII f/i data for Cyg OB2 No. 9. As discussed in § 3.1, we stated that if a reasonable flux had been established, these results would be used only for estimating line ratios that provide interesting limits. However, the meaning of a ``reasonable`` flux limit was unclear; the criterion used is that the observed total net counts from all three He-like fir lines must have a S/N>=3. We also need to clarify the significance of blank entries in our tables. The blanks just indicate that the given line ratio has either an unphysical result that produces an anomalously large uncertainty, or did not satisfy our He-like S/N>=3 criterion. An example of an unphysical result is when the fitting procedure predicts an He-like i-line flux that is too small. This occurs primarily in low-S/N high-energy He-like fir lines, where the effects of line overlap can lead to a poor determination of the i-line. In addition, we would like to clarify why the relative uncertainties in Rfir are typically smaller than the corresponding f/i relative uncertainties. As shown in equation (2) of the paper, for ?/?C>1 and ne<

Waldron, W. L.; Cassinelli, J. P.

2008-06-01

167

Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions.  

PubMed

The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H(-) beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree. PMID:24593428

Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Lettry, Jacques; Midttun, Øystein; Scrivens, Richard

2014-02-01

168

Lithium in roAp stars with strong magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss lithium abundance and 6Li/7Li isotopic ratio in atmospheres of some magnetic roAp stars. Overabundances of the lithium were found in atmospheres of some roAp stars based on the analysis of both lithium lines at 6104 Å and 6708 Å as well as the high values of the 6Li/7Li isotopic ratio (0.2 - 0.5). These facts can be explained by lithium production in spallation reactions on stellar surface and by preserving 7Li and 6Li isotopes to be destroyed in the inner layers of stellar atmospheres by strong magnetic fields near magnetic poles. Our synthetic spectrum calculations take into account magnetic line broadening effects.

Polosukhina, N.; Shavrina, A.; Drake, N. A.; Smirnova, M.

169

Nanoscale Obstacle Arrays Frustrate Transport of EphA2 - Ephrin-A1 Clusters in Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Juxtacrine signaling interactions between the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase and its ephrin-A1 ligand contribute to healthy tissue maintenance and misregulation of this system is observed in at least 40% of human breast cancer. Hybrid live cell – supported membrane experiments, in which membrane-linked ephrin-A1 displayed in supported membranes interacts with EphA2 in living cells, have revealed large scale clustering of EphA2:ephrin-A1 complexes as well as their lateral transport across the cell surface during triggering. Here, we utilize 100nm spaced hexagonally ordered arrays of gold nanodots embedded within supported membranes to present defined obstacles to the movement and assembly of EphA2 clusters. By functionalizing both the supported membrane and the nanodots with ephrin-A1, we perform a type of affinity chromatography on EphA2 signaling clusters in live cell membranes. Analysis of ten different breast cancer cell lines reveals that EphA2 transport is most frustrated by nanodot arrays in the most diseased cell lines. These observations suggest that strong physical association among EphA2 receptors, as well as their assembly into larger clusters, correlates with and may contribute to the pathological misregulation of the EphA2:ephrin-A1 pathway in breast cancer.

Lohmuller, Theobald; Xu, Qian

2013-01-01

170

Treatment of diabetes and atherosclerosis by inhibiting fatty-acid-binding protein aP2  

PubMed Central

Adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein, aP2 (FABP4) is expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, and integrates inflammatory and metabolic responses. Studies in aP2-deficient mice have shown that this lipid chaperone has a significant role in several aspects of metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Here we demonstrate that an orally active small-molecule inhibitor of aP2 is an effective therapeutic agent against severe atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes in mouse models. In macrophage and adipocyte cell lines with or without aP2, we also show the target specificity of this chemical intervention and its mechanisms of action on metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Our findings demonstrate that targeting aP2 with small-molecule inhibitors is possible and can lead to a new class of powerful therapeutic agents to prevent and treat metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis.

Furuhashi, Masato; Tuncman, Gurol; Gorgun, Cem Z.; Makowski, Liza; Atsumi, Genichi; Vaillancourt, Eric; Kono, Keita; Babaev, Vladimir R.; Fazio, Sergio; Linton, MacRae F.; Sulsky, Richard; Robl, Jeffrey A.; Parker, Rex A.; Hotamisligil, Gokhan S.

2014-01-01

171

Tank 241AP104 Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AP-104. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AP-104 required to provide sample material to the Waste Treatment Contractor. Grab samples will be obtained from riser 001 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives and ICD-23. The 222-S Laboratory will receive samples; composite the samples; perform chemical analyses on composite samples; and provide samples to the Waste Treatment Contractor and the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory at the 222-S Laboratory Complex will perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AP-104 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. The Waste Treatment Contractor will perform process verification and waste form qualification tests. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the L & H DQO process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plan (Person 2000) and are not within the scope of this SAP. This report provides the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AP-104.

TEMPLETON, A.M.

2000-11-09

172

Line shape modeling for radiation transport investigations in magnetic fusion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen line radiation can be trapped in some spatial regions within magnetic fusion experiments at high density, typically when NH(˜ Ne) ˜ 10 15 cm -3. The corresponding photoexcitation yields a significant additional source of ionization that must be properly characterized by numerical simulations. Kinetic Monte-Carlo codes provide a capability to study this subject; however, these codes require accurate physical models for the reaction rates, including spectral line shapes. In this paper we deal with the Zeeman-Stark model used for the Ly ? transition in the EIRENE code [D. Reiter, M. Baelmans, P. Börner, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47 (2005) 172; www.eirene.de] and we address the influence of ion dynamics, which can affect these line profiles. The impact theory for ions, that we first consider, is shown to be suited for description of the lateral components of the Lorentz triplet. By contrast, comparisons to numerical simulations show that this theory is not well suited for description of the central component, which is significantly affected by incomplete and non-binary collisions. A refinement of the model in the framework of the unified theory is proposed and discussed.

Rosato, J.; Reiter, D.; Kotov, V.; Börner, P.; Capes, H.; Marandet, Y.; Stamm, R.; Ferri, S.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Mossé, C.

2009-06-01

173

Functional identification of a novel transport system for endogenous and synthetic opioid peptides in the rabbit conjunctival epithelial cell line CJVE  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To investigate whether conjunctival epithelial cells express transport processes for opioid peptides. METHODS We monitored the uptake of [3H]deltorphin II and [3H]DADLE, two hydrolysis-resistant synthetic opioid peptides, in the rabbit conjunctival epithelial cell line CJVE and elucidated the characteristics of the uptake process. RESULTS CJVE cells express robust uptake activity for deltorphin II and DADLE. Both opioid peptides compete with each other for transport. Several endogenous and synthetic opioid peptides, but not non-peptide opioid antagonists, are recognized by the transport process. Though various peptides inhibit the uptake of deltorphin II and DADLE in a similar manner, the uptake of deltorphin II is partly Na+-dependent whereas that of DADLE mostly Na+-independent. The transport process shows high affinity for many endogenous/synthetic opioid peptides. Functional features reveal that this transport process may be distinct from the opioid peptide transport system described in the retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 and also from the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), which are known to transport opioid peptides. CONLCUSIONS CJVE cells express a novel, hitherto unknown transport process for endogenous/synthetic opioid peptides. This new transport process may offer an effective delivery route for opioid peptide drugs to the posterior segment of the eye.

Ananth, Sudha; Karunakaran, Senthil; Martin, Pamela M.; Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N.; Hooks, John J.; Smith, Sylvia B.; Prasad, Puttur D.; Ganapathy, Vadivel

2013-01-01

174

Functional identification and characterization of the Brassica napus transcription factor gene BnAP2, the ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA2.  

PubMed

BnAP2, an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, has been isolated from Brassica napus cultivar Zhongshuang 9. The cDNA of BnAP2, with 1, 299 bp in length, encoded a transcription factor comprising of 432 amino acid residues. Results from complementary experiment indicated that BnAP2 was completely capable of restoring the phenotype of Arabidopsis ap2-11 mutant. Together with the sequence and expression data, the complementation data suggested that BnAP2 encodes the ortholog of AtAP2. To address the transcriptional activation of BnAP2, we performed transactivation assays in yeast. Fusion protein of BnAP2 with GAL4 DNA binding domain strongly activated transcription in yeast, and the transactivating activity of BnAP2 was localized to the N-terminal 100 amino acids. To further study the function of BnAP2 involved in the phenotype of B. napus, we used a transgenic approach that involved targeted RNA interference (RNAi) repression induced by ihp-RNA. Floral various phenotype defectives and reduced female fertility were observed in B. napus BnAP2-RNAi lines. Loss of the function of BnAP2 gene also resulted in delayed sepal abscission and senescence with the ethylene-independent pathway. In the strong BnAP2-RNAi lines, seeds showed defects in shape, structure and development and larger size. Strong BnAP2-RNAi and wild-type seeds initially did not display a significant difference in morphology at 10 DAF, but the development of BnAP2-RNAi seeds was slower than that of wild type at 20 DAF, and further at 30 DAF, wild-type seeds were essentially at their final size, whereas BnAP2-RNAi seeds stopped growing and developing and gradually withered. PMID:22479468

Yan, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Bo; Xiong, Zhiyong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Lijun; Yu, Jingyin; Lu, Changming; Wei, Wenhui

2012-01-01

175

Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.

FULLER, R.K.

1999-02-23

176

Filament wound metal lined propellant tanks for future Earth-to-orbit transports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For future Earth-to-orbit transport vehicles, reusability and lighter weights are sought for the main propellant tanks. To achieve this, a filament wound tank with a metal liner and an intermediate layer of foam-filled honeycomb is proposed. A hydrogen tank is used as an example. To accommodate mismatches in the expansion of liner and overwrap a design is proposed wherin the liner is configured so that the extension of the liner under pressure matches the expected contraction of the same liner due to the presence of a cryogen. In operation, the liner is pressurized at a rate such that the pressure strain matches the contraction due to decrease in temperature. As an alternate approach, compressive pre-stress is placed in the liner such that it will not separate from the overwrap. A finite element program is used to show stresses in the liner and overwrap for various tank pressures for the pre-stressed liner concept. A fracture mechanics analysis is made of the liners to determine tank life. The tank concept shown has a similar weight to the Shuttle external hydrogen tank, but the filament wound tank is expected to be reusable. Integration of the propellant tanks into a future transport vehicle is discussed.

Macconochie, Ian O.; Davis, Robert B.; Freeman, William T., Jr.

1988-01-01

177

Ion transport and barrier function in a telomerase-immortalized human nondysplastic, Barrett's cell line (BAR-T).  

PubMed

Barrett's specialized columnar epithelium (SCE) replaces reflux-damaged squamous epithelium. The benefits of SCE lie in its superior protection of the esophagus against further reflux damage. It was shown that this protection is dependent on ion transport and barrier function of SCE. The risks of SCE lie in its higher predisposition to malignant transformation. An understanding of underlying mechanisms of both processes would benefit considerably from greater knowledge of the structure and function of native SCE - the latter recently advanced by the availability of a telomerase-immortalized, nonneoplastic, human Barrett's cell line (BAR-T). Some of BAR-T characteristics for growth and differentiation have been described recently, but not its capacity to serve as a model for ion transport and barrier function of SCE. To determine the latter, BAR-T cells were grown in enriched media, seeded on permeable supports, and subjected to electrical, biochemical, and morphologic study. HET-1A (esophageal epithelial cell line), a nonneoplastic, human esophageal squamous cell line, was also studied for comparison. BAR-T, but not HET-1A cells in HEPES Ringer solution behaved as polarized monolayers with the capacity for ion transport and barrier function. This was evident electrically with a volt-ohm meter (EVOM),which recorded in BAR-T a resting potential difference of 2.0 +/- 0.2 mV, Isc of 17.4 +/- 3.3 microAmps/cm2 and resistance of 103 +/- 12 ohms x cm2. Further, Isc in BAR-T was inhibitable by exposure to Na-free solution, serosal ouabain, and luminal 4-acetamido4'-isothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid. Expression of tight junction genes were determined in BAR-T and HET-1A cells using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, with expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) set at 1 as reference. Claudins 1, 4, and 12 were prominently expressed in BAR-T (0.2-0.6 of ZO-1), while claudins 1, 11, and 12 were prominently expressed in HET-1A(0.1-0.8 of ZO-1). BAR-T, but not HET-1A, expressed claudins 4, 8, 16, 18, and 23, and HET-1A, but not BAR-T, expressed claudins 11, 15, and 20. Protein expression of prominently expressed claudins in BAR-T correlated with mRNA expression. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy localized claudins 1 and 4 in BAR-T to cell membranes and claudin 18, specifically to the tight junction. Membrane polarization was also documented in BAR-T by immunolocalization of NaK,ATPase to the basolateral membrane. BAR-T, but not HET-1A cells grown on permeable supports form a polarized monolayer with both ion transport and barrier function. Since a number of features of BAR-T are similar to Barrett's SCE and distinct from HET-1A, the BAR-T cell line represents a valuable resource for the study of ion transport and barrier function of nondysplastic SCE. PMID:19673046

Jovov, Biljana; Orlando, Geraldine S; Tobey, Nelia A; Brown, Karen L; Djukic, Zorka; Carson, John L; Brighton, Louisa E; Orlando, Roy C

2009-01-01

178

Inhibition of AP-1 Transcriptional Activity Blocks the Migration, Invasion, and Experimental Metastasis of Murine Osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

A well-characterized murine osteosarcoma model for metastasis and invasion was used in this study to determine the role of AP-1 in the progression of this disease. We analyzed K12 and K7M2 cells, two clonally related murine osteosarcoma cell lines that have been characterized as low metastatic or high metastatic, respectively, for AP-1 components and activity. AP-1 DNA binding was similar between the two cell lines; however AP-1 transcriptional activity was enhanced by 3- to 5-fold in K7M2 cells relative to that in K12 cells. The AP-1 complexes in K12 and K7M2 cells was composed primarily of cJun, JunD, FosB, Fra1, and Fra2, with the contribution of individual components in the complex varying between the two cell lines. In addition, an increase in phosphorylated cJun, JNK activity, and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was associated with the more metastatic osteosarcoma phenotype. The significance of AP-1 activation was confirmed by conditional expression of TAM67, a dominant negative mutant of cJun. Under conditions where TAM67 inhibited AP-1 activity in K7M2 cells, migration and invasion potential was significantly blocked. Tam67 expression in aggressive osteosarcoma cells decreased long-term in vivo experimental metastasis and increased survival of mice. This study shows that differences in metastatic activity can be due to AP-1 activation. The inhibition of AP-1 activity may serve as a therapeutic tool in the management of osteosarcoma.

Leaner, Virna D.; Chick, Jeffrey F.; Donninger, Howard; Linniola, Ilona; Mendoza, Arnulfo; Khanna, Chand; Birrer, Michael J.

2009-01-01

179

ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING OF TANKS 241-AN-102 & 241-AP-107 & 241-AP-108 IN SUPPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the corrosion rates that were measured using electrochemical methods for tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102), 241-AP-107 (AP 107), and 241-AP-108 (AP-108) performed under test plant RPP-PLAN-38215. The steel used as materials of construction for AN and AP tank farms was A537 Class 1. Test coupons of A537 Class 1 carbon steel were used for corrosion testing in the AN-107, AP-107, and AP-108 tank waste. Supernate will be tested from AN-102, AP-107, and Ap-108. Saltcake testing was performed on AP-108 only.

WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

2008-11-20

180

APS: Lighting up the future  

SciTech Connect

Work on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) involves the construction and supporting research and development for a national user facility for synchrotron radiation research in the x-ray region. The facility, when operational in 1997, will provide super-intense x-ray beams for many areas of basic research and will serve the entire US x-ray research community of several thousand users. This paper describes the pertinent features of the design, construction and planned operation of the facility; and the impact quality has had in these areas. In addition, the introduction of several quality management techniques such as total quality management, reliability/availability planning, and user interface are discussed concerning their status and success.

Potent, V.J.

1993-09-01

181

The West African Squall Line Observed on 23 June 1981 during COPT 81: Mesoscale Structure and Transports.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Durirg the night of 23/24 June 1981, new Korhogo, Ivory Coast, a squall line passed over the instrumented area of the COPT 81 experiment. Observations were obtained with a dual-Doppler radar system, a sounding station and 22 automatic meteorological surface stations. Data from these instruments and from satellite pictures were analyzed to depict the kinematic and thermodynamic structure of the squall line. Composite analysis techniques were used to obtain a vertical cross section of the reflectivity structure and of the wind field relative to the line. The redistributions of air, moisture and thermodynamic energy by the convection wet calculated through averaged two-dimensional wind fields from a dual-Doppler radar system. The method also allowed the evaluation of the exchanges that were occurring between the convective and the stratiform regions.This squall line had many similarities with tropical squall lines previously described by others. The leading convective part, composed of intense updrafts and downdrafts, and the trailing part, containing weak mesoscale updraft and downdraft, were separated by a reflectivity trough. A notable feature of this line was the presence of a leading anvil induced by intense easterly environmental winds in the upper troposphere. Observations of the evolution of the system at different scales indicated that the mesoalpha-scale (following the classification of Orlanski) and the mosobeta-scale patterns combined to allow the system to have optimum conditions for maximum strength and a maximum lifetime.A rear-to-front flow was found at midlevels in the stratiform region. The flow sloped downward to the surface and took on the characteristics of a density current in the forward half of the squall lice. Entering the convective region, this flow was supplied with cold air by the convective downdrafts and played an important role in forcing upward the less dense monsoon flow entering at the leading edge.Calculations of mass, moisture and energy transports showed the importance of the transfers between the convective and the stratiform regions. Particularly large quantities of condensate and energy were transferred from the convective region toward the anvils and made important contributions to the precipitation budget in the stratiform region, while large quantities of water vapor and latent heat energy were transferred from the stratiform region toward the convective region through the rear-to-front flow. Diabatic heating resulting from condensation in the convective region was also evaluated.

Chalon, J. P.; Jaubert, G.; Lafore, J. P.; Roux, F.

1988-10-01

182

Effect of subdominant species on the evolution of intense primary beam in a low energy beam transport line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam with different distributions has been studied in a solenoid based low energy beam transport line using a particle-in-cell simulation method. Results are presented in wide parameter regimes covering emittance dominated as well as space charge dominated multispecies beams consisting of p, H2+, and H3+ beams. Simulation shows the formation of hollow distribution of H2+ and H3+ beams around the desired proton beam and separation is more distinct as the fraction of proton is increased. The hollow formation is almost independent of combination of H2+ and H3+ beams, once the fraction of proton beam is fixed. The emittance growth of proton is found to increase sharply in the space-charge-dominated regime and is more in the cases where proton fraction is low.

Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

2013-08-01

183

Effect of subdominant species on the evolution of intense primary beam in a low energy beam transport line  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam with different distributions has been studied in a solenoid based low energy beam transport line using a particle-in-cell simulation method. Results are presented in wide parameter regimes covering emittance dominated as well as space charge dominated multispecies beams consisting of p, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams. Simulation shows the formation of hollow distribution of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams around the desired proton beam and separation is more distinct as the fraction of proton is increased. The hollow formation is almost independent of combination of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams, once the fraction of proton beam is fixed. The emittance growth of proton is found to increase sharply in the space-charge-dominated regime and is more in the cases where proton fraction is low.

Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)] [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

2013-08-15

184

HIV-1 gag polyprotein rescues HLA-DR intracellular transport in a human CD4+ cell line.  

PubMed

Major histocompatibility complex class II HLA-DR molecules are plasma-membrane integral heterodimers, constitutively expressed in antigen-presenting cells. Their expression is known to be upregulated in peripheral T lymphocytes upon cell activation and to be constitutive in T cell lines. In H78-C10.0, a subclone of the human CD4+ T cell line HUT-78, the transport of MHC class II HLA-DR molecules is blocked, resulting in their localization within internal vesicular compartments rather than at the cell surface. In this article, we show that HIV-1(HX10) infection of H78-C10.0 cells induces HLA-DR surface expression. Moreover, the produced infectious viruses harbor the heterodimer molecules in their envelopes. To define which of the viral proteins was involved in this phenomenon, we infected H78-C10.0 cells with recombinant vaccinia vectors containing either the gag-pro coding sequence or the entire env gene. Only gag expression was able to induce HLA-DR cell-surface localization in H78-C10.0 cells. RT-PCR analysis of the infected cells revealed no significant alteration in the amount of HLA-DRalpha-specific RNA compared to untreated cells. This implies that Gag acts on downstream events. When the env viral gene, coding for the precursor glycoprotein gp160, was expressed in H78-C10.0, the Env protein targeted to the cell surface was poorly processed to its final mature forms gp120 and gp41. However, coexpression of the env and gag genes led to restoration of this phenotype. Although the mechanism is unknown, the data compiled in this study strongly suggest that the viral Gag protein can interact with the cellular trafficking apparatus. Moreover, in a specific cell type as H78-C10.0 this interaction can even reverse intracellular transport defects. PMID:12202216

Gluschankof, Pablo; Suzan, Marie

2002-08-15

185

Gas Transport and Density Control in the HYLIFE Heavy-Ion Beam Lines  

SciTech Connect

The effective propagation and focusing of heavy-ion beams in the final-focus magnet region of inertial fusion target chambers require controlling the background gas density and pressure in the beam tubes. Liquid vortexes will coat the inside of the tubes next to the beam ports and will help eliminate the need for mechanical shutters to mitigate the venting of target chamber background gas into the final-focus magnet region. Before the neutralizing region, the beam space charge is high, and ablation and target debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region may cause voltage breakdown. Previous studies focused on evaluating the amount of target chamber debris reaching the entrance of the beam ports. The TSUNAMI code has now been used to assess the density, temperature, and velocity of the vortex debris transported {approx}3 m up the beam tubes and reaching the final-focus magnet region, assuming that the liquid vortexes are perfectly absorbing surfaces. To further mitigate debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region, and prevent voltage breakdown, a 'magnetic shutter' has been envisaged to divert the debris out of the final-focus region. This shutter will prevent the hot ablation debris from reaching the magnet region and, coupled to some ionizing scheme, will conveniently suppress early ingression of debris into the final-focus magnet region.

Debonnel, Christophe S.; Welch, Dale R.; Rose, David V.; Lawrence, Simon S.Yu; Peterson, Per F

2003-05-15

186

A transverse emittance and acceptance measurement system in a low-energy beam transport line.  

PubMed

A transverse beam emittance and acceptance measurement system has been developed to visualize the relationship between the injected beam emittance and the acceptance of a cyclotron. The system is composed of a steering magnet, two pairs of slits to limit the horizontal and vertical phase-space, a beam intensity detector just behind the slits for the emittance measurement, and a beam intensity detector in the cyclotron for the acceptance measurement. The emittance is obtained by scanning the slits and measuring the beam intensity distribution. The acceptance is obtained by measuring the distribution of relative beam transmission by injecting small emittance beams at various positions in a transverse phase-space using the slits. In the acceptance measurement, the beam from an ion source is deflected to the defined region by the slits using the steering magnet so that measurable acceptance area covers a region outside the injection beam emittance. Measurement tests were carried out under the condition of accelerating a beam of (16)O(6+) from 50.2 keV to 160 MeV. The emittance of the injected beam and the acceptance for accelerating and transporting the beam to the entrance of the extraction deflector were successfully measured. The relationship between the emittance and acceptance is visualized by displaying the results in the same phase-plane. PMID:24593469

Kashiwagi, H; Miyawaki, N; Kurashima, S; Okumura, S

2014-02-01

187

Characterization of the transport of. cap alpha. -methylaminoisobutyric acid by a human intestinal cell line (HT-29)  

SciTech Connect

Under certain growth conditions, the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 exhibits intestinal enterocyte-like properties. The differentiated cells possess a brush border with the enzyme markers (aminopeptidase and sucrase) normally associated with the intestine. To aid in the characterization of the transport properties of these cells, the uptake of a non-metabolizable amino acid analog, /sup 14/C-..cap alpha..-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) as examined in the HT-29-Al subclone which possesses a brush border. The cells exhibited a time-dependent uptake of MeAIB which was concentrative and sodium-dependent. The pH optimum for uptake was about 7.8. Uptake was inhibited by low temperature, 1 mM ouabain, or 0.5 mM dinitrophenol. A 1 hr-preincubation of the cells in an isotonic KCl solution resulted in a decreased uptake rate, suggesting that a negative membrane potential is important for MeAIB uptake. The rate of 0.5 mM MeABIB uptake was inhibited by 40 to 90% by 5 mM of certain small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Pro, Gly, met but not by acidic or basic amino acids such as Asp, Glu, Arg or Lys. The uptake of MeAIB appears to be mediated by an amino acid transport carrier similar to the A-system described previously for Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Bergin, L.; Dantzig, A.H.

1986-03-01

188

Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination and scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

1989-01-01

189

Advanced APS impacts on vehicle payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethylhydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination of scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

1989-01-01

190

Advanced Placement Program: What's Changing in AP  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The AP Program has recently redesigned several courses in science, history, and world languages in an effort to stay strongly aligned with college credit policies and to prepare students for future learning and career pursuit. This website focuses on informing AP teachers about what's changing in AP, from course scope to exam preparation. The AP Chemistry revision will take effect in Fall, 2013. The change that will impact physics teachers most directly is the replacement of AP Physics B with two new year-long courses: AP Physics 1 Algebra-Based and AP Physics 2 Algebra-Based (scheduled to be deployed Fall, 2014). The changes to each course were guided by National Research Council and National Science Foundation recommendations, following several years of collaborations among university educators and master AP teachers. Especially noteworthy are the changes that integrate science practice as an essential component of the curriculum, along with statements that pair the essential knowledge (learning goal) to the appropriate science practice and articulate specific performance objectives.

191

APS-DPP Education and Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through its membership and their respectful institutions, the APS-DPP continues to be recognized for its education and outreach efforts. Each year starting with the 1988 DPP annual meeting, DPP and the APS Office of Education have jointly sponsored a "Science Teachers' Day." Beginning in 1994, a companion "Plasma Physics Expo" has been held during the same week of the November meeting. Both events continue to receive uniformly enthusiastic responses from teachers and students who participate. These two events are not only supported financially by APS and APS-DPP but also by APS-DPP member contributions and by contributions of the major plasma physics and fusion research institutions. Recently, the DPP Interdivisional and Public Affairs Committee was re-named the DPP Science Education Committee (see DPP Newsletter, Spring 1998) to reflect the importance that the DPP puts on education and outreach. Nevertheless, as Andrew Sessler, APS President, said in the Education Outreach special insert of the January APS News "We have many education and outreach activities in the areas of K -12 education . . . but very few APS members are aware of what we are doing . . . ." This paper is an attempt to communicate to the DPP members who have not participated in DPP's education and outreach activities a summary of what is being accomplished in this area, what is being planned for the future, and how does one participate in these activities.

Correll, Donald

1998-11-01

192

APS News: Limerick Contest Finalists & Winners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from the March 1997 issue of APS News Online contains the finalists and winners of the first APS Physics Limerick Contest. Twenty-five humorous limericks concentrated on classical and modern physics concepts are provided along with a link to view the remaining submissions.

2006-09-29

193

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - WILDLAND FIRES  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is aimed at consolidating, selecting, and disseminating the most appropriate data and methods for estimating air emissions from wildfires and prescribed burns. The product will replace a current section of AP-42, but may not take the precise form of an AP-42 secti...

194

Design study on a medium-energy beam-transport line for the JHF proton linac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JHF/JAERI linac is an injector of a 3-GeV ring. It consists of an H - ion source, a 3-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole linac, a 50-MeV drift-tube linac, a 200-MeV separated-type drift-tube linac and a 400-MeV ACS accelerator in its normal conducting section. As an intense beam linac with an average current of 0.2 mA (first stage) and higher in the second stage, the issue of decreasing beam losses is of prime importance. The MEBT between the RFQ and the DTL has been designed with a modified TRACE3-D code, aimed at perfect matching, clear chopping, a small emittance growth and sufficient space for beam measurements. The line consists of eight quadrupoles, two bunchers and two choppers with a total length of about 3 m. Multiparticle codes PARMILA and LINSAC were used to check the beam dynamics of the design. Mismatch due to errors in the elements of the MEBT or the input beam was also studied. A radio-frequency deflector (RFD) is adopted in the chopper. It is characterized by a high deflecting field and compactness. The RF-deflector cavity was designed using the MAFIA code and the electromagnetic field distribution, including fringe field, is applied in TRACE3-D simulation. It illustrates the effect of the beam tube in the cavity on large deflection. A deflection initiated by the RF-deflector is amplified more than twice by the following quadrupole. Owing to this merit, the required RF field of 1.6 MV/m is rather low to generate an adequate separation of 4.3 mm between chopped and unchopped beams at the beam stopper. By means of rapid changes in the RF amplitude and phase during the rise and fall time, the chopper has an equivalent rise and fall time of less than 3.1 ns. Beam losses during the transient time of the chopper are less than 0.08% at the exit of the 50-MeV DTL. An analysis of unstable particles in the coupled RF-deflectors shows no obvious difference from the case of an independent cavity.

Fu, Shinian; Kato, Takao

2001-01-01

195

Residual radiation studies at AP0  

SciTech Connect

The radiation environment at the NuMI experiment has received a lot of attention in the last few years in preparation for project construction. One important issue is the induced radioactivation of the components in the beam line and the shielding materials. This arises from irradiation by hadrons that are generated in the target. Since the level of the residual activity has to be considered when determining access procedures for maintenance during NuMI operation, an understanding of the properties of the remnant radiation is important. To this end, experimental studies were performed in the target vault at AP0 which is similar in design to the NuMI target area. Here 120 GeV protons bombard a target, generating the hadrons that produce the induced radioactivity. Two sets of samples each consisting of three small cylindrical or rectangular solids of iron and steel, one sample of aluminum, and one of concrete were irradiated. One set was hung just below the bottom of a module near the lithium lens (in-vault), and the other was placed on top of the modules downstream of this location (above-vault), just beneath the movable concrete roof of the vault at AP0. Further, four thin activation foils of Au, Au+Cd, In, and Al (along with small disks of the same iron, aluminum, and concrete samples discussed above) were mounted on four 10.2 cm diameter Al disks, one placed on the in-vault module and three at above-vault downstream locations as well. The radioactivity of all these materials on the 10.2 cm Al disks was determined at the Radioisotope Analysis Facility in an attempt to characterize the radionuclides produced during irradiation. The activities of the thin foils were employed in an effort to unfold a spectrum of the neutrons produced during the hadronic cascades in the target. The MARS Monte Carlo code (MO95, MO00) was used to predict and analyze the residual radiation produced during the beam irradiation. New subroutines have been developed for the MARS14 version providing reliable estimation of residual dose rates in arbitrary composite materials for arbitrary irradiation and cooling times (RA01). The results of the simulations have been compared with the measurements in Ref. (RA01) and this comparison will be summarized here.

Alexander J Elwyn et al.

2002-06-19

196

R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line  

SciTech Connect

As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

2008-01-01

197

The A&P Professor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kevin Patton is the president emeritus of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) and he is also the brains behind the A&P (Anatomy & Physiology) Professor website. Patton has worked to create this online collection of resources for people teaching human anatomy and physiology, and it's a great counterpart to his blog of the same name. Visitors should start by looking over one of the five tabs at the top of the page, which include Resources, Topics, and How To. The How To contains resources for educators about producing online lectures and various in-class student response systems. The files here are dynamic, and they include interactive sections that make the material quite lively. Moving on, the Resources area includes an online version of an anatomy & physiology textbook created by Patton, along with links to other high-quality resources. Finally, the Lion's Den section of the site contains links to Patton's syllabi, course handouts, and a range of introductory materials for anyone who might be teaching a basic anatomy & physiology course.

Patton, Kevin T.

2012-04-06

198

Over-expression of the PaAP1 gene from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

A homologue of SQUAMOSA/APETALA1, designated PaAP1, was isolated from Prunus avium by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full length of PaAP1 cDNA is 753 bp, and it codes for a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PaAP1 belongs to the MADS-box gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAP1 shared the highest identity with SQUA/AP1 homologues from Prunus serrulata. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that PaAP1 was expressed at high levels in petal, sepal, style, and flower buds, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To characterize the functions of PaAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis transformed with 35S::PaAP1. A total of 8 transgenic T(1) lines with an early flowering phenotype were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio of flowering time was observed in the T(2) generation of 4 lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an SQUA/AP1 homolog from P. avium and suggests that PaAP1 is potentially useful for shortening the juvenile period in sweet cherry. PMID:23206932

Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Kaichun

2013-02-15

199

Transportation Data Research Laboratory: Data Acquisition and Archiving of Large Scales Transportation Data, Analysis Tool DEvelopments, and On-Line Data Support.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains a collection of reports for projects completed in FY 2004 and 2005 at the Transportation Data Research Laboratory (TDRL). First, an archiving technique referred to as the United Transportation Sensor Data Format (UTSDF), which allows ...

T. M. Kwon

2009-01-01

200

Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples, 7AP-99-1, 7AP-99-3 and 7AP-99-4 analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107) grab samples taken in May 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-107 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999. Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. Interim data were provided earlier to River Protection Project (RPP) personnel, however, the data presented here represent the official results. No notification limits were exceeded.

BELL, K.E.

1999-08-12

201

Stokes IQUV mapping of ?2 CVn & other Ap stars using ESPaDOnS and NARVAL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New spectral line polarisation observations of 7 bright Ap stars have been obtained with the ESPaDOnS and Narval high resolution spectropolarimeters (Silvester et al. 2012). The aim of this data set is produce a series of surface magnetic field and surface chemistry maps for these Ap stars. We present new magnetic maps for the Ap star ?2 CVn using these new data and the MDI inversion code INVERS10. ?2 CVn is the first Ap star to be observed during two separate epochs using high resolution phase resolved spectropolarimetric IQUV observations and as such allows us an insight into how stable the surface magnetic structure is over a decade timescale. We show that the new maps give a magnetic field structure consistent with the previous maps obtained by Kochukhov and Wade (2010) from lower quality MuSiCoS spectra taken a decade ago and that the field topology cannot be described by a dipolar or quadrupolar field.

Silvester, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.

2013-12-01

202

A new diagnostic of the plasma density profile near the edge transport barrier from measurements of the radial profile of the H{sub {alpha}} line intensity  

SciTech Connect

An edge transport barrier is now one of the most important subjects of controlled fusion research. The edge transport barrier is located in the plasma region where hydrogen atoms readily penetrate, so the intensity of the H{sub {alpha}} (D{sub {alpha}}) line is high enough. A new diagnostic method uses the well-known property of hydrogen atoms that the ratio of the ionization rate S{sub i} to the excitation rate S{sub v} for the H{sub {alpha}} line is nearly constant over a wide range of plasma temperatures and densities. An expression has been derived that relates the radial profiles of the plasma density and H{sub {alpha}} intensity. The use of charge coupled device detectors makes it possible to measure the radial profile of H{sub {alpha}} line intensity with a resolution {approx}0.1 cm; a high intensity of the H{sub {alpha}} line ensures a high time resolution {approx}1 ms. A high resolution is thus achieved for the density profile calculated from the H{sub {alpha}} intensity profile. The method was tested when studying the plasma density profile in the region of edge transport barrier in the L-2M stellarator. It has been shown that the density gradient varies during the barrier formation and that a fine structure of the density profile correlates with a character of the plasma transport near resonance magnetic flux surfaces.

Voronov, G. S. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova Str. 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-08-15

203

Effect of magnetic fringe field and interference on beam matching in a Medium Energy Beam Transport line of the Spallation Neutron Source linac  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line is employed in the Spallation Neutron Source linear accelerator (linac) to match the beam from a radio frequency quadrupole to a drift tube linac and to perform other functions. The MEBT lattice consists of 14 electromagnetic quadrupoles and other devices. The quads have very small aspect ratios (steel length over aperture diameter), and

Jian-Guang Wang; Yan Zhang

2011-01-01

204

77 FR 24480 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program-Reopening the AP Test Fee...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reopening the AP Test Fee Fiscal Year 2012 Competition AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary...reopening the AP Test Fee fiscal year 2012 competition...AP Test Fee fiscal year (FY) 2012 competition (February 15 notice). That...

2012-04-24

205

Cell Autonomous Roles for AP-2? in Lens Vesicle Separation and Maintenance of the Lens Epithelial Cell Phenotype  

PubMed Central

In this study, we have created a conditional deletion of AP-2? in the developing mouse lens (Le-AP-2? mutants) to determine the cell-autonomous requirement(s) for AP-2? in lens development. Embryonic and adult Le-AP-2? mutants exhibited defects confined to lens placode derivatives, including a persistent adhesion of the lens to the overlying corneal epithelium (or lens stalk). Expression of known regulators of lens vesicle separation, including Pax6, Pitx3, and Foxe3 was observed in the Le-AP-2? mutant lens demonstrating that these genes do not lie directly downstream of AP-2?. Unlike germ-line mutants, Le-AP-2? mutants did not exhibit defects in the optic cup, further defining the tissue specific role(s) for AP-2? in eye development. Finally, comparative microarray analysis of lenses from the Le-AP-2? mutants vs. wild-type littermates revealed differential expression of 415 mRNAs, including reduced expression of genes important for maintaining the lens epithelial cell phenotype, such as E-cadherin.

Pontoriero, Giuseppe F.; Deschamps, Paula; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Wong, Ryan; Yang, Ying; Zavadil, Jiri; Cvekl, Ales; Sullivan, Shelley; Williams, Trevor; West-Mays, Judith A.

2008-01-01

206

AP1S3 Mutations Are Associated with Pustular Psoriasis and Impaired Toll-like Receptor 3 Trafficking.  

PubMed

Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotetramer that promotes vesicular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes. The knockout of most murine AP-1 complex subunits is embryonically lethal, so the identification of human disease-associated alleles has the unique potential to deliver insights into gene function. Here, we report two founder mutations (c.11T>G [p.Phe4Cys] and c.97C>T [p.Arg33Trp]) in AP1S3, the gene encoding AP-1 complex subunit ?1C, in 15 unrelated individuals with a severe autoinflammatory skin disorder known as pustular psoriasis. Because the variants are predicted to destabilize the 3D structure of the AP-1 complex, we generated AP1S3-knockdown cell lines to investigate the consequences of AP-1 deficiency in skin keratinocytes. We found that AP1S3 silencing disrupted the endosomal translocation of the innate pattern-recognition receptor TLR-3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and resulted in a marked inhibition of downstream signaling. These findings identify pustular psoriasis as an autoinflammatory phenotype caused by defects in vesicular trafficking and demonstrate a requirement of AP-1 for Toll-like receptor homeostasis. PMID:24791904

Setta-Kaffetzi, Niovi; Simpson, Michael A; Navarini, Alexander A; Patel, Varsha M; Lu, Hui-Chun; Allen, Michael H; Duckworth, Michael; Bachelez, Hervé; Burden, A David; Choon, Siew-Eng; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Kirby, Brian; Kolios, Antonios; Seyger, Marieke M B; Prins, Christa; Smahi, Asma; Trembath, Richard C; Fraternali, Franca; Smith, Catherine H; Barker, Jonathan N; Capon, Francesca

2014-05-01

207

Spectral Line Variations in the Ap Star HD 42536  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sr-Cr type chemically peculiar star HD 42536 (= HR 2195) was observed with the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope. Kavalur during the period of November 1998 to April 1999. A total of 46 spectrograms were obtained in the wavelength region of 3900 Å to 4300 Å at a linear dispersion of 0.65 Å per pixel. The equivalent widths of Sr (4077) and Cr (4172) have been found to be varying with a period of 0.58 ± 0.02 day, the amplitudes being about 100 mÅ and 60 mÅ respectively. This period is a resonance value of the peroid given by Manfroid and Mathys (1985).

Babu, G. S. D.; Jayakumr, K.; Velu, C.; Sujatha, S.

2003-03-01

208

Investigation of transport of genistein, daidzein and their inclusion complexes prepared with different cyclodextrins on Caco-2 cell line.  

PubMed

Isoflavonoids are widespread constituents in medical plants especially in legumes (Fabaceae), but occur in other different plant families as well (Rosaceae, Iridaceae, Amaranthaceae). Their antioxidant, estrogen-like, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects make them promising compounds in therapy of important disorders especially in estrogen related diseases. Poor solubility in aqueous system of genistein and daidzein needs a solubility enhancement for pharmaceutical use. These compounds are suitable guest molecules for inclusion complex formation with cyclodextrins (CDs) considering matching their size and polarity. The molecular encapsulation with beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD), gamma-cyclodextrin (?-CD), hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and random methyl-beta cyclodextrin (RAMEB-CD) results in a solid, molecularly dispersed form and in a significantly improved aqueous solubility of genistein and daidzein. Determining enhancement in solubility and bioavailability we investigated the transport of these inclusion complexes across Caco-2 cell line comparing that of the pure compounds and found significant improving effect of the different CD derivatives on membrane permeation of the two isoflavone aglycons. PMID:23810850

Daruházi, Agnes Emma; Kiss, Tímea; Vecsernyés, Miklós; Szente, Lajos; Sz?ke, Eva; Lemberkovics, Eva

2013-10-01

209

Vesicular stomatitis virus G protein acquires pH-independent fusion activity during transport in a polarized endometrial cell line.  

PubMed

Entry of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), the prototype member of the rhabdovirus family, occurs by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Subsequently, during traversal through the endosomal compartments, the VSV G protein acquires a low-pH-induced fusion-competent form, allowing for fusion of the viral membrane with endosomal and lysosomal membranes. This fusion event releases genomic RNA into the cytoplasm of the cell. Here we provide evidence that the VSV G protein acquires a fusion-competent form during exocytosis in a polarized endometrial cell line, HEC-1A. VSV infection of HEC-1A cells results in high viral yields and giant cell formation. Syncytium formation is blocked in a concentration-dependent manner by treatment with the lysosomotropic weak base ammonium chloride, which raises intravesicular pH. Virus release is somewhat delayed by treatment with ammonium chloride, but virus yields gradually reach those of control cells. In addition, inhibition of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases by treatment with bafilomycin A1 also inhibited cell to cell fusion without altering virus yields. Virions released from infected HEC cells were themselves not fusion competent, since viral entry required an active H(+)-ATPase and a low-pH-induced conformational change in the viral G protein. Thus, the conformation change leading to fusion competence during exocytotic transport is reversible and reverts during or after release of the virion from the infected cell. PMID:10559363

Roberts, P C; Kipperman, T; Compans, R W

1999-12-01

210

The new Cyclone 18/9 beam transport line at the CNA (Sevilla) for high energy PIXE applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Sevilla, Spain) is commonly used to create short life radioisotopes for PET applications. Besides, an external beam transport line has been recently installed in one of the target ports with two major purposes: to study the effects of 18 MeV protons irradiation on the behaviour of electronic devices for space applications and to complement the analysis of materials using our 3 MV tandem accelerator with the PIXE measurements at high energy. In this work, the main elements of our beamline will be briefly described and the first PIXE application will be presented. The usual PIXE, in the analysis of archaeological metallic objects, using around 3 MeV protons requires having a shiny area. Our purpose is to obtain a deeper determination of the bulk composition bombarding with 18 MeV protons through the corroded samples surfaces, without polishing the ancient object. To check this methodology high energy PIXE has been performed on two fibulae of the Later Bronze Age and First Iron Age, coming from the area around Sevilla.

García López, J.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Morilla, Y.; Ferrero, A.

2008-04-01

211

APS Forum on Education Newsletter - Fall 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fall edition of the APS Forum on Education newsletter contains an extensive discussion of teacher preparation resources in ComPADRE, FEd sessions at the 2007 March meeting, and an update of the Gathering Storm.

2008-02-08

212

APS Activities with Other Professional Societies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1981, the APS Council issued a statement that opposed ``equal time'' presentation in public school science classes of creationism and evolution. The statement clarified that ``Scientific inquiry and religious beliefs are two distinct elements of the human experience. Attempts to present them in the same context can only lead to misunderstandings of both.'' The APS Council revisited the issue in 1999 when a school board in Kansas attempted to eliminate the Big Bang, among other issues, from the science curriculum. Since that time, the APS has been more directly involved in confronting efforts that would dilute the teaching of science in public school science classes. This talk will review the APS activities and describe a developing multi-science society activity.

Slakey, Francis

2006-03-01

213

Preliminary analysis of the APS crotch design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary design analysis of the absorber plate of the proposed crotch for the APS bending magnet radiation is presented. Various design aspects including thermal and structural considerations, material selection, geometry, and cooling method are disc...

A. M. Khounsary

1990-01-01

214

ARF1GTP, Tyrosine-based Signals, and Phosphatidylino- sitol 4,5-Bisphosphate Constitute a Minimal Machinery to Recruit the AP1 Clathrin Adaptor to Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the trans-Golgi network, clathrin coats containing AP-1 adaptor complexes are formed in an ARF1-dependent manner, generating vesicles transporting cargo proteins to endosomes. The mechanism of site-specific targeting of AP-1 and the role of cargo are poorly understood. We have developed an in vitro assay to study the recruitment of purified AP-1 adaptors to chemically defined liposomes presenting peptides corresponding

Pascal Crottet; Daniel M. Meyer; Jack Rohrer; Martin Spiess

215

Search for chromospheric MG II emission in Ap-type stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1985 microfiche edition of the low-dispersion IUE spectra has been searched for emission in the Mg II h,k resonance lines of peculiar A-type stars (Ap, Am, ? Boo). All published spectra show the Mg II h,k lines in absorption. The absence of emission is confirmed by comparison with 53 high-dispersion spectra available from the IUE archives. Moreover, high-dispersion spectra reveal no sign of a chromosphere for three Ap stars for which weak X-ray emission has been reported.

Seggewiss, W.

1986-09-01

216

Magnetic field of the Ap star 52 Her  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the variability of the magnetic field of a well-known Ap star 52 Her. The 15-year longmagnetic monitoring and analysis of the literature data demonstrates the lack of a long-period variability of the stellar magnetic field, and an absence of precession of the rotation axis of the binary's main component. We refined the period of variability of the K Ca II line intensity, presumably being the rotation period of the main component. These measurements allowed to specify the parameters of the mean magnetic phase curve, obtained from the lines of metals, and to detect a significant difference from the phase curve, built from the hydrogen lines. Possible causes of the unusual variability of the stellar magnetic field are discussed.

Bychkov, V. D.; Bychkova, L. B.; Madej, J.; Panferov, A. A.

2012-04-01

217

APS Council Holds Fall Council Meeting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. The APS Council held their fall meeting at the Scottsdale Marriott at McDowell Mountains, Scottsdale, AZ, November 8-9, 2007. Council received reports from the Publications, Finance, Membership, Education, and other Committees. APS staff members Marsha Matyas, Robert Price, Alice RaÃÂanan, and Margaret Reich joined the meeting to assist with the committee report presentations.

2008-02-01

218

Analysis of large scale tests for AP-600 passive containment cooling system  

SciTech Connect

One unique feature of the AP-600 is its passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which is designed to maintain containment pressure below the design limit for 72 hours without action by the reactor operator. During a design-basis accident, i.e., either a loss-of-coolant or a main steam-line break accident, steam escapes and comes in contact with the much cooler containment vessel wall. Heat is transferred to the inside surface of the steel containment wall by convection and condensation of steam and through the containment steel wall by conduction. Heat is then transferred from the outside of the containment surface by heating and evaporation of a thin liquid film that is formed by applying water at the top of the containment vessel dome. Air in the annual space is heated by both convection and injection of steam from the evaporating liquid film. The heated air and vapor rise as a result of natural circulation and exit the shield building through the outlets above the containment shell. All of the analytical models that are developed for and used in the COMMIX-ID code for predicting performance of the PCCS will be described. These models cover governing conservation equations for multicomponents single phase flow, transport equations for the {kappa}-{epsilon} two-equation turbulence model, auxiliary equations, liquid-film tracking model for both inside (condensate) and outside (evaporating liquid film) surfaces of the containment vessel wall, thermal coupling between flow domains inside and outside the containment vessel, and heat and mass transfer models. Various key parameters of the COMMIX-ID results and corresponding AP-600 PCCS experimental data are compared and the agreement is good. Significant findings from this study are summarized.

Sha, W.T.; Chien, T.H.; Sun, J.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Chao, B.T. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-07-01

219

Regulation of aggression by obesity-linked genes TfAP-2 and Twz through octopamine signaling in Drosophila.  

PubMed

In Drosophila, the monoamine octopamine, through mechanisms that are not completely understood, regulates both aggression and mating behavior. Interestingly, our study demonstrates that the Drosophila obesity-linked homologs Transcription factor AP-2 (TfAP-2; TFAP2B in humans) and Tiwaz (Twz; KCTD15 in humans) interact to modify male behavior by controlling the expression of Tyramine ?-hydroxylase and Vesicular monanime transporter, genes necessary for octopamine production and secretion. Furthermore, we reveal that octopamine in turn regulates aggression through the Drosophila cholecystokinin satiation hormone homolog Drosulfakinin (Dsk). Finally, we establish that TfAP-2 is expressed in octopaminergic neurons known to control aggressive behavior and that TfAP-2 requires functional Twz for its activity. We conclude that genetically manipulating the obesity-linked homologs TfAP-2 and Twz is sufficient to affect octopamine signaling, which in turn modulates Drosophila male behavior through the regulation of the satiation hormone Dsk. PMID:24142897

Williams, Michael J; Goergen, Philip; Rajendran, Jayasimman; Klockars, Anica; Kasagiannis, Anna; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

2014-01-01

220

Validation of an off-line three-dimensional chemical transport model using observed radon profiles: 2. Model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We parameterize radon emissions in the TOMCAT global off-line three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) and compare modeled radon profiles with spatially and temporally matched observations obtained near Moffett Field, California, in June 1994. The CTM was forced using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses for April-August 1994. To identify the origin of modeled radon, we divided the radon sources into three regions. We performed CTM sensitivity experiments at horizontal resolutions of 2.8° × 2.8° (latitude × longitude) and 7.5° × 7.5°, and with and without moist convection and/or vertical diffusion. At the higher resolution the full CTM (i.e., including convection and vertical diffusion) generally agrees well with the observations in the free troposphere. The observations exhibit free-tropospheric radon peaks at altitudes where zonal wind speeds in the Pacific jet stream are greatest (generally at ?7 km). In this region the modeled radon originates from Asia, and the observed variability in the radon concentration is reproduced. Thus, the model reproduces the position and strength of the jet. We identify observed radon peaks that may originate from convective lifting, as they do in the model results. If these observed peaks do originate from convection, then the full CTM captures the correct temporal variability in convection over Asia and the Pacific for the observation period. Quantitative comparison shows that the model-data agreement is degraded if we decrease the model resolution to 7.5° × 7.5°, or remove the parameterizations of convection and/or vertical diffusion. This suggests a resolution of near 2.8° × 2.8° is needed in global models for realistic simulations of short-lived species. We have identified certain shortcomings with TOMCAT: the model underestimates the amount of convective cloud, the convective cloud top height, and the amount of vertical diffusion. We identify improvements to ameliorate these problems.

Stockwell, D. Zoe; Kritz, Mark A.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Pyle, John A.

1998-04-01

221

The surface chemistry of the magnetic Ap star HD 147010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HD 147010 is a hot (Teff = 13 000 K), large-field magnetic Ap star that is a member of the Upper Scorpius-Centaurus Association, which means it is a star with a well-defined age (log t = 6.70). We offer a comprehensive analysis of the magnetic field and surface chemistry of HD 147010 based on seven spectra obtained using CFHT's ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter. This data set is sufficient to obtain a first-order model of the magnetic field and obtain the abundance distribution of He, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Sr, La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm. The magnetic field model is a low-order multipole expansion based on the variations of the line of sight and surface magnetic fields with rotation. Spectral synthesis was carried out using ZEEMAN, a program which takes into account the influence of the magnetic field. A simple model of uniform abundance in each of two rings in the observed magnetic hemisphere with equal spans in colatitude was used. The new magnetic field measurements enabled us to re-analyse the rotation period of HD 147010, finding P = 3.9207 ± 0.0003 d. The line of sight and surface magnetic field strengths vary from about -2000 to -5000 G and 11000 to 17000 G, respectively. Our analysis finds large overabundances of Fe-peak and rare-earth elements relative to the solar ratios. In all cases, where strong variability in surface chemistry is observed, abundances are higher near the magnetic equator as compared to the magnetic pole. HD 147010 appears to be an Ap star that is highly rich in rare-earth elements that are of the order of 105 times more abundant than in the Sun. This analysis adds to the growing number of hot Ap stars for which both the magnetic field and abundance distribution have been studied in detail.

Bailey, J. D.; Landstreet, J. D.

2013-06-01

222

Jumbo battery-powered cargo transporter begins work at flying tigers: latest in growing line of heavy-duty electric vehicles for industry  

SciTech Connect

A first-of-its-kind lead battery-powered cargo transporter has been placed in service by Flying Tigers Line, Inc., temporarily for test in Chicago. The jumbo electric transporter, being used by Flying Tigers to more economically and efficiently load and unload its planes is described. The recent introducing of this 31,000-lb. gross weight (including batteries) tractor-flatbed roller combination electric vehicle is the latest in a growing number of heavy-duty electrics coming into wide-spread use in the airline, ocean shipping, mining, agricultural, manufacturing, and other industries.

Not Available

1986-04-01

223

The APS optics topography station  

SciTech Connect

An in-house station for topographic testing of x-ray optical elements for the Advanced Photon Source experimental beamlines was set up by the Experimental Facilities Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A new double-crystal x-ray diffractometer was designed and built keeping in mind the need for testing large crystals possibly attached to cooling manifolds and lines. A short description of the new facility is given. The instrument performance fully satisfies imposed requirements, and the machine was successfully used for testing several silicon and diamond crystals.

Krasnicki, S.

1996-01-01

224

AP-2? Induces Epigenetic Silencing of Tumor Suppressive Genes and Microsatellite Instability in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Activator protein 2 alpha (AP-2?) is involved in a variety of physiological processes. Increased AP-2? expression correlates with progression in various squamous cell carcinomas, and a recent publication found AP-2? to be overexpressed in ?70% of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) patient samples. It was found to repress transcription of the tumor suppressor gene C/CAAT Enhancer Binding Protein alpha (C/EBP?), and its binding site correlated with upstream methylation of the C/EBP? promoter. Therefore, we investigated the potential for AP-2? to target methylation to additional genes that would be relevant to HNSCC pathogenesis. Principal Findings Stable downregulation of AP-2? stable by shRNA in HNSCC cell lines correlated with decreased methylation of its target genes' regulatory regions. Furthermore, methylation of MLH1 in HNSCC with and without AP-2? downregulation revealed a correlation with microsatellite instability (MSI). ChIP analysis was used to confirm binding of AP-2? and HDAC1/2 to the targets. The effects of HDAC inhibition was assessed using Trichostatin A in a HNSCC cell line, which revealed that AP-2? targets methylation through HDAC recruitment. Conclusions These findings are significant because they suggest AP-2? plays a role not only in epigenetic silencing, but also in genomic instability. This intensifies the potential level of regulation AP-2? has through transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, these findings have the potential to revolutionize the field of HNSCC therapy, and more generally the field of epigenetic therapy, by targeting a single gene that is involved in the malignant transformation via disrupting DNA repair and cell cycle control.

Bennett, Kristi L.; Romigh, Todd; Eng, Charis

2009-01-01

225

E6-AP/UBE3A protein acts as a ubiquitin ligase toward SOX9 protein.  

PubMed

SOX9 is a transcription factor that acts as a key regulator at various stages of cartilage differentiation. There is ample evidence that intracellular SOX9 protein levels are tightly regulated both by sumoylation and by degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Using a proteomics approach, here we report the identification of a SOX9-binding protein, E6-AP/UBE3A, that may act as a ubiquitin ligase toward Sox9. E6-AP bound SOX9 through the region consisting mostly of its high mobility group domain in vitro. In nuclear lysates, FLAG-tagged E6-AP coprecipitated with Sox9 and its high mobility group domain. This finding was estimated using nuclear lysates from a chondrocytic cell line that endogenously expresses E6-AP and SOX9. Accordingly, ectopically expressed E6-AP and SOX9 colocalized in the nucleus. We show that E6-AP ubiquitinates SOX9 in vitro and in vivo and that SOX9 levels are enhanced after addition of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Similar, siRNA knockdown of E6-AP and the E2 ligase Ubc9 increased cellular SOX9 amounts, supporting the notion that SOX9 may be ubiquitinated in hypertrophic chondrocytes by E6-AP and degraded by proteasomes. This is in accordance with the distribution of SOX9 levels, which are high in proliferating and prehypertrophic chondrocytes but low in hypertrophic chondrocytes, whereas E6-AP levels are high in hypertrophic chondrocytes and low in prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Furthermore, E6-AP-deficient mice showed SOX9 accumulation in chondrocytes and the brain. These findings support the concept that E6-AP regulates SOX9 levels in developing cartilage by acting as a ubiquitin ligase. PMID:24155239

Hattori, Takako; Kishino, Tetsuya; Stephen, Shelley; Eberspaecher, Heidi; Maki, Sayumi; Takigawa, Masaharu; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Yasuda, Hideyo

2013-12-01

226

Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed.

Steen, F.H.

1997-12-22

227

Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

1981-01-01

228

APS storage ring vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

1990-01-01

229

Comparison of a CCD and an APS for soft X-ray diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare a new CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) to a Princeton Instruments PIXIS-XO: 2048B Charge Coupled Device (CCD) with soft X-rays tested in a synchrotron beam line at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). Despite CCDs being established in the field of scientific imaging, APS are an innovative technology that offers advantages over CCDs. These include faster readout, higher operational temperature, in-pixel electronics for advanced image processing and reduced manufacturing cost. The APS employed was the Vanilla sensor designed by the MI3 collaboration and funded by an RCUK Basic technology grant. This sensor has 520 x 520 square pixels, of size 25 ?m on each side. The sensor can operate at a full frame readout of up to 20 Hz. The sensor had been back-thinned, to the epitaxial layer. This was the first time that a back-thinned APS had been demonstrated at a beam line at DLS. In the synchrotron experiment soft X-rays with an energy of approximately 708 eV were used to produce a diffraction pattern from a permalloy sample. The pattern was imaged at a range of integration times with both sensors. The CCD had to be operated at a temperature of -55°C whereas the Vanilla was operated over a temperature range from 20°C to -10°C. We show that the APS detector can operate with frame rates up to two hundred times faster than the CCD, without excessive degradation of image quality. The signal to noise of the APS is shown to be the same as that of the CCD at identical integration times and the response is shown to be linear, with no charge blooming effects. The experiment has allowed a direct comparison of back thinned APS and CCDs in a real soft x-ray synchrotron experiment.

Stewart, Graeme; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Clark, A.; Dhesi, S. S.; Maneuski, D.; Marchal, J.; Steadman, P.; Tartoni, N.; Turchetta, R.

2011-12-01

230

Targeted Deletion of AP-2? Leads to Disruption in Corneal Epithelial Cell Integrity and Defects in the Corneal Stroma  

PubMed Central

Purpose The present study was undertaken to create a conditional knockout of AP-2? in the corneal epithelium. Methods A line of mice expressing Cre-recombinase specifically in the early lens placode was crossed with mice in which the AP-2? allele is flanked by two loxP sites. The resultant Le-AP-2? mutants exhibited a targeted deletion of AP-2? in lens placode derivatives, including the differentiating corneal epithelium. Results The Le-AP-2? mutant mice were viable and had a normal lifespan. The adult corneal epithelium exhibited a variation in the number of stratified epithelial layers, ranging from 2 to 10 cell layers. A substantial decrease in expression of the cell–cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, was observed in all layers of the Le-AP-2? mutant corneal epithelium. The basement membrane, or Bowman's layer, was thinner in the mutant cornea and in many regions was discontinuous. These defects corresponded with altered distribution of laminin and entactin, and to a lesser degree, type IV collagen. The Le-AP-2? mutant cornea also exhibited stromal defects, including disrupted organization of the collagen lamellae and accumulation of fibroblasts beneath the epithelium that showed increased immunoreactivity for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), p-Smad2, and TGF-?2. Conclusions In the absence of AP-2?, the corneal epithelium exhibits altered cell adhesion and integrity and defects in its underlying basement membrane. These defects likely caused the alterations in the corneal stroma.

Dwivedi, Dhruva J.; Pontoriero, Giuseppe F.; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Sullivan, Shelley; Williams, Trevor; West-Mays, Judith A.

2008-01-01

231

Transportation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit designed to increase students' knowledge and understanding of diesel and gasoline engines, providing an introduction for students interested in more specialized training in the automobile field and its scientific principles through math, science, and chemistry. It will also help students realize the importance of transportation, and will help them meet their needs in math through problem solving by dealing with materials in their world, letting them develop skills and techniques through hands-on experience. Includes more than 20 problems to solve.

Bryant, Joyce

2007-05-12

232

The chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work I present the determination of chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660, a possible rapid oscillating star. As all the magnetic chemically peculiar objects, it presents CNO underabundance and overabundance of iron peak elements of ˜100 times and of rare earths up to 4 dex with respect to the Sun. The determination was based on the conversion of the observed equivalent widths into abundances simultaneously to the determination of effective temperature and gravity. Since the Balmer lines of early type stars are very sensitive to the surface gravity while the flux distribution is sensitive to the effective temperature, I have adopted an iterative procedure to match the H? line profile and the observed UV-Vis-NIR magnitudes of HD94660 looking for a consistency between the metallicity of the atmosphere model and the derived abundances. From my spectroscopic analysis, this star belongs to the no-rapid oscillating class.

Giarrusso, M.

2014-05-01

233

A phenylalanine zipper mediates APS dimerization.  

PubMed

The APS, SH2-B and LNK proteins are adapters that activate and modulate receptor tyrosine kinase and JAK/STAT signaling. We now show that a conserved N-terminal domain mediates APS homodimerization. We determined the crystal structure of the dimerization domain at a resolution of 1.7 A using bromide ion MAD phasing. Each molecule contributes two helices to a compact four-helix bundle having a bisecting-U topology. Its most conspicuous feature is a stack of interdigitated phenylalanine side chains at the domain core. These residues create a new motif we refer to as a 'phenylalanine zipper,' which is critical to dimerization. A newly developed bridging yeast tri-hybrid assay showed that APS dimerizes JAK2, insulin receptor and IGF1 receptor kinases using its SH2 and dimerization domains. Dimerization via the phenylalanine zipper domain provides a mechanism for activating and modulating tyrosine kinase activity even in the absence of extracellular ligands. PMID:15378031

Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Werner, Eric D; Nishi, Masahiro; Hansen, Lone; Chi, Young-In; Shoelson, Steven E

2004-10-01

234

Literature search on kickers and septa for the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (APS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the literature was performed with a view to the design of kickers and septa for the injection and extraction line of the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher Ring (APS) in the UPDATE project. The UPDATE kickers were given the following specifications: deflection angle 2 mrad, pulse width 2 micrometer, fall time 70 ans, available length 2 m. A comparison

J. Kuijt; A. V. D. Linden

1988-01-01

235

TRANSFECTED MDCK CELL LINE WITH ENHANCED EXPRESSION OF CYP3A4 AND P-GLYCOPROTEIN AS A MODEL TO STUDY THEIR ROLE IN DRUG TRANSPORT AND METABOLISM  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to characterize and utilize MDCK cell line expressing CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as an in vitro model for evaluating drug-herb and drug-drugs of abuse interactions. MDCK cell line simultaneously expressing P-gp and CYP3A4 (MMC) was developed and characterized by using expression and activity studies. Cellular transport study of 200 ?M cortisol was performed to determine their combined activity. The study was carried across MDCK-WT, MDCK-MDR1 and MMC cell lines. Similar studies were also carried out in the presence of 50 ?M naringin and 3 ?M morphine. Samples were analyzed by HPLC for drug and its CYP3A4 metabolite. PCR, qPCR and western blot studies confirmed the enhanced expression of the proteins in the transfected cells. The vivid CYP3A4 assay and ketoconazole inhibition studies further confirmed the presence of active protein. Apical to basal transport of cortisol was found to be ten and three fold lower in MMC as compared to WT and MDCKMDR1 respectively. Higher amount of metabolite was formed in MMC than in MDCK-WT indicating enhanced expression of CYP3A4. Highest cortisol metabolite formation was observed in MMC cell line due to the combined metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and P-gp. Transport of cortisol increased fivefold in presence of naringin in MMC and doubled in MDCKMDR1. Cortisol transport in MMC was significantly lower than that in WT in presence of naringin. The permeability increased three fold in presence of morphine which is a weaker inhibitor of CYP3A4. Formation of 6?-hydroxy cortisol was found to decrease in presence of morphine and naringin. This new model cell line with its enhanced CYP3A4 and P-gp levels in addition to short culture time can serve as an invaluable model to study drug-drug interactions. This cell line can also be used to study the combined contribution of efflux transporter and metabolizing enzymes towards drug-drug interactions.

Kwatra, Deep; Budda, Balasubramanyam; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

2012-01-01

236

Expression of Na+-dependent citrate transport in a strongly metastatic human prostate cancer PC-3M cell line: regulation by voltage-gated Na+ channel activity  

PubMed Central

Prostate is a unique organ which synthesizes and releases large amounts of citrate. It has been shown that in metastatic prostate cancer, the amount of citrate in prostatic fluid is significantly reduced, approaching the level normally found in blood. In our previous study, we characterized electrophysiologically the mechanism of citrate transport in a normal prostatic epithelial (PNT2-C2) cell line. It was concluded that the cells expressed a novel transporter carrying 1 citrate3? together with 4 K+, primarily out of cells. In the present study, we aimed similarly to characterize the mechanism(s) of citrate transport in a strongly metastatic human prostate cancer (PC-3M) cell line and to compare this with the previous data. Citrate transport in PC-3M cells was found to be both Na+ and K+ dependent. Intracellular application of citrate produced an outward current that was primarily K+ dependent whilst extracellular citrate elicited an inward current that was mainly Na+ dependent. The electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics of the citrate outward current were similar to the K+-dependent citrate transporter found in the PNT2-C2 cells. On the other hand, the inward citrate current had a markedly different reversal potential, ionic characteristics, inhibitor profile and pH sensitivity. Preincubation of the PC-3M cells (24 or 48 h) with the voltage-gated Na+ channel (VGSC) blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) significantly reduced the Na+ sensitivity of the citrate current, up-regulated VGSC mRNA expression but did not change the partial permeability of the membrane to Na+. It was concluded (a) that PC-3M cells express a K+-dependent transporter (carrying citrate outward), similar to that found in normal prostate epithelial cells, as well as (b) a Na+-dependent transporter (carrying citrate inward). The molecular nature of the latter was investigated by RT-PCR; the three known Na+-dependent citrate/dicarboxylate transporters could not be detected. VGSC activity, which itself has been associated with metastatic prostate cancer, had a differential effect on the two citrate transporters, down-regulating the expression of the Na+-dependent component whilst enhancing the K+-dependent citrate transporter.

Mycielska, Maria E; Palmer, Christopher P; Brackenbury, William J; Djamgoz, Mustafa BA

2005-01-01

237

Predicting gemcitabine transport and toxicity in human pancreatic cancer cell lines with the positron emission tomography tracer 3?-deoxy-3?-fluorothymidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) has recently been shown to be a predictive marker of benefit from gemcitabine therapy in patients with pancreatic cancer. Since hENT1 is also important for the uptake of positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 3?-deoxy-3?-fluorothymidine (FLT) in various cultured human cell lines, this study was undertaken to determine if FLT uptake predicts

Robert J. Paproski; James D. Young; Carol E. Cass

2010-01-01

238

Project W-519 CDR supplement: Raw water and electrical services for privatization contractor, AP tank farm operations  

SciTech Connect

This supplement to the Project W-519 Conceptual Design will identify a means to provide RW and Electrical services to serve the needs of the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) at AP Tank Farm as directed by DOE-RL. The RW will serve the fire suppression and untreated process water requirements for the PC. The purpose of this CDR supplement is to identify Raw Water (RW) and Electrical service line routes to the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) feed delivery tanks, AP-106 and/or AP-108, and establish associated cost impacts to the Project W-519 baseline.

Parazin, R.J.

1998-07-31

239

Abundance analysis of roAp stars. II. HD 203932  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new tool to simplify abundance analyses which is based on stand-alone programs has been applied to the rapidly oscillating Ap star HD 203932 (BI Mic, CD -30 18600, SAO 212996; Ap(SrEu), V=8.82mag). The spectroscopically determined T_eff_=7450+/-100K and logg=4.3+/-0.15 put this star close to the ZAMS. Other fundamental atmospheric parameters are v_micro_<0.6km/s and the total abundance of all iron peak elements [M/H]=0.0+/-0.1. The fundamental parameters put HD 203932 in a region of the HR-diagram where convection starts becoming efficient and the standard mixing length theory models lead to severe problems in the determination of the atmospheric parameters. The difference between the upper limit for logg obtained from several variants of the mixing length theory and the Canuto-Mazzitelli model indicates that the choice of a particular convection model can influence the determination of basic stellar parameters. For the first time abundances were determined for HD 203932 showing a pattern for the 35 investigated elements which is similar to ? Cir (Kupka et al. 1996A&A...308..886K, Paper I). Fe and Ni have about solar abundance, Cr and especially Co are clearly overabundant as well as rare earth elements. The most underabundant element is Sc, followed by C, N, and O, which is a common property of CP2 stars. The lack of a correlation in our data between individual line abundances and their effective Lande factors implies a mean magnetic field modulus not exceeding few kG. Compared to the last homogeneous spectroscopic investigation of a large sample of chemically peculiar stars (21 cool Ap stars, Adelman 1973ApJ...183...95A), our analysis is based on data with higher spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Even more important, we are using a much larger atomic line data base with more precise atomic parameters than available more than twenty years ago.

Gelbmann, M.; Kupka, F.; Weiss, W. W.; Mathys, G.

1997-03-01

240

Transport Inhibition of Digoxin Using Several Common P-gp Expressing Cell Lines Is Not Necessarily Reporting Only on Inhibitor Binding to P-gp  

PubMed Central

We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health), Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown). These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1) bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2) partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3) aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while highly permeable P-gp substrates such as amprenavir, quinidine, ketoconazole and verapamil do not, regardless of whether they actually use the basolateral transporter.

Lumen, Annie Albin; Li, Libin; Li, Jiben; Ahmed, Zeba; Meng, Zhou; Owen, Albert; Ellens, Harma; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Bentz, Joe

2013-01-01

241

Clathrin and AP-1 regulate apical polarity and lumen formation during C. elegans tubulogenesis.  

PubMed

Clathrin coats vesicles in all eukaryotic cells and has a well-defined role in endocytosis, moving molecules away from the plasma membrane. Its function on routes towards the plasma membrane was only recently appreciated and is thought to be limited to basolateral transport. Here, an unbiased RNAi-based tubulogenesis screen identifies a role of clathrin (CHC-1) and its AP-1 adaptor in apical polarity during de novo lumenal membrane biogenesis in the C. elegans intestine. We show that CHC-1/AP-1-mediated polarized transport intersects with a sphingolipid-dependent apical sorting process. Depleting each presumed trafficking component mislocalizes the same set of apical membrane molecules basolaterally, including the polarity regulator PAR-6, and generates ectopic lateral lumens. GFP::CHC-1 and BODIPY-ceramide vesicles associate perinuclearly and assemble asymmetrically at polarized plasma membrane domains in a co-dependent and AP-1-dependent manner. Based on these findings, we propose a trafficking pathway for apical membrane polarity and lumen morphogenesis that implies: (1) a clathrin/AP-1 function on an apically directed transport route; and (2) the convergence of this route with a sphingolipid-dependent apical trafficking path. PMID:22535410

Zhang, Hongjie; Kim, Ahlee; Abraham, Nessy; Khan, Liakot A; Hall, David H; Fleming, John T; Gobel, Verena

2012-06-01

242

Transport of thalidomide by the human intestinal caco-2 monolayers.  

PubMed

Studies in patients have indicated that the oral absorption of thalidomide is considerably variable at high doses (>200 mg/day). The aim of this study was to investigate the transport of racemic thalidomide using human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2) monolayers, which have been widely used to investigate drug permeability. A typical 21-day protocol was used to prepare Caco-2 monolayers. Thalidomide was determined by a validated high performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection. The integrity of Caco-2 monolayer was confirmed when the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) exceeded 300 Ohmz . cm2, and the leakage of 14C-manitol was <1% per hour. Uptake of thalidomide by Caco-2 cells was very limited (up to 2.1%). The transport of thalidomide appeared to be linear up to 1 hr. Our study indicated that the permeability coefficients (Papp) of thalidomide at 2.5-300 microM from the apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) and from BL to AP side was 2-6 x 10(-5) cm/sec, with a marked decrease in Papp values from AP to BL at increased thalidomide concentration. The transport of thalidomide was sodium-, temperature- and pH-dependent, as replacement of extracellular sodium chloride or reducing temperature and apical pH can result in significant decreases in the Papp values. Additional data indicated that transport of thalidomide is energy-dependent, as it was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by the ATP inhibitors, sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. In addition, DL-glutamic acid, cytidine, diprodomole, papaverine, quinidine, and cyclophosphamide significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the transport of thalidomide, while the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil and other nucleosides and nucleotides such as thymidine and guanine had no effect. These results indicated that thalidomide was rapidly transported by Caco-2 monolayers, and this might involve a saturable energy-dependent transporter. PMID:16010862

Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Yan; Kestell, Phillip; Schafer, Peter; Chan, Eli; Paxton, James W

2005-01-01

243

The Clathrin Adaptor AP-1A Mediates Basolateral Polarity  

PubMed Central

Summary Clathrin and the epithelial-specific clathrin adaptor AP-1B mediate basolateral trafficking in epithelia. However, several epithelia lack AP-1B and mice knocked-out for AP-1B are viable, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms that control basolateral polarity. Here, we demonstrate a distinct role of the ubiquitous clathrin adaptor AP-1A in basolateral protein sorting. Knock-down of AP-1A causes missorting of basolateral proteins in MDCK cells but only after knock-down of AP-1B, suggesting that AP-1B can compensate for lack of AP-1A. AP-1A localizes predominantly to the TGN and its knock-down promotes spillover of basolateral proteins into common recycling endosomes, the site of function of AP-1B, suggesting complementary roles of both adaptors in basolateral sorting. Yeast two-hybrid assays detect interactions between the basolateral signal of TfR and the medium subunits of both AP-1A and AP-1B. The basolateral sorting function of AP-1A reported here establishes AP-1 as a major regulator of epithelial polarity.

Gravotta, Diego; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Mattera, Rafael; Deborde, Sylvie; Banfelder, Jason R.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

2013-01-01

244

Bright EUV lines emitted by highly ionized tungsten ions as diagnostic indicators of the tungsten transport in ITER core plasmas (Te > 7 keV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the possible use of spectral lines from highly ionized tungsten (W) ions to measure transport and other physical properties of ITER plasmas. Firstly, we calculate the fractional abundances of W ions for plasmas having electron temperatures in the 7-40 keV range and an electron density of 1014 cm-3. Secondly, we calculate the wavelengths and emissivities versus temperature of the brightest spectral lines expected to be emitted by the W ions at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths longer than 45 Å. To complement the grazing incidence spectroscopy technique traditionally used to study such spectra, we propose the use of segmented multilayer-coated telescopes for imaging the ITER plasmas in selected EUV lines, similar to the space-based instruments routinely used to study temperatures, emission measures and motions of 0.1-2 keV solar coronal plasmas.

Feldman, U.; Seely, J. F.; Landi, E.; Ralchenko, Yu.

2008-04-01

245

OsAP65, a rice aspartic protease, is essential for male fertility and plays a role in pollen germination and pollen tube growth  

PubMed Central

Aspartic proteases (APs) comprise a large proteolytic enzyme family widely distributed in animals, microbes, viruses, and plants. The rice genome encodes 96 APs, of which only a few have been functionally characterized. Here, the identification and characterization of a novel AP gene, OsAP65, which plays an indispensable role in pollen tube growth in rice, is reported. The T-DNA insertion line of OsAP65 caused severe segregation distortion. In the progeny derived from an individual heterozygous for the T-DNA insertion, the wild type and T-DNA-carrying heterozygote segregated at a ratio close to 1:1, while homozygotes of disrupted OsAP65 (OsAP65–/–) were not recovered. Reciprocal crosses between heterozygotes and wild-type plants demonstrated that the mutant alleles could not be transmitted through the male gamete. Examination of the anthers from heterozygous plants revealed that the mutant pollen matured normally, but did not germinate or elongate. OsAP65 was expressed in various tissues and the transcript level in heterozygous plants was about half of the amount measured in the wild-type plants. The subcellular localization showed that OsAP65 is a pre-vacuolar compartment (PVC) protein. These results indicated that OsAP65 was essential for rice pollen germination and tube growth.

Zhang, Qifa

2013-01-01

246

College Board Readies Plans for AP Audits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the educators mixed reviews regarding the audit system planned by the College Board to scrutinize high school Advanced Placement courses. Teachers of AP courses are required to submit materials to the College Board proving that their course syllabuses meet the program's curricular requirements. It is the most extensive…

Klein, Alyson

2006-01-01

247

The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

2005-01-01

248

Creation of post AP chemistry class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creation of a Post AP Chemistry Class to be taught at the high school level for grade 12 students is discussed. The class is to be taught under the supervision of the University of Texas Pan American professors and taught by an MS Chemistry teacher, in order to better transition students into upper level chemistry courses beyond Chemistry 1401 and 1402.

Medrano, Julian

249

Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan  

SciTech Connect

This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107.

Schreiber, R.D.

1994-12-06

250

APS Presents Awards at 2006 ABRCMS Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An article from The Physiologist. The APS presented awards to minority undergraduate researchers and was a major conference sponsor at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS) at the Anaheim Convention Center and Anaheim Marriott hotel in Anaheim, CA from November 8-11, 2006.

APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

2007-04-01

251

Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

Keller, Kenneth H.

2012-01-01

252

AP Biology Investigation #6: Cellular Respiration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Advanced Placement Investigation into cellular respiration (#6). The investigation was developed by the College Board for use in AP Biology classes. Students begin by investigating the question, What factors affect the rate of cellular respiration in multicellular organisms? Later, students investigate one of their own questions that arose during the first investigation. Wisconsin Fast Plants are used as a model organism.

Approach, Ap B.

253

APS study of directed energy weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before being considered seriously for defense against potential ballistic missile attacks, all existing candidates for directed energy weapons (DEW) require improvement by a factor of at least 100 in power output and beam quality, according to an American Physical Society (APS) report released April 23.

Barbara T. Richman

1987-01-01

254

APS study of directed energy weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before being considered seriously for defense against potential ballistic missile attacks, all existing candidates for directed energy weapons (DEW) require improvement by a factor of at least 100 in power output and beam quality, according to an American Physical Society (APS) report released April 23.

Richman, Barbara T.

255

Building a Robust A-P Axis  

PubMed Central

Since the last common ancestor of Metazoa, animals have evolved complex body plans with specialized cells and spatial organization of tissues and organs. Arguably, one of the most significant innovations during animal evolutionary history was the establishment of a bilateral plane of symmetry on which morphological features (e.g. tissues, organs, appendages, skeleton) could be given specific coordinates within the animal along the anterior-posterior (A-P) and dorsal-ventral (D-V) axes. Hox genes are a known group of eumetazoan transcription factors central to regulating A-P patterning, but less well known and under current investigation is the broader regulatory landscape incorporating these genes, including microRNA (miRNA) regulation. The degree to which evolutionarily conserved targeting of Hox genes by Hox-embedded miRNAs contributes directly to A-P patterning is under investigation, yielding contrasting information dependent on the organism and miRNA of interest. The widespread A-P patterning defects observed in recent miR-196 loss-of-function studies solidifies the importance of miRNA regulation in Hox genetic hierarchies, and elucidating the developmental and evolutionary importance of all Hox-embedded miRNAs remains a challenge for the future.

Heimberg, Alysha; McGlinn, Edwina

2012-01-01

256

Tank 241-AP-106, grab samples, 6AP-96-1 through 6AP-96-3 analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. This document presents the analytical results for three samples (6AP-96-1, 6AP-96-2 and 6AP-96-3) taken from riser 1 @ 150{degrees} of tank 241-AP-1 06 on September 12, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1996) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler, 1995).

Esch, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-12-11

257

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - TRANSPORTABILITY FACTORS FOR FUGITIVE DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The product is a table of factors, one for each county in the US, reflecting the portion of fugitive dust removed very close to the source via impaction on vegetation and similar mechanisms. Factors were based on land cover in area (county or grid cell) A praft final product was...

258

Sorting of the Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid Precursor Protein Mediated by the AP-4 Complex  

SciTech Connect

Adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is the most recently discovered and least well-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes that mediate sorting of transmembrane cargo in post-Golgi compartments. Herein, we report the interaction of an YKFFE sequence from the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the {micro}4 subunit of AP-4. Biochemical and X-ray crystallographic analyses reveal that the properties of the APP sequence and the location of the binding site on 4 are distinct from those of other signal-adaptor interactions. Disruption of the APP-AP-4 interaction decreases localization of APP to endosomes and enhances {gamma}-secretase-catalyzed cleavage of APP to the pathogenic amyloid-{beta} peptide. These findings demonstrate that APP and AP-4 engage in a distinct type of signal-adaptor interaction that mediates transport of APP from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes, thereby reducing amyloidogenic processing of the protein.

Burgos, Patricia V.; Mardones, Gonzalo A.; Rojas, Adriana L.; daSilva, Luis L.P.; Prabhu, Yogikala; Hurley, James H.; Bonifacino, Juan S. (NIH)

2010-08-12

259

Enhanced NF?B and AP-1 transcriptional activity associated with antiestrogen resistant breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Signaling pathways that converge on two different transcription factor complexes, NF?B and AP-1, have been identified in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers resistant to the antiestrogen, tamoxifen. Methods Two cell line models of tamoxifen-resistant ER-positive breast cancer, MCF7/HER2 and BT474, showing increased AP-1 and NF?B DNA-binding and transcriptional activities, were studied to compare tamoxifen effects on NF?B and AP-1 regulated reporter genes relative to tamoxifen-sensitive MCF7 cells. The model cell lines were treated with the IKK inhibitor parthenolide (PA) or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (PS341), alone and in combination with tamoxifen. Expression microarray data available from 54 UCSF node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases with known clinical outcome were used to search for potential genes signifying upregulated NF?B and AP-1 transcriptional activity in association with tamoxifen resistance. The association of these genes with patient outcome was further evaluated using node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases identified from three other published data sets (Rotterdam, n = 209; Amsterdam, n = 68; Basel, n = 108), each having different patient age and adjuvant tamoxifen treatment characteristics. Results Doses of parthenolide and bortezomib capable of sensitizing the two endocrine resistant breast cancer models to tamoxifen were capable of suppressing NF?B and AP-1 regulated gene expression in combination with tamoxifen and also increased ER recruitment of the transcriptional co-repressor, NCoR. Transcript profiles from the UCSF breast cancer cases revealed three NF?B and AP-1 upregulated genes – cyclin D1, uPA and VEGF – capable of dichotomizing node-negative ER-positive cases into early and late relapsing subsets despite adjuvant tamoxfien therapy and most prognostic for younger age cases. Across the four independent sets of node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases (UCSF, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Basel), high expression of all three NF?B and AP-1 upregulated genes was associated with earliest metastatic relapse. Conclusion Altogether, these findings implicate increased NF?B and AP-1 transcriptional responses with tamoxifen resistant breast cancer and early metastatic relapse, especially in younger patients. These findings also suggest that agents capable of preventing NF?B and AP-1 gene activation may prove useful in restoring the endocrine responsiveness of such high-risk ER-positive breast cancers.

Zhou, Yamei; Yau, Christina; Gray, Joe W; Chew, Karen; Dairkee, Shanaz H; Moore, Dan H; Eppenberger, Urs; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Benz, Christopher C

2007-01-01

260

Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils  

SciTech Connect

Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1.

Hirano, Toru [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higa, Shinji [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Arimitsu, Junsuke [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Naka, Tetsuji [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ogata, Atsushi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shima, Yoshihito [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Fujimoto, Minoru [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamadori, Tomoki [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki [Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan); Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kawase, Ichiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshio [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: ttanak@imed3.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

2006-02-03

261

Nanopattern fabrication via AP-UVO exposure of a self-organized block copolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Block copolymers were used to achieve nanoscale patterning. Block copolymers, particularly polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA), produce patterns from which one block polymer may be selectively etched. However, the selective wet etching of PMMA with acetic acid can induce the remaining PS structures to collapse due to capillary forces between adjacent PS domains during drying. This study presents an alternative approach to the formation of nanoscale patterns by using an atmospheric UV-ozone (AP-UVO, ? = 365 nm) exposure system. Compared with the general etching system, AP-UVO exposure is relatively low cost, can potentially be scaled up, and proceeds via a simple process. In addition, we demonstrate that the line and space (L/S) sizes of the block copolymer pattern can be controlled by using the AP-UVO etch time. Also, we were able to obtain well-ordered patterns from the combining the AP-UVO exposure process with a control process of block copolymers conditions. These results suggest that the AP-UVO exposure method with block copolymers may be used to form etch masks, particularly for the fabrication of graphene nanoribbons, quantum dots, nano grid wires, and nanopores.

Jeong, Ye-Sul; Kim, Ah Ra; Ham, Yong-Hyun; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Do, Lee-Mi; Kim, Hong Seung

2012-02-01

262

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This project develops emission factors, etc., for residential fireplaces and woodstoves which are incorporated into AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness infor...

263

Transmembrane Segment 11 Appears to Line the Purine Permeation Pathway of the Plasmodium falciparum Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (PfENT1)*  

PubMed Central

Purine transport is essential for malaria parasites to grow because they lack the enzymes necessary for de novo purine biosynthesis. The Plasmodium falciparum Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (PfENT1) is a member of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) gene family. PfENT1 is a primary purine transport pathway across the P. falciparum plasma membrane because PfENT1 knock-out parasites are not viable at physiologic extracellular purine concentrations. Topology predictions and experimental data indicate that ENT family members have eleven transmembrane (TM) segments although their tertiary structure is unknown. In the current work, we showed that a naturally occurring polymorphism, F394L, in TM11 affects transport substrate Km. We investigated the structure and function of the TM11 segment using the substituted cysteine accessibility method. We showed that mutation to Cys of two highly conserved glycine residues in a GXXXG motif significantly reduces PfENT1 protein expression levels. We speculate that the conserved TM11 GXXXG glycines may be critical for folding and/or assembly. Small, cysteine-specific methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents reacted with four TM11 Cys substitution mutants, L393C, I397C, T400C, and Y403C. Larger MTS reagents do not react with the more cytoplasmic positions. Hypoxanthine, a transported substrate, protected L393C, I397C, and T400C from covalent modification by the MTS reagents. Plotted on an ?-helical wheel, Leu-393, Ile-397, and Thr-400 lie on one face of the helix in a 60° arc suggesting that TM11 is largely ? helical. We infer that they line a water-accessible surface, possibly the purine permeation pathway. These results advance our understanding of the ENT structure.

Riegelhaupt, Paul M.; Frame, I. J.; Akabas, Myles H.

2010-01-01

264

Promoter Specificity and Biological Activity of Tethered AP1 Dimers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a group of dimeric transcription factors composed of Jun, Fos, and ATF family proteins. Both gain- and loss-of-function studies have revealed specific roles for individual AP-1 components in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and other biological processes. However, little is known about the functions of specific AP-1 dimers. To test the importance of AP-1 composition in

Latifa Bakiri; Koichi Matsuo; Marta Wisniewska; Erwin F. Wagner; Moshe Yaniv

2002-01-01

265

Transport Characteristics of L-Carnosine and the Anticancer Derivative 4-Toluenesulfonylureido-Carnosine in a Human Epithelial Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the transepithelial transport of the anticancer compound 4-toluenesulfonylureido-carnosine (Ts-carnosine) and the dipeptide moiety L-carnosine was due to a hPepT1 carrier-mediated flux.\\u000aMethods. Transport experiments were conducted using Caco-2 cell monolayers and either reversed-phase HPLC-UV or liquid scintillation counting methods for quantification. pKa, LogD, and LogP were determined using the

Carsten Uhd Nielsen; Claudiu T. Supuran; Andrea Scozzafava; Sven Frokjaer; Bente Steffansen; Birger Brodin

2002-01-01

266

OFF-LINE ALGORITHM FOR CALCULATION OF VERTICAL TRACERS TRANSPORT DUE TO DEEP CONVECTION IN THE TROPOSPHERE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IIt has been recognized for long time that transport by deep convection can have a substantial impact on the budgets of tracers in the atmosphere due to the rapid transport in convective updrafts from the surface to the upper troposphere and downdrafts in reverse. The vertical velocity of updrafts is usually about several m/sec, but can sometimes exceed 20-30 m/sec. So deep convection sometimes penetrates the atmosphere to altitudes of the stratosphere on time scales of the order of few hours. Deep convection particularly strongly affects tracers with lifetimes in the range of day to a couple of weeks throughout the troposphere. Global chemistry-transport models and global circulation models generally simulate vertical tracer transport using convective mass fluxes obtained from a deep cumulus convection parameterization. For this purpose many different cumulus parameterizations have been developed which are based on the plume ensemble formulation and the bulk formulation as two widely used approaches for parameterization of tracer transport (Lawrence and Rasch, 2005). In this work we present an explicit method for modeling convective updrafts based on modification of the parameterization scheme described in (Grell, 1993) in which rainfall is determined by the quasi-equilibrium assumption that the column is stabilized by the convection at the same rate that it is destabilized by the large-scale flow. Assuming that most of moisture entering updraft comes down as precipitation, cloud mass flux due to penetrative convection Clmf between lower and upper layers of cloud is estimated from equation: Clmf = Rain/Qmax. Rain denotes the precipitation rate at the surface; Qmax is the maximum value of the absolute humidity within a vertical profile. In our parameterization, instead of using prognostic algorithm for convection intensity, Rain, lower and upper layers of cloud are all supplied by NCEP GFS operational forecast dataset. We performed simulation of Rn222 concentrations using NIES global transport model. Comparison of results obtained by models with our penetrative convection algorithm and without convective parametrization shows significant increase of radon concentration (up to 10-20% of lower tropospheric values) in the tropical upper troposphere, directly below the top of the tropopause. We also present effect of the algorithm application on carbon dioxide transport simulation. 1. Grell G., 1993: Prognostic evaluation of assumptions used by cumulus parameterizations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 764-787. 2. Lawrence M.G. and P.J. Rasch, 2005: Tracer Transport in Deep Convective Updrafts: Plume Ensemble versus Bulk Formulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2880-2894.

Belikov, D. A.; Maksyutov, S. S.

2009-12-01

267

The IBM\\/APS Research Internship for Undergraduate Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IBM\\/APS Research Internship for Undergraduate Women has been recently adopted as an official program by the APS and the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics. We provide a history of the program, from its start at IBM's Almaden Research Center, through its adoption as an APS program, and its extension to all three IBM Research sites across

Barbara Jones

2001-01-01

268

The APS Archive of Teaching Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Physiological Society (APS) Archive of Teaching Resources is a digital library of peer-reviewed science teaching resources that contains over 2,200 lesson plans, teaching journal articles, and audiovisual materials. A range of learned societies contribute materials to the archive, including the APS itself and the International Union of Physiological Societies. On the homepage, visitors can click on the Featured area for a nice introduction to some of the most popular materials on the site. Here they can look over the Top 100 resources for use with K-12 students, undergrads, graduate students, and those in continuing education. Moving along, the Research Bytes area contains links to recent news items that cover everything from brain fatigue to exercise strategies that successfully combat Type 2 diabetes. Visitors are encouraged to sign up for their own account on the site, which will allow them to save and categorize resources for their own use.

2012-02-10

269

Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline  

SciTech Connect

A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm{sup 2} (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented.

Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

1997-09-01

270

APS Museum "Dialogues with Darwin" Online Exhibition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Philosophical Society (APS) Museum's "Dialogues with Darwin" exhibition tells the story of Charles Darwinâs theory of evolution and considers the debates about evolution that came both before and after him. The online gallery features all objects, label texts, and wall texts on view in the actual exhibition. The site includes a link to an Educator's Guide which can be downloaded as a pdf file.

American Philosophical Society & Philadelphia Area Center for History of Science

271

Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report.

Esch, R.A.

1996-04-19

272

The Type Ic Hypernova SN 2002ap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photometric and spectroscopic data of the energetic Type Ic supernova (SN) 2002ap are presented, and the properties of the SN are investigated through models of its spectral evolution and its light curve. The SN is spectroscopically similar to the ``hypernova'' SN 1997ef. However, its kinetic energy [~(4-10)×1051 ergs] and the mass ejected (2.5-5 Msolar) are smaller, resulting in a faster

P. A. Mazzali; J. Deng; K. Maeda; K. Nomoto; H. Umeda; K. Hatano; K. Iwamoto; Y. Yoshii; Y. Kobayashi; T. Minezaki; M. Doi; K. Enya; H. Tomita; S. J. Smartt; K. Kinugasa; H. Kawakita; K. Ayani; T. Kawabata; H. Yamaoka; Y. L. Qiu; K. Motohara; C. L. Gerardy; R. Fesen; K. S. Kawabata; M. Iye; N. Kashikawa; G. Kosugi; Y. Ohyama; M. Takada-Hidai; G. Zhao; R. Chornock; A. V. Filippenko; S. Benetti; M. Turatto

2002-01-01

273

Effect of Magnetic Fringe Field and Interference on Beam Matching in a Medium Energy Beam Transport Line of the Spallation Neutron Source Linac  

SciTech Connect

A Medium-Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line is employed in the SNS linac to match the beam from an RFQ to a DTL and to perform other functions. The MEBT lattice consists of fourteen electromagnetic quadrupoles and other devices. The quads have very small aspect ratios (steel length over aperture diameter), and they are densely packed in the lattice. Significant fringe fields and magnetic interference cause difficulties in beam matching. We have performed 3D simulations of the magnets, computed their optical properties, and compared their performance with what predicted by simple hard edge models. This paper reports our findings and a general solution to the problem.

Wang, Jian-Guang [ORNL; Zhang, Yan [ORNL

2011-01-01

274

Hypoxia regulates the adenosine transporter, mENT1, in the murine cardiomyocyte cell line, HL1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Adenosine is an important paracrine hormone in the cardiovascular system. Adenosine flux across cardiomyocyte membranes occurs mainly via equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). The role of the ENTs in adenosine physiology is poorly understood, particularly in response to metabolic stress such as hypoxia. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic hypoxia on ENT1, the predominant ENT isoform in cardiomyocytes. Methods:

Naz Chaudary; Zlatina Naydenova; Irina Shuralyova; Imogen R. Coe

2004-01-01

275

Transport and intracellular distribution of MHC class II molecules and associated invariant chain in normal and antigen-processing mutant cell lines.  

PubMed

We have compared the intracellular transport and subcellular distribution of MHC class II-invariant chain complexes in a wild-type HLA-DR3 homozygous cell line and a mutant cell line, T2.DR3. The latter has a defect in antigen processing and accumulates HLA-DR3 molecules associated with an invariant chain-derived peptide (CLIP) rather than the normal complement of peptides derived from endocytosed proteins. We find that in the wild-type cells, CLIP is transiently associated with HLA-DR3 molecules, suggesting that the peptide is a normal class II-associated intermediate generated during proteolysis of the invariant chain. In the mutant cell line proteolysis of the invariant chain is less efficient, and HLA-DR3/CLIP complexes are generated much more slowly. Examination of the mutant cell line by immunoelectronmicroscopy shows that class II-invariant chain complexes accumulate intracellularly in large acidic vesicles which contain lysosomal markers, including beta-hexosaminidase, cathepsin D, and the lysosomal membrane protein CD63. The markers in these vesicles are identical to those seen in the class II-containing vesicles (MIICs) seen in the wild-type cells but the morphology is drastically different. The vesicles in the mutant cells are endocytic, as measured by the internalization of BSA-gold conjugates. The implication of these findings for antigen processing in general and the nature of the mutation in particular are discussed. PMID:8207055

Riberdy, J M; Avva, R R; Geuze, H J; Cresswell, P

1994-06-01

276

[Progresses on plant AP2/ERF transcription factors].  

PubMed

Plant AP2/ERF transcription factor with AP2/ERF domain containing 60-70 amino acids is a huge gene family present in all plant. AP2/ERF transcriptional factors are involved in various biological functions such as plant development, flower development, fruit and seed maturation, wounding, pathogen defense, high salty, drought, and so on. AP2/ERF transcription factor are involved in salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, abscisic acid signal transduction pathways and among them. The transcription factors are cross-talk factor in stress signal pathway. This paper summarizes the most advanced researches on types, biological functions, and gene regulations of plant AP2/ERF transcription factors. PMID:22805209

Zhang, Ji-Yu; Wang, Qing-Ju; Guo, Zhong-Ren

2012-07-01

277

Transmembrane domain 8 of the {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transporter GAT-1 lines a cytoplasmic accessibility pathway into its binding pocket.  

PubMed

GAT-1 is a sodium- and chloride-coupled gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter, which fulfills an essential role in the synaptic transmission by this neurotransmitter. Cysteine-399 is the major site of inhibition of GAT-1 by membrane-permeant sulfhydryl reagents. This cysteine residue was previously thought to reside on a cytoplasmic loop connecting transmembrane domains (TMs) 8 and 9. However, the crystal structure of LeuT, a bacterial homologue of the mammalian neurotransmitter:sodium symporters, revealed that the residue corresponding to Cys-399 is in fact located in the middle of TM 8. This residue is located to the cytoplasmic side of Asp-395 and Ser-396, whose side chains are thought to ligand one of the two cotransported sodium ions. To determine how the sulfhydryl reagents approach cysteine-399, a cysteine scan of all 35 residues of TM 8 was performed. Sulfhydryl reagents inhibited transport when a cysteine residue was present at either of the positions 399, 402, 406, and 410. SKF-89976A and other non-transportable analogues, which are expected to lock the transporter in a conformation facing the extracellular medium, protected against the sulfhydryl modification at positions 399, 402, and 406. Such a protection was not seen by GABA itself, which actually modestly potentiated the modification at positions 399 and 402. Our results point to an alpha-helical stripe on TM8 lining an aqueous access pathway from the cytoplasm into the binding pocket, which gets occluded in the conformation of the transporter where the binding pocket is exposed to the extracellular medium. PMID:19201752

Ben-Yona, Assaf; Kanner, Baruch I

2009-04-10

278

The West African Squall Line Observed on 23 June 1981 during COPT 81: Mesoscale Structure and Transports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Durirg the night of 23\\/24 June 1981, new Korhogo, Ivory Coast, a squall line passed over the instrumented area of the COPT 81 experiment. Observations were obtained with a dual-Doppler radar system, a sounding station and 22 automatic meteorological surface stations. Data from these instruments and from satellite pictures were analyzed to depict the kinematic and thermodynamic structure of the

J. P. Chalon; G. Jaubert; J. P. Lafore; F. Roux

1988-01-01

279

Proactive AP Selection Method Considering the Radio Interference Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the near future, wireless local area networks (WLANs) will overlap to provide continuous coverage over a wide area. In such ubiquitous WLANs, a mobile node (MN) moving freely between multiple access points (APs) requires not only permanent access to the Internet but also continuous communication quality during handover. In order to satisfy these requirements, an MN needs to (1) select an AP with better performance and (2) execute a handover seamlessly. To satisfy requirement (2), we proposed a seamless handover method in a previous study. Moreover, in order to achieve (1), the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is usually employed to measure wireless link quality in a WLAN system. However, in a real environment, especially if APs are densely situated, it is difficult to always select an AP with better performance based on only the RSSI. This is because the RSSI alone cannot detect the degradation of communication quality due to radio interference. Moreover, it is important that AP selection is completed only on an MN, because we can assume that, in ubiquitous WLANs, various organizations or operators will manage APs. Hence, we cannot modify the APs for AP selection. To overcome these difficulties, in the present paper, we propose and implement a proactive AP selection method considering wireless link condition based on the number of frame retransmissions in addition to the RSSI. In the evaluation, we show that the proposed AP selection method can appropriately select an AP with good wireless link quality, i.e., high RSSI and low radio interference.

Taenaka, Yuzo; Kashihara, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Oie, Yuji

280

Acetaminophen inhibits intestinal p-glycoprotein transport activity.  

PubMed

Repeated acetaminophen (AP) administration modulates intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression. Whether AP can modulate P-gp activity in a short-term fashion is unknown. We investigated the acute effect of AP on rat intestinal P-gp activity in vivo and in vitro. In everted intestinal sacs, AP inhibited serosal-mucosal transport of rhodamine 123 (R123), a prototypical P-gp substrate. R123 efflux plotted against R123 concentration adjusted well to a sigmoidal curve. Vmax decreased 50% in the presence of AP, with no modification in EC50, or slope, ruling out the possibility of inhibition to be competitive. Inhibition by AP was absent at 0°C, consistent with interference of the active transport of R123 by AP. Additionally, AP showed no effect on normal localization of P-gp at the apical membrane of the enterocyte and neither affected paracellular permeability. Consistent with absence of a competitive inhibition, two further strategies strongly suggested that AP is not a P-gp substrate. First, serosal-mucosal transport of AP was not affected by the classical P-gp inhibitors verapamil or Psc 833. Second, AP accumulation was not different between P-gp knock-down and wild-type HepG2 cells. In vivo intestinal absorption of digoxin, another substrate of P-gp, was assessed in the presence or absence of AP (100 ?M). Portal digoxin concentration was increased by 214%, in average, by AP, as compared with digoxin alone. In conclusion, AP inhibited P-gp activity, increasing intestinal absorption of digoxin, a prototypical substrate. These results suggest that therapeutic efficacy of P-gp substrates can be altered if coadministered with AP. PMID:23897240

Novak, Analia; Carpini, Griselda Delli; Ruiz, María Laura; Luquita, Marcelo G; Rubio, Modesto C; Mottino, Aldo D; Ghanem, Carolina I

2013-10-01

281

AP1B sorts basolateral proteins in recycling and biosynthetic routes of MDCK cells  

PubMed Central

The epithelial-specific adaptor AP1B sorts basolateral proteins, but the trafficking routes where it performs its sorting role remain controversial. Here, we used an RNAi approach to knock down the medium subunit of AP1B (?1B) in the prototype epithelial cell line Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK). ?1B-knocked down MDCK cells displayed loss of polarity of several endogenous and exogenous basolateral markers transduced via adenovirus vectors, but exhibited normal polarity of apical markers. We chose two well characterized basolateral protein markers, the transferrin receptor (TfR) and the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, to study the sorting role of AP1B. A surface-capture assay introduced here showed that ?1B-knocked down MDCK cells plated on filters at confluency and cultured for 4.5 d, sorted TfR correctly in the biosynthetic route but incorrectly in the recycling route. In contrast, these same cells missorted vesicular stomatitis virus G apically in the biosynthetic route. Strikingly, recently confluent MDCK cells (1–3 d) displayed AP1B-dependence in the biosynthetic route of TfR, which decreased with additional days in culture. Sucrose density gradient analysis detected AP1B predominantly in TfR-rich endosomal fractions in MDCK cells confluent for 1 and 4 d. Our results are consistent with the following model: AP1B sorts basolateral proteins in both biosynthetic and recycling routes of MDCK cells, as a result of its predominant functional localization in recycling endosomes, which constitute a post-Golgi station in the biosynthetic route of some plasma membrane proteins. TfR utilizes a direct route from Golgi to basolateral membrane that is established as the epithelial monolayer matures.

Gravotta, Diego; Deora, Ami; Perret, Emilie; Oyanadel, Claudia; Soza, Andrea; Schreiner, Ryan; Gonzalez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

2007-01-01

282

v-SNARE cellubrevin is required for basolateral sorting of AP-1B-dependent cargo in polarized epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The epithelial cell–specific adaptor complex AP-1B is crucial for correct delivery of many transmembrane proteins from recycling endosomes to the basolateral plasma membrane. Subsequently, membrane fusion is dependent on the formation of complexes between SNARE proteins located at the target membrane and on transport vesicles. Although the t-SNARE syntaxin 4 has been localized to the basolateral membrane, the v-SNARE operative in the AP-1B pathway remained unknown. We show that the ubiquitously expressed v-SNARE cellubrevin localizes to the basolateral membrane and to recycling endosomes, where it colocalizes with AP-1B. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cellubrevin coimmunoprecipitates preferentially with syntaxin 4, implicating this v-SNARE in basolateral fusion events. Cleavage of cellubrevin with tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) results in scattering of AP-1B localization and missorting of AP-1B–dependent cargos, such as transferrin receptor and a truncated low-density lipoprotein receptor, LDLR-CT27. These data suggest that cellubrevin and AP-1B cooperate in basolateral membrane trafficking.

Fields, Ian C.; Shteyn, Elina; Pypaert, Marc; Proux-Gillardeaux, Veronique; Kang, Richard S.; Galli, Thierry; Folsch, Heike

2007-01-01

283

Path Deviation Equations in AP-Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, it has been shown that Absolute Parallelism (AP) geometry admits paths that are naturally quantized. These paths have been used to describe the motion of spinning particles in a background gravitational field. In case of a weak static gravitational field limits, the paths are applied successfully to interpret the discrepancy in the motion of thermal neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field (COW-experiment). The aim of the present work is to explore the properties of the deviation equations corresponding to these paths. In the present work the deviation equations are derived and compared to the geodesic deviation equation of the Riemannian geometry.

Wanas, M. I.; Kahil, M. E.

2006-02-01

284

APS Living History Project Continues to Grow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. The APS Living History Project continues to gain traction as members invite senior members at their institutions to reminisce about their careers. Our membersÃÂ efforts are consistent with CouncilÃÂs goal when it initiated the program ÃÂ to chronicle the exploits and experiences of senior members of the Society. Over the last several years, we have lost a number of eminent physiologists who made significant contributions to the discipline of physiology and to the Society. The Living History Project is one way to capture the images, experiences and wisdom of our senior members for the benefit of future generations of physiologists.

2008-02-01

285

Ozone mitigation tests at the APS  

SciTech Connect

Ozone is generated in the APS experimental stations whenever the x-ray beam has a chance to interact with air. Ozone concentrations in an experimental station have to be below a certain defined limit (current OSHA regulations specify 0.08 ppm as the maximum limit) before an experimenter can reenter the hutch. This limit is said to be currently under study for a downward adjustment. One method of depleting the ozone generated in an experimental station is mitigation through either adsorption or direct destruction. In recent tests, both methods were tried using commercially available units. Test results and some analytical predictions are presented.

Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Wang Zhibi

1996-09-01

286

A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms/molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms/molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of {sup 14}O (71 s), {sup 42}K (12.4 h), {sup 43}K (22.2 h), and {sup 41}Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10{sup 3} particles per second (pps). About 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} pps of 1.4 MeV {sup 14}O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

Naik, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Karmakar, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Dechoudhury, S.; Mondal, M.; Pandey, H. K.; Lavanyakumar, D.; Mandi, T. K.; Dutta, D. P.; Kundu Roy, T.; Bhowmick, D.; Sanyal, D.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Ray, A.; Ali, Md. S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Sector-1, Block-AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharjee, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700098 (India)

2013-03-15

287

A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms/molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms/molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of 14O (71 s), 42K (12.4 h), 43K (22.2 h), and 41Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 103 particles per second (pps). About 3.2 × 103 pps of 1.4 MeV 14O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

Naik, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Karmakar, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Dechoudhury, S.; Mondal, M.; Pandey, H. K.; Lavanyakumar, D.; Mandi, T. K.; Dutta, D. P.; Kundu Roy, T.; Bhowmick, D.; Sanyal, D.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Ray, A.; Ali, Md. S.

2013-03-01

288

Field-Lines-Threaded Model for: (1) the Low Solar Corona; (2) Electrons in the Transition Region; and (3) Solar Energetic Particle Acceleration and Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In numerical simulations of the solar corona, both for the ambient state and especially for dynamical processes the most computational resources are spent for maintaining the numerical solution in the Low Solar Corona and in the transition region, where the temperature gradients are very sharp and the magnetic field has a complicated topology. The degraded computational efficiency is caused by the need in a highest resolution as well as the use of the fully three-dimensional implicit solver for electron heat conduction. On the other hand, the physical nature of the processes involved is rather simple (which still does not facilitate the numerical methods) as long as the heat fluxes as well as slow plasma motional velocities are aligned with the magnetic field. The Alfven wave turbulence, which is often believed to be the main driver of the solar wind and the main source of the coronal heating, is characterized by the Poynting flux of the waves, which is also aligned with the magnetic field. Therefore, the plasma state in any point of the three-dimensional grid in the Low Solar Corona can be found by solving a set of one-dimensional equations for the magnetic field line ('thread'), which passes through this point and connects it to the chromosphere and to the global Solar Corona. In the present paper we describe an innovative computational technology based upon the use of the magnetic-field-line-threads to find the local solution. We present the development of the AWSoM code of the University of Michigan with the field-lines-threaded Low Solar Corona. In the transition region, where the essentially kinetic description of the electron energy fluxes is required, we solve the Fokker-Plank equation on the system of threads, to achieve the physically consistent description of chromosphere evaporation. The third application for the field-lines-treaded model is the Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) acceleration and transport. Being the natural extension of the Field-Line-Advection Model for Particle Acceleration (FLAMPA), earlier suggested for a single magnetic field line advected with the plasma motion, the multiple-field-lines model allows us to simulate the SEP fluxes at multiple points of possible observation (at the Earth location, at STEREOs, at Mercury).

Sokolov, I.; van der Holst, B.; Jin, M.; Gombosi, T. I.; Taktakishvili, A.; Khazanov, G. V.

2013-12-01

289

APS Conference on Understanding the Biological Clock: From Genetics to Physiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Conference was designed to take advantage of the fusion of two intellectually dominant but heretofore separate lines of clock research, vertebrate physiology and invertebrate and microbial genetics. The APS Conference attracted 251 scientists, 68 of whom were students. In addition to the excellent speaker program organized by Dunlap and Loros, the attendees also submitted 93 volunteer abstracts that were programmed in poster sessions. Thirty-four percent of the submitted abstracts were first authorized by a female student or scientist.

Frank, Martin

1996-01-01

290

l-DOPA transport properties in an immortalised cell line of rat capillary cerebral endothelial cells, RBE 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to determine the kinetics of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) uptake in an immortalised cell line of rat capillary cerebral endothelial cells (clones RBE 4 and RBE 4B), to define the type of inhibition produced by l-5-hydroxytryptophan (l-5-HTP), 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BHC) and N-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid (MeAlB) and its sodium dependence. Non-linear analysis of the saturation curves for l-DOPA and l-5-HTP

Pedro Gomes; P Soares-da-Silva

1999-01-01

291

Butyrate produced by commensal bacteria potentiates phorbol esters induced AP-1 response in human intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells. PMID:23300800

Nepelska, Malgorzata; Cultrone, Antonietta; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Vermulugesan; Blottière, Hervé M

2012-01-01

292

The APS control system network upgrade.  

SciTech Connect

When it was installed,the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system network was at the state-of-the-art. Different aspects of the system have been reported at previous meetings [1,2]. As loads on the controls network have increased due to newer and faster workstations and front-end computers, we have found performance of the system declining and have implemented an upgraded network. There have been dramatic advances in networking hardware in the last several years. The upgraded APS controls network replaces the original FDDI backbone and shared Ethernet hubs with redundant gigabit uplinks and fully switched 10/100 Ethernet switches with backplane fabrics in excess of 20 Gbits/s (Gbps). The central collapsed backbone FDDI concentrator has been replaced with a Gigabit Ethernet switch with greater than 30 Gbps backplane fabric. Full redundancy of the system has been maintained. This paper will discuss this upgrade and include performance data and performance comparisons with the original network.

Sidorowicz, K. v.; Leibfritz, D.; McDowell, W. P.

1999-10-22

293

Thioaptamer decoy targeting of AP-1 proteins influences cytokine expression and the outcome of arenavirus infections.  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) is caused by a number of viruses, including arenaviruses. The pathogenesis is believed to involve dysregulation of cytokine production. The arenaviruses Lassa virus and Pichinde virus have a tropism for macrophages and other reticuloendothelial cells and both appear to suppress the normal macrophage response to virus infection. A decoy thioaptamer, XBY-S2, was developed and was found to bind to AP-1 transcription factor proteins. The P388D1 macrophage-like cell line contains members of the AP-1 family which may act as negative regulators of AP-1-controlled transcription. XBY-S2 was found to bind to Fra-2 and JunB, and enhance the induction of cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha, while reducing the binding to AP-1 promoter elements. Administration of XBY-S2 to Pichinde virus-infected guinea pigs resulted in a significant reduction in Pichinde virus-induced mortality and enhanced the expression of cytokines from primary guinea pig macrophages, which may contribute to its ability to increase survival of Pichinde virus-infected guinea pigs. These data demonstrate a proof of concept that thioaptamers can be used to modulate the outcome of in vivo viral infections by arenaviruses by the manipulation of transcription factors involved in the regulation of the immune response. PMID:17325372

Fennewald, Susan M; Scott, Erin P; Zhang, Lihong; Yang, Xianbin; Aronson, Judith F; Gorenstein, David G; Luxon, Bruce A; Shope, Robert E; Beasley, David W C; Barrett, Alan D T; Herzog, Norbert K

2007-03-01

294

Proximal femoral canal shape is more accurately assessed on AP hip radiographs than AP pelvis radiographs in primary hip osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to determine whether differences in the radiographic appearance of the of the proximal femoral canal exist on corresponding AP pelvis and AP hip radiographs, and whether radiographic assessment of canal shape is accurate with reference to computed tomography (CT). In a retrospective study, corresponding radiographs and CT scans of 100 consecutive patients with primary hip OA were evaluated. Active shape modelling (ASM) was performed to assess the variation in proximal femoral canal shape and to identify differences between AP hip and AP pelvis views. Differences in the medial cortical flare between radiographs and CT were quantified using least squares curve fitting. ASM identified significant differences in the assessment of canal shape on corresponding AP hip and AP pelvis views. Curve fitting demonstrated a good agreement between AP hip radiographs and CT. Agreement between AP pelvis radiographs and CT was less good. In contrast to AP pelvis radiographs, AP hip radiographs allow a more accurate and reliable assessment of proximal femoral canal shape in the frontal plane in primary hip OA. Our findings may improve stem fit in total hip arthroplasty without the routine use of CT. PMID:23813170

Merle, Christian; Waldstein, Wenzel; Gregory, Jennifer S; Goodyear, Simon R; Aspden, Richard M; Aldinger, Peter R; Murray, David W; Gill, Harinderjit S

2013-01-01

295

Radial-Velocity Variations of the Rapidly Oscillating Ap Star 33 Lib  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a time series of precise stellar radial velocity measurements of the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star 33 Lib. High speed observations were made approximately every minute continuously for a total of 3 hours using the 2-D coude spectrograph of the 2.7-m telescope at McDonald Observatory. The setup of this prism cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph provided a wavelength coverage of 4800-6900 Å at a resolving power of 60,000. A molecular gas iodine absorption cell placed in the light path just before the spectrograph slit provided a stable wavelength reference for measuring radial velocities to a precision of about 20 m/s per observation. A Fourier analysis of the data clearly shows the 8.2 min pulsation period found previously by photometric investigations and gives a peak-to-peak (2K) amplitude of about 80 m/s. This corresponds to a RV-to-photometric amplitude of 27 km/s/mag in B (based on &Delta B = 3.0 mmag) which is comparable to the value for classical Cepheids. However, we find, like in other roAp stars we have studied, that the RV amplitude depends on the spectral region used for measuring the RV amplitude and is as high as 57 plus or minus 4.7 m/s in the region 5411-5500 Å and as low as 7 plus or minus 3 m/s in the region 5877-5976 A. The amplitude versus wavelength (spectral order) is complicated and is not strictly a decreasing function of increasing wavelength. A detailed line-by-line analysis shows considerable scatter in the RV amplitude derived from individual lines and can be as high as 320 m/s and as low as 7 m/s. There is an overall trend of increasing RV amplitude with decreasing line strength, although there is considerable scatter about the mean curve. This result is similar to what we have found for other roAp stars. We also found that spectral lines due to iron lines have a slightly higher mean RV semi-amplitude (128 plus or minus 44 m/s) than the amplitude for chromium (61 plus or minus 44 m/s) and titanium (98 plus or minus 53 m/s), although this result is somewhat uncertain due to the fewer chromium and titanium lines used for computing the mean RV amplitude. If this result is true, then it is counter to what we have found in the roAp star &gamma Equ. Spectral lines from nickel exhibited the highest RV semi-amplitude (138 plus or minus 68 m/s). We believe that the line strength variations are an indication of vertical atmospheric structure to the pulsations and that the elemental differences are related to the inhomogeneous distribution of elements known to occur on Ap stars. Precise stellar radial velocity studies of roAp stars may be a powerful tool for studying both the spatial (surface) and vertical structure to the pulsational velocity field.

Hatzes, A. P.; Kanaan, A.; Mkrtichian, D.

296

Impaired cisplatin influx in an A2780 mutant cell line: evidence for a putative, cis-configuration-specific, platinum influx transporter.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of platinum drugs in the treatment of cancer is hindered by intrinsic and acquired resistance. The cause of clinical resistance to platinum compounds is still unknown. In an attempt to identify new cellular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance, a one-step cisplatin-selection procedure was used to generate resistant sublines of the platinum sensitive A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. In the present study we selected an A2780 subline, A2780-Pt, that has a significantly reduced ability to accumulate cisplatin (36% of the parent A2780 cell line) and consequently shows a clear cisplatin-resistant phenotype (resistance factor, i.e., RF: 8.6). The A2780-Pt cell line was specifically cross-resistant to carboplatin (RF: 12.0), tetraplatin (RF: 8.1) and oxaliplatin (RF: 6.1) which was associated with a reduced cellular platinum accumulation (50%, 54% and 58% of A2780, respectively). No cross-resistance was found for a variety of other anticancer agents. Further experiments to determine the cause of the platinum resistance of the A2780-Pt cell line revealed that: (1) impaired cellular platinum accumulation could not be attributed to aberrant expression of MRP2 (ABCC2), CTR1 (SLC31A1), ATP7A or ATP7B, (2) resistance was not associated with platinum inactivation by metallothionein and glutathione, (3) the platinum efflux rate was similar to that of A2780, (4) the defect in cellular accumulation and the resistance could be overcome by treatment with cisplatin nanocapsules, consistent with impaired influx, and (5) the defect in accumulation is specific for platinum compounds in the cis-configuration, since A2780-Pt cells did not show reduced accumulation of transplatin. This specificity suggests that not passive diffusion but an inward transporter is impaired in A2780-Pt. In conclusion, we generated an A2780 subline that showed a uniquely stable platinum resistance phenotype, which could theoretically be caused by an impaired inward transporter specific for cis-configurated platinum compounds. PMID:16775422

Helleman, Jozien; Burger, Herman; Hamelers, Irene H L; Boersma, Antonius W M; de Kroon, Anton I P M; Stoter, Gerrit; Nooter, Kees

2006-08-01

297

Effects of eletron heating on the current driven electrostatic ion cyclotron instability and plasma transport processes along auroral field lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid simulations of the plasma along auroral field lines in the return current region have been performed. It is shown that the onset of electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) related anomalous resistivity and the consequent heating of electrons leads to a transverse ion temperature that is much higher than that produced by the current driven EIC instability (CDICI) alone. Two processes are presented for the enhancement of ion heating by anomalous resistivity. The anomalous resistivity associated with the turbulence is limited by electron heating, so that CDICI saturates at transverse temperature that is substantially higher than in the absence of resistivity. It is suggested that this process demonstrates a positive feedback loop in the interaction between CDICI, anomalous resistivity, and parallel large-scale dynamics in the topside ionosphere.

Ganguli, Supriya B.; Mitchell, Horace G.; Palmadesso, Peter J.

1988-01-01

298

Adaptor Protein Complexes AP-1 and AP-3 Are Required by the HHV-7 Immunoevasin U21 for Rerouting of Class I MHC Molecules to the Lysosomal Compartment  

PubMed Central

The human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) U21 gene product binds to class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and reroutes them to a lysosomal compartment. Trafficking of integral membrane proteins to lysosomes is mediated through cytoplasmic sorting signals that recruit heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which in turn mediate protein sorting in post-Golgi vesicular transport. Since U21 can mediate rerouting of class I molecules to lysosomes even when lacking its cytoplasmic tail, we hypothesize the existence of a cellular protein that contains the lysosomal sorting information required to escort class I molecules to the lysosomal compartment. If such a protein exists, we expect that it might recruit clathrin adaptor protein complexes as a means of lysosomal sorting. Here we describe experiments demonstrating that the ? adaptins from AP-1 and AP-3 are involved in U21-mediated trafficking of class I molecules to lysosomes. These experiments support the idea that a cellular protein(s) is necessary for U21-mediated lysosomal sorting of class I molecules. We also examine the impact of transient versus chronic knockdown of these adaptor protein complexes, and show that the few remaining ? subunits in the cells are eventually able to reroute class I molecules to lysosomes.

Kimpler, Lisa A.; Glosson, Nicole L.; Downs, Deanna; Gonyo, Patrick; May, Nathan A.; Hudson, Amy W.

2014-01-01

299

Tank 241AP108 grab sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) will identify characterization objectives for sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for tank 241-AP-108 (AP 108). It is written in accordance with the Tank 241-AP-108 Tank Characterization Plan, the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective, the 242-A Evaporator Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Data Quality Objectives, and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank

Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-01-01

300

Bandstructure line-up of epitaxial Fe/MgO/Ge heterostructures: A combined x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transport study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bandstructure line-up of Fe/MgO/Ge heterostructures with various Ge doping has been determined by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The MgO layer causes a sizable depinning of the Fermi level in Ge for light n-(1015 cm-3) and moderate p-doping (1018 cm-3), but not for heavy n-doping (1020 cm-3). The Fermi level instead stays essentially in the middle of the MgO gap for all the investigated doping. This picture agrees with transport measurements only for moderate n- or p-doping, while we demonstrate that for heavy n-doping the analysis of the conductance versus temperature fails in predicting the Schottky barrier height.

Cantoni, M.; Petti, D.; Rinaldi, C.; Bertacco, R.

2011-01-01

301

Effect of magnetic fringe field and interference on beam matching in a Medium Energy Beam Transport line of the Spallation Neutron Source linac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line is employed in the Spallation Neutron Source linear accelerator (linac) to match the beam from a radio frequency quadrupole to a drift tube linac and to perform other functions. The MEBT lattice consists of 14 electromagnetic quadrupoles and other devices. The quads have very small aspect ratios (steel length over aperture diameter), and they are densely packed in the lattice. Significant fringe fields and magnetic interference cause difficulties in beam matching. We have performed 3D modeling of the magnets, expanded simulation data to 3D multipoles, computed their linear optical properties, and compared their performance with that predicted by simple hard-edge models. This paper reports our findings and a proposed general solution to the problem.

Wang, J. G.; Zhang, Y.

2011-08-01

302

Transmembrane domain VII of the human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter ASBT (SLC10A2) lines the substrate translocation pathway.  

PubMed

Recent evidence implicating transmembrane (TM) segment 7 of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) in substrate interaction warranted examination of its aqueous accessibility. Therefore, cysteine substitution of 22 consecutive amino acids was performed against a methanethiosulfonate (MTS)-resistant background (C270A). Activity and susceptibility to polar MTS derivatives [(2-aminoethyl)-methanethiosulfonate (MTSEA), [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl]methanethiosulfonate (MTSET), and methanethiosulfonate ethylsulfonate (MTSES)] of mutants were evaluated in COS-1 cells. Thr289, Tyr293, Gln297, Ala301, Phe307, and Tyr308 represented loss-of-function mutants; furthermore, the measurable residual activities for T289C, Y293C, and A301C (lining the extracellular half of TM7; amino acids situated deeper within the membrane were unaffected. In contrast, the entire length of TM7 was susceptible to the relatively smaller MTSEA; moreover, MTSEA sensitivity was significantly amended by coapplication with substrates. This selective pattern of modification suggests that the highly conserved lower half of TM7 lies within a water-filled cavity easily accessible from the extracellular milieu, whereas residues approaching the cytosolic/membrane interface reside in pores for which accessibility is modulated by molecular volume. Functionally inactive and MTS-inaccessible residues (T289C, Y293C, Q297C, and A301C) within TM7 may play a structural role critical to transporter function; conversely, MTS-sensitive residues are spatially distinct and may demarcate a face of the TM involved in substrate translocation. In addition, computational analysis of solvent-accessible domains identified five key solvent pockets that predominantly line the hydrophilic face of TM7. Combined, our data suggest that TM7 plays a dominant role in the hASBT translocation process. PMID:16899538

Hussainzada, Naissan; Banerjee, Antara; Swaan, Peter W

2006-11-01

303

Synaptic vesicle recycling at CNS synapses without AP-2  

PubMed Central

Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are composed of ~10 types of transmembrane proteins that must be recycled following exocytosis of neurotransmitter. The mechanisms for resorting these proteins into synaptic vesicles once incorporated into the plasma membrane following exocytosis are poorly understood. The adaptor complex AP-2 is the major clathrin-associated adaptor for cargo recognition at the plasma membrane. Here we have investigated its role in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. shRNA-mediated knockdown of the AP-2 complex results in a ~96% reduction of this protein complex in primary neurons. We used simultaneous expression of shRNA and pHluorin-tagged vesicle components to show that the absence of AP-2 significantly slows, but does not prevent the endocytosis of 4 of the major synaptic vesicle transmembrane proteins. We show that in the absence of AP-2, the AP-1 adaptor complex appears to functionally substitute for AP-2, but results in complex internalization kinetics that are now sensitive to the ARF-GEF inhibitor Brefeldin-A. Simultaneous removal of both AP-2 and AP-1 prevents this compensatory substitution and results in slowed but functional endocytosis. These results demonstrate that in the absence of AP-2 SV proteins still become endocytosed and synaptic vesicle recycling remains operational.

Kim, Sung Hyun; Ryan, Timothy. A.

2009-01-01

304

Validation of an off-line three-dimensional chemical transport model using observed radon profiles: 1. Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in Table 1 of this paper a series of free tropospheric radon profiles, obtained in the summer of 1994 on flights originating from Moffett Field, California (37.4°N, 122.0°W). These data were collected with the intent of acquiring a high-quality, statistically significant set of observations, in one season and at one location, suitable for use in the development and validation of three-dimensional global circulation and chemical transport models, as demonstrated in the companion paper [Stockwell, et al., this issue]. The profiles, which extend from the surface to 11.5 kilometers, were obtained on 11 flights flown in the period June 3 to August 16. A series of high-pressure whole-air samples (typically 11 or 12 per profile) were collected as the plane ascended to altitude, and analyzed immediately after each flight in a ground-based laboratory. A thorough discussion of sampling, analysis, calibration, and quality control procedures is provided.

Kritz, Mark A.; Rosner, Stefan W.; Stockwell, D. Zoe

1998-04-01

305

Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

RIECK, C.A.

1999-02-25

306

THE EVALUATION OF PEPTIDE/HISTIDINE TRANSPORTER 1 (PHT1) FUNCTION: UPTAKE KINETICS UTILIZING A COS-7 STABLY TRANSFECTED CELL LINE  

PubMed Central

There have been relatively few studies focused on the proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter (POT) superfamily member, Peptide/Histidine Transporter 1 (PHT1), with respect to its contribution to the ADME of peptides and peptide-based drugs. These studies were conducted to determine hPHT1-mediated, H+-dependent uptake kinetics of histidine, carnosine, Gly-Sar and valacyclovir in stably transfected hPHT1-COS-7 cells comparative to kinetics determined in an empty vector (Mock) stably transfected cell line. The results suggest that Gly-Sar appears to be a substrate for PHT1 based on efflux from the stably transfected hPHT1 COS-7 cells. Histidine and Gly-Sar concentration- and time-dependent studies suggest mixed-uptake kinetics. These studies suggest that stably transfected hPHT1-COS-7 cells exhibit different uptake kinetics than those observed in our previous studies and illustrate the requirement for experiments to delineate the physiological role of hPHT1.

Lindley, David J.; Carl, Stephen M.; Mowery, Stephanie A.; Knipp, Gregory T.

2012-01-01

307

Transport of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor into liposomes across the blood-brain barrier: in vitro and in vivo studies.  

PubMed

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was encapsulated into liposomes in order to protect it from enzyme degradation in vivo and promote its permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, GDNF conventional liposomes (GDNF-L) and GDNF target sterically stabilized liposomes (GDNF-SSL-T) were prepared. The average size of liposomes was below 90 nm. A primary model of BBB was established and evaluated by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability. This BBB model was employed to study the permeability of GDNF liposomes in vitro. The results indicated that the liposomes could enhance transport of GDNF across the BBB and GDNF-SSL-T had achieved the best transport efficacy. The distribution of GDNF liposomes was studied in vivo. Free GDNF and GDNF-L were eliminated rapidly in the circulation. GDNF-SSL-T has a prolonged circulation time in the blood and favorable brain delivery. The values of the area under the curve (AUC(0-1 h)) in the brain of GDNF-SSL-T was 8.1 times and 6.8 times more than that of free GDNF and GDNF-L, respectively. These results showed that GDNF-SSL-T realized the aim of targeted delivery of therapeutic proteins to central nervous system. PMID:24583850

Wu, Shaoling; Li, Guoqi; Li, Xiao; Lin, Caina; Yu, Ding; Luan, Shuo; Ma, Chao

2014-01-01

308

Transport of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor into Liposomes across the Blood-Brain Barrier: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies  

PubMed Central

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was encapsulated into liposomes in order to protect it from enzyme degradation in vivo and promote its permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, GDNF conventional liposomes (GDNF-L) and GDNF target sterically stabilized liposomes (GDNF-SSL-T) were prepared. The average size of liposomes was below 90 nm. A primary model of BBB was established and evaluated by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability. This BBB model was employed to study the permeability of GDNF liposomes in vitro. The results indicated that the liposomes could enhance transport of GDNF across the BBB and GDNF-SSL-T had achieved the best transport efficacy. The distribution of GDNF liposomes was studied in vivo. Free GDNF and GDNF-L were eliminated rapidly in the circulation. GDNF-SSL-T has a prolonged circulation time in the blood and favorable brain delivery. The values of the area under the curve (AUC(0–1 h)) in the brain of GDNF-SSL-T was 8.1 times and 6.8 times more than that of free GDNF and GDNF-L, respectively. These results showed that GDNF-SSL-T realized the aim of targeted delivery of therapeutic proteins to central nervous system.

Wu, Shaoling; Li, Guoqi; Li, Xiao; Lin, Caina; Yu, Ding; Luan, Shuo; Ma, Chao

2014-01-01

309

Use of On-Line Tracers as a Diagnostic Tool in General Circulation Model Development. 2; Transport Between the Troposphere and Stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A key component of climate/chemistry modeling is how to handle the influx into (and egress from) the troposphere. This is especially important when considering tropospheric ozone, and its precursors (e.g., NO(x) from aircraft). A study has been conducted with various GISS models to determine the minimum requirements necessary for producing realistic troposphere-stratosphere exchange. Four on-line tracers are employed: CFC-11 and SF6 for mixing from the troposphere into the stratosphere, Rn222 for vertical mixing within the troposphere, and 14C for mixing from the stratosphere into the troposphere. Four standard models are tested, with varying vertical resolution, gravity wave drag and location of the model top, and additional subsidiary models are employed to examine specific features. The results show that proper vertical transport between the troposphere and stratosphere in the GISS models requires lifting the top of the model considerably out of the stratosphere, and including gravity wave drag in the lower stratosphere. Increased vertical resolution without these aspects does not improve troposphere-stratosphere exchange. The transport appears to be driven largely by the residual circulation within the stratosphere; associated E-P flux convergences require both realistic upward propagating energy from the troposphere, and realistic pass-through possibilities. A 23 layer version with a top at the mesopause and incorporating gravity wave drag appears to have reasonable stratospheric-tropospheric exchange, in terms of both the resulting tracer distributions and atmospheric mass fluxes.

Rind, David H.; Lerner, Jean; Shah, Kathy; Suozzo, Robert

1999-01-01

310

Conductive Na/sup +/ transport in an epithelial cell line (LLC-PK/sub 1/) with characteristics of proximal tubular cells  

SciTech Connect

/sup 22/Na influx and efflux from confluent monolayers of an epithelial cell line with multiple differentiated characteristics of the straight segment of the renal proximal tubule were studied in the presence and absence of a pH gradient. The results show that /sup 22/Na/sup +/ influx in the absence of a pH gradient is inhibited by amiloride as well as by complete replacement of Cl/sup -/ by an impermeable anion, such as isethionate. Dissipation of cell membrane potential by increasing the potassium concentration of the extracellular medium in the presence of valinomycin also inhibited Na/sup +/ influx, whereas sodium influx induced by an H/sup +/ gradient was not affected. Inhibition of Na/sup +/ influx by different maneuvers produced hyperpolarization of the plasma cell membrane, as would be expected if the sodium movement involved net displacement of charges. Calcium and other divalent and trivalent cations also inhibited Na/sup +/ influx measured in the absence of an H/sup +/ gradient. Na/sup +/ influx induced by a pH gradient, however, was not affected. Like the Na/sup +/-H/sup +/-exchange system, the conductive Na/sup +/ pathway is localized in the apical membrane of the epithelial cells. From these results, the authors conclude that at least a fraction of transepithelial Na/sup +/ transport in LLC-PK/sub 1/ monolayers occurs through a simple rheogenic transport system.

Cantiello, H.F.; Scott, J.A.; Rabito, C.A.

1987-04-01

311

Wave-particle interaction in parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasmas along open field magnetic field lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tokamak fusion reactor dumps a large amount of heat and particle flux to the divertor through the scrape-off plasma (SOL). Situation exists either by necessity or through deliberate design that the SOL plasma attains long mean-free-path along large segments of the open field lines. The rapid parallel streaming of electrons requires a large parallel electric field to maintain ambipolarity. The confining effect of the parallel electric field on electrons leads to a trap/passing boundary in the velocity space for electrons. In the normal situation where the upstream electron source populates both the trapped and passing region, a mechanism must exist to produce a flux across the electron trap/passing boundary. In a short mean-free-path plasma, this is provided by collisions. For long mean-free-path plasmas, wave-particle interaction is the primary candidate for detrapping the electrons. Here we present simulation results and a theoretical analysis using a model distribution function of trapped electrons. The dominating electromagnetic plasma instability and the associated collisionless scattering, that produces both particle and energy fluxes across the electron trap/passing boundary in velocity space, are discussed.

Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xianzhu

2012-03-01

312

Comparison of In vitro Nanoparticles Uptake in Various Cell Lines and In vivo Pulmonary Cellular Transport in Intratracheally Dosed Rat Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present study, the potential drug delivery of nanoformulations was validated via the comparison of cellular uptake of nanoparticles in various cell lines and in vivo pulmonary cellular uptake in intratracheally (IT) dosed rat model. Nanoparticles were prepared by a bench scale wet milling device and incubated with a series of cell lines, including Caco-2, RAW, MDCK and MDCK transfected MDR1 cells. IT dosed rats were examined for the pulmonary cellular uptake of nanoparticles. The processes of nanoparticle preparation did not alter the crystalline state of the material. The uptake of nanoparticles was observed most extensively in RAW cells and the least in Caco-2 cells. Efflux transporter P-gp did not prevent cell from nanoparticles uptake. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles was also confirmed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cells and in bronchiolar epithelial cells, type II alveolar epithelial cells in the intratracheally administrated rats. The nanoparticles uptake in MDCK, RAW cells and in vivo lung epithelial cells indicated the potential applications of nanoformulation for poorly soluble compounds. The observed limited direct uptake of nanoparticles in Caco-2 cells suggests that the improvement in oral bioavailability by particle size reduction is via increased dissolution rate rather than direct uptake.

Lai, Yurong; Chiang, Po-Chang; Blom, Jason D.; Li, Na; Shevlin, Kimberly; Brayman, Timothy G.; Hu, Yiding; Selbo, Jon G.; Hu, Liangbiao George

2008-09-01

313

Defects and electronic transport in hydrogenated amorphous SiC films of interest for low dielectric constant back end of the line dielectric systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Back end of line dielectrics with low dielectric constants are needed for current and future integrated circuit technology. However, an understanding of the defects that cause leakage currents and limit reliability in these films is not yet developed. We utilize conventional electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR), and leakage current measurements, complimented by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Rutherford back scattering results, to investigate a-SiC:H dielectrics which have great potential use for back end of line dielectrics. We observe a strong correlation between conventional EPR defect density measurements and leakage currents. There is also a very strong correlation between hydrogen content and both leakage current and EPR defect density. The close correspondence between the EPR results and the leakage currents strongly indicates that the defects observed by EPR are largely responsible for the leakage currents and likely limit the dielectric reliability. Important reliability phenomena in these films are time-dependent dielectric breakdown and stress induced leakage current. Additionally, we have utilized EDMR via spin dependent trap assisted tunneling to investigate the direct link between defects observed in EPR and electrical transport.

Pomorski, T. A.; Bittel, B. C.; Cochrane, C. J.; Lenahan, P. M.; Bielefeld, J.; King, S. W.

2013-08-01

314

Comparison of expression and enzymatic properties of Aspergillus oryzae lysine aminopeptidases ApsA and ApsB.  

PubMed

The apsA and apsB genes encoding family M1 aminopeptidases were identified in the industrial fungus Aspergillus oryzae. The apsB was transcriptionally up-regulated up to 2.5-fold in response to the deprivation of nitrogen or carbon sources in growth media, while up-regulation of apsA was less significant. The encoded proteins were bacterially expressed and purified to characterize their enzymatic properties. ApsA and ApsB were optimally active at pH 7.0 and 35 °C and stable at pH ranges of 6-10 and 4-10, respectively, up to 40 °C. The enzymes were inhibited by bestatin and EDTA, as has been reported for family M1 aminopeptidases that characteristically contain a zinc-binding catalytic motif. Both enzymes preferentially liberated N-terminal lysine, which is an essential amino acid and an important additive to animal feed. Enzymes that efficiently release N-terminal lysine from peptides could be useful for food and forage industries. Examination of the reactivity toward peptide substrate of varying length revealed that ApsB exhibited broader substrate specificity than ApsA although the reactivity of ApsB decreased as the length of peptide substrate decreased. PMID:22806190

Marui, Junichiro; Matsushita-Morita, Mayumi; Tada, Sawaki; Hattori, Ryota; Suzuki, Satoshi; Amano, Hitoshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Yamagata, Youhei; Takeuchi, Michio; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi

2012-08-01

315

Metallized solid rocket propellants based on AN/AP and PSAN/AP for access to space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid rocket propellants based on dual mixes of inorganic crystalline oxidizers (ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium perchlorate (AP)) with binder and a mixture of micrometric-nanometric aluminum were investigated. Ammonium nitrate is a low-cost oxidizer, producing environment friendly combustion products but with lower specific impulse compared to AP. The better performance obtained with AP and the low quantity of toxic emissions obtained by using AN have suggested an interesting compromise based on a dual mixture of the two oxidizers. To improve the thermal response of raw AN, different types of phase stabilized AN (PSAN) and AN/AP co-crystals were investigated.

Levi, S.; Signoriello, D.; Gabardi, A.; Molinari, M.; Galfetti, L.; Deluca, L. T.; Cianfanelli, S.; Klyakin, G. F.

2009-09-01

316

The AP2-like gene NsAP2 from water lily is involved in floral organogenesis and plant height.  

PubMed

APETALA2 (AP2) genes are ancient and widely distributed among the seed plants, and play an important role during the plant life cycle, acting as key regulators of many developmental processes. In this study, an AP2 homologue, NsAP2, was characterized from water lily (Nymphaea sp. cv. 'Yellow Prince') and is believed to be rather primitive in the evolution of the angiosperms. In situ RNA hybridization showed that NsAP2 transcript was present in all regions of the floral primordium, but had the highest level in the emerging floral organ primordium. After the differentiation of floral organs, NsAP2 was strongly expressed in sepals and petals, while low levels were found in stamens and carpels. The NsAP2 protein was suggested to be localized in the cell nucleus by onion transient expression experiment. Overexpression of NsAP2 in Arabidopsis led to more petal numbers, and Arabidopsis plants expressing NsAP2 exhibited higher plant height, which may be a result of down-regulated expression of GA2ox2 and GA2ox7. Our results indicated that the NsAP2 protein may function in flower organogenesis in water lily, and it is a promising gene for plant height improvement. PMID:22591856

Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Teng, Nianjun; Chen, Yu; Chen, Fadi

2012-07-01

317

Metabolism, Uptake, and Transepithelial Transport of the Stereoisomers of Val-Val-Val in the Human Intestinal Cell Line, Caco-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the stereospecificity of the apical oligopeptide transporter(s) for the stereoisomers of Val-Val-Val and to determine whether the interaction of these molecules with this transporter(s) could be correlated with their cellular uptake and\\/or transepithelial transport.

Kiyoshi Tamura; Chao-Pin Lee; Philip L. Smith; Ronald T. Borchardt

1996-01-01

318

Proposal of membrane transport mechanism of protein-unbound ulifloxacin into epithelial lining fluid determined by improved microdialysis.  

PubMed

Microdialysis method (MD) is useful for sampling protein-unbound substances in vivo. Generally in the MD, a reference compound is used to correct differences in drug permeation clearance through a dialysis membrane in vivo and in vitro. No reference compound was, however, used for determination of a protein-unbound drug concentration in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF). In this study, we firstly examined the propriety of endogenous urea as a reference compound to determine the protein-unbound ulifloxacin concentrations in rat ELF by MD. Endogenous urea was used to correct differences in the permeation clearance in vivo and in vitro which reflect the differences in the extent of contact between a tip probe and ELF in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that our MD is applicable to determine the various concentrations of ulifloxacin and urea, and that we can use endogenous urea as a reference compound even if the extent of the contact between a tip of the probe and the ELF is small. In addition, use of urea concentrations does not affect drug distribution from plasma to ELF because we used endogenous urea. These results support usefulness of endogenous urea as a reference compound to determine protein-unbound drug concentration in ELF by MD. In addition, our results also suggest the existence of certain distribution mechanisms which cause the high penetration ulifloxacin into ELF. Our MD can help progress in pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis of various antibiotics in the case where the concentrations in ELF are not equal to that in plasma. PMID:18758075

Aoki, Makoto; Iguchi, Maki; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hisashi; Shibasaki, Shigeki; Kurosawa, Tohru; Hayashi, Masahiro

2008-09-01

319

Regulation of P-glycoprotein and other ABC drug transporters at the blood-brain barrier  

PubMed Central

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are important, selective elements of the blood-brain barrier. They line the luminal plasma membrane of the brain capillary endothelium, facing the vascular space, both protecting the CNS from entry of neurotoxicants and limiting access of therapeutic drugs to the brain parenchyma. Recent studies highlight the multiple signaling pathways through which the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein and other ABC transporters are modulated in response to xenobiotics, stress and disease. They show that increased transporter expression occurs in response to signals that activate specific transcription factors including, PXR, CAR, NF-?B and AP-1, and reduced transporter activity occurs rapidly and reversibly in response to signaling through Src kinase, protein kinase C and estrogen receptors. A detailed understanding of such regulation can provide the basis for improved neuroprotection and enhanced therapeutic drug delivery to the brain.

Miller, David S.

2010-01-01

320

Accumulation of True Single Strand Breaks and AP sites in Base Excision Repair Deficient Cells  

PubMed Central

Single strand breaks (SSBs) are one of the most frequent DNA lesions caused by endogenous and exogenous agents. The most utilized alkaline-based assays for SSB detection frequently give false positive results due to the presence of alkali-labile sites that are converted to SSBs. Methoxyamine, an acidic O-hydroxylamine, has been utilized to measure DNA damage in cells. However, the neutralization of methoxyamine is required prior to usage. Here we developed a convenient, specific SSB assay using alkaline gel electrophoresis (AGE) coupled with a neutral O-hydroxylamine, O-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)hydroxylamine (OTX). OTX stabilizes abasic sites (AP sites) to prevent their alkaline incision while still allowing for strong alkaline DNA denaturation. DNA from DT40 and isogenic polymerase ? null cells exposed to methyl methanesulfonate were applied to the OTX-coupled AGE (OTX-AGE) assay. Time-dependent increases in SSBs were detected in each cell line with more extensive SSB formation in the null cells. These findings were supported by an assay that indirectly detects SSBs through measuring NAD(P)H depletion. An ARP-slot blot assay demonstrated a significant time-dependent increase in AP sites in both cell lines by 1 mM MMS compared to control. Furthermore, the Pol ?-null cells displayed greater AP site formation than the parental DT40 cells. OTX use represents a facile approach for assessing SSB formation, whose benefits can also be applied to other established SSB assays.

Luke, April M.; Chastain, Paul D.; Pachkowski, Brian F.; Afonin, Valeriy; Takeda, Shunichi; Kaufman, David G.; Swenberg, James A.; Nakamura, Jun

2010-01-01

321

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - PAVED AND UNPAVED ROAD DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

This project develops emission factors, etc., for paved and unpaved roads which are incorporated into AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness information. As re...

322

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - LANDFILLS (COMBUSTION CONTROLS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This project develops emission factors, etc., for landfills, in particular for combustion devices fed by landfill gas, for incorporation into AP-42. AP-42 is a massive collection of information concerning processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and co...

323

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - RUBBER PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING  

EPA Science Inventory

This project develops emission factors, etc., for the rubber products industry which are appended to AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness information. As res...

324

Raising Rigor, Getting Results: Lessons Learned from AP Expansion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advanced Placement (AP), which enables high school students to take introductory college-level courses, is the nation's oldest example of a rigorous, common curriculum. Students who score well on AP exams are more likely to persist in college and earn a degree. The Advanced Placement Expansion project of the National Governors Association Center…

Wakelyn, David

2009-01-01

325

75 FR 75666 - Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications for the AP Test Fee FY 2011 competition. That notice established...reopening the AP Test Fee FY 2011 competition to eligible applicants...Intergovernmental Review: February 22, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Francisco Ramirez, U.S. Department of...

2010-12-06

326

Tank 241AP104 Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AP-104. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AP-104 required to provide sample material to the Waste Treatment Contractor. Grab samples will be obtained from riser

2000-01-01

327

AP-102/104 Retrieval control system qualification test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This Qualification Test Procedure documents the results of the qualification testing that was performed on the Project W-211, ''Initial Tank Retrieval Systems,'' retrieval control system (RCS) for tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. The results confirm that the RCS has been programmed correctly and that the two related hardware enclosures have been assembled in accordance with the design documents.

RIECK, C.A.

1999-05-18

328

Antibody to AP1B Adaptor Blocks Biosynthetic and Recycling Routes of Basolateral Proteins at Recycling Endosomes  

PubMed Central

The epithelial-specific adaptor AP1B sorts basolateral plasma membrane (PM) proteins in both biosynthetic and recycling routes, but the site where it carries out this function remains incompletely defined. Here, we have investigated this topic in Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) epithelial cells using an antibody against the medium subunit ?1B. This antibody was suitable for immunofluorescence and blocked the function of AP1B in these cells. The antibody blocked the basolateral recycling of two basolateral PM markers, Transferrin receptor (TfR) and LDL receptor (LDLR), in a perinuclear compartment with marker and functional characteristics of recycling endosomes (RE). Live imaging experiments demonstrated that in the presence of the antibody two newly synthesized GFP-tagged basolateral proteins (vesicular stomatitis virus G [VSVG] protein and TfR) exited the trans-Golgi network (TGN) normally but became blocked at the RE within 3–5 min. By contrast, the antibody did not block trafficking of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LDLR from the TGN to the PM but stopped its recycling after internalization into RE in ?45 min. Our experiments conclusively demonstrate that 1) AP1B functions exclusively at RE; 2) TGN-to-RE transport is very fast and selective and is mediated by adaptors different from AP1B; and 3) the TGN and AP1B-containing RE cooperate in biosynthetic basolateral sorting.

Cancino, Jorge; Torrealba, Carolina; Soza, Andrea; Yuseff, Maria Isabel; Gravotta, Diego; Henklein, Peter; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

2007-01-01

329

The development of beam current monitors in the APS  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source. The precision measurement of beam current is a challenging task in high energy accelerators, such as the APS, with a wide range of beam parameters and complicated noise, radiation, and thermal environments. The beam pulses in the APS injector and storage ring have charge ranging from 50pC to 25nC with pulse durations varying from 30ps to 30ns. A total of nine non- intercepting beam current monitors have been installed in the APS facility (excluding those in the linac) for general current measurement. In addition, several independent current monitors with specially designed redundant interlock electronics are installed for personnel safety and machine protection. This paper documents the design and development of current monitors in the APS,. discusses the commissioning experience in the past year, and presents the results of recent operations.

Wang, X.; Lenkszus, F.; Rotela, E.

1995-07-01

330

AP1 Transcription Factors in Epidermal Differentiation and Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

AP1 (jun/fos) transcription factors (c-jun, junB, junD, c-fos, FosB, Fra-1, and Fra-2) are key regulators of epidermal keratinocyte survival and differentiation and important drivers of cancer development. Understanding the role of these factors in epidermis is complicated by the fact that each protein is expressed, at different levels, in multiple cells layers in differentiating epidermis, and because AP1 transcription factors regulate competing processes (i.e., proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation). Various in vivo genetic approaches have been used to study these proteins including targeted and conditional knockdown, overexpression, and expression of dominant-negative inactivating AP1 transcription factors in epidermis. Taken together, these studies suggest that individual AP1 transcription factors have different functions in the epidermis and in cancer development and that altering AP1 transcription factor function in the basal versus suprabasal layers differentially influences the epidermal differentiation response and disease and cancer development.

Eckert, Richard L.; Adhikary, Gautam; Young, Christina A.; Jans, Ralph; Crish, James F.; Xu, Wen; Rorke, Ellen A.

2013-01-01

331

APS Position Statements- APS Guiding Principles for the Care and Use of Vertebrate Animals in Research and Training  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Guiding Principles for the Care and Use of Vertebrate Animals in Research and Training are an updated version of a document first adopted by the APS Council in 1953. The Guiding Principles represent a code of ethics for APS members who work with animals. They provide a framework intended to promote the humane treatment of animals and are also used to evaluate research submitted for publication in APS journals. The update is intended to clarify certain elements of the Guiding Principles and make them easier to apply in practical situations. In addition, because the Guiding Principles are based upon U.S. animal welfare requirements, the update adds provisions to address the fact that other countries have different animal welfare requirements. This change was needed because of the increasing number of physiologists from around the world who are joining the APS and submitting articles for publication in APS journals.

2010-07-16

332

APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - Monitoring System Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), along with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Pubic Service (APS), is monitoring the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant to determine the costs to produce hydrogen fuels (including 100% hydrogen as well as hydrogen and compressed natural gas blends) for use by fleets and other operators of advanced-technology vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cost data will be used as benchmark data by technology modelers as well as research and development programs. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 18 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen per day by electrolysis. It can store up to 155 kg of hydrogen at various pressures up to 6,000 psi. The dispenser island can fuel vehicles with 100% hydrogen at 5,000 psi and with blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas at 3,600 psi. The monitoring system was designed to track hydrogen delivery to each of the three storage areas and to monitor the use of electricity on all major equipment in the Pilot Plant, including the fuel dispenser island. In addition, water used for the electrolysis process is monitored to allow calculation of the total cost of plant operations and plant efficiencies. The monitoring system at the Pilot Plant will include about 100 sensors when complete (50 are installed to date), allowing for analysis of component, subsystems, and plant-level costs. The monitoring software is mostly off-the-shelve, with a custom interface. The majority of the sensors input to the Programmable Automation Controller as 4- to 20-mA analog signals. The plant can be monitored over of the Internet, but the control functions are restricted to the control room equipment. Using the APS general service plan E32 electric rate of 2.105 cents per kWh, during a recent eight-month period when 1,200 kg of hydrogen was produced and the plant capacity factor was 26%, the electricity cost to produce one kg of hydrogen was $3.43. However, the plant capacity factor has been increasing, with a recent one-month high of 49%. If a plant capacity factor of 70% can be achieved with the present equipment, the cost of electricity would drop to $2.39 per kg of hydrogen. In this report, the power conversion (76.7%), cell stack (53.1%), and reverse osmosis system (7.14%) efficiencies are also calculated, as is the water cost per kg of hydrogen produced ($0.10 per kg). The monitoring system has identified several areas having the potential to lower costs, including using an reverse osmosis system with a higher efficiency, improving the electrolysis power conversion efficiency, and using air cooling to replace some or all chiller cooling. These activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory for the AVTA, which is part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

James Francfort; Dimitri Hochard

2005-07-01

333

High pressure reverse flow APS engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design and test demonstration effort was undertaken to evaluate the concept of the reverse flow engine for the APS engine application. The 1500 lb (6672 N) thrust engine was designed to operate on gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen propellants at a mixture ratio of 4 and to achieve the objective performance of 435 sec (4266 Nsec/kg) specific impulse. Superimposed durability requirements called for a million-cycle capability with 50 hours duration. The program was undertaken as a series of tasks including the initial preliminary design, design of critical test components and finally, the design and demonstration of an altitude engine which could be used interchangeably to examine operating parameters as well as to demonstrate the capability of the concept. The program results are reported with data to indicate that all of the program objectives were met or exceeded within the course of testing on the program. The analysis effort undertaken is also reported in detail and supplemented with test data in some cases where prior definitions could not be made. The results are contained of these analyses as well as the test results conducted throughout the course of the program. Finally, the test data and analytical results were combined to allow recommendations for a flight weight design. This preliminary design effort is also detailed.

Senneff, J. M.

1972-01-01

334

Electrophysiological studies of forskolin-induced changes in ion transport in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29 cl.19A: Lack of evidence for a cAMP-activated basolateral K + conductance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Forskolin (i.e, cAMP)-modulation of ion transport pathways in filter-grown monolayers of the Cl?-secreting subclone (19A) of the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29 was studied by combined Ussing chamber and microimpalement experiments.

R. B. Bajnath; C. Augeron; C. L. Laboisse; J. Bijman; H. R. de Jonge; J. A. Groot

1991-01-01

335

Differential mitochondrial electron transport through the cyanide-sensitive and cyanide-insensitive pathways in isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile, male fertile, and restored petunia. [Petunia parodii L. S. M  

SciTech Connect

Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida (Hook) Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydoxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines.

Connett, M.B.; Hanson, M.R. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1990-08-01

336

Differential Expression of Folate Receptor-Alpha, Sodium-Dependent Multivitamin Transporter, and Amino Acid Transporter (B (0, +)) in Human Retinoblastoma (Y-79) and Retinal Pigment Epithelial (ARPE-19) Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose The overall objective of this study was to investigate the differential expression of folate receptor-alpha (FR-?), sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), and amino acid transporter [B (0, +)] in retinoblastoma (Y-79) and retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells. Methods Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was performed to confirm the existence of FR-?, SMVT, and B (0, +) in Y-79 and ARPE-19?cell lines. Quantitative real-time PCR was also performed to determine the relative expression of FR-?, SMVT, and B (0, +) at mRNA level in these cell lines. Quantitative uptake of [3H] Folic acid, [3H] Biotin, and [14C] Arginine was studied in Y-79 and ARPE-19?cells. Further, saturation kinetics of [3H] Folic acid, [3H] Biotin, and [14C] Arginine was performed in the presence of various concentrations of respective cold substrates to determine the kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) in Y-79 and ARPE-19?cells. Results PCR analysis had confirmed the existence of FR-?, SMVT, and B (0, +) in Y-79 and ARPE-19?cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis had shown significantly higher expression of FR-?, SMVT, and B (0, +) mRNA levels in Y-79?cells compared with ARPE-19?cells. Quantitative uptake of [3H] Folic acid, [3H] Biotin, and [14C] Arginine was found to be significantly higher in Y-79?cells relative to ARPE-19?cells. [3H] Folic acid uptake process followed saturation kinetics with apparent Km of 8.29?nM and Vmax of 393.47?fmol/min/mg protein in Y-79?cells and Km of 80.55?nM and Vmax of 491.86?fmol/min/mg protein in ARPE-19?cells. [3H] Biotin uptake process also displayed saturation kinetics with Km of 8.53??M and Vmax of 14.12?pmol/min/mg protein in Y-79?cells and Km of 138.25??M and Vmax of 38.85?pmol/min/mg protein in ARPE-19?cells. [14C] Arginine uptake process followed saturation kinetics with Km of 16.77??M and Vmax of 348.27?pmol/min/mg protein in Y-79?cells and Km of 52.03??M and Vmax of 379.21?pmol/min/mg protein in ARPE-19?cells. Conclusions This work demonstrated for the first time the higher expression and affinity of FR-?, SMVT, and B (0, +) mRNA levels in retinoblastoma (Y-79) cells compared with retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells.

Jwala, Jwala; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Boddu, Sai Hanuman Sagar; Pal, Dhananjay

2012-01-01

337

Biochemical dissection of AP-1 recruitment onto Golgi membranes  

PubMed Central

Recruitment of the Golgi-specific AP-1 adaptor complex onto Golgi membranes is thought to be a prerequisite for clathrin coat assembly on the TGN. We have used an in vitro assay to examine the translocation of cytosolic AP-1 onto purified Golgi membranes. Association of AP-1 with the membranes required GTP or GTP analogues and was inhibited by the fungal metabolite, brefeldin A. In the presence of GTP gamma S, binding of AP-1 to Golgi membranes was strictly dependent on the concentration of cytosol added to the assay. AP-1 recruitment was also found to be temperature dependent, and relatively rapid at 37 degrees C, following a lag period of 3 to 4 min. Using only an adaptor-enriched fraction from cytosol, purified myristoylated ARF1, and Golgi membranes, the GTP gamma S-dependent recruitment of AP-1 could be reconstituted. Our results show that the association of the AP-1 complex with Golgi membranes, like the coatomer complex, requires ARF, which accounts for the sensitivity of both to brefeldin A. In addition, they provide the basis for a model for the early biochemical events that lead to clathrin-coated vesicle formation on the TGN.

1993-01-01

338

Tank 241-AP-105, cores 208, 209 and 210, analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-AP-105. Push mode core segments were removed from Risers 24 and 28 between July 2, 1997, and July 14, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-AP-105 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1997) and Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, or total organic carbon (TOC) analysis exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP and DQO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group, and are not considered in this report. Appearance and Sample Handling Two cores, each consisting of four segments, were expected from Tank 241-AP-105. Three cores were sampled, and complete cores were not obtained. TSAP states core samples should be transported to the laboratory within three calendar days from the time each segment is removed from the tank. This requirement was not met for all cores. Attachment 1 illustrates subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis and identifies their sources. This reference also relates tank farm identification numbers to their corresponding 222-S Laboratory sample numbers.

Nuzum, J.L.

1997-10-24

339

Galactic cosmic ray diurnal modulation, interplanetary magnetic field intensity and the planetary index Ap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the data strings for the limiting rigidity (Rc) for the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) solar diurnal anisotropy, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) intensity (B), and the planetary index Ap for the period 1963 to 1998. The study covers three sunspot number (SSN) cycles (20, 21, 22). Our analysis brings out some of the steady state characteristics of the long term changes in Rc and other data strings and their interrelationships. Among other things, we relate the observed changes in Rc values to changes in B which are not related to SSN; the largest value of Rc occurs near 1982 when B has a high value 3 years away from SSN maximum for cycle 21. Rc bears a linear correlation with B and Ap but shows a low correlation with the power in the low frequency turbulence in IMF. The fit parameters with Ap data may be used to compute the values of Rc when in situ measurements of B do not exist; they may be applied to the cosmic ray data (available since 1937) to compute the amplitude and the phase of the diurnal anisotropy and to estimate more accurately the values of the key heliospheric transport parameters at high GCR rigidities near earth's orbit.

Ahluwalia, H. S.

340

Protein Networks Supporting AP-3 Function in Targeting Lysosomal Membrane Proteins  

PubMed Central

The AP-3 adaptor complex targets selected transmembrane proteins to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. We reconstituted its preferred interaction with liposomes containing the ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-1 guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), specific cargo tails, and phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate, and then we performed a proteomic screen to identify new proteins supporting its sorting function. We identified ?30 proteins belonging to three networks regulating either AP-3 coat assembly or septin polymerization or Rab7-dependent lysosomal transport. RNA interference shows that, among these proteins, the ARF-1 exchange factor brefeldin A-inhibited exchange factor 1, the ARF-1 GTPase-activating protein 1, the Cdc42-interacting Cdc42 effector protein 4, an effector of septin-polymerizing GTPases, and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase IIIC3 are key components regulating the targeting of lysosomal membrane proteins to lysosomes in vivo. This analysis reveals that these proteins, together with AP-3, play an essential role in protein sorting at early endosomes, thereby regulating the integrity of these organelles.

Baust, Thorsten; Anitei, Mihaela; Czupalla, Cornelia; Parshyna, Iryna; Bourel, Line; Thiele, Christoph; Krause, Eberhard

2008-01-01

341

Abnormal expression of transcription factor AP-2? in pathologic placentas*  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent studies from our laboratory have indicated that the transcription factor AP-2? plays a critical role in the differentiation of human villous cytotrophoblast cells (CTB) to syncytiotrophoblast cells (STB). However, little is known about the expression of AP-2? in placentas from pathologic pregnancies. This study compares the expression of AP-2? in placentas from high-risk pregnancies to gestational age-matched controls. Paracentral sections from grossly unremarkable areas of 10 placentas from each group of pregnancies complicated by mild preeclampsia (PE), severe PE, diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic hypertension (HTN), fetal growth restriction (FGR) and 10 control cases of placentas from normal pregnancies matched for gestational age (CG) were double immunostained for AP-2? and E-cadherin. The total numbers of CTB and STB and the numbers of AP-2? positive and negative nuclei in both of these cell types were counted by two pathologists blinded to disease status, in ten representative 40x fields (HPF) for each placenta. Abnormal placental maturation in most of pathologic pregnancies was evidenced by a 1.5–1.7-fold lower STB to CTB ratio. AP-2? expression in STB was lower in mild PE, DM, HTN and FGR (p<0.0001 in each instance) and was higher by 2-fold in severe PE, though this increase was not statistically significant (p=0.3). Since AP-2? has been shown to be critical for villous CTB differentiation, our findings suggest that abnormalities in the AP-2? cascade of transcription factors and/or signaling molecules may contribute to the pathogenesis of the abnormal maturation in placentas in certain types of high-risk pregnancies. The different pattern of AP-2? expression in mild and severe PE clearly suggests that these conditions may have two independent pathogenic mechanisms.

Sheridan, Rachel M.; Stanek, Jerzy; Khoury, Jane; Handwerger, Stuart

2012-01-01

342

NF-?B inhibition significantly upregulates the norepinephrine transporter system, causes apoptosis in pheochromocytoma cell lines and prevents metastasis in an animal model.  

PubMed

Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are specific types of neuroendocrine tumors that originate in the adrenal medulla or sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Although these tumors are intensively studied, a very effective treatment for metastatic PHEO or PGL has not yet been established. Preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for these tumors are very much required. Therefore, in this study we tested the effect of triptolide (TTL), a potent nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) inhibitor, on the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter (NET) system, considered to be the gatekeeper for the radiotherapeutic agent 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). We measured changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NET and correlated them with proapoptotic factors and metastasis inhibition. The study was performed on three different stable PHEO cell lines. We found that blocking NF-?B with TTL or capsaicin increased both NET mRNA and protein levels. Involvement of NF-?B in the upregulation of NET was verified by mRNA silencing of this site and also by using NF-?B antipeptide. Moreover, in vivo treatment with TTL significantly reduced metastatic burden in an animal model of metastatic PHEO. The present study for the first time shows how NF-?B inhibitors could be successfully used in the treatment of metastatic PHEO/PGL by a significant upregulation of NET to increase the efficacy of 131I-MIBG and by the induction of apoptosis. PMID:22407736

Pacak, Karel; Sirova, Marta; Giubellino, Alessio; Lencesova, Lubomira; Csaderova, Lucia; Laukova, Marcela; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

2012-11-15

343

Transgenic rice plants expressing the ferredoxin-like protein (AP1) from sweet pepper show enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

We used particle bombardment to cotransform mature seed-derived rice callus (Oryza sativa L., ssp. japonica, cv. Eyi 105) with plasmids containing the linked marker genes gusA and hpt, and the ap1 gene encoding an amphipathic protein previously shown to delay the hypersensitive response induced in non-host plants by the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss). Thirty-two independent lines of transgenic rice plants were regenerated, and 27 of these lines carried all three transgenes as shown by molecular analysis. A bacterial blight inoculation test was carried out on ten lines. In each case, plants carrying the ap1 gene showed enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) race 6 at various levels. This suggests the ap1 gene could be a useful candidate for genetic engineering strategies in rice to provide bacterial blight resistance. PMID:11297801

Tang, K; Sun, X; Hu, Q; Wu, A; Lin, C -H.; Lin, H -J.; Twyman, R M.; Christou, P; Feng, T

2001-04-01

344

E6AP facilitates efficient transcription at estrogen responsive promoters through recruitment of chromatin modifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

E6-AP is a known coactivator of the estrogen receptor alpha (ER?), however the coactivation mechanism of E6-AP is not clear. This work was undertaken to elucidate the coactivation mechanism of E6-AP. In order to examine the role of E6-AP in ER? signaling, we knocked-down the expression of E6-AP and examined the transactivation functions of ER?. Knockdown of E6-AP showed reduced

Heath W. Catoe; Zafar Nawaz

2011-01-01

345

Tune measurement in the APS ring  

SciTech Connect

The APS system will contain three rings. The first is a positron accumulator ring (PAR). Its function is to coalesce 24, 30-ns-long positron bunches into one 290-ps bunch. The second is the injector synchrotron (IS). It accelerates the 450-MeV positron bunches to 7 Gev for injection into the storage ring (SR). Betatron and synchrotron motion frequently occurs in circular machines, without any deliberate excitation. However, the amplitudes of this motion cannot be predicted. Therefore, it is desirable to have controlled ways to excite these modes. Two types of devices will be used to excite the beam. One will be a magnetic kicker or bumper. All rings already have these devices planned for the horizontal direction for injecting and extracting beams. Some of these magnets will be used for exiting horizontal betatron motion. In the storage ring, a special kicker will be installed to produce up to 1 mm amplitude motion in the vertical direction. Two 8.4-in striplines (SL) (1/4 wavelength at 352 MHz) will be installed on all rings. One stripline in each ring will be used to drive all three tunes, and the other stripline will be used as a pickup. In the PAR and IS, the pickup stripline will be in a dispersive region. This will allow observation of both betatron and synchrotron motions. In the SR, the stripline will be in a nondispersive region because it is not practical to install it in a dispersive region. To do synchrotron tune measurements in the SR, one of the button BPMs located in a dispersive region will be used. To minimize development effort, as much of the BPM system electronics as possible will be used in the tune measurement system. The BPM electronics uses the AMP/PM conversion technique. This system operates at 352 MHz. Thus, tune measurement components were also designed to operate at 352 MHz.

Sellyey, W.; Kahana, E.; Wang, X.

1993-07-01

346

45-Day safety screening report for grab samples from Tank 241-AP-107  

SciTech Connect

Three samples; 107-AP-1C, 107-AP-2c and 107-AP-3C; were received at 222-S Laboratory for analysis of DSC, TGA and visual appearance. Four additional samples; 107-AP-1D, 107-AP-2D, 107-AP-3D and 107-AP-6; were received for visual appearance only. No results exceeded the safety screen notification criteria. This report compiles the analytical results. Tank 241-AP-107 is a double-shell tank which is not on any of the four Watch Lists.

Miller, G.L.

1995-03-08

347

Differential Regulation of Placental and Germ Cell Alkaline Phosphatases by Glucocorticoid and Sodium Butyrate in Human Gastric Carcinoma Cell Line TMK-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theexpression and regulation of alkaline phosphatase (AP) was studied in the human gastric cancer cell line TMK-1. Biochemical analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the cells express placental, germ cell, and intestinal AP isozymes constitutively. Dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic glucocorticoid, was shown to specifically induce the placental AP activity to about 10-fold and sodium butyrate

Mei-Whey Hung; Lai-Chen Tsai; Yi-Ling Lin; Yu-Hou Chen; Gu-Gang Chang; Tsu-Chung Chang

2001-01-01

348

Analysis of an AP600 intermediate-size loss-of-coolant accident  

SciTech Connect

A postulated double-ended guillotine break of an AP600 direct-vessel-injection line has been analyzed. This event is characterized as an intermediate-break loss-of-coolant accident. Most of the insights regarding the response of the AP600 safety systems to the postulated accident are derived from calculations performed with the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 code. However, complementary insights derived from a scaled experiment conducted in the ROSA facility, as well as insights based upon calculations by other codes, are also presented. Based upon the calculated and experimental results, the AP600 will not experience a core heat up and will reach a safe shutdown state using only safety-class equipment. Only the early part of the long-term cooling period initiated by In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank injection was evaluated. Thus, the observation that the core is continuously cooled should be verified for the later phase of the long-term cooling period when sump injection and containment cooling processes are important.

Boyack, B.E.; Lime, J.F.

1995-04-01

349

Fra-2/AP-1 controls bone formation by regulating osteoblast differentiation and collagen production  

PubMed Central

The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex, in particular the Fos proteins, is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. Fra-2 (Fosl2), a Fos-related protein of the AP-1 family, is expressed in bone cells, and newborn mice lacking Fra-2 exhibit defects in chondrocytes and osteoclasts. Here we show that Fra-2–deficient osteoblasts display a differentiation defect both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, Fra-2–overexpressing mice are osteosclerotic because of increased differentiation of osteoblasts, which appears to be cell autonomous. Importantly, the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin (Oc) gene and collagen1?2 (col1?2) are transcriptional targets of Fra-2 in both murine and human bone cells. In addition, Fra-2, Oc, and col1 are expressed in stromal cells of human chondroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcomas (Os’s) as well as during osteoblast differentiation of human Os cell lines. These findings reveal a novel function of Fra-2/AP-1 as a positive regulator of bone and matrix formation in mice and humans.

Bozec, Aline; Bakiri, Latifa; Jimenez, Maria; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael

2010-01-01

350

Fra-2/AP-1 controls bone formation by regulating osteoblast differentiation and collagen production.  

PubMed

The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex, in particular the Fos proteins, is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. Fra-2 (Fosl2), a Fos-related protein of the AP-1 family, is expressed in bone cells, and newborn mice lacking Fra-2 exhibit defects in chondrocytes and osteoclasts. Here we show that Fra-2-deficient osteoblasts display a differentiation defect both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, Fra-2-overexpressing mice are osteosclerotic because of increased differentiation of osteoblasts, which appears to be cell autonomous. Importantly, the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin (Oc) gene and collagen1?2 (col1?2) are transcriptional targets of Fra-2 in both murine and human bone cells. In addition, Fra-2, Oc, and col1 are expressed in stromal cells of human chondroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcomas (Os's) as well as during osteoblast differentiation of human Os cell lines. These findings reveal a novel function of Fra-2/AP-1 as a positive regulator of bone and matrix formation in mice and humans. PMID:20837772

Bozec, Aline; Bakiri, Latifa; Jimenez, Maria; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael; Wagner, Erwin F

2010-09-20

351

An improved model for the combustion of AP composite propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents several improvements to the BDP model of steady-state burning of AP composite solid propellants. The Price-Boggs-Derr model of AP monopropellant burning is incorporated to represent the AP. A separate energy equation is written for the binder to permit a different surface temperature from the AP; this includes an analysis of the sharing of primary diffusion flame energy, and correction of a BDP model inconsistency in treating the binder regression rate. A method for assembling component contributions to calculate the burning rates of multimodal propellants is also presented. Results are shown in the form of representative burning rate curves, comparisons with data, and calculated internal details of interest. Ideas for future work are discussed in an Appendix.

Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D.

1981-01-01

352

Ground vibration model studies for APS storage ring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytical ground vibration model is developed for study of the vibration effects on the beam motion in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The different physical parameters associated with the wave characteristics and the vibration modes ne...

R. K. Koul

1994-01-01

353

Revisions to Emission Factors for AP-42 Organic Source Categories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains the text, as revised or originally written, of several sections prepared for inclusion in AP-42, 'Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors.' Each section, or chapter of this document, includes: a description of the process, a p...

1978-01-01

354

QCD on the Massively Parallel Computer AP1000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the QCD-TARO program of calculations which uses the parallel computer AP1000 of Fujitsu. We discuss the results on scaling, correlation times and hadronic spectrum, some aspects of the implementation and the future prospects.

Akemi, K.; Fujisaki, M.; Okuda, M.; Tago, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hioki, S.; Miyamura, O.; Takaishi, T.; Nakamura, A.; de Forcrand, Ph.; Hege, C.; Stamatescu, I. O.

355

Exercise Physiology-Fisiologia del Ejercicio - 2012 APS Video Contest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Viewer's Choice award-winning video from the 2012 APS Video Contest. This video, which is recorded in english with spanish subtitles, describes cardiovasuclar adaptations that occur during exercise.

Facundo Mendes Garrido Abregu (Universidad de Buenos Aires); Sofia Aguirre (Universidad de Buenos Aires)

2012-05-02

356

BMCC1 is an AP-2 associated endosomal protein in prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

The prostate cancer antigen gene 3 (PCA3) is embedded in an intron of a second gene BMCC1 (Bcl2-/adenovirus E1B nineteen kDa-interacting protein 2 (BNIP-2) and Cdc42GAP homology BCH motif-containing molecule at the carboxyl terminal region 1) which is also upregulated in prostate cancer. BMCC1 was initially annotated as two genes (C9orf65/PRUNE and BNIPXL) on either side of PCA3 but our data suggest that it represents a single gene coding for a high molecular weight protein. Here we demonstrate for the first time the expression of a >300 kDa BMCC1 protein (BMCC1-1) in prostate cancer and melanoma cell lines. This protein was found exclusively in the microsomal fraction and localised to cytoplasmic vesicles. We also observed expression of BMCC1 protein in prostate cancer sections using immunohistology. GST pull down, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry protein interaction studies identified multiple members of the Adaptor Related Complex 2 (AP-2) as BMCC1 interactors. Consistent with a role for BMCC1 as an AP-2 interacting endosomal protein, BMCC1 co-localised with ?-adaptin at the perinuclear region of the cell. BMCC1 also showed partial co-localisation with the early endosome small GTP-ase Rab-5 as well as strong co-localisation with internalised pulse-chase labelled transferrin (Tf), providing evidence that BMCC1 is localised to functional endocytic vesicles. BMCC1 knockdown did not affect Tf uptake and AP-2 knockdown did not disperse BMCC1 vesicular distribution, excluding an essential role for BMCC1 in canonical AP-2 mediated endocytic uptake. Instead, we posit a novel role for BMCC1 in post-endocytic trafficking. This study provides fundamental characterisation of the BMCC1 complex in prostate cancer cells and for the first time implicates it in vesicle trafficking. PMID:24040105

Harris, Janelle L; Richards, Renée S; Chow, Clement W K; Lee, Soon; Kim, Misook; Buck, Marion; Teng, Linda; Clarke, Raymond; Gardiner, Robert A; Lavin, Martin F

2013-01-01

357

Magnetic fields in Ap\\/Bp stars (Auriere+, 2007)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated a sample of 28 well-known spectroscopically-identified magnetic Ap\\/Bp stars, with weak, poorly-determined or previously undetected magnetic fields. The aim of this study is to explore the weak part of the magnetic field distribution of Ap\\/Bp stars. Using the MuSiCoS and NARVAL spectropolarimeters at Telescope Bernard Lyot (Observatoire du Pic du Midi, France) and the cross-correlation technique Least

M. Auriere; G. A. Wade; J. Silvester; F. Lignieres; S. Bagnulo; K. Bale; B. Dintrans; J. F. Donati; C. P. Folsom; M. Gruberbauer; A. Hui Bon Hoa; S. Jeffers; N. Johnson; J. D. Landstreet; A. Lebre; T. Lueftinger; S. Marsden; D. Mouillet; S. Naseri; F. Paletou; P. Petit; J. Power; F. Rincon; S. Strasser; N. Toque

2007-01-01

358

6LoWPAN Compressed DTLS for CoAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real deployments of the IoT require security. CoAP is being standardized as an application layer protocol for the Internet of Things (IoT). CoAP proposes to use DTLS to provide end-to-end security to protect the IoT. DTLS is a heavyweight protocol and its headers are too long to fit in a single IEEE802.15.4 MTU. 6LoWPAN provides header compression mechanisms to reduce

Shahid Raza; Daniele Trabalza; Thiemo Voigt

2012-01-01

359

Early-Phase Spectra of ``Hypernova'' SN 2002ap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral evolution of the peculiar Type Ic supernova (SN) 2002ap during the first 40 days is presented. The spectra display very broad absorption features, which are typical of ``hypernovae.'' The maximum expansion velocity measured on the earliest spectra exceeds 3×104 km s-1. The spectrum of SN 2002ap at the epoch of maximum brightness resembles that of SN 1997ef more

K. Kinugasa; H. Kawakita; K. Ayani; T. Kawabata; H. Yamaoka; J. S. Deng; P. A. Mazzali; K. Maeda; K. Nomoto

2002-01-01

360

BVRI photometry of the type Ic Hypernova SN 2002ap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BVRI photometric observations of type-Ic SN 2002ap at maximum and during the fast-decline phase after maximum are presented. We used our BVRI photometry and published data in order to compute the magnitudes and dates of peak brightness. The absolute magnitude at maximum brightness of SN 2002ap shows that it was fainter than SN 1998bw, but similar to SN 1997ef.

L. M. Cook; E. V. Katkova; N. A. Sokolov; I. S. Guseva

2002-01-01

361

Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP)  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary STMBMS and SEM results of the thermal decomposition of AP in the orthorhombic phase are presented. The overall decomposition is shown to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The data show that the physical and chemical processes can be probed and characterized utilizing SEM and STMBMS. The overall decomposition is characterized by three distinguishing features: an induction period, and accelerator period and a deceleratory period. The major decomposition event occurs in the subsurface of the AP particles and propagates towards the center of the particle with time. The amount of total decomposition is dependent upon particle size and increases from 23% for {approximately}50{micro}m-diameter AP to 33% for {approximately}200{micro}m-diameter AP. A conceptual model of the physical processes is presented. Insight into the chemical processes is provided by the gas formation rates that are measured for the gaseous products. To our knowledge, this is the first presentation of data showing that the chemical and physical decomposition processes can be identified from one another, probed and characterized at the level that is required to better understand the thermal decomposition behavior of AP. Future work is planned with the goal of obtaining data that can be used to develop a mathematical description for the thermal decomposition of o-AP.

Behrens, R.; Minier, L.

1999-03-01

362

The intermediate energy X-ray beamline at the APS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical design of the Intermediate Energy X-ray (IEX) beamline at the APS has been optimized to study emergent phenomena via angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSXS). Driven by the scientific requirements of these two techniques the beamline consists of two separate branchlines sharing the same source, heat absorbing optics and monochromator, but each having its own refocusing optics. The ARPES branch is optimized for a very high "resolving power" and a small spot at the sample; whereas, the RSXS branch is designed for high flux and a low beam divergence at the sample. The very high "resolving power" in the ARPES branch is achieved by using a monochromator which consists of a plane mirror and a variable line spacing grating that focuses the beam at all photon energies. A flux higher than 1010 photons/s at a "resolving power" better than 5×104 will be available at the sample position of the ARPES beamline on a spot size (FWHM) smaller than 21×4?m2 (hor.×ver.) for photon energies between 250 and 1660 eV. A second grating will increase the flux by more than a factor of 10 at a "resolving power" of 104. The flux expected at the RSXS branch for energies between 250 eV and 1900 eV is higher than 4×1012 photons/s at "resolving power" around 2.5×103. The expected spot in this branch is sub-millimeter and the beam divergence is less than 0.3 mrad (FWHM).

McChesney, J. L.; Reininger, R.; Ramanathan, M.; Benson, C.; Srajer, G.; Abbamonte, P.; Campuzano, J. C.

2014-05-01

363

The APETALA-2-like transcription factor OsAP2-39 controls key interactions between abscisic acid and gibberellin in rice.  

PubMed

The interaction between phytohormones is an important mechanism which controls growth and developmental processes in plants. Deciphering these interactions is a crucial step in helping to develop crops with enhanced yield and resistance to environmental stresses. Controlling the expression level of OsAP2-39 which includes an APETALA 2 (AP2) domain leads to phenotypic changes in rice. Overexpression of OsAP2-39 leads to a reduction in yield by decreasing the biomass and the number of seeds in the transgenic rice lines. Global transcriptome analysis of the OsAP2-39 overexpression transgenic rice revealed the upregulation of a key abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic gene OsNCED-I which codes for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and leads to an increase in the endogenous ABA level. In addition to OsNCED-1, the gene expression analysis revealed the upregulation of a gene that codes for the Elongation of Upper most Internode (EUI) protein, an enzyme that catalyzes 16?, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs, which has been shown to deactivate gibberellins (GAs) in rice. The exogenous application of GA restores the wild-type phenotype in the transgenic line and ABA application induces the expression of EUI and suppresses the expression of OsAP2-39 in the wild-type line. These observations clarify the antagonistic relationship between ABA and GA and illustrate a mechanism that leads to homeostasis of these hormones. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that the expression of both OsNCED-1 and EUI are directly controlled by OsAP2-39. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of the ABA/GA balance in rice which is regulated by OsAP2-39 that in turn regulates plant growth and seed production. PMID:20838584

Yaish, Mahmoud W; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Zhu, Tong; Beatty, Perrin H; Good, Allen G; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

2010-09-01

364

The APETALA-2-Like Transcription Factor OsAP2-39 Controls Key Interactions between Abscisic Acid and Gibberellin in Rice  

PubMed Central

The interaction between phytohormones is an important mechanism which controls growth and developmental processes in plants. Deciphering these interactions is a crucial step in helping to develop crops with enhanced yield and resistance to environmental stresses. Controlling the expression level of OsAP2-39 which includes an APETALA 2 (AP2) domain leads to phenotypic changes in rice. Overexpression of OsAP2-39 leads to a reduction in yield by decreasing the biomass and the number of seeds in the transgenic rice lines. Global transcriptome analysis of the OsAP2-39 overexpression transgenic rice revealed the upregulation of a key Abscisic Acid (ABA) biosynthetic gene OsNCED-I which codes for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and leads to an increase in the endogenous ABA level. In addition to OsNCED-1, the gene expression analysis revealed the upregulation of a gene that codes for the Elongation of Upper most Internode (EUI) protein, an enzyme that catalyzes 16?, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs, which has been shown to deactivate gibberellins (GAs) in rice. The exogenous application of GA restores the wild-type phenotype in the transgenic line and ABA application induces the expression of EUI and suppresses the expression of OsAP2-39 in the wild-type line. These observations clarify the antagonistic relationship between ABA and GA and illustrate a mechanism that leads to homeostasis of these hormones. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that the expression of both OsNCED-1 and EUI are directly controlled by OsAP2-39. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of the ABA/GA balance in rice which is regulated by OsAP2-39 that in turn regulates plant growth and seed production.

Yaish, Mahmoud W.; El-kereamy, Ashraf; Zhu, Tong; Beatty, Perrin H.; Good, Allen G.; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J.

2010-01-01

365

Transcriptional regulation of the human manganese superoxide dismutase gene: the role of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and activating protein-2 (AP-2).  

PubMed Central

Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) plays an important role in regulating cellular redox conditions. Expression of MnSOD has been shown to protect against damage by oxidative stress and to suppress the malignant phenotype of human cancer cells. We have previously cloned the human MnSOD (SOD2) gene and analysed its 5' proximal promoter, which has been characterized by a lack of a TATA or CAAT box and the presence of multiple GC boxes. To define further the molecular mechanisms for the regulation of MnSOD expression, multiple transcription factor-binding motifs containing overlapping specificity protein 1 (Sp1)- and activator protein (AP)-2-binding sites were identified by DNase I footprinting analysis. Functional studies in three cell lines with different levels of Sp1 and AP-2 proteins suggested that the cellular levels of these proteins may differentially regulate transcription via GC-binding motifs in the human SOD2 promoter. Co-transfection of an Sp1 expression vector resulted in an increase in the transcription of the promoter-driven reporter gene. In contrast, co-transfection of the AP-2 expression vector caused a decrease in transcription. Direct mutagenesis analysis of Sp1- and AP-2-binding sites showed that Sp1 is essential for transcription of the human SOD2 gene, whereas AP-2 plays a negative role in the transcription. Immunoprecipitation of Sp1 and AP-2 proteins demonstrated that Sp1 interacts with AP-2 in vivo. Two-hybrid analysis revealed that interaction between Sp1 and AP-2 plays both a positive and negative role in the transcription of the reporter gene in vivo. Taken together, our data indicate that AP-2 down-regulates transcription of the human SOD2 gene via its interaction with Sp1 within the promoter region. These findings, coupled with our previous observation that several cancer cell lines have mutations in the promoter region of the human MnSOD gene, which lead to an increase in an AP-2-binding site and a decrease in the promoter activity, signal the importance of understanding the promoter structure and the regulation of the human SOD2 gene by Sp1 and AP-2.

Xu, Yong; Porntadavity, Sureerut; St Clair, Daret K

2002-01-01

366

NF-kappaB and AP1 connection: mechanism of NF-kappaB-dependent regulation of AP1 activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factors regulate many important biological and pathological processes. Activation of NF-kappaB is regulated by the inducible phosphorylation of NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaB by IkappaB kinase. In contrast, Fos, a key component of AP-1, is primarily transcriptionally regulated by serum responsive factors (SRFs) and ternary complex factors (TCFs). Despite these different regulatory

Shuichi Fujioka; Jiangong Niu; Christian Schmidt; Guido M Sclabas; Bailu Peng; Tadashi Uwagawa; Zhongkui Li; Douglas B Evans; James L Abbruzzese; Paul J Chiao

2004-01-01

367

Multi agent based simulation of transport chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

An agent-based tool for micro-level simulation of transport chains (TAPAS) is described. It is more powerful than traditional ap- proaches as it is able to capture the interactions between individ- ual actors of a transport chain, as well as their heterogeneity and decision making processes. Whereas traditional approaches rely on assumed statistical correlation between different parameters, TAPAS relies on causality,

Paul Davidsson; Johan Holmgren; Jan A. Persson; Linda Ramstedt

2008-01-01

368

Ad Hoc Positioning System (APS) Using AOA  

Microsoft Academic Search

AoA(Angle of Arrival) is a well known method used for positioning in providing services such as E911, and for other military and civil radio-location applications, such as sonars and radars. Although devices such as GPS receivers and digital compasses provide good positioning and orientation outdoors, there are many applications re- quiring the same facilities indoors, where line of sight ac-

Dragos Niculescu; B. R. Badrinath

2003-01-01

369

Transcription factor AP2 and monoaminergic functions in the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. In the central nervous system, transcription factor AP-2 family is one of the critical regulatory factors for neural gene expression and neuronal development. Several genes in the monoaminergic systems display AP-2 binding sites in regulatory regions. In addition, brainstem levels of transcription factor AP-2? and AP-2? are positively correlated to monoamine measures in rat forebrain, suggesting a regulatory role

M. Damberg

2005-01-01

370

Induction of cystine transport via system x c ? and maintenance of intracellular glutathione levels in pancreatic acinar and islet cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between L-cystine transport and intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels was investigated in cultured pancreatic AR42J acinar and ?TC3 islet cells exposed to diethylmaleate, an electrophilic agent known to activate cellular antioxidant responses. Cystine transport was mediated predominantly by the Na+-independent anionic amino acid transport system xc?, with influx inhibited potently by glutamate and homocysteate but unaffected by cationic or

H. Sato; K. Kuriyama-Matsumura; R. C. M. Siow; T. Ishii; S. Bannai; Giovanni E. Mann

1998-01-01

371

Conserved Aspartic Acid Residues Lining the Extracellular Loop I of Sodium-coupled Bile Acid Transporter ASBT Interact with Na+ and 7?-OH Moieties on the Ligand Cholestane Skeleton*  

PubMed Central

Functional contributions of residues Val-99—Ser-126 lining extracellular loop (EL) 1 of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter were determined via cysteine-scanning mutagenesis, thiol modification, and in silico interpretation. Despite membrane expression for all but three constructs (S112C, Y117C, S126C), most EL1 mutants (64%) were inactivated by cysteine mutation, suggesting a functional role during sodium/bile acid co-transport. A negative charge at conserved residues Asp-120 and Asp-122 is required for transport function, whereas neutralization of charge at Asp-124 yields a functionally active transporter. D124A exerts low affinity for common bile acids except deoxycholic acid, which uniquely lacks a 7?-hydroxyl (OH) group. Overall, we conclude that (i) Asp-122 functions as a Na+ sensor, binding one of two co-transported Na+ ions, (ii) Asp-124 interacts with 7?-OH groups of bile acids, and (iii) apolar EL1 residues map to hydrophobic ligand pharmacophore features. Based on these data, we propose a comprehensive mechanistic model involving dynamic salt bridge pairs and hydrogen bonding involving multiple residues to describe sodium-dependent bile acid transporter-mediated bile acid and cation translocation.

Hussainzada, Naissan; Da Silva, Tatiana Claro; Zhang, Eric Y.; Swaan, Peter W.

2008-01-01

372

The Arabidopsis Cell Plate-Associated Dynamin-Like Protein, ADL1Ap, Is Required for Multiple Stages of Plant Growth and Development1  

PubMed Central

Dynamin and dynamin-like proteins are GTP-binding proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. In soybean, a 68-kD dynamin-like protein called phragmoplastin has been shown to be associated with the cell plate in dividing cells (Gu and Verma, 1996). Five ADL1 genes encoding dynamin-like proteins related to phragmoplastin have been identified in the completed Arabidopsis genome. Here we report that ADL1Ap is associated with punctate subcellular structures and with the cell plate in dividing cells. To assess the function of ADL1Ap we utilized a reverse genetic approach to isolate three separate Arabidopsis mutant lines containing T-DNA insertions in ADL1A. Homozygous adl1A seeds were shriveled and mutant seedlings arrested soon after germination, producing only two leaf primordia and severely stunted roots. Immunoblotting revealed that ADL1Ap expression was not detectable in the mutants. Despite the loss of ADL1Ap, the mutants did not display any defects in cytokinesis, and growth of the mutant seedlings could be rescued in tissue culture by the addition of sucrose. Although these sucrose-rescued plants displayed normal vegetative growth and flowered, they set very few seeds. Thus, ADL1Ap is critical for several stages of plant development, including embryogenesis, seedling development, and reproduction. We discuss the putative role of ADL1Ap in vesicular trafficking, cytokinesis, and other aspects of plant growth.

Kang, Byung-Ho; Busse, James S.; Dickey, Carrie; Rancour, David M.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.

2001-01-01

373

Target and peripheral dose during patient repositioning with the Gamma Knife automatic positioning system (APS) device.  

PubMed

The GammaPlan treatment planning system does not account for the leakage and scatter dose during APS repositioning. In this study, the dose delivered to the target site and its periphery from the defocus stage and intershot couch transit (couch motion from the focus to defocus position and back) associated with APS repositioning are measured for the Gamma Knife model 4C. A stereotactic head-frame was attached to a Leksell 16 cm diameter spherical phantom with a calibrated ion chamber at its center. Using a fiducial box, CT images of the phantom were acquired and registered in the GammaPlan treatment planning system to determine the coordinates of the target (center of the phantom). An absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the 50% isodose line was prescribed to the target site for all measurements. Plans were generated for the 8, 14 and 18 mm collimator helmets to determine the relationship of measured dose to the number of repositions of the APS system and to the helmet size. The target coordinate was identical throughout entire study and there was no movement of the APS between various shots. This allowed for measurement of intershot transit dose at the target site and its periphery. The couch was paused in the defocus position, allowing defocus dose measurements at the intracranial target and periphery. Measured dose increases with frequency of repositioning and with helmet collimator size. During couch transit, the target receives more dose than peripheral regions; however, in the defocus position, the greatest dose is superior to the target site. The automatic positioning system for the Leksell Gamma Knife model 4C results in an additional dose of up to 3.87 +/- 0.07%, 4.97 +/- 0.04%, and 5.71 +/- 0.07% to the target site; its periphery receives additional dose that varies depending on its position relative to the target. There is also dose contribution to the patient in the defocus position, where the APS repositions the patient from one treatment coordinate to another. This may be important for treatment areas around critical structures within the brain. Further characterization of the defocus and transit exposures and development of a dose calculation algorithm to account for these doses would improve the accuracy of the delivered plan. PMID:20160701

Tran, Tuan-Anh; Stanley, Thomas R; Malhotra, Harish K; De Boer, Steven F; Prasad, Dheerendra; Podgorsak, Matthew B

2010-01-01

374

AP1 transcription factors in epidermal differentiation and skin cancer.  

PubMed

AP1 (jun/fos) transcription factors (c-jun, junB, junD, c-fos, FosB, Fra-1, and Fra-2) are key regulators of epidermal keratinocyte survival and differentiation and important drivers of cancer development. Understanding the role of these factors in epidermis is complicated by the fact that each protein is expressed, at different levels, in multiple cells layers in differentiating epidermis, and because AP1 transcription factors regulate competing processes (i.e., proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation). Various in vivo genetic approaches have been used to study these proteins including targeted and conditional knockdown, overexpression, and expression of dominant-negative inactivating AP1 transcription factors in epidermis. Taken together, these studies suggest that individual AP1 transcription factors have different functions in the epidermis and in cancer development and that altering AP1 transcription factor function in the basal versus suprabasal layers differentially influences the epidermal differentiation response and disease and cancer development. PMID:23762562

Eckert, Richard L; Adhikary, Gautam; Young, Christina A; Jans, Ralph; Crish, James F; Xu, Wen; Rorke, Ellen A

2013-01-01

375

hMSH2 expression is driven by AP1-dependent regulation through phorbol-ester exposure  

PubMed Central

Mammalian mismatch repair (MMR) plays a prominent role in genomic stability and toxicity induced by some DNA damaging agents. Advance in the appreciation of regulation mechanisms of the key MMR protein hMSH2 would certainly lead to valuable information on its role and to a better understanding of MMR system dysfunctions with respect to their consequences in cells. We have previously reported that, in myeloid leukemic U937 cell line, the expression of hMSH2 MMR protein is regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Here we show that the increase of protein level following PKC activation by phorbol ester (TPA) treatment parallels that of hMSH2 mRNA. Our results support the view that the hMSH2 gene is prone to transcriptional regulation upon TPA induction, and that AP-1 is a factor implicated in the transactivation. When losing the AP-1-dependent hMSH2 promoter activity, either by mutating the AP-1 binding sites of the hMSH2 promoter or by using a dominant negative c-Jun factor, the hMSH2 overexpression induced by TPA is abolished both in vitro and in vivo. Thus the control of hMSH2 expression by PKC appears to be dependent, at least partially, on an up-regulation mediated by AP-1 transactivation.

Humbert, Odile; Achour, Ikbel; Lautier, Dominique; Laurent, Guy; Salles, Bernard

2003-01-01

376

Mutant AP endonuclease in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Among the more frequent oxidative DNA injuries is the formation of abasic sites (AP sites) resulting from removal of purine or pyrimidine bases, estimated to occur at a rate of 1 x 10(4)/genome/24 h. A defect in DNA repair at this level could account for the accumulation of mutations and subsequent genome instability. We have identified missense mutations in the APE gene coding for a multifunctional DNA repair enzyme, AP endonuclease in eight of 11 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and familial ALS. These mutations could affect the repair of abasic sites leading to the accumulation of mutations in neurons, resulting in their degeneration and death. Our findings implicate mutated AP endonuclease in the pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:9507962

Olkowski, Z L

1998-01-26

377

Experience with the EPICS PV Gateway at the APS.  

SciTech Connect

The EPICS Process Variable Gateway has become a stable, high-performance application that provides access to process variables while minimizing the impact on critical Input-Output Controllers (IOCs) and implementing additional access security. The additional access security typically prevents write access but is highly configurable. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) currently uses 40 Gateways running on 11 workstations to provide access to the machine subnet from the offices and for the individual experimental teams. These include reverse Gateways that allow administration of all 40 APS Gateways from a single MEDM screen, even though the Gateways are running on separate networks. This administration includes starting, stopping, making and viewing reports, and viewing and editing access security files. There is one Gateway that provides process variable renaming. This paper provides an overview of the Gateways at the APS and describes the procedures that have been set up to use and administer them.

Evans, K. Jr.; Smith, M.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

2006-01-01

378

Literatuur Onderzoek Naar Kickers en Septa voor de Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (Literature Search on Kickers and Septa for the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (APS)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the literature was performed with a view to the design of kickers and septa for the injection and extraction line of the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher Ring (APS) in the UPDATE project. The UPDATE kickers were given the following specifications: def...

J. Kuijt A. V.D.Linden

1988-01-01

379

Piping benchmark problems for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant  

SciTech Connect

To satisfy the need for verification of the computer programs and modeling techniques that will be used to perform the final piping analyses for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant, three benchmark problems were developed. The problems are representative piping systems subjected to representative dynamic loads with solutions developed using the methods being proposed for analysis for the AP600 standard design. It will be required that the combined license licensees demonstrate that their solutions to these problems are in agreement with the benchmark problem set.

Bezler, P.; DeGrassi, G.; Braverman, J.; Wang, Y.K.

1997-01-01

380

Parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] lines (Ruffoni+, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ritz wavelengths of the parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] lines reported here were calculated, respectively, from the accurate Co II energy levels reported by Pickering et al. (1998ApJS..117..261P) and the revised accurate V II energy levels measured by Thorne et al. (2013, Cat. J/ApJS/207/13). (4 data files).

Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C.

2013-09-01

381

D-Glucose uptake in fish hepatocytes: mediated by transporter in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but only by diffusion in prespawning lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and in RTH-149 cell line.  

PubMed

The transport of D-glucose into rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) hepatocytes, as well as into rainbow trout hepatoblastoma cell line RTH-149 was studied using tracer methods. The half-time for D-glucose equilibration was 15 s for rainbow trout. The half-times for the non-metabolizable D-glucose analog, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose equilibration were 8 s, 37 s and 38 s for rainbow trout, lamprey and RTH-149 cells, respectively. The 3-O-methyl-D-glucose was taken up by rainbow trout hepatocytes by facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion. The uptake showed saturation kinetics with the K(m) of 37 mM and V(max) of 62 mmol kg(-1) cells min(-1). The uptake was sensitive to phloretin and cytochalasin B, but not affected by ouabain. The 3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake by lamprey hepatocytes and RTH-149 cells showed no indication of saturation up to 160 mM, and was not affected by phloretin, cytochalasin B or ouabain, which suggests the mode of transport to be by passive diffusion. However, immunocytochemical stainings revealed the existence of mammalian type GLUT1 and GLUT2 transporters in all cells studied. The lack of a functioning carrier-mediated glucose uptake in lamprey hepatocytes might be due to its physiological state (prespawning starvation). The minor 3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake into RTH-149 cells compared to freshly isolated rainbow trout hepatocytes might reflect low metabolic activity of the cell lines. Under the conditions applied the RTH-149 cell line is no suitable in vitro model for glucose transport in fish cells. PMID:14613805

Mannerström, Marika; Tähti, Hanna; Tiihonen, Kirsti; Salama, Annika

2003-11-01

382

The effects of intralaboratory modifications to media composition and cell source on the expression of pharmaceutically relevant transporters and metabolizing genes in the Caco-2 cell line.  

PubMed

Expression and function of drug transporters and drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) in the gastrointestinal tract are critical attributes of intestinal physiology that influence the absorption of orally administered compounds. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of media composition and cell source on mRNA expression and function of pharmaceutically relevant drug transporters and DMEs from two different sources of Caco-2 cells. Briefly, cells were cultured in either minimum essential medium alpha or Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. Total RNA was isolated from each experimental group, and mRNA expression was evaluated using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction arrays. Principal component analysis was used to analyze results, which indicated variable transporter and metabolic expression attributable to differences in media composition and cell source. In addition, transport properties of paracellular markers and proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter-mediated substrates across Caco-2 cell monolayers were assessed. Transport experiments demonstrated significant differences in both paracellular and transcellular permeation resultant from differences in media composition and cell source. These studies support previous findings that media composition and cell source may significantly impact expressional and functional characteristics of Caco-2 cells. Standardization of culture-related methodology may reduce variability associated with Caco-2 cells, enabling more meaningful intralaboratory and interlaboratory data comparisons. PMID:22786684

Roth, Wyatt J; Lindley, David J; Carl, Stephen M; Knipp, Gregory T

2012-10-01

383

Turbulence Transport and Dissipation in the Lower Solar Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new improvements to our three-dimensional global two-temperature model of the solar corona that includes the transition region and upper chromosphere. In our previous study, we focused on the wave-energy injection, transmission and dissipation [I.V. Sokolov et al., submitted to Ap.J. (2012)]. We have now also included the wave reflection due to large-scale plasma inhomogeneities. This reflection leads to low-frequency cascade of Alfvén waves due to small-scale nonlinearities. In closed field line regions, the dissipation is enhanced since different wave polarities (Elsässer energy densities) can meet with equal amplitude, resulting in elevated temperatures. The electron heat conduction can subsequently transport this excess of energy deposition down to the chromosphere. We discuss the theoretical framework and contrast the resulting simulated multi-wavelength EUV images with the SDO/AIA observations for Carrington rotation 2107.

van der Holst, B.; Sokolov, I.; Gombosi, T. I.

2012-12-01

384

APS Forum on Education Newsletter - Summer 2010 Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the Teacher Preparation Section of this edition, Gay Stewart talks about the Arkansas Noyce Scholarship Program and Gabe Popkin discusses the PhysTEC Noyce. Other articles include an introduction to the APS Minority Bridge Program and an outline of some student opportunities available through the Center for Excellence in Education.

2010-07-06

385

Tank 241-AP-106 tank characterization plan: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Tank 241-AP-106 (AP-106) is a candidate feed tank which is expected to be processed at the 242-A Evaporator. Three issues related to the overall concern of the evaporator must be evaluated: compatibility of the candidate waste with respect to feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator requirements; safety parameters of the candidate waste tank to avoid a facility condition which is outside the safety boundaries; and compliance of the waste as dictated by regulations from various government and environmental agencies. The characterization efforts of this Tank Characterization Plan are focused on the resolution of the issues above. To evaluate the potential for waste incompatibility with the feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator, as well as relevant safety issues, analyses will be performed on the grab samples obtained from tank AP-106. These analyses are discussed in Section 4.0. Once the characterization of tank AP-106 has been performed, the waste compatibility and safety assessment shall be conducted. This effort is discussed elsewhere.

Valenzuela, B.D.

1994-11-17

386

84th President of APS Joey P. Granger  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is on pages 41 and 45-49 of the PDF file. An article in The Physiologist April 2011 introducing Joey P. Granger and outlining what he views as the areas of strength in the APS and areas where improvment is needed.

PhD Joey P. Granger (University of Mississippi Medical Center Department of Physiology)

2011-04-01

387

Fabrication of the APS Storage Ring radio frequency accelerating cavities  

SciTech Connect

Specification, heat treatment, strength, and fatigue life of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Storage Ring 352-MHz radio frequency (RF) accelerating cavity copper is discussed. Heat transfer studies, including finite element analysis, and configuration of water cooling is described. Requirements for and techniques of machining are considered. Braze and electron beam joint designs are compared. Vacuum considerations during fabrication are discussed.

Primdahl, K.; Bridges, J.; DePaola, F.; Kustom, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Snee, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (US)

1993-07-01

388

AP Biology Workshop: The Importance of Laboratory Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of essays that highlights the benefits of conducting lab experiments as part of the AP Biology curriculum. It encourages teachers to continue using learning tools like technology in lab experiments to enhance the classroom experience for students.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;); Carolyn Schofield (The College Board;)

2012-10-24

389

Positron Accumulator Ring for the APS (Advanced Photon Source).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses a...

E. A. Crosbie

1989-01-01

390

Copper corrosion & clogging in APS deionized water cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive amount of work has been performed on copper corrosion in last century due to its abundant use in domestic and industrial water systems. However, work on copper corrosion in deionized water is very limited. The water cooling system of Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory uses deionized water containing very low dissolved oxygen (less than 10

Bijaya Adak

2009-01-01

391

The Delta 125 Steam Generator Design for the AP1000  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Plant 1000 uses two Delta 125 steam generators, with each steam generator rated at 1707.5 MWt. The AP1000 Delta 125 steam generator design has many features that represent 'best practices' with respect to steam generator design and reliability and long-term performance. These features are summarized in this paper. (authors)

Condrac, Robert F.; Waszink, Remco P.; Pankiewicz-Nohr, Christopher G. [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Post Office Box 158, Madison, PA 15663-0158 (United States)

2004-07-01

392

Improved temperature regulation of APS linac RF components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The temperature of the APS S-Band linac's high-power rf components is regulated by water from individual closed-loop deionized (DI) water systems. The rf components are all made of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper and respond quickly to temperature ch...

R. Dortwegt

1998-01-01

393

Tank 241AP102 Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This tank sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the head space of tank 241-AP-102. Sampling will be performed in accordance with ''Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis'' (Air DQO) (Mulkey 1999). The sample results will

2001-01-01

394

AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With an annual yearly growth rate of 9.3 percent over the last two decades, Advanced Placement courses have become a juggernaut in American high school education. AP courses are routinely perceived as an indicator of educational rigor, and many schools push to enroll low-income or minority students in these courses in the hope of preparing them…

Sadler, Philip M., Ed.; Sonnert, Gerhard, Ed.; Tai, Robert H., Ed.; Klopfenstein, Kristin, Ed.

2010-01-01

395

The accretion of interplanetary dust by Ap and Am stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accretion of interplanetary dust and comets by A-type stars is investigated to see whether this process can explain the overabundances of heavy elements in Ap and Am stars. The dust particles spiral in by the Poynting-Robertson effect and evaporate above the star. This process is evaluated by considering the evolution of silicate and graphite particles in the radiation field of Alpha Leo (B7 V). It is found that graphite particles evaporate above 20 stellar radii and silicate dust grains above 50 stellar radii. The evaporated atoms will be quickly ionized. In the case of Am stars the ions will wander off and not reach the photosphere, but in the case of Ap stars they can be trapped by the magnetic field of the star and reach the surface. The magnetosphere of a typical Ap star is modeled, and the fate of the ions is studied. The efficiency of accretion from the magnetosphere is sensitive to the presence of any plasma in the magnetosphere. The comet impact process is found capable of producing the abundance anomalies in Ap as well as Am stars, assuming that the comet impact rate is 0.03/yr, nearly the same as in the solar system.

Kumar, C. Krishna; Davila, Joseph M.; Rajan, R. Sundar

1989-01-01

396

Simulation of the APS storage-ring rf system  

SciTech Connect

A simulation model for the APS storage ring rf system has been developed that includes the effects of cavity impedances, longitudinal beam dynamics, and generator klystrons. The model predicts multiple-bunch longitudinal beam behavior and is used for feedback system design and stability analysis.

Schwartz, C.; Nassiri, A.; Kang, Y.; Kustom, R.L.

1997-08-01

397

A process definition repository based on step AP 213  

SciTech Connect

Over the years, in the context of numerically controlled machined part manufacturing, the loss, misinterpretation, and redundancy of re-inputting manufacturing instructions and data during the evolution of a product design into the finished product has been a resource depleting and costly endeavor. It is the intent of this project to utilize the emerging standards from the International Standards Organization, ISO 10303 Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data, commonly referred to as STEP, to store and retrieve process planning information for a set of production work instructions. The project focuses on the utilization of the 1995 version of the Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 10303-213:1995 (E) Application protocol: Numerical control process plans for machined parts (AP213). This project illustrates the methodologies used to build an object-oriented Process Definition Repository (PDR), describes both the benefits and shortcomings experienced in implementing AP213, and recommends enhancements to AP213 for process planning information. The deliverable will be a Part 21 data file, based on the application-interpreted model for AP213 and integrated with product design data.

Butler, J.W.

1997-09-01

398

A preliminary analysis of the APS crotch design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary design analysis of the absorber plate of the proposed crotch for the APS bending magnet radiation is presented. Various design aspects including thermal and structural considerations, material selection, geometry, and cooling method are discussed and a number of recommendations are made.

Khounsary

1990-01-01

399

Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

Physics Today, 1975

1975-01-01

400

ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED TRIVALENT ARSENICALS. Z Drobna1, I Jaspers2, D J Thomas3 and M Styblo1. 1Department of Pediatrics; 2Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3US EPA, RTP, NC, USA....

401

APS Represented at the National Association of Biology Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. "Margaret Shain and Tonya Smith, both current Mentor/Instructors for the 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Fellowship for science teachers, assisted Education Office members, Scarletta Whitsett and Mel Limson, and represented the APS at the National Association of Biology Teachers 2007 Professional Development Conference at the end of November in Atlanta, GA."

2008-02-01

402

Alignment and commissionig of the APS beamline front ends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fifteen out of forty phase-one beamline front ends have been installed in the storage-ring tunnel at the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS). For the front-end installation, a four-step alignment process was designed and consists of (1) prealigning the fro...

D. Shu J. Barraza M. Ramanathan J. Chang T. M. Kuzay

1995-01-01

403

HIT collaborative base project at APS of Argonne  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) launched collaborative base project at Argonne National Laboratory in 2010, and progress will be presented in this paper. The staff and students from HIT involved in advanced technological developments, which included tomography. high energy PDF, diffraction and scattering, and inelastic scattering techniques in APS to study structures changes under high pressure conditions.

Liu, H.; Wang, L.

2012-12-01

404

Regulation of endosomal membrane traffic by a Gadkin/AP-1/kinesin KIF5 complex  

PubMed Central

Endosomes and endosomal vesicles (EVs) rapidly move along cytoskeletal filaments allowing them to exchange proteins and lipids between different endosomal compartments, lysosomes, the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and the plasma membrane. The precise mechanisms that connect membrane traffic between the TGN and perinuclear endosomal compartments with motor-protein driven transport have largely remained elusive. Here we show that Gadkin (also termed ?-BAR), a peripheral membrane protein localized to the TGN and to TGN-derived EVs, directly associates with the clathrin adaptor AP-1 and with the motor protein kinesin KIF5, thereby potentially regulating EV dynamics. Gadkin overexpression induced the dispersion of transferrin (Tf)- and Rab4-positive EVs to the cell periphery, whereas KIF5B-depleted cells displayed a perinuclear concentration. Functional experiments suggest that the role of Gadkin as a regulator of endosomal membrane traffic critically depends on complex formation with both AP-1 and KIF5. Our data thus provide a direct molecular link between TGN-derived EVs and the microtubule-based cytoskeleton.

Schmidt, Michael R.; Maritzen, Tanja; Kukhtina, Viktoria; Higman, Victoria A.; Doglio, Laura; Barak, Naomi N.; Strauss, Holger; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Dotti, Carlos G.; Haucke, Volker

2009-01-01

405

Interaction of gatifloxacin with efflux transporters: a possible mechanism for drug resistance  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study is to screen the interactions of fourth generation fluoroquinolone-gatifloxacin with efflux pumps i.e. P-gp, MRP2 and BCRP. Mechanism of gatifloxacin interaction with efflux transporters may explain its acquired resistance. Such clarification may lead to the development of strategies to overcome efflux and enhance its bioavailability at target site. This process will aid in the reduction of dose volume, further eliminating the chances of systemic toxicity from topical gatifloxacin eye drops. MDCK cell lines transfected with the targeted efflux transporters were used for this study. [14C] Erythromycin was selected as a model substrate for P-gp and MRP2 whereas Hoechst 33342 was employed as a substrate for BCRP. Uptake and transport studies of these substrates were performed in the presence of gatifloxacin to delineate its interaction with efflux transporters. Further the efflux ratio in the presence of gatifloxacin was calculated from bidirectional transport studies. The concentration of [14C] erythromycin and Hoechst 33342 were measured using scintillation counter and fluorescence plate reader respectively. A concentration dependent inhibition effect in the presence of gatifloxacin was revealed on [14C] erythromycin uptake. The efflux ratio (BL-AP/AP-BL) of substrates was found to approach unity at higher gatifloxacin concentrations. Increased concentration of gatifloxacin did not elevate uptake of Hoechst 33342. All these studies were validated with known inhibitors as positive control. Uptake and transport studies support the hypothesis that gatifloxacin is a substrate for P-gp, MRP2 but not for BCRP. Possible interactions of gatifloxacin with P-gp and MRP2 may be a possible mechanism for acquired resistance of gatifloxacin. This information can be further extended to design prodrugs or formulations in order to prevent development of acquired resistance and improve therapeutic efficacy with its reduction in side effects.

Kwatra, Deep; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

2010-01-01

406

Copper corrosion & clogging in APS deionized water cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive amount of work has been performed on copper corrosion in last century due to its abundant use in domestic and industrial water systems. However, work on copper corrosion in deionized water is very limited. The water cooling system of Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory uses deionized water containing very low dissolved oxygen (less than 10 ppb). Therefore, It is expected that copper corrosion would be less in this system. On the contrary, APS suffers significant clogging in its water cooling circuit resulting from the deposition of corrosion product and carries out frequent expensive maintenance to retain the required flow rate. The location of pH and corrosion potential of APS water cooling system is very close to the boundary condition of the two oxides (CuO and Cu 2O) of the Pourbaix diagram of copper. While a single phase presence of either of these two oxides is stable as a protective layer, a mixture of the two oxides is unstable. An unstable protective layer results in spalling of the oxide layer. A fluctuation in water chemistry (which is common in an industrial facility) triggers a phase transformation between these two oxides due to its near boundary values. It was observed that the location of pH and corrosion potential was away from the boundaries in high dissolved oxygen condition (more than 2000 ppm). Hence, the possibility of phase transformation becomes lesser in high dissolved oxygen condition than in low dissolved oxygen condition. A test station, that was a replica of the APS water cooling system, was used to perform experiments in both high and low oxygen condition. It was demonstrated that high oxygen condition results in less clogging than in low oxygen condition. Microstructural characterization was performed on the coupons from test station and on some components from APS to evaluate oxide surface and determine phases. Mechanism of the phase transformation was suggested.

Adak, Bijaya

407

N-(6-Aminohexyl) -5-Chloro-1-Naphthalenesulfonamide (W7) Stimulation of K(+) Transport in a Human Salivary Epithelial Cell Line. (Reannouncementwith New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Treatment of a human salivary epithelial cell line, HSG- PA, with the calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl) -5-chloro-1-naphthalen esulfonamideincreased RB (K+) influx and efflux in a manner similar to that resulting from muscarinic (carbachol; Cch) or c...

L. Patton J. Ship R. Wellner

1991-01-01

408

Incorporating the APS Catalog of the POSS I and Image Archive in ADS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of this contract was to develop the software to both create and access an on-line database of images from digital scans of the Palomar Sky Survey. This required modifying our DBMS (called Star Base) to create an image database from the actual raw pixel data from the scans. The digitized images are processed into a set of coordinate-reference index and pixel files that are stored in run-length files, thus achieving an efficient lossless compression. For efficiency and ease of referencing, each digitized POSS I plate is then divided into 900 subplates. Our custom DBMS maps each query into the corresponding POSS plate(s) and subplate(s). All images from the appropriate subplates are retrieved from disk with byte-offsets taken from the index files. These are assembled on-the-fly into a GIF image file for browser display, and a FITS format image file for retrieval. The FITS images have a pixel size of 0.33 arcseconds. The FITS header contains astrometric and photometric information. This method keeps the disk requirements manageable while allowing for future improvements. When complete, the APS Image Database will contain over 130 Gb of data. A set of web pages query forms are available on-line, as well as an on-line tutorial and documentation. The database is distributed to the Internet by a high-speed SGI server and a high-bandwidth disk system. URL is http://aps.umn.edu/IDB/. The image database software is written in perl and C and has been compiled on SGI computers with MIX5.3. A copy of the written documentation is included and the software is on the accompanying exabyte tape.

Humphreys, Roberta M.

1998-01-01

409

Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

Grantier, David

2003-01-01

410

AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABLT315I mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and pre-clinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multi-targeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all test