Science.gov

Sample records for aps transport lines

  1. The APS transfer line from linac to injector synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Koul, R.K.; Crosbie, E.

    1991-03-01

    This note describes the low-energy-transfer-line designed for the APS. The low energy transfer line constitutes two transport lines. One of these lines runs from linac to the positron accumulator ring, also called ``PAR``, and is 23.7138 m long. The second part of the low energy transport line runs from the ``PAR`` to the injector synchrtoron and is about 30.919 m long. The above length includes two quadrupoles, a bend magnet and a septum magnet in the injector synchrotron.

  2. Discovery of 17 new sharp-lined Ap stars with magnetically resolved lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyhammer, L. M.; Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.; Martinez, P.

    2008-09-01

    Chemically peculiar A stars (Ap) are extreme examples of the interaction of atomic element diffusion processes with magnetic fields in stellar atmospheres. The rapidly oscillating Ap stars provide a means for studying these processes in three dimensions and are at the same time important for studying the pulsation excitation mechanism in A stars. As part of the first comprehensive, uniform, high-resolution spectroscopic survey of Ap stars, which we are conducting in the Southern hemisphere with the Michigan Spectral Catalogues as the basis of target selection, we report here the discovery of 17 new magnetic Ap stars having spectroscopically resolved Zeeman components from which we derive magnetic field moduli in the range 3-30kG. Among these are (1) the current second strongest known magnetic A star, (2) a double-lined Ap binary with a magnetic component and (3) an A star with particularly peculiar and variable abundances. Polarimetry of these stars is needed to constrain their field geometries and to determine their rotation periods. We have also obtained an additional measurement of the magnetic field of the Ap star HD92499. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, as part of programmes 078.D-0080(A), 078.D-0192(A), 072.D-0138(A). E-mail: lmfreyhammer@uclan.ac.uk

  3. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

    1995-05-01

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real'' beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS.

  4. Genome-wide Analysis of AP-3–dependent Protein Transport in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vikram C.; Daboussi, Lydia; Lorenz, Todd C.

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex mediates cargo-selective transport to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. To identify proteins that function in AP-3–mediated transport, we performed a genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for defects in the vacuolar maturation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a cargo of the AP-3 pathway. Forty-nine gene deletion strains were identified that accumulated precursor ALP, many with established defects in vacuolar protein transport. Maturation of a vacuolar membrane protein delivered via a separate, clathrin-dependent pathway, was affected in all strains except those with deletions of YCK3, encoding a vacuolar type I casein kinase; SVP26, encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export receptor for ALP; and AP-3 subunit genes. Subcellular fractionation and fluorescence microscopy revealed ALP transport defects in yck3? cells. Characterization of svp26? cells revealed a role for Svp26p in ER export of only a subset of type II membrane proteins. Finally, ALP maturation kinetics in vac8? and vac17? cells suggests that vacuole inheritance is important for rapid generation of proteolytically active vacuolar compartments in daughter cells. We propose that the cargo-selective nature of the AP-3 pathway in yeast is achieved by AP-3 and Yck3p functioning in concert with machinery shared by other vacuolar transport pathways. PMID:19116312

  5. To be submitted to ApJ A Formalism for Covariant Polarized Radiative Transport by Ray

    E-print Network

    Gammie, Charles F.

    To be submitted to ApJ A Formalism for Covariant Polarized Radiative Transport by Ray Tracing that the transport equation in vacuo is kµ µN = 0. We show that this is equivalent to Broderick & Blandford (2004)'s applications include calculation of X-ray polarization that may be relevant to future X-ray polarimetry

  6. Proton-dependent glutamine uptake by aphid bacteriocyte amino acid transporter ApGLNT1.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel R G; Wilson, Alex C C; Luetje, Charles W

    2015-10-01

    Aphids house large populations of the gammaproteobacterial symbiont Buchnera aphidicola in specialized bacteriocyte cells. The combined biosynthetic capability of the holobiont (Acyrthosiphon pisum and Buchnera) is sufficient for biosynthesis of all twenty protein coding amino acids, including amino acids that animals alone cannot synthesize; and that are present at low concentrations in A. pisum's plant phloem sap diet. Collaborative holobiont amino acid biosynthesis depends on glutamine import into bacteriocytes, which serves as a nitrogen-rich amino donor for biosynthesis of other amino acids. Recently, we characterized A. pisum glutamine transporter 1 (ApGLNT1), a member of the amino acid/auxin permease family, as the dominant bacteriocyte plasma membrane glutamine transporter. Here we show ApGLNT1 to be structurally and functionally related to mammalian proton-dependent amino acid transporters (PATs 1-4). Using functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, combined with two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology we demonstrate that ApGLNT1 is electrogenic and that glutamine induces large inward currents. ApGLNT1 glutamine induced currents are dependent on external glutamine concentration, proton (H+) gradient across the membrane, and membrane potential. Based on these transport properties, ApGLNT1-mediated glutamine uptake into A. pisum bacteriocytes can be regulated by changes in either proton gradients across the plasma membrane or membrane potential. PMID:26028424

  7. Functional characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae urea transport protein, ApUT.

    PubMed

    Godara, Geeta; Smith, Craig; Bosse, Janine; Zeidel, Mark; Mathai, John

    2009-04-01

    Urea transporters (UTs) effect rapid flux of urea across biological membranes. In the mammalian kidney, UT activity is essential for effective urine concentration. In bacteria, UT-mediated urea uptake permits intracellular urease to degrade urea to ammonia and CO(2), a process that either buffers acid loads or provides nutrient nitrogen. We have characterized the urea transport channel protein ApUT from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Kinetic analysis of bacterial inside-out membranes enriched in ApUT showed approximately 28-fold increase in urea permeability (3.3 +/- 0.4 x 10(-4) cm/s) compared with control vesicles (0.11 +/- 0.02 x 10(-4) cm/s). In addition to urea, ApUT also conducts water. Urea and water transport across the channel was phloretin and mercury inhibitable, and the site of inhibition may be located on the cytoplasmic side of the protein. Glycerol and urea analogs, such as methylamine, dimethylurea, formamide, acetamide, methylurea, propanamide, and ethylamine did not permeate across ApUT. PMID:19144751

  8. Aperture studies for the Fermilab AP2 anti-proton line

    SciTech Connect

    Reichel, Ina; Placidi, Massimo; Zisman, Mike; Gollwitzer, Keith; Werkema, Steve

    2004-06-23

    The AP2 beamline transports anti-protons from the production target to the Debuncher ring. The observed aperture is smaller than that estimated from linear, on-energy optics. We have investigated possible reasons for the aperture limitation and have identified possible sources,including residual vertical dispersion from alignment errors and chromatic effects due to very large chromatic lattice functions. Some experiments have already been performed to study these effects. We present results of the experimental and theoretical studies and possible remedies.

  9. Optical observations of the broad-lined type Ic supernova SN 2012ap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Xu-Lin; Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Chen, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The optical observations of the type Ic supernova (SN Ic) SN 2012ap in NGC 1729 are presented. A comparison with other SNe Ic indicates that SN 2012ap is highly reddened (with E(B — V)host~0.8 mag) and may represent one of the most luminous SNe Ic ever observed, with an absolute V-band peak magnitude of ~ ?19.3±0.5 mag after extinction correction. The near-maximum-light spectrum shows wide spectral features that are typical of broad-lined SNe Ic. One interesting feature in the spectrum is the appearance of some narrow absorption features that can be attributed to the diffuse interstellar bands, consistent with the large reddening inferred from the photometric method. Based on the light curves and the spectral data, we estimate that SN 2012ap produced a 56Ni mass of ~ 0.3 ± 0.1Msolar 1 in the explosion, with an ejecta mass of 2.4?0.7+0.7Msolar and a kinetic energy of EK = 1.1?0.4+0.4 × 1052 erg. The properties of its progenitor are also briefly discussed.

  10. NSLS-II Transport Line Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

    2012-05-20

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

  11. Engagement of CD99 Reduces AP-1 Activity by Inducing BATF in the Human Multiple Myeloma Cell Line RPMI8226

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Minchan; Pak, Hyo-Kyung; Park, Seo-Jeong; Lee, A-Neum; Park, Young-Soo; Lee, Hyangsin; Lee, Hyunji; Kim, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Kyung Jin; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Chung, Yoo-Sam

    2015-01-01

    CD99 signaling is crucial to a diverse range of biological functions including survival and proliferation. CD99 engagement is reported to augment activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity through mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways in a T-lymphoblastic lymphoma cell line Jurkat and in breast cancer cell lines. In this study, we report that CD99 differentially regulated AP-1 activity in the human myeloma cell line RPMI8226. CD99 was highly expressed and the CD99 engagement led to activation of the MAP kinases, but suppressed AP-1 activity by inducing the expression of basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like (BATF), a negative regulator of AP-1 in RPMI8226 cells. By contrast, engagement of CD99 enhanced AP-1 activity and did not change the BATF expression in Jurkat cells. CD99 engagement reduced the proliferation of RPMI8226 cells and expression of cyclin 1 and 3. Overall, these results suggest novel CD99 functions in RPMI8226 cells. PMID:26557810

  12. Aerosol penetration through transport lines 

    E-print Network

    Dileep, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    for prediction of aerosol penetration through transport system was done component wise for two different flow rates, 27.5 L/min, and, 18 1.1 L/min. For 27.5 L/min, the experimental results and DEPOSITION predictions for the total penetration were 71.6% and 78...

  13. [AP7157]019010PRA Absolute measurement of the resonance lines in heliumlike vanadium on an electron-beam ion trap

    E-print Network

    Chantler, Christopher T.

    PROOF COPY [AP7157]019010PRA Absolute measurement of the resonance lines in heliumlike vanadium measurements of the energies of resonance lines in heliumlike vanadium on an electron-beam ion trap at an absolute precision measurement of heliumlike resonance lines in vanadium (Z 23) to investi- gate

  14. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Calibrating transport lines using LOCO techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yves Roblin

    2011-09-01

    With the 12GeV upgrade underway at CEBAF, there is a need to re-characterize the beamlines after the modifications made to it to accommodate running at higher energies. We present a linear perturbation approach to calibrating the optics model of transport lines. This method is adapted from the LOCO method in use for storage rings. We consider the effect of quadrupole errors, dipole construction errors as well as beam position monitors and correctors calibrations. The ideal model is expanded to first order in Taylor series of the quadrupole errors. A set of difference orbits obtained by exciting the correctors along the beamline is taken, yielding the measured response matrix. An iterative procedure is invoked and the quadrupole errors as well as beam position monitors and corrector calibration factors are obtained. Here we present details of the method and results of first measurements at CEBAF in early 2011.

  16. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA 2012ap AND CARRIERS OF DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Sanders, Nathan E.; Drout, Maria R.; Kamble, Atish; Chakraborti, Sayan; Kirshner, Robert P.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Pickering, Timothy E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Marion, G. H. Howie; Vinko, Jozsef; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Mazzali, Paolo; Maeda, Keiichi; and others

    2014-02-10

    Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption features observed in optical and near-infrared spectra that are thought to be associated with carbon-rich polyatomic molecules in interstellar gas. However, because the central wavelengths of these bands do not correspond to electronic transitions of any known atomic or molecular species, their nature has remained uncertain since their discovery almost a century ago. Here we report on unusually strong DIBs in optical spectra of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN 2012ap that exhibit changes in equivalent width over short (? 30 days) timescales. The 4428 Å and 6283 Å DIB features get weaker with time, whereas the 5780 Å feature shows a marginal increase. These nonuniform changes suggest that the supernova is interacting with a nearby source of DIBs and that the DIB carriers possess high ionization potentials, such as small cations or charged fullerenes. We conclude that moderate-resolution spectra of supernovae with DIB absorptions obtained within weeks of outburst could reveal unique information about the mass-loss environment of their progenitor systems and provide new constraints on the properties of DIB carriers.

  17. Lithium and its isotopic ratio 6Li/7Li in the atmospheres of some sharp-lined roAp star

    E-print Network

    A. Shavrina; N. Polosukhina; S. Khan; Ya. Pavlenko; V. Khalack; G. A. Wade; P. Quinet; N. Mikhailitska; A. Yushchenko; V. Gopka; A. Hatzes; D. Mkrtichian; A. Veles

    2004-10-08

    The lines of lithium at 6708 A, and 6103 A, are analyzed in high resolution spectra of some sharp-lined and slowly rotating roAp stars. Three spectral synthesis codes - STARSP, ZEEMAN2 and SYNTHM were used. New lines of the rare earth elements from the DREAM database, and lines calculated on the basis of the NIST energy levels were included. Magnetic splitting and other line broadening processes were taken into account. Enhanced abundances of lithium in the atmospheres of the stars studied are obtained for both the lithium lines. High estimates of 6Li/7Li ratio (0.2 -- 0.5) for the studied star can be explained by Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) production through the spallation reactions and the preservation of the original $^6$Li and $^7$Li by the strong magnetic fields.

  18. Investigation of Rare-Earth Elements in the Atmosphere of the roAp Star HD 134214: Nd II, Nd III, and Gd II Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailytskaya, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution spectra are used to investigate the abundance of rare-earth elements (REE) in the atmosphere of the magnetic, rapidly oscillating, chemically peculiar (roAp) star HD134214. The neodymium abundance is investigated using the lines of neodymium in the first and second ionization states. Disruption of ionization equilibrium REE (mismatch of the contents determined according to the lines of singly and doubly ionized atoms) is found in the atmosphere of the roAp star. Excess abundance of the rare-earth elements (relative to the Sun) is found. The results of an abundance analysis of REE and some other elements are presented. The modulus and the components Br /Bm of the magnetic field are determined.

  19. Investigation of Rare-Earth Elements in the Atmosphere of the roAp Star HD 134214: Nd II, Nd III, and Gd II Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailytskaya, N. G.

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution spectra are used to investigate the abundance of rare-earth elements (REE) in the atmosphere of the magnetic, rapidly oscillating, chemically peculiar (roAp) star HD134214. The neodymium abundance is investigated using the lines of neodymium in the first and second ionization states. Disruption of ionization equilibrium REE (mismatch of the contents determined according to the lines of singly and doubly ionized atoms) is found in the atmosphere of the roAp star. Excess abundance of the rare-earth elements (relative to the Sun) is found. The results of an abundance analysis of REE and some other elements are presented. The modulus and the components Br /Bm of the magnetic field are determined.

  20. Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B.

    1997-06-01

    This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

  1. HOPS Interacts with Apl5 at the Vacuole Membrane and Is Required for Consumption of AP-3 Transport Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Angers, Cortney G.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptor protein complexes (APs) are evolutionarily conserved heterotetramers that couple cargo selection to the formation of highly curved membranes during vesicle budding. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AP-3 mediates vesicle traffic from the late Golgi to the vacuolar lysosome. The HOPS subunit Vps41 is one of the few proteins reported to have a specific role in AP-3 traffic, yet its function remains undefined. We now show that although the AP-3 ? subunit, Apl5, binds Vps41 directly, this interaction occurs preferentially within the context of the HOPS docking complex. Fluorescence microscopy indicates that Vps41 and other HOPS subunits do not detectably colocalize with AP-3 at the late Golgi or on post-Golgi (Sec7-negative) vesicles. Vps41 and HOPS do, however, transiently colocalize with AP-3 vesicles when these vesicles dock at the vacuole membrane. In cells with mutations in HOPS subunits or the vacuole SNARE Vam3, AP-3 shifts from the cytosol to a membrane fraction. Fluorescence microscopy suggests that this fraction consists of post-Golgi AP-3 vesicles that have failed to dock or fuse at the vacuole membrane. We propose that AP-3 remains associated with budded vesicles, interacts with Vps41 and HOPS upon vesicle docking at the vacuole, and finally dissociates during docking or fusion. PMID:19741093

  2. Design of the SLC damping ring to linac transport lines

    SciTech Connect

    Fieguth, T.H.; Murray, J.J.

    1983-07-01

    The first and second order optics for the damping ring to linac transport line are designed to preserve the damped transverse emittance while simultaneously compressing the bunch length of the beam to that length required for reinjection into the linac. This design, including provisions for future control of beam polarization, is described.

  3. Cationicity-enhanced analogues of the antimicrobial peptides, AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, from the venom of the scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, display potent growth modulation effects on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Ge, Lilin; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The non disulphide-bridged peptides (NDBPs) of scorpion venoms are attracting increased interest due to their structural heterogeneity and broad spectrum of biological activities. Here, two novel peptides, named AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, have been identified in the lyophilised venom of the Arabian scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, through "shotgun" molecular cloning of their biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs. The respective mature peptides, predicted from these cloned cDNAs, were subsequently isolated from the same venom sample using reverse phase HPLC and their identities were confirmed by use of mass spectrometric techniques. Both were found to belong to a family of highly-conserved scorpion venom antimicrobial peptides - a finding confirmed through the biological investigation of synthetic replicates. Analogues of both peptides designed for enhanced cationicity, displayed enhanced potency and spectra of antimicrobial activity but, unlike the native peptides, these also displayed potent growth modulation effects on a range of human cancer cell lines. Thus natural peptide templates from venom peptidomes can provide the basis for rational analogue design to improve both biological potency and spectrum of action. The diversity of such templates from such natural sources undoubtedly provides the pharmaceutical industry with unique lead compounds for drug discovery. PMID:25332684

  4. Cationicity-Enhanced Analogues of the Antimicrobial Peptides, AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, from the Venom of the Scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, Display Potent Growth Modulation Effects on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Ge, Lilin; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The non disulphide-bridged peptides (NDBPs) of scorpion venoms are attracting increased interest due to their structural heterogeneity and broad spectrum of biological activities. Here, two novel peptides, named AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, have been identified in the lyophilised venom of the Arabian scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, through “shotgun” molecular cloning of their biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs. The respective mature peptides, predicted from these cloned cDNAs, were subsequently isolated from the same venom sample using reverse phase HPLC and their identities were confirmed by use of mass spectrometric techniques. Both were found to belong to a family of highly-conserved scorpion venom antimicrobial peptides - a finding confirmed through the biological investigation of synthetic replicates. Analogues of both peptides designed for enhanced cationicity, displayed enhanced potency and spectra of antimicrobial activity but, unlike the native peptides, these also displayed potent growth modulation effects on a range of human cancer cell lines. Thus natural peptide templates from venom peptidomes can provide the basis for rational analogue design to improve both biological potency and spectrum of action. The diversity of such templates from such natural sources undoubtedly provides the pharmaceutical industry with unique lead compounds for drug discovery. PMID:25332684

  5. Polarized sorting of the copper transporter ATP7B in neurons mediated by recognition of a dileucine signal by AP-1

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shweta; Farías, Ginny G.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons are highly polarized cells having distinct somatodendritic and axonal domains. Here we report that polarized sorting of the Cu2+ transporter ATP7B and the vesicle-SNARE VAMP4 to the somatodendritic domain of rat hippocampal neurons is mediated by recognition of dileucine-based signals in the cytosolic domains of the proteins by the ?1 subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-1. Under basal Cu2+ conditions, ATP7B was localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane of the soma and dendrites but not the axon. Mutation of a dileucine-based signal in ATP7B or overexpression of a dominant-negative ?1 mutant resulted in nonpolarized distribution of ATP7B between the somatodendritic and axonal domains. Furthermore, addition of high Cu2+ concentrations, previously shown to reduce ATP7B incorporation into AP-1–containing clathrin-coated vesicles, caused loss of TGN localization and somatodendritic polarity of ATP7B. These findings support the notion of AP-1 as an effector of polarized sorting in neurons and suggest that altered polarity of ATP7B in polarized cell types might contribute to abnormal copper metabolism in the MEDNIK syndrome, a neurocutaneous disorder caused by mutations in the ?1A subunit isoform of AP-1. PMID:25378584

  6. The AP-3 adaptor complex mediates sorting of yeast and mammalian PQ-loop-family basic amino acid transporters to the vacuolar/lysosomal membrane

    PubMed Central

    Llinares, Elisa; Barry, Abdoulaye Oury; André, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The limiting membrane of lysosomes in animal cells and that of the vacuole in yeast include a wide variety of transporters, but little is known about how these proteins reach their destination membrane. The mammalian PQLC2 protein catalyzes efflux of basic amino acids from the lysosome, and the similar Ypq1, ?2, and ?3 proteins of yeast perform an equivalent function at the vacuole. We here show that the Ypq proteins are delivered to the vacuolar membrane via the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) trafficking pathway, which requires the AP-3 adaptor complex. When traffic via this pathway is deficient, the Ypq proteins pass through endosomes from where Ypq1 and Ypq2 properly reach the vacuolar membrane whereas Ypq3 is missorted to the vacuolar lumen via the multivesicular body pathway. When produced in yeast, PQLC2 also reaches the vacuolar membrane via the ALP pathway, but tends to sort to the vacuolar lumen if AP-3 is defective. Finally, in HeLa cells, inhibiting the synthesis of an AP-3 subunit also impairs sorting of PQLC2 to lysosomes. Our results suggest the existence of a conserved AP-3-dependent trafficking pathway for proper delivery of basic amino acid exporters to the yeast vacuole and to lysosomes of human cells. PMID:26577948

  7. The AP-3 adaptor complex mediates sorting of yeast and mammalian PQ-loop-family basic amino acid transporters to the vacuolar/lysosomal membrane.

    PubMed

    Llinares, Elisa; Barry, Abdoulaye Oury; André, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The limiting membrane of lysosomes in animal cells and that of the vacuole in yeast include a wide variety of transporters, but little is known about how these proteins reach their destination membrane. The mammalian PQLC2 protein catalyzes efflux of basic amino acids from the lysosome, and the similar Ypq1, -2, and -3 proteins of yeast perform an equivalent function at the vacuole. We here show that the Ypq proteins are delivered to the vacuolar membrane via the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) trafficking pathway, which requires the AP-3 adaptor complex. When traffic via this pathway is deficient, the Ypq proteins pass through endosomes from where Ypq1 and Ypq2 properly reach the vacuolar membrane whereas Ypq3 is missorted to the vacuolar lumen via the multivesicular body pathway. When produced in yeast, PQLC2 also reaches the vacuolar membrane via the ALP pathway, but tends to sort to the vacuolar lumen if AP-3 is defective. Finally, in HeLa cells, inhibiting the synthesis of an AP-3 subunit also impairs sorting of PQLC2 to lysosomes. Our results suggest the existence of a conserved AP-3-dependent trafficking pathway for proper delivery of basic amino acid exporters to the yeast vacuole and to lysosomes of human cells. PMID:26577948

  8. Gibberellin Concentration and Transport in Genetic Lines of Pea 1

    PubMed Central

    Proebsting, William M.; Hedden, Peter; Lewis, Mervyn J.; Croker, Stephen J.; Proebsting, Lena N.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of the Na and Le loci on gibberellin (GA) content and transport in pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoots were studied. GA1, GA8, GA17, GA19, GA20, GA29, GA44, GA8 catabolite, and GA29 catabolite were identified by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in extracts of expanding and fully expanded tissues of line C79-338 (Na Le). Quantification of GAs by gas chromatography-single-ion monitoring using deuterated internal standards in lines differing at the Na and Le alleles showed that na reduced the contents of GA19, GA20, and GA29 on average to <3% and of GA1 and GA8 to <30% of those in corresponding Na lines. In expanding tissues from Na le lines, GA1 and GA8 concentrations were reduced to approximately 10 and 2%, respectively, and GA29 content increased 2- to 3-fold compared with those in Na Le plants. There was a close correlation between stem length and the concentrations of GA1 or GA8 in shoot apices in all six genotypes investigated. In na/Na grafts, internode length and GA1 concentration of nana scions were normalized, the GA20 content increased slightly, but GA19 levels were unaffected. Movement of labeled GAs applied to leaves on Na rootstocks indicated that GA19 was transported poorly to apices of na scions compared with GA20 and GA1. Our evidence suggests that GA20 is the major transported GA in peas. Images Figure 2 PMID:16653128

  9. Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magneti... http://www.aps.org/meet/DPP02/baps/abs/S670004.html 1 of 1 3/10/05 10:26 AM

    E-print Network

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magneti... http://www.aps.org/meet/DPP02 and Dynamics III. ORAL session, Tuesday morning, November 12 Salon 5-6, Rosen Centre Hotel [FM1.004] Non-Equilibrium equilibrium for each smooth footpoint mapping between two plates with line-tied boundary conditions

  10. The Broad-lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-Ray Burst Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Sanders, N. E.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Pickering, T. E.; Kawabata, K.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Marion, G. H.; Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ? 20,000 km s-1 that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v >~ 27,000 km s-1). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ~2.7 M ?, a kinetic energy of ~1.0 × 1052 erg, and a 56Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M ?. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] ??6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z >~ Z ?, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B - V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  11. Line-by-line transport calculations for Jupiter entry probes. [of radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.; Cooper, D. M.; Park, C.; Prakash, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations of the radiative transport for a condition near peak heating for entry of the Galileo probe into the Jovian atmosphere are described. The discussion includes a thorough specification of the atomic and molecular input data used in the calculations that could be useful to others working in the field. The results show that the use of spectrally averaged cross sections for diatomic absorbers such as CO and C2 in the boundary layer can lead to an underestimation (by as much as 29%) of the spectral flux at the stagnation point. On the other hand, for the turbulent region near the cone frustum on the probe, the flow tends to be optically thin, and the spectrally averaged results commonly used in coupled radiative transport-flow field calculations are in good agreement with the present line-by-line results. It is recommended that these results be taken into account in sizing the final thickness of the Galileo's heat shield.

  12. Establishment and characterization of cetuximab resistant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines: focus on the contribution of the AP-1 transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Boeckx, Carolien; Blockx, Lina; de Beeck, Ken Op; Limame, Ridha; Camp, Guy Van; Peeters, Marc; Vermorken, Jan B; Specenier, Pol; Wouters, An; Baay, Marc; Lardon, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Background: After an initial response to EGFR targeted therapy, secondary resistance almost invariably ensues, thereby limiting the clinical benefit of the drug. Hence, it has been recognized that the successful implementation of targeted therapy in the treatment of HNSCC cancer is very much dependent on predictive biomarkers for patient selection. Methods: We generated an in vitro model of acquired cetuximab resistance by chronically exposing three HNSCC cell lines to increasing cetuximab doses. Gene expression profiles of sensitive parental cells and resistant daughter cells were compared using microarray analysis. Growth inhibitory experiments were performed with an HB-EGF antibody and the MMP inhibitor, both in combination with cetuximab. Characteristics of EMT were analyzed using migration and invasion assays, immunofluorescent vimentin staining and qRT-PCR for several genes involved in this process. The function of the transcription factor AP-1 was investigated using qRT-PCR for several genes upregulated or downregulated in cetuximab resistant cells. Furthermore, anchorage-independent growth was investigated using the soft agar assay. Results: Gene expression profiling shows that cetuximab resistant cells upregulate several genes, including interleukin 8, the EGFR ligand HB-EGF and the metalloproteinase ADAM19. Cytotoxicity experiments with neutralizing HB-EGF antibody could not induce any growth inhibition, whereas an MMP inhibitor inhibited cell growth in cetuximab resistant cells. However, no synergetic effects combined with cetuximab could be observed. Cetuximab resistant cells showed traits of EMT, as witnessed by increased migratory potential, increased invasive potential, increased vimentine expression and increased expression of several genes involved in EMT. Furthermore, expression of upregulated genes could be repressed by the treatment with apigenin. The cetuximab resistant LICR-HN2 R10.3 cells tend to behave differently in cell culture, forming spheres. Therefore, soft agar assay was performed and showed more and larger colonies when challenged with cetuximab compared to PBS challenged cells. Conclusions: In summary, our results indicate that increased expression of the ligand HB-EGF could contribute to resistance towards cetuximab in our cetuximab resistant HNSCC cells. Furthermore, several genes upregulated or downregulated in cetuximab resistant cells are under control of the AP-1 transcription factor. However, more studies are warranted to further unravel the role of AP-1 in cetuximab resistance. PMID:26269754

  13. THE BROAD-LINED Type Ic SN 2012ap AND THE NATURE OF RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVAE LACKING A GAMMA-RAY BURST DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Sanders, N. E.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Pickering, T. E.; Kawabata, K.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Stritzinger, M. D.; and others

    2015-01-20

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from –13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of –17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ? 20,000 km s{sup –1} that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v ? 27,000 km s{sup –1}). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ?2.7 M {sub ?}, a kinetic energy of ?1.0 × 10{sup 52} erg, and a {sup 56}Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M {sub ?}. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] ??6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z ? Z {sub ?}, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B – V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  14. Erratum: ``A Grid of Non-LTE Line-blanketed Model Atmospheres of O-Type Stars'' (ApJS, 146, 417 [2003])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, Thierry; Hubeny, Ivan

    2003-07-01

    We have constructed a comprehensive grid of 680 metal line-blanketed, non-LTE, plane-parallel, hydrostatic model atmospheres for the basic parameters appropriate to O-type stars. The OSTAR2002 grid considers 12 values of effective temperatures, 27,500K<=Teff<=55,000 K with 2500 K steps, eight surface gravities, 3.0<=logg<=4.75 with 0.25 dex steps, and 10 chemical compositions, from metal-rich relative to the Sun to metal-free. The lower limit of logg for a given effective temperature is set by an approximate location of the Eddington limit. The selected chemical compositions have been chosen to cover a number of typical environments of massive stars: the Galactic center, the Magellanic Clouds, blue compact dwarf galaxies like I Zw 18, and galaxies at high redshifts. The paper contains a description of the OSTAR2002 grid and some illustrative examples and comparisons. The complete OSTAR2002 grid is available at our Web site at ApJS, 146, 417 [2003]. Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 681, Greenbelt, MD 20771.

  15. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport...Flexibility § 69.713 Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport...and 69.154. (2) Services in the traffic-sensitive basket, as described...

  16. Investigation of a line-focused acoustic levitation for contactless transport of particles

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    Investigation of a line-focused acoustic levitation for contactless transport of particles Daniele 2011) We investigate herein an interesting acoustic line-focused levitation mechanism, enabling the simultaneous transportation of the acoustically levitated particles. It is shown that the performance

  17. Effects of Escherichia coli Challenge and Transport Stress on Hematology and Serum Chemistry Values of Three Genetic Lines of Turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Males and females from 3 genetic lines of turkeys were compared for their response to an Escherichia coli airsac challenge followed by transport stress (Transport). The turkey lines were a slow growing line selected for increased egg production (Egg line), a fast growing line selected for increased...

  18. Aaptamines from the Marine Sponge Aaptos sp. Display Anticancer Activities in Human Cancer Cell Lines and Modulate AP-1-, NF-?B-, and p53-Dependent Transcriptional Activity in Mouse JB6 Cl41 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Sergey N.; Shubina, Larisa K.; Kuzmich, Alexandra S.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Keller-von Amsberg, Gunhild; Honecker, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Aaptamine (8,9-dimethoxy-1H-benzo[de][1,6]naphthyridine) is a marine natural compound possessing antioxidative, antimicrobial, antifungal, and antiretroviral activity. Earlier, we have found that aaptamine and its derivatives demonstrate equal anticancer effects against the human germ cell cancer cell lines NT2 and NT2-R and cause some changes in the proteome of these cells. In order to explore further the mechanism of action of aaptamine and its derivatives, we studied the effects of aaptamine (1), demethyl(oxy)aaptamine (2), and isoaaptamine (3) on human cancer cell lines and on AP-1-, NF-?B-, and p53-dependent transcriptional activity in murine JB6 Cl41 cells. We showed that compounds 1–3 demonstrate anticancer activity in THP-1, HeLa, SNU-C4, SK-MEL-28, and MDA-MB-231 human cancer cell lines. Additionally, all compounds were found to prevent EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of murine JB6 Cl41 cells. Nuclear factors AP-1, NF-?B, and p53 are involved in the cellular response to high and nontoxic concentrations of aaptamine alkaloids 1–3. Furthermore, inhibition of EGF-induced JB6 cell transformation, which is exerted by the compounds 1–3 at low nontoxic concentrations of 0.7–2.1??M, cannot be explained by activation of AP-1 and NF-?B. PMID:25215281

  19. Studies of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam in a solenoid based beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

    2012-11-15

    A self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to study the transport properties of a space-charge-dominated multispecies beam propagating through a solenoid-based low energy beam transport line. The evolution of the beam radius and emittance growth of each species arising due to the nonlinear space-charge forces has been investigated. The self-consistent PIC simulation shows the formation of hollow density profiles of subdominant unwanted species around the primary beam, downstream of the transport line. We have utilized this effect for efficient removal of unwanted species by making use of a slit at a suitable location in the beam line.

  20. APS Science 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-30

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

  1. Partially ionized plasma transport and line radiation interactions as the tokamak edge

    E-print Network

    Adams, Mark Lloyd, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogenic resonance line radiation interacts with the high-density low-temperature plasma at the tokamak edge. As a result, there exists a significant nonlocal plasma energy transport channel, local atomic level populations ...

  2. Probabilistic on-line transportation problems with carrying-capacity constraints

    E-print Network

    Treleaven, Kyle (Kyle Ballantyne)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents new insights and techniques for the analysis and design of autonomous or technology-assisted ("intelligent") transportation systems. The focus is on cooperative, on-line planning and control, of a fleet ...

  3. Electron Transport Line for Mu2e Calibration System , John Alsterdaa

    E-print Network

    Gollin, George

    1 Electron Transport Line for Mu2e Calibration System Tim Hea , John Alsterdaa , Grace Bluhma of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater August 7, 2009 Abstract The electron production source line is required to direct electrons to the Mu2e apparatus below ground. We simulate electrons passing

  4. The Mechanical Design for the Darht-II Downstream Beam Transport Line

    E-print Network

    Westenskow, G A; Duffy, P T; Paul, A C

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-msec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The down-stream beam transport line is approximately 20-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 15 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several speciality magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and to the beam dumps. There are two high power beam dumps, which are designed to absorb 80-kJ per pulse during accelerator start-up and operation. Aspects of the mechanical design of these elements are presented.

  5. The Mechanical Design for the DARHT-II Downstream Beam Transport Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westenskow, Glen

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-msec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The down-stream beam transport line is approximately 20-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 15 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several speciality magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and to the beam dumps. There are two high power beam dumps, which are designed to absorb 80-kJ per pulse during accelerator start-up and operation. Aspects of the mechanical design of these elements are presented.

  6. Operation of the APS rf gun.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1998-09-11

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has a thermionic-cathode rf gun system capable of providing beam to the APS linac. The gun system consists of a 1.6-cell thermionic-cathode rf gun, a fast kicker for beam current control, and an alpha magnet for bunch compression and injection into the APS linac line. This system is intended for use both as an injector for positron creation, and as a first beam source for the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) project [1]. The first measured performance characteristics of the gun are presented.

  7. Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheng-wu; Qi, Rui; Li, Xiao-fang; Liu, Zhi-xiong

    2014-10-25

    Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum. PMID:25149019

  8. Noble internal transport barriers and radial subdiffusion of toroidal magnetic lines

    E-print Network

    J. H. Misguich; J. D. Reuss; D. Constantinecu; Gy. Steinbrecher; M. Vlad; F. Spineanu; B. Weyssow; R. Balescu

    2002-05-31

    Single trajectories of magnetic line motion indicate the persistence of a central protected plasma core, surrounded by a chaotic shell enclosed in a double-sided transport barrier : the latter is identified as being composed of two Cantori located on two successive "most-noble" numbers values of the perturbed safety factor, and forming an internal transport barrier (ITB). Magnetic lines which succeed to escape across this barrier begin to wander in a wide chaotic sea extending up to a very robust barrier (as long as Lisland remnants, as expected for a continuous time random walk.

  9. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II¹

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M. A.

    2011-10-06

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. With Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  10. Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K.; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to melanosomes are not clear. Here we exploit targeted mutagenesis of the acidic dileucine–based sorting signal in the pigment cell–specific protein OCA2 to dissect the relative roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in transport to melanosomes. We show that binding to AP-1 or AP-3 depends on the primary sequence of the signal and not its position within the cytoplasmic domain. Mutants that preferentially bound either AP-1 or AP-3 each trafficked toward melanosomes and functionally complemented OCA2 deficiency, but AP-3 binding was necessary for steady-state melanosome localization. Unlike tyrosinase, which also engages AP-3 for optimal melanosomal delivery, both AP-1– and AP-3–favoring OCA2 variants required BLOC-1 for melanosomal transport. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in OCA2 transport to melanosomes and indicate that BLOC-1 can cooperate with either adaptor during cargo sorting to LROs. PMID:22718909

  11. 8 CFR 241.9 - Notice to transportation line of alien's removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice to transportation line of alien's removal. 241.9 Section 241.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  12. 8 CFR 241.24 - Notice to transportation line of alien's exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice to transportation line of alien's exclusion. 241.24 Section 241.24 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for...

  13. THE ONSITE ON-LINE CALCULATORS AND TRAINING FOR SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators called "OnSite" for assessing transport of environmental contaminants in the subsurface. The purpose of these calculators is to provide methods and data for common calculations used in assessing impacts from subsurface contaminatio...

  14. Focused transport of energetic particles along magnetic field lines draped around a coronal mass ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Lee, M. A.; Klecker, B.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Evidence is presented for focused transport of energetic particles along magnetic field lines draped around a coronal mass ejection. This evidence was obtained with the University of Maryland/Max-Planck-Institute experiment on the ISEE-3 spacecraft during the decay phase of the June 6, 1979, solar particle event. During the early portion of the decay phase of this event, interplanetary magnetic field lines were apparently draped around a coronal mass ejection, leading to a small focusing length on the western flank where ISEE 3 was located. A period of very slow decrease of particle intensity was observed, along with large sunward anisotropy in the solar wind frame, which is inconsistent with predictions of the standard Fokker-Planck equation models for diffusive transport. It was found possible to fit the observations, assuming that focused transport dominates and that the particle pitch angle scattering is isotropic.

  15. Transport and dosimetric solutions for the ELIMED laser-driven beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amato, A.; Candiano, G.; Cuttone, G.; Giove, D.; Korn, G.; Krasa, J.; Leanza, R.; Manna, R.; Maggiore, M.; Marchese, V.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Sabini, M. G.; Schillaci, F.; Tramontana, A.; Valastro, L.; Velyhan, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within 2017, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) transport beam-line and dosimetric systems for laser-generated beams will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), inside the ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser-Ion Acceleration) interaction room. The beam-line will be composed of two sections: one in vacuum, devoted to the collecting, focusing and energy selection of the primary beam and the second in air, where the ELIMED beam-line dosimetric devices will be located. This paper briefly describes the transport solutions that will be adopted together with the main dosimetric approaches. In particular, the description of an innovative Faraday Cup detector with its preliminary experimental tests will be reported.

  16. The mechanical design for the second axis beam transport line for the DARHT facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolini, L R; Alford, O J; Paul, A C; Shang, C C; Westenkow, G A

    1999-03-23

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) facility. The DARHT II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL, and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-µsec pulse length linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The downstream beam transport line is an 18-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 17 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several specialty magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and beam dumps. There is a high power beam dump, which is designed to absorb the 80-kJ of beam energy during accelerator start-up and operation. The beamline vacuum chamber has an 8-cm diameter aperture and operates at an average pressure of 10-7 Torr.

  17. Experience with the NEG (nonevaporable getter) strips at the Brookhaven heavy ion transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H.C.; Benjamin, J.; Stattel, P.; Feigenbaum, I.; Manni, M.

    1988-01-01

    The AGS and the Tandem Van de Graaff, two valuable physics assets, are now jointed together by a transport line of 700 m in length. This line allows heavy ions from the Tandem, up to a fully striped silicon (M = 28) to be injected into the AGS and accelerated to energies of approximately 15 GeVamu. New areas of physics research at very high nuclear densities can now be studied using some of the extensive experimental facilities already existing at the AGS. With the addition of a booster synchrotron between the Tandem and the AGS, all heavier ions up to gold can also be accelerated. To minimize the beam loss due to charge exchange between the partially stripped heaviest ions (i.e. Au + 33 at 1 MeVamu) and the residual gas molecules, a vacuum of 10 /sup /minus/8/ Torr is required for this transport line. To achieve this vacuum, we have opted to use the combination of small ion pumps (20 1s diode type) and simple geometry was implemented which offers low cost (<$200m), easy installation and maintenance. Pressures of 10 /sup /minus/10/ and low 10 /sup /minus/9/ Torr have been maintained over the last two years following the initial activation. This paper describes the NEG strip system, and the experience obtained during the installation and the operation of this 700m heavy ion transport line (HITL).

  18. Selective transport between heterogeneous hyphal compartments via the plasma membrane lining septal walls of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Bleichrodt, Robert-Jan; Vinck, Arman; Read, Nick D; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-09-01

    Hyphae of ascomycetes are compartmentalized by septa. The central pore in these septa allows for cytoplasmic streaming. However, many of these pores are closed by Woronin bodies in Aspergillus, which prevents cytoplasmic mixing and thus maintains hyphal heterogeneity. Here, glucose uptake and transport was studied in Aspergillus niger. Glucose uptake was higher in the hyphal population with high transcriptional activity when compared to the population with low transcriptional activity. Glucose was transported from the colony center to the periphery, but not vice versa. This unidirectional flow was similar in the wild-type and the ?hexA strain that does not form Woronin bodies. This indicated that septal plugging by Woronin bodies does not impact long distance glucose transport. Indeed, the glucose analogue 2-NBDG (2-(N-[7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl]amino)-2-deoxyglucose) translocated to neighboring hyphal compartments despite Woronin body mediated plugging of the septum that separated these compartments. Notably, 2-NBDG accumulated in septal cross walls, indicating that intercompartmental glucose transport is mediated by transporters that reside in the plasma membrane lining the septal cross-wall. The presence of such transporters would thus enable selective transport between heterogeneous compartments. PMID:26212073

  19. Opening AP to All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a school's effort to open Advanced Placement (AP) to all by challenging its students to take the leap into AP courses. Samuel W. Wolfson High School, on the south side of Jacksonville, Florida, is one of 27 schools in five cities across the country that chose to participate in a College Board initiative called EXCELerator.…

  20. AP-Gate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    In May 2001, students in the author's Advanced Placement (AP) United States History class were embroiled in a controversy surrounding the AP exam, in particular, having access to the exam's Document Based Question (DBQ) and free response portion prior to the test's administration. Prior to the exam, the College Board had provided a fifty-year time…

  1. Packard Building AP location plan AP Name AP location Ethernet MAC IP address

    E-print Network

    Levis, Philip

    Packard Building AP location plan #12;AP Name AP location Ethernet MAC IP address swanap61 Near Rm: Existing AP (Stanford Network) Proposed New AP location #12;Basement #12;1 st floor #12;2 nd floor #12;3 rd floor #12;

  2. Expression of xenobiotic transporters in the human renal proximal tubule cell line RPTEC/TERT1.

    PubMed

    Aschauer, Lydia; Carta, Giada; Vogelsang, Nadine; Schlatter, Eberhard; Jennings, Paul

    2015-12-25

    The kidney is a major target for drug-induced injury, primarily due the fact that it transports a wide variety of chemical entities into and out of the tubular lumen. Here, we investigated the expression of the main xenobiotic transporters in the human renal proximal tubule cell line RPTEC/TERT1 at an mRNA and/or protein level. RPTEC/TERT1 cells expressed OCT2, OCT3, OCTN2, MATE1, MATE2, OAT1, OAT3 and OAT4. The functionality of the OCTs was demonstrated by directional transport of the fluorescent dye 4-Di-1-ASP. In addition, P-glycoprotein activity in RPTEC/TERT1 cells was verified by fluorescent dye retention in presence of various P-glycoprotein inhibitors. In comparison to proliferating cells, contact inhibited RPTEC/TERT1 cells expressed increased mRNA levels of several ABC transporter family members and were less sensitive to cyclosporine A. We conclude that differentiated RPTEC/TERT1 cells are well suited for utilisation in xenobiotic transport and pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:25500123

  3. Organelle Transport in Cultured Drosophila Cells: S2 Cell Line and Primary Neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Vladimir I.

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila S2 cells plated on a coverslip in the presence of any actin-depolymerizing drug form long unbranched processes filled with uniformly polarized microtubules. Organelles move along these processes by microtubule motors. Easy maintenance, high sensitivity to RNAi-mediated protein knock-down and efficient procedure for creating stable cell lines make Drosophila S2 cells an ideal model system to study cargo transport by live imaging. The results obtained with S2 cells can be further applied to a more physiologically relevant system: axonal transport in primary neurons cultured from dissociated Drosophila embryos. Cultured neurons grow long neurites filled with bundled microtubules, very similar to S2 processes. Like in S2 cells, organelles in cultured neurons can be visualized by either organelle-specific fluorescent dyes or by using fluorescent organelle markers encoded by DNA injected into early embryos or expressed in transgenic flies. Therefore, organelle transport can be easily recorded in neurons cultured on glass coverslips using living imaging. Here we describe procedures for culturing and visualizing cargo transport in Drosophila S2 cells and primary neurons. We believe that these protocols make both systems accessible for labs studying cargo transport. PMID:24300413

  4. Sherwood/APS 2006 Conference

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Drake

    2009-07-28

    The International Sherwood Theory Meeting is a yearly meeting that focuses on the theory of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. There are many topics of common interest in fusion plasma systems and space and astrophysical plasmas. These common topics include such key topics as magnetic reconnection, the dynamo, turbulence and transport and particle heating and acceleration. One of the major participants of the April APS meeting is the APS Division of Astrophysics (DAP). The goal of having the Sherwood Meeting jointly with the April meeting was to promote discussion of topics of common interest in fusion and space and astrophysics. Scientists from the DAP, the Division of Plasma Physics (DPP), the Topical Group on Plasma Astrophysics (GPAP) and Sherwood worked together closely to produce a joint program that addressed areas of common interest. Four sessions of invited talks were sponsored jointly by the DAP, DPP and GPAP on laboratory experiments related to astrophysics. Plasma scientists working in theory and computation play a key role in connecting these laboratory experiments to the very disparate conditions found in fusion and astrophysical systems. Thus, the attendees of the Sherwood Theory meeting were critical to facilitating this effort at cross-disciplinary communication. Noteworthy were the selection of two of the prestigious plenary talks at the joint meeting on plasma topics - one related to the gyrokinetic modeling of turbulence and the other related to the structure of collisionless shocks. It is rare to see even a single plenary talk on plasma physics at the APS April Meeting. There were additional costs associated with hosting a joint meeting. The Office of Fusion Energy Sciences contributed $3000 in partial support of this meeting. This funding covered part of the costs of the poster boards and A. V. equipment that was used in the presentation of nearly 200 scientific papers related to magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The APS waived its indirect costs on this funding as part of their effort to support this joint meeting.

  5. Doppler Imaging of Ap Stars

    E-print Network

    R. Kuschnig

    1998-05-06

    Doppler imaging, a technique which inverts spectral line profile variations of an Ap star into a two-dimensional abundance maps, provides new observational constraints on diffusion mechanism in the presence of a global magnetic field. A programme is presented here with the aim to obtain abundance distributions of at least five elements on each star, in order to study how different diffusion processes act under influence of a stellar magnetic field. The importance of this multi-element approach is demonstrated, by presenting the abundance maps of helium, magnesium, silicon, chromium and iron for the magnetic B9pSi star CU Virginis.

  6. ELECTRON TRANSPORT IN CORONAL LOOPS: THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXPONENTIAL SEPARATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bitane, R.; Zimbardo, G.; Veltri, P.

    2010-08-20

    Observations by the TRACE spacecraft have shown that coronal emission in the extreme ultraviolet is characterized by filamentary structures within coronal loops, with transverse sizes close to the instrumental resolution. Starting from the observed filament widths and using the concepts of braided magnetic fields, an estimate of the turbulence level in the coronal loops can be obtained. Magnetic turbulence in the presence of a background magnetic field can be strongly anisotropic, and such anisotropy influences the separation of magnetic field lines, as well as the magnetic field line diffusion coefficient. Careful computations of the magnetic field line diffusion coefficient D{sub m} and of the rate of exponential separation of magnetic field lines h, also allowing for the possibility of anisotropic magnetic turbulence, enable computation of the effective perpendicular diffusion coefficient for electrons. When compared with observations this yields magnetic turbulence levels on the order of {delta}B/B {sub 0} = 0.05-0.7, which are larger than previous estimates. These values of the magnetic fluctuation level support the idea that magnetic turbulence can contribute to coronal heating by means of MHD turbulence dissipation. It is also found that field line transport is not governed by the quasilinear regime, but by a nonlinear regime which includes an intermediate and the percolation regimes.

  7. APS Science 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

    2007-05-24

    In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged from work at the APS, to complement the tremendous output of work in basic science, which often has payoff in technology but over decades rather than years. Highlights in this report also reflect the relevance of APS work to Department of Energy missions, for example a route to more efficient fuel cells (page xx mr-88-073113) addresses the energy challenge, and natural approaches to cleaning up the environment.

  8. Dynamics of chaotic magnetic lines: Intermittency and noble internal transport barriers in the tokamap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misguich, J. H.

    2001-05-01

    A purely magnetic approach is used to describe internal transport barriers (ITB's) observed in tokamaks, generally "around" rational values of the safety factor q, and even in ohmic and positive shear situations. An Hamiltonian twist map "tokamap" is used to describe magnetic line section points in a poloidal (?,?) plane in presence of a magnetic perturbation of strength L, inducing the appearance of magnetic islands and chaotic zones ("incomplete chaos"). For a low value of L<1, before breaking of the boundary circle on the plasma edge, a regular zone with robust magnetic surfaces is found in the plasma core, surrounded by two chaotic regions, separated by a transport barrier across which a magnetic line performs an intermittent motion. By using number theory and convergent rational island chains along Fibonacci series, the ITB is identified as composed of two permeable Cantori (broken Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser surfaces) with "most noble" q values. No paradox however exists with experimental observations identifying the barriers as being "near" rational q values: this is also the case here for the two Cantori, but, more precisely, on neighboring most noble q values. Dispersion studies for an ensemble of magnetic lines in the large L regime where the boundary circle has been broken, shows an asymptotic radial subdiffusion, with different transient regimes. Comparison is performed with the flux diffusion in the standard map.

  9. Carrier-mediated transport of valproic acid in BeWo cells, a human trophoblast cell line

    E-print Network

    Utoguchi, Naoki; Audus, Kenneth L.

    2000-01-01

    The biochemical mechanisms mediating the rapid distribution of valproic acid across placenta are not precisely known. We have characterized valproic acid transport by the human trophoblast using the human choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo. The uptake...

  10. Beam Transport of 4 GeV Protons from AGS to the Proton Interrogation Target of the Neutrino Line (Z_line) and Effect of the Air on the Transported Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; Ahrens, L.; Pile, P.; Thieberger, P.; Murray, M.M.

    2008-10-01

    As part of the preparation for the Proton Interrogation Experiment, we have calculated the beam optics for the transport of 4 GeV protons, from the AGS extraction point, to the 'Cross-Section Target Wheel 1' and to the 'Proton Interrogation Target'. In this technical note we present three possible beam-transports each corresponding to a particular Fast Extracted Beam W B setup of the AGS. In addition we present results on the effect of the atmospheric air, (which fills the drift space of the last 100 [m] of the transport line), on the size of the beam, at two locations along the drift space, one location at the middle of the drift space and the other at the end where the 'Proton Interrogation Target' is placed. All the beam transports mentioned above require the removal of the WD1 dipole magnet, which is the first magnet of the W-line, because it acts as a limiting beam aperture, and the magnet is not used in the beam transport. An alternative solution of a beam transport, which does not require the removal of the WD1 magnet, is also presented. In this solution, which models the transport line using the TURTLE computer code[7], the vertical beam sizes at the location of the WD1 magnet is minimized to allow 'lossless' beam transport at the location of the WD1 magnet. A similar solution, but using a MAD model of the line, is also presented.

  11. The experimental chemotherapeutic N6-furfuryladenosine (kinetin-riboside) induces rapid ATP depletion, genotoxic stress, and CDKN1A(p21) upregulation in human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Christopher M; Bair, Warner B; Ley, Stephanie; Lamore, Sarah D; Azimian, Sara; Wondrak, Georg T

    2009-04-01

    Cytokinins and cytokinin nucleosides are purine derivatives with potential anticancer activity. N(6)-furfuryladenosine (FAdo, kinetin-riboside) displays anti-proliferative and apoptogenic activity against various human cancer cell lines, and FAdo has recently been shown to suppress tumor growth in murine xenograft models of human leukemia and melanoma. In this study, FAdo-induced genotoxicity, stress response gene expression, and cellular ATP depletion were examined as early molecular consequences of FAdo exposure in MiaPaCa-2 pancreas carcinoma, A375 melanoma, and other human cancer cell lines. FAdo, but not adenosine or N(6)-furfuryladenine (FA), displayed potent anti-proliferative activity that was also observed in human primary fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Remarkably, massive ATP depletion and induction of genotoxic stress as assessed by the alkaline comet assay occurred within 60-180min of exposure to low micromolar concentrations of FAdo. This was followed by rapid upregulation of CDKN1A and other DNA damage/stress response genes (HMOX1, DDIT3, and GADD45A) as revealed by expression array and Western analysis. Pharmacological and siRNA-based genetic inhibition of adenosine kinase (ADK) suppressed FAdo cytotoxicity and also prevented ATP depletion and p21 upregulation suggesting the importance of bioconversion of FAdo into the nucleotide form required for drug action. Taken together our data suggest that early induction of genotoxicity and energy crisis are important causative factors involved in FAdo cytotoxicity. PMID:19186174

  12. Transport of tetraethylammonium by a kidney cell line (LLC-PK sub 1 )

    SciTech Connect

    Fauth, C.; Rossier, B.; Roch-Ramel, F. )

    1988-03-01

    The authors investigated whether the LLC-PK{sub 1} epithelial cell lines (which shows many characteristics of proximal tubular cells) also is capable of transporting an organic ion. Suspended LLC-PK{sub 1} cells accumulated tetraethylammonium (TEA). The uptake showed characteristics of a facilitated mechanism; TEA uptake was saturable and temperature-dependent and was inhibited by other organic cations. Quinine and mepiperphenidol were the most potent inhibitors, whereas N{sup 1}-methylnicotinamide and morphine inhibited the transport system only slightly at doses of 10{sup {minus}3} M. Basolateral-to-apical TEA flux through LLC-PK{sub 1} monolayers was five to six times larger than that of mannitol, a nontransported compound, whereas apical-to-basolateral TEA and mannitol fluxes were equal. Only the basolateral-to-apical TEA flux was inhibited by quinine. Under similar experimental conditions, no transport of p-aminohippuric acid was observed. It is concluded that LLC-PK{sub 1} cells are able to transport TEA, as do cells of the proximal tubule.

  13. Survey and alignment of high energy physics accelerators and transport lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    This talk summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are revisited and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step by step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations.

  14. Downregulation of peptide transporter genes in cell lines transformed with the highly oncogenic adenovirus 12

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of cells transformed by adenovirus 12 (Ad12) is generally very low, and correlates with the high oncogenicity of this virus. In primary embryonal fibroblasts from transgenic mice that express both endogenous H-2 genes and a miniature swine class I gene (PD1), Ad12- mediated transformation results in suppression of cell surface expression of all class I antigens. Although class I mRNA levels of PD1 and H-2Db are similar to those in nonvirally transformed cells, recognition of newly synthesized class I molecules by a panel of monoclonal antibodies is impaired, presumably as a result of inefficient assembly and transport of the class I molecules. Class I expression can be partially induced by culturing cells at 26 degrees C, or by coculture of cells with class I binding peptides at 37 degrees C. Analysis of steady state mRNA levels of the TAP1 and TAP2 transporter genes for Ad12-transformed cell lines revealed that they both are significantly reduced, TAP2 by about 100-fold and TAP1 by 5-10-fold. Reconstitution of PD1 and H-2Db, but not H-2Kb, expression is achieved in an Ad12-transformed cell line by stable transfection with a TAP2, but not a TAP1, expression construct. From these data it may be concluded that suppressed expression of peptide transporter genes, especially TAP2, in Ad12-transformed cells inhibits cell surface expression of class I molecules. The failure to fully reconstitute H- 2Db and H-2Kb expression indicates that additional factors are involved in controlling class I gene expression in Ad12-transformed cells. Nevertheless, these results suggest that suppression of peptide transporter genes might be an important mechanism whereby virus- transformed cells escape immune recognition in vivo. PMID:7519239

  15. Theoretical study of electron transport through ?-stacked ethylbenzene lines bonded to a Si surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeu, Manuel; Wolkow, Robert; Guo, Hong

    2009-03-01

    Recently, experimental techniques were developed for lines of ?-stacked ethylbenzene molecules to self-assemble on an H-terminated Si (100) surface in the laboratory of one of the authors. In this work, we use density functional theory (DFT) combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF) to model electron transport through these ethylbenzene lines to determine if they could be used as molecular wires. In our calculations, the molecules are bonded to an H-terminated Si (100) surface and are bridging two Al leads. The transmission spectrum and its associated scattering states are determined by the NEGF-DFT technique. The presence of the Si substrate is found to play an important role for conduction: there is a dominant transmission peak near the Fermi level which is contributed by the Si substrate and not the ?-stacked molecular line. The low-bias resistance is found to increase exponentially with the length of the molecular line, indicating a tunneling behavior in conduction.

  16. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Ana; Airey, David; Thompson, Brent; Zhu, C; Rinchik, Eugene M; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Erikson, Keith; Blakely, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  17. APS Science 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

    2010-05-01

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report), the challenge of sustainable energy provides an opportunity for expanded involvement with industrial research. We were privileged to recruit several outstanding new leaders at the APS. Linda Young, from Argonne's Chemical Sciences Division, became the new Director of the X-ray Science Division (XSD). Chris Jacobsen (from Stony Brook University) has been added to Linda's team as an XSD Associate Division Director, joining George Srajer. Alexander (Sasha) Zholents (formerly of Berkeley Lab) became Director of the Accelerator Systems Division. Sasha is the inventor of the short-pulse x-ray scheme that we plan to implement in the APS-U to obtain very high average brightness, broadband, 1-ps x-ray pulses. Walter Lowe (formerly of Howard University) has taken a new position as senior advisor for outreach and development of the user community. Walter's role is to increase the diversity of the user community (with diversity read broadly to include users, institutions, and technical disciplines that are underrepresented at APS). Walter is also leading an effort to increase access for industrial users. I am confident that we have in place a great team to help our users and the APS take fullest advantage of the APS-U opportunity. In planning with users for the proposed APS-U, we focused on the need to study 'real materials under real conditions in real time' on spatial and temporal scales unavailable today. Only by studying materials as they are made-or as they perform-in difficult environments can we solve the grand challenge of higher-performance, sustainable materials for energy and health. The proposed APS-U will improve the brightness of penetrating x-rays produced by the APS over 100 times, and support our efforts in developing state-of-the-art instruments to address these challenges.

  18. Optimization of solenoid based low energy beam transport line for high current H+ beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, R.; Singh, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Roy, S.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2015-02-01

    A 20 MeV, 30 mA CW proton linac is being developed at BARC, Mumbai. This linac will consist of an ECR ion source followed by a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and Drift tube Linac (DTL). The low energy beam transport (LEBT) line is used to match the beam from the ion source to the RFQ with minimum beam loss and increase in emittance. The LEBT is also used to eliminate the unwanted ions like H2+ and H3+ from entering the RFQ. In addition, space charge compensation is required for transportation of such high beam currents. All this requires careful design and optimization. Detailed beam dynamics simulations have been done to optimize the design of the LEBT using the Particle-in-cell code TRACEWIN. We find that with careful optimization it is possible to transport a 30 mA CW proton beam through the LEBT with 100% transmission and minimal emittance blow up, while at the same time suppressing unwanted species H2+ and H3+ to less than 3.3% of the total beam current.

  19. Differences in the expression of endogenous efflux transporters in MDR1-transfected versus wildtype cell lines affect P-glycoprotein mediated drug transport

    PubMed Central

    Kuteykin-Teplyakov, Konstantin; Luna-Tortós, Carlos; Ambroziak, Kamila; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux assays are widely used to identify Pgp substrates. The kidney cell lines Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-II and LLC-PK1, transfected with human MDR1 (ABCB1) are used to provide recombinant models of drug transport. Endogenous transporters in these cells may contribute to the activities of recombinant transporters, so that drug transport in MDR1-transfected cells is often corrected for the transport obtained in parental (wildtype) cells. However, expression of endogenous transporters may vary between transfected and wildtype cells, so that this correction may cause erroneous data. Here, we have measured the expression of endogenous efflux transporters in transfected and wildtype MDCK-II or LLC cells and the consequences for Pgp-mediated drug transport. Experimental approach: Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we determined the expression of endogenous Mdr1 mRNA and other efflux transporters in wildtype and MDR1-transfected MDCK-II and LLC cells. Transcellular transport was measured with the test substrate vinblastine. Key results: In MDR1-transfected MDCK cells, expression of endogenous (canine) Mdr1 and Mrp2 (Abcc2) mRNA was markedly lower than in wildtype cells, whereas MDR1-transfected LLC cells exhibited comparable Mdr1 but strikingly higher Mrp2 mRNA levels than wildtype cells. As a consequence, transport of vinblastine by human Pgp in efflux experiments was markedly underestimated when transport in MDR1-transfected MDCK cells was corrected for transport obtained in wildtype cells. This problem did not occur in LLC cells. Conclusions and implications: Differences in the expression of endogenous efflux transporters between transfected and wildtype MDCK cells provide a potential bias for in vitro studies on Pgp-mediated drug transport. PMID:20590635

  20. Hydrogen transport diagnostics by atomic and molecular emission line profiles simultaneously measured for large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Shikama, T.; Hasuo, M.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.

    2013-01-15

    We observe the Balmer-{alpha}, -{beta}, and -{gamma} lines of hydrogen atoms and Q branches of the Fulcher-{alpha} band of hydrogen molecules simultaneously with their polarization resolved for large helical device. From the fit including the line splits and the polarization dependences by the Zeeman effect, the emission locations, intensities, and the temperatures of the atoms and molecules are determined. The emission locations of the hydrogen atoms are determined outside but close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS). The results are consistent with a previous work (Phys. Plasmas 12, 042501 (2005)). On the other hand, the emission locations of the molecules are determined to be in the divertor legs, which is farer from those of the atoms. The kinetic energy of the atoms is 1 {approx} 20 eV, while the rotational temperature of molecules is {approx}0.04 eV. Additionally, substantial wings, which originate from high velocity atoms and are not reproduced by the conventional spectral analysis, are observed in the Balmer line profiles. We develop a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of the atoms and molecules. The model reproduces the differences of the emission locations of the atoms and molecules when their initial temperatures are assumed to be 3 eV and 0.04 eV, respectively. From the model, the wings of the Balmer-{alpha} line is attributed to the high velocity atoms exist deep inside the LCFS, which are generated by the charge exchange collisions with hot protons there.

  1. Transport of taurine and its regulation by protein kinase C in the JAR human placental choriocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Kulanthaivel, P; Cool, D R; Ramamoorthy, S; Mahesh, V B; Leibach, F H; Ganapathy, V

    1991-01-01

    The JAR human placental choriocarcinoma cell line transports taurine, concentrating it over 1000-fold inside the cell. The transport system is energized by a Na+ gradient and exhibits an absolute requirement for Cl-. Neutral beta-amino acids such as beta-alanine and hypotaurine effectively compete with the system, whereas neutral alpha-amino acids such as alanine, leucine and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid do not. The transport system interacts with gamma-aminobutyric acid to an appreciable extent. Kinetic analysis reveals that the taurine transport system in this cell line is of a high-affinity and low-capacity type (apparent dissociation constant 2.3 +/- 0.3 microM; maximal velocity 88.5 +/- 5.0 pmol/3 min per mg of protein). Pretreatment of the JAR choriocarcinoma cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate results in the inhibition of the taurine transport system in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition is blocked by co-treatment of the cells with staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C. The inactive phorbol ester, 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, has no effect on the transport system. These data show that the choriocarcinoma cells express a taurine transporter with characteristics similar to those of the taurine transporter described in the normal human placenta, and that the activity of the transporter in these cells is under the regulatory control of protein kinase C. PMID:1854347

  2. Quantitative assessment of direct and indirect landslide risk along transportation lines in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, P.; van Westen, C. J.; Jetten, V.

    2010-06-01

    A quantitative approach for landslide risk assessment along transportation lines is presented and applied to a road and a railway alignment in the Nilgiri hills in southern India. The method allows estimating direct risk affecting the alignments, vehicles and people, and indirect risk resulting from the disruption of economic activities. The data required for the risk estimation were obtained from historical records. A total of 901 landslides were catalogued initiating from cut slopes along the railway and road alignment. The landslides were grouped into three magnitude classes based on the landslide type, volume, scar depth, run-out distance, etc and their probability of occurrence was obtained using frequency-volume distribution. Hazard, for a given return period, expressed as the number of landslides of a given magnitude class per kilometre of cut slopes, was obtained using Gumbel distribution and probability of landslide magnitude. In total 18 specific hazard scenarios were generated using the three magnitude classes and six return periods (1, 3, 5, 15, 25, and 50 years). The assessment of the vulnerability of the road and railway line was based on damage records whereas the vulnerability of different types of vehicles and people was subjectively assessed based on limited historic incidents. Direct specific loss for the alignments (railway line and road), vehicles (train, bus, lorry, car and motorbike) was expressed in monetary value (US), and direct specific loss of life of commuters was expressed in annual probability of death. Indirect specific loss (US) derived from the traffic interruption was evaluated considering alternative driving routes, and includes losses resulting from additional fuel consumption, additional travel cost, loss of income to the local business, and loss of revenue to the railway department. The results indicate that the total loss, including both direct and indirect loss, from 1 to 50 years return period, varies from US 90 840 to US 779 500 and the average annual total loss was estimated as US 35 000. The annual probability of a person most at risk travelling in a bus, lorry, car, motorbike and train is less than 10-4/annum in all the time periods considered. The detailed estimation of direct and indirect risk will facilitate developing landslide risk mitigation and management strategies for transportation lines in the study area.

  3. A new medium energy beam transport line for the proton injector of AGS-RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Briscoe, B.; Fite, J.; LoDestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2010-09-12

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a 750 keV medium energy beam transport line between the 201 MHz 750 keV proton RFQ and the 200 MeV Alvarez DTL is being modified to get a better transmission of the beam. Within a tight space, high field gradient quadrupoles (65 Tm) and newly designed steering magnets (6.5 mm in length) will be installed considering the cross-talk effects. Also a new half wave length 200 MHz buncher is being prepared. The beam commissioning will be done in this year. To enhance the performance of the proton linacs, the MEBT is being modified. New quadrupole magnets, steering magnets and a half wave length buncher as shown in Figure 7 will be installed and be commissioned soon.

  4. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)…

  5. High current density negative ion source for beam line transport study

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim Dudnikov; Charles W Schmidt and James Wendt

    2001-07-25

    The Fermilab Electron Cooling Program requires a 20-m solenoidal region to interact 8-GeV antiprotons with an escorting beam of 4.3-MeV electrons to improve the phase-space quality of the antiproton beam. The solenoidal section with additional transport lines to take and return a 0.5-A electron beam from an electrostatic accelerator, for energy recovery, must be precisely aligned and adjusted. For the initial setup and study, and later testing of this line, a 12.4-keV H{sup {minus}} beam can be used to simulate the 4.3 MeV electron beam. For this purpose a high-brightness H{sup {minus}} ion source has been developed and tested. The source, a semiplanatron type, with a hollow cathode discharge and spherical cathode focusing of the emitted ions to the emission aperture has given an emission current density up to 0.7 A/cm{sup 2}. Continuous operation of 4 weeks has been demonstrated. Such an optimized source could have many applications for tandem accelerators, ion beam lithography and ion implantation.

  6. The AP-1 transcription factor homolog Pf-AP-1 activates transcription of multiple biomineral proteins and potentially participates in Pinctada fucata biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiangnan; Cheng, Minzhang; Xiang, Liang; Liang, Jian; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important bZIP transcription factor that regulates a series of physiological processes by specifically activating transcription of several genes, and one of its well-chartered functions in mammals is participating in bone mineralization. We isolated and cloned the complete cDNA of a Jun/AP-1 homolog from Pinctada fucata and called it Pf-AP-1. Pf-AP-1 had a highly conserved bZIP region and phosphorylation sites compared with those from mammals. A tissue distribution analysis showed that Pf-AP-1 was ubiquitously expressed in P. fucata and the mRNA level of Pf-AP-1 is extremely high in mantle. Pf-AP-1 expression was positively associated with multiple biomineral proteins in the mantle. The luciferase reporter assay in a mammalian cell line showed that Pf-AP-1 significantly up-regulates the transcriptional activity of the promoters of KRMP, Pearlin, and Prisilkin39. Inhibiting the activity of Pf-AP-1 depressed the expression of multiple matrix proteins. Pf-AP-1 showed a unique expression pattern during shell regeneration and pearl sac development, which was similar to the pattern observed for biomineral proteins. These results suggest that the Pf-AP-1 AP-1 homolog is an important transcription factor that regulates transcription of several biomineral proteins simultaneously and plays a role in P. fucata biomineralization, particularly during pearl and shell formation. PMID:26404494

  7. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  8. Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Mustapha, B.; Savard, G.

    2015-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×105 as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS.

  9. Coronal proton transport in the presence of Alfven waves and implications for impact line linear polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dean F.; Chambe, G.; Henoux, J. C.; Tamres, D.

    1990-01-01

    The transport of fast (about 1 MeV) protons in the corona is considered when their density and ansiotropy are sufficiently large to excite Alfven waves. The Alfven waves scatter the protons and make them almost isotropic. The Alfven wave instability remains in a marginally stable state in which the proton anisotropy is just large enough to excite Alfven waves to a level which would eliminate any greater anisotropy. The protons propagate diffusively down a coronal loop and have a path length of order 100 times their length in the absence of Alfven waves. This increases their Coulomb losses, and much higher energy protons (2-20 MeV) are required initially to produce H-alpha impact line linear polarization in the chromosphere as compared to the case in the absence of Alfven waves (about 200 keV) for loop lengths about 10 to the 9th cm. The interpretation of the observed polarization becomes less direct because it depends on more poorly known parameters than in the case of the absence of Alfven waves.

  10. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, L. Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria ; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell'università 2, 35020 Legnaro ; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  11. Metastable states of a flux-line lattice studied by transport and small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Pautrat, A.; Scola, J.; Simon, Ch.; Brulet, A.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2005-02-01

    Flux-line lattice (FLL) states have been studied using transport measurements and small-angle neutron scattering in low-T{sub c} materials. In Pb-In, the bulk dislocations in the FLL do not influence the transport properties. In Fe-doped NbSe{sub 2}, transport properties can differ after a field cooling (FC) or a zero field cooling (ZFC) procedure, as previously reported. The ZFC FLL is found ordered with narrow Bragg peaks and is linked to a linear V(I) curve and to a superficial critical current. The FC FLL pattern exhibits two Bragg peaks and the corresponding V(I) curve shows an S-shape. This can be explained by the coexistence of two ordered FLLs slightly tilted from the applied field direction by different superficial currents. These currents are wiped out when the transport current is increased.

  12. Lattice design and beam dynamics studies of the high energy beam transport line in the RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Jeon, Dong-O.

    2015-12-01

    In RAON heavy ion accelerator, beams generated by superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS) or Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) system are accelerated by lower energy superconducting linac and high energy superconducting linac. The accelerated beams are used in the high energy experimental hall which includes bio-medical and muon-SR facilities, after passing through the high energy beam transport lines. At the targets of those two facilities, the stable and small beams meeting the requirements rigorously are required in the transverse plane. Therefore the beams must be safely sent to the targets and simultaneously satisfy the two requirements, the achromatic condition and the mid-plane symmetric condition, of the targets. For this reason, the lattice design of the high energy beam transport lines in which the long deflecting sections are included is considered as a significant issue in the RAON accelerator. In this paper, we will describe the calculated beam optics satisfying the conditions and present the result of particle tracking simulations with the designed lattice of the high energy beam transport lines in the RAON accelerator. Also, the orbit distortion caused by the machine imperfections and the orbit correction with correctors will be discussed.

  13. A demonstration of a transportable radio interferometric surveying system with 3-cm accuracy on a 307-m base line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, K. M.; Macdoran, P. F.; Thomas, J. B.; Fliegel, H. F.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Batelaan, P. D.; Paine, S. R.; Newsted, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    A precision geodetic measurement system (Aries, for Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying) based on the technique of very long base line interferometry has been designed and implemented through the use of a 9-m transportable antenna and the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Communications Complex at Goldstone, California. A series of experiments designed to demonstrate the inherent accuracy of a transportable interferometer was performed on a 307-m base line during the period from December 1973 to June 1974. This short base line was chosen in order to obtain a comparison with a conventional survey with a few-centimeter accuracy and to minimize Aries errors due to transmission media effects, source locations, and earth orientation parameters. The base-line vector derived from a weighted average of the measurements, representing approximately 24 h of data, possessed a formal uncertainty of about 3 cm in all components. This average interferometry base-line vector was in good agreement with the conventional survey vector within the statistical range allowed by the combined uncertainties (3-4 cm) of the two techniques.

  14. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-switched transport services. 69.713 Section 69.713 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION..., traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. (a) Scope. This paragraph governs requests for...)(2) of this chapter. (3) The traffic-sensitive components of tandem-switched transport services,...

  15. Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

  16. AP-42 REVISION: COKE OVENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors" (AP-42) has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1972. Supplements to AP-42 have been routinely published to add new emission source categories and to update existing emission factor...

  17. A search for rapid pulsations among nine luminous Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyhammer, L. M.; Kurtz, D. W.; Cunha, M. S.; Mathys, G.; Elkin, V. G.; Riley, J. D.

    2008-04-01

    The rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars are of importance for studying the atmospheric structure of stars where the process of chemical element diffusion is significant. We have performed a survey for rapid oscillations in a sample of nine luminous Ap stars, selected from their location in the colour-magnitude diagram as more evolved main-sequence Ap stars that are inside the instability strip for roAp stars. Until recently this region was devoid of stars with observed rapid pulsations. We used the Very Large Telescope UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph to obtain high time resolution spectroscopy to make the first systematic spectroscopic search for rapid oscillations in this region of the roAp instability strip. We report nine null detections with upper limits for radial velocity amplitudes of 20-65ms-1 and precisions of ? = 7-20ms-1 for combinations of Nd and Pr lines. Cross-correlations confirm these null results. At least six stars are magnetic and we provide magnetic field measurements for four of them, of which three are newly discovered magnetic stars. It is found that four stars have magnetic fields smaller than ~2kG, which according to theoretical predictions might be insufficient for suppressing envelope convection around the magnetic poles for more evolved Ap stars. Suppression of convection is expected to be essential for the opacity mechanism acting in the hydrogen ionization zone to drive the high-overtone roAp pulsations efficiently. Our null results suggest that the more evolved roAp stars may require particularly strong magnetic fields to pulsate. Three of the studied stars do, however, have magnetic fields stronger than 5kG. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, as part of programmes 075.D-0145 (A), 078.D-0080(A), 072.D-0138(A) and 077.D-0150(A). E-mail: lmfreyhammer@uclan.ac.uk

  18. Percolation, tie-lines, and the microstructural determinants of charge transport in semicrystalline conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spakowitz, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Semiconducting polymers play an important role in a wide range of optical and electronic material applications. It is widely accepted that the polymer ordering impacts charge transport in such devices. However, the connection between molecular ordering and device performance is difficult to predict due to the current need for a mathematical theory of the physics that dictates charge transport in semiconducting polymers. Here, we present a new analytical and computational description in which the morphology of individual polymer chains is dictated by well-known statistical models and the electronic coupling between units is determined using Marcus theory. This effort combines our research group's modeling efforts in polymer conformational properties and reaction-diffusion phenomena to address the multiscale dynamics of charge transport in a heterogeneous material. The resulting model is capable of bridging molecular-level charge transport mechanisms to large scale transport behavior, thus facilitating direct comparison with experiments. The multiscale transport of charges in these materials (high mobility at short length scales, low mobility at long length scales) is naturally described with our framework. Additionally, the dependence of mobility with electric field and temperature is explained in terms of conformational variability and spatial correlation. Our model offers a predictive approach to connecting processing conditions with transport behavior.

  19. Geant4 simulations of proton beam transport through a carbon or beryllium degrader and following a beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Goethem, M. J.; van der Meer, R.; Reist, H. W.; Schippers, J. M.

    2009-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations based on the Geant4 simulation toolkit were performed for the carbon wedge degrader used in the beam line at the Center of Proton Therapy of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The simulations are part of the beam line studies for the development and understanding of the GANTRY2 and OPTIS2 treatment facilities at PSI, but can also be applied to other beam lines. The simulated stopping power, momentum distributions at the degrader exit and beam line transmission have been compared to accurate benchmark measurements. Because the beam transport through magnetic elements is not easily modeled using Geant4a connection to the TURTLE beam line simulation program was made. After adjusting the mean ionization potential of the carbon degrader material from 78 eV to 95 eV, we found an accurate match between simulations and benchmark measurements, so that the simulation model could be validated. We found that the degrader does not completely erase the initial beam phase space even at low degraded beam energies. Using the validation results, we present a study of the usability of beryllium as a degrader material (mean ionization potential 63.7 eV). We found an improvement in the transmission of 30-45%, depending on the degraded beam energy, the higher value for the lower energies.

  20. Bicarbonate-dependent chloride transport drives fluid secretion by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jiajie; Liao, Jie; Huang, Junwei; Robert, Renaud; Palmer, Melissa L; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; O'Grady, Scott M; Hanrahan, John W

    2012-01-01

    Anion and fluid secretion are both defective in cystic fibrosis (CF); however, the transport mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Cl? and HCO3? secretion was measured using genetically matched CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient and CFTR-expressing cell lines derived from the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3. Forskolin stimulated the short-circuit current (Isc) across voltage-clamped monolayers, and also increased the equivalent short-circuit current (Ieq) calculated under open-circuit conditions. Isc was equivalent to the HCO3? net flux measured using the pH-stat technique, whereas Ieq was the sum of the Cl? and HCO3? net fluxes. Ieq and HCO3? fluxes were increased by bafilomycin and ZnCl2, suggesting that some secreted HCO3? is neutralized by parallel electrogenic H+ secretion. Ieq and fluid secretion were dependent on the presence of both Na+ and HCO3?. The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide abolished forskolin stimulation of Ieq and HCO3? secretion, suggesting that HCO3? transport under these conditions requires catalysed synthesis of carbonic acid. Cl? was the predominant anion in secretions under all conditions studied and thus drives most of the fluid transport. Nevertheless, 50–70% of Cl? and fluid transport was bumetanide-insensitive, suggesting basolateral Cl? loading by a sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1)-independent mechanism. Imposing a transepithelial HCO3? gradient across basolaterally permeabilized Calu-3 cells sustained a forskolin-stimulated current, which was sensitive to CFTR inhibitors and drastically reduced in CFTR-deficient cells. Net HCO3? secretion was increased by bilateral Cl? removal and therefore did not require apical Cl?/HCO3? exchange. The results suggest a model in which most HCO3? is recycled basolaterally by exchange with Cl?, and the resulting HCO3?-dependent Cl? transport provides an osmotic driving force for fluid secretion. PMID:22777674

  1. The APS machine protection system (MPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fuja, R.; Berg, B.; Arnold, N.

    1996-08-01

    The machine protection system (MPS) that protects the APS storage ring vacuum chamber from x-ray beams, is active. There are over 650 sensors monitored and networked through the MPS system. About the same number of other process variables are monitored by the much slower EPICS control system, which also has an input to the rf abort chain. The MPS network is still growing with the beam position limits detection system coming on-line. The network configuration, along with a limited description of individual subsystems, is presented.

  2. APS controls overview

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The APS accelerator control system described in this report is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and interfaces to hardware. The operator interface is a UNIX-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The user has the ability to generate and alter control displays and to access the alarm handler, the archiver, interactive control programs, custom code, and other tools. The TCP/EP networking protocol has been selected as the underlying protocol for the control system network. TCP/EP is a commercial standard and readily available from network hardware vendors. Its implementation is independent of the particular network medium selected to implement the controls network. In the development environment copper Ethernet is the network medium; however, in the actual implementation a fiber-based system using hub technology will be utilized. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system.

  3. Transporter mRNA expression in a conditionally immortalized rat small intestine epithelial cell line (TR-SIE).

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Ken-ichi; Tomi, Masatoshi; Takayama, Megumi; Komokata, Yuko; Nakai, Daisuke; Tokui, Taro; Nishimura, Kenji; Ueda, Masatsugu; Obinata, Masuo; Hori, Satoko; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Amidon, Gordon L; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2004-08-01

    Small intestine epithelial cell lines (TR-SIE), which are established from the small intestine of transgenic rats harboring temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene (tsA58 Tg rat), were used to characterize the mRNA expression of small intestine transporters. TR-SIE cells had a polygonal morphology and expressed cytokeratin protein and villin mRNA. Although the large T-antigen was strongly expressed at 33 degrees C, this was reduced at 37 and 39 degrees C. Concomitantly, the cell growth was arrested at 37 and 39 degrees C compared with that at 33 degrees C, suggesting that TR-SIE cells are conditionally immortalized cell lines. RT-PCR analysis revealed that TR-SIE cells expressed ABCB1 (mdr1a and mdr1b), ABCB4 (mdr2), ABCC2 (mrp2), ABCC6 (mrp6), ABCG1, ABCG2 (bcrp/mxr), Slc21a7 (Oatp3), Slc15a1 (PepT1), and Slc16a1 (Mct1). Conditionally immortalized rat small intestine epithelial cell lines were established from tsA58 Tg rats and expressed the mRNA of intestinal transporters. PMID:15499194

  4. Altered glycaemia differentially modulates efflux transporter expression and activity in hCMEC/D3 cell line.

    PubMed

    Sajja, Ravi K; Cucullo, Luca

    2015-06-26

    The unique phenotype of blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium is partly maintained by abundant expression of ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux transporters that strictly restrict the CNS access to toxic substances including xenobiotics in circulation. Previously, we have shown that diabetes-related altered glycemic conditions differentially affect and compromise BBB integrity. However, the impact of diabetes on BBB efflux transporters is less understood. In this study, we examined the effects of single or repeated episodes of hypo-and hyperglycemia on major BBB efflux transporters expression/function in human cerebromicrovascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3). Cells were exposed to normal (5.5 mM), hypo (2.2 mM) or hyper (25 or 35 mM)-glycemic media containing D-glucose for 12h (acute) or two 3h episodes/day of hypo- or hyperglycemia with an intercalated 2h normalglycemic exposure for 3 days ("glycemic variability", see Methods). Acute hypoglycemic exposure (12h) up-regulated BBB endothelial mRNA and protein expression of P-glycoprotein, BCRP and other multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRP1 and 4) paralleled by an increase in transporter-specific efflux activity (? 2-fold vs. control). Although, 12h hyperglycemia did not affect the efflux transporter expression (except for MRP4), a significant increase in BCRP activity was observed. By contrast, DNA microarray data revealed that repeated hyperglycemic episodes (but not hypoglycemia) significantly up-regulate P-glycoprotein expression and activity. Thus, this study suggests a differential impact of altered glycemic conditions on major BBB drug efflux transporters expression/function, sensitive to the length of exposure (acute vs. repeated), with an implication for altered CNS drug disposition in diabetic population. PMID:25982326

  5. A generalized framework for in-line energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Griesheimer, D. P.; Stedry, M. H.

    2013-07-01

    A rigorous treatment of energy deposition in a Monte Carlo transport calculation, including coupled transport of all secondary and tertiary radiations, increases the computational cost of a simulation dramatically, making fully-coupled heating impractical for many large calculations, such as 3-D analysis of nuclear reactor cores. However, in some cases, the added benefit from a full-fidelity energy-deposition treatment is negligible, especially considering the increased simulation run time. In this paper we present a generalized framework for the in-line calculation of energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo transport simulations. This framework gives users the ability to select among several energy-deposition approximations with varying levels of fidelity. The paper describes the computational framework, along with derivations of four energy-deposition treatments. Each treatment uses a unique set of self-consistent approximations, which ensure that energy balance is preserved over the entire problem. By providing several energy-deposition treatments, each with different approximations for neglecting the energy transport of certain secondary radiations, the proposed framework provides users the flexibility to choose between accuracy and computational efficiency. Numerical results are presented, comparing heating results among the four energy-deposition treatments for a simple reactor/compound shielding problem. The results illustrate the limitations and computational expense of each of the four energy-deposition treatments. (authors)

  6. An Agent-based Transportation Route Planning Method for Led Fabricating Line and Its Evaluation Using Lagrangian Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Tatsushi; Sotobayashi, Ken; Ando, Masakazu; Konishi, Masami

    In most of Light Emitting Diode (LED) semiconductor fabricating line, AGVs (Automated Guided Vehicles) are used to transport the products between the facilities in order to ensure dust-free operation in the transportation systems. It has been demanded to realize the route planning system which speedily derives a feasible transportation route so that each AGV does not interfere with other AGVs. In this paper, we applied an agent-based optimization method for the route planning problems with multiple AGVs in LED fabricating bay in which the total transportation time is minimized. In the agent-based method, each AGV agent independently searches its candidate of route. The imitated pheromone is effectively used to generate the route which avoids the collision among AGVs. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the lower bound of the original problem is obtained by using the Lagrangian relaxation technique. The performances of the proposed method are evaluated by using the value of duality gap for a large scale problem. The effectiveness of the agent-based optimization method is demonstrated.

  7. Control units for APS power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Despe, O.D.; Saunders, C.; McGhee, D.G.

    1993-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) accelerator facility is made up of five major subsystems in addition to the linac: the positron accumulator ring (PAR), low energy transport (LET), booster synchrotron (SYNCH), high energy transport (HET), the storage ring (SR). Each subsystem has multiple magnet power supply combinations, some requiring multiple of operation. These magnet and power supply combinations computer controlled and monitored. The power supply control unit (PSCU) is the first layer of hardware and software above the power supply itself and is described in this paper. The description includes the basic philosophy for each of operation and how it influences the topology and of implementing control. The design of the analog reference blocks (ARBs) influenced the design of other custom functions well as the feedback controls for vibration and other dynamic corrections. The command set supported by the PSCU is discussed.

  8. Crystal structures of Salmonella typhimurium propionate kinase and its complex with Ap4A: evidence for a novel Ap4A synthetic activity.

    PubMed

    Simanshu, Dhirendra K; Savithri, H S; Murthy, M R N

    2008-03-01

    Propionate kinase catalyses the last step in the anaerobic breakdown of L-threonine to propionate in which propionyl phosphate and ADP are converted to propionate and ATP. Here we report the structures of propionate kinase (TdcD) in the native form as well as in complex with diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) by X-ray crystallography. Structure of TdcD obtained after cocrystallization with ATP showed Ap4A bound to the active site pocket suggesting the presence of Ap4A synthetic activity in TdcD. Binding of Ap4A to the enzyme was confirmed by the structure determination of a TdcD-Ap4A complex obtained after cocrystallization of TdcD with commercially available Ap4A. Mass spectroscopic studies provided further evidence for the formation of Ap4A by propionate kinase in the presence of ATP. In the TdcD-Ap4A complex structure, Ap4A is present in an extended conformation with one adenosine moiety present in the nucleotide binding site and other in the proposed propionate binding site. These observations tend to support direct in-line transfer of phosphoryl group during the kinase reaction. PMID:17894350

  9. Different Behavioral and Physiological Response in two Genetic Lines of Laying Hens Following Transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological and behavioral response to transportation stress were examined in chickens selected for high group productivity and survivability (HGPS) resulting from reduced cannibalism and flightiness in colony cages and in chickens from Dekalb XL (DXL) commercial strain. At 13 wks of age, 96 pulle...

  10. Obesity-Linked Homologues TfAP-2 and Twz Establish Meal Frequency in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael J.; Goergen, Philip; Rajendran, Jayasimman; Zheleznyakova, Galina; Hägglund, Maria G.; Perland, Emelie; Bagchi, Sonchita; Kalogeropoulou, Argyro; Khan, Zaid; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2014-01-01

    In all animals managing the size of individual meals and frequency of feeding is crucial for metabolic homeostasis. In the current study we demonstrate that the noradrenalin analogue octopamine and the cholecystokinin (CCK) homologue Drosulfakinin (Dsk) function downstream of TfAP-2 and Tiwaz (Twz) to control the number of meals in adult flies. Loss of TfAP-2 or Twz in octopaminergic neurons increased the size of individual meals, while overexpression of TfAP-2 significantly decreased meal size and increased feeding frequency. Of note, our study reveals that TfAP-2 and Twz regulate octopamine signaling to initiate feeding; then octopamine, in a negative feedback loop, induces expression of Dsk to inhibit consummatory behavior. Intriguingly, we found that the mouse TfAP-2 and Twz homologues, AP-2? and Kctd15, co-localize in areas of the brain known to regulate feeding behavior and reward, and a proximity ligation assay (PLA) demonstrated that AP-2? and Kctd15 interact directly in a mouse hypothalamus-derived cell line. Finally, we show that in this mouse hypothalamic cell line AP-2? and Kctd15 directly interact with Ube2i, a mouse sumoylation enzyme, and that AP-2? may itself be sumoylated. Our study reveals how two obesity-linked homologues regulate metabolic homeostasis by modulating consummatory behavior. PMID:25187989

  11. The Adaptor Complex AP-4 Regulates Vacuolar Protein Sorting at the trans-Golgi Network by Interacting with VACUOLAR SORTING RECEPTOR1.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kentaro; Shirakawa, Makoto; Shimono, Yuki; Kunieda, Tadashi; Fukao, Yoichiro; Koumoto, Yasuko; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Shimada, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes play critical roles in protein sorting among different post-Golgi pathways by recognizing specific cargo protein motifs. Among the five AP complexes (AP-1-AP-5) in plants, AP-4 is one of the most poorly understood; the AP-4 components, AP-4 cargo motifs, and AP-4 functional mechanism are not known. Here, we identify the AP-4 components and show that the AP-4 complex regulates receptor-mediated vacuolar protein sorting by recognizing VACUOLAR SORTING RECEPTOR1 (VSR1), which was originally identified as a sorting receptor for seed storage proteins to target protein storage vacuoles in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). From the vacuolar sorting mutant library GREEN FLUORESCENT SEED (GFS), we isolated three gfs mutants that accumulate abnormally high levels of VSR1 in seeds and designated them as gfs4, gfs5, and gfs6. Their responsible genes encode three (AP4B, AP4M, and AP4S) of the four subunits of the AP-4 complex, respectively, and an Arabidopsis mutant (ap4e) lacking the fourth subunit, AP4E, also had the same phenotype. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that these four proteins form a complex in vivo. The four mutants showed defects in the vacuolar sorting of the major storage protein 12S globulins, indicating a role for the AP-4 complex in vacuolar protein transport. AP4M bound to the tyrosine-based motif of VSR1. AP4M localized at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) subdomain that is distinct from the AP-1-localized TGN subdomain. This study provides a novel function for the AP-4 complex in VSR1-mediated vacuolar protein sorting at the specialized domain of the TGN. PMID:26546666

  12. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A.; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Midttun, Øystein; University of Oslo, Oslo

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup ?} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  13. Going below the line: creating transportable brands for Australia's dark market

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate non-point-of-sale cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents. Results: The tobacco industry has continued to market their products despite severe restrictions on legal marketing activity. They made careful plans to circumvent regulation well in advance. In preparation for bans, they chose and strengthened existing brands to enable their continued success in a dark market and prepared the consumer for bans by increasing their spending on below the line activities. Bans reduced the industry's effectiveness and efficiency. After bans new brand launches stopped: instead key existing brands were strengthened via alterations to the product, line extensions, and stretching loopholes in the legislation as far as possible. In line with the general trend towards integrated marketing, a range of activities have been used in combination, including guerrilla marketing, advertising in imported international magazines, altering the pack, sponsorships, brand stretching, event promotions, lifestyle premiums, and the development of corporate websites. Conclusions: The tobacco industry acknowledges that marketing restrictions have an impact, validating their continued use in tobacco control. The industry is extremely creative in circumventing these marketing restrictions, requiring tobacco marketing regulations to be informed by marketing expertise, regularly updated, and to adopt the broadest possible scope. Tobacco control advocates, particularly those communicating with young people, could learn from the creativity of the tobacco industry. PMID:14645953

  14. Ion transport and barrier function in a telomerase-immortalized human nondysplastic, Barrett's cell line (BAR-T).

    PubMed

    Jovov, Biljana; Orlando, Geraldine S; Tobey, Nelia A; Brown, Karen L; Djukic, Zorka; Carson, John L; Brighton, Louisa E; Orlando, Roy C

    2009-01-01

    Barrett's specialized columnar epithelium (SCE) replaces reflux-damaged squamous epithelium. The benefits of SCE lie in its superior protection of the esophagus against further reflux damage. It was shown that this protection is dependent on ion transport and barrier function of SCE. The risks of SCE lie in its higher predisposition to malignant transformation. An understanding of underlying mechanisms of both processes would benefit considerably from greater knowledge of the structure and function of native SCE - the latter recently advanced by the availability of a telomerase-immortalized, nonneoplastic, human Barrett's cell line (BAR-T). Some of BAR-T characteristics for growth and differentiation have been described recently, but not its capacity to serve as a model for ion transport and barrier function of SCE. To determine the latter, BAR-T cells were grown in enriched media, seeded on permeable supports, and subjected to electrical, biochemical, and morphologic study. HET-1A (esophageal epithelial cell line), a nonneoplastic, human esophageal squamous cell line, was also studied for comparison. BAR-T, but not HET-1A cells in HEPES Ringer solution behaved as polarized monolayers with the capacity for ion transport and barrier function. This was evident electrically with a volt-ohm meter (EVOM),which recorded in BAR-T a resting potential difference of 2.0 +/- 0.2 mV, Isc of 17.4 +/- 3.3 microAmps/cm2 and resistance of 103 +/- 12 ohms x cm2. Further, Isc in BAR-T was inhibitable by exposure to Na-free solution, serosal ouabain, and luminal 4-acetamido4'-isothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid. Expression of tight junction genes were determined in BAR-T and HET-1A cells using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, with expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) set at 1 as reference. Claudins 1, 4, and 12 were prominently expressed in BAR-T (0.2-0.6 of ZO-1), while claudins 1, 11, and 12 were prominently expressed in HET-1A(0.1-0.8 of ZO-1). BAR-T, but not HET-1A, expressed claudins 4, 8, 16, 18, and 23, and HET-1A, but not BAR-T, expressed claudins 11, 15, and 20. Protein expression of prominently expressed claudins in BAR-T correlated with mRNA expression. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy localized claudins 1 and 4 in BAR-T to cell membranes and claudin 18, specifically to the tight junction. Membrane polarization was also documented in BAR-T by immunolocalization of NaK,ATPase to the basolateral membrane. BAR-T, but not HET-1A cells grown on permeable supports form a polarized monolayer with both ion transport and barrier function. Since a number of features of BAR-T are similar to Barrett's SCE and distinct from HET-1A, the BAR-T cell line represents a valuable resource for the study of ion transport and barrier function of nondysplastic SCE. PMID:19673046

  15. Low Earth orbit assessment of proton anisotropy using AP8 and AP9 trapped proton models.

    PubMed

    Badavi, Francis F; Walker, Steven A; Santos Koos, Lindsey M

    2015-04-01

    The completion of the International Space Station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community with an ideal evaluation and testing facility for future long duration human activities in space. Ionized and secondary neutral particles radiation measurements inside ISS form the ideal tool for validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear reaction cross sections and transport codes. Studies using thermo-luminescent detectors (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TPEC), and computer aided design (CAD) models of early ISS configurations confirmed that, as input, computational dosimetry at low Earth orbit (LEO) requires an environmental model with directional (anisotropic) capability to properly describe the exposure of trapped protons within ISS. At LEO, ISS encounters exposure from trapped electrons, protons and geomagnetically attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). For short duration studies at LEO, one can ignore trapped electrons and ever present GCR exposure contributions during quiet times. However, within the trapped proton field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of proton exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensity of trapped particles. Among the established trapped models are the historic AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution to ISS, this work ignores the AE8 and AE9 components of the models and couples a measurement derived anisotropic trapped proton formalism to omnidirectional output from the AP8 and AP9 models, allowing the assessment of the differences between the two proton models. The assessment is done at a target point within the ISS-11A configuration (circa 2003) crew quarter (CQ) of Russian Zvezda service module (SM), during its ascending and descending nodes passes through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). The anisotropic formalism incorporates the contributions of proton narrow pitch angle (PA) and east-west (EW) effects. Within SAA, the EW anisotropy results in different level of exposure to each side of the ISS Zvezda SM, allowing angular evaluation of the anisotropic proton spectrum. While the combined magnitude of PA and EW effects at LEO depends on a multitude of factors such as trapped proton energy, orientation and altitude of the spacecraft along the velocity vector, this paper draws quantitative conclusions on the combined anisotropic magnitude differences within ISS SM target point between AP8 and AP9 models. PMID:26177846

  16. Time resolved spectroscopy of the cool Ap star HD 213637*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present an analysis of high time resolution spectra of the chemically peculiar Ap star HD 213637. The star shows rapid radial velocity variations with a period close to the photometric pulsation period. Radial velocity pulsation amplitudes vary significantly for different rare earth elements. The highest pulsation amplitudes belong to lines of Tb III (˜360 m s-1), Pr II (˜250 m s-1) and Pr III (˜230 m s-1). We did not detect any pulsations from spectral lines of Eu II and in H?, in contrast to many other roAp stars. We also did not find radial velocity pulsations using spectral lines of other chemical elements, including Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba. There are phase shifts between the maxima of pulsation amplitudes of different rare earth elements and ions, which is evidence of an outwardly running magneto-acoustic wave propagating through the upper stellar atmosphere.

  17. AP Human Geography and Success on the AP Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncone, John; Newhalfen, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Classroom projects that explore culture and globalization enhance the curriculum and help students see how geography directly connects to their lives. These authors contend that a project-based approach can supplement the teaching of an AP Human Geography course, and visualize this course as an essential tool for students to truly understand how…

  18. Effect of subdominant species on the evolution of intense primary beam in a low energy beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

    2013-08-15

    The dynamics of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam with different distributions has been studied in a solenoid based low energy beam transport line using a particle-in-cell simulation method. Results are presented in wide parameter regimes covering emittance dominated as well as space charge dominated multispecies beams consisting of p, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams. Simulation shows the formation of hollow distribution of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams around the desired proton beam and separation is more distinct as the fraction of proton is increased. The hollow formation is almost independent of combination of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams, once the fraction of proton beam is fixed. The emittance growth of proton is found to increase sharply in the space-charge-dominated regime and is more in the cases where proton fraction is low.

  19. The Li-7 and Be-7 deexcitation lines: Probes for accelerated particle transport models in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Ronald J.; Hua, X.-M.; Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

    1989-01-01

    The photon energy spectrum of a spectral feature composed of the 429 and 478 keV gamma-ray lines from Li-7 and Be-7 (produced by interactions of flare-accelerated alpha particles with ambient He in the solar atmosphere) depends on the angular distribution of the interacting accelerated particles. This spectrum is calculated for limb and disc-centered flares using a loop model for the transport of the ions. In this model, the flux tube magnetic field is constant in the corona and converges in the chromosphere to the photosphere. Magnetic mirroring and MHD pitch-angle scattering are both taken into account. Comparison of these results with data from other experiments is presented.

  20. The GEANT4 toolkit capability in the hadron therapy field: simulation of a transport beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Di Rosa, F.; Raffaele, L.; Russo, G.; Guatelli, S.; Pia, M. G.

    2006-01-01

    At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare of Catania (Sicily, Italy), the first Italian hadron therapy facility named CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia ed Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) has been realized. Inside CATANA 62 MeV proton beams, accelerated by a superconducting cyclotron, are used for the radiotherapeutic treatments of some types of ocular tumours. Therapy with hadron beams still represents a pioneer technique, and only a few centers worldwide can provide this advanced specialized cancer treatment. On the basis of the experience so far gained, and considering the future hadron-therapy facilities to be developed (Rinecker, Munich Germany, Heidelberg/GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, PSI Villigen, Switzerland, CNAO, Pavia, Italy, Centro di Adroterapia, Catania, Italy) we decided to develop a Monte Carlo application based on the GEANT4 toolkit, for the design, the realization and the optimization of a proton-therapy beam line. Another feature of our project is to provide a general tool able to study the interactions of hadrons with the human tissue and to test the analytical-based treatment planning systems actually used in the routine practice. All the typical elements of a hadron-therapy line, such as diffusers, range shifters, collimators and detectors were modelled. In particular, we simulated the Markus type ionization chamber and a Gaf Chromic film as dosimeters to reconstruct the depth (Bragg peak and Spread Out Bragg Peak) and lateral dose distributions, respectively. We validated our simulated detectors comparing the results with the experimental data available in our facility.

  1. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  2. Characterization of the transport of. cap alpha. -methylaminoisobutyric acid by a human intestinal cell line (HT-29)

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, L.; Dantzig, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    Under certain growth conditions, the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 exhibits intestinal enterocyte-like properties. The differentiated cells possess a brush border with the enzyme markers (aminopeptidase and sucrase) normally associated with the intestine. To aid in the characterization of the transport properties of these cells, the uptake of a non-metabolizable amino acid analog, /sup 14/C-..cap alpha..-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) as examined in the HT-29-Al subclone which possesses a brush border. The cells exhibited a time-dependent uptake of MeAIB which was concentrative and sodium-dependent. The pH optimum for uptake was about 7.8. Uptake was inhibited by low temperature, 1 mM ouabain, or 0.5 mM dinitrophenol. A 1 hr-preincubation of the cells in an isotonic KCl solution resulted in a decreased uptake rate, suggesting that a negative membrane potential is important for MeAIB uptake. The rate of 0.5 mM MeABIB uptake was inhibited by 40 to 90% by 5 mM of certain small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Pro, Gly, met but not by acidic or basic amino acids such as Asp, Glu, Arg or Lys. The uptake of MeAIB appears to be mediated by an amino acid transport carrier similar to the A-system described previously for Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  3. Gas Transport and Density Control in the HYLIFE Heavy-Ion Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Debonnel, Christophe S.; Welch, Dale R.; Rose, David V.; Lawrence, Simon S.Yu; Peterson, Per F

    2003-05-15

    The effective propagation and focusing of heavy-ion beams in the final-focus magnet region of inertial fusion target chambers require controlling the background gas density and pressure in the beam tubes. Liquid vortexes will coat the inside of the tubes next to the beam ports and will help eliminate the need for mechanical shutters to mitigate the venting of target chamber background gas into the final-focus magnet region. Before the neutralizing region, the beam space charge is high, and ablation and target debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region may cause voltage breakdown. Previous studies focused on evaluating the amount of target chamber debris reaching the entrance of the beam ports. The TSUNAMI code has now been used to assess the density, temperature, and velocity of the vortex debris transported {approx}3 m up the beam tubes and reaching the final-focus magnet region, assuming that the liquid vortexes are perfectly absorbing surfaces. To further mitigate debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region, and prevent voltage breakdown, a 'magnetic shutter' has been envisaged to divert the debris out of the final-focus region. This shutter will prevent the hot ablation debris from reaching the magnet region and, coupled to some ionizing scheme, will conveniently suppress early ingression of debris into the final-focus magnet region.

  4. R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

  5. Erratum: ``An Extensive Collection of Stellar Wind X-Ray Source Region Emission Line Parameters, Temperatures, Velocities, and Their Radial Distributions as Obtained from Chandra Observations of 17 OB Stars'' (ApJ, 668, 456 [2007])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, W. L.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    2008-06-01

    The major objective of the paper was to provide a detailed tabulation of the observed HETGS X-ray emission-line flux ratios. We presented the MEG and HEG He-like f/i line ratios, the H-like to He-like (H/He) line ratios, and the He-like G-ratios. The stellar wind spatial locations of the X-ray sources were derived from the f/i ratios, and their associated X-ray temperatures were obtained from the H/He ratios (THHe). This information was used to verify the correlations between Rfir and R?=1 (Fig. 6) and THHe and Rfir (Fig. 8). However, we have realized that some of our tabulated uncertainties for these line ratios were underestimated, primarily for those lines with low-S/N data. Hence, the primary purpose of this erratum is to provide a tabulation of the corrected line ratios and their uncertainties. The details of our line fitting procedure are discussed in § 3.3. All uncertainties were determined using standard ?2 statistics (e.g., P. R. Bevington, 1969, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences [New York: McGraw-Hill]). First, we would like to clarify a statement in § 3.3 (second paragraph), which states that all parameter uncertainties were determined from 90% confidence regions, but in actuality all uncertainties were established using 68% confidence regions. With regards to the main point of this erratum, we found that our algorithm for determining the ?2 covariance matrix which is used to determine the uncertainties of the fitting parameters had an indexing error in the coding logic which produced errors in some of the off-diagonal terms. From our detailed examination of the code, we found that certain cases were especially vulnerable to this coding error, in particular, those cases where the ?2 normalization ranges were large (i.e., low-S/N data). This code correction has also produced changes in some of the line ratios and their derived quantities (e.g., Rfir and THHe). The algorithm has been corrected and the affected Tables (Tables 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7) have been updated and are given in corrected form in this erratum. We also corrected a few entries that were originally tabulated incorrectly, and some data were removed, as they did not satisfy our S/N criterion, i.e., the HEG S XV f/i data for ? Ori, the MEG S XV f/i data for ? Oph, and the HEG Mg XI and Si XIII f/i data for Cyg OB2 No. 9. As discussed in § 3.1, we stated that if a reasonable flux had been established, these results would be used only for estimating line ratios that provide interesting limits. However, the meaning of a ``reasonable`` flux limit was unclear; the criterion used is that the observed total net counts from all three He-like fir lines must have a S/N>=3. We also need to clarify the significance of blank entries in our tables. The blanks just indicate that the given line ratio has either an unphysical result that produces an anomalously large uncertainty, or did not satisfy our He-like S/N>=3 criterion. An example of an unphysical result is when the fitting procedure predicts an He-like i-line flux that is too small. This occurs primarily in low-S/N high-energy He-like fir lines, where the effects of line overlap can lead to a poor determination of the i-line. In addition, we would like to clarify why the relative uncertainties in Rfir are typically smaller than the corresponding f/i relative uncertainties. As shown in equation (2) of the paper, for ?/?C>1 and ne<

  6. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  7. Variability of Balmer Profiles in Magnetic Ap/Bp Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyavin, G.; Lee, B.-C.; Shulyak, D.; Han, I.; Kochukhov, O.; Khang, D.-I.; Kim, K.-M.

    2007-06-01

    A set of high precision measurements of weak variations of hydrogen lines in spectra of seven magnetic Ap/Bp stars was carried out using the BOES echelle spectrograph of the Bohuynsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (South Korea). A weak (1-2 %) periodic variability of the Balmer line wings has been detected in the spectra of 2 program stars. Upper limits of possible variations are presented for the remaining 5 objects. We discuss the discovered variability in the framework of model atmospheres with magnetic force terms included. The periodic changes in the Balmer profiles are caused by perturbations in atmospheres of Ap/Bp stars due to their rotationally modulated non-force-free magnetic fields.

  8. AP1000 Features Prevent Potential Containment Recirculation Screen Plugging

    SciTech Connect

    Andreychek, Timothy; Anderson, Richard; Schulz, Terry

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the results of plant design development and evaluations that demonstrate that the AP1000 plant is not subject to potential containment recirculation screen plugging following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). Following a LOCA in a pressurized water reactor, it is necessary to recirculate water from the containment back into the reactor to maintain long term core cooling. The AP1000 utilizes passive safety systems to provide containment recirculation for long term core cooling following a LOCA. The AP1000 also has non-safety pumps which provide a backup means of providing recirculation. Screens are provided around the recirculation pipes to prevent debris from blocking recirculation flow and core cooling passages. Debris may be generated by the LOCA blowdown from insulation and coatings used inside containment. Even with effective cleanliness programs, there may be some resident debris such as dust and dirt. The potential for plugging the recirculation screens is a current PWR licensing issue. The AP1000 design provides inherent advantages with respect to the potential plugging of containment recirculation screens. These characteristics include prevention of fibrous debris generation, improved debris settling and improved recirculation screen design. Debris settling analysis demonstrates that failure of coatings does not result in debris being transported to the screens before it settles to the floor. Additional analysis also shows that the plant can tolerate conservative amounts of resident debris being transported to the screens. The AP1000 significantly reduces the probability of plugging the containment recirculation screens and significantly reduces inspection and maintenance of coatings used inside containment. (authors)

  9. Differential Mitochondrial Electron Transport through the Cyanide-Sensitive and Cyanide-Insensitive Pathways in Isonuclear Lines of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile, Male Fertile, and Restored Petunia1

    PubMed Central

    Connett, Marie B.; Hanson, Maureen R.

    1990-01-01

    Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida [Hook] Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines. PMID:16667667

  10. The APS control system network

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K.V.; McDowell, W.P.

    1995-12-31

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the {open_quotes}Standard Model.{close_quotes} The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions.

  11. Dynamics of intracellular clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 containing carriers

    PubMed Central

    Kural, Comert; Tacheva-Grigorova, Silvia K.; Boulant, Steeve; Cocucci, Emanuele; Baust, Thorsten; Duarte, Delfim; Kirchhausen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 coated vesicular carriers originate from endosomes and the TGN. We report here the real-time visualization of these structures in living cells reliably tracked by using rapid, three-dimensional imaging with a spinning-disk confocal microscope. We imaged relatively sparse, diffraction-limited, fluorescent objects containing chimeric fluorescent protein (clathrin light chain, ? adaptor subunits or dynamin2) with a spatial precision of up to ~ 30 nm and a temporal resolution of ~ 1 sec. The dynamic characteristics of the intracellular clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 carriers are similar to those of endocytic clathrin/AP2 pits and vesicles; the clathrin/AP1 coats are, on average, slightly shorter-lived than their AP2 and AP3 counterparts. We confirmed that while dynamin2 is recruited as a burst to clathrin/AP2 pits immediately before their budding from the plasma membrane, we found no evidence supporting a similar association of dynamin2 with clathrin/AP1 or clathrin/AP3 carriers at any stage during their lifetime. We found no effects of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function or the K44A dominant negative mutant of dynamin on AP1 and AP3 dynamics. This observation suggests that an alternative budding mechanism, yet to be discovered, is responsible for the scission step of clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 carriers. PMID:23103167

  12. A novel dopamine transporter transgenic mouse line for identification and purification of midbrain dopaminergic neurons reveals midbrain heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Apuschkin, Mia; Stilling, Sara; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Sørensen, Gunnar; Fortin, Guillaume; Herborg Hansen, Freja; Eriksen, Jacob; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Egerod, Kristoffer; Gether, Ulrik; Rickhag, Mattias

    2015-10-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons are a heterogeneous cell group, composed of functionally distinct cell populations projecting to the basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex and limbic system. Despite their functional significance, the midbrain population of DAergic neurons is sparse, constituting only 20 000-30 000 neurons in mice, and development of novel tools to identify these cells is warranted. Here, a bacterial artificial chromosome mouse line [Dat1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)] from the Gene Expression Nervous System Atlas (GENSAT) that expresses eGFP under control of the dopamine transporter (DAT) promoter was characterized. Confocal microscopy analysis of brain sections showed strong eGFP signal reporter in midbrain regions and striatal terminals that co-localized with the DAergic markers DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Thorough quantification of co-localization of the eGFP reporter signal with DAT and TH in the ventral midbrain showed that a vast majority of eGFP-expressing neurons are DAergic. Importantly, expression profiles also revealed DAergic heterogeneity when comparing substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Dat1-eGFP mice showed neither change in synaptosomal DA uptake nor altered levels of DAT and TH in both striatum and midbrain. No behavioural difference between Dat1-eGFP and wild-type was found, suggesting that the strain is not aberrant. Finally, cell populations highly enriched in DAergic neurons can be obtained from postnatal mice by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and the sorted neurons can be cultured in vitro. The current investigation demonstrates that eGFP expression in this mouse line is selective for DAergic neurons, suggesting that the Dat1-eGFP mouse strain constitutes a promising tool for delineating new aspects of DA biology. PMID:26286107

  13. AP reclamation and reuse in RSRM propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miks, Kathryn F.; Harris, Stacey A.

    1995-01-01

    A solid propellant ingredient reclamation pilot plant has been evaluated at the Strategic Operations of Thiokol Corporation, located in Brigham City, Utah. The plant produces AP wet cake (95 percent AP, 5 percent water) for recycling at AP vendors. AP has been obtained from two standard propellant binder systems (PBAN and HTPB). Analytical work conducted at Thiokol indicates that the vendor-recrystallized AP meets Space Shuttle propellant specification requirements. Thiokol has processed 1-, 5-, and 600-gallon propellant mixes with the recrystallized AP. Processing, cast, cure, ballistic, mechanical, and safety properties have been evaluated. Phillips Laboratory static-test-fired 70-pound and 800-pound BATES motors. The data indicate that propellant processed with reclaimed AP has nominal properties.

  14. Glutathione peroxidase-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Lei; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Coleman, Mitchell C.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Wertz, Philip W.; Domann, Frederick E. . E-mail: frederick-domann@uiowa.edu

    2006-12-29

    In this study, we found a role for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. UVA irradiation not only increased AP-2{alpha}, but also caused accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the cell culture media, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself could induce the expression of AP-2{alpha}. By catalyzing the removal of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from cells through over-expression of GPx-1, induction of AP-2{alpha} expression by UVA was abolished. Induction of transcription factor AP-2{alpha} by UVA had been previously shown to be mediated through the second messenger ceramide. We found that not only UVA irradiation, but also H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself caused increases of ceramide in HaCaT cells, and C2-ceramide added to cells induced the AP-2{alpha} signaling pathway. Finally, forced expression of GPx-1 eliminated UVA-induced ceramide accumulation as well as AP-2{alpha} expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that GPx-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression by suppressing the accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  15. Tank 241AP104 Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-11-09

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AP-104. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AP-104 required to provide sample material to the Waste Treatment Contractor. Grab samples will be obtained from riser 001 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives and ICD-23. The 222-S Laboratory will receive samples; composite the samples; perform chemical analyses on composite samples; and provide samples to the Waste Treatment Contractor and the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory at the 222-S Laboratory Complex will perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AP-104 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. The Waste Treatment Contractor will perform process verification and waste form qualification tests. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the L & H DQO process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plan (Person 2000) and are not within the scope of this SAP. This report provides the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AP-104.

  16. Intermediate-break LOCA analyses for the AP600 design

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Lime, J.F.

    1995-07-01

    A postulated double-ended guillotine break of a direct-vessel-injection line in an AP600 plant has been analyzed. This event is characterized as an intermediate break loss-of-coolant accident (IBLOCA). Most of the insights regarding the response of the AP600 safety systems to the postulated accident are derived from calculations performed with the TRAC-PFl/MOD2 code. However, complementary insights derived from a scaled experiment conducted in the ROSA facility, as well as insights based upon calculations by other codes, are also presented. The key processes occurring in an AP600 during a IBLOCA are primary coolant system depressurization, inventory depletion, inventory replacement via emergency core coolant injection, continuous core cooling, and long-term decay heat rejection to the atmosphere. Based upon the calculated and experimental results, the AP600 will not experience a core heat up and will reach a safe shutdown state using only safety-class equipment. Only the early part of the long-term cooling period initiated by In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank injection was evaluated Thus, the observation that the core is continuously cooled should be verified for the latter phase of the long-term cooling period, the interval when sump injection and containment cooling processes are important.

  17. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in AP4S1 cause mild fever-sensitive seizures, developmental delay and spastic paraplegia through loss of AP-4 complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Hardies, Katia; May, Patrick; Djémié, Tania; Tarta-Arsene, Oana; Deconinck, Tine; Craiu, Dana; Helbig, Ingo; Suls, Arvid; Balling, Rudy; Weckhuysen, Sarah; De Jonghe, Peter; Hirst, Jennifer

    2015-04-15

    We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole-genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene, encoding the ? subunit of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). The effect of the predicted loss-of-function variants (p.Gln46Profs*9 and p.Arg97*) was further investigated in a patient's fibroblast cell line. We show that the premature stop mutations in AP4S1 result in a reduction of all AP-4 subunits and loss of AP-4 complex assembly. Recruitment of the AP-4 accessory protein tepsin, to the membrane was also abolished. In retrospect, the clinical phenotype in the family is consistent with previous reports of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. Our study reports the second family with mutations in AP4S1 and describes the first two patients with loss of AP4S1 and seizures. We further discuss seizure phenotypes in reported patients, highlighting that seizures are part of the clinical manifestation of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. We also hypothesize that endosomal trafficking is a common theme between heritable spastic paraplegia and some inherited epilepsies. PMID:25552650

  18. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-23

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.

  19. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING OF TANKS 241-AN-102 & 241-AP-107 & 241-AP-108 IN SUPPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

    2008-11-20

    This report presents the results of the corrosion rates that were measured using electrochemical methods for tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102), 241-AP-107 (AP 107), and 241-AP-108 (AP-108) performed under test plant RPP-PLAN-38215. The steel used as materials of construction for AN and AP tank farms was A537 Class 1. Test coupons of A537 Class 1 carbon steel were used for corrosion testing in the AN-107, AP-107, and AP-108 tank waste. Supernate will be tested from AN-102, AP-107, and Ap-108. Saltcake testing was performed on AP-108 only.

  20. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  1. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D. Cole, D.; Machicoane, G.; Tobos, L.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

  2. An immortalized human blood-nerve barrier endothelial cell line for in vitro permeability studies

    PubMed Central

    Yosef, Nejla; Ubogu, Eroboghene E.

    2012-01-01

    Solute and macromolecular transport studies may elucidate nutritional requirements and drug effects in healthy and diseased peripheral nerves. Endoneurial endothelial cells are specialized microvascular cells that form the restrictive blood-nerve barrier (BNB). Primary human endoneurial endothelial cells (pHEndECs) are difficult to isolate, limiting their widespread availability for biomedical research. We developed a simian virus-40 large T-antigen (SV40-LTA) immortalized human BNB cell line via stable transfection of low passage pHEndECs and observed continuous growth in culture for >45 population doublings. As observed with pHEndECs, the immortalized BNB endothelial cells were Ulex Europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1)-positive and endocytosed low density lipoprotein, but lost von Willebrand factor (vWF) expression. Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT), large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1), creatine transporter (CRT) and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1) mRNA expression were retained at all passages with loss of alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression after passages 16-20. Compared with an SV40-LTA immortalized human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cell line, there was increased ?-GT protein expression, equivalent expression of organic anion transporting polypeptide-C (OATP-C), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT-3), MCT-1 and LAT-1, and reduced expression of AP, CRT and P-gp by the BNB cell line at passage 20. Further studies demonstrated lower transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER: ~181 ?.cm2 vs. 191 ?.cm2), equivalent permeability to fluoresceinated sodium (4.84% vs. 4.39%) and lower permeability to fluoresceinated high molecular weight (70 kDa) dextran (0.39% vs. 0.52%) by the BNB cell line. This cell line retained essential molecular and biophysical properties suitable for in vitro peripheral nerve permeability studies. PMID:23104242

  3. The limitations of renal epithelial cell line HK-2 as a model of drug transporter expression and function in the proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Sarah E; Chung, Git W; van Loon, Ellen; Bakar, Nur S; Dalzell, Abigail M; Brown, Colin D A

    2012-12-01

    Acquiring a mechanistic understanding of the processes underlying the renal clearance of drug molecules in man has been hampered by a lack of robust in vitro models of human proximal tubules. Several human renal epithelial cell lines derived from the renal cortex are available, but few have been characterised in detail in terms of transporter expression. This includes the HK-2 proximal tubule cell line, which has been used extensively as a model of nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of drug transporters in HK-2 cells and their suitability as an in vitro model of the human proximal tubule. qPCR showed no mRNA expression of the SLC22 transporter family (OAT1, OAT3, OCT2) in HK-2 cells compared to renal cortex samples. In contrast, SLC16A1 (MCT1), which is important in the uptake of monocarboxylates, and SLCO4C1 (OATP4C1) were expressed in HK-2 cells. The functional expression of these transporters was confirmed by uptake studies using radiolabelled prototypic substrates DL-lactate and digoxin, respectively. The mRNA expression of apical membrane efflux transporters ABCB1 (MDR1) and several members of the ABCC family (multidrug resistance proteins, MRPs) was shown by qPCR. ABCG1 (BCRP) was not detected. The efflux of Hoechst 33342, a substrate for MDR1, was blocked by MDR1 inhibitor cyclosporin A, suggesting the functional expression of this transporter. Similarly, the efflux of the MRP-specific fluorescent dye glutathione methylfluorescein was inhibited by the MRP inhibitor MK571. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that HK-2 cells are of limited value as an in vitro model of drug transporter expression in the human proximal tubule. PMID:23014881

  4. AP-1A controls secretory granule biogenesis and trafficking of membrane secretory granule proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bonnemaison, Mathilde; Bäck, Nils; Lin, Yimo; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Mains, Richard; Eipper, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The adaptor protein 1A complex (AP-1A) transports cargo between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In professional secretory cells, AP-1A also retrieves material from immature secretory granules (SGs). The role of AP-1A in SG biogenesis was explored using AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells expressing reduced levels of the AP-1A ?1A subunit. A two-fold reduction in ?1A resulted in a decrease in TGN cisternae and immature SGs and the appearance of regulated secretory pathway components in non-condensing SGs. Although basal secretion of endogenous SG proteins was unaffected, secretagogue-stimulated release was halved. The reduced ?1A levels interfered with the normal trafficking of carboxypeptidase D (CPD) and peptidylglycine ?-amidating monooxygenase-1 (PAM-1), integral membrane enzymes that enter immature SGs. The non-condensing SGs contained POMC products and PAM-1, but not CPD. Based on metabolic labeling and secretion experiments, the cleavage of newly synthesized PAM-1 into PHM was unaltered, but PHM basal secretion was increased in sh-?1A PAM-1 cells. Despite lacking a canonical AP-1A binding motif, yeast two-hybrid studies demonstrated an interaction between the PAM-1 cytosolic domain and AP-1A. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments with PAM-1 mutants revealed an influence of the luminal domains of PAM-1 on this interaction. Thus, AP-1A is crucial for normal SG biogenesis, function and composition. PMID:25040637

  5. Coaching Strategies for AP: Building a Successful AP European History Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The October 2013 special issue of "Social Education" dealt with almost all AP social studies subjects, but omitted AP European History. This is one of the most fascinating AP subjects for students and teachers alike. In this article, the author shares his experiences since hewas given the responsibility of building his school's…

  6. APS: Lighting up the future

    SciTech Connect

    Potent, V.J.

    1993-09-01

    Work on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) involves the construction and supporting research and development for a national user facility for synchrotron radiation research in the x-ray region. The facility, when operational in 1997, will provide super-intense x-ray beams for many areas of basic research and will serve the entire US x-ray research community of several thousand users. This paper describes the pertinent features of the design, construction and planned operation of the facility; and the impact quality has had in these areas. In addition, the introduction of several quality management techniques such as total quality management, reliability/availability planning, and user interface are discussed concerning their status and success.

  7. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - WILDLAND FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is aimed at consolidating, selecting, and disseminating the most appropriate data and methods for estimating air emissions from wildfires and prescribed burns. The product will replace a current section of AP-42, but may not take the precise form of an AP-42 secti...

  8. APS-DPP Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Donald

    1998-11-01

    Through its membership and their respectful institutions, the APS-DPP continues to be recognized for its education and outreach efforts. Each year starting with the 1988 DPP annual meeting, DPP and the APS Office of Education have jointly sponsored a "Science Teachers' Day." Beginning in 1994, a companion "Plasma Physics Expo" has been held during the same week of the November meeting. Both events continue to receive uniformly enthusiastic responses from teachers and students who participate. These two events are not only supported financially by APS and APS-DPP but also by APS-DPP member contributions and by contributions of the major plasma physics and fusion research institutions. Recently, the DPP Interdivisional and Public Affairs Committee was re-named the DPP Science Education Committee (see DPP Newsletter, Spring 1998) to reflect the importance that the DPP puts on education and outreach. Nevertheless, as Andrew Sessler, APS President, said in the Education Outreach special insert of the January APS News "We have many education and outreach activities in the areas of K -12 education . . . but very few APS members are aware of what we are doing . . . ." This paper is an attempt to communicate to the DPP members who have not participated in DPP's education and outreach activities a summary of what is being accomplished in this area, what is being planned for the future, and how does one participate in these activities.

  9. AP1S3 Mutations Are Associated with Pustular Psoriasis and Impaired Toll-like Receptor 3 Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Setta-Kaffetzi, Niovi; Simpson, Michael A.; Navarini, Alexander A.; Patel, Varsha M.; Lu, Hui-Chun; Allen, Michael H.; Duckworth, Michael; Bachelez, Hervé; Burden, A. David; Choon, Siew-Eng; Griffiths, Christopher E.M.; Kirby, Brian; Kolios, Antonios; Seyger, Marieke M.B.; Prins, Christa; Smahi, Asma; Trembath, Richard C.; Fraternali, Franca; Smith, Catherine H.; Barker, Jonathan N.; Capon, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotetramer that promotes vesicular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes. The knockout of most murine AP-1 complex subunits is embryonically lethal, so the identification of human disease-associated alleles has the unique potential to deliver insights into gene function. Here, we report two founder mutations (c.11T>G [p.Phe4Cys] and c.97C>T [p.Arg33Trp]) in AP1S3, the gene encoding AP-1 complex subunit ?1C, in 15 unrelated individuals with a severe autoinflammatory skin disorder known as pustular psoriasis. Because the variants are predicted to destabilize the 3D structure of the AP-1 complex, we generated AP1S3-knockdown cell lines to investigate the consequences of AP-1 deficiency in skin keratinocytes. We found that AP1S3 silencing disrupted the endosomal translocation of the innate pattern-recognition receptor TLR-3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and resulted in a marked inhibition of downstream signaling. These findings identify pustular psoriasis as an autoinflammatory phenotype caused by defects in vesicular trafficking and demonstrate a requirement of AP-1 for Toll-like receptor homeostasis. PMID:24791904

  10. AP1S3 mutations are associated with pustular psoriasis and impaired Toll-like receptor 3 trafficking.

    PubMed

    Setta-Kaffetzi, Niovi; Simpson, Michael A; Navarini, Alexander A; Patel, Varsha M; Lu, Hui-Chun; Allen, Michael H; Duckworth, Michael; Bachelez, Hervé; Burden, A David; Choon, Siew-Eng; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Kirby, Brian; Kolios, Antonios; Seyger, Marieke M B; Prins, Christa; Smahi, Asma; Trembath, Richard C; Fraternali, Franca; Smith, Catherine H; Barker, Jonathan N; Capon, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotetramer that promotes vesicular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes. The knockout of most murine AP-1 complex subunits is embryonically lethal, so the identification of human disease-associated alleles has the unique potential to deliver insights into gene function. Here, we report two founder mutations (c.11T>G [p.Phe4Cys] and c.97C>T [p.Arg33Trp]) in AP1S3, the gene encoding AP-1 complex subunit ?1C, in 15 unrelated individuals with a severe autoinflammatory skin disorder known as pustular psoriasis. Because the variants are predicted to destabilize the 3D structure of the AP-1 complex, we generated AP1S3-knockdown cell lines to investigate the consequences of AP-1 deficiency in skin keratinocytes. We found that AP1S3 silencing disrupted the endosomal translocation of the innate pattern-recognition receptor TLR-3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and resulted in a marked inhibition of downstream signaling. These findings identify pustular psoriasis as an autoinflammatory phenotype caused by defects in vesicular trafficking and demonstrate a requirement of AP-1 for Toll-like receptor homeostasis. PMID:24791904

  11. Time-resolved spectroscopy of the rapidly oscillating Ap star KIC 10195926

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Shibahashi, H.; Saio, H.

    2014-10-01

    We report an analysis of high time resolution spectra of the chemically peculiar Ap star KIC 10195926 obtained with the Subaru telescope. We find that the star has low overabundances of rare earth elements compared with other rapidly oscillating Ap stars. We found only upper limits for pulsations from spectral lines of rare earth and other chemical elements. Pulsation was found only for the narrow core of the H? line with an amplitude of 171 ± 41 m s-1 and with the frequency corresponding to photometric frequency obtained from Kepler observations.

  12. Loss of AP-5 results in accumulation of aberrant endolysosomes: defining a new type of lysosomal storage disease

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jennifer; Edgar, James R.; Esteves, Typhaine; Darios, Frédéric; Madeo, Marianna; Chang, Jaerak; Roda, Ricardo H.; Dürr, Alexandra; Anheim, Mathieu; Gellera, Cinzia; Li, Jun; Züchner, Stephan; Mariotti, Caterina; Stevanin, Giovanni; Blackstone, Craig; Kruer, Michael C.; Robinson, Margaret S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptor proteins (AP 1–5) are heterotetrameric complexes that facilitate specialized cargo sorting in vesicular-mediated trafficking. Mutations in AP5Z1, encoding a subunit of the AP-5 complex, have been reported to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), although their impact at the cellular level has not been assessed. Here we characterize three independent fibroblast lines derived from skin biopsies of patients harbouring nonsense mutations in AP5Z1 and presenting with spastic paraplegia accompanied by neuropathy, parkinsonism and/or cognitive impairment. In all three patient-derived lines, we show that there is complete loss of AP-5 ? protein and a reduction in the associated AP-5 µ5 protein. Using ultrastructural analysis, we show that these patient-derived lines consistently exhibit abundant multilamellar structures that are positive for markers of endolysosomes and are filled with aberrant storage material organized as exaggerated multilamellar whorls, striated belts and ‘fingerprint bodies’. This phenotype can be replicated in a HeLa cell culture model by siRNA knockdown of AP-5 ?. The cellular phenotype bears striking resemblance to features described in a number of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Collectively, these findings reveal an emerging picture of the role of AP-5 in endosomal and lysosomal homeostasis, illuminates a potential pathomechanism that is relevant to the role of AP-5 in neurons and expands the understanding of recessive HSPs. Moreover, the resulting accumulation of storage material in endolysosomes leads us to propose that AP-5 deficiency represents a new type of LSDs. PMID:26085577

  13. Loss of AP-5 results in accumulation of aberrant endolysosomes: defining a new type of lysosomal storage disease.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Jennifer; Edgar, James R; Esteves, Typhaine; Darios, Frédéric; Madeo, Marianna; Chang, Jaerak; Roda, Ricardo H; Dürr, Alexandra; Anheim, Mathieu; Gellera, Cinzia; Li, Jun; Züchner, Stephan; Mariotti, Caterina; Stevanin, Giovanni; Blackstone, Craig; Kruer, Michael C; Robinson, Margaret S

    2015-09-01

    Adaptor proteins (AP 1-5) are heterotetrameric complexes that facilitate specialized cargo sorting in vesicular-mediated trafficking. Mutations in AP5Z1, encoding a subunit of the AP-5 complex, have been reported to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), although their impact at the cellular level has not been assessed. Here we characterize three independent fibroblast lines derived from skin biopsies of patients harbouring nonsense mutations in AP5Z1 and presenting with spastic paraplegia accompanied by neuropathy, parkinsonism and/or cognitive impairment. In all three patient-derived lines, we show that there is complete loss of AP-5 ? protein and a reduction in the associated AP-5 µ5 protein. Using ultrastructural analysis, we show that these patient-derived lines consistently exhibit abundant multilamellar structures that are positive for markers of endolysosomes and are filled with aberrant storage material organized as exaggerated multilamellar whorls, striated belts and 'fingerprint bodies'. This phenotype can be replicated in a HeLa cell culture model by siRNA knockdown of AP-5 ?. The cellular phenotype bears striking resemblance to features described in a number of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Collectively, these findings reveal an emerging picture of the role of AP-5 in endosomal and lysosomal homeostasis, illuminates a potential pathomechanism that is relevant to the role of AP-5 in neurons and expands the understanding of recessive HSPs. Moreover, the resulting accumulation of storage material in endolysosomes leads us to propose that AP-5 deficiency represents a new type of LSDs. PMID:26085577

  14. Residual radiation studies at AP0

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander J Elwyn et al.

    2002-06-19

    The radiation environment at the NuMI experiment has received a lot of attention in the last few years in preparation for project construction. One important issue is the induced radioactivation of the components in the beam line and the shielding materials. This arises from irradiation by hadrons that are generated in the target. Since the level of the residual activity has to be considered when determining access procedures for maintenance during NuMI operation, an understanding of the properties of the remnant radiation is important. To this end, experimental studies were performed in the target vault at AP0 which is similar in design to the NuMI target area. Here 120 GeV protons bombard a target, generating the hadrons that produce the induced radioactivity. Two sets of samples each consisting of three small cylindrical or rectangular solids of iron and steel, one sample of aluminum, and one of concrete were irradiated. One set was hung just below the bottom of a module near the lithium lens (in-vault), and the other was placed on top of the modules downstream of this location (above-vault), just beneath the movable concrete roof of the vault at AP0. Further, four thin activation foils of Au, Au+Cd, In, and Al (along with small disks of the same iron, aluminum, and concrete samples discussed above) were mounted on four 10.2 cm diameter Al disks, one placed on the in-vault module and three at above-vault downstream locations as well. The radioactivity of all these materials on the 10.2 cm Al disks was determined at the Radioisotope Analysis Facility in an attempt to characterize the radionuclides produced during irradiation. The activities of the thin foils were employed in an effort to unfold a spectrum of the neutrons produced during the hadronic cascades in the target. The MARS Monte Carlo code (MO95, MO00) was used to predict and analyze the residual radiation produced during the beam irradiation. New subroutines have been developed for the MARS14 version providing reliable estimation of residual dose rates in arbitrary composite materials for arbitrary irradiation and cooling times (RA01). The results of the simulations have been compared with the measurements in Ref. (RA01) and this comparison will be summarized here.

  15. Validation of in vitro cell models used in drug metabolism and transport studies; genotyping of cytochrome P450, phase II enzymes and drug transporter polymorphisms in the human hepatoma (HepG2), ovarian carcinoma (IGROV-1) and colon carcinoma (CaCo-2, LS180) cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, Esther F.A.; Bosch, Tessa M.; Deenen, Maarten J.; Levink, Rianne; Wal, Everdina van der; Meerveld, Joyce B.M. van; Bijl, Monique; Beijnen, Jos H. |; Schellens, Jan H.M. |; Meijerman, Irma . E-mail: I.Meijerman@pharm.uu.nl

    2006-02-15

    Human cell lines are often used for in vitro biotransformation and transport studies of drugs. In vivo, genetic polymorphisms have been identified in drug-metabolizing enzymes and ABC-drug transporters leading to altered enzyme activity, or a change in the inducibility of these enzymes. These genetic polymorphisms could also influence the outcome of studies using human cell lines. Therefore, the aim of our study was to pharmacogenotype four cell lines frequently used in drug metabolism and transport studies, HepG2, IGROV-1, CaCo-2 and LS180, for genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes and drug transporters. The results indicate that, despite the presence of some genetic polymorphisms, no real effects influencing the activity of metabolizing enzymes or drug transporters in the investigated cell lines are expected. However, this characterization will be an aid in the interpretation of the results of biotransformation and transport studies using these in vitro cell models.

  16. Incorporating Ninth-Grade PSAT/NMSQT® Scores into AP Potential™ Predictions for AP® European History and AP World History. Statistical Report 2014-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiuyuan; Patel, Priyank; Ewing, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Historically, AP Potential™ correlations and expectancy tables have been based on 10th-and 11th-grade PSAT/NMSQT® examinees and 11th-and 12th-grade AP® examinees for all subjects (Zhang, Patel, & Ewing,2014; Ewing, Camara, & Millsap, 2006; Camara & Millsap, 1998). However, a large number of students take AP European History and AP

  17. Transport of thalidomide by the human intestinal caco-2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Yan; Kestell, Phillip; Schafer, Peter; Chan, Eli; Paxton, James W

    2005-01-01

    Studies in patients have indicated that the oral absorption of thalidomide is considerably variable at high doses (>200 mg/day). The aim of this study was to investigate the transport of racemic thalidomide using human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2) monolayers, which have been widely used to investigate drug permeability. A typical 21-day protocol was used to prepare Caco-2 monolayers. Thalidomide was determined by a validated high performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection. The integrity of Caco-2 monolayer was confirmed when the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) exceeded 300 Ohmz . cm2, and the leakage of 14C-manitol was <1% per hour. Uptake of thalidomide by Caco-2 cells was very limited (up to 2.1%). The transport of thalidomide appeared to be linear up to 1 hr. Our study indicated that the permeability coefficients (Papp) of thalidomide at 2.5-300 microM from the apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) and from BL to AP side was 2-6 x 10(-5) cm/sec, with a marked decrease in Papp values from AP to BL at increased thalidomide concentration. The transport of thalidomide was sodium-, temperature- and pH-dependent, as replacement of extracellular sodium chloride or reducing temperature and apical pH can result in significant decreases in the Papp values. Additional data indicated that transport of thalidomide is energy-dependent, as it was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by the ATP inhibitors, sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. In addition, DL-glutamic acid, cytidine, diprodomole, papaverine, quinidine, and cyclophosphamide significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the transport of thalidomide, while the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil and other nucleosides and nucleotides such as thymidine and guanine had no effect. These results indicated that thalidomide was rapidly transported by Caco-2 monolayers, and this might involve a saturable energy-dependent transporter. PMID:16010862

  18. 77 FR 11192 - Fannin Rural Rail Transportation District-Lease and Operation Exemption-Line of Texas Department...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ...a 34.78-mile rail line extending from milepost 94.0 in Paris to milepost 128.78 in Bonham, Tex. The line has been a part...Bonham Subdivision extending between milepost 94.0, near Paris, and milepost 127.5, east of Bonham, in Lamar and...

  19. A Semi-automated Abundance Survey of Ap Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Martin P.; Kurtz, Don; Elkin, Vladimir; Bruntt, Hans

    2015-08-01

    We have carried out an abundance analysis on the high-resolution spectra of approximately 350 Ap stars collected between 2007 and 2010 on the FEROS Echelle (Fibre-led, Extended Range, Echelle ) spectrograph housed at the 2.2-m telescope at European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile. We employed the VWA package (vsin I, wavelength shift, abundance analysis) for preliminary selection of spectral lines, and a semi-automated set of routines which we developed in the programming language IDL, to calculate the equivalent widths and abundances of ions of Iron and the rare earth elements Neodymium and Praseodymium using the WIDTH program and NEMO model atmospheres. Initial results are presented, which reinforce the correlation between iron abundance and effective temperature, from an over-abundance in the late Bp stars, to under-abundant in the early F stars. Results also suggest that the disequilibrium in abundances of the first and second ionisation stages of these ions in the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars may a consequence of the relatively cool temperatures of those stars, rather than a signature of pulsation.

  20. Measurement of safety injection fluid transport in a scaled reactor test

    SciTech Connect

    Radcliff, T.D.; Parsons, J.R.; Johnson, W.S.; Ruggles, A.E.

    1999-03-01

    An existing geometric and fluid-fluid scaled facility is applied to investigate the transport of borated safety injection (SI) fluid in the Westinghouse AP600 reactor vessel during a main steam-line rupture (MSLR) event. The AP600 reactor has coaxial injection into the vessel downcomer rather than the cold-leg cross-flow injection typical of operating power reactors. This gas-flow test facility has unique detail in the representation of the SI nozzle-to-core inlet path most important to SI transport. Analysis of the transport phenomena expected in the reactor and the scaled facility, given MSLR conditions, indicates that both buoyancy and turbulent diffusion can have comparable influences on SI transport. It is shown that different reactor-to-experiment velocity ratios are required to scale each phenomenon. Tests are performed to evaluate transient SI fluid concentration at the core inlet using the appropriate velocity ratios to scale buoyancy and diffusion. Two asymmetric loop-flow boundary conditions representative of the MSLR event as well as a symmetric flow condition are applied. While no one test result is fully similar to the expected reactor transport, this ensemble of tests provides data that are valuable for AP600 numerical model benchmarking.

  1. Enhancement of the helium resonance lines in the solar atmosphere by suprathermal electron excitation I: non-thermal transport of helium ions

    E-print Network

    G. R. Smith; C. Jordan

    2002-08-16

    Models of the solar transition region made from lines other than those of helium cannot account for the strength of the helium lines. However, the collisional excitation rates of the helium resonance lines are unusually sensitive to the energy of the exciting electrons. Non-thermal motions in the transition region could drive slowly-ionizing helium ions rapidly through the steep temperature gradient, exposing them to excitation by electrons characteristic of higher temperatures than those describing their ionization state. We present the results of calculations which use a more physical representation of the lifetimes of the ground states of He I and He II than was adopted in earlier work on this process. New emission measure distributions are used to calculate the temperature variation with height. The results show that non-thermal motions can lead to enhancements of the He I and He II resonance line intensities by factors that are comparable with those required. Excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions would reduce the effects of non-thermal transport. The effects of non-thermal motions are more consistent with the observed spatial distribution of helium emission than are those of excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions alone. In particular, they account better for the observed line intensity ratio I(537.0 A)/I(584.3 A), and its variation with location.

  2. 77 FR 24480 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program-Reopening the AP Test Fee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ...Reopening the AP Test Fee Fiscal Year 2012 Competition AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary...reopening the AP Test Fee fiscal year 2012 competition...AP Test Fee fiscal year (FY) 2012 competition (February 15 notice). That...

  3. Development of the AP Technology Through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmier, F.; Martin, O.; Gariepy, R.

    2015-02-01

    This article presents the historical development of the AP Technology (Aluval, Voreppe, France) pot series starting with the AP13 in the 1960s, followed by the AP18 and the AP30 in the 1980s and 1990s. For most of the modern-era technology, from the late 1970s on, development has been based on a three-stage pattern, the first one being the pot modeling, followed by the pot prototype stage, and then the industrial stage, which fully validated the technology. This development pattern has proven to be successful since it has led to the very robust AP Technology pot design generation and a large number of greenfield smelters built in the 1990-2010 selected the AP Technology design. AP60 is the latest of this series: The development at the prototype level was initiated in the 1990s and is presented in the article. It is now followed by the first industrial realization at Jonquière with the startup in late 2013 and the full validation of the technology in mid-2014. The development of APXe, which aims at very low energy consumption, uses many common elements pertaining to the AP60 design and is presented in the article. AP Technology has also addressed the need for continuous and fast improvement of pot performances adapted to each existing client or site specifics; for this purpose, a new development methodology has recently emerged thanks to the very high modeling capabilities. This methodology, based on the validation of "technology bricks" and their integration in the final design following a strict process, is presented in the last section of this article.

  4. Off-line algorithm for calculation of vertical tracer transport in the troposphere due to deep convection

    E-print Network

    Belikov, Dmitry

    A modified cumulus convection parametrisation scheme is presented. This scheme computes the mass of air transported upward in a cumulus cell using conservation of moisture and a detailed distribution of convective precipitation ...

  5. Pulsation properties of the rapidly oscillating Ap star 10Aquilae (HD176232)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.

    2008-05-01

    We have studied the pulsation behaviour of radial velocities of individual spectral lines of different chemical elements for the well known, bright rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star 10Aql (HD176232) based on high-quality Very Large Telescope spectra. We found that only lines of rare earth elements and the narrow H? core show detectable rapid variations of radial velocity with the known photometric pulsation period, 11.7min. The highest pulsation amplitudes of more than 0.5kms-1 are found for rather weak lines of TbIII and DyIII. The pulsational phases obtained for lines of TbIII and DyIII differ by ? rad, perhaps an indication of a radial node between their line-forming layers. Weak lines of SmII also display amplitudes near 0.5kms-1. Surprisingly, the lines of PrIII show the lowest detected pulsation amplitude in strong contrast with the majority of roAp stars for which this ion has some of the highest radial velocity amplitudes. Lines of NdIII with different intensities have pulsation amplitudes different to the weaker lines that are formed more deeply in the atmosphere having higher amplitudes. Line bisectors for strong NdIII line profiles show significant changes of phase, and even phase jumps for some lines, indicating complex variations in the pulsation phase as a function of atmospheric depth. The low-measured rotational velocity of this star indicates that there is little Doppler resolution of the line profiles, hence that the large range of pulsation amplitudes and phases of radial velocities determined for line bisectors are primarily caused by atmospheric depth effects. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, as part of programme 077.D-0150(A). E-mail: velkin@uclan.ac.uk

  6. 78 FR 21817 - Amendment of Restricted Area R-6601; Fort A.P. Hill, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... limits and increase the time of designation of restricted area R-6601, Fort A.P. Hill, VA, (77 FR 35308... ``significant rule'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  7. 77 FR 35308 - Proposed Amendment of Restricted Area R-6601; Fort A.P. Hill, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...restricted area R-6601, Fort A.P. Hill, VA. The U. S...Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...number) between 9:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday...interested in being placed on a mailing list for...

  8. Induction of cells differentiation and ABC transporters expression by a myco-estrogen, zearalenone, in human choriocarcinoma cell line (BeWo).

    PubMed

    Prouillac, Caroline; Videmann, Bernadette; Mazallon, Michelle; Lecoeur, Sylvaine

    2009-09-19

    The mycotoxin zearalenone, produced by Fusarium species, is a worldwide contaminant of concern in cereals and other plant products. Due to its estrogenic activity, zearalenone (ZEA) is known to have toxicological effect in animals on reproductive system and the placental transfer of ZEA was suggested by in vivo studies. Although passive diffusion is the principal transport mechanism across the placenta, several carrier-mediated transport protein such as ABC transporter (P-gp, MRP1, MRP2, BCRP) have been identified in the placenta. In this work, we have investigated the effect of ZEA on trophoblast differentiation and ABC transporter expression by using an in vitro model of transplacental barrier, the BeWo cell line. In the presence of 10 microM ZEA morphological (syncytium formation) and biochemical (hCG secretion) differentiation of BeWo cells were observed after a 48h exposure. Results were compared to 17beta-estradiol (E2) and an inducer of syncytialisation (forskolin). The influence of cell differentiation and ZEA exposure on expression profiles of major ABC transporters was investigated in BeWo cells: expression of mRNA MRP1, MRP2 and BCRP was induced after 24h of ZEA exposure. Induction of P-gp, MRP1, and MRP2 protein was observed after 48h of ZEA exposure. Similar results were obtained after forskolin exposure. Our study reported for the first time the implication of a food contaminant in biological effect and ABC transporter expression modulation in human choriocarcinoma cells. PMID:19580841

  9. Meet the APS Editors Coffee Break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    The APS Journal Editors invite you to join them for conversation and light refreshments. The Editors will be available to answer questions, discuss your ideas, and listen to your comments about the journals. All are welcome to attend.

  10. 46th APS-DPP Savannah, GA

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    . Also has a natural divertor, facilitating reactor ash removal. It offers a very attractive candidate for an economic fusion reactor. #12;546th APS-DPP, November 15-19, 2004, Savannah, GA Translation of FRCs formed

  11. APS Activities with Other Professional Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slakey, Francis

    2006-03-01

    In 1981, the APS Council issued a statement that opposed ``equal time'' presentation in public school science classes of creationism and evolution. The statement clarified that ``Scientific inquiry and religious beliefs are two distinct elements of the human experience. Attempts to present them in the same context can only lead to misunderstandings of both.'' The APS Council revisited the issue in 1999 when a school board in Kansas attempted to eliminate the Big Bang, among other issues, from the science curriculum. Since that time, the APS has been more directly involved in confronting efforts that would dilute the teaching of science in public school science classes. This talk will review the APS activities and describe a developing multi-science society activity.

  12. Mutations in ap1b1 Cause Mistargeting of the Na+/K+-ATPase Pump in Sensory Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Clemens Grisham, Rachel; Kindt, Katie; Finger-Baier, Karin; Schmid, Bettina; Nicolson, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The hair cells of the inner ear are polarized epithelial cells with a specialized structure at the apical surface, the mechanosensitive hair bundle. Mechanotransduction occurs within the hair bundle, whereas synaptic transmission takes place at the basolateral membrane. The molecular basis of the development and maintenance of the apical and basal compartments in sensory hair cells is poorly understood. Here we describe auditory/vestibular mutants isolated from forward genetic screens in zebrafish with lesions in the adaptor protein 1 beta subunit 1 (ap1b1) gene. Ap1b1 is a subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1, which has been implicated in the targeting of basolateral membrane proteins. In ap1b1 mutants we observed that although the overall development of the inner ear and lateral-line organ appeared normal, the sensory epithelium showed progressive signs of degeneration. Mechanically-evoked calcium transients were reduced in mutant hair cells, indicating that mechanotransduction was also compromised. To gain insight into the cellular and molecular defects in ap1b1 mutants, we examined the localization of basolateral membrane proteins in hair cells. We observed that the Na+/K+-ATPase pump (NKA) was less abundant in the basolateral membrane and was mislocalized to apical bundles in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Accordingly, intracellular Na+ levels were increased in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Our results suggest that Ap1b1 is essential for maintaining integrity and ion homeostasis in hair cells. PMID:23593334

  13. 76 FR 6328 - Official Release of the January 2011 AP-42 Method for Estimating Re-Entrained Road Dust From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... emissions model for SIPs and regional conformity purposes (75 FR 9411) and of the MOVES2010a and EMFAC models for transportation conformity hot-spot analyses (75 FR 79370). The January 2011 AP-42 method... grace period in the preamble to the 1993 transportation conformity rule (58 FR 62211): EPA and DOT...

  14. Kepler observations of rapidly oscillating Ap, ? Scuti and ? Doradus pulsations in Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balona, L. A.; Cunha, M. S.; Kurtz, D. W.; Brandão, I. M.; Gruberbauer, M.; Saio, H.; Östensen, R.; Elkin, V. G.; Borucki, W. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Koch, D. G.; Bryson, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of the A5p star KIC 8677585 obtained during the Kepler 10-d commissioning run with 1-min time resolution show that it is a rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star with several frequencies with periods near 10 min. In addition, a low frequency at 3.142 d-1 is also clearly present. Multiperiodic ? Doradus (? Dor) and ? Scuti (? Sct) pulsations, never before seen in any Ap star, are present in Kepler observations of at least three other Ap stars. Since ? Dor pulsations are seen in Ap stars, it is likely that the low frequency in KIC 8677585 is also a ? Dor pulsation. The simultaneous presence of both ? Dor and roAp pulsations and the unexpected detection of ? Sct and ? Dor pulsations in Ap stars present new opportunities and challenges for the interpretation of these stars. Since it is easy to confuse Am and Ap stars at classification dispersions, the nature of these Ap stars in the Kepler field needs to be confirmed.

  15. HD 97394: a magnetic Ap star with high cerium overabundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.

    2011-08-01

    We report a spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar Ap star HD 97394. The stellar spectrum is rich in lines of rare earth elements with large overabundances, especially cerium, gadolinium and europium. Enhancement of the abundances of these rare earths shows this star to be one of the most peculiar stars. Very large overabundances were found for lines of Ce III and Eu III. Abundances obtained from second ionization lines of Nd, Ce and Eu are about 2 dex higher than for those of the first ionization. From partially split Zeeman components of the Fe II 6149.258 Å line and from synthetic modelling, a global magnetic field of 3.1 kG was measured. We tested for pulsation of the star with high time resolution spectroscopy obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope. We place an upper limit to any pulsation amplitude of 30-40 m s-1 for individual lines of rare earth elements, of 10-20 m s-1 for the combination of several lines, and of 6-10 m s-1 for cross-correlation over large spectral bands. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, as part of programmes 080.D-0191(A) and 078.D-0080(A).

  16. Project W-519 CDR supplement: Raw water and electrical services for privatization contractor, AP tank farm operations

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-07-31

    This supplement to the Project W-519 Conceptual Design will identify a means to provide RW and Electrical services to serve the needs of the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) at AP Tank Farm as directed by DOE-RL. The RW will serve the fire suppression and untreated process water requirements for the PC. The purpose of this CDR supplement is to identify Raw Water (RW) and Electrical service line routes to the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) feed delivery tanks, AP-106 and/or AP-108, and establish associated cost impacts to the Project W-519 baseline.

  17. Radiation transport analyses in support of the SNS Target Station Neutron Beam Line Shutters Title I Design

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.M.; Pevey, R.E.; Lillie, R.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    2000-12-01

    A detailed radiation transport analysis of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) shutters is important for the construction of the SNS because of its impact on conventional facility design, normal operation of the facility, and maintenance operations. Thus far the analysis of the SNS shutter travel gaps has been completed. This analysis was performed using coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations.

  18. Organic anion transporter 2 transcript variant 1 shows broad ligand selectivity when expressed in multiple cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Hotchkiss, Adam G.; Berrigan, Liam; Pelis, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2) is likely important for renal and hepatic drug elimination. Three variants of the OAT2 peptide sequence have been described – OAT2 transcript variant 1 (OAT2-tv1), OAT2 transcript variant 2 (OAT2-tv2), and OAT2 transcript variant 3 (OAT2-tv3). Early studies helping to define the ligand selectivity of OAT2 failed to identify the variant used, and the studies used several heterologous expression systems. In preliminary studies using OAT2-tv1, we failed to observe transport of several previously identified substrates, leading us to speculate that ligand selectivity of OAT2 differs with variant and/or heterologous expression system. The purpose was to further investigate the ligand selectivity of the OAT2 variants expressed in multiple cell types. We cloned OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2, but were unsuccessful at amplifying mRNA for OAT2-tv3 from human kidney. OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2 were individually expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK), Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. mRNA for OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2 was demonstrated in each cell type transfected with the respective construct, indicating their expression. OAT2-tv1 trafficked to the plasma membrane of all three cell types, but OAT2-tv2 did not. OAT2-tv1 transported penciclovir in all three cell types, but failed to transport para-aminohippurate, succinate, glutarate, estrone-3-sulfate, paclitaxel or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate – previously identified substrates of OAT2-tv2. Not surprising given its lack of plasma membrane expression, OAT2-tv2 failed to transport any of the organic solutes examined, including penciclovir. Penciclovir transport by OAT2-tv1 was sensitive to large (e.g., cyclosporine A) and small (e.g., allopurinol) organic compounds, as well as organic anions, cations and neutral compounds, highlighting the multiselectivity of OAT2-tv1. The potencies with which indomethacin, furosemide, cyclosporine A and cimetidine inhibited OAT2-tv1 are in good agreement with previous studies using this variant, but inconsistent with studies using OAT2 with an unidentified sequence. This study shows that organic molecules with diverse physicochemical properties interact with OAT2-tv1, making it a likely site of drug interactions. Many previously identified substrates of OAT2 are not transported by OAT2-tv1, suggesting that variant and/or expression system may contribute. Future work should establish the expression pattern and ligand selectivity of OAT2-tv3. PMID:26500550

  19. The chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660

    SciTech Connect

    Giarrusso, M.

    2014-05-09

    In this work I present the determination of chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660, a possible rapid oscillating star. As all the magnetic chemically peculiar objects, it presents CNO underabundance and overabundance of iron peak elements of ?100 times and of rare earths up to 4 dex with respect to the Sun. The determination was based on the conversion of the observed equivalent widths into abundances simultaneously to the determination of effective temperature and gravity. Since the Balmer lines of early type stars are very sensitive to the surface gravity while the flux distribution is sensitive to the effective temperature, I have adopted an iterative procedure to match the H{sub ?} line profile and the observed UV-Vis-NIR magnitudes of HD94660 looking for a consistency between the metallicity of the atmosphere model and the derived abundances. From my spectroscopic analysis, this star belongs to the no-rapid oscillating class.

  20. Conditional depletion of intellectual disability and Parkinsonism candidate gene ATP6AP2 in fly and mouse induces cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Dubos, Aline; Castells-Nobau, Anna; Meziane, Hamid; Oortveld, Merel A W; Houbaert, Xander; Iacono, Giovanni; Martin, Christelle; Mittelhaeuser, Christophe; Lalanne, Valérie; Kramer, Jamie M; Bhukel, Anuradha; Quentin, Christine; Slabbert, Jan; Verstreken, Patrik; Sigrist, Stefan J; Messaddeq, Nadia; Birling, Marie-Christine; Selloum, Mohammed; Stunnenberg, Henk G; Humeau, Yann; Schenck, Annette; Herault, Yann

    2015-12-01

    ATP6AP2, an essential accessory component of the vacuolar H+ ATPase (V-ATPase), has been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and Parkinsonism. ATP6AP2 has been implicated in several signalling pathways; however, little is known regarding its role in the nervous system. To decipher its function in behaviour and cognition, we generated and characterized conditional knockdowns of ATP6AP2 in the nervous system of Drosophila and mouse models. In Drosophila, ATP6AP2 knockdown induced defective phototaxis and vacuolated photoreceptor neurons and pigment cells when depleted in eyes and altered short- and long-term memory when depleted in the mushroom body. In mouse, conditional Atp6ap2 deletion in glutamatergic neurons (Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mice) caused increased spontaneous locomotor activity and altered fear memory. Both Drosophila ATP6AP2 knockdown and Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mice presented with presynaptic transmission defects, and with an abnormal number and morphology of synapses. In addition, Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mice showed autophagy defects that led to axonal and neuronal degeneration in the cortex and hippocampus. Surprisingly, axon myelination was affected in our mutant mice, and axonal transport alterations were observed in Drosophila. In accordance with the identified phenotypes across species, genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mouse hippocampi revealed dysregulation of genes involved in myelination, action potential, membrane-bound vesicles and motor behaviour. In summary, ATP6AP2 disruption in mouse and fly leads to cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, mimicking aspects of the neuropathology associated with ATP6AP2 mutations in humans. Our results identify ATP6AP2 as an essential gene for the nervous system. PMID:26376863

  1. Conditional depletion of intellectual disability and Parkinsonism candidate gene ATP6AP2 in fly and mouse induces cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dubos, Aline; Castells-Nobau, Anna; Meziane, Hamid; Oortveld, Merel A.W.; Houbaert, Xander; Iacono, Giovanni; Martin, Christelle; Mittelhaeuser, Christophe; Lalanne, Valérie; Kramer, Jamie M.; Bhukel, Anuradha; Quentin, Christine; Slabbert, Jan; Verstreken, Patrik; Sigrist, Stefan J.; Messaddeq, Nadia; Birling, Marie-Christine; Selloum, Mohammed; Stunnenberg, Henk G.; Humeau, Yann; Schenck, Annette; Herault, Yann

    2015-01-01

    ATP6AP2, an essential accessory component of the vacuolar H+ ATPase (V-ATPase), has been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and Parkinsonism. ATP6AP2 has been implicated in several signalling pathways; however, little is known regarding its role in the nervous system. To decipher its function in behaviour and cognition, we generated and characterized conditional knockdowns of ATP6AP2 in the nervous system of Drosophila and mouse models. In Drosophila, ATP6AP2 knockdown induced defective phototaxis and vacuolated photoreceptor neurons and pigment cells when depleted in eyes and altered short- and long-term memory when depleted in the mushroom body. In mouse, conditional Atp6ap2 deletion in glutamatergic neurons (Atp6ap2Camk2aCre/0 mice) caused increased spontaneous locomotor activity and altered fear memory. Both Drosophila ATP6AP2 knockdown and Atp6ap2Camk2aCre/0 mice presented with presynaptic transmission defects, and with an abnormal number and morphology of synapses. In addition, Atp6ap2Camk2aCre/0 mice showed autophagy defects that led to axonal and neuronal degeneration in the cortex and hippocampus. Surprisingly, axon myelination was affected in our mutant mice, and axonal transport alterations were observed in Drosophila. In accordance with the identified phenotypes across species, genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Atp6ap2Camk2aCre/0 mouse hippocampi revealed dysregulation of genes involved in myelination, action potential, membrane-bound vesicles and motor behaviour. In summary, ATP6AP2 disruption in mouse and fly leads to cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, mimicking aspects of the neuropathology associated with ATP6AP2 mutations in humans. Our results identify ATP6AP2 as an essential gene for the nervous system. PMID:26376863

  2. A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Karmakar, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Dechoudhury, S.; Mondal, M.; Pandey, H. K.; Lavanyakumar, D.; Mandi, T. K.; Dutta, D. P.; Kundu Roy, T.; Bhowmick, D.; Sanyal, D.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Ray, A.; Ali, Md. S.; Bhattacharjee, S.

    2013-03-15

    Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms/molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms/molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of {sup 14}O (71 s), {sup 42}K (12.4 h), {sup 43}K (22.2 h), and {sup 41}Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10{sup 3} particles per second (pps). About 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} pps of 1.4 MeV {sup 14}O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

  3. TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION

    E-print Network

    TEXASTRANS TEXAS TRANSPORTATION HALL HONOR OF HALL HONOR OF TEXASTRAN HALL HONOR OF TEXASTRAN HALL HONOR OF Inductees #12;2 TEXAS TRANSPORTATION HALL HONOR OF L NOR OF Texas is recognized as having one of the finest multimodal transportation systems in the world. The existence of this system has been key

  4. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, F.H.

    1997-12-22

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed.

  5. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

  6. The cell line NCl-H441 is a useful in vitro model for transport studies of human distal lung epithelial barrier.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Johanna J; Muchitsch, Viktoria E; Gausterer, Julia C; Schwagerus, Elena; Huwer, Hanno; Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2014-03-01

    The lack of a well characterized, continuously growing in vitro model of human distal lung epithelial phenotype constitutes a serious limitation in the area of inhalation biopharmaceutics, particularly in the context of transepithelial transport studies. Here, we investigated if a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, NCl-H441, has potential to serve as an in vitro model of human distal lung epithelium. The development of barrier properties was studied by immunocytochemistry (ICC) against the junction proteins zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) and E-cadherin and measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Moreover, transport studies with the paracellular marker compounds fluorescein sodium and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextrans of molecular weights ranging from 4 to 70 kDa were carried out. The expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1) and organic cation transporters (OCT/Ns; SLC22A1-A5) was investigated by ICC and immunoblot. P-gp function was assessed by monolayer release and bidirectional transport studies using rhodamine 123 (Rh123) and the inhibitors verapamil and LY335979. Uptake of 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+)) was measured, in order to assess organic cation transporter function in vitro. Furthermore, the inhibitory potential of several organic cations on ASP(+) uptake was studied. NCl-H441 cells, when grown under liquid-covered conditions, formed confluent, electrically tight monolayers with peak TEER values of approximately 1000 ?·cm(2), after 8-12 days in culture. These monolayers were able to differentiate paracellularly transported substrates according to their molecular weight. Presence of P-gp, OCT1, OCT2, OCT3, OCTN1, and OCTN2 was confirmed by Western blot and ICC and was similar to data from freshly isolated human alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture. Rh123 release from NCI-H441 monolayers was time-dependent and showed low, albeit significant attenuation by both inhibitors. In transport studies, Rh123 exhibited net secretion, which again was inhibitable by bona fide P-gp modulators. The uptake of ASP(+) was time- and temperature-dependent with Km = 881.2 ± 195.3 ?M and Vmax = 2.07 ± 0.26 nmol/min/mg protein. TEA, amantadine, quinidine, and verapamil significantly inhibited ASP(+) uptake into NCl-H441 cells, whereas the effect of d- and l-carnitine and ergothioneine, two OCTN substrates, was less pronounced. NCl-H441 cells are the first cell line of human distal lung epithelial origin with the ability to form monolayers with appreciable barrier properties. Moreover, drug transporter expression and activity in NCl-H441 cells was consistent with what has been reported for human alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture. PMID:24524365

  7. Single-Bunch Electron Cloud Effects in the GLC/NLC, US-Cold and TESLA Low Emittance Transport Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, D.

    2005-04-12

    This paper examines the severity of the electron cloud effects in the Low Emittance Transport (LET) of linear colliders including the Bunch-Compressor System (BCS) and Beam Delivery System (BDS). We examine the electron cloud effects in the normal-conducting GLC/NLC or X-Band, and the super-conducting US-Cold and TESLA linear collider designs through the use of specially developed computer simulation codes. An estimate of the critical cloud density is given for the BDS and BCS of the X-Band collider.

  8. Plyler Prize and APS Fellow Introductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathanson, Gilbert

    2014-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Physics is delighted to announce the 2013 APS Fellows sponsored by DCP and to honor the 2014 Earl K. Plyler Prize Award winner. The new APS Fellows are: Ilan Benjamin, Hua Guo, Manos Mavrikakis, Josef Paldus, Joern Siepmann, Hans-Peter Steinrueck, Douglas Tobias, Angela Wilson, and Yijing Yan. The citations for each awardee will be read out loud. I will also introduce Prof. Lai-Sheng Wang of the Department of Chemistry at Brown University, who was awarded the 2014 Plyler Prize for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics. Please come learn about these extraordinary scientists during this prize session. Prof. Wang's Plyler Prize talk will follow immediately after this introduction. For more information, see http://www.aps.org/units/dcp/.

  9. APS storage ring vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERCONDUCTING COMBINED FUNCTION MAGNETS FOR THE PROTON TRANSPORT LINE FOR THE J-PARC NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    NAKAMOTO, T.; AJIMA, Y.; FUJII, Y.; HIGASHI, N.; ICHIKAWA, A.; KIMURA, N.; KOBAYASHI, T.; MAKIDA, Y.; OGITSU, T.; OHHATA, H.; OKAMURA, T.; SASAKI, K.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Superconducting combined function magnets will be utilized for the 50 GeV, 750 kW proton beam line for the J-PARC neutrino experiment. The magnet is designed to provide a dipole field of 2.6 T combined with a quadrupole field of 19 T/m in a coil aperture of 173.4 mm at a nominal current of 7345 A. Two full-scale prototype magnets to verify the magnet performance were successfully developed. The first prototype experienced no training quench during the excitation test and good field quality was confirmed.

  11. Tank 241-AP-106, grab samples, 6AP-96-1 through 6AP-96-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. This document presents the analytical results for three samples (6AP-96-1, 6AP-96-2 and 6AP-96-3) taken from riser 1 @ 150{degrees} of tank 241-AP-1 06 on September 12, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1996) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler, 1995).

  12. Auxin Transport and Ribosome Biogenesis Mutant/Reporter Lines to Study Plant Cell Growth and Proliferation under Altered Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valbuena, Miguel A.; Manzano, Ana I.; van Loon, Jack JWA.; Saez-Vasquez, Julio; Carnero-Diaz, Eugenie; Herranz, Raul; Medina, F. J.

    2013-02-01

    We tested different Arabidopsis thaliana strains to check their availability for space use in the International Space Station (ISS). We used mutants and reporter gene strains affecting factors of cell proliferation and cell growth, to check variations induced by an altered gravity vector. Seedlings were grown either in a Random Positioning Machine (RPM), under simulated microgravity (?g), or in a Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC), under hypergravity (2g). A combination of the two devices (?gRPM+LDC) was also used. Under all gravity alterations, seedling roots were longer than in control 1g conditions, while the levels of the nucleolar protein nucleolin were depleted. Alterations in the pattern of expression of PIN2, an auxin transporter, and of cyclin B1, a cell cycle regulator, were shown. All these alterations are compatible with previous space data, so the use of these strains will be useful in the next experiments in ISS, under real microgravity.

  13. Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Toru; Higa, Shinji; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Naka, Tetsuji; Ogata, Atsushi; Shima, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Minoru; Yamadori, Tomoki; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio . E-mail: ttanak@imed3.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2006-02-03

    Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1.

  14. Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and…

  15. ACADEMIC PROBATION (AP) Causal Event(s)

    E-print Network

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    ACADEMIC PROBATION (AP) Causal Event(s) or triggers Remedial Action Communication Documentation and must be constructed to promote professional development. Students on Academic Probation are not allowed the experience. Student receives written notice regarding PRB concerns and placement on Academic Probation

  16. Advanced Placement Program (AP) Examination Minimum

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Advanced Placement Program (AP) Examination Minimum Score Credit Hours Course Equivalent ART (Studio) Studio Art Drawing 3 3 ART 111 Studio Art-2-D Design 3 or 4 3 Open credit ART Studio Art-2-D Science A 3 3 Open credit CS Computer Science AB 3 6 Open credit CS (6 units maximum for both tests

  17. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  18. The Promise of AP World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  19. Structuring the AP Art History Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herscher, Walter R.

    2013-01-01

    While AP (Advanced Placement) Art History may be taught within the art department in many schools, social studies teachers are equally capable of teaching the course well. They have the historical background to discuss the reasons for changes in art styles. A teacher's preparation is similar to teaching a course stressing political history,…

  20. Use of On-Line Tracers as a Diagnostic Tool in General Circulation Model Development. 2; Transport Between the Troposphere and Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David H.; Lerner, Jean; Shah, Kathy; Suozzo, Robert

    1999-01-01

    A key component of climate/chemistry modeling is how to handle the influx into (and egress from) the troposphere. This is especially important when considering tropospheric ozone, and its precursors (e.g., NO(x) from aircraft). A study has been conducted with various GISS models to determine the minimum requirements necessary for producing realistic troposphere-stratosphere exchange. Four on-line tracers are employed: CFC-11 and SF6 for mixing from the troposphere into the stratosphere, Rn222 for vertical mixing within the troposphere, and 14C for mixing from the stratosphere into the troposphere. Four standard models are tested, with varying vertical resolution, gravity wave drag and location of the model top, and additional subsidiary models are employed to examine specific features. The results show that proper vertical transport between the troposphere and stratosphere in the GISS models requires lifting the top of the model considerably out of the stratosphere, and including gravity wave drag in the lower stratosphere. Increased vertical resolution without these aspects does not improve troposphere-stratosphere exchange. The transport appears to be driven largely by the residual circulation within the stratosphere; associated E-P flux convergences require both realistic upward propagating energy from the troposphere, and realistic pass-through possibilities. A 23 layer version with a top at the mesopause and incorporating gravity wave drag appears to have reasonable stratospheric-tropospheric exchange, in terms of both the resulting tracer distributions and atmospheric mass fluxes.

  1. Hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops (APS 2009)

    E-print Network

    Brutin, D; LeNiliot, C

    2009-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video was submitted to the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the 2009 APS Division of Fluid Dynamics Meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Drop evaporation is a simple phenomena but still unclear concerning the mechanisms of evaporation. A common agreement of the scientific community based on experimental and numerical work evidences that most of the evaporation occurs at the triple line. However, the rate of evaporation is still empirically predicted due to the lack of knowledge on the convection cells which develop inside the drop under evaporation. The evaporation of sessile drop is more complicated than it appears due to the coupling by conduction with the heating substrate, the convection and conduction inside the drop and the convection and diffusion with the vapour phase. The coupling of heat transfer in the three phases induces complicated cases to solve even for numerical simulations. We present recent experimental fluid dynamics videos obtained using a FLIR SC-6000 coupled with a microsco...

  2. Wave-particle interaction in parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasmas along open field magnetic field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xianzhu

    2012-03-01

    A tokamak fusion reactor dumps a large amount of heat and particle flux to the divertor through the scrape-off plasma (SOL). Situation exists either by necessity or through deliberate design that the SOL plasma attains long mean-free-path along large segments of the open field lines. The rapid parallel streaming of electrons requires a large parallel electric field to maintain ambipolarity. The confining effect of the parallel electric field on electrons leads to a trap/passing boundary in the velocity space for electrons. In the normal situation where the upstream electron source populates both the trapped and passing region, a mechanism must exist to produce a flux across the electron trap/passing boundary. In a short mean-free-path plasma, this is provided by collisions. For long mean-free-path plasmas, wave-particle interaction is the primary candidate for detrapping the electrons. Here we present simulation results and a theoretical analysis using a model distribution function of trapped electrons. The dominating electromagnetic plasma instability and the associated collisionless scattering, that produces both particle and energy fluxes across the electron trap/passing boundary in velocity space, are discussed.

  3. Resveratrol rescues cAMP-dependent anionic transport in the cystic fibrosis pancreatic cell line CFPAC1

    PubMed Central

    Hamdaoui, Nabila; Baudoin-Legros, Maryvonne; Kelly, Mairead; Aissat, Abdel; Moriceau, Sandra; Vieu, Diane-Lore; Colas, Julien; Fritsch, Janine; Edelman, Aleksander; Planelles, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-dependent chloride channel in the plasma membrane of epithelia whose mutation is the cause of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). The most frequent CFTR mutation is deletion of Phe508 and this mutant protein (delF508CFTR) does not readily translocate to the plasma membrane and is rapidly degraded within the cell. We hypothesized that treating epithelial cells with resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic, phyto-ooestrogenic compound from grapes, could modulate both the expression and localization of CFTR. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cells endogenously expressing CFTR (MDCK1 and CAPAN1 cells) or delF508CFTR (CFPAC1 and airway epithelial cells, deriving from human bronchial biopsies) were treated with resveratrol for 2 or 18 h. The effect of this treatment on CFTR and delF508CFTR expression and localization was evaluated using RT-PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Halide efflux was measured with a fluorescent dye and with halide-sensitive electrodes. Production of interleukin-8 by these cells was assayed by ELISA. KEY RESULTS Resveratrol treatment increased CFTR expression or maturation in immunoblotting experiments in MDCK1 cells or in CFPAC1 cells. Indirect immunofluorescence experiments showed a shift of delF508CFTR localization towards the (peri)-membrane area in CFPAC1 cells and in human airway epithelial cells. A cAMP-dependent increase in membrane permeability to halide was detected in resveratrol-treated CFPAC1 cells, and was inhibited by a selective inhibitor of CFTR. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These results show that resveratrol modulated CFTR expression and localization and could rescue cAMP-dependent chloride transport in delF508CFTR cells. PMID:21366549

  4. Regulation of P-glycoprotein and other ABC drug transporters at the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David S.

    2010-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are important, selective elements of the blood-brain barrier. They line the luminal plasma membrane of the brain capillary endothelium, facing the vascular space, both protecting the CNS from entry of neurotoxicants and limiting access of therapeutic drugs to the brain parenchyma. Recent studies highlight the multiple signaling pathways through which the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein and other ABC transporters are modulated in response to xenobiotics, stress and disease. They show that increased transporter expression occurs in response to signals that activate specific transcription factors including, PXR, CAR, NF-?B and AP-1, and reduced transporter activity occurs rapidly and reversibly in response to signaling through Src kinase, protein kinase C and estrogen receptors. A detailed understanding of such regulation can provide the basis for improved neuroprotection and enhanced therapeutic drug delivery to the brain. PMID:20417575

  5. A Timing-Based Scheme for Rogue AP Detection

    E-print Network

    Li, Qun

    A Timing-Based Scheme for Rogue AP Detection Hao Han, Bo Sheng, Member, IEEE, Chiu C. Tan, Member a practical timing-based technique that allows the user to avoid connecting to rogue APs. Our detection scheme such as SSID, MAC address, RSSI, and clock skew. A rogue AP is detected when its identities are compared

  6. Book Eyes Impact of AP Classes and Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2010-01-01

    At a time of mushrooming interest in Advanced Placement (AP) tests, a new book, "AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program," assembles studies on how capable the program is of meeting the increasingly diverse expectations held up for it. Growing out of a symposium held at Harvard in 2007, the book focuses on AP science courses…

  7. AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant safety overview for spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gorgemans, J.; Mulhollem, L.; Glavin, J.; Pfister, A.; Conway, L.; Schulz, T.; Oriani, L.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J.

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and costs. The AP1000 design uses passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as AC power, component cooling water, service water or HVAC. Furthermore, these passive features 'fail safe' during a non-LOCA event such that DC power and instrumentation are not required. The AP1000 also has simple, active, defense-in-depth systems to support normal plant operations. These active systems provide the first level of defense against more probable events and they provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the probabilistic risk assessment. The AP1000 passive safety approach allows the plant to achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of an accident for 72 hours without operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the U.S. Utility Requirement Document and the European Utility Requirements for passive plants. Limited operator actions are required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool via passive means. In line with the AP1000 approach to safety described above, the AP1000 plant design features multiple, diverse lines of defense to ensure spent fuel cooling can be maintained for design-basis events and beyond design-basis accidents. During normal and abnormal conditions, defense-in-depth and other systems provide highly reliable spent fuel pool cooling. They rely on off-site AC power or the on-site standby diesel generators. For unlikely design basis events with an extended loss of AC power (i.e., station blackout) or loss of heat sink or both, spent fuel cooling can still be provided indefinitely: - Passive systems, requiring minimal or no operator actions, are sufficient for at least 72 hours under all possible pool heat load conditions. - After 3 days, several different means are provided to continue spent fuel cooling using installed plant equipment as well as off-site equipment with built-in connections. Even for beyond design basis accidents with postulated pool damage and multiple failures in the passive safety-related systems and in the defense-in-depth active systems, the AP1000 multiple spent fuel pool spray and fill systems provide additional lines of defense to prevent spent fuel damage. (authors)

  8. Role of AP-1 in Developmentally Regulated Lysosomal Trafficking in Trypanosoma brucei?

    PubMed Central

    Tazeh, Ngii N.; Silverman, Jason S.; Schwartz, Kevin J.; Sevova, Elitza S.; Sutterwala, Shaheen S.; Bangs, James D.

    2009-01-01

    African trypanosomes are the causative agents of human trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). The pathogenic stage of the parasite has unique adaptations to life in the bloodstream of the mammalian host, including upregulation of endocytic and lysosomal activities. We investigated stage-specific requirements for cytoplasmic adaptor/clathrin machinery in post-Golgi apparatus biosynthetic sorting to the lysosome using RNA interference silencing of the Tb?1 subunit of adaptor complex 1 (AP-1), in conjunction with immunolocalization, kinetic analyses of reporter transport, and quantitative endocytosis assays. Tb?1 silencing was lethal in both stages, indicating a critical function(s) for the AP-1 machinery. Transport of soluble and membrane-bound secretory cargoes was Tb?1 independent in both stages. In procyclic parasites, trafficking of the lysosomal membrane protein, p67, was disrupted, leading to cell surface mislocalization. The lysosomal protease trypanopain was also secreted, suggesting a transmembrane-sorting receptor for this soluble hydrolase. In bloodstream trypanosomes, both p67 and trypanopain trafficking were unaffected by Tb?1 silencing, suggesting that AP-1 is not necessary for biosynthetic lysosomal trafficking. Endocytosis in bloodstream cells was also unaffected, indicating that AP-1 does not function at the flagellar pocket. These results indicate that post-Golgi apparatus sorting to the lysosome is critically dependent on the AP-1/clathrin machinery in procyclic trypanosomes but that this machinery is not necessary in bloodstream parasites. We propose a simple model for stage-specific default secretory trafficking in trypanosomes that is consistent with the behavior of other soluble and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cargos and which is influenced by upregulation of endocytosis in bloodstream parasites as an adaptation to life in the mammalian bloodstream. PMID:19581441

  9. 77 FR 24480 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program-Reopening the AP Test Fee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    .... ACTION: Notice reopening the AP Test Fee fiscal year 2012 competition. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.330B. SUMMARY: On February 15, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR... Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program--Reopening the AP Test Fee Fiscal...

  10. v-SNARE cellubrevin is required for basolateral sorting of AP-1B–dependent cargo in polarized epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Ian C.; Shteyn, Elina; Pypaert, Marc; Proux-Gillardeaux, Véronique; Kang, Richard S.; Galli, Thierry; Fölsch, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The epithelial cell–specific adaptor complex AP-1B is crucial for correct delivery of many transmembrane proteins from recycling endosomes to the basolateral plasma membrane. Subsequently, membrane fusion is dependent on the formation of complexes between SNARE proteins located at the target membrane and on transport vesicles. Although the t-SNARE syntaxin 4 has been localized to the basolateral membrane, the v-SNARE operative in the AP-1B pathway remained unknown. We show that the ubiquitously expressed v-SNARE cellubrevin localizes to the basolateral membrane and to recycling endosomes, where it colocalizes with AP-1B. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cellubrevin coimmunoprecipitates preferentially with syntaxin 4, implicating this v-SNARE in basolateral fusion events. Cleavage of cellubrevin with tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) results in scattering of AP-1B localization and missorting of AP-1B–dependent cargos, such as transferrin receptor and a truncated low-density lipoprotein receptor, LDLR-CT27. These data suggest that cellubrevin and AP-1B cooperate in basolateral membrane trafficking. PMID:17485489

  11. APS Conference on Understanding the Biological Clock: From Genetics to Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Martin

    1996-01-01

    The Conference was designed to take advantage of the fusion of two intellectually dominant but heretofore separate lines of clock research, vertebrate physiology and invertebrate and microbial genetics. The APS Conference attracted 251 scientists, 68 of whom were students. In addition to the excellent speaker program organized by Dunlap and Loros, the attendees also submitted 93 volunteer abstracts that were programmed in poster sessions. Thirty-four percent of the submitted abstracts were first authorized by a female student or scientist.

  12. Unexpected Heterodivalent Recruitment of NOS1AP to nNOS Reveals Multiple Sites for Pharmacological Intervention in Neuronal Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Li; Melero-Fernandez de Mera, Raquel M; Chen, Jia; Ba, Wei; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Zhang, Mingjie; Courtney, Michael J

    2015-05-13

    The protein NOS1AP/CAPON mediates signaling from a protein complex of NMDA receptor, PSD95 and nNOS. The only stroke trial for neuroprotectants that showed benefit to patients targeted this ternary complex. NOS1AP/nNOS interaction regulates small GTPases, iron transport, p38MAPK-linked excitotoxicity, and anxiety. Moreover, the nos1ap gene is linked to disorders from schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and autism to cardiovascular disorders and breast cancer. Understanding protein interactions required for NOS1AP function, therefore, has broad implications for numerous diseases. Here we show that the interaction of NOS1AP with nNOS differs radically from the classical PDZ docking assumed to be responsible. The NOS1AP PDZ motif does not bind nNOS as measured by multiple methods. In contrast, full-length NOS1AP forms an unusually stable interaction with nNOS. We mapped the discrepancy between full-length and C-terminal PDZ motif to a novel internal region we call the ExF motif. The C-terminal PDZ motif, although neither sufficient nor necessary for binding, nevertheless promotes the stability of the complex. It therefore potentially affects signal transduction and suggests that functional interaction of nNOS with NOS1AP might be targetable at two distinct sites. We demonstrate that excitotoxic pathways can be regulated, in cortical neuron and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rat, either by the previously described PDZ ligand TAT-GESV or by the ExF motif-bearing region of NOS1AP, even when lacking the critical PDZ residues as long as the ExF motif is intact and not mutated. This previously unrecognized heterodivalent interaction of nNOS with NOS1AP may therefore provide distinct opportunities for pharmacological intervention in NOS1AP-dependent signaling and excitotoxicity. PMID:25972165

  13. Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-04-19

    This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report.

  14. Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

    1997-09-01

    A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm{sup 2} (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented.

  15. Cultural Diversity in AP Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Frances R.

    2006-01-01

    Teaching AP Art History is like running on a treadmill that is moving faster than a teacher can run. Many teachers are out of breath before the end of the term and wonder how in the world they can cover every chapter. Because time is short and art from pre-history through to the present, including the non-European traditions, must be covered, this…

  16. Glucose-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by metal vapour synthesis are electively internalized in a pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line expressing GLUT1 transporter.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Daniele; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Gandin, Valentina; Evangelisti, Claudio; Vitulli, Giovanni; Schiavi, Eleonora; Marzano, Cristina; Ferretti, Anna M; Salvadori, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) can have a variety of biomedical applications due to their visualization properties through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and heating with radio frequency or alternating magnetic fields. In the oncological field, coating IONP with organic compounds to provide specific features and to achieve the ability of binding specific molecular targets appears to be very promising. To take advantage of the high avidity of tumor cells for glucose, we report the development of very small glucose-coated IONP (glc-IONP) by employing an innovative technique, Metal Vapor Synthesis (MVS). Moreover, we tested the internalization of our gl-IONP on a tumor line, BxPC3, over-expressing GLUT 1 transporter. Both glc-IONP and polyvinylpyrrolidone-IONP (PVP-IONP), as control, were prepared with MVS and were tested on BxPC3 at various concentrations. To evaluate the role of GLUT-1 transporter, we also investigated the effect of adding a polyclonal anti-GLUT1 antibody. After proper treatment, the iron value was assessed by atomic absorption spectrometer, reported in mcg/L and expressed in mg of protein. Our IONP prepared with MVS were very small and homogeneously distributed in a narrow range (1.75-3.75 nm) with an average size of 2.7 nm and were super-paramagnetic. Glc-IONP were internalized by BxPC3 cells in a larger amount than PVP-IONP. After 6h of treatment with 50 mcg/mL of IONPs, the content of Fe was 1.5 times higher in glc-IONP-treated cells compared with PVP-IONP-treated cells. After 1h pre-treatment with anti-GLUT1, a reduction of 41% cellular accumulation of glc-IONP was observed. Conversely, the uptake of PVP-IONPs was reduced only by 14% with antibody pretreatment. In conclusion, MVS allowed us to prepare small, homogeneous, super-paramagnetic glc-IONP, which are electively internalized by a tumor line over-expressing GLUT1. Our glc-IONP appear to have many requisites for in vivo use. PMID:25874906

  17. Glucose-Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Metal Vapour Synthesis Are Electively Internalized in a Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cell Line Expressing GLUT1 Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Evangelisti, Claudio; Vitulli, Giovanni; Schiavi, Eleonora; Marzano, Cristina; Ferretti, Anna M.; Salvadori, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) can have a variety of biomedical applications due to their visualization properties through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and heating with radio frequency or alternating magnetic fields. In the oncological field, coating IONP with organic compounds to provide specific features and to achieve the ability of binding specific molecular targets appears to be very promising. To take advantage of the high avidity of tumor cells for glucose, we report the development of very small glucose-coated IONP (glc-IONP) by employing an innovative technique, Metal Vapor Synthesis (MVS). Moreover, we tested the internalization of our gl-IONP on a tumor line, BxPC3, over-expressing GLUT 1 transporter. Both glc-IONP and polyvinylpyrrolidone-IONP (PVP-IONP), as control, were prepared with MVS and were tested on BxPC3 at various concentrations. To evaluate the role of GLUT-1 transporter, we also investigated the effect of adding a polyclonal anti-GLUT1 antibody. After proper treatment, the iron value was assessed by atomic absorption spectrometer, reported in mcg/L and expressed in mg of protein. Our IONP prepared with MVS were very small and homogeneously distributed in a narrow range (1.75-3.75 nm) with an average size of 2.7 nm and were super-paramagnetic. Glc-IONP were internalized by BxPC3 cells in a larger amount than PVP-IONP. After 6h of treatment with 50 mcg/mL of IONPs, the content of Fe was 1.5 times higher in glc-IONP-treated cells compared with PVP-IONP-treated cells. After 1h pre-treatment with anti-GLUT1, a reduction of 41% cellular accumulation of glc-IONP was observed. Conversely, the uptake of PVP-IONPs was reduced only by 14% with antibody pretreatment. In conclusion, MVS allowed us to prepare small, homogeneous, super-paramagnetic glc-IONP, which are electively internalized by a tumor line over-expressing GLUT1. Our glc-IONP appear to have many requisites for in vivo use. PMID:25874906

  18. Proactive AP Selection Method Considering the Radio Interference Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taenaka, Yuzo; Kashihara, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Oie, Yuji

    In the near future, wireless local area networks (WLANs) will overlap to provide continuous coverage over a wide area. In such ubiquitous WLANs, a mobile node (MN) moving freely between multiple access points (APs) requires not only permanent access to the Internet but also continuous communication quality during handover. In order to satisfy these requirements, an MN needs to (1) select an AP with better performance and (2) execute a handover seamlessly. To satisfy requirement (2), we proposed a seamless handover method in a previous study. Moreover, in order to achieve (1), the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is usually employed to measure wireless link quality in a WLAN system. However, in a real environment, especially if APs are densely situated, it is difficult to always select an AP with better performance based on only the RSSI. This is because the RSSI alone cannot detect the degradation of communication quality due to radio interference. Moreover, it is important that AP selection is completed only on an MN, because we can assume that, in ubiquitous WLANs, various organizations or operators will manage APs. Hence, we cannot modify the APs for AP selection. To overcome these difficulties, in the present paper, we propose and implement a proactive AP selection method considering wireless link condition based on the number of frame retransmissions in addition to the RSSI. In the evaluation, we show that the proposed AP selection method can appropriately select an AP with good wireless link quality, i.e., high RSSI and low radio interference.

  19. The discovery of high-amplitude 10.9-minute oscillations in the cool magnetic Ap star HD 115226

    E-print Network

    O. Kochukhov; T. Ryabchikova; S. Bagnulo; G. Lo Curto

    2007-12-20

    We present the discovery of pulsational variations in the cool magnetic Ap star HD 115226 -- the first high-amplitude rapidly oscillating Ap star discovered with time-series spectroscopy. Using high-resolution spectra obtained with the HARPS instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope, we detect radial velocity variations with a period of 10.86 min in Pr III, Nd III, Dy III lines and in the narrow cores of hydrogen lines. Pulsational amplitudes exceed 1 km/s in individual lines of Nd III. The presence of running waves in the stellar atmosphere is inferred from a phase shift between the radial velocity maxima of rare-earth and hydrogen lines. Our abundance analysis demonstrates that HD 115226 exhibits typical roAp spectroscopic signature, notably ionization anomaly of Pr, Nd and Dy. We discuss the discovery of pulsations in HD 115226 in the context of recent spectroscopic studies of roAp stars and point to the existence of correlation between spectroscopic pulsational amplitude and the stellar rotation rate.

  20. NF-?B inhibition significantly upregulates the norepinephrine transporter system, causes apoptosis in pheochromocytoma cell lines and prevents metastasis in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Pacak, Karel; Sirova, Marta; Giubellino, Alessio; Lencesova, Lubomira; Csaderova, Lucia; Laukova, Marcela; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2012-11-15

    Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are specific types of neuroendocrine tumors that originate in the adrenal medulla or sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Although these tumors are intensively studied, a very effective treatment for metastatic PHEO or PGL has not yet been established. Preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for these tumors are very much required. Therefore, in this study we tested the effect of triptolide (TTL), a potent nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) inhibitor, on the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter (NET) system, considered to be the gatekeeper for the radiotherapeutic agent 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). We measured changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NET and correlated them with proapoptotic factors and metastasis inhibition. The study was performed on three different stable PHEO cell lines. We found that blocking NF-?B with TTL or capsaicin increased both NET mRNA and protein levels. Involvement of NF-?B in the upregulation of NET was verified by mRNA silencing of this site and also by using NF-?B antipeptide. Moreover, in vivo treatment with TTL significantly reduced metastatic burden in an animal model of metastatic PHEO. The present study for the first time shows how NF-?B inhibitors could be successfully used in the treatment of metastatic PHEO/PGL by a significant upregulation of NET to increase the efficacy of 131I-MIBG and by the induction of apoptosis. PMID:22407736

  1. VLT observations of rapid radial velocity variations in roAp stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.

    2008-04-01

    We have studied 27 out of the 37 known roAp stars with high resolution spectroscopy using UVES on the ESO VLT. All 27 stars show rapid radial velocity variations with periods similar to those obtained by photometry. Highest pulsation amplitudes are seen for lines of rare earth elements and the H? core. For some stars other chemical species also have pulsation, but with smaller amplitudes. There are pulsational phase shifts between lines of different rare earth elements. Stars with stronger magnetic fields tend to have lower radial velocity pulsation amplitudes.

  2. Aerosol Deposition in Transport Lines 

    E-print Network

    Muyshondt, Arnoldo

    1995-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-TH-95-12-02.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 14160 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-TH-95-12-02.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Reproduced... with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. ESL-TH-95-12-02 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. ESL-TH-95-12-02 Reproduced with permission...

  3. Ozone mitigation tests at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Wang Zhibi

    1996-09-01

    Ozone is generated in the APS experimental stations whenever the x-ray beam has a chance to interact with air. Ozone concentrations in an experimental station have to be below a certain defined limit (current OSHA regulations specify 0.08 ppm as the maximum limit) before an experimenter can reenter the hutch. This limit is said to be currently under study for a downward adjustment. One method of depleting the ozone generated in an experimental station is mitigation through either adsorption or direct destruction. In recent tests, both methods were tried using commercially available units. Test results and some analytical predictions are presented.

  4. Progress on photon-counting intensified APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uslenghi, Michela C.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Belluso, Massimiliano; Cali, Antonio; Timpanaro, Cristina; Cosentino, Rosario; Scuderi, Salvatore; Modica, Angelo

    2003-02-01

    We report on the progress of the activity, started one year ago, to obtain a photon counting, MCP-based detector, optimized for high count-rate. A new electronic board, hosting both the APS and the electronics processing unit, has been developed. The new architecture of the system, designed to drive the detector, to acquire the images and compute the photon event centers, is described in detail in this paper. We also report the functional tests carried out on the sub-parts of the detector along with a preliminary characterization of the system.

  5. Seasonal characteristics of the large-scale moisture flux transport over the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, H.; Ammar, K.

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between the lower tropospheric (1000 to 850 hPa) large-scale moisture flux transport and the precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula (AP), on a seasonal basis, using the NCEP-NCAR gridded dataset for the 53-year period (1958-2010), is investigated. The lower tropospheric moisture flux divergence occurs due to the Hadley cell-based descending air over the AP, as well as due to the presence of Somali jet in dry season (June to September) for the southern (?22° N) AP domain, leading to significantly reduced precipitation in the AP. The AP thus acts more as a net transporter of moisture flux from adjacent Sea areas to nearby regions. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Artic Oscillation (AO) climatic indices are found to modulate significantly the net seasonal moisture flux into the AP region animating from the Mediterranean Sea, and the Arabian Sea, both for the northern (?22° N) and southern AP domains.

  6. Radiation characteristics of scintillator coupled CMOS APS for radiography conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Soongpyung; Kang, Dong-Won; Kim, Dong-Kie

    2006-11-01

    Under industrial radiography conditions, we analyzed short-term radiation characteristics of scintillator coupled CMOS APS (hereinafter SC CMOS APS). By means of experimentation, the contribution of the transmitted X-ray through the scintillator to the properties of the CMOS APS and the afterimage, generated in the acquired image even at low dose condition, were investigated. To see the transmitted X-ray effects on the CMOS APS, Fein focus™ X-ray machine, two scintillators of Lanex™ Fine and Regular, and two CMOS APS array of RadEye™ were used under the conditions of 50 kV p/1 mAs and 100 kV p/1 mAs. By measuring the transmitted X-ray on signal and Noise Power Spectrum, we analytically examined the generation mechanism of the afterimage, based on dark signal or dark current increase in the sensor, and explained the afterimage in the SC CMOS APS.

  7. Evaluating EPA’s AP-42 development methodology to convert or rerate current AP-42 datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) published their new methodology for updating the Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42). The “Recommended Procedures for Development of Emissions Factors and Use of the WebFIRE Database” instructs that the ratings of the...

  8. Tank 241-AP-108 grab sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-07

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) will identify characterization objectives for sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for tank 241-AP-108 (AP 108). It is written in accordance with the Tank 241-AP-108 Tank Characterization Plan, the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective, the 242-A Evaporator Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Data Quality Objectives, and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program.

  9. Oscillations of kinks on dislocation lines in crystals and low-temperature transport anomalies as a ``passport'' of newly-induced defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhov-Deglin, L. P.; Mukhin, S. I.

    2011-10-01

    The possible interpretation of experimental data on low-temperature anomalies in weakly deformed metallic crystals prepared form ultra-pure lead, copper, and silver, as well as in crystals of 4He is discussed within the previously proposed theoretical picture of dislocations with dynamical kinks. In the case of pure metals the theoretical predictions give a general picture of interaction of conduction electrons in a sample with newly-introduced dislocations, containing dynamic kinks in the Peierls potential relief. In the field of random stresses appearing due to plastic deformation of a sample, kinks on the dislocation line form a set of one-dimensional oscillators in potential wells of different shapes. In the low temperature region at low enough density of defects pinning kinks the inelastic scattering of electrons on kinks should lead to deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law. In particular, the inelastic scattering on kinks should result in a quadratic temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity in a metallic sample along preferential directions of dislocation axes. In the plane normal to the dislocation axis the elastic large-angle scattering of electrons is prevalent. The kink pinning by a point defect or by additional dislocations as well as the sample annealing leading to the disappearance of kinks should induce suppression of transport anomalies. Thus, the energy interval for the spectrum of kink oscillations restricted by characteristic amplitude of the Peierls relief is a "passport of deformation history" for each specific sample. For instance, in copper the temperature/energy region of the order of 1 K corresponds to it. It is also planned to discuss in the other publication applicability of mechanism of phonon scattering on mobile dislocation kinks and pinning of kinks by impurities in order to explain anomalies of phonon thermal conductivity of 4He crystals and deformed crystals of pure lead in a superconducting state.

  10. Current-transport mechanism in Au/V-doped PVC+TCNQ/p-Si structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecimer, H.; Vural, Ö.; Kaya, A.; Alt?ndal, ?.

    2015-03-01

    The forward and reverse bias current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Au/V-doped polyvinyl chloride+Tetracyanoquino dimethane/porous silicon (PVC+TCNQ/p-Si) structures have been investigated in the temperature range of 160-340 K. The zero bias or apparent barrier height (BH) (?ap = ?Bo) and ideality factor (nap = n) were found strongly temperature dependent and the value of nap decreases, while the ?ap increases with the increasing temperature. Also, the ?ap versus T plot shows almost a straight line which has positive temperature coefficient and it is not in agreement with the negative temperature coefficient of ideal diode or forbidden bandgap of Si (?Si = -4.73×10-4eV/K). The high value of n cannot be explained only with respect to interfacial insulator layer and interface traps. In order to explain such behavior of ?ap and nap with temperature, ?ap Versus q/2kT plot was drawn and the mean value of (?Bo) and standard deviation (?s) values found from the slope and intercept of this plot as 1.176 eV and 0.152 V, respectively. Thus, the modified (ln(Io/T2)-(q?s)2/2(kT)2 versus (q/kT) plot gives the ?Bo and effective Richardson constant A* as 1.115 eV and 31.94 A?(cm?K)-2, respectively. This value of A*( = 31.94 A?(cm?K)-2) is very close to the theoretical value of 32 A?(cm?K)-2 for p-Si. Therefore, the forward bias I-V-T characteristics confirmed that the current-transport mechanism (CTM) in Au/V-doped PVC+TCNQ/p-Si structures can be successfully explained in terms of the thermionic emission (TE) mechanism with a Gaussian distribution (GD) of BHs at around mean BH.

  11. The APS control system network upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K. v.; Leibfritz, D.; McDowell, W. P.

    1999-10-22

    When it was installed,the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system network was at the state-of-the-art. Different aspects of the system have been reported at previous meetings [1,2]. As loads on the controls network have increased due to newer and faster workstations and front-end computers, we have found performance of the system declining and have implemented an upgraded network. There have been dramatic advances in networking hardware in the last several years. The upgraded APS controls network replaces the original FDDI backbone and shared Ethernet hubs with redundant gigabit uplinks and fully switched 10/100 Ethernet switches with backplane fabrics in excess of 20 Gbits/s (Gbps). The central collapsed backbone FDDI concentrator has been replaced with a Gigabit Ethernet switch with greater than 30 Gbps backplane fabric. Full redundancy of the system has been maintained. This paper will discuss this upgrade and include performance data and performance comparisons with the original network.

  12. On the Mechanisms for Defeating AP Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Z.; Dekel, E.; Ashuach, Y.; Yeshurun, Y.

    The important mechanisms for defeating armor piercing (AP) projectiles are reviewed in this paper. These mechanisms are based on the compressive strength of the target material (its inherent resistance to penetration) and on the asymmetrical forces which it exerts on the threat, through proper geometrical arrangements. We discuss the basic features of the resistance to penetration, starting with the classical analysis of the cavity expansion process in elasto-plastic solids. This property of the target is responsible for the deceleration of hard cored projectiles and for the erosion of long rods, under normal impact conditions. We then discuss the asymmetrical interaction of AP projectiles with inclined plates (metals and polymers) and with ceramic spheres. These asymmetric forces are responsible for their deflection and breakup. Our work combines experimental observations with numerical simulations and engineering models, which enhance the understanding of the various phenomena encountered in these complex situations. This understanding is necessary for optimizing the performance of any armor design against a given threat.

  13. Lithium and Isotopic Ratio Li6/Li7 in Magnetic roAp Stars as an Indicator of Active Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N.; Shavrina, A.; Lyashko, D.; Nesvacil, N.; Drake, N.; Smirnova, M.

    2015-04-01

    The lines of lithium at 6708 Å and 6103 Å are analyzed in high resolution spectra of some sharp-lined and slowly rotating roAp stars. Three spectral synthesis codes— STARSP, ZEEMAN2, and SYNTHM—were used. New lines of rare earth elements (REE) from the DREAM database and the lines calculated on the basis of the NIST energy levels were included. Magnetic splitting and other line broadening processes were taken into account. For both lithium lines, the enhanced abundances of lithium in the atmospheres of the stars studied are obtained. The lithium abundance determined from the Li 6103 Å line is higher than that from the Li 6708 Å for all the stars. This may be evidence of vertical lithium stratification, abnormal temperature distribution, or unidentified blending of the 6103 Å line. Our work on two roAp stars, HD 83368 and HD 60435 (Shavrina et al. 2001) provides evidence of an enhanced lithium abundance near the magnetic-field poles. We can expect similar effects in the sharp-lined roAp stars. High lithium abundance for all the stars and the estimates of the 6Li/7Li ratio (0.2-0.5) can be explained by production of Li in the cosmic ray spallation reactions in the interstellar medium where the stars were born, and by preservation of the original 6Li and 7Li by strong magnetic fields of these stars. The values of the 6Li/7Li ratio expected from production by cosmic rays are about 0.5-0.8 (Knauth et al. 2003; Webber et al. 2002). New laboratory and theoretical gf-values for REE lines are necessary in order to refine our estimates of lithium abundances and the isotopic ratio.

  14. The AP2-like gene NsAP2 from water lily is involved in floral organogenesis and plant height.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Teng, Nianjun; Chen, Yu; Chen, Fadi

    2012-07-01

    APETALA2 (AP2) genes are ancient and widely distributed among the seed plants, and play an important role during the plant life cycle, acting as key regulators of many developmental processes. In this study, an AP2 homologue, NsAP2, was characterized from water lily (Nymphaea sp. cv. 'Yellow Prince') and is believed to be rather primitive in the evolution of the angiosperms. In situ RNA hybridization showed that NsAP2 transcript was present in all regions of the floral primordium, but had the highest level in the emerging floral organ primordium. After the differentiation of floral organs, NsAP2 was strongly expressed in sepals and petals, while low levels were found in stamens and carpels. The NsAP2 protein was suggested to be localized in the cell nucleus by onion transient expression experiment. Overexpression of NsAP2 in Arabidopsis led to more petal numbers, and Arabidopsis plants expressing NsAP2 exhibited higher plant height, which may be a result of down-regulated expression of GA2ox2 and GA2ox7. Our results indicated that the NsAP2 protein may function in flower organogenesis in water lily, and it is a promising gene for plant height improvement. PMID:22591856

  15. R9AP Overexpression Alters Phototransduction Kinetics in iCre75 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sundermeier, Thomas R.; Vinberg, Frans; Mustafi, Debarshi; Bai, Xiaodong; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Determine the impact of rod photoreceptor-specific expression of Cre recombinase on the kinetics of phototransduction in the mouse eye and identify changes in gene expression that underlie any observed phenotypic differences. Methods. Transretinal ERG and single-cell suction electrode recordings were used to measure the kinetics of phototransduction in a mouse line exhibiting rod photoreceptor–specific Cre recombinase expression, and the results were compared with those from control non–Cre-expressing littermates. Gene expression changes were evaluated using RNA sequencing transcriptome analysis. The pattern of expression of Rgs9bp was determined by mapping sequencing reads to the mouse genome and performing 3?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3?-RACE). Results. Expression of the rod-specific iCre75 transgene was accompanied by accelerated phototransduction inactivation, likely due to overexpression of the Rgs9bp gene, which encodes the Rgs9 anchor protein (R9AP). R9AP upregulation stabilized the RGS9 GAP complex, altering phototransduction kinetics. 3?-Race identified an abundant, unexpected Rgs9bp-Prm1 fusion mRNA in Cre-expressing mouse retinas, which was determined to be derived from a second transgene present in the iCre75 line. Conclusions. Here we report the presence of a second, R9AP-expressing transgene in the iCre75 mouse line, leading to altered kinetics of phototransduction. These results highlight an important caveat that must be considered when utilizing this mouse line for rod photoreceptor–specific gene loss of function studies. PMID:24526444

  16. Fabrication of Functionally Graded SOFC by APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. Z.; Zhang, H. O.; Wang, G. L.; Xia, W. S.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric plasma spray (APS) was used to prepare the planar positive/electrolyte/negative (PEN) and mono-block layer built (MOLB) type PEN solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). On the basis of the spraying conditions optimized previously and the self-developed functionally graded powder feeder system, two types of PEN cells were fabricated. Then the microstructure and material composition of the PEN cells were analyzed. The results show that graded layers formed between the electrodes and electrolyte. Moreover, the material composition and the porosity of the graded layers vary gradually. In particular, the porosities of the resultant anode and cathode reach 32.74 and 32.24%, respectively. Using the AC complex impedance technique, the conductivity of the MOLB type composite electrode is tested. The electrical conductivity of the MOLB type composite electrode with the graded layers is larger than that without the graded layers.

  17. New Beam Position Monitor System Design for the APS Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, R.; Singh, O.; Arnold, N.

    2002-12-01

    Demands on the APS injector have evolved over the last few years to the point that an upgrade to the existing beam position monitor (BPM) electronics is required. The injector is presently being used as a source for both the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) project and the top-up mode of operation. These new requirements and the fact that many new rf receiver components are available at reasonable cost make this upgrade very desirable at this time. The receiver topology selected is a logarithmic processor, which is designed around the Analog Devices AD8313 log amplifier demodulation chip. This receiver will become the universal replacement for all injector applications measuring positions signals from 352 to 2856 MHz with minimum changes in hardware and without the use of a downconverter. The receiver design features integrated front-end gain and built-in self test. The data acquisition being considered at this time is a 100-MHz, 12-bit transient recorder digitizer. The latest experimental and commissioning data and results will be presented.

  18. Magnetic stars from a FEROS cool Ap star survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Nitschelm, C.

    2012-03-01

    New magnetic Ap stars with split Zeeman components are presented. These stars were discovered from observations with the Fibre-fed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (FEROS) spectrograph at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 2.2-m telescope. 15 new magnetic stars are analysed here. Several stars with very strong magnetic fields were found, including HD 70702 with a 15-kG magnetic field strength, and HD 168767 with a 16.5-kG magnetic field strength measured using split Zeeman components of spectral lines and by comparison with synthetic calculations. The physical parameters of the stars were estimated from photometric and spectroscopic data. Together with previously published results for stars with strong magnetic fields, the relationship between magnetic field strength and rotation period is discussed. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, as part of programmes 078.D-0080(A), 080.D- 0191(A), 081.D-2002(A), 082.D-0061(A), 083.D-0034(A) and 084.D-0067(A).

  19. Decision support facility for the APS control system.

    SciTech Connect

    Dohan, D. A.

    2001-11-12

    The Advanced Photon Source is now in its fifth year of routine beam production. The EPICS-based [1] control system has entered the phase in its life cycle where new control algorithms must be implemented under increasingly stringent operational and reliability requirements. The sheer volume of the control system ({approx}270,000 records, {approx}145 VME-based input-output controllers (IOCs), and {approx}7,000,000 lines of EPICS ASCII configuration code), presents a daunting challenge for code maintenance. The present work describes a relational database that provides an integrated view of the interacting components of the entire APS control system, including the IOC low-level logic, the physical wiring documentation, and high-level client applications. The database is extracted (booted) from the same operational CVS repository as that used to load the active IOCs. It provides site-wide decision support facilities to inspect and trace control flow and to identify client (e.g., user interface) programs involved at any selected point in the front-end logic. The relational database forms a basis for generalized documentation of global control logic and its connection with both the physical I/O and with external high-level applications.

  20. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - RUBBER PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for the rubber products industry which are appended to AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness information. As res...

  1. Demo Abstract: HumanCoAP Interaction with Copper

    E-print Network

    browser for the Internet of Things based on the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). Current estimates foresee that the number of networked embedded devices encompassed by the Internet of Things will be vastAP protocol suite. I. INTRODUCTION The Internet of Things is the vision of interconnecting everyday objects

  2. STEP AP233 + Standard PDM = Systems Engineering PDM ?

    E-print Network

    Ulm, Universität

    STEP AP233 + Standard PDM = Systems Engineering PDM ? Roland Eckert1 , Wolfgang Mansel2 , Günther engineering environment. STEP ISO 10303 - AP233 provides an appropriate approach for integrating systems. A framework for a systems engineering PDM system is proposed and data exchange aspects discussed

  3. Performance of Project Advance Students on the AP Biology Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared performance of Project Advance biology students (N=60) with Advanced Placement (AP) candidates (N=15,947) nationally on College Entrance Examination Board AP biology test. The research, conducted to determine comparability of the program as valid measures of academic achievement, determined that Project Advance students scored above the…

  4. Baylor Geology | Student Profiles Applied Petroleum Studies (APS)

    E-print Network

    Lin, King-Ip "David"

    Baylor Geology | Student Profiles Applied Petroleum Studies (APS) Recruitment | 2015-2016 The joy Prospective Petroleum Industry Recruiter: The Baylor University Department of Geology is pleased to make you profiled within this brochure have participated within Baylor Geology's Applied Petroleum Studies (APS

  5. The APS SASE FEL : modeling and code comparison.

    SciTech Connect

    Biedron, S. G.

    1999-04-20

    A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

  6. The 10th Annual AP® Report to the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, 2014

    2014-01-01

    From the moment students step into an Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) classroom, they notice the difference in the teacher's approach to the subject, in the attitude of their classmates, in the new way of thinking the curriculum requires. More than just a class, AP is a community of students and educators who are passionate, curious, and…

  7. Standards and Excellence: Evidence from Advanced Placement (AP) Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of state exit exams on the student utilization of and performance on Advanced Placement (AP) exams. AP programs have become an increasingly popular way of providing fairly standardized and academically rigorous academic experiences that can prepare high school students for the transition to post-secondary schooling.…

  8. AccuNet/AP (Associated Press) Multimedia Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrence E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The AccuNet/AP Multimedia Archive is an electronic library containing the AP's current photos and a selection of pictures from their enormous print and negative library, as well as text and graphic material. It is composed of two photo databases as well as graphics, text, and audio databases. The features of this database are briefly described in…

  9. AP233: An Information Model for Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebes, Georg

    2009-01-01

    In today's world, information is abundant. We have no problems generating it. But we are challenged to find, organize, and exchange information. center dot A standardized model of information can help. Such a model nearly completed its development for Systems Engineering. It is referred to as AP233 (AP = Application Protocol).

  10. Functional Characterization of a Vesicular Glutamate Transporter in an Interneuron That Makes Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Connections in a Molluscan Neural Circuit.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian; Alexeeva, Vera; Chen, Song-An; Yu, Ke; Due, Michael R; Tan, Li-Nuo; Chen, Ting-Ting; Liu, Dan-Dan; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Vilim, Ferdinand S; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2015-06-17

    Understanding circuit function requires the characterization of component neurons and their neurotransmitters. Previous work on radula protraction in the Aplysia feeding circuit demonstrated that critical neurons initiate feeding via cholinergic excitation. In contrast, it is less clear how retraction is mediated at the interneuronal level. In particular, glutamate involvement was suggested, but was not directly confirmed. Here we study a suspected glutamatergic retraction interneuron, B64. We used the representational difference analysis (RDA) method to successfully clone an Aplysia vesicular glutamate transporter (ApVGLUT) from B64 and from a glutamatergic motor neuron B38. Previously, RDA was used to characterize novel neuropeptides. Here we demonstrate its utility for characterizing other types of molecules. Bioinformatics suggests that ApVGLUT is more closely related to mammalian VGLUTs than to Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans VGLUTs. We expressed ApVGLUT in a cell line, and demonstrated that it indeed transports glutamate in an ATP and proton gradient-dependent manner. We mapped the ApVGLUT distribution in the CNS using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Further, we demonstrated that B64 is ApVGLUT positive, supporting the idea that it is glutamatergic. Although glutamate is primarily an excitatory transmitter in the mammalian CNS, B64 elicits inhibitory PSPs in protraction neurons to terminate protraction and excitatory PSPs in retraction neurons to maintain retraction. Pharmacological data indicated that both types of PSPs are mediated by glutamate. Thus, glutamate mediates the dual function of B64 in Aplysia. More generally, our systematic approaches based on RDA may facilitate analyses of transmitter actions in small circuits with identifiable neurons. PMID:26085636

  11. Functional Characterization of a Vesicular Glutamate Transporter in an Interneuron That Makes Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Connections in a Molluscan Neural Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Alexeeva, Vera; Chen, Song-an; Yu, Ke; Due, Michael R.; Tan, Li-nuo; Chen, Ting-ting; Liu, Dan-dan; Cropper, Elizabeth C.; Vilim, Ferdinand S.; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding circuit function requires the characterization of component neurons and their neurotransmitters. Previous work on radula protraction in the Aplysia feeding circuit demonstrated that critical neurons initiate feeding via cholinergic excitation. In contrast, it is less clear how retraction is mediated at the interneuronal level. In particular, glutamate involvement was suggested, but was not directly confirmed. Here we study a suspected glutamatergic retraction interneuron, B64. We used the representational difference analysis (RDA) method to successfully clone an Aplysia vesicular glutamate transporter (ApVGLUT) from B64 and from a glutamatergic motor neuron B38. Previously, RDA was used to characterize novel neuropeptides. Here we demonstrate its utility for characterizing other types of molecules. Bioinformatics suggests that ApVGLUT is more closely related to mammalian VGLUTs than to Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans VGLUTs. We expressed ApVGLUT in a cell line, and demonstrated that it indeed transports glutamate in an ATP and proton gradient-dependent manner. We mapped the ApVGLUT distribution in the CNS using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Further, we demonstrated that B64 is ApVGLUT positive, supporting the idea that it is glutamatergic. Although glutamate is primarily an excitatory transmitter in the mammalian CNS, B64 elicits inhibitory PSPs in protraction neurons to terminate protraction and excitatory PSPs in retraction neurons to maintain retraction. Pharmacological data indicated that both types of PSPs are mediated by glutamate. Thus, glutamate mediates the dual function of B64 in Aplysia. More generally, our systematic approaches based on RDA may facilitate analyses of transmitter actions in small circuits with identifiable neurons. PMID:26085636

  12. Tank 241-AP-105, cores 208, 209 and 210, analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-10-24

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-AP-105. Push mode core segments were removed from Risers 24 and 28 between July 2, 1997, and July 14, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-AP-105 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1997) and Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, or total organic carbon (TOC) analysis exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP and DQO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group, and are not considered in this report. Appearance and Sample Handling Two cores, each consisting of four segments, were expected from Tank 241-AP-105. Three cores were sampled, and complete cores were not obtained. TSAP states core samples should be transported to the laboratory within three calendar days from the time each segment is removed from the tank. This requirement was not met for all cores. Attachment 1 illustrates subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis and identifies their sources. This reference also relates tank farm identification numbers to their corresponding 222-S Laboratory sample numbers.

  13. Protein Networks Supporting AP-3 Function in Targeting Lysosomal Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Baust, Thorsten; Anitei, Mihaela; Czupalla, Cornelia; Parshyna, Iryna; Bourel, Line; Thiele, Christoph; Krause, Eberhard

    2008-01-01

    The AP-3 adaptor complex targets selected transmembrane proteins to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. We reconstituted its preferred interaction with liposomes containing the ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-1 guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), specific cargo tails, and phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate, and then we performed a proteomic screen to identify new proteins supporting its sorting function. We identified ?30 proteins belonging to three networks regulating either AP-3 coat assembly or septin polymerization or Rab7-dependent lysosomal transport. RNA interference shows that, among these proteins, the ARF-1 exchange factor brefeldin A-inhibited exchange factor 1, the ARF-1 GTPase-activating protein 1, the Cdc42-interacting Cdc42 effector protein 4, an effector of septin-polymerizing GTPases, and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase IIIC3 are key components regulating the targeting of lysosomal membrane proteins to lysosomes in vivo. This analysis reveals that these proteins, together with AP-3, play an essential role in protein sorting at early endosomes, thereby regulating the integrity of these organelles. PMID:18287518

  14. Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP) and an 0-AP/HTPB-Based Propellant

    SciTech Connect

    BEHRENS JR.,RICHARD; MINIER,LEANNA M.G.

    1999-10-25

    A study to characterize the low-temperature reactive processes for o-AP and an AP/HTPB-based propellant (class 1.3) is being conducted in the laboratory using the techniques of simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results presented in this paper are a follow up of the previous work that showed the overall decomposition to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The decomposition is characterized by the occurrence of one major event that consumes up to {approx}35% of the AP, depending upon particle size, and leaves behind a porous agglomerate of AP. The major gaseous products released during this event include H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl. The recent efforts provide further insight into the decomposition processes for o-AP. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates (GFRs) for the products indicate that the major decomposition event consists of three chemical channels. The first and third channels are affected by the pressure in the reaction cell and occur at the surface or in the gas phase above the surface of the AP particles. The second channel is not affected by pressure and accounts for the solid-phase reactions characteristic of o-AP. The third channel involves the interactions of the decomposition products with the surface of the AP. SEM images of partially decomposed o-AP provide insight to how the morphology changes as the decomposition progresses. A conceptual model has been developed, based upon the STMBMS and SEM results, that provides a basic description of the processes. The thermal decomposition characteristics of the propellant are evaluated from the identities of the products and the temporal behaviors of their GFRs. First, the volatile components in the propellant evolve from the propellant as it is heated. Second, the hot AP (and HClO{sub 4}) at the AP-binder interface oxidize the binder through reactions that preferentially strip the hydrogen from the binder and yield HCl and H{sub 2}O with some oxidation of the carbon from the binder. Third, the o-AP in the propellant decomposes in the same manner as in neat o-AP. Finally, AP-derived gaseous products interact with other ingredients in the propellant.

  15. APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - Monitoring System Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort; Dimitri Hochard

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), along with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Pubic Service (APS), is monitoring the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant to determine the costs to produce hydrogen fuels (including 100% hydrogen as well as hydrogen and compressed natural gas blends) for use by fleets and other operators of advanced-technology vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cost data will be used as benchmark data by technology modelers as well as research and development programs. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 18 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen per day by electrolysis. It can store up to 155 kg of hydrogen at various pressures up to 6,000 psi. The dispenser island can fuel vehicles with 100% hydrogen at 5,000 psi and with blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas at 3,600 psi. The monitoring system was designed to track hydrogen delivery to each of the three storage areas and to monitor the use of electricity on all major equipment in the Pilot Plant, including the fuel dispenser island. In addition, water used for the electrolysis process is monitored to allow calculation of the total cost of plant operations and plant efficiencies. The monitoring system at the Pilot Plant will include about 100 sensors when complete (50 are installed to date), allowing for analysis of component, subsystems, and plant-level costs. The monitoring software is mostly off-the-shelve, with a custom interface. The majority of the sensors input to the Programmable Automation Controller as 4- to 20-mA analog signals. The plant can be monitored over of the Internet, but the control functions are restricted to the control room equipment. Using the APS general service plan E32 electric rate of 2.105 cents per kWh, during a recent eight-month period when 1,200 kg of hydrogen was produced and the plant capacity factor was 26%, the electricity cost to produce one kg of hydrogen was $3.43. However, the plant capacity factor has been increasing, with a recent one-month high of 49%. If a plant capacity factor of 70% can be achieved with the present equipment, the cost of electricity would drop to $2.39 per kg of hydrogen. In this report, the power conversion (76.7%), cell stack (53.1%), and reverse osmosis system (7.14%) efficiencies are also calculated, as is the water cost per kg of hydrogen produced ($0.10 per kg). The monitoring system has identified several areas having the potential to lower costs, including using an reverse osmosis system with a higher efficiency, improving the electrolysis power conversion efficiency, and using air cooling to replace some or all chiller cooling. These activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory for the AVTA, which is part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  16. Polycystin-1 regulates amphiregulin expression through CREB and AP1 signalling: implications in ADPKD cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Aguiari, Gianluca; Bizzarri, Fabiana; Bonon, Anna; Mangolini, Alessandra; Magri, Eros; Pedriali, Massimo; Querzoli, Patrizia; Somlo, Stefan; Harris, Peter C.; Catizone, Luigi; del Senno, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), renal cyst development and enlargement, as well as cell growth, are associated with alterations in several pathways, including cAMP and activator protein 1 (AP1) signalling. However, the precise mechanism by which these molecules stimulate cell proliferation is not yet fully understood. We now show by microarray analysis, luciferase assay, mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation that CREB and AP1 contribute to increased expression of the amphiregulin gene, which codifies for an epidermal growth factor-like peptide, in ADPKD cystic cells, thereby promoting their cell growth. Increased amphiregulin (AR) expression was associated with abnormal cell proliferation in both PKD1-depleted and -mutated epithelial cells, as well as primary cystic cell lines isolated from ADPKD kidney tissues. Consistently, normal AR expression and proliferation were re-established in cystic cells by the expression of a mouse full-length PC1. Finally, we show that anti-AR antibodies and inhibitors of AP1 are able to reduce cell proliferation in cystic cells by reducing AR expression and EGFR activity. AR can therefore be considered as one of the key activators of the growth of human ADPKD cystic cells and thus a new potential therapeutic target. PMID:22570239

  17. Polycystin-1 regulates amphiregulin expression through CREB and AP1 signalling: implications in ADPKD cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Aguiari, Gianluca; Bizzarri, Fabiana; Bonon, Anna; Mangolini, Alessandra; Magri, Eros; Pedriali, Massimo; Querzoli, Patrizia; Somlo, Stefan; Harris, Peter C; Catizone, Luigi; Del Senno, Laura

    2012-11-01

    In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), renal cyst development and enlargement, as well as cell growth, are associated with alterations in several pathways, including cAMP and activator protein 1 (AP1) signalling. However, the precise mechanism by which these molecules stimulate cell proliferation is not yet fully understood. We now show by microarray analysis, luciferase assay, mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation that CREB and AP1 contribute to increased expression of the amphiregulin gene, which codifies for an epidermal growth factor-like peptide, in ADPKD cystic cells, thereby promoting their cell growth. Increased amphiregulin (AR) expression was associated with abnormal cell proliferation in both PKD1-depleted and -mutated epithelial cells, as well as primary cystic cell lines isolated from ADPKD kidney tissues. Consistently, normal AR expression and proliferation were re-established in cystic cells by the expression of a mouse full-length PC1. Finally, we show that anti-AR antibodies and inhibitors of AP1 are able to reduce cell proliferation in cystic cells by reducing AR expression and EGFR activity. AR can therefore be considered as one of the key activators of the growth of human ADPKD cystic cells and thus a new potential therapeutic target. PMID:22570239

  18. Analysis of an AP600 intermediate-size loss-of-coolant accident

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Lime, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    A postulated double-ended guillotine break of an AP600 direct-vessel-injection line has been analyzed. This event is characterized as an intermediate-break loss-of-coolant accident. Most of the insights regarding the response of the AP600 safety systems to the postulated accident are derived from calculations performed with the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 code. However, complementary insights derived from a scaled experiment conducted in the ROSA facility, as well as insights based upon calculations by other codes, are also presented. Based upon the calculated and experimental results, the AP600 will not experience a core heat up and will reach a safe shutdown state using only safety-class equipment. Only the early part of the long-term cooling period initiated by In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank injection was evaluated. Thus, the observation that the core is continuously cooled should be verified for the later phase of the long-term cooling period when sump injection and containment cooling processes are important.

  19. 30 Years of APS Congressional Fellows: Looking Back and Looking Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    In 1973 AAAS launched a Congressional Fellows Program, and APS was one of three founding participants. Since then, APS has funded one or two Fellows annually to work with a Congressional Committee or on the personal staff of a Member of Congress. These fellows individually and collectively have had and continue to have a large impact in Washington. Six Fellows from different periods of the 30-year program, including a current Member of Congress, will present their views and assessments of the Fellowship program. They will address how it affected them, what it has done for the country and how APS should plan for the future. There will be ample time for questions and discussion. Panelists: Ben Cooper, Association of Oil Pipe Lines (Fellow, 1973-74) Rush Holt, Member, House of Representatives (Fellow, 1982-83) Jane Alexander, Office of Naval Research (Fellow, 1986-87) Duncan Moore, University of Rochester (Fellow, 1993-94) Peter Rooney, House Committee on Science (Fellow, 1997-98) Sherri Stephan, Senate Committee on Government Affairs (Fellow, 2000-01)

  20. Enhancing and Archiving the APS Catalog of the POSS I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.

    2003-01-01

    We have worked on two different projects: 1) Archiving the APS Catalog of the POSS I for distribution to NASA's NED at IPAC, SIMBAD in France, and individual astronomers and 2) The automated morphological classification of galaxies. We have completed archiving the Catalog into easily readable binary files. The database together with the software to read it has been distributed on DVD's to the national and international data centers and to individual astronomers. The archived Catalog contains more than 89 million objects in 632 fields in the first epoch Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. Additional image parameters not available in the original on-line version are also included in the archived version. The archived Catalog is also available and can be queried at the APS web site (URL: http://aps.umn.edu) which has been improved with a much faster and more efficient querying system. The Catalog can be downloaded as binary datafiles with the source code for reading it. It is also being integrated into the SkyQuery system which includes the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 2MASS, and the FIRST radio sky survey. We experimented with different classification algorithms to automate the morphological classification of galaxies. This is an especially difficult problem because there are not only a large number of attributes or parameters and measurement uncertainties, but also the added complication of human disagreement about the adopted types. To solve this problem we used 837 galaxy images from nine POSS I fields at the North Galactic Pole classified by two independent astronomers for which they agree on the morphological types. The initial goal was to separate the galaxies into the three broad classes relevant to issues of large scale structure and galaxy formation and evolution: early (ellipticals and lenticulars), spirals, and late (irregulars) with an accuracy or success rate that rivals the best astronomer classifiers. We also needed to identify a set of parameters derived from the digitized images that separate the galaxies by type. The human eye can easily recognize complicated patterns in images such as spiral arms which can be spotty, blotchy affairs that are difficult for automated techniques. A galaxy image can potentially be described by hundreds of parameters, all of which may have some relation to the morphological type. In the set of initial experiments we used 624 such parameters, in two colors, blue and red. These parameters include the surface brightness and color measured at different radii, ratios of these parameters at different radii, concentration indices, Fourier transforms and wavelet decomposition coefficients. We experimented with three different classes of classification algorithms; decision trees, k-nearest neighbors, and support vector machines (SVM). A range of experiments were conducted and we eventually narrowed the parameters to 23 selected parameters. SVM consistently outperformed the other algorithms with both sets of features. By combining the results from the different algorithms in a weighted scheme we achieved an overall classification success of 86%.

  1. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  2. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  3. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  4. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  5. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  6. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be...

  7. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be...

  8. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be...

  9. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be...

  10. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be...

  11. AP-1-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Persicaria chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Young-Jin; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Yang, Woo Seok; Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Han Gyung; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoon, Keejung; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Persicaria chinensis L. has been prescribed to cure numerous inflammatory disorders. We previously analyzed the bioactivity of the methanol extract of this plant (Pc-ME) against LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and found that it prevented HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The purpose of the current study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which Pc-ME inhibits activator protein- (AP-) 1 activation pathway and mediates its hepatoprotective activity. To investigate the putative therapeutic properties of Pc-ME against AP-1-mediated inflammation and hepatotoxicity, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 and U937 cells, a monocyte-like human cell line, and an LPS/D-galactosamine- (D-GalN-) induced acute hepatitis mouse model were employed. The expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin- (IL-) 1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) was significantly diminished by Pc-ME. Moreover, Pc-ME reduced AP-1 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and differentiated U937 cells. Additionally, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of Pc-ME pretreated orally in a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-intoxicated acute liver injury by demonstrating the significant reduction in elevated serum AST and ALT levels and histological damage. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that Pc-ME could function as an antihepatitis remedy suppressing MAPK/AP-1-mediated inflammatory events. PMID:25878717

  12. Anti-gastrin antibodies raised by gastrimmune inhibit growth of the human colorectal tumour AP5.

    PubMed

    Watson, S A; Michaeli, D; Grimes, S; Morris, T M; Crosbee, D; Wilkinson, M; Robinson, G; Robertson, J F; Steele, R J; Hardcastle, J D

    1995-04-10

    The neutralising ability of rabbit anti-gastrin-17 (G17) antiserum raised by Gastrimmune, an immunogen constructed of the N-terminal portion of human G17 conjugated to diptheria toxoid (DT), was evaluated. The anti-serum (denoted anti-G17: DT) was shown to displace 125[I] G17 from the gastrin receptors on AR42J cells. The therapeutic effect of the rabbit anti-G17:DT anti-serum was evaluated on a freshly derived human colorectal cancer cell line, AP5, which was shown to express both gastrin receptors and gastrin immunoreactivity as assessed by immunocytochemistry. Rabbit anti-G17:DT anti-serum was shown to block basal in vitro growth of AP5 cells when used at an antigen binding capacity of 3.75 x 10(-9) M. The same dilution of anti-serum completely reversed growth stimulated by human G17 at concentrations of 1 x 10(-10) and 1 x 10(-9) M but did not inhibit growth at 1 x 10(-8) M G17. When AP5 was grown as a xenograft in nude mice, the sensitivity to the proliferative effect of human G17 was maintained. In addition, the basal growth of AP5 xenografts was significantly reduced by i.v. infusion of rabbit anti-G17:DT anti-serum when compared to treatment with rabbit anti:DT control anti-serum. Thus anti-G17:DT antibodies raised by Gastrimmune may be of clinical value in gastrin-sensitive tumours. PMID:7705954

  13. High Pressure Reverse Flow APS Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    A design and test demonstration effort was undertaken to evaluate the concept of the reverse flow engine for the APS engine application. The 1500 lb (6672 N) thrust engine was designed to operate on gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen propellants at a mixture ratio of 4 and to achieve the objective performance of 435 sec (4266 Nsec/kg) specific impulse. Superimposed durability requirements called for a million-cycle capability with 50 hours duration. The program was undertaken as a series of tasks including the initial preliminary design, design of critical test components and finally, the design and demonstration of an altitude engine which could be used interchangeably to examine operating parameters as well as to demonstrate the capability of the concept. The program results are reported with data to indicate that all of the program objectives were met or exceeded within the course of testing on the program. The analysis effort undertaken is also reported in detail and supplemented with test data in some cases where prior definitions could not be made. The results are contained of these analyses as well as the test results conducted throughout the course of the program. Finally, the test data and analytical results were combined to allow recommendations for a flight weight design. This preliminary design effort is also detailed.

  14. The effects of APS star tracker detection sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huaxun; Li, Jie

    2008-12-01

    Detection sensitivity is an important parameter of star tracker, which can express detecting limit of the weakest detected visual star magnitude. In this paper, the expressions of APS star detected signal and APS noise are given, so signal-noise ratio (SNR) of star tracker can be obtained. And the detection sensitivity model is obtained from SNR criterion of star target detected, star detecting probability is analyzed. Moreover the evaluation modal of the detection sensitivity in star system is deducted. The effects of detection sensitivity of APS star tracker were discussed.

  15. A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

    1999-10-25

    A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders.

  16. apGA: An adaptive parallel genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E. ); Baluja, S. )

    1991-01-01

    We develop apGA, a parallel variant of the standard generational GA, that combines aggressive search with perpetual novelty, yet is able to preserve enough genetic structure to optimally solve variably scaled, non-uniform block deceptive and hierarchical deceptive problems. apGA combines elitism, adaptive mutation, adaptive exponential scaling, and temporal memory. We present empirical results for six classes of problems, including the DeJong test suite. Although we have not investigated hybrids, we note that apGA could be incorporated into other recent GA variants such as GENITOR, CHC, and the recombination stage of mGA. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. A New Photon Counting Detector: Intensified CMOS-APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, G.; Belluso, M.; Cali, A.; Carbone, A.; Cosentino, R.; Modica, A.; Scuderi, S.; Timpanaro, C.; Uslenghi, M.

    A new type of position sensor (CMOS-APS) used as readout system in MCP-based intensified photon counter is presented. Thanks to CMOS technology, the pixel addressing and the readout circuits as well as the analogue-to-digital converters are integrated into the chip. These unique characteristics make the CMOS-APS a very compact, low power consumption, photon counting system. The more classical Photon Counting Intensified CCDs (PC-ICCD), the selected CMOS-APS, the driving and interface electronics based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and the adopted algorithm to compute the center of the luminous spot on the MCP phosphor screen are described.

  18. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General...

  19. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General...

  20. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General...

  1. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General...

  2. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General...

  3. Induction of cystine transport via system x-c and maintenance of intracellular glutathione levels in pancreatic acinar and islet cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Kuriyama-Matsumura, K; Siow, R C; Ishii, T; Bannai, S; Mann, G E

    1998-11-11

    The relationship between l-cystine transport and intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels was investigated in cultured pancreatic AR42J acinar and betaTC3 islet cells exposed to diethylmaleate, an electrophilic agent known to activate cellular antioxidant responses. Cystine transport was mediated predominantly by the Na+-independent anionic amino acid transport system x-c, with influx inhibited potently by glutamate and homocysteate but unaffected by cationic or neutral amino acids. Saturable cystine transport was 10-fold higher in AR42J (531 pmol (mg protein)-1 min-1) than in betaTC3 (49 pmol (mg protein)-1 min-1) cells, and GSH levels were higher in AR42J cells. Treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol increased GSH levels in betaTC3 cells from 7.5 to 36 nmol (mg protein)-1, whilst the GSH content in AR42J cells (64 nmol (mg protein)-1) was not altered significantly. Incubation of AR42J or betaTC3 cells with homocysteate (2.5 mM, 0-48 h), a competitive inhibitor of cystine transport via system x-c, reduced intracellular GSH levels and resulted in a time-dependent (6-24 h) induction of system x-c transport activity. Treatment of AR42J cells with diethylmaleate (100 microM, 0-48 h) resulted in a time- (5-10 h) and protein synthesis-dependent induction of cystine transport, with intracellular GSH levels initially decreasing and then increasing 2-fold above control levels after 24 h. Diethylmaleate also depressed GSH levels in betaTC3 cells, but cystine transport was not elevated significantly. In both AR42J and betaTC3 cells, inhibition of gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase by buthionine sulphoximine (100 microM, 24 h) reduced GSH levels but had no effect on cystine transport. The present findings establish that induction of system x-c leads to changes in GSH levels in pancreatic AR42J acinar and betaTC3 islet cells, with changes in the intracellular redox state stimulating transporter expression. Induction of activity of system x-c, together with adaptive increases in GSH synthesis in response to oxidative stress, may contribute to cellular antioxidant defences in pancreatic disease. PMID:9804903

  4. 76 FR 51367 - China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Yusen Kaisha; United Arab Shipping Company (S.A.G.); and Yang Ming Marine Transport Corporation v. The... Arab Shipping Company (S.A.G.); and Yang Ming Marine Transport Corporation, hereinafter ``Complainants... China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A...

  5. An AP4B1 frameshift mutation in siblings with intellectual disability and spastic tetraplegia further delineates the AP-4 deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdollahpour, Hengameh; Alawi, Malik; Kortüm, Fanny; Beckstette, Michael; Seemanova, Eva; Komárek, Vladimír; Rosenberger, Georg; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2015-02-01

    The recently proposed adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) deficiency syndrome comprises a group of congenital neurological disorders characterized by severe intellectual disability (ID), delayed or absent speech, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and growth retardation. AP-4 is a heterotetrameric protein complex with important functions in vesicle trafficking. Mutations in genes affecting different subunits of AP-4, including AP4B1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4M1, have been reported in patients with the AP-4 deficiency phenotype. We describe two siblings from a non-consanguineous couple who presented with severe ID, absent speech, microcephaly, growth retardation, and progressive spastic tetraplegia. Whole-exome sequencing in the two patients identified the novel homozygous 2-bp deletion c.1160_1161delCA (p.(Thr387Argfs*30)) in AP4B1. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation in the siblings and revealed it in the heterozygous state in both parents. The AP4B1-associated phenotype has previously been assigned to spastic paraplegia-47. Identification of a novel AP4B1 alteration in two patients with clinical manifestations highly similar to other individuals with mutations affecting one of the four AP-4 subunits further supports the observation that loss of AP-4 assembly or functionality underlies the common clinical features in these patients and underscores the existence of the clinically recognizable AP-4 deficiency syndrome. PMID:24781758

  6. QCD on the Massively Parallel Computer AP1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akemi, K.; Fujisaki, M.; Okuda, M.; Tago, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hioki, S.; Miyamura, O.; Takaishi, T.; Nakamura, A.; de Forcrand, Ph.; Hege, C.; Stamatescu, I. O.

    We present the QCD-TARO program of calculations which uses the parallel computer AP1000 of Fujitsu. We discuss the results on scaling, correlation times and hadronic spectrum, some aspects of the implementation and the future prospects.

  7. Ap ery's Double Sum is Plain Sailing Indeed Carsten Schneider

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Carsten

    Ap#19;ery's Double Sum is Plain Sailing Indeed Carsten Schneider #3; Research Institute the summation package Sigma [6] we get plain sailing { instead of plane sailing, cf. van der Poorten's statement

  8. Engaging Cuban Physicists Through the APS/CPS Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Irving A.; Lerch, Irving A.

    In his reflections on Cuban physics, Marcelo Alonso urges APS to take steps to promote interactions between Cuban and US physicists. As an introduction to Marcello's essay, this note will summarize past and current activities.

  9. APS1005: Operations Research for Engineering Management Summer 2015

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    APS1005: Operations Research for Engineering Management Summer 2015 Lecturer: Daniel Frances, optimal control, production planning, reliability engineering, and operations management. The contents applicable in solving various engineering problems. These techniques are widely used in engineering design

  10. The intermediate energy X-ray beamline at the APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McChesney, J. L.; Reininger, R.; Ramanathan, M.; Benson, C.; Srajer, G.; Abbamonte, P.; Campuzano, J. C.

    2014-05-01

    The optical design of the Intermediate Energy X-ray (IEX) beamline at the APS has been optimized to study emergent phenomena via angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSXS). Driven by the scientific requirements of these two techniques the beamline consists of two separate branchlines sharing the same source, heat absorbing optics and monochromator, but each having its own refocusing optics. The ARPES branch is optimized for a very high "resolving power" and a small spot at the sample; whereas, the RSXS branch is designed for high flux and a low beam divergence at the sample. The very high "resolving power" in the ARPES branch is achieved by using a monochromator which consists of a plane mirror and a variable line spacing grating that focuses the beam at all photon energies. A flux higher than 1010 photons/s at a "resolving power" better than 5×104 will be available at the sample position of the ARPES beamline on a spot size (FWHM) smaller than 21 × 4 ?m2 (hor.×ver.) for photon energies between 250 and 1660 eV. A second grating will increase the flux by more than a factor of 10 at a "resolving power" of 104. The flux expected at the RSXS branch for energies between 250 eV and 1900 eV is higher than 4×1012 photons/s at "resolving power" around 2.5×103. The expected spot in this branch is sub-millimeter and the beam divergence is less than 0.3 mrad (FWHM).

  11. Plant resistance against the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii is mediated by MPK3 and MPK6 kinases, which are controlled by the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sidonskaya, Ekaterina; Schweighofer, Alois; Shubchynskyy, Volodymyr; Kammerhofer, Nina; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Meskiene, Irute

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes infect plants and form highly sophisticated feeding sites in roots. It is not known which plant cell signalling mechanisms trigger plant defence during the early stages of nematode parasitism. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are central components of protein phosphorylation cascades transducing extracellular signals to plant defence responses. MAPK phosphatases control kinase activities and the signalling outcome. The involvement and the role of MPK3 and MPK6, as well as the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1, is demonstrated during parasitism of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis. Our data reveal notable activation patterns of plant MAPKs and the induction of AP2C1 suggesting the attenuation of defence signalling in plant cells during early nematode infection. It is demonstrated that the ap2c1 mutant that is lacking AP2C1 is more attractive but less susceptible to nematodes compared with the AP2C1-overexpressing line. This implies that the function of AP2C1 is a negative regulator of nematode-induced defence. By contrast, the enhanced susceptibility of mpk3 and mpk6 plants indicates a positive role of stress-activated MAPKs in plant immunity against nematodes. Evidence is provided that phosphatase AP2C1, as well as AP2C1-targeted MPK3 and MPK6, are important regulators of plant–nematode interaction, where the co-ordinated action of these signalling components ensures the timely activation of plant defence. PMID:26438412

  12. Plant resistance against the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii is mediated by MPK3 and MPK6 kinases, which are controlled by the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sidonskaya, Ekaterina; Schweighofer, Alois; Shubchynskyy, Volodymyr; Kammerhofer, Nina; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Meskiene, Irute

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes infect plants and form highly sophisticated feeding sites in roots. It is not known which plant cell signalling mechanisms trigger plant defence during the early stages of nematode parasitism. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are central components of protein phosphorylation cascades transducing extracellular signals to plant defence responses. MAPK phosphatases control kinase activities and the signalling outcome. The involvement and the role of MPK3 and MPK6, as well as the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1, is demonstrated during parasitism of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis. Our data reveal notable activation patterns of plant MAPKs and the induction of AP2C1 suggesting the attenuation of defence signalling in plant cells during early nematode infection. It is demonstrated that the ap2c1 mutant that is lacking AP2C1 is more attractive but less susceptible to nematodes compared with the AP2C1-overexpressing line. This implies that the function of AP2C1 is a negative regulator of nematode-induced defence. By contrast, the enhanced susceptibility of mpk3 and mpk6 plants indicates a positive role of stress-activated MAPKs in plant immunity against nematodes. Evidence is provided that phosphatase AP2C1, as well as AP2C1-targeted MPK3 and MPK6, are important regulators of plant-nematode interaction, where the co-ordinated action of these signalling components ensures the timely activation of plant defence. PMID:26438412

  13. APS/DPP 111207-se 1 University Fusion Association Meeting

    E-print Network

    APS/DPP 111207-se 1 University Fusion Association Meeting Orlando, FL November 12, 2007 Stephen.ofes.fusion.doe.gov U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science #12;APS/DPP 111207-se 2 Topics · Budget status/DPP 111207-se 3 FY 2008 Fusion Energy Sciences Congressional Budget Request 144.6 146.3 20.8 311.7 FY 2007

  14. Observing roAp Stars with WET: A Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Martinez, P.

    We give an extensive primer on roAp stars -- introducing them, putting them in context and explaining terminology and jargon, and giving a thorough discussion of what is known and not known about them. This provides a good understanding of the kind of science WET could extract from these stars. We also discuss the many potential pitfalls and problems in high-precision photometry. Finally, we suggest a WET campaign for the roAp star HR 1217.

  15. Pulsation in the atmosphere of the roAp star HD 24712. I. Spectroscopic observations and radial velocity measurements

    E-print Network

    T. Ryabchikova; M. Sachkov; W. W. Weiss; T. Kallinger; O. Kochukhov; S. Bagnulo; I. Ilyin; J. D. Landstreet; F. Leone; G. Lo Curto; T. Luftinger; D. Lyashko; A. Magazzu

    2006-11-28

    We have investigated the structure of the pulsating atmosphere of one of the best studied rapidly oscillating Ap stars, HD 24712. For this purpose we analyzed spectra collected during 2001-2004. An extensive data set was obtained in 2004 simultaneously with the photometry of the Canadian MOST mini-satellite. This allows us to connect directly atmospheric dynamics observed as radial velocity variations with light variations seen in photometry. We directly derived for the first time and for different chemical elements, respectively ions, phase shifts between photometric and radial velocity pulsation maxima indicating, as we suggest, different line formation depths in the atmosphere. This allowed us to estimate for the first time the propagation velocity of a pulsation wave in the outer stellar atmosphere of a roAp star to be slightly lower than the sound speed. We confirm large pulsation amplitudes (150-400 m/s) for REE lines and the Halpha core, while spectral lines of the other elements (Mg, Si, Ca, and Fe-peak elements) have nearly constant velocities. We did not find different pulsation amplitudes and phases for the lines of rare-earth elements before and after the Balmer jump, which supports the hypothesis of REE concentration in the upper atmosphere above the hydrogen line-forming layers. We also discuss radial velocity amplitudes and phases measured for individual spectral lines as tools for a 3D tomography of the atmosphere of HD 24712.

  16. Validation of the new trapped environment AE9/AP9/SPM at low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.

    2014-09-01

    The completion of the international space station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community an ideal proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport codes and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the space transportation system (STS; shuttle) provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code developments by indicating the need for an improved dynamic model of the low Earth orbit (LEO) trapped environment. Additional studies using thermo-luminescent detector (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) area monitors, and computer aided design (CAD) model of earlier ISS configurations, confirmed STS observations that, as input, computational dosimetry requires an environmental model with dynamic and directional (anisotropic) behavior, as well as an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) definition of the vehicle attitude and orientation along the orbit of ISS. At LEO, a vehicle encounters exposure from trapped particles and attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Within the trapped field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensities of the trapped particles during the solar quiet and active times. At active times, solar energetic particles (SEP) generated by solar flare or coronal mass ejection (CME) also contribute to the exposure at high northern and southern latitudes. Among the more established trapped models are the historic and popular AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s, the historic and less popular CRRES electron/proton, dating back to 1990s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. The AE9/AP9/SPM model is a major improvement over the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models. This model is derived from numerous measurements acquired over four solar cycles dating back to the 1970s, roughly representing 40 years of data collection. In contrast, the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models were limited to only a few months of measurements taken during the prior solar minima and maxima. The dual goal of this paper is to first validate the AE8/AP8 and AE9/AP9/SPM trapped models against ISS dosemetric measurements for a silicon based detector, to assess the improvements in the AE9/AP9/SPM model as compared to AE8/AP8 model. The validation is done at selected target points within ISS-6A configuration during its passage through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). For such validation, only the isotropic spectrum of either model is needed. As a second goal, the isotropic spectra of both trapped models are re-casted into anisotropic spectra by modulating them with a measurement derived angular formalism which is applicable to trapped protons. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution, the paper ignores the AE8 and AE9 component of the models and presents the angular validation of AP8 and AP9 against measurements from the compact environment anomaly sensor (CEASE) science instrument package, flown onboard the tri-service experiment-5 (TSX-5) satellite during the period of June 2000-July 2006. The spin stabilized satellite was flown in a 410 × 1710 km, 69° inclination orbit, allowing it to be exposed to a broad range of LEO regime. Particular emphasize is put on the validation of proton flux profiles at differential 40 MeV and integral >40 MeV, in the vicinity of SAA where protons exhibit east-west (EW) anisotropy and have a relatively narrow pitch angle distribution. Within SAA, the EW anisotropy results in different level of exposure to each side of CEASE instrument package, allowing the extraction of anisotropic proton spectra from the measurements. While the magnitude of the EW effect at LEO depends on a multitude of factors such as trapped proton energy, orientation of the spacecraft along the velocity vector and altitude of the spacecraft, for this part, the paper draws quantitative conclusions on t

  17. The (Very) Slow Rotation of Magnetic Ap Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, Gautier

    2015-08-01

    To this date, 34 magnetic Ap stars that have periods of variation longer than 30 days are known. They represent a considerable fraction of the total number of Ap stars whose period has been reliably determined. All the available evidence unambiguously indicates that the observed variations of those long-period Ap stars result from the changing aspect of their visible hemisphere as they rotate, thus that the oblique rotator model is applicable throughout the whole range of periods of variation of the Ap stars. We show that the periods of the most slowly rotating Ap stars must be of the order of 300 years, and that some may even be longer, possibly up to 1000 years. The 5 to 6 orders of magnitude spanned by the rotation periods of the Ap stars present a major challenge for the understanding of their origin and their evolution. To guide the theo- retical developments, observational hints may be found in possible differences between the magnetic properties of stars that have rotation periods in different ranges. Such differences are starting to emerge from the existing data. To increase their significance level, study of the longest-period stars must be continued over their full rotation cycle. Failure to secure observations now may leave critical data missing for several decades, or even centuries.

  18. Chemical composition and fundamental parameters of roAp stars

    E-print Network

    M. J. Gelbmann

    1998-05-05

    Element abundances of three roAp stars, HD 166473, HD 203932, and HD 217522, were determined using Kurucz model atmospheres with metal abundances scaled to solar ones and the results were compared with data from the literature concerning three further roAp stars, normal B and A stars and two lambda Bootis stars. Up to 38 elements could be identified and therefore, this work represents the most complete chemical investigation hitherto published, which can be summarized as follows: - all investigated roAp stars have a similar abundance pattern, - the overabundances of rare earth and other heavy elements are comparable to cool non-pulsating Ap-stars, - iron belongs to the most deficient and cobalt to the most enhanced elements in the group of the iron peak elements, and - the light elements carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are less abundant than in atmospheres with abundances scaled to the Sun. Beside an unexpected possible relation between effective temperature and metallicity of roAp stars, no outstanding differences from non-pulsating Ap stars could be detected. This statement, however, suffers from the lack of comparably detailed investigations of the latter.

  19. AP® Potential Predicted by PSAT/NMSQT® Scores Using Logistic Regression. Statistical Report 2014-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiuyuan; Patel, Priyank; Ewing, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    AP Potential™ is an educational guidance tool that uses PSAT/NMSQT® scores to identify students who have the potential to do well on one or more Advanced Placement® (AP®) Exams. Students identified as having AP potential, perhaps students who would not have been otherwise identified, should consider enrolling in the corresponding AP course if they…

  20. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Line markers for mains and transmission lines. 192... § 192.707 Line markers for mains and transmission lines. (a) Buried pipelines. Except as provided in...: (1) Mains and transmission lines located offshore, or at crossings of or under waterways and...

  1. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line markers for mains and transmission lines. 192... § 192.707 Line markers for mains and transmission lines. (a) Buried pipelines. Except as provided in...: (1) Mains and transmission lines located offshore, or at crossings of or under waterways and...

  2. Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

    2006-04-01

    From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware-software combined hybrid approach because of a too limited phase space of a single RFID for any meaningful encryption approach. Furthermore, a useful biological lesson is not to put all eggs in one basket, "if you don't get it all, you can't hack it". According to the Radar physics, we can choose the amplitude, the frequency, the phase, the polarization, and two radiation energy supply principles, the capacitance coupling (~6m) and the inductance coupling (<1m), to code the pair of tags differently. A casual skimmer equipped with single-mode reader can not read all. We consider near-field and mid-field applications each in this paper. The near-field is at check-out counters or the convey-belt inventory involving sensitive and invariant data. The mid-field search & rescue involves not only item/person identification, but also the geo-location. If more RF power becomes cheaper & portable for longer propagation distance in the near future, then a triangulation with pair of secured readers, located at known geo-locations, could interrogate and identify items/persons and their locations in a GPS-blind environment.

  3. RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVAE HAVE SHORTER-LIVED CENTRAL ENGINES OR MORE EXTENDED PROGENITORS: THE CASE OF SN 2012ap

    SciTech Connect

    Margutti, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Soderberg, A. M.; Sanders, N.; Chakraborti, S.; Kamble, A.; Drout, M.; Parrent, J.; Zauderer, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Morsony, B. J.; Ray, A.; Chomiuk, L.

    2014-12-20

    Deep, late-time X-ray observations of the relativistic, engine-driven, type Ic SN 2012ap allow us to probe the nearby environment of the explosion and reveal the unique properties of relativistic supernova explosions (SNe). We find that on a local scale of ?0.01 pc the environment was shaped directly by the evolution of the progenitor star with a pre-explosion mass-loss rate of M-dot <5×10{sup ?6} M{sub ?} yr{sup ?1}, in line with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and the other relativistic SN 2009bb. Like sub-energetic GRBs, SN 2012ap is characterized by a bright radio emission and evidence for mildly relativistic ejecta. However, its late-time (?t ? 20 days) X-ray emission is ?100 times fainter than the faintest sub-energetic GRB at the same epoch, with no evidence for late-time central engine activity. These results support theoretical proposals that link relativistic SNe like 2009bb and 2012ap with the weakest observed engine-driven explosions, where the jet barely fails to break out. Furthermore, our observations demonstrate that the difference between relativistic SNe and sub-energetic GRBs is intrinsic and not due to line-of-sight effects. This phenomenology can either be due to an intrinsically shorter-lived engine or to a more extended progenitor in relativistic SNe.

  4. 49 CFR 236.754 - Line, open wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Line, open wire. 236.754 Section 236.754 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Line, open wire. An overhead wire line consisting of single conductors as opposed to...

  5. 49 CFR 236.754 - Line, open wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line, open wire. 236.754 Section 236.754 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Line, open wire. An overhead wire line consisting of single conductors as opposed to...

  6. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  7. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any emergency... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745 Section 192.745 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE...

  8. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any emergency... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745 Section 192.745 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE...

  9. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  10. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  11. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  12. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  13. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  14. Heparin (GAG-hed) inhibits LCR activity of Human Papillomavirus type 18 by decreasing AP1 binding

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Rita; Morales-Peza, Néstor; Castelán-Sánchez, Irma; García-Villa, Enrique; Tapia, Rocio; Cid-Arregui, Ángel; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; López-Bayghen, Esther; Gariglio, Patricio

    2006-01-01

    Background High risk HPVs are causative agents of anogenital cancers. Viral E6 and E7 genes are continuously expressed and are largely responsible for the oncogenic activity of these viruses. Transcription of the E6 and E7 genes is controlled by the viral Long Control Region (LCR), plus several cellular transcription factors including AP1 and the viral protein E2. Within the LCR, the binding and activity of the transcription factor AP1 represents a key regulatory event in maintaining E6/E7 gene expression and uncontrolled cell proliferation. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparin, can inhibit tumour growth; they have also shown antiviral effects and inhibition of AP1 transcriptional activity. The purpose of this study was to test the heparinoid GAG-hed, as a possible antiviral and antitumoral agent in an HPV18 positive HeLa cell line. Methods Using in vivo and in vitro approaches we tested GAG-hed effects on HeLa tumour cell growth, cell proliferation and on the expression of HPV18 E6/E7 oncogenes. GAG-hed effects on AP1 binding to HPV18-LCR-DNA were tested by EMSA. Results We were able to record the antitumoral effect of GAG-hed in vivo by using as a model tumours induced by injection of HeLa cells into athymic female mice. The antiviral effect of GAG-hed resulted in the inhibition of LCR activity and, consequently, the inhibition of E6 and E7 transcription. A specific diminishing of cell proliferation rates was observed in HeLa but not in HPV-free colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Treated HeLa cells did not undergo apoptosis but the percentage of cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle was increased. We also detected that GAG-hed prevents the binding of the transcription factor AP1 to the LCR. Conclusion Direct interaction of GAG-hed with the components of the AP1 complex and subsequent interference with its ability to correctly bind specific sites within the viral LCR may contribute to the inhibition of E6/E7 transcription and cell proliferation. Our data suggest that GAG-hed could have antitumoral and antiviral activity mainly by inhibiting AP1 binding to the HPV18-LCR. PMID:16945153

  15. A kinesin-like protein, KatAp, in the cells of arabidopsis and other plants.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, B; Cyr, R J; Palevitz, B A

    1996-01-01

    The kinesin-like proteins (KLPs) are a large family of plus- or minus-end-directed microtubule motors important in intracellular transport, mitosis, meiosis, and development. However, relatively little is known about plant KLPs. We prepared an antibody against two peptides in the microtubule binding domain of an Arabidopsis KLP (KatAp) encoded by the KatA gene, one of a family of genes encoding KLPs whose motor domain is located near the C terminus of the polypeptide. Such KLPs typically move materials toward the minus end of microtubules. An immunoreactive band (Mr of 140,000) corresponding to KatAp was demonstrated with this antibody on immunoblots of Arabidopsis seedling extracts. During immunofluorescence localizations, the antibody produced weak, variable staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus of interphase Arabidopsis suspension cells but much stronger staining of the mitotic apparatus during division. Staining was concentrated near the midzone during metaphase and was retained there during anaphase. The phragmoplast was also stained. Similar localization patterns were seen in tobacco BY-2 cells. The antibody produced a single band (Mr of 130,000) in murine brain fractions prepared according to procedures that enrich for KLPs (binding to microtubules in the presence of AMP-PNP but not ATP). A similar fraction from carrot suspension cells yielded a cross-reacting polypeptide of similar apparent molecular mass. When dividing BY-2 cells were lysed in the presence of taxol and ATP, antibody staining moved rapidly toward the poles, supporting the presence of a minus-end motor. Movement did not occur without ATP, with AMP-PNP, or with ATP plus antibody. Our results indicate that the protein encoded by KatA, KatAp, is expressed in Arabidopsis and is specifically localized to the midzone of the mitotic apparatus and phragmoplast. A similar protein is also present in other species. PMID:8597656

  16. How to Find a Bug in Ten Thousand Lines Transport Solver? Outline of Experiences from AN Advection-Diffusion Code Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, K.; Bombardelli, F.

    2011-12-01

    Almost all natural phenomena on Earth are highly nonlinear. Even simplifications to the equations describing nature usually end up being nonlinear partial differential equations. Transport (ADR) equation is a pivotal equation in atmospheric sciences and water quality. This nonlinear equation needs to be solved numerically for practical purposes so academicians and engineers thoroughly rely on the assistance of numerical codes. Thus, numerical codes require verification before they are utilized for multiple applications in science and engineering. Model verification is a mathematical procedure whereby a numerical code is checked to assure the governing equation is properly solved as it is described in the design document. CFD verification is not a straightforward and well-defined course. Only a complete test suite can uncover all the limitations and bugs. Results are needed to be assessed to make a distinction between bug-induced-defect and innate limitation of a numerical scheme. As Roache (2009) said, numerical verification is a state-of-the-art procedure. Sometimes novel tricks work out. This study conveys the synopsis of the experiences we gained during a comprehensive verification process which was done for a transport solver. A test suite was designed including unit tests and algorithmic tests. Tests were layered in complexity in several dimensions from simple to complex. Acceptance criteria defined for the desirable capabilities of the transport code such as order of accuracy, mass conservation, handling stiff source term, spurious oscillation, and initial shape preservation. At the begining, mesh convergence study which is the main craft of the verification is performed. To that end, analytical solution of ADR equation gathered. Also a new solution was derived. In the more general cases, lack of analytical solution could be overcome through Richardson Extrapolation and Manufactured Solution. Then, two bugs which were concealed during the mesh convergence study uncovered with the method of false injection and visualization of the results. Symmetry had dual functionality: there was a bug, which was hidden due to the symmetric nature of a test (it was detected afterward utilizing artificial false injection), on the other hand self-symmetry was used to design a new test, and in a case the analytical solution of the ADR equation was unknown. Assisting subroutines designed to check and post-process conservation of mass and oscillatory behavior. Finally, capability of the solver also checked for stiff reaction source term. The above test suite not only was a decent tool of error detection but also it provided a thorough feedback on the ADR solvers limitations. Such information is the crux of any rigorous numerical modeling for a modeler who deals with surface/subsurface pollution transport.

  17. The fundamental parameters of the Ap star 78 Virginis. Could 78 Vir be a rapidly oscillating Ap star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraut, K.; Cunha, M.; Brandão, I.; Loridat, J.; Mourard, D.; Meilland, A.; Nardetto, N.; McAlister, H.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Vargas, N.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Determining the effective temperature of Ap stars, including the roAp stellar pulsators, is a difficult task owing to their strong magnetic field and their related spotted surfaces. It is, however, an important step towards constraining models of their complex atmosphere and testing proposed pulsation excitation mechanisms. Aims: Using the unique angular resolution provided by long-baseline visible interferometry, we aim at deriving accurate angular diameters of a number of Ap targets, so as to determine their unbiased effective temperature (Teff) and their accurate position in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, to estimate their mass and age, and to test non-adiabatic pulsation models. Interferometric results on four Ap stars have been published in earlier works. Here we report the results on a fifth, significantly hotter star. Methods: We observed 78 Vir with the visible spectrograph VEGA installed at the combined focus of the CHARA long-baseline optical array. We derived the limb-darkened diameter of this Ap star from our interferometric measurements. Based on photometric and spectroscopic data available in the literature, we estimated the star's bolometric flux and used it, in combination with its parallax and angular diameter, to determine the star's luminosity and effective temperature. We then used the derived fundamental parameters to perform a non-adiabatic pulsation analysis. Results: We determined a limb-darkened angular diameter of 0.346 ± 0.006 mas and deduced a linear radius of R = 2.11 ± 0.04 R?. Considering a bolometric flux of 2.73 ± 0.20 10-7 erg/cm2/s we obtained a luminosity of L/L? = 27 ± 2 and an effective temperature of Teff = 9100 ± 190 K. The non-adiabatic pulsation modeling allows us to predict that high overtone pulsations could be excited in 78 Vir at frequencies ranging from 1.2 to 1.9 mHz, provided that the magnetic field is capable of suppressing envelope convection in the polar regions. Conclusions: Visible long-baseline interferometry is a unique means of deriving accurate fundamental parameters of Ap stars. The Ap star 78 Vir is found to be a promising roAp-star candidate and one that would allow us to extend recent tests on the roAp stars' excitation mechanism towards the blue edge of the instability strip. Asteroseismic data of this star would, therefore, be of strong interest. Based on observations made with the VEGA/CHARA spectro-interferometer.

  18. AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance

    PubMed Central

    O’Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABLT315I mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and pre-clinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multi-targeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABLT315I-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML. PMID:19878872

  19. AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    O?Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, III, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim

    2010-09-07

    Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABL{sup T315I} mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and preclinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multitargeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABL{sup T315I}-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML.

  20. Ground vibration model studies for APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Koul, R.K.

    1994-07-01

    An analytical ground vibration model is developed for study of the vibration effects on the beam motion in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The different physical parameters associated with the wave characteristics and the vibration modes needed for the study are taken from the vibration studies carried out at the APS site. The implementation has been carried out using Mathematica{trademark}. The study is carried out for the frequency range 1--35 Hz, with a number of sources changing from one through ten. The program written in Mathematica{trademark}, calculates orbit distortion, beta wave change, tune change, dispersion change, and chromaticity change. However, the main parameter studied for the APS storage ring has been the orbit distortion. The merit factor associated with different modes excited by the vibrations has been calculated.

  1. APS storage ring vacuum system development

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Ferry, R.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.D.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, rf and insertion device systems. The vacuum system will operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr and is fabricated from aluminum. The system includes distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. An overview of the vacuum system design and details of selected development program results are presented. 5 refs.

  2. Incorporating the APS Catalog of the POSS I and Image Archive in ADS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary purpose of this contract was to develop the software to both create and access an on-line database of images from digital scans of the Palomar Sky Survey. This required modifying our DBMS (called Star Base) to create an image database from the actual raw pixel data from the scans. The digitized images are processed into a set of coordinate-reference index and pixel files that are stored in run-length files, thus achieving an efficient lossless compression. For efficiency and ease of referencing, each digitized POSS I plate is then divided into 900 subplates. Our custom DBMS maps each query into the corresponding POSS plate(s) and subplate(s). All images from the appropriate subplates are retrieved from disk with byte-offsets taken from the index files. These are assembled on-the-fly into a GIF image file for browser display, and a FITS format image file for retrieval. The FITS images have a pixel size of 0.33 arcseconds. The FITS header contains astrometric and photometric information. This method keeps the disk requirements manageable while allowing for future improvements. When complete, the APS Image Database will contain over 130 Gb of data. A set of web pages query forms are available on-line, as well as an on-line tutorial and documentation. The database is distributed to the Internet by a high-speed SGI server and a high-bandwidth disk system. URL is http://aps.umn.edu/IDB/. The image database software is written in perl and C and has been compiled on SGI computers with MIX5.3. A copy of the written documentation is included and the software is on the accompanying exabyte tape.

  3. Piping benchmark problems for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bezler, P.; DeGrassi, G.; Braverman, J.; Wang, Y.K.

    1997-01-01

    To satisfy the need for verification of the computer programs and modeling techniques that will be used to perform the final piping analyses for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant, three benchmark problems were developed. The problems are representative piping systems subjected to representative dynamic loads with solutions developed using the methods being proposed for analysis for the AP600 standard design. It will be required that the combined license licensees demonstrate that their solutions to these problems are in agreement with the benchmark problem set.

  4. A parameter-free dynamic alternative to hyper-viscosity for coupled transport equations: Application to the simulation of 3D squall lines using spectral elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, Simone; Giraldo, Francis X.

    2015-02-01

    The stabilization of high order spectral elements to solve the transport equations for tracers in the atmosphere remains an active topic of research among atmospheric modelers. This paper builds on our previous work on variational multiscale stabilization (VMS) and discontinuity capturing (DC) (Marras et al. (2012) [7]) and shows the applicability of VMS+DC to realistic atmospheric problems that involve physics coupling with phase change in the simulation of 3D deep convection. We show that the VMS+DC approach is a robust technique that can damp the high order modes characterizing the spectral element solution of complex coupled transport problems. The method has important properties that techniques of more common use often lack: 1) it is free of a user-defined parameter, 2) it is anisotropic in that it only acts along the flow direction, 3) it is numerically consistent, and 4) it can improve the monotonicity of high-order spectral elements. The proposed method is assessed by comparing the results against those obtained with a fourth-order hyper-viscosity programmed in the same code. The main conclusion that arises is that tuning can be fully avoided without loss of accuracy if the dissipative scheme is properly designed. Finally, the cost of parallel communication is that of a second order operator which means that fewer communications are required by VMS+DC than by a hyper-viscosity method; fewer communications translate into a faster and more scalable code, which is of vital importance as we approach the exascale range of computing.

  5. Analysis of N-16 concentration in primary cooling system of AP1000 power reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the primary reactor system. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant system during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on 16O(n,p)16N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (primary coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor system. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, primary pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.

  6. The discovery of two new rapidly oscillating Ap stars, HD92499 and HD143487

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.; Freyhammer, L. M.

    2010-05-01

    We report the discovery of short periodic radial velocity variations in the stars HD92499 and HD143487. Both stars show strong magnetic fields and large overabundances of rare earth elements and belong to the class of cool chemically peculiar stars of the main sequence. They are therefore new rapidly oscillating Ap stars. Pulsations were detected from analysis of high time resolution spectra obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope by using a cross-correlation method for large spectral bands and from combinations of lines belonging to rare earth elements. The amplitudes of the pulsations are small and do not exceed several dozens of ms-1 with periods of around 10min. The detection of such low amplitudes is important for the determination of which magnetic Ap stars pulsate, and which are constant, a distinction important for the understanding of the pulsation driving mechanism in these stars. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, as part of programmes 080.D-0191(A), 078.D-0192(A) and 078.D-0080(A). E-mail: velkin@uclan.ac.uk

  7. Analysis of N-16 concentration in primary cooling system of AP1000 power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul

    2015-04-16

    Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the primary reactor system. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant system during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (primary coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor system. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, primary pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.

  8. KIC 7582608: a new Kepler roAp star with frequency variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, D. L.; Smalley, B.; Kurtz, D. W.; Southworth, J.; Cunha, M. S.; Clubb, K. I.

    2015-09-01

    We analyse the fifth roAp star reported in the Kepler field, KIC 7582608, discovered with the SuperWASP project. The object shows a high frequency pulsation at 181.7324d-1 (P = 7.9 min) with an amplitude of 1.45 mmag, and low frequency rotational modulation corresponding to a period of 20.4339 d. Spectral analysis confirms the Ap nature of the target, with characteristic lines of rare earth elements present. From our spectral observations we derive a lower limit on the mean magnetic field modulus of =3.05 ± 0.23 kG. Long Cadence Kepler observations show a frequency quintuplet split by the rotational period of the star, typical for an oblique pulsator. We suggest the star is a quadrupole pulsator with a geometry such that i ~ 66° and ? ~ 33°. We detect frequency variations of the pulsation in both the WASP and Kepler data sets on many time scales. Linear, non-adiabatic stability modelling allows us to constrain a region on the HR diagram where the pulsations are unstable, an area consistent with observations.

  9. Measure Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  10. Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

  11. The AP Course Audit Syllabus Review Process: Methodological Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.

    2007-01-01

    The AP Course Audit utilizes a criterion-based professional judgment method of analysis within a nested multi-step review process. The overall goal of the methodology is to yield a final judgment on each syllabus that is ultimately valid. While reviewer consistency is an important consideration, the most important goal is to reach a final judgment…

  12. Approximate entropy (ApEn) as a complexity measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincus, Steve

    1995-03-01

    Approximate entropy (ApEn) is a recently developed statistic quantifying regularity and complexity, which appears to have potential application to a wide variety of relatively short (greater than 100 points) and noisy time-series data. The development of ApEn was motivated by data length constraints commonly encountered, e.g., in heart rate, EEG, and endocrine hormone secretion data sets. We describe ApEn implementation and interpretation, indicating its utility to distinguish correlated stochastic processes, and composite deterministic/ stochastic models. We discuss the key technical idea that motivates ApEn, that one need not fully reconstruct an attractor to discriminate in a statistically valid manner—marginal probability distributions often suffice for this purpose. Finally, we discuss why algorithms to compute, e.g., correlation dimension and the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy, often work well for true dynamical systems, yet sometimes operationally confound for general models, with the aid of visual representations of reconstructed dynamics for two contrasting processes.

  13. ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED TRIVALENT ARSENICALS. Z Drobna1, I Jaspers2, D J Thomas3 and M Styblo1. 1Department of Pediatrics; 2Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.

  14. 76 FR 82079 - AP1000 Design Certification Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... any person. The NRC originally approved the AP1000 design certification in a final rule in 2006 (71 FR... notice of acceptance (ADAMS Accession No. ML073600743) in the Federal Register (73 FR 4926; January 28... applications: . Vogtle, Units 3 and 4......... Docket No. 05200025/6. 73 FR 33118. Bellefonte Nuclear...

  15. 8 | NewScientist | 28 January 2012 RALPHWILSON/AP

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    8 | NewScientist | 28 January 2012 RALPHWILSON/AP Fracking is causing a furore in the US and Europe is scarce DRILLING INTO THE UNKNOWN SPECIALREPORT/FRACKING #12;28 January 2012 | NewScientist | 9 "Neighbours of new fracking operations complain of breathing difficulties and nausea" 100s of metres 1000s

  16. Risks of using AP locations discovered through war driving

    E-print Network

    Kotz, David

    Risks of using AP locations discovered through war driving Minkyong Kim, Jeffrey J. Fielding the actual locations are often unavailable, they use estimated locations from war driving estimated through war driving. War driving is the process of collecting Wi-Fi beacons by driving or walking

  17. AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M., Ed.; Sonnert, Gerhard, Ed.; Tai, Robert H., Ed.; Klopfenstein, Kristin, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With an annual yearly growth rate of 9.3 percent over the last two decades, Advanced Placement courses have become a juggernaut in American high school education. AP courses are routinely perceived as an indicator of educational rigor, and many schools push to enroll low-income or minority students in these courses in the hope of preparing them…

  18. Characterisation of the AP-3 adaptor-like complex

    E-print Network

    Peden, Andrew Alexander

    2000-02-15

    and the AP-2 complex is associated with the clathrin coated vesicles that bud from the plasma membrane. A new type of adaptor-like complex was discovered in our laboratory and was published in 1996. The complex has been shown to consist of two known proteins...

  19. Status of TRANStatus of TRAN Presented at AP

    E-print Network

    Budny, Robert

    Status of TRANStatus of TRAN Presented at AP NovemberNovember Supported by U.S. DOE Contrac NSP Provide a com d t dend-to-end capability fop y confinement fu experiments oexperiments o tomor Doug Mc and rrow. une 3 #12;Traditional TRATraditional TRA Experiments (Asdex-U, C-Mo ITER, JET, MAST, NSTX, H

  20. 75 FR 75666 - Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ...: On September 1, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 53681) a notice inviting... in the September 1, 2010 notice (75 FR 53682-53683). We encourage eligible applicants to submit their... Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education...

  1. Automated Procurement System (APS) revised project management plan (DS-03)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Diane R.

    1995-01-01

    The Project Plan is the governing document for the implementation of the Automated Procurement System (APS). It includes a description of the proposed system, describes the work to be done, establishes a schedule of deliverables, and discusses the major standards and procedures to be followed.

  2. EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CERNSL2002016 (AP)

    E-print Network

    Keil, Eberhard

    EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CERN­SL­2002­016 (AP) CLIC Note 511 Monte Carlo (0) and generally be contained within 20-30 radia- tion length (where 0 = 0.56 cm for lead and 0 = 0, the muons do also loose their energy much slower and become the dominant component as far as leakage from

  3. Vibrational Mechanics: Nonlinear Dynamic Effects, General Ap-proach, Applications

    E-print Network

    van der Heijden, Gert

    Review of: Vibrational Mechanics: Nonlinear Dynamic Effects, General Ap- proach, Applications Iliya.H.M. van der Heijden, University College London, UK Fast vibrations may have strong and sometimes unexpected effects on nonlinear mechanical systems. Familiar examples are the stabilisation of the inverted

  4. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  5. 76 FR 10269 - AP1000 Design Certification Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Energy Corporation, EDF-International North America, Inc., Entergy Nuclear, Inc., Exelon Generation...; Bellefonte Nuclear Station, Units 3 and 4, Docket Nos. 05200014/5, 73 FR 4923; Levy County, Units 1 and 2... AP1000 Standard Design,'' in September 2004. From March 2006 through May 2007, NuStart Energy...

  6. Mechanistic studies of the ClpAP protease/

    E-print Network

    Farbman, Mary E

    2008-01-01

    CIpA, a member of the Hspl00/Clp subset of the AAA+ superfamily, is an energy-dependent chaperone, disassembling and remodeling its protein substrates. CIpA also serves as the ATPase component of the ClpAP protease, where ...

  7. Transport along Null Curves

    E-print Network

    Joseph Samuel; Rajaram Nityananda

    2000-05-22

    Fermi Transport is useful for describing the behaviour of spins or gyroscopes following non-geodesic, timelike world lines. However, Fermi Transport breaks down for null world lines. We introduce a transport law for polarisation vectors along non-geodesic null curves. We show how this law emerges naturally from the geometry of null directions by comparing polarisation vectors associated with two distinct null directions. We then give a spinorial treatment of this topic and make contact with the geometric phase of quantum mechanics. There are two significant differences between the null and timelike cases. In the null case (i) The transport law does not approach a unique smooth limit as the null curve approaches a null geodesic. (ii) The transport law for vectors is integrable, i.e the result depends only on the local properties of the curve and not on the entire path taken. However, the transport of spinors is not integrable: there is a global sign of topological origin.

  8. Anti-tumor peptide AP25 decreases cyclin D1 expression and inhibits MGC-803 proliferation via phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-, Src-, c-Jun N-terminal kinase- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-associated pathways.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jialiang; Cheng, Tao; Zhang, Lijun; Sun, Beicheng; Deng, Lei; Xu, Hanmei

    2015-09-01

    The anti-tumor peptide AP25 is a prototype integrin antagonist, which exhibits anti?angiogenic and anti?tumor activity. The molecular mechanisms by which AP25 inhibits the growth of the MGC?803 gastric carcinoma cell line were investigated in the present study. K?ras specific RNA interference by lentiviral infection was successfully induced in MGC?803 cells [MGC?803 short hairpin (sh)RNA group] and the expression levels of K?ras, phosphorylated extracellular signal?regulated kinase (p-ERK) and cyclin D1 were observed to be markedly decreased. By contrast, AP25 caused cell cycle arrest of intact MGC?803 cells and decreased p?ERK and cyclin D1 expression levels. Of note, 0.4?3.2 µM AP25 no longer inhibited MGC?803 shRNA growth, indicating that AP25, at such concentrations, exerts its effect mainly through the Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK pathway, whereas at 25 µM, AP25 was able to inhibit MGC?803 shRNA growth. Chemical inhibitors of Src, c?Jun N?terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphoinositide 3?kinase (PI3K) were used to confirm that 25 µM AP25 inhibited growth of cells in the MGC?803 shRNA group and activated intracellular signaling pathways with Src, JNK and PI3K as key enzymes. In conclusion, the present study revealed the signal transduction pathways activated by AP25 at low (0.4?3.2 µM) or high (25 µM) concentrations. It also confirmed that integrins, when interacting with the freely moving ligand AP25 instead of immobilized extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are able to initiate cell signaling via similar pathways as in the latter case but with a reversed effect, to inhibit cell growth. PMID:26063313

  9. AP Theory IV: Intrinsic Topological Quantum Langlands Theory

    E-print Network

    H. E. Winkelnkemper

    2010-10-25

    Without using any moduli, sheaves, stacks, nor any analytic, nor category-type arguments, we exhibit an analogue to Geometric Langlands Theory in an entirely model-independent, non-perturbative,purely smooth topological context in Artin Presentation Theory. A basic initial feature is that AP Theory, as a whole, is already, ab initio, a universal canonical 2D sigma-model, targeting smooth, compact, simply-connected 4-manifolds with a connected boundary, and its topological Planckian quantum starting point, as well as its cone-like, infinitely-generated at each stage, graded group of homology-preserving, but topology-changing transitions/interactions, exhibit the most general qualitative S-duality. We first point out the numerous mathematically rigorous, model-free, (i.e., intrinsic), topological AP analogues with the heuristic Kapustin-Witten version of Geometric Langlands theory, as well as the crucial differences between the two theories. The latter have to exist since AP Theory deals, a priori, essentially only with discrete group-theoretic presentation theory, not Lie group representation theory, not with category nor moduli theory, does not need classical SUSY, nor Feynman integrals, lattice models, etc., and furthermore is model-independent and characteristic of real dimension four. It will become clear that AP Langlands theory is a model-independent, cone-like, graded, compact completion and topological 'envelope' of 4D N=4 SUSY YM theory, their starting point, anchored, kept in place, so to speak, by a purely discrete group-theoretic analogue of Donaldson/Seiberg-Witten theory. Due to its discrete group-theoretic conceptual simplicity and universality, the AP Langlands program should also be considered to be a new type of intrinsic model-free symmetry, a universal Erlanger Program for Modern Physics.

  10. Chromosome localization of human genes for clathrin adaptor polypeptides AP2 beta and AP50 and the clathrin-binding protein, VCP.

    PubMed

    Druck, T; Gu, Y; Prabhala, G; Cannizzaro, L A; Park, S H; Huebner, K; Keen, J H

    1995-11-01

    Clathrin-coated vesicles, involved in endocytosis and Golgi processing, have a surface lattice containing clathrin triskelia and stoichiometric amounts of additional components termed "assembly proteins," or APs. The AP form at the plasma membrane, AP2, is composed of two large subunits of 100-115 kDa, denoted AP2 alpha and AP2 beta, a medium chain of 50 kDa, designated AP50, and a small chain. We have determined human chromosomal locations of genes for a large AP2 beta (CLAPB1) and a medium (CLAPM1) AP subunit and of a novel clathrin-binding protein, VCP, that binds clathrin simultaneously with APs. Chromosomal in situ hybridization of a human genomic clone demonstrated that the CLAPM1 gene mapped to chromosome region 3q28. The gene for the CLAPB1 large subunit was mapped to 17q11.2-q12 by PCR amplification of an AP2 beta fragment from a panel of rodent-human hybrid DNAs. To map the human VCP sequence, a human-specific probe was made by RT-PCR of human mRNA using oligonucleotide primers from conserved regions of the porcine sequence. The amplified human fragment served as probe on Southern blots of hybrid DNAs to determine that the human VCP locus maps to chromosome region 9pter-q34. PMID:8595912

  11. Synaptic and genomic responses to JNK and AP-1 signaling in Drosophilaneurons

    E-print Network

    Narayanan, Radhakrishnan

    Background: The transcription factor AP-1 positively controls synaptic plasticity at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Although in motor neurons, JNK has been shown to activate AP-1, a positive regulator of growth and ...

  12. Basolateral sorting of chloride channel 2 is mediated by interactions between a dileucine motif and the clathrin adaptor AP-1.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente-Ortega, Erwin; Gravotta, Diego; Perez Bay, Andres; Benedicto, Ignacio; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Lehmann, Guillermo L; Lagos, Carlos F; Rodríguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2015-05-01

    In spite of the many key cellular functions of chloride channels, the mechanisms that mediate their subcellular localization are largely unknown. ClC-2 is a ubiquitous chloride channel usually localized to the basolateral domain of epithelia that regulates cell volume, ion transport, and acid-base balance; mice knocked out for ClC-2 are blind and sterile. Previous work suggested that CLC-2 is sorted basolaterally by TIFS(812)LL, a dileucine motif in CLC-2's C-terminal domain. However, our in silico modeling of ClC-2 suggested that this motif was buried within the channel's dimerization interface and identified two cytoplasmically exposed dileucine motifs, ESMI(623)LL and QVVA(635)LL, as candidate sorting signals. Alanine mutagenesis and trafficking assays support a scenario in which ESMI(623)LL acts as the authentic basolateral signal of ClC-2. Silencing experiments and yeast three-hybrid assays demonstrated that both ubiquitous (AP-1A) and epithelium-specific (AP-1B) forms of the tetrameric clathrin adaptor AP-1 are capable of carrying out basolateral sorting of ClC-2 through interactions of ESMI(623)LL with a highly conserved pocket in their ?1-?1A hemicomplex. PMID:25739457

  13. The Ap3b1 gene regulates the ocular melanosome biogenesis and tyrosinase distribution differently from the Hps1 gene.

    PubMed

    Jing, Renwei; Dong, Xuan; Li, Kailin; Yan, Jie; Chen, Xiangyuan; Feng, Lijun

    2014-11-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder in humans and mice. The pearl (pe) mouse, a mouse model for the human HPS-2, bears a mutation in Ap3b1 gene. Here we investigated the pigmentation in eyes of pearl (pe) mice, and compared it with our previously published data in pale ear (ep) mice. We revealed that the hypopigmentation in eyes of pearl mice was more severe than pale ear mice, especially in the neural crest-derived tissues. However, the total tyrosinase activity in eyes of pearl mice was stronger than pale ear mice, suggesting that the degradation of aberrantly transported tyrosinase in eyes of pearl mice was weaker than that of pale ear mice. Furthermore, the pigmentation in eyes of mice doubly heterozygous for Hps1 and Ap3b1 genes was similar to the wild-type, while the hypopigmentation in iris of double mutant mice was more severe than either single mutant. Besides, we found several previously reported characters in pale ear mice, including macromelanosomes in the neural crest-derived melanocytes and increased accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE, were absent in pearl mice. Our study indicates that Ap3b1 gene play distinct roles in melanin production and tyrosinase distribution compared with Hps1 gene. PMID:25160823

  14. Basolateral sorting of chloride channel 2 is mediated by interactions between a dileucine motif and the clathrin adaptor AP-1

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente-Ortega, Erwin; Gravotta, Diego; Bay, Andres Perez; Benedicto, Ignacio; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Lehmann, Guillermo L.; Lagos, Carlos F.; Rodríguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the many key cellular functions of chloride channels, the mechanisms that mediate their subcellular localization are largely unknown. ClC-2 is a ubiquitous chloride channel usually localized to the basolateral domain of epithelia that regulates cell volume, ion transport, and acid–base balance; mice knocked out for ClC-2 are blind and sterile. Previous work suggested that CLC-2 is sorted basolaterally by TIFS812LL, a dileucine motif in CLC-2's C-terminal domain. However, our in silico modeling of ClC-2 suggested that this motif was buried within the channel's dimerization interface and identified two cytoplasmically exposed dileucine motifs, ESMI623LL and QVVA635LL, as candidate sorting signals. Alanine mutagenesis and trafficking assays support a scenario in which ESMI623LL acts as the authentic basolateral signal of ClC-2. Silencing experiments and yeast three-hybrid assays demonstrated that both ubiquitous (AP-1A) and epithelium-specific (AP-1B) forms of the tetrameric clathrin adaptor AP-1 are capable of carrying out basolateral sorting of ClC-2 through interactions of ESMI623LL with a highly conserved pocket in their ?1-?1A hemicomplex. PMID:25739457

  15. Four cation-selective transporters contribute to apical uptake and accumulation of metformin in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Han, Tianxiang Kevin; Proctor, William R; Costales, Chester L; Cai, Hao; Everett, Ruth S; Thakker, Dhiren R

    2015-03-01

    Metformin is the frontline therapy for type II diabetes mellitus. The oral bioavailability of metformin is unexpectedly high, between 40 and 60%, given its hydrophilicity and positive charge at all physiologic pH values. Previous studies in Caco-2 cell monolayers, a cellular model of the human intestinal epithelium, showed that during absorptive transport metformin is taken up into the cells via transporters in the apical (AP) membrane; however, predominant transport to the basolateral (BL) side occurs via the paracellular route because intracellular metformin cannot egress across the BL membrane. Furthermore, these studies have suggested that the AP transporters can contribute to intestinal accumulation and absorption of metformin. Transporter-specific inhibitors as well as a novel approach involving a cocktail of transporter inhibitors with overlapping selectivity were used to identify the AP transporters that mediate metformin uptake in Caco-2 cell monolayers; furthermore, the relative contributions of these transporters in metformin AP uptake were also determined. The organic cation transporter 1, plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT), serotonin reuptake transporter, and choline high-affinity transporter contributed to approximately 25%, 20%, 20%, and 15%, respectively, of the AP uptake of metformin. PMAT-knockdown Caco-2 cells were constructed to confirm the contribution of PMAT in metformin AP uptake because a PMAT-selective inhibitor is not available. The identification of four intestinal transporters that contribute to AP uptake and potentially intestinal absorption of metformin is a significant novel finding that can influence our understanding of metformin pharmacology and intestinal drug-drug interactions involving this highly prescribed drug. PMID:25563903

  16. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantier, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

  17. Exploring Mars: The Ares Payload Service (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

    1999-08-01

    In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the design notably an improved re-entry cooling system and fueling stability analysis were done this year. More technical detail and a proposed international consortium to develop the SSTO is presented in another session of this year's Mars convention. We believe that there will be no human exploration of Mars based on the Shuttle or Expendable launch vehicles, and no resources available except for a cooperative international program. However, just as the world is learning to cooperate in peacekeeping, we hold out the hope that similar cooperation will develop for Mars exploration. With that in mind, this year we asked the question- "How will the human mission get to Mars if it has to use the SsTO for transportation?"

  18. Exploring Mars: the Ares Payload Service (APS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the design notably an improved re-entry cooling system and fueling stability analysis were done this year. More technical detail and a proposed international consortium to develop the SSTO is presented in another session of this year's Mars convention. We believe that there will be no human exploration of Mars based on the Shuttle or Expendable launch vehicles, and no resources available except for a cooperative international program. However, just as the world is learning to cooperate in peacekeeping, we hold out the hope that similar cooperation will develop for Mars exploration. With that in mind, this year we asked the question- "How will the human mission get to Mars if it has to use the SsTO for transportation?"

  19. AP Studio Art as an Enabling Constraint for Secondary Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) Studio Art is an influential force in secondary art education as is evident in the 31,800 portfolios submitted for review in 2008. From the perspectives of a high school educator and AP Reader, this author has observed how the constraints of the AP program can be used to generate support for high school art programs and…

  20. APS: 125 Years of Progress of Physiology as a Scientific Discipline and a Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Robert G.; Frank, Martin; Ra'anan, Alice; Matyas, Marsha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, CA, included events to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the founding of the American Physiological Society (APS) and reflect on the recent accomplishments of the society. Most of the APS activities in the past quarter century were guided by a series of strategic plans. Membership in the APS

  1. IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. , NO. , 2013 1 AP Association for Proportional Fairness in

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Xiuzhen "Susan"

    - tributed among all APs, RSSI based approach may overload some APs while leave others to carry very light, we propose a distributed heuristic BPF based on a novel performance revenue function, which provides times of other users associated with the same AP can be redistributed easily based on NLAO-PF. Extensive

  2. Circadian regulation of a transcription factor, ApC/EBP, in the eye of Aplysia californica

    E-print Network

    Circadian regulation of a transcription factor, ApC/EBP, in the eye of Aplysia californica Samer of the circadian oscillator with circadian rhythms of ApC/EBP mRNA present under constant dark conditions. Therefore, ApC/EBP is a candidate gene for a circadian transcription factor to mediate circadian responses

  3. Masters Engineering ELITE Programme Applying Innovation in Engineering University of Toronto APS1013

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Masters Engineering ELITE Programme Applying Innovation in Engineering University of Toronto APS Engineering ELITE Programme Applying Innovation in Engineering University of Toronto APS1013 Copyright © AMGI1013 Copyright © AMGI Inc 2012-2015 Generic Syllabus 5th Sept 2014 1 Applying Innovation - APS1013

  4. Using a Classroom Response System to Improve Multiple-Choice Performance in AP[R] Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Participation in rigorous high school courses such as Advanced Placement (AP[R]) Physics increases the likelihood of college success, especially for students who are traditionally underserved. Tackling difficult multiple-choice exams should be part of any AP program because well-constructed multiple-choice questions, such as those on AP exams and…

  5. College Completion: Comparing AP®, Dual-Enrolled, and Nonadvanced Students. Research Report 2014-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Kelly; Matos-Elefonte, Haifa; Ewing, Maureen; Patel, Priyank

    2014-01-01

    The study presented here is an investigation and comparison of the relationships between the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) and dual-enrolled high school courses and college outcomes. Previous research provides evidence that participation in AP, and subsequent success on AP Exams, is positively related to various college outcomes including an…

  6. Relation between the Li spots, dipolar magnetic field and other variable phenomena in the roAp star HD 83368

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N.

    The detection of remarkable variations in the profile of the resonance doublet Li I 6708 Å with rotational phase of the roAp star HD 83368 (North et al. 1998) prompted us to consider the behaviour of other characteristics of this star. The observational data on magnetic field (Heff), brightness and amplitude of rapid light oscillations of HD 83368 are analyzed. A clear synchronism appears between the variations of the Li line intensity, brightness, magnetic field and pulsation amplitude with rotational phase, which can be explained in terms of a spotted rotator model. Reference: North P., Polosukhina N., Malanushenko V., Hack M., 1998, A&A 333, 644

  7. Curcumin modulates cellular AP-1, NF-kB, and HPV16 E6 proteins in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Alok; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Abhishek; Kohaar, Indu; Hedau, Suresh; Bharti, Alok C; Sarker, Subhodeep; Dey, Dipankar; Saluja, Daman; Das, Bhudev

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the natural antioxidant curcumin on the HPV16-positive oral carcinoma cell line 93VU147T and demonstrated that curcumin is not only a potent inhibitor for the activity of host nuclear transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kB but it also selectively suppresses transcription of the HPV16/E6 oncogene during the carcinogenic process in oral cancer cells. This study suggests a therapeutic potential of curcumin for high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV)-infected oral cancers. PMID:25932049

  8. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission line valves. 192.179 Section 192.179 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE:...

  9. Modelling the incomplete Paschen-Back effect in the spectra of magnetic Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stift, M. J.; Leone, F.; Landi Degl'Innocenti, E.

    2008-04-01

    We present preliminary results of a systematic investigation of the incomplete Paschen-Back effect in magnetic Ap stars. A short overview of the theory is followed by a demonstration of how level splittings and component strengths change with magnetic field strength for some lines of special astrophysical interest. Requirements are set out for a code which allows the calculation of full Stokes spectra in the Paschen-Back regime, and the behaviour of Stokes I and V profiles of transitions in the multiplet 74 of FeII is discussed in some detail. It is shown that the incomplete Paschen-Back effect can lead to notable line shifts which strongly depend on total multiplet strength, magnetic field strength and field direction. Ghost components (which violate the normal selection rule on J) show up in strong magnetic fields but are probably unobservable. Finally it is shown that measurements of the integrated magnetic field modulus Hs are not adversely affected by the Paschen-Back effect, and that there is a potential problem in (magnetic) Doppler mapping if lines in the Paschen-Back regime are treated in the Zeeman approximation.

  10. Velocities of H and metal lines in the roAp star Circini

    E-print Network

    Baldry, Ivan K.

    the La Silla data from the CCD images to the 1D spectra. I observed at Mt. Stromlo while M. Viskum observed at La Silla. M. Viskum and I were supervised by the other collaborators. 51 #12;52 Chapter 5

  11. Peptidoglycan induces interleukin-6 expression through the TLR2 receptor, JNK, c-Jun, and AP-1 pathways in microglia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Jia-Hong; Chuang, Jing-Yuan; Huang, Ssu-Ming; Tan, Tzu-Wei; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2011-06-01

    We recently reported that peptidoglycan (PGN), a cell wall component of the Gram-positive bacterium, induces NF-?B activation and microglia activation. However, PGN-regulated AP-1 activation and cytokine expression in microglia remains unclear. This study investigated how PGN influences the signaling pathway involved in IL-6 production in microglia. IL-6 mRNA and protein level up-regulation were increased by PGN in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, PGN increased toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) expression, but not TLR4 receptor up-regulation. Administration of TLR2 siRNA or TLR2 neutralized antibody effectively inhibited PGN-induced IL-6 expression. In contrast, PGN-induced IL-6 mRNA and protein up-regulation were attenuated by the SAPK/JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases) inhibitor SP600125. Treatment of microglia with PGN increased levels of JNK phosphorylation and c-Jun phosphorylation, and up-regulated of JNK kinase activity. Treatment of microglia with AP-1 inhibitors (Tanshinone IIA and curcumin) effectively reduced PGN-induced IL-6 expression. PGN also significantly increased c-Fos and phospho-c-Jun translocation to nucleus. In line with this, PGN also increased AP-1-DNA complexes formation, as determined by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Furthermore, PGN also increased IL-6 transcription activity determined by transfection with IL-6 promoter construct plasmid. Co-transfection with dominant negative mutant of JNK (DN-JNK), or treatment with SP600125, curcumin, or Tanshinone IIA effectively antagonized PGN-increased IL-6 transcription activity. Our data demonstrate that PGN-induced IL-6 expression is mediated by AP-1 activation through the TLR2 and JNK/c-Jun pathways in microglia. PMID:20945380

  12. PsAP2 an AP2/ERF family transcription factor from Papaver somniferum enhances abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sonal; Phukan, Ujjal J; Tripathi, Vineeta; Singh, Dhananjay K; Luqman, Suaib; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The AP2/ERFs are one of the most important family of transcription factors which regulate multiple responses like stress, metabolism and development in plants. We isolated PsAP2 a novel AP2/ERF from Papaver somniferum which was highly upregulated in response to wounding followed by ethylene, methyl jasmonate and ABA treatment. PsAP2 showed specific binding with both DRE and GCC box elements and it was able to transactivate the reporter genes in yeast. PsAP2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced tolerance towards both abiotic and biotic stresses . Real time transcript expression analysis showed constitutive upregulation of tobacco Alternative oxidase1a and Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase in PsAP2 overexpressing tobacco plants. Further, PsAP2 showed interaction with NtAOX1a promoter in vitro, it also specifically activated the NtAOX1a promoter in yeast and tobacco BY2 cells. The silencing of PsAP2 using VIGS lead to significant reduction in the AOX1 level in P. somniferum. Taken together PsAP2 can directly bind and transcriptionally activate NtAOX1a and its overexpression in tobacco imparted increased tolerance towards both abiotic and biotic stress. PMID:26319514

  13. Masas de agujeros negros en Narrow Line Seyfert 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E.; Ferreiro, D.; Oio, G.; Vega, L.; Donoso, L.

    We describe two of the ways to estimate black hole masses in AGN, and then we estimate the black hole masses of 13 Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies with the two methods: virial masses, using the correlation found by Greene & Ho (2005, ApJ, 630, 122); and the correlation found by Tremaine et al. (2002, ApJ, 574, 740). For this work we analyzed the optical spectroscopy data we obtained from CASLEO (San Juan). We compare the results obtained through both methods. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  14. Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) Dependent Parallel Arrivals (DPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Colin L.

    2012-01-01

    The Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) team at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing a concept of operations to extend the current APS concept to support dependent approaches to parallel or converging runways along with the required pilot and controller procedures and pilot interfaces. A staggered operations capability for the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) tool was developed and designated as ASTAR10. ASTAR10 has reached a sufficient level of maturity to be validated and tested through a fast-time simulation. The purpose of the experiment was to identify and resolve any remaining issues in the ASTAR10 algorithm, as well as put the concept of operations through a practical test.

  15. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-20

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has directed the DOE to concentrate ear-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of issues (Conway 1993). The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process; Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.`` This document satisfies that requirement for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107).

  16. Linking radio and gamma-ray emission in Ap Librae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervet, O.; Boisson, C.; Sol, H.

    2015-06-01

    Ap Lib is one of the rare low-synchrotron-peaked blazars detected so far at TeV energies. This type of source is not properly modelled by standard one-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission scenarios. The aim of this paper is to study the relevance of additional components that should naturally occur in an SSC scenario for a better understanding of the emission mechanisms, especially at very high energies (VHE). We use simultaneous data from a multi-wavelength campaign of the Planck, Swift-UVOT, and Swift-XRT telescopes carried out in February 2010, as well as quasi-simultaneous data of WISE, Fermi, and HESS taken in 2010. The multi-lambda emission of Ap Lib is modelled by a blob-in-jet SSC scenario including the contribution of the base of the VLBI-extended jet, the radiative blob-jet interaction, the accretion disk, and its associated external photon field. We show that signatures of a strong parsec-scale jet and of an accretion disk emission are present in the spectral energy distribution. We can link the observational VLBI jet features from MOJAVE to parameters expected for a VHE-emitting blob accelerated near the jet base. The VHE emission appears to be dominated by the inverse-Compton effect of the blob relativistic electrons interacting with the jet synchrotron radiation. In this scenario, Ap Lib appears as an intermediate source between BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars. Ap Lib could be a bright representative of a specific class of blazars, in which the parsec-scale jet luminosity is no more negligible compared to the blob and contributes to the high-energy emission through inverse-Compton processes.

  17. ALLUVIAL CHANNEL GEOMETRY: THEORY AND ApPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    ALLUVIAL CHANNEL GEOMETRY: THEORY AND ApPLICATIONS 8 TABLE 2. Variation of q with hid. according to (32) and (36) hId. q (1) (2) Discussion by Willi H. Hager,3 Fellow, ASCE 10° 1.23 x J(i 10' 6.5 x 10 this function and one may note that q increases very rapidly with hid" The function under consideration may

  18. Diffusion and Settling in Ap/Bp Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, S

    2003-04-09

    Ap/Bp stars are magnetic chemically peculiar early A and late B type stars of the main sequence. They exhibit peculiar surface abundance anomalies that are thought to be the result of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. The physics of diffusion in these stars are reviewed briefly and some model predictions are discussed. While models reproduce some observations reasonably well, more work is needed before the behavior of diffusing elements in a complex magnetic field is fully understood.

  19. The roAp Star with the Strongest Magnetic Field: Characterizing HD 154708

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Kurtz, D. W.; Schöller, M.; Wolff, B.; Elkin, V. G.; Mathys, G.

    2012-09-01

    The rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars with very strong magnetic fields are of special interest because the effect of the magnetic field on the structure of their atmospheres can be studied with the greatest detail and accuracy. The cool roAp star HD 154708 possesses the strongest magnetic field among the roAp stars, with a mean magnetic field modulus = 24.5 ± 1.0 kG, which is about a factor of three greater than that of HD 166473, Ap star with the second-strongest magnetic field.

  20. Long-term stability of the APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Error, J.

    1999-10-26

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation synchrotrons light source, was commissioned in 1995 at Argonne ''National Laboratory and has been fully-operational for beamline users since 1997. The APS storage ring can accommodate up to 68 user beamlines; about 70% of the available beamlines are currently in use by various collaborative access teams (CATS). The 7-GeV synchrotrons light source produces light in the soft to hard x-ray range that is used for research in such areas as x-ray instrumentation; material, chemical and atomic sciences; biology; and geo/soil/ environmental sciences. For the successful operation of an x-ray light source such as the Advanced Photon Source, the long-term stability of the concrete floor supporting the beam components and user beamlines is crucial. Settlements impact the orbit and location of the x-ray source points as well as the position of the x-ray beamlines. This paper compares the results of two successive resurveys of the APS accelerator components performed in 1995 and 1998.

  1. Long-term stability of the APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Error, J.

    2000-03-16

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, was commissioned in 1995 at Argonne National Laboratory and has been fully operational for beamline users since 1997. The APS storage ring can accommodate up to 68 user beamlines; about 70% of the available beamlines are currently in use by various collaborative access teams (CATs). The 7-GeV synchrotron light source produces light in the soft to hard x-ray range that is used for research in such areas as x-ray instrumentation; material, chemical and atomic sciences; biology; and geo/soil/environmental sciences. For the successful operation of an x-ray light source such as the Advanced Photon Source, the long-term stability of the concrete floor supporting the beam components and user beamlines is crucial. Settlements impact the orbit and location of the x-ray source points as well as the position of the x-ray beamlines. This paper compares the results of two successive resurveys of the APS accelerator components performed in 1995 and 1998.

  2. Transcription factor AP-2gamma regulates murine adenosine deaminase gene expression during placental development.

    PubMed

    Shi, D; Kellems, R E

    1998-10-16

    Trophoblast cells are specialized extra-embryonic cells present only in eutherian mammals. They play a major role in the implantation and placentation processes. To understand better the molecular mechanisms that control the development and function of trophoblast cells, we sought to identify the transcription factors that regulate murine adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene expression in the placenta. Here we report a detailed characterization of a placenta-specific footprinting region (FP1) in the Ada placental regulatory element. The sequence of FP1 was mapped by DNase I footprinting and was found to match a consensus AP-2 transcription factor-binding site. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that FP1 interacted with AP-2-like proteins. Further analysis using AP-2 antibody confirmed that AP-2 protein was indeed present in the placenta and bound to FP1. Mutation at the AP-2 site in FP1 abolished the ability of the Ada placental regulatory element to bind AP-2 proteins and failed to target chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene expression to placentas in transgenic mice, indicating that AP-2 is required for Ada expression in the placenta. In addition, RNase protection assays demonstrated that AP-2gamma was the predominant AP-2 family member expressed in the placenta. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that AP-2gamma expression was enriched in the trophoblast lineage throughout development, suggesting that AP-2gamma may be critical for trophoblast development and differentiation. PMID:9765260

  3. Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1

    SciTech Connect

    Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa; San Filippo, Joseph San; Wiese, Claudia; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Begovic, Sead; Schild, David; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott; Sung, Patrick

    2010-11-05

    Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partner and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.

  4. Adaptor Protein2 (AP2) orchestrates CXCR2-mediated cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Sai, Jiqing; Hawkins, Oriana; Richmond, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR2 is vital for inflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis, cancer progression, and metastasis. Adaptor protein 2 (AP2), a clathrin binding heterotetrameric protein comprised of ?, ?2, ?2, and ?2 subunits, facilitates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Mutation of the LLKIL motif in the CXCR2 carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) results in loss of AP2 binding to the receptor and loss of ligand mediated receptor internalization and chemotaxis. AP2 knockdown also results in diminished ligand-mediated CXCR2 internalization, polarization and chemotaxis. Using knockdown/rescue approaches with AP2-?2 mutants, the binding domains were characterized in reference to CXCR2 internalization and chemotaxis. When in an open conformation, ?2 Patch 1 and Patch 2 domains bind tightly to membrane PIP2 phospholipids. When AP2-?2 is replaced with ?2 mutated in Patch 1 and/or Patch 2 domains, ligand-mediated receptor binding and internalization are not lost. However chemotaxis requires AP2-?2 Patch 1, but not Patch 2. AP2-?2 has been demonstrated to bind dileucine motifs to facilitate internalization. Expression of AP2-?2 V88D and V98S dominant negative mutants resulted in loss of CXCR2 mediated chemotaxis. Thus, AP2 binding to both membrane phosphatidylinositol phospholipids and dileucine motifs is crucial for directional migration or chemotaxis. Moreover, AP2-mediated receptor internalization can be dissociated from AP2-mediated chemotaxis. PMID:24450359

  5. The Drosophila melanogaster Mutants apblot and apXasta Affect an Essential apterous Wing Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Bieli, Dimitri; Kanca, Oguz; Gohl, Daryl; Denes, Alexandru; Schedl, Paul; Affolter, Markus; Müller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The selector gene apterous (ap) plays a key role during the development of the Drosophila melanogaster wing because it governs the establishment of the dorsal-ventral (D-V) compartment boundary. The D-V compartment boundary is known to serve as an important signaling center that is essential for the growth of the wing. The role of Ap and its downstream effectors have been studied extensively. However, very little is known about the transcriptional regulation of ap during wing disc development. In this study, we present a first characterization of an essential wing-specific ap enhancer. First, we defined an 874-bp fragment about 10 kb upstream of the ap transcription start that faithfully recapitulates the expression pattern of ap in the wing imaginal disc. Analysis of deletions in the ap locus covering this element demonstrated that it is essential for proper regulation of ap and formation of the wing. Moreover, we showed that the mutations apblot and apXasta directly affect the integrity of this enhancer, leading to characteristic wing phenotypes. Furthermore, we engineered an in situ rescue system at the endogenous ap gene locus, allowing us to investigate the role of enhancer fragments in their native environment. Using this system, we were able to demonstrate that the essential wing enhancer alone is not sufficient for normal wing development. The in situ rescue system will allow us to characterize the ap regulatory sequences in great detail at the endogenous locus. PMID:25840432

  6. The Heptameric SmAP1 and SmAP2 Proteins of the Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus Solfataricus Bind to Common and Distinct RNA Targets

    PubMed Central

    Märtens, Birgit; Bezerra, Gustavo Arruda; Kreuter, Mathias Josef; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Manica, Andrea; Arkhipova, Valentina; Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Bläsi, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Sm and Sm-like proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved family with key roles in RNA metabolism. Sm-based regulation is diverse and can range in scope from eukaryotic mRNA splicing to bacterial quorum sensing, with at least one step in these processes being mediated by an RNA-associated molecular assembly built on Sm proteins. Despite the availability of several 3D-structures of Sm-like archaeal proteins (SmAPs), their function has remained elusive. The aim of this study was to shed light on the function of SmAP1 and SmAP2 of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso). Using co-purification followed by RNASeq different classes of non-coding RNAs and mRNAs were identified that co-purified either with both paralogues or solely with Sso-SmAP1 or Sso-SmAP2. The large number of associated intron-containing tRNAs and tRNA/rRNA modifying RNAs may suggest a role of the two Sso-SmAPs in tRNA/rRNA processing. Moreover, the 3D structure of Sso-SmAP2 was elucidated. Like Sso-SmAP1, Sso-SmAP2 forms homoheptamers. The binding of both proteins to distinct RNA substrates is discussed in terms of surface conservation, structural differences in the RNA binding sites and differences in the electrostatic surface potential of the two Sso-SmAP proteins. Taken together, this study may hint to common and different functions of both Sso-SmAPs in Sso RNA metabolism. PMID:25905548

  7. Recovery from the lethal effects of saxitoxin: a therapeutic window for 4-aminopyridine (4-AP).

    PubMed

    Benton, B J; Keller, S A; Spriggs, D L; Capacio, B R; Chang, F C

    1998-04-01

    We have shown that saxitoxin (STX) induced lethality can be reversed by 4-AP when it is administered at the time of respiratory arrest [Benton, B. J., Spriggs, D. L., Capacio, B. R. and Chang, F.-C. T. (1995) 4-Aminopyridine antagonizes the lethal effects of saxitoxin (STX) and tetrodotoxin (TTX). International Society of Toxicology, 5th Pan American Symposium on Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins, Frederick, MD. July/August 1995, p. 217]. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 4-AP's efficacy could be enhanced further when administered at different times relative to STX intoxication. The animals used in this study were chronically instrumented for concurrent recordings of diaphragm electromyogram (DEMG), neck skeletal muscle electromyogram, Lead II electrocardiogram, and electrocorticogram (ECoG). There were five groups of unanesthetized guinea pigs. The first group served as 4-AP controls and received a 2 mg/kg i.m. dose of 4-AP. The four remaining groups were given a lethal dose of STX (5 microg/kg i.m.); the second group, STX controls, received no 4-AP; the third group, the 4-AP treatment group, received 4-AP immediately following cardiorespiratory collapse; the fourth group was the 4-AP/STX co-administration group and 4-AP was given concurrently with STX; and the fifth group was the 4-AP pretreatment group in which 4-AP was given 10 min before STX. At the point of STX-induced cardiorespiratory collapse, the guinea pigs were ventilated and given an i.p. injection of sodium bicarbonate. Results showed that 4-AP prevented cardiorespiratory collapse in 3/7 animals in the 4-AP pretreatment group. Also, 4-AP in conjunction with artificial ventilation and sodium bicarbonate accelerated recovery from STX-induced cardiorespiratory collapse in all the treatment groups compared to the STX controls. PMID:9643470

  8. 49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192.709 Section 192.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each operator shall maintain the following records for transmission...

  9. 49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192.709 Section 192.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each operator shall maintain the following records for transmission...

  10. 49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section 236.723 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a...

  11. 49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section 236.723 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a...

  12. 49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section 236.723 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a...

  13. 49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section 236.723 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a...

  14. 49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section 236.723 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a...

  15. Molecular characterization and specific detection of Anaplasma species (AP-sd) in sika deer and its first detection in wild brown bears and rodents in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed; Lee, Kyunglee; Taylor, Kyle; Nakao, Ryo; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    A previously undescribed Anaplasma species (herein referred to as AP-sd) has been detected in sika deer, cattle and ticks in Japan. Despite being highly similar to some strains of A. phagocytophilum, AP-sd has never been detected in humans. Its ambiguous epidemiology and the lack of tools for its specific detection make it difficult to understand and interpret the prevalence of this Anaplasma species. We developed a method for specific detection, and examined AP-sd prevalence in Hokkaido wildlife. Our study included 250 sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), 13 brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) and 252 rodents including 138 (Apodemus speciosus), 45 (Apodemus argenteus), 42 (Myodes rufocanus) and 27 (Myodes rutilus) were collected from Hokkaido island, northern Japan, collected during 2010 to 2015. A 770bp and 382bp segment of the 16S rRNA and gltA genes, respectively, were amplified by nested PCR. Results were confirmed by cloning and sequencing of the positive PCR products. A reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) based on the 16S rRNA gene was then developed for the specific detection of AP-sd. The prevalence of AP-sd by nested PCR in sika deer was 51% (128/250). We detected this Anaplasma sp. for the first time in wild brown bears and rodents with a prevalence of 15% (2/13) and 2.4% (6/252), respectively. The sequencing results of the 16S rRNA and gltA gene amplicons were divergent from the selected A. phagocytophilum sequences in GenBank. Using a newly designed AP-sd specific probe for RLB has enabled us to specifically detect this Anaplasma species. Besides sika deer and cattle, wild brown bears and rodents were identified as potential reservoir hosts for AP-sd. This study provided a high throughput molecular method that specifically detects AP-sd, and which can be used to investigate its ecology and its potential as a threat to humans in Japan. PMID:26431688

  16. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak...

  17. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak...

  18. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1017 - Oil lines and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil lines and fittings. 25.1017 Section 25.1017 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1017 Oil lines and fittings. (a) Each oil line must meet...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1017 - Oil lines and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil lines and fittings. 29.1017 Section 29.1017 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1017 Oil lines and fittings. (a) Each oil line must meet...

  1. Implementation and Initial Validation of the APS English Test [and] The APS English-Writing Test at Golden West College: Evidence for Predictive Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isonio, Steven

    In May 1991, Golden West College (California) conducted a validation study of the English portion of the Assessment and Placement Services for Community Colleges (APS), followed by a predictive validity study in July 1991. The initial study was designed to aid in the implementation of the new test at GWC by comparing data on APS use at other…

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Clinical Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Strain APS211 and Its Daptomycin-Susceptible Progenitor APS210

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, David R.; Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Abbott, Iain J.; Spelman, Denis W.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the genetic factors contributing to daptomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, the draft genome of a clinically derived daptomycin-nonsusceptible isolate APS211 was generated and compared to the draft sequence of its susceptible progenitor strain APS210. Four genetic differences were identified including a previously described mutation within the mprF gene. PMID:26067951

  3. ESM Computer Replacement Policy for Staff and A/P Faculty Purpose: To ensure that staff and A/P faculty have access to a computer that has

    E-print Network

    Dudek, Daniel M.

    ESM Computer Replacement Policy for Staff and A/P Faculty Purpose: To ensure that staff and A/P faculty have access to a computer that has sufficient capacity to support the basic computing needs not eligible for a computer provided through other university outlets, such as the ACC Banner or the Faculty

  4. EK Eridani: the tip of the iceberg of giants which have evolved from magnetic Ap stars

    E-print Network

    M. Aurière; R. Konstantinova-Antova; P. Petit; C. Charbonnel; B. Dintrans; F. Lignières; T. Roudier; E. Alecian; J. F. Donati; J. D. Landstreet; G. A. Wade

    2008-10-13

    We observe the slowly-rotating, active, single giant, EK Eri, to study and infer the nature of its magnetic field directly. We used the spectropolarimeter NARVAL at the Telescope Bernard Lyot, Pic du Midi Observatory, and the Least Square Deconvolution method to create high signal-to-noise ratio Stokes V profiles. We fitted the Stokes V profiles with a model of the large-scale magnetic field. We studied the classical activity indicators, the CaII H and K lines, the CaII infrared triplet, and H\\alpha line. We detected the Stokes V signal of EK Eri securely and measured the longitudinal magnetic field Bl for seven individual dates spanning 60% of the rotational period. The measured longitudinal magnetic field of EK Eri reached about 100 G and was as strong as fields observed in RSCVn or FK Com type stars: this was found to be extraordinary when compared with the weak fields observed at the surfaces of slowly-rotating MS stars or any single red giant previously observed with NARVAL. From our modeling, we infer that the mean surface magnetic field is about 270 G, and that the large scale magnetic field is dominated by a poloidal component. This is compatible with expectations for the descendant of a strongly magnetic Ap star.

  5. The discovery of rapid oscillations in the magnetic Ap stars HD 69013 and HD 96237

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Worters, H. L.; Mathys, G.; Smalley, B.; van Wyk, F.; Smith, A. M. S.

    2011-02-01

    We report the detection of short-period variations in the stars HD 69013 and HD 96237. These stars possess large overabundances of rare earth elements and global magnetic fields, thus belong to the class of chemically peculiar Ap stars of the main sequence. Pulsations were found from analysis of high time resolution spectra obtained with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope using a cross-correlation method for wide spectral bands, from lines belonging to rare earth elements and from the H? core. Pulsation amplitudes reach more than 200 m s-1 for some lines in HD 69013 with a period of 11.4 min and about 100 m s-1 in HD 96237 with periods near 13.6 min. The pulsations have also been detected in photometric observations obtained at the South African Astronomical Observatory. Based on observations collected at the ESO, Chile, as part of programmes 080.D-0191(A), 078.D-0192(A) and 078.D-0080(A).

  6. Increased human AP endonuclease 1 level confers protection against the paternal age effect in mice.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jamila R; Reddick, Traci L; Perez, Marissa; Centonze, Victoria E; Mitra, Sankar; Izumi, Tadahide; McMahan, C Alex; Walter, Christi A

    2015-09-01

    Increased paternal age is associated with a greater risk of producing children with genetic disorders originating from de novo germline mutations. Mice mimic the human condition by displaying an age-associated increase in spontaneous mutant frequency in spermatogenic cells. The observed increase in mutant frequency appears to be associated with a decrease in the DNA repair protein, AP endonuclease 1 (APEX1) and Apex1 heterozygous mice display an accelerated paternal age effect as young adults. In this study, we directly tested if APEX1 over-expression in cell lines and transgenic mice could prevent increases in mutagenesis. Cell lines with ectopic expression of APEX1 had increased APEX1 activity and lower spontaneous and induced mutations in the lacI reporter gene relative to the control. Spermatogenic cells obtained from mice transgenic for human APEX1 displayed increased APEX1 activity, were protected from the age-dependent increase in spontaneous germline mutagenesis, and exhibited increased apoptosis in the spermatogonial cell population. These results directly indicate that increases in APEX1 level confer protection against the murine paternal age effect, thus highlighting the role of APEX1 in preserving reproductive health with increasing age and in protection against genotoxin-induced mutagenesis in somatic cells. PMID:26201249

  7. KIC 4768731: a bright long-period roAp star in the Kepler field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalley, B.; Niemczura, E.; Murphy, S. J.; Lehmann, H.; Kurtz, D. W.; Holdsworth, D. L.; Cunha, M. S.; Balona, L. A.; Briquet, M.; Bruntt, H.; De Cat, P.; Lampens, P.; Thygesen, A. O.; Uytterhoeven, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report the identification of 61.45 d-1 (711.2 ?Hz) oscillations, with amplitudes of 62.6 ?mag, in KIC 4768731 (HD 225914) using Kepler photometry. This relatively bright (V = 9.17) chemically peculiar star with spectral type A5 Vp SrCr(Eu) has previously been found to exhibit rotational modulation with a period of 5.21 d. Fourier analysis reveals a simple dipole pulsator with an amplitude that has remained stable over a 4-yr time span, but with a frequency that is variable. Analysis of high-resolution spectra yields stellar parameters of Teff = 8100 ± 200 K, log g = 4.0 ± 0.2, [Fe/H] = +0.31 ± 0.24 and v sin i = 14.8 ± 1.6 km s-1. Line profile variations caused by rotation are also evident. Lines of Sr, Cr, Eu, Mg and Si are strongest when the star is brightest, while Y and Ba vary in antiphase with the other elements. The abundances of rare earth elements are only modestly enhanced compared to other roAp stars of similar Teff and log g. Radial velocities in the literature suggest a significant change over the past 30 yr, but the radial velocities presented here show no significant change over a period of 4 yr.

  8. Realistic model atmosphere and revised abundances of the coolest Ap star HD101065

    E-print Network

    Shulyak, D; Kildiyarova, R; Kochukhov, O

    2010-01-01

    Among the known Ap stars, HD101065 is probably one of the most interesting objects, demonstrating very rich spectra of rare-earth elements (REE). Strongly peculiar photometric parameters of this star that can not be fully reproduced by any modern theoretical calculations, even those accounting for realistic chemistry of its atmosphere. In this study we investigate a role of missing REE line opacity and construct a self-consistent atmospheric model based on accurate abundance and chemical stratification analysis. We employed the LLmodels stellar model atmosphere code together with DDAFit and SynthMag software packages to derive homogeneous and stratified abundances for 52 chemical elements and to construct a self-consistent model of HD101065 atmosphere. The opacity in REE lines is accounted for in details, by using up-to-date extensive theoretical calculations. We show that REE elements play a key role in the radiative energy balance in the atmosphere of HD101065, leading to the strong suppression of the Balme...

  9. The discovery of a 21-kG magnetic field in the Ap star BD+0°4535

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Nitschelm, C.; Unda-Sanzana, E.

    2010-01-01

    With high-resolution spectral observations using a 2.2-m telescope, we found that the Ap star BD+0°4535 has a very strong magnetic field. From Zeeman components of rare earth element spectral lines, we detected an average magnetic field modulus of about 21kG, although for lines of different chemical elements the estimated magnetic field ranges between 15 and 23kG. This is a consequence of non-uniform surface distribution of these elements. Considering its possible variation with rotation period, the upper limit of magnetic field is potentially larger than what we have detected. For rare earth elements, large overabundances and ionization disequilibria were found. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, as part of programmes 083.D-0034(A) and 081.D-2002. E-mail: velkin@uclan.ac.uk

  10. Phenelzine treatment increases transcription factor AP-2 levels in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Damberg, Mattias; Berggård, Cecilia; Oreland, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Background The elevations of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels in response to acute serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) exposure are not consistent with the time course for the therapeutic action of these antidepressants. Thus, neuronal adaptations are needed for the therapeutic effect to arise. Transcription factor Activating Protein –2 (AP-2) is critical for mammalian neural gene expression. Several genes involved in brainstem CNS transmitter systems, especially the monoamines, have AP-2 binding sites in their regulatory regions. We have previously shown that treatment with citalopram and imipramin resulted in a decrease in AP-2? and AP-2? levels in rat brain. We have also reported an association between a specific genotype of AP-2? to personality traits, binge-eating disorder and platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. Results Subchronic administration (10 days) of phenelzine (PLZ) increased the levels of AP-2?, AP-2? and the DNA binding activity of AP-2 in nuclear extracts prepared from rat whole brain when compared with sham treated animals. Conclusion These data suggest that AP-2 is not involved in the theraputic effect of antidepressants. Rather, the effects of antidepressants seen on the levels of AP-2 might be involved in the expression of side-effects during the lag-period. PMID:12943557

  11. Isolation and characterization of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A K; de la Peña, C E; Barnes, L D

    1993-02-13

    An enzyme that catalyzes the asymmetric hydrolysis of Ap4A has been partially purified from the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The crude supernatant fraction from log-phase cells was fractionated by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, Red A dye-ligand and QAE-Sepharose resins. Two peaks of Ap4A hydrolase activity, designated major and minor, were separated on the Red A dye-ligand resin. Both the major and minor Ap4A hydrolase have an apparent molecular mass of 49 kDa based on gel filtration chromatography. On a SDS polyacrylamide gel, a protein of 22 kDa exhibited Ap4A hydrolase activity. Both forms of the enzyme have a Km value in the range of 22 to 36 microM for Ap4A. Both forms of the enzyme asymmetrically hydrolyze Ap4A to AMP and ATP as determined by HPLC. Ap4A is the optimal substrate among several nucleotides and dinucleoside polyphosphates tested at 10 microM. A divalent metal cation is required for activity. Concentrations of Pi below 30 mM stimulate Ap4A hydrolase while higher concentrations inhibit the activity. Pi is not a substrate for this Ap4A-degradative enzyme. Fluoride, from 50 microM to 20 mM, has no significant effect on Ap4A hydrolase activity. PMID:8381667

  12. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  13. The Alzheimer's disease risk factor CD2AP maintains blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Cochran, J Nicholas; Rush, Travis; Buckingham, Susan C; Roberson, Erik D

    2015-12-01

    CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) is a leading genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, but little is known about the function of CD2AP in the brain. We studied CD2AP(-/-) mice to address this question. Because CD2AP(-/-) mice normally die by 6 weeks from nephrotic syndrome, we used mice that also express a CD2AP transgene in the kidney, but not brain, to attenuate this phenotype. CD2AP-deficient mice had no behavioral abnormalities except for mild motor and anxiety deficits in a subset of CD2AP(-/-) mice exhibiting severe nephrotic syndrome, associated with systemic illness. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures occurred with shorter latency in CD2AP(-/-) mice, but characteristics of these seizures on electroencephalography were not altered. As CD2AP is expressed in brain-adjacent endothelial cells, we hypothesized that the shorter latency to seizures without detectably different seizure characteristics may be due to increased penetration of PTZ related to compromised blood-brain barrier integrity. Using sodium fluorescein extravasation, we found that CD2AP(-/-) mice had reduced blood-brain barrier integrity. Neither seizure severity nor blood-brain barrier integrity was correlated with nephrotic syndrome, indicating that these effects are dissociable from the systemic illness associated with CD2AP deficiency. Confirming this dissociation, wild-type mice with induced nephrotic syndrome maintained an intact blood-brain barrier. Taken together, our results support a role of CD2AP in mediating blood-brain barrier integrity and suggest that cerebrovascular roles of CD2AP could contribute to its effects on Alzheimer's disease risk. PMID:26358779

  14. Role of ubiquitin and the HPV E6 oncoprotein in E6AP-mediated ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Franziska; Schneider, Daniel; Barbic, Tanja; Sladewska-Marquardt, Anna; Kühnle, Simone; Marx, Andreas; Scheffner, Martin

    2015-08-11

    Deregulation of the ubiquitin ligase E6 associated protein (E6AP) encoded by the UBE3A gene has been associated with three different clinical pictures. Hijacking of E6AP by the E6 oncoprotein of distinct human papillomaviruses (HPV) contributes to the development of cervical cancer, whereas loss of E6AP expression or function is the cause of Angelman syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder, and increased expression of E6AP has been involved in autism spectrum disorders. Although these observations indicate that the activity of E6AP has to be tightly controlled, only little is known about how E6AP is regulated at the posttranslational level. Here, we provide evidence that the hydrophobic patch of ubiquitin comprising Leu-8 and Ile-44 is important for E6AP-mediated ubiquitination, whereas it does not affect the catalytic properties of the isolated catalytic HECT domain of E6AP. Furthermore, we show that the HPV E6 oncoprotein rescues the disability of full-length E6AP to use a respective hydrophobic patch mutant of ubiquitin for ubiquitination and that it stimulates E6AP-mediated ubiquitination of Ring1B, a known substrate of E6AP, in vitro and in cells. Based on these data, we propose that E6AP exists in at least two different states, an active and a less active or latent one, and that the activity of E6AP is controlled by noncovalent interactions with ubiquitin and allosteric activators such as the HPV E6 oncoprotein. PMID:26216987

  15. In situ gel-forming AP-57 peptide delivery system for cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Fan, Rangrang; Tong, Aiping; Yang, Meijia; Deng, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Liangxue; Zhang, Xiaoning; Guo, Gang

    2015-11-10

    In situ gel-forming system as local drug delivery system in dermal traumas has generated a great interest. Accumulating evidence shows that antimicrobial peptides play pivotal roles in the process of wound healing. Here in this study, to explore the potential application of antimicrobial peptide in wound healing, biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid)-Pluronic L35-poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA-L35-PLLA) was developed at first. Then based on this polymer, an injectable in situ gel-forming system composed of human antimicrobial peptides 57 (AP-57) loaded nanoparticles and thermosensitive hydrogel was prepared and applied for cutaneous wound healing. AP-57 peptides were enclosed with biocompatible nanoparticles (AP-57-NPs) with high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency. AP-57-NPs were further encapsulated in a thermosensitive hydrogel (AP-57-NPs-H) to facilitate its application in cutaneous wound repair. As a result, AP-57-NPs-H released AP-57 in an extended period and exhibited quite low cytotoxicity and high anti-oxidant activity in vitro. Moreover, AP-57-NPs-H was free-flowing liquid at room temperature, and can form non-flowing gel without any crosslink agent upon applied on the wounds. In vivo wound healing assay using full-thickness dermal defect model of SD rats indicated that AP-57-NPs-H could significantly promote wound healing. At day 14 after operation, AP-57-NPs-H treated group showed nearly complete wound closure of 96.78±3.12%, whereas NS, NPs-H and AP-57-NPs group recovered by about 68.78±4.93%, 81.96±3.26% and 87.80±4.62%, respectively. Histopathological examination suggested that AP-57-NPs-H could promote cutaneous wound healing through enhancing granulation tissue formation, increasing collagen deposition and promoting angiogenesis in the wound tissue. Therefore, AP-57-NPs-H might have potential application in wound healing. PMID:26363112

  16. Overexpression of the transcription factor AP37 in rice improves grain yield under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se-Jun; Kim, Youn Shic; Kwon, Chang-Woo; Park, Hye Kyong; Jeong, Jin Seo; Kim, Ju-Kon

    2009-07-01

    Transcription factors with an APETELA2 (AP2) domain have been implicated in various cellular processes involved in plant development and stress responses. Of the 139 AP2 genes predicted in rice (Oryza sativa), we identified 42 genes in our current study that are induced by one or more stress conditions, including drought, high salinity, low temperature, and abscisic acid. Phylogenic analysis of these 42 stress-inducible AP2 genes revealed the presence of six subgroups (I-VI) with distinct signature motifs. Two genes, AP37 and AP59, representing subgroups I and II, respectively, were functionally characterized. Both genes were found to be induced upon 2 h of exposure to drought and high-salinity conditions but to differ in their expression profile upon exposure to low temperature and abscisic acid. The overexpression of AP37 and AP59 in rice under the control of the constitutive promoter OsCc1 increased the tolerance to drought and high salinity at the vegetative stage. Increased tolerance to low temperatures was observed only in OsCc1:AP37 plants. More importantly, the OsCc1:AP37 plants showed significantly enhanced drought tolerance in the field, which increased grain yield by 16% to 57% over controls under severe drought conditions, yet exhibited no significant difference under normal growth conditions. In contrast, grain yield in OsCc1:AP59 plants in the field was reduced by 23% to 43% compared with controls under both normal and drought stress conditions. Microarray experiments identified 10 and 38 genes that are up-regulated by AP37 and AP59, respectively, in addition to 37 genes that are commonly induced by both factors. Our results suggest that the AP37 gene has the potential to improve drought tolerance in rice without causing undesirable growth phenotypes. PMID:19429605

  17. H Line ScheduleParking & Transportation

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    :02pm Strawberry Canyon Recreational Area Strawberry Canyon Recreational Area 7:47am 8:17am 8:47am 9:01pm 5:31pm 6:01pm 6:31pm 7:21pm Strawberry Canyon Recreational Area Strawberry Canyon Recreational

  18. Surface wave attenuation characteristics at the APS site

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.

    1992-05-01

    During operation of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Facility, there will be many potential sources of vibration that may be transmitted through the ground to the storage ring basement and experimental hall. These sources include chillers, pumps, blowers and fans. Some may produce amplitudes of sufficient magnitude to adversely affect the stability of the closed orbit of the beam. Where possible, these vibration sources will be monitored as they become operational, to determine their vibrational characteristics, such as amplitude and frequency, and duty cycle. Vibrations travel through the ground as body [compression (P) and shear (S)] waves and Rayleigh (R) waves, which are surface waves. The amplitudes of these waves decrease with distance from their source as a result of both geometric and material damping. Because the storage ring basement is {open_quotes}on grade{close_quotes}, the authors are primarily interested in waves on the surface. The R-waves, being surface waves, attenuate with distance more slowly than the body waves; for an R-wave, attenuation is proportional to 1/{radical}r, whereas for a body wave at the surface, attenuation is proportional to 1/r{sup 2}, where r is the distance from the source. Because R-waves attenuate more slowly, they are of primary interest relative to the isolation of vibration-sensitive facilities such as the APS. Measurement of surface wave attenuation requires a vibration source that is capable of producing a ground displacement level considerably greater than that of the ambient background. A pile driver that was used to drive steel pilings at the APS vehicle tunnel provided such a source. This study provides a measure of the attenuation of surface waves in the ground by the combination of geometric and material damping. An average coefficient of attenuation of 0.003 was derived from measured responses to vibrations provided by a pile driver.

  19. The appearance of beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, D.C.

    1993-05-01

    The combination of an existing graphics package with a large program like TRANSPORT has often resulted in considerable modification to the large program. Use of other graphics package has resulted in essentially having to repeat the work. This difficulty has been avoided in a modification of TRANSPORT which produce layouts of beam lines. Drawings of the reference trajectory and three-dimensional images of all magnets are made by the graphics package TOP DRAWER. Nothing specific to TOP DRAWER or any other graphics has been incorporated into TRANSPORT. If a user is with a different graphics package he or she can then begin usage of this alternate package essentially immediately.

  20. Higher-order modes in the APS storage ring waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, S.O.; Kustom, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    Twelve higher-order modes (HOMs) in the single-cell accelerating cavities for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring were calculated to have complex impedances that will cause coupled-bunched instabilities near or below the 300mA positron current which is the design goal. Some of these modes couple, through the coupling loop, from the storage ring cavity into the waveguide. This study investigates the transmission of these modes from the cavity into the waveguide. The standing wave ratio (VSWR) of a WR2300 hybrid waveguide component has been measured at each HOM frequency, and its effect on the transmitted modes in the waveguide is studied.

  1. Abort interlock diagnostic for protection of APS vacuum chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) vacuum system has been designed to be passively safe from bending magnet radiation heating at positron beam currents up to 30 mA. Above this value, certain components may be damaged from vertical beam missteering, although work is proceeding to raise the safe current threshold. Because of this, a system for preventing the misalignment of high power density beams is required. This report details a system for protection from dipole radiation only. Work on a system for ID radiation is continuing.

  2. Abort interlock diagnostic for protection of APS vacuum chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) vacuum system has been designed to be passively safe from bending magnet radiation heating at positron beam currents up to 30 mA. Above this value, certain components may be damaged from vertical beam missteering, although work is proceeding to raise the safe current threshold. Because of this, a system for preventing the misalignment of high power density beams is required. This report details a system for protection from dipole radiation only. Work on a system for ID radiation is continuing.

  3. Initial diagnostics commissioning results for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.; Patterson, D.; Wang, X.

    1995-07-01

    Principal diagnostics systems have been installed and nearly all have been commissioned on the subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) facility. Data have been obtained on beam position, beam profile, current, beam loss rate, and synchrotron radiation monitors on both injector rings and most recently the main 7-GeV storage ring. Results for the 150- to 450-MeV electron beams in the accumulator ring, up to 7 GeV in the injector synchrotron, and 4.5 to 7 GeV in the SR will be presented.

  4. APS beamline standard components handbook, Version 1. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, U.; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-02-01

    This Handbook in its current version (1.3) contains descriptions, specifications, and preliminary engineering design drawings for many of the standard components. The design status and schedules have been provided wherever possible. In the near future, the APS plans to update engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components and complete the Handbook. The completed version of this Handbook will become available to both the CATs and potential vendors. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  5. 49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS...and other factors affecting safety and operation. (b) The frequency of patrols is determined by the size of the line, the...

  6. Role of PhoU in phosphate transport and alkaline phosphatase regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Muda, M; Rao, N N; Torriani, A

    1992-01-01

    The negative regulatory function of PhoU in alkaline phosphatase (AP) was suggested by the behavior of K10 phoU35 carrying a missense mutation whose product was detected by immunoblotting. To define more clearly the regulatory function of this protein for the synthesis of AP, we constructed a null mutation. The constitutive synthesis of AP in this phoU deletion strain confirmed the negative role of PhoU. However, the expression of the PhoU protein from an isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible promoter had no effect on the repression of AP synthesis. Furthermore, the involvement of PhoU in free-Pi uptake was demonstrated. These results provide evidence that PhoU participates in Pi transport and in the regulatory role of the phosphate-specific transport system. Images PMID:1459954

  7. Toxic epidermal necrolysis related to AP (pemetrexed plus cisplatin) and gefitinib combination therapy in a patient with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ji-Jie; Ma, Shu-Xiang; Hou, Xue; Wang, Zhao; Zeng, Yin-Duo; Qin, Tao; Dinglin, Xiao-Xiao; Chen, Li-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare acute life-threatening mucocutaneous disorder that is mostly drug-related (80%-95%). It is clinically characterized as a widespread sloughing of the skin and mucosa. AP regimen (pemetrexed plus cisplatin) has been the preferred first-line chemotherapy for metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Gefitinib, a small-molecule epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has already been recommended as a first-line treatment in EGFR-mutant metastatic NSCLC. We report rare presentation of TEN involving adverse effects of AP and gefitinib combination treatment in a 42-year-old woman diagnosed with metastatic NSCLC harboring an EGFR mutation. On the 21st day after administration of the first cycle of AP regimen and the 8th day after the initiation of gefitinib treatment, she developed an acne-like rash, oral ulcer, and conjunctivitis, which later became blisters and ultimately denuded. The characteristic clinical courses were decisive for the diagnosis of TEN. Treatment with systemic steroids and immunoglobulin as well as supportive treatment led to an improvement of her general condition and a remarkable recovery. PMID:25418188

  8. Endothelin-1 induces connective tissue growth factor expression in human lung fibroblasts by ETAR-dependent JNK/AP-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chih-Ming; Yu, Chung-Chi; Kuo, Min-Liang; Chen, Bing-Chang; Lin, Chien-Huang

    2014-04-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) acts as a key mediator of vasoconstriction and tissue repair. Overproduction of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) underlies the development of lung fibrosis. ET-1 induces expression of matrix-associated genes in lung fibroblasts, however, little is known about the signaling pathway of CTGF expression caused by ET-1. In this study, we found that ET-1 caused concentration- and time-dependently increases in CTGF expression in human embryonic lung fibroblast cell line (WI-38). ET-1-induced CTGF expression was inhibited by BQ123 (ETAR antagonist), but not BQ788 (ETBR antagonist). Moreover, ET-1-induced CTGF expression was significantly reduced by JNK inhibitor (SP600125), the dominant-negative mutants of JNK1/2 (JNK1/2 DN), and AP-1 inhibitor (curcumin). ET-1 induced phosphorylations of JNK and c-Jun in time-dependent manners. AP-1 luciferase activity was concentration-dependently increased by ET-1, and this effect was attenuated by SP600125. We also found that ET-1-induced CTGF expression was most controlled by the AP-1 binding region of CTGF promoter. ET-1-indiced CTGF luciferase activity was predominately controlled by the sequence -747 to -408 bp upstream of the transcription start site on the human CTGF promoter. Furthermore, ET-1 caused the formation of AP-1-specific DNA-protein complex and the recruitment of c-Jun to the CTGF promoter. Moreover, we found that ET-1 induced ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression, which was inhibited by BQ123, SP600125, curcumin, and anti-CTGF antibody. These results suggest that ET-1 stimulates expressions of CTGF and ?-SMA through ETAR/JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway, and CTGF is required for ET-1-induced ?-SMA expression in human lung fibroblasts. PMID:24486572

  9. Identification and Molecular Characterization of the Switchgrass AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Superfamily, and Overexpression of PvERF001 for Improvement of Biomass Characteristics for Biofuel

    PubMed Central

    Wuddineh, Wegi A.; Mazarei, Mitra; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Sykes, Robert W.; Decker, Stephen R.; Davis, Mark F.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2015-01-01

    The APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) superfamily of transcription factors (TFs) plays essential roles in the regulation of various growth and developmental programs including stress responses. Members of these TFs in other plant species have been implicated to play a role in the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis. Here, we identified a total of 207 AP2/ERF TF genes in the switchgrass genome and grouped into four gene families comprised of 25 AP2-, 121 ERF-, 55 DREB (dehydration responsive element binding)-, and 5 RAV (related to API3/VP) genes, as well as a singleton gene not fitting any of the above families. The ERF and DREB subfamilies comprised seven and four distinct groups, respectively. Analysis of exon/intron structures of switchgrass AP2/ERF genes showed high diversity in the distribution of introns in AP2 genes versus a single or no intron in most genes in the ERF and RAV families. The majority of the subfamilies or groups within it were characterized by the presence of one or more specific conserved protein motifs. In silico functional analysis revealed that many genes in these families might be associated with the regulation of responses to environmental stimuli via transcriptional regulation of the response genes. Moreover, these genes had diverse endogenous expression patterns in switchgrass during seed germination, vegetative growth, flower development, and seed formation. Interestingly, several members of the ERF and DREB families were found to be highly expressed in plant tissues where active lignification occurs. These results provide vital resources to select candidate genes to potentially impart tolerance to environmental stress as well as reduced recalcitrance. Overexpression of one of the ERF genes (PvERF001) in switchgrass was associated with increased biomass yield and sugar release efficiency in transgenic lines, exemplifying the potential of these TFs in the development of lignocellulosic feedstocks with improved biomass characteristics for biofuels. PMID:26258121

  10. 49 CFR 179.201-3 - Lined tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lined tanks. 179.201-3 Section 179.201-3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes...

  11. Evaluation of a possible direct effect by casein phosphopeptides on paracellular and vitamin D controlled transcellular calcium transport mechanisms in intestinal human HT-29 and Caco2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Colombini, Alessandra; Perego, Silvia; Ardoino, Ilaria; Marasco, Emiliano; Lombardi, Giovanni; Fiorilli, Amelia; Biganzoli, Elia; Tettamanti, Guido; Ferraretto, Anita

    2013-08-01

    Intestinal cells are continuously exposed to food whose components are able to modulate some of their physiological functions. Among the bioactive food derivatives are casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), coming from the in vitro or in vivo casein digestion, which display the ability to form aggregates with calcium ions and to increase the uptake of the minerals in differentiated intestinal human HT-29 and Caco2 cells. Since extracellular calcium is a known inactivator of the TRPV6 channel, which is also involved in the colon cancer progression, the present study aims to determine a possible modulation by CPPs of the molecular structures responsible for paracellular and/or transcellular calcium absorption in these two cell lines. The paracellular calcium transport was determined by TEER measurements in Caco2 cells and by Lucifer Yellow flow in HT-29 cells. The possible modulation of transcellular calcium absorption machinery by CPPs was investigated by determining the mRNA expression for both the TRPV6 calcium channel and the VDR receptor in 1,25(OH)?D? pre-treated undifferentiated/differentiated cells. The results obtained point out that: (i) CPPs do not affect paracellular calcium absorption; (ii) 1,25(OH)?D? increases the TRPV6 mRNA expression in both types of cells. In the case of HT-29 cells this is the first determination of the presence of the TRPV6 channel; (iii) CPPs per se are not able to affect the VDR and TRPV6 mRNA expression; (iv) CPP administration does not affect the TRPV6 mRNA expression in 1,25(OH)?D? pre-treated HT-29 cells and Caco2 cells. Unlike peptides coming from the digestion of cheese whey protein digest, the digestion of milk casein produces peptides with no effects on TRPV6 calcium channel expression, though the same peptides are able to determine a calcium uptake by the intestinal cells. PMID:23681196

  12. ICFA Sardinia July 1-6, 2002 Z. Huang (zrh@aps.anl.gov) CSR Microbunching

    E-print Network

    ICFA Sardinia July 1-6, 2002 Z. Huang (zrh@aps.anl.gov) CSR Microbunching: Gain Calculation Zhirong Huang, Kwang-Je Kim Argonne National Laboratory #12;ICFA Sardinia July 1-6, 2002 Z. Huang (zrh@aps.anl.gov gain=bfinal/binitial, comment on initial conditions #12;ICFA Sardinia July 1-6, 2002 Z. Huang (zrh@aps.anl.gov

  13. Design and simulation of a novel APS star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Shen, Weimin; Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Xinhua

    2008-12-01

    Star trackers determine attitude by identifying stars imaged on the image sensor via an optical system whose performance is required to meet the star identification algorithm. The method to determine parameters of the optical system is proposed based on the identification algorithm. These parameters include focal length, aperture, and field of view (FOV). Aberration correction requirements are also analyzed. Pyramid identification algorithm utilized in this paper is investigated. Some improved approaches are presented for star map processing, onboard catalog organization and star identification. A link table construction is designed to save brightness from the programmed APS sensor which decreases data effectively and enhances the ability to calculate star positions in star maps. A method is developed to organize the onboard catalog which avoids searching and comparing similar star pairs but makes for rapid and unique identification. When performing star identification with Pyramid identification algorithm, only X brightest stars are chosen from star maps to acquire high signal to noise ratio and decrease spikes. Star number statistics is fulfilled all over the sky with any orientations by varying FOV and limited magnitude. Base on the requirement of the identification algorithm, parameters of the optical system are determined with the given STAR1000 APS sensor by analyzing their feasibility in optical design. According to these determined parameters, a star camera is designed. An onboard catalog on which star identification relies is produced. Star identification simulation is implemented. Simulation result proves that the designed system gets a satisfactory performance.

  14. Large break LOCA calculations for the AP600 design

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the application of RELAP5 to the calculation of a Large Break (200% doubled-ended rupture) Loss-of-Colant-Accident (LBLOCA) at the reactor vessel inlet for the proposed Westinghouse AP600 design. A parametric calculation was also performed to determine effects of loss of a complete Emergency Core Cooling system (ECCS) train. These calculations were performed over the core blowdown, refill, and reflood phases of the LBLOCA and did not address long term cooling. RELAP5 was shown to be adequate for system response calculation over the period of interest. The passive safety systems were predicted to effectively mitigate the consequences of LBLOCAs; the calculations showed less severe thermal responses than for a current generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. The two primary differences between the AP600 design and a current generation plant that affect LBLOCA response are the lower core thermal power, which results in lower temperatures during the blowdown phase, and the long duration accumulator injection, which provides ample core inventory makeup for final quenching.

  15. Large break LOCA calculations for the AP600 design

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.E.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents the application of RELAP5 to the calculation of a Large Break (200% doubled-ended rupture) Loss-of-Colant-Accident (LBLOCA) at the reactor vessel inlet for the proposed Westinghouse AP600 design. A parametric calculation was also performed to determine effects of loss of a complete Emergency Core Cooling system (ECCS) train. These calculations were performed over the core blowdown, refill, and reflood phases of the LBLOCA and did not address long term cooling. RELAP5 was shown to be adequate for system response calculation over the period of interest. The passive safety systems were predicted to effectively mitigate the consequences of LBLOCAs; the calculations showed less severe thermal responses than for a current generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. The two primary differences between the AP600 design and a current generation plant that affect LBLOCA response are the lower core thermal power, which results in lower temperatures during the blowdown phase, and the long duration accumulator injection, which provides ample core inventory makeup for final quenching.

  16. Development of large and fast cmos aps cameras at latt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigbeder, F.; Bourrec, E.; Dupieux, M.; Delaigue, G.; Rondi, S.; Rieutord, M.; Meunier, N.; Roudier, T.

    Since 2004, at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Toulouse Tarbes (LATT), we work with CMOS APS detectors, firstly to develop a large-field,high-resolution camera for the observation of the solar supergranulation, secondly to develop a fast camera for an adaptive optics test bench. In these two projects, we use detectors from FillFactory, now continued by Cypress Semiconductor Corporation: IBIS4-14000, IBIS-16000, LUPA-4000, 14 Mpixels, 16 Mpixels, 4 Mpixels respectively. The last one just reads in a 240 × 240 pixels window to obtain readout rate of 1000 Image/s. For these purposes we developed dedicated controllers to follow the high pixel rate and multi-output readout of this type of detectors. We also studied the characterization methods and measured the main parameters of these CMOS detectors to know their behaviour. Using these kinds of APS detectors in these two particular projects proves that we can already find niches to use CMOS detectors in astronomy taking advantage of their present specificities. Recent improvements like back illumination, noise reduction, should rapidly open news possibilities.

  17. Designing an artificial pancreas architecture: the AP@home experience.

    PubMed

    Lanzola, Giordano; Toffanin, Chiara; Di Palma, Federico; Del Favero, Simone; Magni, Lalo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2015-12-01

    The latest achievements in sensor technologies for blood glucose level monitoring, pump miniaturization for insulin delivery, and the availability of portable computing devices are paving the way toward the artificial pancreas as a treatment for diabetes patients. This device encompasses a controller unit that oversees the administration of insulin micro-boluses and continuously drives the pump based on blood glucose readings acquired in real time. In order to foster the research on the artificial pancreas and prepare for its adoption as a therapy, the European Union in 2010 funded the AP@home project, following a series of efforts already ongoing in the USA. This paper, authored by members of the AP@home consortium, reports on the technical issues concerning the design and implementation of an architecture supporting the exploitation of an artificial pancreas platform. First a PC-based platform was developed by the authors to prove the effectiveness and reliability of the algorithms responsible for insulin administration. A mobile-based one was then adopted to improve the comfort for the patients. Both platforms were tested on real patients, and a description of the goals, the achievements, and the major shortcomings that emerged during those trials is also reported in the paper. PMID:25430423

  18. The fundamental parameters of the roAp star ? Circini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruntt, H.; North, J. R.; Cunha, M.; Brandão, I. M.; Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Davis, J.; Bedding, T. R.; Jacob, A. P.; Owens, S. M.; Robertson, J. G.; Tango, W. J.; Gameiro, J. F.; Ireland, M. J.; Tuthill, P. G.

    2008-06-01

    We have used the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer to measure the angular diameter of ? Cir. This is the first detailed interferometric study of a rapidly oscillating A (roAp) star, ? Cir being the brightest member of its class. We used the new and more accurate Hipparcos parallax to determine the radius to be 1.967 +/- 0.066Rsolar. We have constrained the bolometric flux from calibrated spectra to determine an effective temperature of 7420 +/- 170K. This is the first direct determination of the temperature of an roAp star. Our temperature is at the low end of previous estimates, which span over 1000 K and were based on either photometric indices or spectroscopic methods. In addition, we have analysed two high-quality spectra of ? Cir, obtained at different rotational phases and we find evidence for the presence of spots. In both spectra we find nearly solar abundances of C, O, Si, Ca and Fe, high abundance of Cr and Mn, while Co, Y, Nd and Eu are overabundant by about 1 dex. The results reported here provide important observational constraints for future studies of the atmospheric structure and pulsation of ? Cir. Based on observations with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer at the Paul Wild Observatory, Narrabri (Australia) and observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal (Chile), as part of programmes 072.D-0138 and 077.D-0150. E-mail: bruntt@physics.usyd.edu.au

  19. The new AP Physics exams: Integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elby, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    When physics instructors and education researchers emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning in problem solving, they usually mean using those types of reasoning serially and separately: first students should analyze the physical situation qualitatively/conceptually to figure out the relevant equations, then they should process those equations quantitatively to generate a solution, and finally they should use qualitative reasoning to check that answer for plausibility (Heller, Keith, & Anderson, 1992). The new AP Physics 1 and 2 exams will, of course, reward this approach to problem solving. But one kind of free response question will demand and reward a further integration of qualitative and quantitative reasoning, namely mathematical modeling and sense-making--inventing new equations to capture a physical situation and focusing on proportionalities, inverse proportionalities, and other functional relations to infer what the equation ``says'' about the physical world. In this talk, I discuss examples of these qualitative-quantitative translation questions, highlighting how they differ from both standard quantitative and standard qualitative questions. I then discuss the kinds of modeling activities that can help AP and college students develop these skills and habits of mind.

  20. 49 CFR 1248.4 - Originating and connecting line traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Originating and connecting line traffic. 1248.4 Section 1248.4 Transportation...4 Originating and connecting line traffic. (a) Revenue freight reported as...respondent. (g) Import and export traffic received from or delivered to water...

  1. Interplay between TAp73 Protein and Selected Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) Family Members Promotes AP-1 Target Gene Activation and Cellular Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Deepa; Bunjobpol, Wilawan; Sabapathy, Kanaga

    2015-01-01

    Unlike p53, which is mutated at a high rate in human cancers, its homologue p73 is not mutated but is often overexpressed, suggesting a possible context-dependent role in growth promotion. Previously, we have shown that co-expression of TAp73 with the proto-oncogene c-Jun can augment cellular growth and potentiate transactivation of activator protein (AP)-1 target genes such as cyclin D1. Here, we provide further mechanistic insights into the cooperative activity between these two transcription factors. Our data show that TAp73-mediated AP-1 target gene transactivation relies on c-Jun dimerization and requires the canonical AP-1 sites on target gene promoters. Interestingly, only selected members of the Fos family of proteins such as c-Fos and Fra1 were found to cooperate with TAp73 in a c-Jun-dependent manner to transactivate AP-1 target promoters. Inducible expression of TAp73 led to the recruitment of these Fos family members to the AP-1 target promoters on which TAp73 was found to be bound near the AP-1 site. Consistent with the binding of TAp73 and AP-1 members on the target promoters in a c-Jun-dependent manner, TAp73 was observed to physically interact with c-Jun specifically at the chromatin via its carboxyl-terminal region. Furthermore, co-expression of c-Fos or Fra1 was able to cooperate with TAp73 in potentiating cellular growth, similarly to c-Jun. These data together suggest that TAp73 plays a vital role in activation of AP-1 target genes via direct binding to c-Jun at the target promoters, leading to enhanced loading of other AP-1 family members, thereby leading to cellular growth. PMID:26018080

  2. NOS1AP Functionally Associates with YAP To Regulate Hippo Signaling.

    PubMed

    Clattenburg, Leanne; Wigerius, Michael; Qi, Jiansong; Rainey, Jan K; Rourke, Jillian L; Muruganandan, Shanmugam; Sinal, Christopher J; Fawcett, James P

    2015-07-01

    Deregulation of cellular polarity proteins and their associated complexes leads to changes in cell migration and proliferation. The nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP) associates with the tumor suppressor protein Scribble to control cell migration and oncogenic transformation. However, how NOS1AP is linked to the cell signaling events that curb oncogenic progression has remained elusive. Here we identify several novel NOS1AP isoforms, NOS1APd, NOS1APe, and NOS1APf, with distinct cellular localizations. We show that isoforms with a membrane-interacting phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain can associate with Scribble and recognize acidic phospholipids. In a screen to identify novel binding proteins, we have discovered a complex consisting of NOS1AP and the transcriptional coactivator YAP linking NOS1AP to the Hippo signaling pathway. Silencing of NOS1AP reduces the phosphorylation of YAP and of the upstream kinase Lats1. Conversely, expression of NOS1AP promotes YAP and Lats1 phosphorylation, which correlates with reduced TEAD activity and restricted cell proliferation. Together, these data implicate a role for NOS1AP in the regulation of core Hippo signaling and are consistent with the idea that NOS1AP functions as a tumor suppressor. PMID:25918243

  3. AP-2? is a transcriptional regulator for determination of digit length in tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Seki, Ryohei; Kitajima, Keiichi; Matsubara, Haruka; Suzuki, Takayuki; Saito, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Tamura, Koji

    2015-11-01

    The species-specific morphology of digits in the tetrapod limb, including the length and number of metacarpal, metatarsal, and phalangeal bones, suggests that a common developmental mechanism for digit formation is modified in a species-specific manner. Here, we examined the function of the AP-2? transcription factor in regulating digit length in the chicken autopod. Mutations in the gene encoding AP-2? are associated with Char syndrome, a human autosomal dominant disorder. Char syndrome patients exhibit autopod skeletal defects, including loss of phalanges and shortened fingers, suggestive of a function for AP-2? in normal digit development. The ectopic expression of two different dominant-negative forms of chick AP-2?, equivalent to mutant forms associated with human Char syndrome, in the developing chick hindlimb bud resulted in defective digit formation, including reductions in the number and length of phalanges and metatarsals. A detailed analysis of the AP-2? expression pattern in the limb bud indicated a correlation between the pattern/duration of AP-2? expression in the limb mesenchyme and digit length in three amniote species, the chicken, mouse and gecko. In addition, we found that AP-2? expression was downstream of Fgf signals from the apical ectodermal ridge, which is crucial in digit morphogenesis, and that excessive AP-2? function resulted in dysregulated digit length. Taken together, these results suggest that AP-2? functions as a novel transcriptional regulator for digit morphogenesis. PMID:26277217

  4. Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

    2014-07-01

    The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development. PMID:24566692

  5. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not exceeding 15 months, but at least once each calendar year. However, in the case of a transmission line which... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys....

  6. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... gas is directed away from the electrical conductors. (d) Offshore segments of transmission lines must... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission line valves. 192.179 Section 192.179... line valves. (a) Each transmission line, other than offshore segments, must have sectionalizing...

  7. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... gas is directed away from the electrical conductors. (d) Offshore segments of transmission lines must... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission line valves. 192.179 Section 192.179... line valves. (a) Each transmission line, other than offshore segments, must have sectionalizing...

  8. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line is... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719... to the pressure required for a new line installed in the same location. This test may be made on...

  9. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not exceeding 15 months, but at least once each calendar year. However, in the case of a transmission line which... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys....

  10. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line is... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719... to the pressure required for a new line installed in the same location. This test may be made on...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1017 - Oil lines and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil lines and fittings. 25.1017 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1017 Oil lines and fittings. (a) Each oil line must meet the requirements of § 25.993 and each oil line and fitting in any...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1017 - Oil lines and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil lines and fittings. 29.1017 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1017 Oil lines and fittings. (a) Each oil line must meet the requirements of § 29.993. (b) Breather lines must be arranged so...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1017 - Oil lines and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil lines and fittings. 29.1017 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1017 Oil lines and fittings. (a) Each oil line must meet the requirements of § 29.993. (b) Breather lines must be arranged so...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1017 - Oil lines and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil lines and fittings. 25.1017 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1017 Oil lines and fittings. (a) Each oil line must meet the requirements of § 25.993 and each oil line and fitting in any...

  15. Chemical stratification in the atmosphere of Ap star HD 133792. Regularized solution of the vertical inversion problem

    E-print Network

    O. Kochukhov; V. Tsymbal; T. Ryabchikova; V. Makaganyk; S. Bagnulo

    2006-09-12

    High spectral resolution studies of cool Ap stars reveal conspicuous anomalies of the shape and strength of many absorption lines. This is a signature of large atmospheric chemical gradients produced by the selective radiative levitation and gravitational settling of chemical species. Here we present a new approach to mapping the vertical chemical structures in stellar atmospheres. We have developed a regularized chemical inversion procedure that uses all information available in high-resolution stellar spectra. The new technique for the first time allowed us to recover chemical profiles without making a priori assumptions about the shape of chemical distributions. We have derived average abundances and applied the vertical inversion procedure to the high-resolution VLT UVES spectra of the weakly magnetic, cool Ap star HD 133792. Our analysis yielded improved estimates of the atmospheric parameters of HD 133792. We show that this star has negligible vsini and the mean magnetic field modulus =1.1+/-0.1 kG. We have derived average abundances for 43 ions and obtained vertical distributions of Ca, Si, Mg, Fe, Cr, and Sr. All these elements except Mg show high overabundance in the deep layers and solar or sub-solar composition in the upper atmosphere of HD 133792. In contrast, the Mg abundance increases with height. We find that transition from the metal-enhanced to metal-depleted zones typically occurs in a rather narrow range of depths in the atmosphere of HD 133792. Based on the derived photospheric abundances, we conclude that HD 133792 belongs to the rare group of evolved cool Ap stars, which possesses very large Fe-peak enhancement, but lacks a prominent overabundance of the rare-earth elements.

  16. The flame structure of AP/HTPB sandwiches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorpening, Benjamin Todd

    2000-10-01

    Ultraviolet emission imaging experiments have been used to study the combustion of sandwiches of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) in nitrogen at pressures up to 32 atm, with binder layers from 50 to 450 mum in thickness. An ICCD camera system has been used to image the flame emission near 310 nm, and a backlighting technique has been developed that allows determination of the corresponding surface shape during combustion. The results indicate the AP/HTPB interface regression rate of IPDI cured samples undergoing low power (100W) laser-assisted deflagration is nearly independent of the binder thickness for binders thicker than 100 mum. The pressure exponent of the regression rate is 0.31 up to 15 atm, increasing with pressure from 15 to 32 atm. Two primary regimes of flame behavior have been identified: a split flame base regime which occurs with high Peclet and Damkohler numbers, and a merged flame base regime which occurs with low Peclet and Damkohler numbers. A secondary regime, exhibiting a "lifted" flame, occurs with low Damkohler numbers and high Peclet numbers. The ultraviolet flame emissions observed in the experiments show a correspondence with the fuel-rich region of the flame, as determined with a Schvab-Zeldovich model. This is reasonable since the primary sources of ultraviolet emission in the 305--315 nm region, electronically excited OH and the CO + O reaction, are dependent on fuel related species. The growth of the fuel-rich region with increasing Peclet number, predicted by the model, is qualitatively matched by the experimental results. The predicted shrinkage of the fuel-rich region when the binder layer is diluted with fine AP is also qualitatively matched by the experiments. Comparison of the experimental results with a single-reaction model with finite rate kinetics shows a weak qualitative agreement on the influence of Damkohler number. A large increase in Damkohler number (factor of 20) leads to a strong splitting of the calculated reaction zone and a splitting of the base of the high temperature region. This seems to correspond to the splitting of the ultraviolet emission flame base observed in the experiments.

  17. Performance evaluation of rotating pump jet mixing of radioactive wastes in Hanford Tanks 241-AP-102 and -104

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.P.

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the adequacy of a single mixer pump to fully mix the wastes that will be stored in Tanks 241-AP-102 and -104. These Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) will be used as staging tanks to receive low-activity wastes from other Hanford storage tanks and, in turn, will supply the wastes to private waste vitrification facilities for eventual solidification. The TEMPEST computer code was applied to Tanks AP-102 and -104 to simulate waste mixing generated by the 60-ft/s rotating jets and to determine the effectiveness of the single rotating pump to mix the waste. TEMPEST simulates flow and mass/heat transport and chemical reactions (equilibrium and kinetic reactions) coupled together. Section 2 describes the pump jet mixing conditions the authors evaluated, the modeling cases, and their parameters. Section 3 reports model applications and assessment results. The summary and conclusions are presented in Section 4, and cited references are listed in Section 5.

  18. A radial-velocity survey of Ap stars with HARPS. I. HD 42659: The discovery of the first spectroscopic binary around a rapidly oscillating Ap star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, M.; Hatzes, A. P.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Chemically peculiar Ap stars are main-sequence stars of spectral type B8-F3 which show large overabundances of some chemical elements (e.g., Si, Sr, Cr), especially of rare-earth elements, compared to normal A-type stars. Furthermore, they have strong, global magnetic fields and low rotational velocities. Some Ap stars exhibit high-overtone, low-degree, non-radial p-mode pulsations with periods of 6-24 min and are called rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars. Interestingly, no roAp star is known to be a spectroscopic binary (SB), while many non-oscillating Ap (noAp) stars are found in SB systems. Aims: The goal of this survey was to carry out a systematic search for sub-stellar and stellar companions around Ap stars. Methods: Between 2004 and 2009, we observed 65 chemically peculiar stars with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6-m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile). The radial-velocity (RV) measurements were obtained using a new software called HARPS-TERRA which is based on a least-squares matching of each individual spectrum to a high signal-to-noise ratio template for each star. Results: We find significant variability with a period of 93.2 days and a semi-amplitude of 11.85 km s-1 in the RVs of HD 42659, a star of our sample that belongs to the group of roAp stars. This variability is caused by a stellar companion with a minimum mass of 0.47 M? in a slightly eccentric (e = 0.146) orbit at a separation of 0.55 AU. Conclusions: This detection makes HD 42659 the first confirmed SB around a roAp star in a relatively close orbit. It shows that tidal interactions in binaries do not necessarily inhibit pulsations in Ap stars. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) under programs 074.C-0102, 075.C-0234, 076.C-0073, 079.C-0170, 080.C-0032, and 082.C-0308.

  19. The Angelman syndrome protein Ube3a/E6AP is required for Golgi acidification and surface protein sialylation.

    PubMed

    Condon, Kathryn H; Ho, Jianghai; Robinson, Camenzind G; Hanus, Cyril; Ehlers, Michael D

    2013-02-27

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe disorder of postnatal brain development caused by neuron-specific loss of the HECT (homologous to E6AP carboxy terminus) domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Ube3a/E6AP. The cellular role of Ube3a remains enigmatic despite recent descriptions of synaptic and behavioral deficits in AS mouse models. Although neuron-specific imprinting is thought to limit the disease to the brain, Ube3a is expressed ubiquitously, suggesting a broader role in cellular function. In the current study, we demonstrate a profound structural disruption and cisternal swelling of the Golgi apparatus (GA) in the cortex of AS (UBE3A(m-/p+)) mice. In Ube3a knockdown cell lines and UBE3A(m-/p+) cortical neurons, the GA is severely under-acidified, leading to osmotic swelling. Both in vitro and in vivo, the loss of Ube3a and corresponding elevated pH of the GA is associated with a marked reduction in protein sialylation, a process highly dependent on intralumenal Golgi pH. Altered ion homeostasis of the GA may provide a common cellular pathophysiology underlying the diverse plasticity and neurodevelopmental deficits associated with AS. PMID:23447592

  20. The Angelman Syndrome Protein Ube3a/E6AP is Required for Golgi Acidification and Surface Protein Sialylation

    PubMed Central

    Condon, Kathryn H.; Ho, Jianghai; Robinson, Camenzind G.; Hanus, Cyril; Ehlers, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe disorder of postnatal brain development caused by neuron-specific loss of the HECT (homologous to E6AP carboxy terminus) domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Ube3a/E6AP. The cellular role of Ube3a remains enigmatic despite recent descriptions of synaptic and behavioral deficits in AS mouse models. Although neuron-specific imprinting is thought to limit the disease to the brain, Ube3a is expressed ubiquitously, suggesting a broader role in cellular function. In the current study, we demonstrate a profound structural disruption and cisternal swelling of the Golgi apparatus (GA) in the cortex of AS (UBE3Am?/p+) mice. In Ube3a knockdown cell lines and UBE3Am?/p+ cortical neurons, the GA is severely under-acidified, leading to osmotic swelling. Both in vitro and in vivo, the loss of Ube3a and corresponding elevated pH of the GA is associated with a marked reduction in protein sialylation, a process highly dependent on intralumenal Golgi pH. Altered ion homeostasis of the GA may provide a common cellular pathophysiology underlying the diverse plasticity and neurodevelopmental deficits associated with AS. PMID:23447592

  1. Global coupling and decoupling of the APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Y.C.; Liu, J.; Teng, L.C.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes a study of controlling the coupling between the horizontal and the vertical betatron oscillations in the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. First, we investigate the strengthening of coupling using two families of skew quadrupoles. Twenty skew quadrupoles are arranged in the 40 sectors of the storage ring and powered in such a way so as to generate both quadrature components of the required 21st harmonic. The numerical results from tracking a single particle are presented for the various configurations of skew quadrupoles. Second, we describe the global decoupling procedure to minimize the unwanted coupling effects. These are mainly due to the random roll errors of normal quadruples. It is shown that even with the rather large rms roll error of 2 mrad, the coupling effects can be compensated for with 20 skew quadrupoles each having maximum strength one order of magnitude lower than the typical normal quadrupole strength.

  2. Some considerations in the combustion of AP/composite propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical studies are presented on the time-independent and oscillatory combustion of nonmetallized AP/composite propellants. Three hypotheses are introduced: (1) The extent of propellant degradation at the vaporization step has to be specified through a scientific criterion. (2) The condensed phase degradation reaction of ammonium perchlorate to a vaporizable state is the overall rate-limiting step. (3) Gas phase combustion rate is controlled by the mixing rate of fuel and oxidizer vapors. In the treatment of oscillatory combustion, the assumption of quasi-steady fluctuations in the gas phase is used to supplement these hypotheses. In comparison with experimental data, this study predicts several of the observations including a few that remain inconsistent with theoretical results.

  3. Nomenclature and name assignment rules for the APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G.

    1992-03-16

    Because the APS accelerators are moving into the fabrication/assembly/installation stage, it is important for consistent naming conventions to be used throughout the project. The intent of this note is to dictate the rules to be adhered to when naming devices in the storage ring. These rules are generic in nature, and shall be applied in principle to the other machines as well. It is essential that every component have a unique and, hopefully, easily recognizable name. Every ASD and XFD group, except for magnets, must interface with the control system. For this reason all device names were developed keeping in mind their actual function, such as controlling or monitoring some device in the ring. Even though magnets are not directly interfaced to the control system, their power supplies are; therefore, a magnet will have the same name as its associated power supply.

  4. Fabrication and Testing of Deflecting Cavities for APS

    SciTech Connect

    Mammosser, John; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert; Jim, Henry; Katherine, Wilson; Dhakal, Pashupati; Ali, Nassiri; Jim, Kerby; Jeremiah, Holzbauer; Genfa, Wu; Joel, Fuerst; Yawei, Yang; Zenghai, Li

    2013-09-01

    Jefferson Lab (Newport News, Virginia) in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, IL) has fabricated and tested four first article, 2.8 GHz, deflecting SRF cavities, for Argonne's Short-Pulse X-ray (SPX) project. These cavities are unique in many ways including the fabrication techniques in which the cavity cell and waveguides were fabricated. These cavity subcomponents were milled from bulk large grain niobium ingot material directly from 3D CAD files. No forming of sub components was used with the exception of the beam-pipes. The challenging cavity and helium vessel design and fabrication results from the stringent RF performance requirements required by the project and operation in the APS ring. Production challenges and fabrication techniques as well as testing results will be discussed in this paper.

  5. The APS intranet as a man-machine interface.

    SciTech Connect

    Ciarlette, D.; Gerig, R.; McDowell, W.

    1997-12-02

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory has implemented a number of methods for people to interact with the accelerator systems. The accelerator operators use Sun workstations running MEDM and WCL to interface interactively with the accelerator, however, many people need to view information rather than interact with the machine. One of the most common interfaces for viewing information at the Advanced Photon Source is the World Wide Web. Information such as operations logbook entries, machine status updates, and displays of archived and current data are easily available to APS personnel. This interface between people and the accelerator has proven to be quite useful. Because the Intranet is operating-system independent and inherently unidirectional, ensuring the prevention of unauthorized or accidental control of the accelerators is straightforward.

  6. Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS): Design Summary, Performance and Potential Modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Brian

    2014-01-01

    APS is a mature design that has already been built and has a TRL of 7. Algorithmic and retrieval capabilities continue to improve and make better and more sophisticated used of the data. Adjoint solutions, both in one dimensional and three dimensional are computationally efficient and should be the preferred implementation for the calculation of Jacobians (one dimensional), or cost-function gradients (three dimensional). Adjoint solutions necessarily provide resolution of internal fields and simplify incorporation of active measurements in retrievals, which will be necessary for a future ACE mission. Its best to test these capabilities when you know the answer: OSSEs that are well constrained observationally provide the best place to test future multi-instrument platform capabilities and ensure capabilities will meet scientific needs.

  7. Klystron modulator operation and upgrades for the APS linac

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, T.J.; Cours, A.

    1995-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac requires five 100-MW modulators to achieve its required energy. In-house construction of these modulators was under an extremely compressed time schedule and, while the original design was successful, it had a few shortcomings. The operation of the modulators was hindered by excessively sensitive controls and overheating during the hot summer months. The system underwent minor changes that resulted in major improvements. Additionally, improvements have been made to the high voltage circuits to improve the rise time of the output pulse shape. reduce the initial ringing of the pulse, and enhance the reliability of the system. This paper will outline the changes and explain the results of the improvements.

  8. Bacillusin A, an Antibacterial Macrodiolide from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AP183.

    PubMed

    Ravu, Ranga Rao; Jacob, Melissa R; Chen, Xiaolong; Wang, Mei; Nasrin, Shamima; Kloepper, Joseph W; Liles, Mark R; Mead, David A; Khan, Ikhlas A; Li, Xing-Cong

    2015-04-24

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extracts of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain (AP183) led to the discovery of a new macrocyclic polyene antibiotic, bacillusin A (1). Its structure was assigned by interpretation of NMR and MS spectroscopic data as a novel macrodiolide composed of dimeric 4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-alkenylbenzoic acid lactones with conjugated pentaene-hexahydroxy polyketide chains. Compound 1 showed potent antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium with minimum inhibitory concentrations in a range of 0.6 to 1.2 ?g/mL. The biosynthetic significance of this unique class of antibiotic compounds is briefly discussed. PMID:25756620

  9. Improved temperature regulation of APS linac RF components.

    SciTech Connect

    Dortwegt, R.

    1998-09-21

    The temperature of the APS S-Band linac's high-power rf components is regulated by water from individual closed-loop deionized (DI) water systems. The rf components are all made of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper and respond quickly to temperature changes. The SLED cavities are especially temperature-sensitive and cause beam energy instabilities when the temperature is not well regulated. Temperature regulation better than {+-} 0.1 F is required to achieve good energy stability. Improvements in the closed-loop water systems have enabled them to achieve a regulation of {+-} 0.05 F over long periods. Regulation philosophy and equipment are discussed and numerical results are presented.

  10. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  11. SYLLABUS -aps1014h ADVANCED PROJECT MANAGEMENT saved 2015-01-20

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    SYLLABUS - aps1014h ADVANCED PROJECT MANAGEMENT saved 2015-01-20 Instructor: Keith Farndale (keith.farndale@utoronto.ca) Prerequisite: aps1001 Project Management, and equivalent of at least 1 year full-time working experience and tools which is easy to talk about and to "learn" in theory. What makes project management more "advanced

  12. Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation: Mold-Resistant Armacell Insulation--Armacell LLC, AP Armaflex Black

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ESTE test program measured the mold resistance of Armacell AP Armaflex Black insulation. Tests for emissions of VOCs and formaldehyde were also performed. AP Armaflex Roll Insulation is a black flexible closed-cell, fiber-free elastomeric thermal insulation. The expanded clos...

  13. The 8th Annual AP[R] Report to the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In classrooms around the country, AP (Advanced Placement) teachers are preparing students for tomorrow by teaching them how to think and learn today. AP students learn to construct solid arguments, test theories, and see many sides of an issue--the kind of thinking that solves tough problems both in and outside the classroom, in college and…

  14. Coming Soon: CADRE (Career Advancement and Development Resources and Education) website for all APS members

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Council of the American Phytopathological Society (APS) approved an initiative in February 2013 to create a web resource called CADRE (Career Advancement and Development Resources and Education). CADRE is to provide APS members an archive of articles, videos, and webinars about a variety of prof...

  15. Validating the Use of AP® Exam Scores for College Course Placement. Research Report 2013-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Ewing, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) was created to provide access to rigorous, college-level curricula to motivated and prepared high school students. This study evaluated whether the AP Exam scores from the summative exams associated with 10 courses were valid for the placement of students into higher-level college courses in the subject area…

  16. Shape-selective recognition of DNA abasic sites by metallohelices: inhibition of human AP endonuclease 1

    PubMed Central

    Malina, Jaroslav; Scott, Peter; Brabec, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Loss of a base in DNA leading to creation of an abasic (AP) site leaving a deoxyribose residue in the strand, is a frequent lesion that may occur spontaneously or under the action of various physical and chemical agents. Progress in the understanding of the chemistry and enzymology of abasic DNA largely relies upon the study of AP sites in synthetic duplexes. We report here on interactions of diastereomerically pure metallo–helical ‘flexicate’ complexes, bimetallic triple-stranded ferro-helicates [Fe2(NN-NN)3]4+ incorporating the common NN–NN bis(bidentate) helicand, with short DNA duplexes containing AP sites in different sequence contexts. The results show that the flexicates bind to AP sites in DNA duplexes in a shape-selective manner. They preferentially bind to AP sites flanked by purines on both sides and their binding is enhanced when a pyrimidine is placed in opposite orientation to the lesion. Notably, the ?-enantiomer binds to all tested AP sites with higher affinity than the ?-enantiomer. In addition, the binding of the flexicates to AP sites inhibits the activity of human AP endonuclease 1, which is as a valid anticancer drug target. Hence, this finding indicates the potential of utilizing well-defined metallo–helical complexes for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25940617

  17. Mechanism of AP-1-mediated gene expression by select organochlorines through the p38 MAPK pathway

    E-print Network

    McLachlan, John

    -activators such as the p160s, which can directly bind nuclear hormone receptors like the estrogen receptor (ER) (3). AP-1 signaling by environmental chemicals associated with the estrogen receptor (ER) and more recently via ER) and its metabolites induce a stress mitogen-activated pro- tein kinase (MAPK) that leads to AP-1

  18. An Inquiry into Retention and Achievement Differences in Campus Based and Web Based AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Michael; Mulcahy, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A decade ago the Advanced Placement (AP) program was introduced into the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Initially, schools embraced this opportunity to provide their students with opportunities that were previously unavailable. However, within a few years the AP program was relegated to urban and large regional high schools. Few…

  19. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - INTEGRATED IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY - STEEL MINI MILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for the integrated iron and steel industry which are incorporated into AP-42. AP-42 is a massive collection of information concerning processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness infor...

  20. 78 FR 19691 - Applications for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Applications for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information Advanced Placement Test... Announcement I. Funding Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The AP Test Fee program awards grants...

  1. 77 FR 8848 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Advanced Placement Test.... Full Text of Announcement I. Funding Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The AP Test...

  2. Transcriptional activation by Myc is under negative control by the transcription factor AP-2.

    PubMed Central

    Gaubatz, S; Imhof, A; Dosch, R; Werner, O; Mitchell, P; Buettner, R; Eilers, M

    1995-01-01

    The Myc protein binds to and transactivates the expression of genes via E-box elements containing a central CAC(G/A)TG sequence. The transcriptional activation function of Myc is required for its ability to induce cell cycle progression, cellular transformation and apoptosis. Here we show that transactivation by Myc is under negative control by the transcription factor AP-2. AP-2 inhibits transactivation by Myc via two distinct mechanisms. First, high affinity binding sites for AP-2 overlap Myc-response elements in two bona fide target genes of Myc, prothymosin-alpha and ornithine decarboxylase. On these sites, AP-2 competes for binding of either Myc/Max heterodimers or Max/Max homodimers. The second mechanism involves a specific interaction between C-terminal domains of AP-2 and the BR/HLH/LZ domain of Myc, but not Max or Mad. Binding of AP-2 to Myc does not preclude association of Myc with Max, but impairs DNA binding of the Myc/Max complex and inhibits transactivation by Myc even in the absence of an overlapping AP-2 binding site. Taken together, our data suggest that AP-2 acts as a negative regulator of transactivation by Myc. Images PMID:7729426

  3. Development of cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors for EPA’S AP-42

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42) emission factors are assigned ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), based on the quality of data used to develop them. AP-42 currently contains no PM2.5 cotton gin emission factors. In an effort to develop science-based data for regulating...

  4. The Rush to Take More AP Courses Hurts Students, High Schools, and Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxtoby, David W.

    2007-01-01

    In most schools, the rush toward Advanced Placement (AP) courses goes on unabated. In 2006 the number of students taking AP exams increased almost 10 percent over the preceding year. This is largely because of the growing intensity of the admissions game and the urge on the part of college applicants to seek out every advantage. In applying to…

  5. The Rush to Take More AP Courses Hurts Students, High Schools, and Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxtoby, David W.

    2007-01-01

    In most schools, the rush toward Advanced Placement (AP) courses goes on unabated. In 2006 the number of students taking AP exams increased almost 10 percent over the preceding year, according to the College Board. This is largely because of the growing intensity of the admissions game and the urge on the part of college applicants to seek out…

  6. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - GRAIN LOADING ONTO SHIPS AND BARGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for the grain shipping industry which are appended to AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness information. As reso...

  7. Understanding and Using the New Guided-Inquiry AP Chemistry Laboratory Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    To support teaching and learning in the advanced placement (AP) chemistry laboratory, the College Board published a laboratory manual, "AP Chemistry Guided-Inquiry Experiments: Applying the Science Practices," in 2013 as part of the redesigned course. This article provides a discussion of the rationale for the existence of the manual as…

  8. Amphioxus and lamprey AP-2 genes: implications for neural crest evolution and migration patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulemans, Daniel; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    The neural crest is a uniquely vertebrate cell type present in the most basal vertebrates, but not in cephalochordates. We have studied differences in regulation of the neural crest marker AP-2 across two evolutionary transitions: invertebrate to vertebrate, and agnathan to gnathostome. Isolation and comparison of amphioxus, lamprey and axolotl AP-2 reveals its extensive expansion in the vertebrate dorsal neural tube and pharyngeal arches, implying co-option of AP-2 genes by neural crest cells early in vertebrate evolution. Expression in non-neural ectoderm is a conserved feature in amphioxus and vertebrates, suggesting an ancient role for AP-2 genes in this tissue. There is also common expression in subsets of ventrolateral neurons in the anterior neural tube, consistent with a primitive role in brain development. Comparison of AP-2 expression in axolotl and lamprey suggests an elaboration of cranial neural crest patterning in gnathostomes. However, migration of AP-2-expressing neural crest cells medial to the pharyngeal arch mesoderm appears to be a primitive feature retained in all vertebrates. Because AP-2 has essential roles in cranial neural crest differentiation and proliferation, the co-option of AP-2 by neural crest cells in the vertebrate lineage was a potentially crucial event in vertebrate evolution.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix C to Part 52 - Design Certification Rule for the AP600 Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design Certification Rule for the AP600 Design C Appendix C to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND... design, in accordance with 10 CFR part 52, subpart B. The applicant for certification of the AP600...

  10. Foundations for College and Beyond: Looking Back on AP Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenbohm, Laurel

    2013-01-01

    It was years after this author's AP Art History course in high school, and two years after college. She and some friends decided to fill a day during the Thanksgiving visits appreciating fine art. Prior to that AP course her senior year of high school, touring an art museum had seemed like the equivalent of going to the dentist. But after…

  11. AP3: Cooperative, decentralized anonymous communication Alan Mislove Gaurav Oberoi Ansley Post Charles Reis Peter Druschel

    E-print Network

    Wallach, Dan

    AP3: Cooperative, decentralized anonymous communication Alan Mislove Gaurav Oberoi Ansley Post, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract This paper describes a cooperative overlay network that provides anonymous communication services for participat- ing users. The Anonymizing Peer-to-Peer Proxy (AP3) sys- tem provides

  12. 10 CFR Appendix C to Part 52 - Design Certification Rule for the AP600 Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design Certification Rule for the AP600 Design C Appendix C to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. C Appendix C to Part 52—Design Certification Rule for the AP600 Design I. Introduction Appendix C...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 52 - Design Certification Rule for the AP1000 Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design Certification Rule for the AP1000 Design D Appendix D to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. D Appendix D to Part 52—Design Certification Rule for the AP1000 Design I. Introduction Appendix...

  14. Social Effects of Hispanic Students Enrolled in an AP Class in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, Alexandra; Kettler, Todd; Johnsen, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the effects of placing Spanish-speaking students in an Advanced Placement (AP) Spanish Language course in the 8th grade. Fifty-eight Hispanic students in the AP class and a similar comparison group answered survey questions on parental involvement, peers, sense of belonging at school, and academic aspirations. Data gathered…

  15. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of polyketide metabolite from marine Streptomyces sp. AP-123 and its cytotoxic effect.

    PubMed

    Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2013-01-01

    A Gram positive, filamentous, spore forming antagonistic Streptomyces sp. AP-123 derived from marine region of Andra Pradesh, India, was studied for its medical importance. Among the 210 Streptomyces strains screened at 64.3% exhibited activity against Gram positive bacteria, 48.5% showed activity towards Gram negative bacteria, 38.8% exhibited both Gram positive and negative bacteria and 80.85% strains revealed significant antifungal activity. However, primary screening revealed that Streptomyces sp. AP-123 exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria compared to other Streptomyces strains. The presence of l-diaminopimelic acid and glycine in the cell wall hydrolysates and streptomycin resistance indicated the strain belonged to Streptomyces genus. The 16S rDNA gene based phylogenetic affiliation was determined by using bioinformatic tools and it was identified as Streptomyces sp. AP-123 with 99% sequence similarity to Streptomyces flavogriseus. The antimicrobial substances were extracted by hexane and ethyl acetate from spent medium in which Streptomyces sp. AP-123 was cultivated at 30 °C for 5 d. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using broth micro-dilution technique. A compound was obtained by eluting the crude extract using varying concentrations of solvents followed by the chromatographic purification. Based on the IR, (13)C NMR and (1)H NMR spectral data, the compound was identified as polyketide related antibiotic. It exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and also showed a potent cytotoxic activity against cell lines viz. Vero (Green monkey kidney) and HEP2 (laryngeal carcinoma cells) in vitro. The lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the compound against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus were 25 and 37.5 ?g mL(-1), respectively. Against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa it exhibited MIC of 50 and 37.58 ?g mL(-1), respectively. However, against Candida albicans and filamentous fungus, Aspergillus niger the MIC values were 12.5 and 25 ?g mL(-1), respectively. Cloning and sequence analysis of ketoacyl synthase (KS) gene revealed similarity to the type II polyketide synthase (PKS) gene of Streptomyces species. PMID:22963878

  16. TCR stimulation upregulates MS4a4B expression through induction of AP-1 transcription factor during T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yaping; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Williams, Mark S; Carey, Gregory B; Li, Hongmei; Yang, Jingxian; Rostami, Abdolmohamad; Xu, Hui

    2012-09-01

    MS4a4B is a novel member of the membrane-spanning 4-domain family, subfamily A (MS4A) specifically expressed in mouse T cells. We have shown previously that expression of MS4a4B in T cells is upregulated upon T cell activation, suggesting that MS4a4B may play a functional role in regulation of T cell responses. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate MS4a4B gene expression. In this study, we explored the potential mechanism underlying TCR-stimulation-induced expression of MS4a4B by promoter analysis. We cloned 2495bp of 5'-flanking region upstream of the MS4a4B start code and inserted the DNA fragment into pGL4.20 reporter plasmid. To analyze promoter activity of the cloned DNA fragment, we transiently transfected EL4 thymoma cells and the T32 cell line with reporter plasmids. Expression of reporter gene was determined by dual-luciferase assay. Potential activator- and repressor-binding sites were analyzed by serial length of 5'-deletion. We have identified at least two potential activator binding regions and two potential repressor binding regions. The activator binding sites have been localized to two fragments, which are a 442-base pair region (region A) positioned from -1176 to -735, and a 119-base pair region (region B) positioned -188 to -70 respectively. MatInspector analysis showed that region A contains the consensus binding motif of the AP-1 family of transcription factors. Machinery analysis showed that nuclear proteins extracted from anti-CD3/anti-CD28-activated primary T cells specifically bind to the AP-1 binding element. In contrast, blockade by AP-1 inhibitor in culture decreased MS4a4B expression in T cells. Our data demonstrate that TCR-stimulation induces transactivation of AP-1 transcription factor, which subsequently binds to the MS4a4B promoter and upregulates expression of MS4a4B in activated T cells. PMID:22595231

  17. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation... § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line...

  18. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation... § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line...

  19. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation... § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line...

  20. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation... § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line...