Sample records for aps transport lines

  1. (April, 2009) Guidelines for scanning documents for upload into AP On-Line

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    (April, 2009) Guidelines for scanning documents for upload into AP On-Line In order to ensure that PDF documents are not unnecessarily large (thereby creating PDF bundling problems in AP On as paper documents, just as they are with paper files. All scanners and scanning software packages

  2. Velocities of H and metal lines in the roAp star Circini

    E-print Network

    Baldry, Ivan K.

    with anomalously strong lines of Si, Sr, Cr, other iron peak elements, Eu and other rare earth elements. The stars (in spots) on the surface of the star (Rice & Wehlau 1991). Despite the name, the Ap stars range

  3. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

    1994-11-01

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real`` beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS.

  4. To be submitted to ApJ A Formalism for Covariant Polarized Radiative Transport by Ray

    E-print Network

    Gammie, Charles F.

    To be submitted to ApJ A Formalism for Covariant Polarized Radiative Transport by Ray Tracing unpolarized radiative transport began with Lindquist (1966), al- though there were earlier studies) transported polarized radiation from its origin on the surface of a thin disk near a black hole through vacuum

  5. AP On-Line Recruit Help Manual for Applicants Appendix OADEO, UCSD. Rev. 7/21/2010 Page 1

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    AP On-Line Recruit Help Manual for Applicants Appendix OADEO, UCSD. Rev. 7/21/2010 Page 1 University of California San Diego Academic Personnel On-Line RECRUIT Help Manual for Applicants Version 1.001 #12;AP On-Line Recruit Help Manual for Applicants Appendix OADEO, UCSD. Rev. 7/21/2010 Page 2 Recruit

  6. NSLS-II Transport Line Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

    2012-05-20

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

  7. Optical observations of the broad-lined type Ic supernova SN 2012ap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Xu-Lin; Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Chen, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The optical observations of the type Ic supernova (SN Ic) SN 2012ap in NGC 1729 are presented. A comparison with other SNe Ic indicates that SN 2012ap is highly reddened (with E(B — V)host~0.8 mag) and may represent one of the most luminous SNe Ic ever observed, with an absolute V-band peak magnitude of ~ -19.3±0.5 mag after extinction correction. The near-maximum-light spectrum shows wide spectral features that are typical of broad-lined SNe Ic. One interesting feature in the spectrum is the appearance of some narrow absorption features that can be attributed to the diffuse interstellar bands, consistent with the large reddening inferred from the photometric method. Based on the light curves and the spectral data, we estimate that SN 2012ap produced a 56Ni mass of ~ 0.3 ± 0.1Msolar 1 in the explosion, with an ejecta mass of 2.4-0.7+0.7Msolar and a kinetic energy of EK = 1.1-0.4+0.4 × 1052 erg. The properties of its progenitor are also briefly discussed.

  8. Beam chopper For the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) in the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.; Wang, J.; Milton, S.; Teng, L. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) is being built and will be tested with a short beam pulse from an rf gun in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory. In the LEUTL a beam chopper is used after the rf gun to deflect the unwanted beam to a beam dump. The beam chopper consists of a permanent magnet and an electric deflector that can compensate for the magnetic deflection. A 30-kV pulsed power supply is used for the electric deflector. The chopper subsystem was assembled and tested for beamline installation. The electrical and beam properties of the chopper assembly are presented.

  9. 2-D axisymmetric line transport

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J.I.; Dykema, P.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Klein, R.I. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Astronomy)

    1990-11-20

    The methods used in the ALTAIR code for computing the transfer of spectral line radiation in two-dimensional axially-symmetric geometry are described. ALTAIR uses a variable-Eddington-tensor approach, in which the transfer equation of non-coherent line scattering is written in moment form, and the moments are closed with an assumed tensor relating the monochromatic pressure tensor and energy density; this Eddington tensor is obtained self-consistently using an accurate angle-dependent solution of the transfer equation. The finite element method for solving the moment system, and the discontinuous finite element method for solving the S{sub n} equation of transfer are described. Two applications of the method are discussed: line formation in uniform cylinders with different length-diameter ratios, and monochromatic transfer on an irregular x-y mesh (the Mordant test problem). 13 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Non-LTE line formation for Pr II and Pr III in A and Ap stars

    E-print Network

    L. Mashonkina; T. Ryabchikova; A. Ryabtsev; R. Kildiyarova

    2008-11-21

    Non-LTE line formation for Pr II and Pr III is considered through a range of effective temperatures between 7250 K and 9500 K. A comprehensive model atom for Pr II/III is based on the measured and the predicted energy levels, in total, 6708 levels of Pr II and Pr III. We describe calculations of the Pr II energy levels and oscillator strengths for the transitions in Pr II and Pr III. The influence of departures from LTE on Pr abundance determinations is evaluated. At Teff >= 8000 K departures from LTE lead to overionization of Pr II and to systematically depleted total absorption in the line and positive abundance corrections. At the lower temperatures, different lines of Pr II may be either weakened or amplified depending on the line strength. The non-LTE effects strengthen the Pr III lines and lead to negative abundance corrections. Non-LTE corrections grow with effective temperature for the Pr II lines, and, in contrast, they decline for the Pr III lines. The Pr II/III model atom is applied to determine the Pr abundance in the atmosphere of the roAp star HD 24712 from the lines of two ionization stages. In the chemically uniform atmosphere with [Pr/H] = 3, the departures from LTE may explain only small part (0.3 dex) of the difference between the LTE abundances derived from the Pr II and Pr III lines (2 dex). We find that the lines of both ionization stages are described for the vertical distribution of the praseodymium where the Pr enriched layer with [Pr/H] > 4 exists in the outer atmosphere at log tau_5000 < -4. The departures from LTE for Pr II/III are strong in the stratified atmosphere and have the opposite sign for the Pr II and Pr III lines. Using the revised partition function of Pr II and experimental transition probabilities, we determine the solar non-LTE abundance of Pr as log (Pr/H) = -11.15\\pm0.08.

  11. Beam transportation lines for the NICA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelov, A.; Angelov, B.; Eliseev, A.; Meshkov, I.; Mikhailov, V.; Sidorin, A.; Topilin, N.; Trubnikov, G.; Tuzikov, A.

    2012-07-01

    A heavy-ion collider, i.e., the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility (NICA), is being developed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. The aim of this project is to construct a new accelerator complex for conducting experiments with colliding ion beam (at the first stage of the project) and with polarized proton and deuteron beams (at the second stage). The NICA accelerator complex will consist of two linear accelerators, two synchrotrons, two collider rings, and beam transportation lines. The magnetic lattice and diagnostic and correction systems for the NICA beam transportation lines are described in this report.

  12. The NSNS high energy beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Weng, W.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). AGS Dept.

    1997-07-01

    In the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) design, a 180 meter long transport line connects the 1 GeV linac to an accumulator ring. The linac beam has a current of 28 mA, pulse length of 1 ms, and 60 hz rep rate. The high energy transport line consists of sixteen 60{degree} FODO cells, and accommodates a 90{degree} achromatic bend, an energy compressor, collimators, part of the injection system, and enough diagnostic devices to measure the beam quality before injection. To reduce the uncontrolled beam losses, this line has nine beam halo scrapers and very tight tolerances on both transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics under space charge conditions. The design of this line is presented.

  13. Regulation of the human biotin transporter hSMVT promoter by KLF-4 and AP-2: confirmation of promoter activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Reidling, Jack C; Said, Hamid M

    2007-04-01

    The mechanism of biotin uptake in human intestine has been well characterized and involves the human sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (hSMVT), yet little is known about the molecular/transcriptional regulation of the system. Previous investigations cloned the 5' regulatory region of the hSMVT gene and identified the minimal promoter. To expand these investigations, we compared activity of the hSMVT promoter in three human intestinal epithelial cell lines (NCM460, Caco-2, and HuTu-80) and contrasted a renal epithelial cell line (HEK-293). We analyzed the role of putative cis-elements in regulating promoter activity and confirmed activity of the cloned hSMVT promoter in vivo. In vitro studies demonstrated that all cell lines utilized the same minimal promoter region, and mutation of specific cis-regulatory elements [Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF-4) and activator protein-2 (AP-2)] led to a decrease in promoter activity in all intestinal cell types but not in renal cells. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified two specific DNA/protein complexes. Using oligonucleotide competition and antibody supershift analysis, we determined that KLF-4 and AP-2 were involved in forming the complexes. In HEK-293 cells, overexpressing KLF-4 increased the endogenous hSMVT message levels threefold and activated a cotransfected hSMVT promoter-reporter construct. In vivo studies using hSMVT promoter-luciferase transgenic mice established physiological relevance and showed the pattern of hSMVT promoter expression to be similar to endogenous mouse SMVT mRNA expression. The results demonstrate, for the first time, the importance of KLF-4 and AP-2 in regulating the activity of the hSMVT promoter in the intestine and provide direct in vivo confirmation of hSMVT promoter activity. PMID:17135299

  14. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  15. An improved thermionic microwave gun and emittance-preserving transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.

    1993-07-01

    The positron/electron linac for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory can be used to accelerate electrons to 650 MeV. As part of a project to use this linac to test the quality of insertion devices, work has been done to develop a higher-brightness thermionic microwave gun of the SSRL type. The new gun design has smaller emittance by a factor of 3 to 4. The ratio of cathode field to maximum surface field is more than doubled. The new alpha-magnet-based transport line design produces negligible emittance degradation due to chromatic aberrations, in spite of the {plus_minus}5% momentum spread.

  16. The Paschen-Back effect in the Li I 6708 A line and the presence of lithium in cool magnetic Ap stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Kochukhov

    2008-01-01

    A number of cool magnetic Ap stars show a prominent feature at lambda 6708 A.\\u000aIts identification with Li I remains controversial due to a poor knowledge of\\u000athe spectra of rare-earth elements that are strongly enhanced in peculiar stars\\u000aand can potentially provide an alternative identification. We suggest to\\u000ainvestigate the 6708 line in Ap stars with strong magnetic

  17. The Paschen-Back effect in the Li I 6708 A line and the presence of lithium in cool magnetic Ap stars

    E-print Network

    O. Kochukhov

    2008-02-19

    A number of cool magnetic Ap stars show a prominent feature at lambda 6708 A. Its identification with Li I remains controversial due to a poor knowledge of the spectra of rare-earth elements that are strongly enhanced in peculiar stars and can potentially provide an alternative identification. We suggest to investigate the 6708 line in Ap stars with strong magnetic fields. In these objects the magnetic broadening and splitting provides an additional powerful criterium for line identification, allowing to use the whole line profile instead of a mere coincidence of the observed and predicted wavelength. Due to a small separation of the Li I doublet components, their magnetic splitting pattern deviates from the one expected for the Zeeman effect even in relatively weak fields. We carry out detailed calculations of the transition between the Zeeman and Paschen-Back regimes in the magnetic splitting of the Li I line and compute polarized synthetic spectra for the range of field strength expected in Ap stars. Theoretical spectral synthesis is compared with the high-resolution observations of cool Ap stars HD 116114, HD 166473 and HD 154708, which have a mean field strength of 6.4, 8.6 and 24.5 kG, respectively, and show a strong 6708 A line. High-resolution spectra for the 6708 A region are analysed for 17 magnetic Ap stars. The presence of the 6708 A line is confirmed in 9 stars and reported for the first time in 6 stars. We demonstrate that the observed profiles of the 6708 A line in the strong field stars HD 116114, HD 166473 and HD 154708 correspond rather well to the theoretical calculations assuming the Li I identification. Inclusion of the Paschen-Back effect improves the agreement with observations, especially for HD 154708. Results of our study confirm the Li I identification proposed for the 6708 A line in cool Ap stars.

  18. Study of charge transport in a MOS line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hoffmann

    1975-01-01

    The principles of operation of a MOS line are considered, taking into account the determination of the surface potential, the derivation of the charge transport equation and its numerical solution, approaches for the reduction of transmission time, and charge losses. An equivalent circuit of a MOS line is presented and the effect of the various parameters on the charge transport

  19. Transport of paraquat by a renal epithelial cell line, MDCK.

    PubMed

    Chan, B S; Lazzaro, V A; Seale, J P; Duggin, G G

    1997-11-01

    Transport of paraquat (PQ), a herbicidal cation, was previously investigated in a proximal (LLC-PK1), renal epithelial cell line using permeable collagen-coated filters. PQ was actively transported from the basolateral side via a cation transport system by the LLC-PK1 cells. In the present study, the transport of PQ was investigated in a distal renal epithelial cell line, MDCK. PQ was predominantly transported from the basolateral to apical (B to A) side. The basolateral transport of PQ in MDCK cells was not saturable with increasing concentrations and not energy dependent. The flux and uptake of PQ was much lower in the MDCK than LLC-PK1 cells. It is concluded that MDCK, a distal renal tubular cell line, does not have an active transport system for PQ. PMID:9415931

  20. IV1. Yoon and E. Crosbie The APS Beam Transfer Line from Linac to Booster Synchrotron

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    %. The plan view of the designed beam transfer line is shown in Fig. 1. In this figure, B1 bends the beam to PAR by 0.2 radian and B2 is the PAR septum (which bends the beam by 0.2 radian). B3 restores the beam from PAR to the linac to booster line (by 0.2 radian bends). B4 then bends the beam toward the booster

  1. Investigation of stellar magnetic fields based on the strengths of spectral lines - Application to Omicron Pegasi and Cool AP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoichi

    1993-06-01

    A practical method for simultaneous determinations of H (magnetic field) and xi (microturbulence) in a stellar atmosphere is presented, which is based on the requirement that the scatter of the abundances derived from individual lines should be minimized for the best choice of H and xi. This procedure may be regarded as being an improved and extended version of the classical Hensberge-De Loore method, since it is based on a 'fine analysis' technique using a model atmosphere and the detailed Zeeman-split components of a line are explicitly taken into account with an approximate treatment of the polarization effect. This method was first applied to the hot Am star O Peg, resulting in H = 2 kG (and xi is about 1.5 km/s); this H value is fairly consistent with other estimates based either on the Stenflo-Lindegren technique or on the line-pair method. As an alternative application, surface magnetic fields of five cool Ap stars were also investigated, showing that the H-values by this method agree well with those derived from the method of differential Zeeman broadening and that the classical Hensberge-De Loore technique tends to yield somewhat underestimated values.

  2. Optimization of aerosol penetration through transport lines 

    E-print Network

    Wong Luque, Fermin Samuel

    1992-01-01

    . . Deposition in Isokinetic Inlets. . . . . . . V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. . 20 Tubes. . 23 . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . 25 28 Penetration through a Model Transport System. Optimum Penetration through Horizontal Penetration through Strom-type Loops.... . Deposition in Isokinetic Inlets. . . , . . . VI. SUMMARY. VII. RECOMMENDED FUTURE RESEARCH 28 Tubes. . 30 . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . 34 38 . 40 REFERENCES APPENDIX-A TABLES. APPENDIX-B FIGURES. . . 41 . 46 54 VITA. . 83 LIST OF TABLES...

  3. Interaction between the Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova 2012ap and Carriers of Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Sanders, Nathan E.; Drout, Maria R.; Kamble, Atish; Chakraborti, Sayan; Pickering, Timothy E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Mazzali, Paolo; Maeda, Keiichi; Marion, G. H. Howie; Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2014-02-01

    Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption features observed in optical and near-infrared spectra that are thought to be associated with carbon-rich polyatomic molecules in interstellar gas. However, because the central wavelengths of these bands do not correspond to electronic transitions of any known atomic or molecular species, their nature has remained uncertain since their discovery almost a century ago. Here we report on unusually strong DIBs in optical spectra of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN 2012ap that exhibit changes in equivalent width over short (lsim 30 days) timescales. The 4428 Å and 6283 Å DIB features get weaker with time, whereas the 5780 Å feature shows a marginal increase. These nonuniform changes suggest that the supernova is interacting with a nearby source of DIBs and that the DIB carriers possess high ionization potentials, such as small cations or charged fullerenes. We conclude that moderate-resolution spectra of supernovae with DIB absorptions obtained within weeks of outburst could reveal unique information about the mass-loss environment of their progenitor systems and provide new constraints on the properties of DIB carriers.

  4. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. 69...Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. (a...The traffic-sensitive components of tandem-switched transport services, as...

  5. Line planning in public transportation: models and methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Schöbel

    The problem of defining suitable lines in a public transportation system (bus, railway, tram, or underground) is an important\\u000a real-world problem that has also been well researched in theory. Driven by applications, it often lacks a clear description,\\u000a but is rather stated in an informal way. This leads to a variety of different published line planning models. In this paper,

  6. Design of the SLC damping ring to linac transport lines

    SciTech Connect

    Fieguth, T.H.; Murray, J.J.

    1983-07-01

    The first and second order optics for the damping ring to linac transport line are designed to preserve the damped transverse emittance while simultaneously compressing the bunch length of the beam to that length required for reinjection into the linac. This design, including provisions for future control of beam polarization, is described.

  7. Cationicity-enhanced analogues of the antimicrobial peptides, AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, from the venom of the scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, display potent growth modulation effects on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Ge, Lilin; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The non disulphide-bridged peptides (NDBPs) of scorpion venoms are attracting increased interest due to their structural heterogeneity and broad spectrum of biological activities. Here, two novel peptides, named AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, have been identified in the lyophilised venom of the Arabian scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, through "shotgun" molecular cloning of their biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs. The respective mature peptides, predicted from these cloned cDNAs, were subsequently isolated from the same venom sample using reverse phase HPLC and their identities were confirmed by use of mass spectrometric techniques. Both were found to belong to a family of highly-conserved scorpion venom antimicrobial peptides - a finding confirmed through the biological investigation of synthetic replicates. Analogues of both peptides designed for enhanced cationicity, displayed enhanced potency and spectra of antimicrobial activity but, unlike the native peptides, these also displayed potent growth modulation effects on a range of human cancer cell lines. Thus natural peptide templates from venom peptidomes can provide the basis for rational analogue design to improve both biological potency and spectrum of action. The diversity of such templates from such natural sources undoubtedly provides the pharmaceutical industry with unique lead compounds for drug discovery. PMID:25332684

  8. Thermal transport along the dislocation line in silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yuxiang; Xiong, Shiyun; Volz, Sebastian; Dumitric, Traian

    2014-09-19

    We elucidate thermal conductivity along the screw dislocation line, which represents a transport direction inaccessible to classical theories. By using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we uncover a Burgers vector dependent thermal conductivity reduction in silicon carbide. The effect is uncorrelated with the classical modeling and originates in the highly deformed core region, which represents a significant source of anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering. High strain reduces the phonon relaxation time, especially in the longitudinal acoustic branches, and creates an effective internal thermal resistance around the dislocation axis. Our results have implications for designing materials useful for high-temperature electronics and thermoelectric applications. PMID:25279633

  9. Line-by-line transport calculations for Jupiter entry probes. [of radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.; Cooper, D. M.; Park, C.; Prakash, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations of the radiative transport for a condition near peak heating for entry of the Galileo probe into the Jovian atmosphere are described. The discussion includes a thorough specification of the atomic and molecular input data used in the calculations that could be useful to others working in the field. The results show that the use of spectrally averaged cross sections for diatomic absorbers such as CO and C2 in the boundary layer can lead to an underestimation (by as much as 29%) of the spectral flux at the stagnation point. On the other hand, for the turbulent region near the cone frustum on the probe, the flow tends to be optically thin, and the spectrally averaged results commonly used in coupled radiative transport-flow field calculations are in good agreement with the present line-by-line results. It is recommended that these results be taken into account in sizing the final thickness of the Galileo's heat shield.

  10. The Broad-lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-Ray Burst Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Sanders, N. E.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Pickering, T. E.; Kawabata, K.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Marion, G. H.; Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ? 20,000 km s-1 that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v >~ 27,000 km s-1). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ~2.7 M ?, a kinetic energy of ~1.0 × 1052 erg, and a 56Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M ?. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] ??6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z >~ Z ?, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B - V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  11. Design and commissioning of the APS beam charge and current monitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Wang; F. Lenkszus; E. Rotela

    1994-01-01

    The non-intercepting charge and current monitors suitable for a wide range of beam parameters have been developed and installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron. The positron or electron beam pulse in the APS has charge ranging from 100pC to l0nC with pulse width varying from 30ps to 30ns.

  12. Design and commissioning of the APS beam charge and current monitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Wang; F. Lenkszus; E. Rotela

    1995-01-01

    The non-intercepting charge and current monitors suitable for a wide range of beam parameters have been developed and installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron. The positron or electron beam pulse in the APS has charge ranging from 100 pC to 10 nC with pulse width varying from 30

  13. Impact of punctual flat magnetic shear on the field line transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abud, C. V.; Caldas, I. L.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the magnetic field line transport for tokamak equilibria with monotonic magnetic shear perturbed by resonant fields. We show that when the local profile is flat at the plasma edge a transport barrier can be created leading to a field line transport reduction. This transport reduction is due to the field lines topological modifications, caused by a local flattened profile that reduces the global field lines escape pattern. The results are obtained by applying a symplectic map that describes perturbed magnetic field lines in large aspect ratio tokamaks.

  14. Beam transport radiation shielding for branch lines 2-ID-B and 2-ID-C

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.P.; Lai, B.; McNulty, I.; Dejus, R.J.; Randall, K.J.; Yun, W.

    1995-08-01

    The x-ray radiation shielding requirements beyond the first optics enclosure have been considered for the beam transport of the 2-ID-B and 2-ID-C branch lines of Sector 2 (SRI-CAT) of the APS. The first three optical components (mirrors) of the 2-ID-B branch are contained within the shielded first optics enclosure. Calculations indicate that scattering of the primary synchrotron beam by beamline components outside the enclosure, such as apertures and monochromators, or by gas particles in case of vacuum failure is within safe limits for this branch. A standard 2.5-inch-diameter stainless steel pipe with 1/16-inch-thick walls provides adequate shielding to reduce the radiation dose equivalent rate to human tissue to below the maximum permissible limit of 0.25 mrem/hr. The 2-ID-C branch requires, between the first optics enclosure where only two mirrors are used and the housing for the third mirror, additional lead shielding (0.75 mm) and a minimum approach distance of 2.6 cm. A direct beam stop consisting of at least 4.5 mm of lead is also required immediately downstream of the third mirror for 2-ID-C. Finally, to stop the direct beam from escaping the experimental station, a beam stop consisting of at least 4-mm or 2.5-mm steel is required for the 2-ID-B or 2-ID-C branches, respectively. This final requirement can be met by the vacuum chambers used to house the experiments for both branch lines.

  15. Reclaiming residual space from elevated transport infrastructure : time, space, and activity under the Chicago Brown Line

    E-print Network

    Su, Jing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies the non-transport functions of the residual space generated by elevated transport infrastructure and its relationship with abutting neighborhoods The space under the Chicago Brown Line, among all other ...

  16. Lattice design and tolerance analysis of the CBA transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The beam transport line from the AGS to CBA is 600 m long and consists of 70 bending magnets and 20 quadrupoles, as well as several special injection components. The beam has to bend 117/sup 0/ horizontally and drop 1.8 m in elevation. To insure that it has momentum acceptance of ..delta..P/P = +-1% and the transverse emittance dilution is within 30%, a detailed tolerance analysis has been carried out on the requirements of the AGS beam properties, magnetic field quality of the transport magnets, and misalignment errors. Field quality tolerances of ..delta..B/sub 0//B less than or equal to 1 x 10/sup -3/ for bending field, ..delta.. G/G less than or equal to 5 x 10/sup -3/ for gradient field, and ..delta..B/sub 2//B less than or equal to 2.5 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup -2/ of the sextupole components in the bending magnets are indicated.

  17. Game transport protocol: lightweight reliable transport protocol for massive interactive on-line game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pack, Sangheon; Hong, Eunsil; Choi, Yanghee; Park, llkyu; Kim, Jong-Sung; Ko, D.

    2002-12-01

    With the advent of high-speed access network technologies such as ADSL, increasing numbers of Internet users are participating in various interactive multimedia applications. Among these, the most popular are the massively interactive on-line games, or MMPOGs. In MMPOGs, a large amount of event data is associated with various control objects. This event data has different characteristics from that which is generally used on the Internet. Namely, events occur very frequently with short inter-arrival times and their size is quite small, because they only contain control information. Most commercial MMPOGs use TCP or UDP as the transport protocol for the event data. However, since TCP is such a heavy protocol, due to its complex congestion control algorithm and byte-oriented window scheme, it is difficult to support many concurrent users. On the other hand, UDP is a relatively lightweight protocol, but there are no functions available which permit reliable transmission and session management. In this paper, we propose a new transport protocol, Game Transport Protocol (GTP), which is designed for the transmission of the event data used by MMPOGs. GTP supports several functions designed to meet the various requirements of MMPOGs. Firstly, GTP uses a packet-based window scheme not a byte-based window scheme as in the case of TCP. This scheme is quite simple and suitable for the small size of the event data. Also, GTP performs session management and retransmission using GTP control blocks, and supports an adaptive retransmission scheme that controls the maximum number of retransmissions according to the real-time priority, in order to meet the time constraints of the event data. Although GTP is a specialized transport protocol, optimized for MMPOGs, it could also be utilized as a transport protocol for other interactive multimedia applications.

  18. Investigation of a line-focused acoustic levitation for contactless transport of particles

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    Investigation of a line-focused acoustic levitation for contactless transport of particles Daniele 2011) We investigate herein an interesting acoustic line-focused levitation mechanism, enabling the simultaneous transportation of the acoustically levitated particles. It is shown that the performance

  19. Reversal of resistance by GF120918 in cell lines expressing the ABC half-transporter, MXR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiel de Bruin; Keisuke Miyake; Thomas Litman; Robert Robey; Susan E. Bates

    1999-01-01

    The emergence of several newly identified members of the ABC transporter family has necessitated the development of antagonists that are able to inhibit more than one transporter. We assessed the ability of the chemosensitizer GF120918 to function as a multispecific antagonist using cytotoxicity assays, rhodamine and calcein efflux assays, and confocal microscopy in cell lines expressing different multidrug resistance transporters.

  20. Erratum: ``A Grid of Non-LTE Line-blanketed Model Atmospheres of O-Type Stars'' (ApJS, 146, 417 [2003])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, Thierry; Hubeny, Ivan

    2003-07-01

    We have constructed a comprehensive grid of 680 metal line-blanketed, non-LTE, plane-parallel, hydrostatic model atmospheres for the basic parameters appropriate to O-type stars. The OSTAR2002 grid considers 12 values of effective temperatures, 27,500K<=Teff<=55,000 K with 2500 K steps, eight surface gravities, 3.0<=logg<=4.75 with 0.25 dex steps, and 10 chemical compositions, from metal-rich relative to the Sun to metal-free. The lower limit of logg for a given effective temperature is set by an approximate location of the Eddington limit. The selected chemical compositions have been chosen to cover a number of typical environments of massive stars: the Galactic center, the Magellanic Clouds, blue compact dwarf galaxies like I Zw 18, and galaxies at high redshifts. The paper contains a description of the OSTAR2002 grid and some illustrative examples and comparisons. The complete OSTAR2002 grid is available at our Web site at ApJS, 146, 417 [2003]. Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 681, Greenbelt, MD 20771.

  1. Dehydroascorbic acid taken up by glucose transporters stimulates estradiol production through inhibition of JNK/c-Jun/AP1 signaling in JAR cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Tang, Chao; Wu, Minglan; Pan, Yibin; Ruan, Hongfeng; Chen, Linling; Yao, Hongyi; Zhu, Haibin; Wu, Ximei

    2014-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the reduced form of vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid, AA) is able to induce the production of both steroid and peptide hormones in human choriocarcinoma cells. Here, we attempted to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of the oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), in steroidogenesis in primary human cytotrophoblasts and human choriocarcinoma cells. Messenger RNA and protein levels of steroidogenic enzymes including P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3?-HSD1), 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17?-HSD1) and aromatase were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blots, respectively. Progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) levels were determined by enzyme immunoassays. Knockdown of c-Jun was achieved by lentivirus-mediated shRNA, and signaling pathways implicated in DHA-induced steroidogenesis were examined by western blots and dual-luciferase assays. DHA dose-dependently induced the expression of steroidogenic enzymes including 3?-HSD1, 17?-HSD1 and aromatase at both mRNA and protein levels, and subsequently increased the production of E2 but not P4. These effects were synergized by diethylmaleate, a glutathione-depleting compound, and ?-tocopherol, a reducing agent, but robustly attenuated by inhibition of DHA transportation by phloretin or 2-deoxy-d-glucose. DHA time-dependently inhibited JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation, and dose-dependently reduced AP1 reporter activity. JNK signaling pathway-specific inhibitor SP600125 and c-Jun shRNA both significantly increased the expression of steroidogenic enzymes and E2 production regardless of the presence or absence of DHA. These findings suggest that DHA is able to induce steroidogenesis through inhibition of JNK/c-Jun/AP1 signaling, and may therefore play indispensable roles in pregnancy maintenance. PMID:24830780

  2. Particle transport in sampling lines used in fire detection systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fissan; E. Otto; J. Dixkens

    1997-01-01

    For certain application areas in fire detection, air sampling systems are used which sample at different locations. The sampled air is transported to one fire detector. The aerosol coming from a starting fire, transported to at least one of the openings of the pipe system, is modified mainly because of non-representative sampling at the intake, particle losses in the pipe

  3. Aaptamines from the marine sponge Aaptos sp. display anticancer activities in human cancer cell lines and modulate AP-1-, NF-?B-, and p53-dependent transcriptional activity in mouse JB6 Cl41 cells.

    PubMed

    Dyshlovoy, Sergey A; Fedorov, Sergey N; Shubina, Larisa K; Kuzmich, Alexandra S; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Keller-von Amsberg, Gunhild; Honecker, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Aaptamine (8,9-dimethoxy-1H-benzo[de][1,6]naphthyridine) is a marine natural compound possessing antioxidative, antimicrobial, antifungal, and antiretroviral activity. Earlier, we have found that aaptamine and its derivatives demonstrate equal anticancer effects against the human germ cell cancer cell lines NT2 and NT2-R and cause some changes in the proteome of these cells. In order to explore further the mechanism of action of aaptamine and its derivatives, we studied the effects of aaptamine (1), demethyl(oxy)aaptamine (2), and isoaaptamine (3) on human cancer cell lines and on AP-1-, NF-?B-, and p53-dependent transcriptional activity in murine JB6 Cl41 cells. We showed that compounds 1-3 demonstrate anticancer activity in THP-1, HeLa, SNU-C4, SK-MEL-28, and MDA-MB-231 human cancer cell lines. Additionally, all compounds were found to prevent EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of murine JB6 Cl41 cells. Nuclear factors AP-1, NF-?B, and p53 are involved in the cellular response to high and nontoxic concentrations of aaptamine alkaloids 1-3. Furthermore, inhibition of EGF-induced JB6 cell transformation, which is exerted by the compounds 1-3 at low nontoxic concentrations of 0.7-2.1??M, cannot be explained by activation of AP-1 and NF-?B. PMID:25215281

  4. Partially ionized plasma transport and line radiation interactions as the tokamak edge

    E-print Network

    Adams, Mark Lloyd, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogenic resonance line radiation interacts with the high-density low-temperature plasma at the tokamak edge. As a result, there exists a significant nonlocal plasma energy transport channel, local atomic level populations ...

  5. APS Science 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-30

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

  6. Evaluation of acoustic charge transport delay lines for SSC/LHC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davisson, R. J.; Dougherty, W. M.; Lubatti, H. J.; Wilkes, R. J.; Fleisch, D.; Kansy, R.; Pieters, G.

    1990-11-01

    Acoustic charge transport (ACT) delay lines provide delay times on the order of microseconds for large bandwidth analog signals, and permit nondestructive preview sampling of the stored signal. We report the results of preliminary studies intended to evaluate the potential of these devices for particle physics applications, in particular as delay lines for SSC/LHC experiments. We describe the basic features of the device, and give the results of our tests which evaluate the delay line and pulse shaping capabilities. We also report on the resolution of a typical 60Co spectrum from a NaI crystal after delay of 900 ns by an ACT delay line.

  7. The t(10;11)(p13;q14) in the U937 cell line results in the fusion of the AF10 gene and CALM, encoding a new member of the AP-3 clathrin assembly protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Dreyling, M H; Martinez-Climent, J A; Zheng, M; Mao, J; Rowley, J D; Bohlander, S K

    1996-01-01

    The translocation t(10;11)(p13;q14) is a recurring chromosomal abnormality that has been observed in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia as well as acute myeloid leukemia. We have recently reported that the monocytic cell line U937 has a t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation. Using a combination of positional cloning and candidate gene approach, we cloned the breakpoint and were able to show that AF10 is fused to a novel gene that we named CALM (Clathrin Assembly Lymphoid Myeloid leukemia gene) located at 11q14. AF10, a putative transcription factor, had recently been cloned as one of the fusion partners of MLL. CALM has a very high homology in its N-terminal third to the murine ap-3 gene which is one of the clathrin assembly proteins. The N-terminal region of ap-3 has been shown to bind to clathrin and to have a high-affinity binding site for phosphoinositols. The identification of the CALM/AF10 fusion gene in the widely used U937 cell line will contribute to our understanding of the malignant phenotype of this line. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8643484

  8. On-line particle-swarm-optimization control for maglev transportation system via backstepping design procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong-Jong Wai; Kun-Lun Chuang

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the design of a backstepping particle-swarm-optimization control (BSPSOC) for the on-line levitated balancing and propulsive positioning of a magnetic-levitation (maglev) transportation system. The dynamic model of a maglev transportation system including levitated electromagnets and a propulsive linear induction motor (LIM) based on the concepts of mechanical geometry and motion dynamics is firstly constructed. In the proposed

  9. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. During Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  10. Negative regulation of LPS-stimulated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by AP-1 in macrophage cell line J774A.1.

    PubMed

    Kizaki, T; Suzuki, K; Hitomi, Y; Iwabuchi, K; Onoé, K; Haga, S; Ishida, H; Ookawara, T; Suzuki, K; Ohno, H

    2001-12-21

    The level of NOS II mRNA was markedly increased during 24 h lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, but showed no further increase thereafter. On the other hand, the level of NOS II mRNA in J774A.1 cells transfected with an expression vector containing the rat csk cDNA (J.Csk) was significantly increased during 3 h LPS stimulation, but rather decreased thereafter. Although no significant difference was observed in the activation of NF-kappaB by LPS among parental J774A.1, J774A.1 transfected with promoterless vector (J.pBK), and J.Csk cells, activity of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) were markedly upregulated in the J.Csk cells. Then luciferase reporter vectors containing NOS II promoter with mutations in two AP-1-like sites (U site, -1126 approximately -1120; L site, -524 approximately -518) were transiently transfected in J774A.1 cells. The promoter activity following LPS stimulation for 24 h was significantly increased by mutation at the L site, but not by mutation at the U site, suggesting that NOS II expression is negatively regulated, at least in part, through the AP-1-like L site in response to LPS. PMID:11741294

  11. Two novel glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni) inhibit AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation in the mouse epidermal JB6 cell line.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Bode, A; Ma, W Y; Sang, S; Ho, C T; Dong, Z

    2001-08-01

    The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni), a plant originally grown in the Hawaiian and Tahitian islands, has long been used by islanders to treat diseases, including cancer. Two novel glycosides, 6-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-O-octanoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose and asperulosidic acid, extracted from the juice of noni fruits, were used to examine their effects on 12-O-tedtradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation in mouse epidermal JB6 cells. The results indicated that both compounds were effective in suppressing TPA- or EGF-induced cell transformation and associated AP-1 activity. TPA- or EGF-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases or p38 kinases, was also blocked by the compounds, indicating that c-Jun N-terminal kinases were critical in mediating TPA- or EGF-induced AP-1 activity and subsequent cell transformation in JB6 cells. PMID:11479211

  12. Focused transport of energetic particles along magnetic field lines draped around a coronal mass ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Lee, M. A.; Klecker, B.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Evidence is presented for focused transport of energetic particles along magnetic field lines draped around a coronal mass ejection. This evidence was obtained with the University of Maryland/Max-Planck-Institute experiment on the ISEE-3 spacecraft during the decay phase of the June 6, 1979, solar particle event. During the early portion of the decay phase of this event, interplanetary magnetic field lines were apparently draped around a coronal mass ejection, leading to a small focusing length on the western flank where ISEE 3 was located. A period of very slow decrease of particle intensity was observed, along with large sunward anisotropy in the solar wind frame, which is inconsistent with predictions of the standard Fokker-Planck equation models for diffusive transport. It was found possible to fit the observations, assuming that focused transport dominates and that the particle pitch angle scattering is isotropic.

  13. Electron transport through a graphene quantum dot: the role of line defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei-Jiang; Jin, Li-Hui; Sun, Xue; Han, Yu

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the electron transport through a graphene quantum dot with one line defect, by coupling the dot to two normal metallic leads. It is found that in the cases of the leads coupling to the same-type edges of the dot, the presence of line defect enhances the conductance at the Dirac point by inducing a new conductance peak or strengthening the original conductance peak. Such results are irrelevant to the graphene dot size. On the other hand, if the leads couple to the different-type edges of the dot, the line defect will induce two new conductance peaks near the Dirac point. The conductance enhancement is considered to originate from the fact that one bound state at the Dirac point induced by the line defect couples to the leads, which provides an additional channel for electron motion. Nevertheless, different dot-lead coupling manners change the contribution of the new channel to the electron motion, leading to the complicated transport results. These results show that the line-defect-existed graphene quantum dot will be beneficial to the realization of electron transport manipulation.

  14. Valley and subband-selective electronic transport through a line defect embedded carbon nanotube.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hai-Bo; Lü, Xiao-Ling; Niu, Jia-Sen; Zheng, Yi-Song

    2012-11-28

    We theoretically demonstrate the possibility of realizing the valley and subband-selective electronic transport properties if line defects are embedded in an armchair carbon nanotube. The physical mechanism for such an interesting transport property is clearly due to the appearance of the special subband spanning two valleys without dispersion, caused by the presence of the line defect. In contrast to a perfect zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon, which was previously suggested to be a nanodevice prototype to manipulate the valley and subband degrees of freedom, our structure, the line defect embedded carbon nanotube, is less demanding for the current nanotechnique. Therefore, our theoretical investigation provides an alternative and feasible structure to design carbon-based nanoelectronic devices. PMID:23111801

  15. Investigation of oxygen impurity transport using the O4+ visible spectral line in the Aditya tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhuri, M. B.; Ghosh, J.; Banerjee, S.; Dey, Ritu; Manchanda, R.; Kumar, Vinay; Vasu, P.; Patel, K. M.; Atrey, P. K.; Shankara Joisa, Y.; Rao, C. V. S.; Tanna, R. L.; Raju, D.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Jha, R.; Gupta, C. N.; Bhatt, S. B.; Saxena, Y. C.; the Aditya Team

    2013-02-01

    Intense visible lines from Be-like oxygen impurity are routinely observed in the Aditya tokamak. The spatial profile of brightness of a Be-like oxygen spectral line (2p3p 3D3-2p3d 3F4) at 650.024 nm is used to investigate oxygen impurity transport in typical discharges of the Aditya tokamak. A 1.0 m multi-track spectrometer (Czerny-Turner) capable of simultaneous measurements from eight lines of sight is used to obtain the radial profile of brightness of O4+ spectral emission. The emissivity profile of O4+ spectral emission is obtained from the spatial profile of brightness using an Abel-like matrix inversion. The oxygen transport coefficients are determined by reproducing the experimentally measured emissivity profiles of O4+, using a one-dimensional empirical impurity transport code, STRAHL. Much higher values of the diffusion coefficient compared with the neo-classical values are observed in both the high magnetic field edge region (D_inboard^{\\max}\\sim 30\\,m^{2}\\,s^{-1}) and the low magnetic field edge region (D_outboard^{\\max}\\sim 45\\,m^{2}\\,s^{-1}) of typical Aditya ohmic plasmas, which seems to be due to fluctuation-induced transport. The diffusion coefficient at the limiter radius in the low-field (outboard) region is typically ˜ twice as high as that at the limiter radius in the high-field (inboard) region.

  16. Characterization and growth factor stimulation of l -arginine transport in a human colon cancer cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Carlos Cendan; Wiley W. Souba; Edward M. Copeland III; D. Scott Lind

    1995-01-01

    Background: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) are potent mitogens that contribute to abnormal growth\\u000a regulation in colon cancer. Growth factors have been shown to regulate transmembrane nutrient uptake as an adaptive response\\u000a to support cellular proliferation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: The transport of L-arginine by the SW480 primary human colon adenocarcinoma cell line was characterized by assaying the

  17. Transport of paraquat in a renal epithelial cell line LLC-PK1.

    PubMed

    Chan, B S; Lazzaro, V A; Seale, J P; Duggin, G G

    1996-11-01

    Transport of paraquat (PQ), a cationic herbicide, was investigated in a proximal renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1. Collagencoated permeable filters were used to study the direction of PQ transport. PQ was transported predominantly from the basolateral to apical (B-->A) membrane of these cells. The B-->A flux and uptake of PQ were saturable with time and increasing concentrations, energy dependent and inhibited by several cations. Quinine was the most potent inhibitor of basolateral PQ uptake, followed by cimetidine and then tetraethylammonium acetate (P < .0001). The noninhibitable basolateral uptake of PQ has an apparent K(m) of 357 microM and a Vmax of 1.47 pmol/micrograms protein/2 min. For flux studies, only quinine inhibited the B-->A flux of PQ (P = .02). Putrescine, p-aminohippurate, probenecid, N-methylnicotinamide and choline did not inhibit the flux or uptake of PQ. 5-N,N-Hexamethylene amiloride, a cationic amiloride analog and a potent inhibitor of the Na/H exchanger, significantly inhibited the uptake of PQ from either side (P < .0001). Acidic pH in the apical medium inhibited the uptake of PQ from either side. The studies demonstrated that PQ was actively transported by the LLC-PK1 cells. PQ shared a similar transport system with several cations, which appeared to have a more significant inhibition on the transcellular uptake than the flux of PQ. PMID:8930165

  18. APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2012 APS Conferences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

    2012-12-01

    This article is on page 238 of The Physiologist, December 2012. The APS regularly awards Travel Fellowships for underrepresented minority students to attend the APS scientific meetings with funds provided by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). In the final year of support, these Fellowships provided up to $1,800 in expense reimbursement for meeting registration, transportation, meals, and lodging.

  19. Balancing Load of APs by Concurrent Association of Every Wireless Node with Many APs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilip Sarkar; Uttam K. Sarkar

    2009-01-01

    Abstract— In this paper we propose a novel method,for asso- ciating Wireless Mobile Nodes (WMNs) to Access Points (APs) in busy Wireless access networks. The proposed method,associates each WMN with many APs for mitigating load balancing problem in hot-spots. The proposed method,assumes that cmpTCP-type transport protocols are used in the end-points. The connections are established and maintained with the help

  20. Microfluidic transport by AC electroosmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nazmul; Wu, Jie

    2006-04-01

    AC Electro-osmosis (ACEO) is a newly developed microfluidic mechanism, which can transport fluids and particles with low voltage that is suitable for integration with IC circuitry. We observed line formation of particles on electrodes by ACEO, leading to better understanding of ACEO microflows. Also by identifying a new ACEO mechanism from electrochemical reaction, we developed Asymmetric Polarization (A-P) ACEO technique, adding another dimension to ACEO. Both simulation and experiments have been performed to promote the understanding and optimization of ACEO devices. The experimental result of A-P ACEO is also presented in this paper.

  1. 76 FR 37191 - Texas Department of Transportation-Acquisition Exemption-Line of Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...Line of Union Pacific Railroad Company Texas Department of Transportation...Railroad, Inc., d/b/a Texas Northeastern Railroad--Trackage Rights Exemption...Railroad, Inc., d/b/a Texas Northeastern Railroad to perform freight...

  2. APS Science 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

    2007-05-24

    In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged from work at the APS, to complement the tremendous output of work in basic science, which often has payoff in technology but over decades rather than years. Highlights in this report also reflect the relevance of APS work to Department of Energy missions, for example a route to more efficient fuel cells (page xx mr-88-073113) addresses the energy challenge, and natural approaches to cleaning up the environment.

  3. Transport of intense ion beams and space charge compensation issues in low energy beam lines (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.; Duperrier, R.; Gobin, R.; Nghiem, P. A. P.; Uriot, D. [CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-02-15

    Over the last few years, the interest of the international scientific community for high power accelerators in the megawatt range has been increasing. For such machines, the ion source has to deliver a beam intensity that ranges from several tens up to a hundred of mA. One of the major challenges is to extract and transport the beam while minimizing the emittance growth and optimizing its injection into the radio frequency quadrupole. Consequently, it is crucial to perform precise simulations and cautious design of the low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. In particular, the beam dynamics calculations have to take into account not only the space charge effects but also the space charge compensation of the beam induced by ionization of the residual gas. The physical phenomena occurring in a high intensity LEBT and their possible effects on the beam are presented, with a particular emphasis on space charge compensation. Then, beam transport issues in different kind of LEBTs are briefly reviewed. The SOLMAXP particle-in-cell code dedicated to the modeling of the transport of charge particles under a space charge compensation regime is described. Finally, beam dynamics simulations results obtained with SOLMAXP are presented in the case of international fusion materials irradiation facility injector.

  4. AP Central: AP Biology Course Home Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For students and educators seeking to learn more about the world of biology, this website is the perfect resource. Created by the College Board, this site contains information designed to help individuals prepare for the AP Biology examination. The resources here include a guide to conducting investigative labs in the classroom, an overview of quantitative skills, and several other preparatory items. In the Classroom Resources area, visitors can look over curriculum modules and field trip suggestions among other tools. The "Related Articles" section features pieces such as "Mendel's Legacy," "Gastrulation: Shaping the Embryo," and "DNA and Computers-A Marriage Made in Heaven." The site is rounded out by a series of course overviews crafted specially for AP Biology instructors.

  5. Characterization of multidrug transporter-mediated efflux of avermectins in human and mouse neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Abigail M; Mistry, Pratibha; Wright, Jayne; Williams, Faith M; Brown, Colin D A

    2015-06-15

    ABC transporters play an important role in the disposition of avermectins in several animal species. In this study the interactions of three key avermectins, abamectin, emamectin and ivermectin, with human and mouse homologues of MDR1 (ABCB1/Abcb1a) and MRP (ABCC/Abcc), transporters endogenously expressed by human SH-SY5Y and mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells were investigated. In both cell lines, retention of the fluorescent dye H33342 was found to be significantly increased in the presence of avermectins and cyclosporin A. These effects were shown to be unresponsive to the BCRP inhibitor Ko-143 and therefore MDR1/Mdr1-dependent. Avermectins inhibited MDR1/Mdr1a-mediated H33342 dye efflux, with apparent Ki values of 0.24±0.08 and 0.18±0.02?M (ivermectin); 0.60±0.07 and 0.56±0.02?M (emamectin) and 0.95±0.08 and 0.77±0.25?M (abamectin) in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, respectively. There were some apparent affinity differences for MDR1 and Mdr1a within each cell line (affinity for ivermectin>emamectin?abamectin, P<0.05 by One-Way ANOVA), but importantly, the Ki values for individual avermectins for human MDR1 or mouse Mdr1a were not significantly different. MK571-sensitive retention of GSMF confirmed the expression of MRP/Mrp efflux transporters in both cell lines. Avermectins inhibited MRP/Mrp-mediated dye efflux with IC50 values of 1.58±0.51 and 1.94±0.72?M (ivermectin); 1.87±0.57 and 2.74±1.01?M (emamectin) and 2.25±0.01 and 1.68±0.63?M (abamectin) in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, respectively. There were no significant differences in IC50 values between individual avermectins or between human MRP and mouse Mrp. Kinetic data for endogenous human MDR1/MRP isoforms in SH-SY5Y cells and mouse Mdr1a/b/Mrp isoforms in N2a cells are comparable for the selected avermectins. All are effluxed at concentrations well above 0.05-0.1?M ivermectin detected in plasma (Ottesen and Campbell, 1994; Ottesen and Campbell, 1994) This is an important finding in the light of toxicity seen in the Mdr1-deficient animal models CF-1 mice, Mdr1ab (-/-) double knockout mice and Collie dogs. We also confirm MRP/Mrp-mediated avermectin transport in both N2a and SH-SY5Y cell lines. PMID:25865432

  6. Transport of Coherent VUV Radiation to Muon U-Line for Ultra Slow Muon Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Jumpei; Oishi, Yu; Saito, Norihito; Miyazaki, Koji; Yokoyama, Koji; Okamura, Kotaro; Makimura, Shunsuke; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Nagatomo, Takashi; Strasser, Patrick; Ikedo, Yutaka; Tomono, Dai; Shimomura, Koichiro; Wada, Satoshi; Kawamura, Naritoshi; Koda, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Kusuo

    At U-line/MUSE/J-PARC, thermal muonium generation and laser resonant ionization process are required to get Ultra Slow Muon Beam. Laser radiation sources for the laser resonant ionization have been developed at RIKEN, and installed in a laser cabin. The laser radiations are introduced to Muon U-line by a transport system of the laser pulses, which consists of a VUV steering chamber and a NO gas cell. Coherent VUV radiation can be separated from two "bright" fundamental radiations for wave mixing, and 355?nm radiation is guided to the muonium production chamber at nearly same angle as VUV radiation, at the VUV steering chamber which is an ultrahigh vacuum chamber. The NO gas cell consist of the parallel plate ionization chamber with nitrogen monoxide molecules for measuring intensity of the VUV radiation.

  7. Design, modeling and simulations in the RACE project: First study for the development of a transport line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos O. Maidana; Alan W. Hunt; Denis Beller; Kevin Folkman

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiment (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25 MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a

  8. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Ana [Vanderbilt University; Airey, David [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Thompson, Brent [Vanderbilt University; Zhu, C [Vanderbilt University; Rinchik, Eugene M [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Erikson, Keith [University of North Carolina; Blakely, Randy [Vanderbilt University

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  9. Design, Modeling and Simulations in the RACE Project: Preliminary study for the development of a transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Maidana, C. O.; Hunt, A. W. [Idaho Accelerator Center, Department of Physics, PO Box 8106, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Idaho State University, Department of Physics, PO Box 8106, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Beller, D.; Folkman, K. [Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, 1500 Alvin Ricken Drive, Pocatello, ID 83201 (United States)

    2007-02-12

    As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiment (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25 MeV electron beam from a Linear Accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible divergence problem) different parameters and models were studied before a final design could be submitted for assembly. This report shows the first results obtained from different simulations of the transport line optics and dynamics.

  10. APS Science 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

    2010-05-01

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report), the challenge of sustainable energy provides an opportunity for expanded involvement with industrial research. We were privileged to recruit several outstanding new leaders at the APS. Linda Young, from Argonne's Chemical Sciences Division, became the new Director of the X-ray Science Division (XSD). Chris Jacobsen (from Stony Brook University) has been added to Linda's team as an XSD Associate Division Director, joining George Srajer. Alexander (Sasha) Zholents (formerly of Berkeley Lab) became Director of the Accelerator Systems Division. Sasha is the inventor of the short-pulse x-ray scheme that we plan to implement in the APS-U to obtain very high average brightness, broadband, 1-ps x-ray pulses. Walter Lowe (formerly of Howard University) has taken a new position as senior advisor for outreach and development of the user community. Walter's role is to increase the diversity of the user community (with diversity read broadly to include users, institutions, and technical disciplines that are underrepresented at APS). Walter is also leading an effort to increase access for industrial users. I am confident that we have in place a great team to help our users and the APS take fullest advantage of the APS-U opportunity. In planning with users for the proposed APS-U, we focused on the need to study 'real materials under real conditions in real time' on spatial and temporal scales unavailable today. Only by studying materials as they are made-or as they perform-in difficult environments can we solve the grand challenge of higher-performance, sustainable materials for energy and health. The proposed APS-U will improve the brightness of penetrating x-rays produced by the APS over 100 times, and support our efforts in developing state-of-the-art instruments to address these challenges.

  11. The effects of magnetic fringe fields on beam dynamics in a beam transport line of a terahertz FEL source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Han; Xiong, Yongqian; Pei, Yuanji

    2014-11-01

    The transport line used in a terahertz FEL device has to transport electron beam through the entire system efficiently and meet the requirements of the beam parameters at the undulator entrance. Due to space limitations, the size of the magnets (five quadrupoles and two bending magnets) employed in the transport line was limited, and some devices were densely packed. In this paper, analyses of the effect of fringe fields and magnetic interference of magnets are presented. 3D models of these magnets are built and their linear optical properties are compared with those obtained by hard edge models. The results indicated that the effects of these factors are significant and they would cause a mismatch of the beam at the exit of the transport line under the preliminary lattice design. To solve this problem, the beam was re-matched using the particle swarm optimization algorithm.

  12. Fano effect and bound state in continuum in electron transport through an armchair graphene nanoribbon with line defect

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Electron transport properties in an armchair graphene nanoribbon are theoretically investigated by considering the presence of line defect. It is found that the line defect causes the abundant Fano effects and bound state in continuum (BIC) in the electron transport process, which are tightly dependent on the width of the nanoribbon. By plotting the spectra of the density of electron states of the line defect, we see that the line defect induces some localized quantum states around the Dirac point and that the different localizations of these states lead to these two kinds of transport results. Next, the Fano effect and BIC phenomenon are detailedly described via the analysis about the influence of the structure parameters. According to the numerical results, we propose such a structure to be a promising candidate for graphene nanoswitch. PACS 81.05.Uw, 71.55.-i, 73.23.-b, 73.25.+i PMID:23870061

  13. Characterization of immortalized choroid plexus epithelial cell lines for studies of transport processes across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Two rodent choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines, Z310 and TR-CSFB, were compared with primary rat CP epithelial cells and intact CP tissue with respect to transport protein expression, function and tight junction (TJ) formation. Methods For expression profiles of transporters and TJ proteins, qPCR and western blot analysis were used. Uptake assays were performed to study the functional activity of transporters and TJ formation was measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and visualized by electron microscopy. Results The expression of known ATP-binding cassette (Abc) transporter and solute carrier (Slc) genes in CP was confirmed by qPCR. Primary cells and cell lines showed similar, but overall lower expression of Abc transporters and absent Slc expression when compared to intact tissue. Consistent with this Mrp1, Mrp4 and P-gp protein levels were higher in intact CP compared to cell lines. Functionality of P-gp and Mrp1 was confirmed by Calcein-AM and CMFDA uptake assays and studies using [3H]bis-POM-PMEA as a substrate indicated Mrp4 function. Cell lines showed low or absent TJ protein expression. After treatment of cell lines with corticosteroids, RNA expression of claudin1, 2 and 11 and occludin was elevated, as well as claudin1 and occludin protein expression. TJ formation was further investigated by freeze-fracture electron microscopy and only rarely observed. Increases in TJ particles with steroid treatment were not accompanied by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Conclusion Taken together, immortalized cell lines may be a tool to study transport processes mediated by P-gp, Mrp1 or Mrp4, but overall expression of transport proteins and TJ formation do not reflect the situation in intact CP tissue. PMID:20704740

  14. Line width dependence of transport properties in graphene nanoribbon interconnects with real space edge roughness determined by Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Taichi; Okanaga, Takuya; Mohamad, Aizuddin; Sakai, Tadashi; Awano, Yuji

    2015-05-01

    We developed a novel Monte Carlo simulation model to investigate the line width dependence of the transport properties of multi-layered graphene nanoribbon (GNR) interconnects with edge roughness. We reported that the line width dependence of carrier mobility decreases significantly as the magnitude of the edge roughness gets smaller, which agrees well with experiments. We also discussed the influence of the inelasticity of edge roughness scatterings, inter-layer tunneling, and line width dependent band structures on the line width of the GNR interconnects.

  15. Investigation of a line-focused acoustic levitation for contactless transport of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresti, Daniele; Bjelobrk, Nada; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2011-05-01

    We investigate herein an interesting acoustic line-focused levitation mechanism, enabling the simultaneous transportation of the acoustically levitated particles. It is shown that the performance of such a system is strongly dependent on the envelope of geometric parameters of the levitator. To study this dependence systematically, a thorough numerical model using the finite element method is developed. Both rigid and flexural radiating plates are considered. The effect of all important geometric parameters on the resulting acoustic potential patterns is investigated. After successful experimental validation, in which particles of density ca. 1000 times higher than that of their surrounding gas (˜1 g/cm3 versus ˜10-3 g/cm3) are levitated and translated, the model proves to be reliable in predicting the position as well as the force exerted on the levitated particles.

  16. Neural tube, skeletal and body wall defects in mice lacking transcription factor AP2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Zhang; Stephanie Hagopian-Donaldson; George Serbedzija; Jennifer Elsemore; Debora Plehn-Dujowich; Andrew P. McMahon; Richard A. Flavell; Trevor Williams

    1996-01-01

    THE retinoic acid-inducible transcription factor AP-2 is expressed in epithelial and neural crest cell lineages during murine development1-5. AP-2 can regulate neural and epithelial gene transcription, and is associated with overexpression of c-erbB-2 in human breast-cancer cell lines4-6. To ascertain the importance of AP-2 for normal development, we have derived mice containing a homozygous disruption of the AP-2 gene. These

  17. Characterization of immortalized choroid plexus epithelial cell lines for studies of transport processes across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliane Kläs; Hartwig Wolburg; Tetsuya Terasaki; Gert Fricker; Valeska Reichel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two rodent choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines, Z310 and TR-CSFB, were compared with primary rat CP epithelial cells and intact CP tissue with respect to transport protein expression, function and tight junction (TJ) formation. METHODS: For expression profiles of transporters and TJ proteins, qPCR and western blot analysis were used. Uptake assays were performed to study the functional

  18. Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Blue Line vehicle evaluation. Final report Apr-Oct 79

    SciTech Connect

    Balaster, A.; Arnold, G.; Simmonds, K.; Francis, K.

    1980-07-01

    The report presents the results of engineering tests carried out on a pair of rapid transit cars for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. The tests were performed at the Transportation Test Center, Pueblo, Colorado, from April 1979 through October 1979. The scope of the test program included an evaluation of performance, ride quality, and interior and wayside noise, using standardized test procedures; special engineering tests were made to evaluate energy conservation methods and three types of experimental brake shoes. The tests showed that the vehicles met their design specification requirements with some deficiencies, notably in emergency braking rates. An energy conservation technique was evaluated, in which response characteristics of the vehicle propulsion system were modified to reduce energy needs due to aerodynamic drag at high speeds. Several potential energy-saving configurations were identified, with minimal impact on round-trip times. The experimental brake shoes tested were found to give performance comparable to the original equipment at normal operating speeds for the MBTA Blue Line, but were inferior at higher speeds.

  19. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP

  20. Design, modeling and simulations in the RACE project: First study for the development of a transport line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos O. Maidana; Alan W. Hunt; Denis Beller; Kevin Folkman

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiment (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible

  1. Cascades of Transient Pores in Giant Vesicles: Line Tension and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Karatekin, Erdem; Sandre, Olivier; Guitouni, Hicham; Borghi, Nicolas; Puech, Pierre-Henri; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

    2003-01-01

    Under ordinary circumstances, the membrane tension of a giant unilamellar vesicle is essentially nil. Using visible light, we stretch the vesicles, increasing the membrane tension until the membrane responds by the sudden opening of a large pore (several micrometers in size). Only a single pore is observed at a time in a given vesicle. However, a cascade of transient pores appear, up to 30–40 in succession, in the same vesicle. These pores are transient: they reseal within a few seconds as the inner liquid leaks out. The membrane tension, which is the driving force for pore opening, is relaxed with the opening of a pore and the leakage of the inner liquid; the line tension of the pore's edge is then able to drive the closure of a pore. We use fluorescent membrane probes and real-time videomicroscopy to study the dynamics of the pores. These can be visualized only if the vesicles are prepared in a viscous solution to slow down the leakout of the internal liquid. From measurements of the closure velocity of the pores, we are able to infer the line tension, 𝒯. We have studied the effect of the shape of inclusion molecules on 𝒯. Cholesterol, which can be modeled as an inverted cone-shaped molecule, increases the line tension when incorporated into the bilayers. Conversely, addition of cone-shaped detergents reduces 𝒯. The effect of some detergents can be dramatic, reducing 𝒯by two orders of magnitude, and increasing pore lifetimes up to several minutes. We give some examples of transport through transient pores and present a rough measurement of the leakout velocity of the inner liquid through a pore. We discuss how our results can be extended to less viscous aqueous solutions which are more relevant for biological systems and biotechnological applications. PMID:12609875

  2. Addendum: ``Hard X-Rays and Gamma Rays from Type Ia Supernovae'' (ApJ, 492, 228 [1998])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Peter; Wheeler, J. C.

    2004-04-01

    We report a subtle error in the normalization of the absolute flux published in our original article (hereafter HWK98), and some minor updates. The normalization problem is related to the post-processing. As a consequence, the reported line fluxes are too large at early times. Note that Figure 1 of P. Höflich (ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]) has been transferred from HWK98. Results of previous papers are not affected (E. Müller, P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]; P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998]). For calculating the ?-ray spectra, the ?-ray transport is solved via a Monte Carlo code that produces an output file containing the Eddington flux, the energy input by radioactive decay and escape probability, ?, of ?-ray photons. In a postprocessing step, the spectrum is renormalized and convolved with the instrumental response function of the ?-ray telescope. A two-step procedure is used to obtain the emergent spectra to separate the CPU-intensive Monte Carlo transport calculation from the ``fast'' second step, allowing us to study the influence of the instrument on the observables (e.g., E. Müller, P. Höflich, A. M. Khokhlov, & E. Müller, ApJ, 492, 228 [1998

  3. Learning about Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and links from the National Institutes of Health. Learning About Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) What is antiphospholipid syndrome ( ... with APS include : Systemic Vascular Thrombosis While the deep veins of the legs are the most frequent ...

  4. Development of a Density Sensor for In-Line Real-Time Process Control and Monitoring of Slurries during Radioactive Waste Retrieval and Transport Operations at DOE Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith A. Bamberger; Margaret S. Greenwood

    2001-01-01

    A density sensor (densimeter) to monitor and control slurries in-line real-time during radioactive waste retrieval and transport and detect conditions leading to degraded transport and line plugging is described. Benefits over baseline grab samples and off line analysis include: early detection and prevention of pipeline plugging, real-time density through the transfer process, elimination of grab sampling and off-line analysis, and

  5. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. 69.713 Section 69...traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services. (a) Scope. This paragraph...traffic-sensitive components of tandem-switched transport services, as described in §§...

  6. A demonstration of a transportable radio interferometric surveying system with 3-cm accuracy on a 307-m base line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Ong; P. F. MacDoran; J. B. Thomas; H. F. Fliegel; L. J. Skjerve; D. J. Spitzmesser; P. D. Batelaan; S. R. Paine; M. G. Newsted

    1976-01-01

    A precision geodetic measurement system (Aries, for Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying) based on the technique of very long base line interferometry has been designed and implemented through the use of a 9-m transportable antenna and the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Communications Complex at Goldstone, California. A series of experiments designed to demonstrate the inherent accuracy of

  7. Contactless transport of matter in the first five resonance modes of a line-focused acoustic manipulatora)

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    2011) The first five resonance modes for transport of matter in a line-focused acoustic levitation] Pages: 1029­1038 I. INTRODUCTION Among levitation techniques, acoustic levitation is not the most widely advanced analytical devices.4­8 The investigation of droplet levitation using acoustic force has a rich

  8. Lysosomal Targeting of Cystinosin Requires AP-3.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, Zuzanna; Névo, Nathalie; Thomas, Lucie; Bailleux, Anne; Chauvet, Véronique; Benmerah, Alexandre; Antignac, Corinne

    2015-07-01

    Cystinosin is a lysosomal cystine transporter defective in cystinosis, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. It is composed of seven transmembrane (TM) domains and contains two lysosomal targeting motifs: a tyrosine-based signal (GYDQL) in its C-terminal tail and a non-classical motif in its fifth inter-TM loop. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we showed that the GYDQL motif specifically interacted with the ? subunit of the adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3). Moreover, cell surface biotinylation and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that cystinosin was partially mislocalized to the plasma membrane (PM) in AP-3-depleted cells. We generated a chimeric CD63 protein to specifically analyze the function of the GYDQL motif. This chimeric protein was targeted to lysosomes in a manner similar to cystinosin and was partially mislocalized to the PM in AP-3 knockdown cells where it also accumulated in the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes. Together with the fact that the surface levels of cystinosin and of the CD63-GYDQL chimeric protein were not increased when clathrin-mediated endocytosis was impaired, our data show that the tyrosine-based motif of cystinosin is a 'strong' AP-3 interacting motif responsible for lysosomal targeting of cystinosin by a direct intracellular pathway. PMID:25753619

  9. Ammonium transport in the colonic crypt cell line, T84: role for Rhesus glycoproteins and NKCC1.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Roger T; Merk, Lisa; Matthews, Jeffrey B

    2008-02-01

    Although colonic lumen NH(4)(+) levels are high, 15-44 mM normal range in humans, relatively few studies have addressed the transport mechanisms for NH(4)(+). More extensive studies have elucidated the transport of NH(4)(+) in the kidney collecting duct, which involves a number of transporter processes also present in the distal colon. Similar to NH(4)(+) secretion in the renal collecting duct, we show that the distal colon secretory model, T84 cell line, has the capacity to secrete NH(4)(+) and maintain an apical-to-basolateral NH(4)(+) gradient. NH(4)(+) transport in the secretory direction was supported by basolateral NH(4)(+) loading on NKCC1, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, and the NH(4)(+) transporter, RhBG. NH(4)(+) was transported on NKCC1 in T84 cells nearly as well as K(+) as determined by bumetanide-sensitive (86)Rb-uptake. (86)Rb-uptake and ouabain-sensitive current measurement indicated that NH(4)(+) is transported by Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in these cells to an equal extent as K(+). T84 cells expressed mRNA for the basolateral NH(4)(+) transporter RhBG and the apical NH(4)(+) transporter RhCG. Net NH(4)(+) transport in the secretory direction determined by (14)C-methylammonium (MA) uptake and flux occurred in T84 cells suggesting functional RhG protein activity. The occurrence of NH(4)(+) transport in the secretory direction within a colonic crypt cell model likely serves to minimize net absorption of NH(4)(+) because of surface cell NH(4)(+) absorption. These findings suggest that we rethink the present limited understanding of NH(4)(+) handling by the distal colon as being due solely to passive absorption. PMID:18032481

  10. Cycle-induced flow and transport in a model of alveolar liquid lining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hsien-Hung; Benintendi, Steven W.; Halpern, David; Grotberg, James B.

    2003-05-01

    A simplified model is developed for an alveolar liquid lining undergoing cyclic stretching which mimics breathing motions. A thin, viscous film coats an extensible alveolar wall with small aspect ratio, varepsilon. Scaling analysis and asymptotic theory are used to describe the interface profile and surfactant distribution during the oscillation cycle for either insoluble or soluble surfactants. The flow consists of two distinct regimes: an outer region away from the rigid endwalls where flow is near-parallel and a boundary-layer region at the rigid endwalls where flow is non-parallel. The system is solved asymptotically in the limit of varepsilon? 1 and small strain amplitudes, Delta ? 1. For leading order in varepsilon, steady streaming vortical flows are found at O(Delta(2)) and their size, number and flow direction depend on the system parameter values. This preliminary model can be useful for understanding alveolar transport characteristics for slowly diffusing molecules with large Péclet number, such as endogenous surfactants and proteins as well as delivered surfactants, drugs and genetic material that may occur in various therapies or partial liquid ventilation. The flow pattern also provides a pathway for cell cell signalling within the alveolus.

  11. Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Mustapha, B.; Savard, G.

    2015-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×105 as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS.

  12. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source.

    PubMed

    Neri, L; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Torrisi, G; Cheymol, B; Ponton, A; Galatà, A; Patti, G; Gozzo, A; Lega, L; Ciavola, G

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here. PMID:24593457

  13. Metastable states of a flux-line lattice studied by transport and small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Pautrat, A.; Scola, J.; Simon, Ch. [CRISMAT/ENSI-Caen, UMR 6508 du CNRS, 6 Bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Mathieu, P. [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain de l'Ecole Normale Superieure, UMR 8551 du CNRS, associee aux Universites Paris 6 et 7, 75231 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Brulet, A. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEN Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France); Goupil, C. [CRISMAT/ENSI-Caen, UMR 6508 du CNRS, Caen (France); Higgins, M. J. [NEC Research Institute, 4 Independence Way, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Bhattacharya, S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2005-02-01

    Flux-line lattice (FLL) states have been studied using transport measurements and small-angle neutron scattering in low-T{sub c} materials. In Pb-In, the bulk dislocations in the FLL do not influence the transport properties. In Fe-doped NbSe{sub 2}, transport properties can differ after a field cooling (FC) or a zero field cooling (ZFC) procedure, as previously reported. The ZFC FLL is found ordered with narrow Bragg peaks and is linked to a linear V(I) curve and to a superficial critical current. The FC FLL pattern exhibits two Bragg peaks and the corresponding V(I) curve shows an S-shape. This can be explained by the coexistence of two ordered FLLs slightly tilted from the applied field direction by different superficial currents. These currents are wiped out when the transport current is increased.

  14. Contactless transport of matter in the first five resonance modes of a line-focused acoustic manipulator.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-02-01

    The first five resonance modes for transport of matter in a line-focused acoustic levitation system are investigated. Contactless transport was achieved by varying the height between the radiating plate and the reflector. Transport and levitation of droplets in particular involve two limits of the acoustic forces. The lower limit corresponds to the minimum force required to overcome the gravitational force. The upper limit corresponds to the maximum acoustic pressure beyond which atomization of the droplet occurs. As the droplet size increases, the lower limit increases and the upper limit decreases. Therefore to have large droplets levitated, relatively flat radiation pressure amplitude during the translation is needed. In this study, using a finite element model, the Gor'kov potential was calculated for different heights between the reflector and the radiating plate. The application of the Gor'kov potential was extended to study the range of droplet sizes for which the droplets can be levitated and transported without atomization. It was found that the third resonant mode (H(3)-mode) represents the best compromise between high levitation force and smooth pattern transition, and water droplets of millimeter radius can be levitated and transported. The H(3)-mode also allows for three translation lines in parallel. PMID:22352478

  15. Functional description of APS beamline front ends

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.

    1993-02-01

    Traditional synchrotron sources were designed to produce bending magnet radiation and have proven to be an essential scientific tool. Currently, a new generation of synchrotron sources is being built that will be able to accommodate a large number of insertion device (ID) and high quality bending magnet (BM) sources. One example is the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. The research and development effort at the APS is designed to fully develop the potential of this new generation of synchrotron sources. Of the 40 straight sections in the APS storage ring, 34 will be available for IDs. The remaining six sections are reserved for the storage ring hardware and diagnostics. Although the ring incorporates 80 BMs, only 40 of them can be used to extract radiation. The accelerator hardware shadows five of these 40 bending magnets, so the maximum number of BM sources on the lattice is 35. Generally, a photon beamline consists of four functional sections. The first section is the ID or the BM, which provides the radiation source. The second section, which is immediately outside the storage ring but inside a concrete shielding tunnel, is the front end, which is designed to control, define, and/or confine the x-ray beam. In the case of the APS, the front ends are designed to confine the photon beam. The third section, just outside the concrete shielding tunnel and on the experimental floor, is the first optics enclosure, which contains optics to filter and monochromatize the photon beam. The fourth section of a beamline consists of beam transports, additional optics, and experiment stations to do the scientific investigations. This document describes only the front ends of the APS beamlines.

  16. A demonstration of a transportable radio interferometric surveying system with 3-cm accuracy on a 307-m base line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, K. M.; Macdoran, P. F.; Thomas, J. B.; Fliegel, H. F.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Batelaan, P. D.; Paine, S. R.; Newsted, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    A precision geodetic measurement system (Aries, for Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying) based on the technique of very long base line interferometry has been designed and implemented through the use of a 9-m transportable antenna and the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Communications Complex at Goldstone, California. A series of experiments designed to demonstrate the inherent accuracy of a transportable interferometer was performed on a 307-m base line during the period from December 1973 to June 1974. This short base line was chosen in order to obtain a comparison with a conventional survey with a few-centimeter accuracy and to minimize Aries errors due to transmission media effects, source locations, and earth orientation parameters. The base-line vector derived from a weighted average of the measurements, representing approximately 24 h of data, possessed a formal uncertainty of about 3 cm in all components. This average interferometry base-line vector was in good agreement with the conventional survey vector within the statistical range allowed by the combined uncertainties (3-4 cm) of the two techniques.

  17. Bending of protonema cells in a plastid glycolate/glycerate transporter knockout line of Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Jin; Takechi, Katsuaki; Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Moriyama, Yasuko; Sato, Hiroshi; Takio, Susumu; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis LrgB (synonym PLGG1) is a plastid glycolate/glycerate transporter associated with recycling of 2-phosphoglycolate generated via the oxygenase activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). We isolated two homologous genes (PpLrgB1 and B2) from the moss Physcomitrella patens. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PpLrgB1 was monophyletic with LrgB proteins of land plants, whereas PpLrgB2 was divergent from the green plant lineage. Experiments with PpLrgB-GFP fusion proteins suggested that both PpLrgB1 and B2 proteins were located in chloroplasts. We generated PpLrgB single (?B1 and ?B2) and double (?B1/?B2)-knockout lines using gene targeting of P. patens. The ?B1 plants showed decreases in growth and photosynthetic activity, and their protonema cells were bent and accumulated glycolate. However, because ?B2 and ?B1/?B2 plants showed no obvious phenotypic change relative to the wild-type or ?B1 plants, respectively, the function of PpLrgB2 remains unclear. Arabidopsis LrgB could complement the ?B1 phenotype, suggesting that the function of PpLrgB1 is the same as that of AtLrgB. When ?B1 was grown under high-CO2 conditions, all novel phenotypes were suppressed. Moreover, protonema cells of wild-type plants exhibited a bending phenotype when cultured on media containing glycolate or glycerate, suggesting that accumulation of photorespiratory metabolites caused P. patens cells to bend. PMID:25793376

  18. Bending of Protonema Cells in a Plastid Glycolate/Glycerate Transporter Knockout Line of Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Jin; Takechi, Katsuaki; Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Moriyama, Yasuko; Sato, Hiroshi; Takio, Susumu; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis LrgB (synonym PLGG1) is a plastid glycolate/glycerate transporter associated with recycling of 2-phosphoglycolate generated via the oxygenase activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). We isolated two homologous genes (PpLrgB1 and B2) from the moss Physcomitrella patens. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PpLrgB1 was monophyletic with LrgB proteins of land plants, whereas PpLrgB2 was divergent from the green plant lineage. Experiments with PpLrgB–GFP fusion proteins suggested that both PpLrgB1 and B2 proteins were located in chloroplasts. We generated PpLrgB single (?B1 and ?B2) and double (?B1/?B2)-knockout lines using gene targeting of P. patens. The ?B1 plants showed decreases in growth and photosynthetic activity, and their protonema cells were bent and accumulated glycolate. However, because ?B2 and ?B1/?B2 plants showed no obvious phenotypic change relative to the wild-type or ?B1 plants, respectively, the function of PpLrgB2 remains unclear. Arabidopsis LrgB could complement the ?B1 phenotype, suggesting that the function of PpLrgB1 is the same as that of AtLrgB. When ?B1 was grown under high-CO2 conditions, all novel phenotypes were suppressed. Moreover, protonema cells of wild-type plants exhibited a bending phenotype when cultured on media containing glycolate or glycerate, suggesting that accumulation of photorespiratory metabolites caused P. patens cells to bend. PMID:25793376

  19. AP1 function and regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Karin; Zheng-gang Liu; Ebrahim Zandi

    1997-01-01

    AP-1 (activating protein-1) is a collective term referring to dimeric transcription factors composed of Jun, Fos or ATF (activating transcription factor) subunits that bind to a common DNA site, the AP-1-binding site. As the complexity of our knowledge of AP-1 factors has increased, our understanding of their physiological function has decreased. This trend, however, is beginning to be reversed due

  20. Analytical models of CMOS APS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor A. Shilin; Pavel A. Skrylev; A. L. Stempkovsky

    2002-01-01

    The comparison of the CMOS APS and CCD device features has been made. It is expedient to develop high resolution and wide dynamic range systems with the PhCCD and simple systems with CMOS APS, which allows developing camera-on-a-chip. Schematic and layout types of CMOS APS pixel: with 3, 4 transistors per pixel, and with 5 transistors per two pixels have

  1. Point by Point Thorough Photoresponse Analysis of CMOS APS by means of our Unique Sub-micron Scanning System

    E-print Network

    Point by Point Thorough Photoresponse Analysis of CMOS APS by means of our Unique Sub pixel topologies of CMOS APS chips fabricated in two different CMOS technologies (the standard 0.5µm.g., logic transistors, metal lines, etc.) which is extremely important for CMOS APS where the pixel

  2. Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

  3. AP Photo/Andy Fowle Buy AP Photo Reprints

    E-print Network

    Hartemink, Alexander

    AP Photo/Andy Fowle Buy AP Photo Reprints Nov 30, 6:49 AM EST Duke Scientists Map 'Silenced Genes of their babies. The feed affected chemical signals that control how hard a certain gene worked, determining when the babies had yellow coats like mom or brown ones. Top Stories #12;Corrections | Contact Us | Letters

  4. ANL/APS/TB-5 Functional Description of APS Beamline

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    ANL/APS/TB-5 Functional Description of APS Beamline Front Ends by Tuncer Kuzay February 1993 Advanced Photon Source & Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 o operated by The University of Chicago for the United States Department of Energy under Contract W-31-1 09-Eng-38 #12;Argonne National

  5. Michael Clay, MD AP-2 Resident

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    Michael Clay, MD AP-2 Resident Daniel Cloetingh, MD AP-1 Resident Eli Goodman, MD CP-1 Resident Daniel Green, MD AP-1 Resident Dexter Hadley, MD, PhD CP-1 Resident Ryanne Brown, MD AP-1 Resident Sara Bakhtary, MD CP-1 Resident Aharon (Ronnie) Freud, MD, PhD CP-2 Resident Alana Frost Shain, MD AP-2 Resident

  6. AP-42 REVISION: COKE OVENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors" (AP-42) has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1972. Supplements to AP-42 have been routinely published to add new emission source categories and to update existing emission factor...

  7. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tat Protein Up-Regulates the Promoter Activity of the Beta-Chemokine Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 in the Human Astrocytoma Cell Line U-87 MG: Role of SP-1, AP-1, and NF-?B Consensus Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Siew Pheng; Garzino-Demo, Alfredo

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein can specifically enhance expression and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) from human astrocytes. In this study, we show evidence that Tat-induced MCP-1 expression is mediated at the transcriptional level. Transient transfection of an expression construct encoding the full-length Tat into the human glioblastoma-astrocytoma cell line U-87 MG enhances reporter gene activity from cotransfected deletion constructs of the MCP-1 promoter. HIV-1 Tat exerts its effect through a minimal construct containing 213 nucleotides upstream of the translational start site. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that an SP1 site (located between nucleotides ?123 and ?115) is critical for both constitutive and Tat-enhanced expression of the human MCP-1 promoter, as mutation of this SP1 site significantly diminished reporter gene expression in both instances. Gel retardation experiments further demonstrate that Tat strongly enhances the binding of SP1 protein to its DNA element on the MCP-1 promoter. Moreover, we also observe an increase in the binding activities of transcriptional factors AP1 and NF-?B to the MCP-1 promoter following Tat treatment. Mutagenesis studies show that an upstream AP1 site and an adjacent NF-?B site (located at ?128 to ?122 and ?150 to ?137, respectively) play a role in Tat-mediated transactivation. In contrast, a further upstream AP1 site (?156 to ?150) does not appear to be crucial for promoter activity. We postulate that a Tat-mediated increase in SP1 binding activities augments the binding of AP1 and NF-?B, leading to synergistic activation of the MCP-1 promoter. PMID:10644332

  8. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae APS1 gene encodes a homolog of the small subunit of the mammalian clathrin AP-1 complex: evidence for functional interaction with clathrin at the Golgi complex.

    PubMed Central

    Phan, H L; Finlay, J A; Chu, D S; Tan, P K; Kirchhausen, T; Payne, G S

    1994-01-01

    Clathrin-associated protein (AP) complexes have been implicated in the assembly of clathrin coats and the selectivity of clathrin-mediated protein transport processes. We have identified a yeast gene, APS1, encoding a homolog of the small (referred to herein as sigma) subunits of the mammalian AP-1 complex. Sequence comparisons have shown that Aps1p is more similar to the sigma subunit of the Golgi-localized mammalian AP-1 complex than Aps2p, which is more related to the plasma membrane AP-2 sigma subunit. Like their mammalian counterparts, Aps1p and Aps2p are components of distinct, large (> 200 kDa) complexes and a significant portion of the Aps proteins co-fractionate with clathrin-coated vesicles during gel filtration chromatography. Unexpectedly, even though the evolutionary conservation of AP small subunits is substantial (50% identity between mammalian and yeast proteins), disruptions of APS1 (aps1 delta) and APS2 (aps2 delta), individually or in combination, elicit no detectable mutant phenotypes. These data indicate that the Aps proteins are not absolutely required for clathrin-mediated selective protein transport in cells expressing wild type clathrin. However, aps1 delta accentuated the slow growth and alpha-factor pheromone maturation defect of cells carrying a temperature-sensitive allele of clathrin heavy chain (Chc) (chc1-ts). In contrast, aps1 delta did not influence the effects of chc1-ts on vacuolar protein sorting or receptor-mediated endocytosis. The aps2 delta mutation resulted in a slight effect on chc1-ts cell growth but had no additional effects. The growth defect of cells completely lacking Chc was compounded by aps1 delta but not aps2 delta. These results comprise evidence that Aps1p is involved in a subset of clathrin functions at the Golgi apparatus. The effect of aps1 delta on cells devoid of clathrin function suggests that Aps1p also participates in clathrin-independent processes. Images PMID:8157009

  9. Bicarbonate-dependent chloride transport drives fluid secretion by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jiajie; Liao, Jie; Huang, Junwei; Robert, Renaud; Palmer, Melissa L; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; O'Grady, Scott M; Hanrahan, John W

    2012-01-01

    Anion and fluid secretion are both defective in cystic fibrosis (CF); however, the transport mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Cl? and HCO3? secretion was measured using genetically matched CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient and CFTR-expressing cell lines derived from the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3. Forskolin stimulated the short-circuit current (Isc) across voltage-clamped monolayers, and also increased the equivalent short-circuit current (Ieq) calculated under open-circuit conditions. Isc was equivalent to the HCO3? net flux measured using the pH-stat technique, whereas Ieq was the sum of the Cl? and HCO3? net fluxes. Ieq and HCO3? fluxes were increased by bafilomycin and ZnCl2, suggesting that some secreted HCO3? is neutralized by parallel electrogenic H+ secretion. Ieq and fluid secretion were dependent on the presence of both Na+ and HCO3?. The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide abolished forskolin stimulation of Ieq and HCO3? secretion, suggesting that HCO3? transport under these conditions requires catalysed synthesis of carbonic acid. Cl? was the predominant anion in secretions under all conditions studied and thus drives most of the fluid transport. Nevertheless, 50–70% of Cl? and fluid transport was bumetanide-insensitive, suggesting basolateral Cl? loading by a sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1)-independent mechanism. Imposing a transepithelial HCO3? gradient across basolaterally permeabilized Calu-3 cells sustained a forskolin-stimulated current, which was sensitive to CFTR inhibitors and drastically reduced in CFTR-deficient cells. Net HCO3? secretion was increased by bilateral Cl? removal and therefore did not require apical Cl?/HCO3? exchange. The results suggest a model in which most HCO3? is recycled basolaterally by exchange with Cl?, and the resulting HCO3?-dependent Cl? transport provides an osmotic driving force for fluid secretion. PMID:22777674

  10. A location-aware rogue AP detection system based on wireless packet sniffing of sensor APs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Fong Kao; Tau-Heng Yeo; Wai-Shuen Yong; Hui-Hsuan Chen

    2011-01-01

    For easy installation and increasing the use of wireless LAN access points (AP), an unauthorized AP can be quickly plugged into the LANs of most organizations. Unauthorized APs are also termed rogue APs, and can seriously threaten network security. Detecting the existence of rogue APs has become an important research topic. A rogue AP should work by broadcasting wireless packets.

  11. Cell kinetics of differentiation of Na/sup +/-dependent hexose transport in a cultured renal epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.S.; Weiss, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Fully differentiated cells of the renal proximal tubule have the capability of taking up hexoses across their apical borders by transport coupled to the Na/sup +/-electrochemical gradient. This property is also found in postconfluent cultures of the cloned cell line LLC-PK/sub 1/, a morphologically polarized line of renal cells. Postconfluent cells develop the Na/sup +/-dependent capacity to transport hexoses at their apical surface. This function is not observable during the growth phase of the cultures. To analyze the developmental process at the cellular level a method has been derived to separate transporting cells, expressing the differentiated function, from nontransporting cells. The method is based on the swelling of the cells accompanying the uptake of the nonmetabolizable glucose analog alpha methylglucoside. The swollen cells have a lower buoyant density than the undifferentiated cells and may be separated from them on density gradients. Analysis of the distribution of cells on such gradients shows that after the cells reach confluence the undifferentiated subpopulation is recruited onto the differentiation pathway with a rate constant of 0.2 per day, that 5 to 7 days are required for a cell to traverse this pathway to the fully differentiated state, and that once the maximum uptake capacity is achieved the cells do not develop further.

  12. Melanogenesis and evidence for melanosome transport to the plasma membrane in a CD83 teleost leukocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Haugarvoll, Erlend; Thorsen, Jim; Laane, Morten; Huang, Qirong; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2006-06-01

    Visceral organs of ectothermic vertebrates harbour melanin-containing leukocytes termed melanomacrophages. These cells are thought to participate in immune reactions and free-radical trapping. In teleosts, the melanin-producing ability of melanomacrophages has hitherto not been confirmed by molecular techniques. Here, a leukocyte marker and the apparatus for melanosome production and transport were investigated in an Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) pronephros-derived mononuclear leukocyte (SHK-1) cell line. The SHK-1 cells expressed transcripts specific for a mammalian CD83 homologue, a standard surface marker for activated or differentiated dendritic cells, and dopachrome tautomerase/tyrosinase-related protein-2, a melanocyte specific enzyme essential for melanin production. Reduction potential of melanin or its precursors was demonstrated histochemically after prolonged cultivation. Ultrastructural investigations revealed tyrosinase and acid phosphate activity in identical organelles and BSA-gold co-localized with multilamellar melanosomes after 2 h internalization. Apparently, melanosomes were transported and released through periodically occurring tubules fusing with the plasma membrane. Video monitoring revealed filopodia and macropinocytosis. These results showed that the SHK-1 cell line is capable of melanogenesis and melanosome secretion. Melanin-producing cells in teleost pronephros may represent a distinct CD83(+) leukocyte population consisting of phylogenetically relict multifunctional cells. This is the first report of a melanin-producing leukocyte cell-line. PMID:16704455

  13. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...practices, to protect the civil rights of air travelers, and to ensure safe and adequate service in air transportation. Filing a complaint using...description of a specific problem or to ask for air- travel related information from the ACPD....

  14. 8-bromo-cyclicAMP stimulates glucose transporter-1 expression in a human choriocarcinoma cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Ogura; M Sakata; Y Okamoto; Y Yasui; C Tadokoro; Y Yoshimoto; M Yamaguchi; H Kurachi; T Maeda; Y Murata

    2000-01-01

    Facilitative glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) is abundant in trophoblast cells and is responsible for glucose transport in the placenta. However, the change in GLUT expression in human placenta upon trophoblast differentiation re- mains to be clarified. Therefore, we first examined the localization of GLUT1 and GLUT3 using human first- trimester chorionic villi. We found that GLUT1 and GLUT3 were mainly localized

  15. Altered glycaemia differentially modulates efflux transporter expression and activity in hCMEC/D3 cell line.

    PubMed

    Sajja, Ravi K; Cucullo, Luca

    2015-06-26

    The unique phenotype of blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium is partly maintained by abundant expression of ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux transporters that strictly restrict the CNS access to toxic substances including xenobiotics in circulation. Previously, we have shown that diabetes-related altered glycemic conditions differentially affect and compromise BBB integrity. However, the impact of diabetes on BBB efflux transporters is less understood. In this study, we examined the effects of single or repeated episodes of hypo-and hyperglycemia on major BBB efflux transporters expression/function in human cerebromicrovascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3). Cells were exposed to normal (5.5mM), hypo (2.2mM) or hyper (25 or 35mM)-glycemic media containing d-glucose for 12h (acute) or two 3h episodes/day of hypo- or hyperglycemia with an intercalated 2h normalglycemic exposure for 3 days ("glycemic variability", see Methods). Acute hypoglycemic exposure (12h) up-regulated BBB endothelial mRNA and protein expression of P-glycoprotein, BCRP and other multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRP1 and 4) paralleled by an increase in transporter-specific efflux activity (?2-fold vs. control). Although, 12h hyperglycemia did not affect the efflux transporter expression (except for MRP4), a significant increase in BCRP activity was observed. By contrast, DNA microarray data revealed that repeated hyperglycemic episodes (but not hypoglycemia) significantly up-regulate P-glycoprotein expression and activity. Thus, this study suggests a differential impact of altered glycemic conditions on major BBB drug efflux transporters expression/function, sensitive to the length of exposure (acute vs. repeated), with an implication for altered CNS drug disposition in diabetic population. PMID:25982326

  16. APS controls overview

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The APS accelerator control system described in this report is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and interfaces to hardware. The operator interface is a UNIX-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The user has the ability to generate and alter control displays and to access the alarm handler, the archiver, interactive control programs, custom code, and other tools. The TCP/EP networking protocol has been selected as the underlying protocol for the control system network. TCP/EP is a commercial standard and readily available from network hardware vendors. Its implementation is independent of the particular network medium selected to implement the controls network. In the development environment copper Ethernet is the network medium; however, in the actual implementation a fiber-based system using hub technology will be utilized. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system.

  17. A generalized framework for in-line energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Griesheimer, D. P. [Bertis Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States); Stedry, M. H. [Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 1072, Schenectady, NY 12301 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A rigorous treatment of energy deposition in a Monte Carlo transport calculation, including coupled transport of all secondary and tertiary radiations, increases the computational cost of a simulation dramatically, making fully-coupled heating impractical for many large calculations, such as 3-D analysis of nuclear reactor cores. However, in some cases, the added benefit from a full-fidelity energy-deposition treatment is negligible, especially considering the increased simulation run time. In this paper we present a generalized framework for the in-line calculation of energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo transport simulations. This framework gives users the ability to select among several energy-deposition approximations with varying levels of fidelity. The paper describes the computational framework, along with derivations of four energy-deposition treatments. Each treatment uses a unique set of self-consistent approximations, which ensure that energy balance is preserved over the entire problem. By providing several energy-deposition treatments, each with different approximations for neglecting the energy transport of certain secondary radiations, the proposed framework provides users the flexibility to choose between accuracy and computational efficiency. Numerical results are presented, comparing heating results among the four energy-deposition treatments for a simple reactor/compound shielding problem. The results illustrate the limitations and computational expense of each of the four energy-deposition treatments. (authors)

  18. Design study of low energy beam transport line for ion beams of the post-accelerator at RAON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yumi; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-07-01

    Low-energy ions produced by the ion source pass through the focusing and acceleration sections. During this process, the ions accumulate energy and are finally transported to the apparatus that utilizes them for a specific purpose. Thus, in order to increase the transmission efficiency of the ion beams, the low energy beam transport (LEBT) system must minimize the beam loss and the emittance growth. The LEBT system is designed and optimized to transmit 132Sn16+ and 58Ni8+ beams of the post-accelerator at RAON that is the accelerator complex for the rare isotope science. The post-accelerator LEBT line comprises solenoids and electrostatic quadrupoles for transverse focusing and a multi-harmonic buncher for longitudinal focusing. This paper presents the results of the optical design and beam tracking for the post-accelerator LEBT obtained by using TraceWIN and TRACK codes.

  19. Correlation between the rates of aerobic glycolysis and glucose transport, unrelated to neoplastic transformation, in a series of balb 3t3-derived cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly Peterkofsky; Willie Prather

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between transformation, lactate production, and glucose transport was examined in a series of ten cell lines consisting of subclones of BALB 3T3 A31 cells and viral and chemical transformants of either the subclones or the original A31 line. Comparisons were made over a relatively narrow range of cell densities to minimize changes in the biochemical parameters during growth.

  20. Prostaglandin E1 transport into rat intestinal cryptic cell line IEC-6.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Kohji; Mabashi, Kumiko; Horie, Toshiharu

    2005-01-01

    Administration of antitumor drugs such as 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate to rats causes intestinal injury. The intestinal injury was reported to be prevented by coadministration of prostaglandin E1 analogues to rats. IEC-6 cell is a useful in vitro model to study the cytoprotective effect in enterocytes, For its purpose, it is important to know whether or not prostaglandins are taken up into IEC-6 cells. The transport of prostaglandin E1 into IEC-6 cells was investigated, using [3H]-prostaglandin E1. Prostaglandin E1 was found to be transported into IEC-6 cells by the passive diffusion mechanism. PMID:18426083

  1. GCC185 plays independent roles in Golgi structure maintenance and AP-1–mediated vesicle tethering

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Frank C.; Schindelhaim, Carmel H.

    2011-01-01

    GCC185 is a long coiled-coil protein localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) that functions in maintaining Golgi structure and tethering mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR)–containing transport vesicles en route to the Golgi. We report the identification of two distinct domains of GCC185 needed either for Golgi structure maintenance or transport vesicle tethering, demonstrating the independence of these two functions. The domain needed for vesicle tethering binds to the clathrin adaptor AP-1, and cells depleted of GCC185 accumulate MPRs in transport vesicles that are AP-1 decorated. This study supports a previously proposed role of AP-1 in retrograde transport of MPRs from late endosomes to the Golgi and indicates that docking may involve the interaction of vesicle-associated AP-1 protein with the TGN-associated tethering protein GCC185. PMID:21875948

  2. An on-line target transport system for short-lived radioisotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Holdsworth; D. A. L. Paul

    1985-01-01

    Equipment has been developed to transport self supporting target films in vacuo at high speeds. The targets may be transferred over 3 m in less than 2 s and are gently accelerated and decelerated. In addition, the targets are accurately positioned at each end to within 25 mum. Non-magnetic materials are used throughout and wear is reduced so that 500

  3. Different Behavioral and Physiological Response in two Genetic Lines of Laying Hens Following Transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological and behavioral response to transportation stress were examined in chickens selected for high group productivity and survivability (HGPS) resulting from reduced cannibalism and flightiness in colony cages and in chickens from Dekalb XL (DXL) commercial strain. At 13 wks of age, 96 pulle...

  4. AP180 Couples Protein Retrieval to Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis of Synaptic Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Vanlandingham, Phillip A; Barmchi, Mojgan Padash; Royer, Suzanne; Green, Rebekah; Bao, Hong; Reist, Noreen; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    How clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) retrieves vesicle proteins into newly formed synaptic vesicles (SVs) remains a major puzzle. Besides its roles in stimulating clathrin-coated vesicle formation and regulating SV size, the clathrin assembly protein AP180 has been identified as a key player in retrieving SV proteins. The mechanisms by which AP180 recruits SV proteins are not fully understood. Here, we show that following acute inactivation of AP180 in Drosophila, SV recycling is severely impaired at the larval neuromuscular synapse based on analyses of FM 1-43 uptake and synaptic ultrastructure. More dramatically, AP180 activity is important to maintain the integrity of SV protein complexes at the plasma membrane during endocytosis. These observations suggest that AP180 normally clusters SV proteins together during recycling. Consistent with this notion, SV protein composition and distribution are altered in AP180 mutant flies. Finally, AP180 co-immunoprecipitates with SV proteins, including the vesicular glutamate transporter and neuronal synaptobrevin. These results reveal a new mode by which AP180 couples protein retrieval to CME of SVs. AP180 is also genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease. Hence, the findings of this study may provide new mechanistic insight into the role of AP180 dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24456281

  5. The vectorial transport of salts and water is crucial for respiratory epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Khoufache, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Primary culture of respiratory epithelial cells is useful to study the pathophysiology of respiratory diseases. However, such primary culture has been very limited because of its high dependence on the availability of biopsies and the long time required to reach confluence. Therefore, cell lines are an alternative to primary cultures because they reach confluence faster and some can maintain their differentiation abilities. However, unlike primary cultures and native tissues just some cell lines are able to polarize, with normal channel functionality and transepithelial ionic flux. PMID:26068044

  6. Nanoscale Obstacle Arrays Frustrate Transport of EphA2 – Ephrin-A1 Clusters in Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lohmüller, Theobald; Xu, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Juxtacrine signaling interactions between the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase and its ephrin-A1 ligand contribute to healthy tissue maintenance and misregulation of this system is observed in at least 40% of human breast cancer. Hybrid live cell – supported membrane experiments, in which membrane-linked ephrin-A1 displayed in supported membranes interacts with EphA2 in living cells, have revealed large scale clustering of EphA2:ephrin-A1 complexes as well as their lateral transport across the cell surface during triggering. Here, we utilize 100nm spaced hexagonally ordered arrays of gold nanodots embedded within supported membranes to present defined obstacles to the movement and assembly of EphA2 clusters. By functionalizing both the supported membrane and the nanodots with ephrin-A1, we perform a type of affinity chromatography on EphA2 signaling clusters in live cell membranes. Analysis of ten different breast cancer cell lines reveals that EphA2 transport is most frustrated by nanodot arrays in the most diseased cell lines. These observations suggest that strong physical association among EphA2 receptors, as well as their assembly into larger clusters, correlates with and may contribute to the pathological misregulation of the EphA2:ephrin-A1 pathway in breast cancer. PMID:23668885

  7. Characterization of an organic anion transport system in a placental cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fanfan Zhou; Kunihiko Tanaka; Michael J. Soares; Guofeng You

    2003-01-01

    for the placenta barrier. The apical uptake of 3H-labeled organic anion estrone sulfate in HRP-1 cells was saturable (Km 4.67 M), temperature and Na dependent, Li tol- erant, and pH sensitive. The substrate specificity of the transport system includes various steroid sulfates, such as -estradiol 3,17-disulfate, 17-estradiol 3-sulfate, and dehy- droepiandrosterone 3-sulfate (DHEAS) but does not include taurocholate, p-aminohippuric acid

  8. The APS SASE FEL : status and commissioning results.

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, S. V.

    1999-04-20

    A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Three gun systems, an rf-test area, laser room, numerous diagnostics, a transfer line at the end of the linac, and a new building, which will serve as the experimental hall, have been added. The only remaining items to be installed are the undulators into the beamline. Here, the additions to the APS in support of this project as well as commissioning results and future plans will be discussed.

  9. Low Earth orbit assessment of proton anisotropy using AP8 and AP9 trapped proton models.

    PubMed

    Badavi, Francis F; Walker, Steven A; Santos Koos, Lindsey M

    2015-04-01

    The completion of the International Space Station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community with an ideal evaluation and testing facility for future long duration human activities in space. Ionized and secondary neutral particles radiation measurements inside ISS form the ideal tool for validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear reaction cross sections and transport codes. Studies using thermo-luminescent detectors (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TPEC), and computer aided design (CAD) models of early ISS configurations confirmed that, as input, computational dosimetry at low Earth orbit (LEO) requires an environmental model with directional (anisotropic) capability to properly describe the exposure of trapped protons within ISS. At LEO, ISS encounters exposure from trapped electrons, protons and geomagnetically attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). For short duration studies at LEO, one can ignore trapped electrons and ever present GCR exposure contributions during quiet times. However, within the trapped proton field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of proton exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensity of trapped particles. Among the established trapped models are the historic AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution to ISS, this work ignores the AE8 and AE9 components of the models and couples a measurement derived anisotropic trapped proton formalism to omnidirectional output from the AP8 and AP9 models, allowing the assessment of the differences between the two proton models. The assessment is done at a target point within the ISS-11A configuration (circa 2003) crew quarter (CQ) of Russian Zvezda service module (SM), during its ascending and descending nodes passes through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). The anisotropic formalism incorporates the contributions of proton narrow pitch angle (PA) and east-west (EW) effects. Within SAA, the EW anisotropy results in different level of exposure to each side of the ISS Zvezda SM, allowing angular evaluation of the anisotropic proton spectrum. While the combined magnitude of PA and EW effects at LEO depends on a multitude of factors such as trapped proton energy, orientation and altitude of the spacecraft along the velocity vector, this paper draws quantitative conclusions on the combined anisotropic magnitude differences within ISS SM target point between AP8 and AP9 models. PMID:26177846

  10. Space Charge Compensation in the Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport Line with Negative Hydrogen Ions

    E-print Network

    Valerio-Lizarraga, C; Leon-Monzon, I; Lettry, J; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Tranport (LEBT) using the package IBSimu1, which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H- beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  11. Observations of pulsations in roAp stars

    E-print Network

    O. Kochukhov

    2007-02-09

    I review recent results of the observations of magnetoacoustic p-mode oscillations in roAp stars with the focus on time-resolved spectroscopic studies. Time-series spectroscopy of roAp stars reveals unexpected and diverse pulsational behaviour in the spectral lines of different chemical elements. These unique pulsational characteristics arise from an interplay between short vertical length of pulsation waves and extreme chemical stratification in the atmospheres of peculiar stars. This enables a tomographic reconstruction of the depth-dependence of chemical composition and pulsation wave properties. Combination of magnetoacoustic tomography with the Doppler imaging of the horizontal non-radial pulsation pattern opens possibility for an unprecedented three-dimensional mapping of roAp atmospheres.

  12. Pulsation in the atmosphere of roAp stars

    E-print Network

    O. Kochukhov

    2008-10-08

    High time resolution spectroscopy of roAp stars at large telescopes has led to a major breakthrough in our understanding of magnetoacoustic pulsations in these interesting objects. New observations have allowed to uncover a number of intricate relations between stellar oscillations, magnetic field, and chemical inhomogeneities. It is now understood that unusual pulsational characteristics of roAp stars arise from an interplay between short vertical length of pulsation waves and extreme chemical stratification. Here I review results of recent studies which utilize these unique properties to map 3D pulsation geometry using a combination of Doppler imaging, vertical pulsation tomography, interpretation of line profile variation, and ultraprecise space photometry. I also describe recent attempts to interpret theoretically the complex observational picture of roAp pulsations.

  13. Time resolved spectroscopy of the cool Ap star HD 213637*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present an analysis of high time resolution spectra of the chemically peculiar Ap star HD 213637. The star shows rapid radial velocity variations with a period close to the photometric pulsation period. Radial velocity pulsation amplitudes vary significantly for different rare earth elements. The highest pulsation amplitudes belong to lines of Tb III (˜360 m s-1), Pr II (˜250 m s-1) and Pr III (˜230 m s-1). We did not detect any pulsations from spectral lines of Eu II and in H?, in contrast to many other roAp stars. We also did not find radial velocity pulsations using spectral lines of other chemical elements, including Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba. There are phase shifts between the maxima of pulsation amplitudes of different rare earth elements and ions, which is evidence of an outwardly running magneto-acoustic wave propagating through the upper stellar atmosphere.

  14. Poloxamines display a multiple inhibitory activity of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Sosnik, Alejandro; Mathet, Verónica L

    2011-08-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common fatal cancer worldwide with more than 500,000 annual deaths. Approximately 40% of the patients with HCC showed tumoral overexpression of transmembrane proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette protein superfamily (ABC) which pump drugs out of cells. The overexpression of these efflux transporters confers on the cells a multiple drug resistance phenotype, which is considered a crucial cause of treatment refractoriness in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of pH- and temperature-responsive X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamines, Tetronic, PEO-PPO) showing a wide range of molecular weights and EO/PO ratios on the functional activity of three different ABC proteins, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp or MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, in two human hepatocarcinoma cell lines, HepG2 and Huh7. First, the cytotoxicity of the different copolymers (at different concentrations) on both liver carcinoma cell lines was thoroughly evaluated by means of apoptosis analysis using annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). Thus, viable cells (AV-/PI-), early apoptotic cells (AV+/PI-) and late apoptotic cells (V-FITC+/PI+) were identified. Results pointed out copolymers of intermediate to high hydrophobicity and intermediate molecular weight (e.g., T904) as the most cytotoxic. Then, DiOC2, rhodamine 123 and vinblastine were used as differential substrates of these pumps. HeLa, an epithelial cell line of human cervical cancer that does not express P-gp, was used exclusively as a control and enabled the discerning between P-gp and MRP1 inhibition. Moderate to highly hydrophobic poloxamines T304, T904 and T1301 showed inhibitory activity against P-gp and BCRP but not against MRP1 in both hepatic cell lines. A remarkable dependence of this effect on the copolymer concentration and hydrophobicity was found. No inhibitory effect against these ABC pumps was observed with the hydrophilic T1107. These findings further evidence the potential usefulness of these Trojan horses as both drug nanocarriers and ABC inhibitors in hepatic MDR tumors and infections that involve the activity of these efflux transporters. PMID:21591727

  15. AP Chemistry Course Home Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For people with a penchant for benzene rings and other topics, the AP Chemistry Course site is a great resource. Designed for both educators and students, the site contains resources for teaching to the AP exam as well as a wealth of other items. Interested parties should explore the Classroom Resources where they will find seven different lab activities, such as "Misconceptions and Issues in Quantum Theory" and "Women Scientists of the Manhattan Project.� Additionally, the site features Other Core Resources which includes an open forum for educators along with some basic overviews for crafting a one-semester course in chemistry.

  16. AP Human Geography and Success on the AP Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncone, John; Newhalfen, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Classroom projects that explore culture and globalization enhance the curriculum and help students see how geography directly connects to their lives. These authors contend that a project-based approach can supplement the teaching of an AP Human Geography course, and visualize this course as an essential tool for students to truly understand how…

  17. Erratum: ``An Extensive Collection of Stellar Wind X-Ray Source Region Emission Line Parameters, Temperatures, Velocities, and Their Radial Distributions as Obtained from Chandra Observations of 17 OB Stars'' (ApJ, 668, 456 [2007])

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Waldron; J. P. Cassinelli

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of the paper was to provide a detailed tabulation of the observed HETGS X-ray emission-line flux ratios. We presented the MEG and HEG He-like f\\/i line ratios, the H-like to He-like (H\\/He) line ratios, and the He-like G-ratios. The stellar wind spatial locations of the X-ray sources were derived from the f\\/i ratios, and their associated X-ray

  18. Effect of subdominant species on the evolution of intense primary beam in a low energy beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)] [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2013-08-15

    The dynamics of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam with different distributions has been studied in a solenoid based low energy beam transport line using a particle-in-cell simulation method. Results are presented in wide parameter regimes covering emittance dominated as well as space charge dominated multispecies beams consisting of p, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams. Simulation shows the formation of hollow distribution of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams around the desired proton beam and separation is more distinct as the fraction of proton is increased. The hollow formation is almost independent of combination of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} beams, once the fraction of proton beam is fixed. The emittance growth of proton is found to increase sharply in the space-charge-dominated regime and is more in the cases where proton fraction is low.

  19. Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasmas along open magnetic field lines: Plasma profile variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2012-08-01

    Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along an open magnetic field line is characterized by strong temperature anisotropy, which is driven by two effects. The first is magnetic moment conservation in a non-uniform magnetic field, which can transfer energy between parallel and perpendicular degrees of freedom. The second is decompressional cooling of the parallel temperature due to parallel flow acceleration by conventional presheath electric field which is associated with the sheath condition near the wall surface where the open magnetic field line intercepts the discharge chamber. To the leading order in gyroradius to system gradient length scale expansion, the parallel transport can be understood via the Chew-Goldbeger-Low (CGL) model which retains two components of the parallel heat flux, i.e., qn associated with the parallel thermal energy and qs related to perpendicular thermal energy. It is shown that in addition to the effect of magnetic field strength (B) modulation, the two components (qn and qs) of the parallel heat flux play decisive roles in the parallel variation of the plasma profile, which includes the plasma density (n), parallel flow (u), parallel and perpendicular temperatures (T? and T?), and the ambipolar potential (?). Both their profile (qn/B and qs/B2) and the upstream values of the ratio of the conductive and convective thermal flux (qn/nuT? and qs/nuT?) provide the controlling physics, in addition to B modulation. The physics described by the CGL model are contrasted with those of the double-adiabatic laws and further elucidated by comparison with the first-principles kinetic simulation for a specific but representative flux expander case.

  20. Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasmas along open magnetic field lines: Plasma profile variation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Zehua; Tang Xianzhu [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along an open magnetic field line is characterized by strong temperature anisotropy, which is driven by two effects. The first is magnetic moment conservation in a non-uniform magnetic field, which can transfer energy between parallel and perpendicular degrees of freedom. The second is decompressional cooling of the parallel temperature due to parallel flow acceleration by conventional presheath electric field which is associated with the sheath condition near the wall surface where the open magnetic field line intercepts the discharge chamber. To the leading order in gyroradius to system gradient length scale expansion, the parallel transport can be understood via the Chew-Goldbeger-Low (CGL) model which retains two components of the parallel heat flux, i.e., q{sub n} associated with the parallel thermal energy and q{sub s} related to perpendicular thermal energy. It is shown that in addition to the effect of magnetic field strength (B) modulation, the two components (q{sub n} and q{sub s}) of the parallel heat flux play decisive roles in the parallel variation of the plasma profile, which includes the plasma density (n), parallel flow (u), parallel and perpendicular temperatures (T{sub Parallel-To} and T{sub Up-Tack }), and the ambipolar potential ({phi}). Both their profile (q{sub n}/B and q{sub s}/B{sup 2}) and the upstream values of the ratio of the conductive and convective thermal flux (q{sub n}/nuT{sub Parallel-To} and q{sub s}/nuT{sub Up-Tack }) provide the controlling physics, in addition to B modulation. The physics described by the CGL model are contrasted with those of the double-adiabatic laws and further elucidated by comparison with the first-principles kinetic simulation for a specific but representative flux expander case.

  1. Transport of impurity ions along the field lines in magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kalvin, S.; Kocsis, G.; Bakos, J.S. [Department of Plasma Physics, KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)] [Department of Plasma Physics, KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Koenen, L.; Mank, G.; Pospieszczyk, A. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association Euratom---KFA, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)] [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association Euratom---KFA, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    1996-04-01

    A simple one-dimensional model describing the spread of laser blow-off injected ions along the magnetic field lines is presented. The model is based on the kinetic theory. A closed set of kinetic equations that contain a Coulomb collision term is solved numerically. For impurity density less than the plasma density, the effect of the ambipolar electric field is negligible, as shown. The results of the model calculation are compared with experimental results obtained on the Tokamak Experiment for Technically Oriented Research (TEXTOR) [H. Soltwisch {ital et} {ital al}., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion {bold 26}, 23 (1984)] tokamak by the use of injection of lithium atoms, and the agreement is satisfactory. The results of the model and possible applications for diagnostic purposes are discussed in detail. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. "Cumulated Vehicle Acceleration": An Attribute of GPS Probe Vehicle Traces for On-Line Assessment of Vehicle Fuel Consumption in Traffic and Transportation Networks

    E-print Network

    Kerner, Boris S

    2014-01-01

    To perform a reliable on-line assessment of fuel consumption in vehicles, we introduce "cumulated vehicle acceleration" as an attribute of GPS probe vehicle traces. The objective of the calculation of the attribute "cumulated vehicle acceleration" in the GPS probe vehicle data is to perform a reliable on-line dynamic traffic assignment for the reduction of vehicle consumption in traffic and transportation networks.

  3. APS undergraduate brainstorming summit report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Robert G. Carroll (East Carolina State University Department of Physiology)

    2007-12-09

    IN 2004, the Education Committee was charged with seeking additional strategies to increase the exposure of undergraduate students to physiology studies and careers. Following a reaffirmation of this charge in the 2006 strategic plan, the American Physiological Society (APS) hosted an undergraduate brainstorming summit in late September of 2006.

  4. R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

  5. Development and characterization of a novel mouse line humanized for the intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Yehua; Wang, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaomei; Smith, David E

    2014-10-01

    The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, but not colon, of mammals and found to mediate the uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs from the intestinal lumen. However, species differences have been observed in both the expression (and localization) of PEPT1 and its substrate affinity. With this in mind, the objectives of this study were to develop a humanized PEPT1 mouse model (huPEPT1) and to characterize hPEPT1 expression and functional activity in the intestines. Thus, after generating huPEPT1 mice in animals previously nulled for mouse Pept1, phenotypic, PCR, and immunoblot analyses were performed, along with in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies with a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar). Overall, the huPEPT1 mice had normal survival rates, fertility, litter size, gender distribution, and body weight. There was no obvious behavioral or pathological phenotype. The mRNA and protein profiles indicated that huPEPT1 mice had substantial PEPT1 expression in all regions of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) along with low but measurable expression in both proximal and distal segments of the colon. In agreement with PEPT1 expression, the in situ permeability of GlySar in huPEPT1 mice was similar to but lower than wildtype animals in small intestine, and greater than wildtype mice in colon. However, a species difference existed in the in situ transport kinetics of jejunal PEPT1, in which the maximal flux and Michaelis constant of GlySar were reduced 7-fold and 2- to 4-fold, respectively, in huPEPT1 compared to wildtype mice. Still, the in vivo function of intestinal PEPT1 appeared fully restored (compared to Pept1 knockout mice) as indicated by the nearly identical pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration-time profiles following a 5.0 nmol/g oral dose of GlySar to huPEPT1 and wildtype mice. This study reports, for the first time, the development and characterization of mice humanized for PEPT1. This novel transgenic huPEPT1 mouse model should prove useful in examining the role, relevance, and regulation of PEPT1 in diet and disease, and in the drug discovery process. PMID:25148225

  6. Functional activity of a monocarboxylate transporter, MCT1, in the human retinal pigmented epithelium cell line, ARPE-19.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Soumyajit; Gunda, Sriram; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the functional activity of monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (MCT1) on the human retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cell line, ARPE-19, and to evaluate whether the cell line can function as an in vitro screening tool for intravitreally administered drugs/prodrugs targeted to the MCT1 expressed in RPE. Uptake studies were carried out at 37 degrees C, for 30 s, with ARPE-19 cells. [(14)C]l-Lactic acid was selected as a substrate for this transporter. Uptake of [(14)C]L-lactic acid by ARPE-19 cells was found to exhibit saturable kinetics (K(m) = 3.1 +/- 0.6 mM and V(max) = 63.1 +/- 4.1 pmol/min/mg of protein). Monocarboxylic acids, such as benzoic acid, salicylic acid, and pyruvic acid, inhibited the uptake of [(14)C]L-lactic acid whereas di- and tricarboxylic acids, such as phthalic, succinic, and citric acids, did not demonstrate any inhibitory effect. Uptake was stereospecific where D-lactic acid was less effective in inhibiting [(14)C]L-lactic acid uptake than unlabeled L-lactic acid. ELISA indicated the expression of only MCT1, MCT4, and MCT8 isoforms by ARPE-19 cells. Increase in [(14)C]L-lactic acid uptake was observed as the uptake medium pH was lowered from 7.4 to 5.0. Moreover, inhibition of [(14)C]L-lactic acid uptake was observed in the presence of the protonophore 2,4-dinitrophenol. Uptake was significantly decreased in the presence of sodium azide, ouabain, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (pCMBA), N-ethylmaleamide, dithiothreitol, and p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (pCMBS). However, 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and L-thyroxine did not inhibit [(14)C]L-lactic acid. RT-PCR studies and sequence analysis of the PCR product confirmed the expression of MCT1 by ARPE-19 cells. Our results indicate that MCT1 is functionally active and is the only MCT isoform involved in the apical uptake of monocarboxylates by ARPE-19 cells. This cell line may thus be used as an effective screening tool for intravitreally administered drugs/prodrugs targeted toward MCT1 expressed on the RPE. PMID:15804185

  7. Gas Transport and Density Control in the HYLIFE Heavy-Ion Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Debonnel, Christophe S.; Welch, Dale R.; Rose, David V.; Lawrence, Simon S.Yu; Peterson, Per F

    2003-05-15

    The effective propagation and focusing of heavy-ion beams in the final-focus magnet region of inertial fusion target chambers require controlling the background gas density and pressure in the beam tubes. Liquid vortexes will coat the inside of the tubes next to the beam ports and will help eliminate the need for mechanical shutters to mitigate the venting of target chamber background gas into the final-focus magnet region. Before the neutralizing region, the beam space charge is high, and ablation and target debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region may cause voltage breakdown. Previous studies focused on evaluating the amount of target chamber debris reaching the entrance of the beam ports. The TSUNAMI code has now been used to assess the density, temperature, and velocity of the vortex debris transported {approx}3 m up the beam tubes and reaching the final-focus magnet region, assuming that the liquid vortexes are perfectly absorbing surfaces. To further mitigate debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region, and prevent voltage breakdown, a 'magnetic shutter' has been envisaged to divert the debris out of the final-focus region. This shutter will prevent the hot ablation debris from reaching the magnet region and, coupled to some ionizing scheme, will conveniently suppress early ingression of debris into the final-focus magnet region.

  8. A transverse emittance and acceptance measurement system in a low-energy beam transport line.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, H; Miyawaki, N; Kurashima, S; Okumura, S

    2014-02-01

    A transverse beam emittance and acceptance measurement system has been developed to visualize the relationship between the injected beam emittance and the acceptance of a cyclotron. The system is composed of a steering magnet, two pairs of slits to limit the horizontal and vertical phase-space, a beam intensity detector just behind the slits for the emittance measurement, and a beam intensity detector in the cyclotron for the acceptance measurement. The emittance is obtained by scanning the slits and measuring the beam intensity distribution. The acceptance is obtained by measuring the distribution of relative beam transmission by injecting small emittance beams at various positions in a transverse phase-space using the slits. In the acceptance measurement, the beam from an ion source is deflected to the defined region by the slits using the steering magnet so that measurable acceptance area covers a region outside the injection beam emittance. Measurement tests were carried out under the condition of accelerating a beam of (16)O(6+) from 50.2 keV to 160 MeV. The emittance of the injected beam and the acceptance for accelerating and transporting the beam to the entrance of the extraction deflector were successfully measured. The relationship between the emittance and acceptance is visualized by displaying the results in the same phase-plane. PMID:24593469

  9. A transverse emittance and acceptance measurement system in a low-energy beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, H., E-mail: kashiwagi.hirotsugu@jaea.go.jp; Miyawaki, N.; Kurashima, S.; Okumura, S. [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)] [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A transverse beam emittance and acceptance measurement system has been developed to visualize the relationship between the injected beam emittance and the acceptance of a cyclotron. The system is composed of a steering magnet, two pairs of slits to limit the horizontal and vertical phase-space, a beam intensity detector just behind the slits for the emittance measurement, and a beam intensity detector in the cyclotron for the acceptance measurement. The emittance is obtained by scanning the slits and measuring the beam intensity distribution. The acceptance is obtained by measuring the distribution of relative beam transmission by injecting small emittance beams at various positions in a transverse phase-space using the slits. In the acceptance measurement, the beam from an ion source is deflected to the defined region by the slits using the steering magnet so that measurable acceptance area covers a region outside the injection beam emittance. Measurement tests were carried out under the condition of accelerating a beam of {sup 16}O{sup 6+} from 50.2 keV to 160 MeV. The emittance of the injected beam and the acceptance for accelerating and transporting the beam to the entrance of the extraction deflector were successfully measured. The relationship between the emittance and acceptance is visualized by displaying the results in the same phase-plane.

  10. APS beamline standard components handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  11. Proliferation-associated changes of Ca2+ transport in myeloid leukemic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rephaeli, A; Aviram, A; Rabizadeh, E; Shaklai, M

    1990-04-01

    Proliferation-associated changes in calcium metabolism were investigated employing the promyelocytic HL-60 and monoblastic U-937 cell lines. The cells were stimulated to proliferate employing mitogenic factors as follows. 1) Transferrin or insulin: HL-60 cells were adjusted for growth in serum-free medium, and 24 h prior to the experiment, the cells were deprived of transferrin or insulin. The re-addition of either one of them stimulated cell proliferation as was evident by increased [3H]-tymidine incorporation activity. Cell proliferation was associated with an enhanced Ca2+ influx rate, measured by 45Ca2+ uptake activity. 2) Granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF): addition of GM-CSF to proliferating or quiescent HL-60 cells resulted in increased cell proliferation, which was also accompanied by increased rate of Ca2+ influx. 3) Serum: HL-60 and U-937 were grown for 24 h in serum-depleted medium. Re-addition of serum to the cells was not associated with immediate or delayed change in calcium influx rate but rather with an immediate increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration, measured employing the fluorescent probe, fura-2AM. This increase was independent of extracellular calcium, unaffected by verapamil, diltiazem, and lanthanum, and associated with enhanced 45Ca2+ efflux. Thus, in all three cases evoked cell proliferation was accompanied by quantitative changes in Ca2+ metabolism. While the transferrin-, insulin-, and GM-CSF-stimulated cell proliferation was accompanied by delayed increases in 45Ca2+ influx, the serum-stimulated cell proliferation was accompanied by an immediate elevation of free cytosolic Ca2+. PMID:2180964

  12. Update on autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corrado Betterle; Renato Zanchetta

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes (APS) were initially defined as a multiple endocrine gland insufficiency associated to an autoimmune disease in a patient. Neufeld & Blizzard (1980) suggested a classification of APS, based on clinical criteria only, describing four main types. APS-1 is characterized by presence of chronic candidiasis, chronic hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease. It is a very rare syndrome in- teresting young

  13. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  14. Graphing Calculators' Impact on AP Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukens, Jeffrey D.; Feinstein, Sheryl

    The central premise of this study was that the use of graphing calculator technology helped improve students' achievement in upper level biology courses. The populations studied included high school students in a block course entitled "AP Biology/AP Calculus" and students in a traditional AP Biology course. There appears to be a positive effect on…

  15. Optimum design of CMOS APS imagers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor A. Shilin; Pavel A. Skrylev; Alexander L. Stempkovsky

    2003-01-01

    The main problem for CMOS active pixel sensors (APS) design is its fill factor and photosensitivity improvement. Using developed CMOS APS models we have solved this problem as mathematical optimization task. The fill factor is the aim function. The limits are: time delays, signal-to-noise ratio, horizontal and vertical MTFs, pixel sizes, and project rules. The simulation results for APS based

  16. M ap Info ... SQL Server " , ,,oe , , ,

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiang

    M ap Info ¿...°·¨º SQL Server °¿" » , ,,oe , , ´ , ´· (~'·§ G IS º£,--^--¿¸ø , ~' 210093^ Delphi °`¸ M ap Info ¿...° SQL Server °¿~¨«,,--··¢¡£ ,,...·° : G IS; ¿...° ; ,,--°¿ ; ¨«,,··¢ ;M ap Info; SQL Server --...·"¯ : P208¡¡¡¡ ~­OE°¶´º : A ¡¡¡¡ ~´­"¯ : 1000- 3177(2001) 61- 0026- 0030 1¡¡¡¡ --¯¢ (G

  17. Differential Mitochondrial Electron Transport through the Cyanide-Sensitive and Cyanide-Insensitive Pathways in Isonuclear Lines of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile, Male Fertile, and Restored Petunia1

    PubMed Central

    Connett, Marie B.; Hanson, Maureen R.

    1990-01-01

    Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida [Hook] Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines. PMID:16667667

  18. Treatment of diabetes and atherosclerosis by inhibiting fatty-acid-binding protein aP2.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Masato; Tuncman, Gürol; Görgün, Cem Z; Makowski, Liza; Atsumi, Genichi; Vaillancourt, Eric; Kono, Keita; Babaev, Vladimir R; Fazio, Sergio; Linton, MacRae F; Sulsky, Richard; Robl, Jeffrey A; Parker, Rex A; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2007-06-21

    Adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein, aP2 (FABP4) is expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, and integrates inflammatory and metabolic responses. Studies in aP2-deficient mice have shown that this lipid chaperone has a significant role in several aspects of metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Here we demonstrate that an orally active small-molecule inhibitor of aP2 is an effective therapeutic agent against severe atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes in mouse models. In macrophage and adipocyte cell lines with or without aP2, we also show the target specificity of this chemical intervention and its mechanisms of action on metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Our findings demonstrate that targeting aP2 with small-molecule inhibitors is possible and can lead to a new class of powerful therapeutic agents to prevent and treat metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. PMID:17554340

  19. Treatment of diabetes and atherosclerosis by inhibiting fatty-acid-binding protein aP2

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Masato; Tuncman, Gürol; Görgün, Cem Z.; Makowski, Liza; Atsumi, Genichi; Vaillancourt, Eric; Kono, Keita; Babaev, Vladimir R.; Fazio, Sergio; Linton, MacRae F.; Sulsky, Richard; Robl, Jeffrey A.; Parker, Rex A.; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

    2014-01-01

    Adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein, aP2 (FABP4) is expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, and integrates inflammatory and metabolic responses. Studies in aP2-deficient mice have shown that this lipid chaperone has a significant role in several aspects of metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Here we demonstrate that an orally active small-molecule inhibitor of aP2 is an effective therapeutic agent against severe atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes in mouse models. In macrophage and adipocyte cell lines with or without aP2, we also show the target specificity of this chemical intervention and its mechanisms of action on metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Our findings demonstrate that targeting aP2 with small-molecule inhibitors is possible and can lead to a new class of powerful therapeutic agents to prevent and treat metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. PMID:17554340

  20. The APS control system network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Sidorowicz; W. P. McDowell

    1995-01-01

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the {open_quotes}Standard Model.{close_quotes} The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and

  1. APS Presents Awards at 2008 ABRCMS Conference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-02-01

    This is an article in The Physiologist. APS Presents Awards at Annual ABRCMS Conference APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2008 APS Intersociety Meeting: The Integrative Biology of Exercise Education Special Sessions at Experimental Biology 2009 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- APS Presents Awards at Annual ABRCMS Conference The APS presented awards to minority undergraduate researchers and was a major conference sponsor at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS) at DisneyÂ?s Coronado Springs Resort, Lake Buena Vista, FL from November 5-9, 2008.

  2. Dynamics of intracellular clathrin/AP1- and clathrin/AP3-containing carriers.

    PubMed

    Kural, Comert; Tacheva-Grigorova, Silvia K; Boulant, Steeve; Cocucci, Emanuele; Baust, Thorsten; Duarte, Delfim; Kirchhausen, Tom

    2012-11-29

    Clathrin/AP1- and clathrin/AP3-coated vesicular carriers originate from endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. Here, we report the real-time visualization of these structures in living cells reliably tracked by rapid, three-dimensional imaging with the use of a spinning-disk confocal microscope. We imaged relatively sparse, diffraction-limited, fluorescent objects containing chimeric fluorescent protein (clathrin light chain, ? adaptor subunits, or dynamin2) with a spatial precision of up to ~30 nm and a temporal resolution of ~1 s. The dynamic characteristics of the intracellular clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 carriers are similar to those of endocytic clathrin/AP2 pits and vesicles; the clathrin/AP1 coats are, on average, slightly shorter-lived than their AP2 and AP3 counterparts. We confirmed that although dynamin2 is recruited as a burst to clathrin/AP2 pits immediately before their budding from the plasma membrane, we found no evidence supporting a similar association of dynamin2 with clathrin/AP1 or clathrin/AP3 carriers at any stage during their lifetime. We found no effects of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function or the K44A dominant-negative mutant of dynamin on AP1 and AP3 dynamics. This observation suggests that an alternative budding mechanism, yet to be discovered, is responsible for the scission step of clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 carriers. PMID:23103167

  3. The new Cyclone 18/9 beam transport line at the CNA (Sevilla) for high energy PIXE applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García López, J.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Morilla, Y.; Ferrero, A.

    2008-04-01

    The Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Sevilla, Spain) is commonly used to create short life radioisotopes for PET applications. Besides, an external beam transport line has been recently installed in one of the target ports with two major purposes: to study the effects of 18 MeV protons irradiation on the behaviour of electronic devices for space applications and to complement the analysis of materials using our 3 MV tandem accelerator with the PIXE measurements at high energy. In this work, the main elements of our beamline will be briefly described and the first PIXE application will be presented. The usual PIXE, in the analysis of archaeological metallic objects, using around 3 MeV protons requires having a shiny area. Our purpose is to obtain a deeper determination of the bulk composition bombarding with 18 MeV protons through the corroded samples surfaces, without polishing the ancient object. To check this methodology high energy PIXE has been performed on two fibulae of the Later Bronze Age and First Iron Age, coming from the area around Sevilla.

  4. Identification of a novel cell-penetrating peptide targeting human glioblastoma cell lines as a cancer-homing transporter.

    PubMed

    Higa, Moritoshi; Katagiri, Chiaki; Shimizu-Okabe, Chigusa; Tsumuraya, Tomoyuki; Sunagawa, Masanori; Nakamura, Mariko; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Takayama, Chitoshi; Kondo, Eisaku; Matsushita, Masayuki

    2015-02-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) as a novel biomedical delivery system have been highly anticipated, since they can translocate across biological membranes and are capable of transporting their cargo inside live cells with minimal invasiveness. However, non-selective internalization in various cell types remains a challenge in the clinical application of CPPs, especially in cancer treatment. In this study, we attempted to identify novel cancer-homing CPPs to target glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which is often refractory and resistant to treatment. We screened for CPPs showing affinity for the human GBM cell line, U87MG, from an mRNA display random peptide library. One of the candidate peptides which amino-acid sequence was obtained from the screening showed selective cell-penetrating activity in U87MG cells. Conjugation of the p16(INK4a) functional peptide to the GBM-selective CPP induced cellular apoptosis and reduced phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein levels. This indicates that the CPP was capable of delivering a therapeutic molecule into U87MG cells inducing apoptosis. These results suggest that the novel CPP identified in this study permeates with high affinity into GBM cells, revealing it to be a promising imaging and therapeutic tool in the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:25562654

  5. Isotopic anomaly and stratification of Ca in magnetic Ap stars

    E-print Network

    T. Ryabchikova; O. Kochukhov; S. Bagnulo

    2008-01-15

    We have carried out an accurate investigation of the Ca isotopic composition and stratification in the atmospheres of 23 magnetic chemically peculiar (Ap) stars of different temperature and magnetic field strength. With the UVES spectrograph at the 8m ESO VLT, we have obtained high-resolution spectra of Ap stars in the wavelength range 3000-10000 A. Using a detailed spectrum synthesis calculations, we have reproduced a variety of Ca lines in the optical and ultraviolet spectral regions, inferring the overall vertical distribution of Ca abundance, then we have deduced the relative isotopic composition and its dependence on height using the profile of the the IR-triplet Ca II line at lambda 8498 A. In 22 out of 23 studied stars, we found that Ca is strongly stratified, being usually overabundant by 1.0-1.5 dex below log tau_5000 ~ -1, and strongly depleted above log tau_5000 = -1.5. The IR-triplet Ca II line at lambda 8498 A reveals a significant contribution of the heavy isotopes 46Ca and 48Ca, which represent less than 1% of the terrestrial Ca isotopic mixture. We confirm our previous finding that the presence of heavy Ca isotopes is generally anticorrelated with the magnetic field strength. Moreover, we discover that in Ap stars with relatively small surface magnetic fields (atmospheric layers. This vertical isotopic separation, observed for the first time for any metal in a stellar atmosphere, disappears in stars with magnetic field strength above 6-7 kG. We suggest that the overall Ca stratification and depth-dependent isotopic anomaly observed in Ap stars may be attributed to a combined action of the radiatively-driven diffusion and light-induced drift.

  6. Donepezil, tacrine and ?-phenyl- n - tert -butyl nitrone (PBN) inhibit choline transport by conditionally immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cell lines (TR-BBB)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Sook Kang; Kyeong-Eun Lee; Na-Young Lee; Tetsuya Terasaki

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we have characterized the choline transport system and examined the influence of various amine drugs\\u000a on the choline transporter using a conditionally immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cell line (TR-BBB)in vitro. The cell-to-medium (C\\/M) ratio of [3H]choline in TR-BBB cells increased time-dependently. The initial uptake rate of [3H]choline was concentration-dependent with a Michaelis-Menten value, Km, of

  7. Jumbo battery-powered cargo transporter begins work at flying tigers: latest in growing line of heavy-duty electric vehicles for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    A first-of-its-kind lead battery-powered cargo transporter has been placed in service by Flying Tigers Line, Inc., temporarily for test in Chicago. The jumbo electric transporter, being used by Flying Tigers to more economically and efficiently load and unload its planes is described. The recent introducing of this 31,000-lb. gross weight (including batteries) tractor-flatbed roller combination electric vehicle is the latest in a growing number of heavy-duty electrics coming into wide-spread use in the airline, ocean shipping, mining, agricultural, manufacturing, and other industries.

  8. Human L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): characterization of function and expression in tumor cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Yanagida; Yoshikatsu Kanai; Arthit Chairoungdua; Do Kyung Kim; Hiroko Segawa; Tomoko Nii; Seok Ho Cha; Hirotaka Matsuo; Jun-ichi Fukushima; Yoshiki Fukasawa; Yoshiko Tani; Yutaka Taketani; Hiroshi Uchino; Ju Young Kim; Jun Inatomi; Isao Okayasu; Ken-ichi Miyamoto; Eiji Takeda; Tomoyuki Goya; Hitoshi Endou

    2001-01-01

    System L is a major nutrient transport system responsible for the transport of large neutral amino acids including several essential amino acids. We previously identified a transporter (L-type amino acid transporter 1: LAT1) subserving system L in C6 rat glioma cells and demonstrated that LAT1 requires 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) for its functional expression. Since its oncofetal expression was suggested

  9. Development of a Density Sensor for In-Line Real-Time Process Control and Monitoring of Slurries during Radioactive Waste Retrieval and Transport Operations at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2001-11-19

    A density sensor (densimeter) to monitor and control slurries in-line real-time during radioactive waste retrieval and transport and detect conditions leading to degraded transport and line plugging is described. Benefits over baseline grab samples and off line analysis include: early detection and prevention of pipeline plugging, real-time density through the transfer process, elimination of grab sampling and off-line analysis, and reduced worker radiation exposure. The sensor is small, robust and could be retrofitted into existing pump pit manifolds and transfer lines. The probe uses ultrasonic signal reflection at the fluid-pipe wall interface to quantify density and features include: a non-intrusive sensing surface located flush with the pipeline wall; performance that is not affected by entrained air or by electromagnetic noise from nearby pumps and other equipment and is compact. Components were tested for chemical and radiation resistance and the spool piece was pressure tested in accordance with ASME Process Piping Code B31.3 and approved by the Hanford Site Flammable Gas Equipment Advisory Board for installation. During pipeline tests, the sensor predicted density within + 2% oriented in vertical and horizontal position. The densimeter is installed in the modified process manifold that is installed in the prefabricated pump pit at Hanford tank SY-101 site. In FY-2002 the density sensor performance will be evaluated during transfers of both water and waste through the pipeline. A separate project developed an ultrasonic sensor that: 1) can be attached permanently to a pipeline wall, possibly as a spool piece inserted into the line or 2) can clamp onto an existing pipeline wall and be movable to another location. This method is attractive for radioactive fluids transport applications because the sensors could be applied to existing equipment without the need to penetrate the pipe pressure boundary or to open the system to install new equipment.

  10. An immortalized human blood-nerve barrier endothelial cell line for in vitro permeability studies

    PubMed Central

    Yosef, Nejla; Ubogu, Eroboghene E.

    2012-01-01

    Solute and macromolecular transport studies may elucidate nutritional requirements and drug effects in healthy and diseased peripheral nerves. Endoneurial endothelial cells are specialized microvascular cells that form the restrictive blood-nerve barrier (BNB). Primary human endoneurial endothelial cells (pHEndECs) are difficult to isolate, limiting their widespread availability for biomedical research. We developed a simian virus-40 large T-antigen (SV40-LTA) immortalized human BNB cell line via stable transfection of low passage pHEndECs and observed continuous growth in culture for >45 population doublings. As observed with pHEndECs, the immortalized BNB endothelial cells were Ulex Europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1)-positive and endocytosed low density lipoprotein, but lost von Willebrand factor (vWF) expression. Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT), large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1), creatine transporter (CRT) and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1) mRNA expression were retained at all passages with loss of alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression after passages 16-20. Compared with an SV40-LTA immortalized human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cell line, there was increased ?-GT protein expression, equivalent expression of organic anion transporting polypeptide-C (OATP-C), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT-3), MCT-1 and LAT-1, and reduced expression of AP, CRT and P-gp by the BNB cell line at passage 20. Further studies demonstrated lower transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER: ~181 ?.cm2 vs. 191 ?.cm2), equivalent permeability to fluoresceinated sodium (4.84% vs. 4.39%) and lower permeability to fluoresceinated high molecular weight (70 kDa) dextran (0.39% vs. 0.52%) by the BNB cell line. This cell line retained essential molecular and biophysical properties suitable for in vitro peripheral nerve permeability studies. PMID:23104242

  11. An immortalized human blood-nerve barrier endothelial cell line for in vitro permeability studies.

    PubMed

    Yosef, Nejla; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

    2013-03-01

    Solute and macromolecular transport studies may elucidate nutritional requirements and drug effects in healthy and diseased peripheral nerves. Endoneurial endothelial cells are specialized microvascular cells that form the restrictive blood-nerve barrier (BNB). Primary human endoneurial endothelial cells (pHEndECs) are difficult to isolate, limiting their widespread availability for biomedical research. We developed a simian virus-40 large T-antigen (SV40-LTA) immortalized human BNB cell line via stable transfection of low passage pHEndECs and observed continuous growth in culture for >45 population doublings. As observed with pHEndECs, the immortalized BNB endothelial cells were Ulex Europaeus agglutinin-1-positive and endocytosed low density lipoprotein, but lost von Willebrand factor expression. Glucose transporter-1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT), large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1), creatine transporter (CRT), and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1) mRNA expression were retained at all passages with loss of alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression after passages 16-20. Compared with an SV40-LTA immortalized human blood-brain barrier endothelial cell line, there was increased ?-GT protein expression, equivalent expression of organic anion transporting polypeptide-C (OATP-C), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT-3), MCT-1, and LAT-1, and reduced expression of AP, CRT, and P-gp by the BNB cell line at passage 20. Further studies demonstrated lower transendothelial electrical resistance (~181 vs. 191 ? cm(2)), equivalent permeability to fluoresceinated sodium (4.84 vs. 4.39 %), and lower permeability to fluoresceinated high molecular weight (70 kDa) dextran (0.39 vs. 0.52 %) by the BNB cell line. This cell line retained essential molecular and biophysical properties suitable for in vitro peripheral nerve permeability studies. PMID:23104242

  12. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer.

    PubMed

    Winklehner, D; Leitner, D; Cole, D; Machicoane, G; Tobos, L

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations. PMID:24593473

  13. Transporter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keisuke Mitsuoka; Sosuke Miyoshi; Yukio Kato; Yoshihiro Murakami; Rie Utsumi; Yoshiyuki Kubo; Akihiro Noda; Yukio Nakamura; Shintaro Nishimura; Akira Tsuji

    in the tumor-bearing mice, and in mice with inflammatory tissue, wereassessedbyimagingwithapositron planarimagingsystem (PPIS). Tissue distributions of tracer radioactivity were also measured. The expression levels of PEPT1 and PEPT2 (PEPTs) proteins in tumor xenografts and inflammatory tissue were examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The messenger RNA expression levels of PEPTs in 58 available cancer cell lines were quantified by means of real-time

  14. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING OF TANKS 241-AN-102 & 241-AP-107 & 241-AP-108 IN SUPPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

    2008-11-20

    This report presents the results of the corrosion rates that were measured using electrochemical methods for tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102), 241-AP-107 (AP 107), and 241-AP-108 (AP-108) performed under test plant RPP-PLAN-38215. The steel used as materials of construction for AN and AP tank farms was A537 Class 1. Test coupons of A537 Class 1 carbon steel were used for corrosion testing in the AN-107, AP-107, and AP-108 tank waste. Supernate will be tested from AN-102, AP-107, and Ap-108. Saltcake testing was performed on AP-108 only.

  15. In vitro establishment of ivermectin-resistant Rhipicephalus microplus cell line and the contribution of ABC transporters on the resistance mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Paula C; Carvalho, Danielle D; Daffre, Sirlei; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Masuda, Aoi

    2014-08-29

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is one of the most economically damaging livestock ectoparasites, and its widespread resistance to acaricides is a considerable challenge to its control. In this scenario, the establishment of resistant cell lines is a useful approach to understand the mechanisms involved in the development of acaricide resistance, to identify drug resistance markers, and to develop new acaricides. This study describes the establishment of an ivermectin (IVM)-resistant R. microplus embryonic cell line, BME26-IVM. The resistant cells were obtained after the exposure of IVM-sensitive BME26 cells to increasing doses of IVM in a step-wise manner, starting from an initial non-toxic concentration of 0.5 ?g/mL IVM, and reaching 6 ?g/mL IVM after a 46-week period. BME26-IVM cell line was 4.5 times more resistant to IVM than the parental BME26 cell line (lethal concentration 50 (LC50) 15.1 ± 1.6 ?g/mL and 3.35 ± 0.09 ?g/mL, respectively). As an effort to determine the molecular mechanisms governing resistance, the contribution of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter was investigated. Increased expression levels of ABC transporter genes were found in IVM-treated cells, and resistance to IVM was significantly reduced by co-incubation with 5 ?M cyclosporine A (CsA), an ABC transporter inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of these proteins in IVM-resistance. These results are similar to those already described in IVM-resistant tick populations, and suggest that similar resistance mechanisms are involved in vitro and in vivo. They reinforce the hypothesis that ABC transporters are involved in IVM resistance and support the use of BME26-IVM as an in vitro approach to study acaricide resistance mechanisms. PMID:24956999

  16. Overexpression of BpAP1 induces early flowering and produces dwarfism in Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haijiao; Wang, Shan; Jiang, Jing; Liu, Guifeng; Li, Huiyu; Chen, Su; Xu, Huanwen

    2014-08-01

    The involvement of APETALA1 (AP1) in the flowering transition has been the focus of much research. Here, we produced Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula (birch) lines that overexpressed BpAP1 using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation; we obtained five independent 35S::BpAP1 transgenic lines. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern, northern and western analyses were used to identify the transformants. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), BpAP1 expression in roots, shoots, leaves and terminal buds of 35S::BpAP1 transgenic lines was significantly higher than that in the wild type (WT, P < 0.01). The average height of 2-year-old 35S::BpAP1 plants was significantly lower (41.17%) than that of non-transgenic plants. In the 35S::BpAP1 lines, inflorescences emerged successively beginning 2 months after transplanting. In addition, the length-diameter ratio of fully developed male and female inflorescences were both significantly less than those of the WT (P < 0.05), i.e. the morphological characteristic was stubby. The male inflorescences emerged early, with empty, draped anthers, and pollen was rarely produced, whereas the female floret structure was not different from WT. The pistils developed normally and could accept pollen, leading to the production of hybrid progeny (F1 ). F1 plants completed flowering within only 1 year after sowing. We demonstrate that BpAP1 can be inherited through sexual reproduction. Overexpression of BpAP1 caused early flowering and dwarfism; these lines had an obviously shortened juvenile phase. These results greatly increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the flowering transition and enhance genetic studies of birch traits, and they open up new possibilities for the breeding of birch and other woody plants. PMID:24200078

  17. Validation of in vitro cell models used in drug metabolism and transport studies; genotyping of cytochrome P450, phase II enzymes and drug transporter polymorphisms in the human hepatoma (HepG2), ovarian carcinoma (IGROV-1) and colon carcinoma (CaCo-2, LS180) cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, Esther F.A. [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Bosch, Tessa M. [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deenen, Maarten J.; Levink, Rianne; Wal, Everdina van der; Meerveld, Joyce B.M. van; Bijl, Monique [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Beijnen, Jos H. [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schellens, Jan H.M. [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Department of Medical Oncology and Experimental Therapy, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meijerman, Irma [Department of Biomedical Analysis, Section of Drug Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: I.Meijerman@pharm.uu.nl

    2006-02-15

    Human cell lines are often used for in vitro biotransformation and transport studies of drugs. In vivo, genetic polymorphisms have been identified in drug-metabolizing enzymes and ABC-drug transporters leading to altered enzyme activity, or a change in the inducibility of these enzymes. These genetic polymorphisms could also influence the outcome of studies using human cell lines. Therefore, the aim of our study was to pharmacogenotype four cell lines frequently used in drug metabolism and transport studies, HepG2, IGROV-1, CaCo-2 and LS180, for genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes and drug transporters. The results indicate that, despite the presence of some genetic polymorphisms, no real effects influencing the activity of metabolizing enzymes or drug transporters in the investigated cell lines are expected. However, this characterization will be an aid in the interpretation of the results of biotransformation and transport studies using these in vitro cell models.

  18. Advanced APS impacts on vehicle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethylhydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination of scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  19. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - WILDLAND FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is aimed at consolidating, selecting, and disseminating the most appropriate data and methods for estimating air emissions from wildfires and prescribed burns. The product will replace a current section of AP-42, but may not take the precise form of an AP-42 secti...

  20. Advanced APS impacts on vehicle payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-04-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethylhydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination of scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  1. Update on autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS).

    PubMed

    Betterle, Corrado; Zanchetta, Renato

    2003-04-01

    Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes (APS) were initially defined as a multiple endocrine gland insufficiency associated to an autoimmune disease in a patient. Neufeld & Blizzard (1980) suggested a classification of APS, based on clinical criteria only, describing four main types. APS-1 is characterized by presence of chronic candidiasis, chronic hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease. It is a very rare syndrome interesting young subjects correlating to different mutations of AIRE (AutoImmuneRegulator) gene on chromosome 21. APS-2 is characterized by presence of Addison's disease (always present), autoimmune thyroid diseases and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. It is a rare syndrome interesting particularly adult females and associated to a genetic pattern of HLA DR3/DR4. Autoimmune thyroid diseases associated to other autoimmune diseases (excluding Addison's disease and/or hypoparathyroidism), are the main characteristics of APS-3. The different clinical combinations of autoimmune diseases not included in the previous groups are characteristics of APS-4. In this paper criteria for defining a disease as autoimmune are presented. Furthermore, the classification, epidemiology, pathogenesis, genetic, animal models, clinical features, laboratory's tests, imaging, therapy, recent progresses in understanding the APS and a detailed analysis of large group of our patients affected by different types of APS are proposed and discussed. PMID:12817789

  2. Advanced Placement Program: What's Changing in AP

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-26

    The AP Program has recently redesigned several courses in science, history, and world languages in an effort to stay strongly aligned with college credit policies and to prepare students for future learning and career pursuit. This website focuses on informing AP teachers about what's changing in AP, from course scope to exam preparation. The AP Chemistry revision will take effect in Fall, 2013. The change that will impact physics teachers most directly is the replacement of AP Physics B with two new year-long courses: AP Physics 1 Algebra-Based and AP Physics 2 Algebra-Based (scheduled to be deployed Fall, 2014). The changes to each course were guided by National Research Council and National Science Foundation recommendations, following several years of collaborations among university educators and master AP teachers. Especially noteworthy are the changes that integrate science practice as an essential component of the curriculum, along with statements that pair the essential knowledge (learning goal) to the appropriate science practice and articulate specific performance objectives.

  3. ISSN 1931-5015 APS SCIENCE 2013

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    science 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS iv. APS orgAnizAtion chArt 1 the AdvAnced Photon Source FAcility At ArgonneANL-14/04 ISSN 1931-5015 May 2014 APS SCIENCE 2013 RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING HIGHLIGHTS FROM of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-ACO2-06CH11357. About Argonne National

  4. RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS A.P.S. Selvadurai

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    nd Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Quebec City, pp.2.154-2.172. 9. Selvadurai, A.P.S., Bauer, G Conference, Quebec City, pp.2.211-2.224. #12;10. Selvadurai, A.P.S. (1979) The flexure of a uniformly loaded

  5. AP Courses Get Audited for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Ellie

    2007-01-01

    As the college admissions process has gotten much more competitive, the number of high school students taking Advanced Placement (AP) courses has soared. At the same time, policymakers and education leaders seek to get more minorities and students not on the college track to sign up for AP and other rigorous classes. But as high schools have…

  6. ANL/APS/LS-332 August 2012

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    ANL/APS/LS-332 August 2012 A Compact Soft X-ray Free-Electron Laser Facility based on a Dielectric, and perform publicly and display publicly, by or on behalf of the Government. #12;ANL/APS/LS-332 A COMPACT

  7. Analysis of large scale tests for AP-600 passive containment cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, W.T.; Chien, T.H.; Sun, J.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Chao, B.T. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-07-01

    One unique feature of the AP-600 is its passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which is designed to maintain containment pressure below the design limit for 72 hours without action by the reactor operator. During a design-basis accident, i.e., either a loss-of-coolant or a main steam-line break accident, steam escapes and comes in contact with the much cooler containment vessel wall. Heat is transferred to the inside surface of the steel containment wall by convection and condensation of steam and through the containment steel wall by conduction. Heat is then transferred from the outside of the containment surface by heating and evaporation of a thin liquid film that is formed by applying water at the top of the containment vessel dome. Air in the annual space is heated by both convection and injection of steam from the evaporating liquid film. The heated air and vapor rise as a result of natural circulation and exit the shield building through the outlets above the containment shell. All of the analytical models that are developed for and used in the COMMIX-ID code for predicting performance of the PCCS will be described. These models cover governing conservation equations for multicomponents single phase flow, transport equations for the {kappa}-{epsilon} two-equation turbulence model, auxiliary equations, liquid-film tracking model for both inside (condensate) and outside (evaporating liquid film) surfaces of the containment vessel wall, thermal coupling between flow domains inside and outside the containment vessel, and heat and mass transfer models. Various key parameters of the COMMIX-ID results and corresponding AP-600 PCCS experimental data are compared and the agreement is good. Significant findings from this study are summarized.

  8. Residual radiation studies at AP0

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander J Elwyn et al.

    2002-06-19

    The radiation environment at the NuMI experiment has received a lot of attention in the last few years in preparation for project construction. One important issue is the induced radioactivation of the components in the beam line and the shielding materials. This arises from irradiation by hadrons that are generated in the target. Since the level of the residual activity has to be considered when determining access procedures for maintenance during NuMI operation, an understanding of the properties of the remnant radiation is important. To this end, experimental studies were performed in the target vault at AP0 which is similar in design to the NuMI target area. Here 120 GeV protons bombard a target, generating the hadrons that produce the induced radioactivity. Two sets of samples each consisting of three small cylindrical or rectangular solids of iron and steel, one sample of aluminum, and one of concrete were irradiated. One set was hung just below the bottom of a module near the lithium lens (in-vault), and the other was placed on top of the modules downstream of this location (above-vault), just beneath the movable concrete roof of the vault at AP0. Further, four thin activation foils of Au, Au+Cd, In, and Al (along with small disks of the same iron, aluminum, and concrete samples discussed above) were mounted on four 10.2 cm diameter Al disks, one placed on the in-vault module and three at above-vault downstream locations as well. The radioactivity of all these materials on the 10.2 cm Al disks was determined at the Radioisotope Analysis Facility in an attempt to characterize the radionuclides produced during irradiation. The activities of the thin foils were employed in an effort to unfold a spectrum of the neutrons produced during the hadronic cascades in the target. The MARS Monte Carlo code (MO95, MO00) was used to predict and analyze the residual radiation produced during the beam irradiation. New subroutines have been developed for the MARS14 version providing reliable estimation of residual dose rates in arbitrary composite materials for arbitrary irradiation and cooling times (RA01). The results of the simulations have been compared with the measurements in Ref. (RA01) and this comparison will be summarized here.

  9. Enhancement of the helium resonance lines in the solar atmosphere by suprathermal electron excitation I: non-thermal transport of helium ions

    E-print Network

    G. R. Smith; C. Jordan

    2002-08-16

    Models of the solar transition region made from lines other than those of helium cannot account for the strength of the helium lines. However, the collisional excitation rates of the helium resonance lines are unusually sensitive to the energy of the exciting electrons. Non-thermal motions in the transition region could drive slowly-ionizing helium ions rapidly through the steep temperature gradient, exposing them to excitation by electrons characteristic of higher temperatures than those describing their ionization state. We present the results of calculations which use a more physical representation of the lifetimes of the ground states of He I and He II than was adopted in earlier work on this process. New emission measure distributions are used to calculate the temperature variation with height. The results show that non-thermal motions can lead to enhancements of the He I and He II resonance line intensities by factors that are comparable with those required. Excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions would reduce the effects of non-thermal transport. The effects of non-thermal motions are more consistent with the observed spatial distribution of helium emission than are those of excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions alone. In particular, they account better for the observed line intensity ratio I(537.0 A)/I(584.3 A), and its variation with location.

  10. A Demonstration of a Transportable Radio Interferometric Surveying System With 3-cm Accuracy on a 307-m Base Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Ong; P. F. MacDoran; J. B. Thomas; H. F. Fliegel; L. J. Skjerve; D. J. Spitzmesser; P. D. Batelaan; S. R. Paine; M. G. Newsted

    1976-01-01

    media effects, source locations, and earth orientation parameters. The base line vector derived from a weighted average of the measurements, representing approximately 24 h of data, possessed a formal uncertainty of about 3 cm in all components. This average interferometry base line vector was in good agreement with the conventional survey vector within the statistical range allowed by the combined

  11. Radial Velocity Variations in Pulsating Ap Stars. II. 33 Librae

    E-print Network

    Mkrtichian, D E; Kanaan, A; Mkrtichian, David E.; Hatzes, Artie P.; Kanaan, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    We present precise relative radial velocity (RV) measurements for the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star 33 Librae measured from high resolution data spanning the wavelength interval 5000--6200 A. We find that pulsational radial velocity amplitude determined over a broad wavelength range (~100 A) depends on the spectral region that is examined and can be as high as 60 m/s at 5600 A and as low as 7 m/s in the 5900 A region. RV measurements of individual spectral lines can show even higher RV amplitudes. The acoustic cross-sections of the atmosphere, i.e. the phase and amplitude of the pulsations, as a function of optical depth is found for spectral lines of Ca, Cr, Fe, La, Ce, Gd, Er and Nd. This analysis shows that pulsation phase is variable through the atmosphere and that Nd III lines pulsate almost 180 degrees out-of-phase with those of Nd II features and are formed significantly higher in the stellar atmosphere. This conclusively establishes the presence of at least one radial node to the pulsations in th...

  12. Off-line algorithm for calculation of vertical tracer transport in the troposphere due to deep convection

    E-print Network

    Belikov, Dmitry

    A modified cumulus convection parametrisation scheme is presented. This scheme computes the mass of air transported upward in a cumulus cell using conservation of moisture and a detailed distribution of convective precipitation ...

  13. Spectral Line Variations in the Ap Star HD 42536

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, G. S. D.; Jayakumr, K.; Velu, C.; Sujatha, S.

    2003-03-01

    The Sr-Cr type chemically peculiar star HD 42536 (= HR 2195) was observed with the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope. Kavalur during the period of November 1998 to April 1999. A total of 46 spectrograms were obtained in the wavelength region of 3900 Å to 4300 Å at a linear dispersion of 0.65 Å per pixel. The equivalent widths of Sr (4077) and Cr (4172) have been found to be varying with a period of 0.58 ± 0.02 day, the amplitudes being about 100 mÅ and 60 mÅ respectively. This period is a resonance value of the peroid given by Manfroid and Mathys (1985).

  14. Tank 241AP106, grab samples, 6AP96-1 through 6AP96-3 analytical results for the final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esch; Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. This document presents the analytical results for three samples (6AP-96-1, 6AP-96-2 and 6AP-96-3) taken from riser 1 @ 150° of tank 241-AP-1 06 on September 12, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1996) and the Data Quality Objectives for

  15. Induction of cells differentiation and ABC transporters expression by a myco-estrogen, zearalenone, in human choriocarcinoma cell line (BeWo).

    PubMed

    Prouillac, Caroline; Videmann, Bernadette; Mazallon, Michelle; Lecoeur, Sylvaine

    2009-09-19

    The mycotoxin zearalenone, produced by Fusarium species, is a worldwide contaminant of concern in cereals and other plant products. Due to its estrogenic activity, zearalenone (ZEA) is known to have toxicological effect in animals on reproductive system and the placental transfer of ZEA was suggested by in vivo studies. Although passive diffusion is the principal transport mechanism across the placenta, several carrier-mediated transport protein such as ABC transporter (P-gp, MRP1, MRP2, BCRP) have been identified in the placenta. In this work, we have investigated the effect of ZEA on trophoblast differentiation and ABC transporter expression by using an in vitro model of transplacental barrier, the BeWo cell line. In the presence of 10 microM ZEA morphological (syncytium formation) and biochemical (hCG secretion) differentiation of BeWo cells were observed after a 48h exposure. Results were compared to 17beta-estradiol (E2) and an inducer of syncytialisation (forskolin). The influence of cell differentiation and ZEA exposure on expression profiles of major ABC transporters was investigated in BeWo cells: expression of mRNA MRP1, MRP2 and BCRP was induced after 24h of ZEA exposure. Induction of P-gp, MRP1, and MRP2 protein was observed after 48h of ZEA exposure. Similar results were obtained after forskolin exposure. Our study reported for the first time the implication of a food contaminant in biological effect and ABC transporter expression modulation in human choriocarcinoma cells. PMID:19580841

  16. The A&P Professor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patton, Kevin T.

    2012-04-06

    Kevin Patton is the president emeritus of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) and he is also the brains behind the A&P (Anatomy & Physiology) Professor website. Patton has worked to create this online collection of resources for people teaching human anatomy and physiology, and it's a great counterpart to his blog of the same name. Visitors should start by looking over one of the five tabs at the top of the page, which include Resources, Topics, and How To. The How To contains resources for educators about producing online lectures and various in-class student response systems. The files here are dynamic, and they include interactive sections that make the material quite lively. Moving on, the Resources area includes an online version of an anatomy & physiology textbook created by Patton, along with links to other high-quality resources. Finally, the Lion's Den section of the site contains links to Patton's syllabi, course handouts, and a range of introductory materials for anyone who might be teaching a basic anatomy & physiology course.

  17. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples, 7AP-99-1, 7AP-99-3 and 7AP-99-4 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    BELL, K.E.

    1999-08-12

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107) grab samples taken in May 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-107 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999. Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. Interim data were provided earlier to River Protection Project (RPP) personnel, however, the data presented here represent the official results. No notification limits were exceeded.

  18. Extraneuronal monoamine transporter expression and DNA repair vis-à-vis 2-chloroethyl-3-sarcosinamide-1-nitrosourea cytotoxicity in human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z P; Remack, J; Brent, T P; Mohr, G; Panasci, L C

    1999-12-01

    We previously found that 2-chloroethyl-3-sarcosin-amide-1-nitrosourea (SarCNU), a new chloroethylnitrosourea analogue presently in phase I clinical trials, is a selective cytotoxin that enters cells via the extraneuronal transporter for monoamine transmitters (EMT). In this study, we assessed whether EMT expression correlates with SarCNU cytotoxicity by determining EMT expression in 23 human tumor cell lines with reverse-transcription PCR. Western blot analysis was used to measure protein levels of the DNA repair genes, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), and excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency gene 2 (ERCC2). SarCNU cytotoxicity was determined by the sulforhodamine B colorimetric anti-cancer-drug screening assay and correlated with gene expression. Almost all of the cell lines screened were positive for EMT expression. However, seven cell lines (MGR-1, MGR-2, T98-G, SKI-1, SKNSH, 297, and GBM) expressed low levels of EMT. Although there was no linear correlation between SarCNU cytotoxicity and EMT expression, SarCNU cytotoxicity significantly correlated with ERCC2 protein levels, and MGMT-rich (Mer+) cell lines (MGMT protein level >0.1) were more resistant to SarCNU than MGMT-poor (Mer-) cell lines (MGMT protein level <0.1). Moreover, multiple regression analysis indicated that the best correlation with SarCNU cytotoxicity was attainable with EMT plus MGMT and ERCC2 expression. This study suggests that in human tumor cell lines both EMT and DNA repair factors, specifically, MGMT and ERCC2, are important determinants of SarCNU activity. Because EMT is expressed in a wide variety of human tumors, SarCNU should be a more widely effective alternative chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:10632359

  19. Laboratory Director A.P. ALIVISATOS

    E-print Network

    Laboratory Director A.P. ALIVISATOS Research and Institutional Integrity Office M. E. MONTGOMERY Department Head Institutional Assurance H. K. HATAYAMA Director Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Universityof California Associate Laboratory Director Chief Operating Officer................ G. D. KUBIAK

  20. AP1000 design and construction integration

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, James W.; Clelland, Jill A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, P.O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Construction costs of commercial nuclear generating plants must be reduced in order to expand the future use of nuclear energy. Two of the drivers of plant construction costs are the cost of financing during the construction duration and the substantial amount of skilled craft labor hours needed on site during construction. The application of information technology (IT) has been used to understand and reduce both of these drivers by establishing parallel construction paths using modules and integrating construction sequence review into the design process. In a program sponsored by EPRI, Westinghouse has modeled the construction of AP1000 in '4D' to show its viability, to improve its logic, to improve the plant design for constructibility and overall to reduce time and risk in the construction schedule. The design of most of AP1000 was constrained to be a duplicate of AP600 except where components required expansion for the higher power level. As a result, the construction schedule for AP1000 is as mature and as robust as that for AP600. Two areas important to the construction of AP1000 did require some design work because they could not remain the same as AP1000. First, the turbine building had to be redesigned to accommodate the larger turbine and its support systems. Again, as much of the AP600 design and philosophy as possible was retained. The building required enlargement and the basemat, foundations, steel structure and structural modules required modification. As concrete, steel, and equipment were defined by the designers, they were matched to the original AP600 turbine building schedule. This forced designers to assemble files to be consistent with building assembly activities and to think about constructibility as they defined the final design. Second, the reinforcement structure within the concrete under and supporting the containment vessel required detail design. Westinghouse was fortunate to have the constructor Obayashi of Japan recommend a detailed design of this structure. It then was married to the overall construction plan in '4D' to ensure that the detail design did or did not impact the overall construction duration. With the extensive AP1000 3D design model graphics linked to a construction schedule during the design process, better reviews could be performed. Using '4D' techniques will be integrated more and more into the AP1000 design process as time goes on. (authors)

  1. APS Receives Continued Funding from NIDDK

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2010-09-22

    Press Release - BETHESDA, MD (September 22, 2010)Â? The American Physiological Society (APS; www.the-APS.org) has received continued funding from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK) for an additional two years of support effective July 1, 2010. The goal of the project is to encourage highly qualified students from groups underrepresented in the biomedical/behavioral sciences (especially underrepresented minority students) to pursue professional careers in physiological/biomedical sciences.

  2. ANL/APS/LS-321 1 Abstract--Research frontiers for future free-electron lasers

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    ANL/APS/LS-321 1 Abstract-- Research frontiers for future free-electron lasers are discussed accelerator simultaneously supporting multiple free-electron laser lines. Index Terms--Attosecond, brightness-rays. I. INTRODUCTION free-electron laser (FEL) facility consist of two major components: the FEL itself

  3. Comparison of a CCD and an APS for soft X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Graeme; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Clark, A.; Dhesi, S. S.; Maneuski, D.; Marchal, J.; Steadman, P.; Tartoni, N.; Turchetta, R.

    2011-12-01

    We compare a new CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) to a Princeton Instruments PIXIS-XO: 2048B Charge Coupled Device (CCD) with soft X-rays tested in a synchrotron beam line at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). Despite CCDs being established in the field of scientific imaging, APS are an innovative technology that offers advantages over CCDs. These include faster readout, higher operational temperature, in-pixel electronics for advanced image processing and reduced manufacturing cost. The APS employed was the Vanilla sensor designed by the MI3 collaboration and funded by an RCUK Basic technology grant. This sensor has 520 x 520 square pixels, of size 25 ?m on each side. The sensor can operate at a full frame readout of up to 20 Hz. The sensor had been back-thinned, to the epitaxial layer. This was the first time that a back-thinned APS had been demonstrated at a beam line at DLS. In the synchrotron experiment soft X-rays with an energy of approximately 708 eV were used to produce a diffraction pattern from a permalloy sample. The pattern was imaged at a range of integration times with both sensors. The CCD had to be operated at a temperature of -55°C whereas the Vanilla was operated over a temperature range from 20°C to -10°C. We show that the APS detector can operate with frame rates up to two hundred times faster than the CCD, without excessive degradation of image quality. The signal to noise of the APS is shown to be the same as that of the CCD at identical integration times and the response is shown to be linear, with no charge blooming effects. The experiment has allowed a direct comparison of back thinned APS and CCDs in a real soft x-ray synchrotron experiment.

  4. Project W-519 CDR supplement: Raw water and electrical services for privatization contractor, AP tank farm operations

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-07-31

    This supplement to the Project W-519 Conceptual Design will identify a means to provide RW and Electrical services to serve the needs of the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) at AP Tank Farm as directed by DOE-RL. The RW will serve the fire suppression and untreated process water requirements for the PC. The purpose of this CDR supplement is to identify Raw Water (RW) and Electrical service line routes to the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) feed delivery tanks, AP-106 and/or AP-108, and establish associated cost impacts to the Project W-519 baseline.

  5. I am the antenna: accurate outdoor AP location using smartphones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zengbin Zhang; Xia Zhou; Weile Zhang; Yuanyang Zhang; Gang Wang; Ben Y. Zhao; Haitao Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Today's WiFi access points (APs) are ubiquitous, and provide critical connectivity for a wide range of mobile networking devices. Many management tasks, e.g. optimizing AP placement and detecting rogue APs, require a user to efficiently determine the location of wireless APs. Unlike prior localization techniques that require either specialized equipment or extensive outdoor measurements, we propose a way to locate

  6. The chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660

    SciTech Connect

    Giarrusso, M. [Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    In this work I present the determination of chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660, a possible rapid oscillating star. As all the magnetic chemically peculiar objects, it presents CNO underabundance and overabundance of iron peak elements of ?100 times and of rare earths up to 4 dex with respect to the Sun. The determination was based on the conversion of the observed equivalent widths into abundances simultaneously to the determination of effective temperature and gravity. Since the Balmer lines of early type stars are very sensitive to the surface gravity while the flux distribution is sensitive to the effective temperature, I have adopted an iterative procedure to match the H{sub ?} line profile and the observed UV-Vis-NIR magnitudes of HD94660 looking for a consistency between the metallicity of the atmosphere model and the derived abundances. From my spectroscopic analysis, this star belongs to the no-rapid oscillating class.

  7. The spectrum of the roAp star HD 101065 (Przybylski's star) in the Li I 6708 Åspectral region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Shavrina; N. S. Polosukhina; Ya. V. Pavlenko; A. V. Yushchenko; P. Quinet; M. Hack; P. North; V. F. Gopka; J. Zverko; J. Zhiznovský; A. Veles

    2003-01-01

    We carried out a detailed analysis of spectra of the unique roAp star HD 101065 (Przybylski's star) near the resonance doublet Li I 6708 Å, using a most complete line list including all possible transitions between REE levels of the NIST database. Our model calculations were performed under two assumptions: a blend of Li and REE lines, and a blend

  8. Bulletin of the American Physical Society 53rd Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics

    E-print Network

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Coalescence in 3D Line-Tied Geometry Preview Abstract Authors: LiWei Lin (University of New Hampshire) Chung island coalescence is studied in 3D line-tied geometry, where very large Lundquist numbers are usedBulletin of the American Physical Society 53rd Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics

  9. Clathrin and AP-1 regulate apical polarity and lumen formation during C. elegans tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongjie; Kim, Ahlee; Abraham, Nessy; Khan, Liakot A.; Hall, David H.; Fleming, John T.; Gobel, Verena

    2012-01-01

    Clathrin coats vesicles in all eukaryotic cells and has a well-defined role in endocytosis, moving molecules away from the plasma membrane. Its function on routes towards the plasma membrane was only recently appreciated and is thought to be limited to basolateral transport. Here, an unbiased RNAi-based tubulogenesis screen identifies a role of clathrin (CHC-1) and its AP-1 adaptor in apical polarity during de novo lumenal membrane biogenesis in the C. elegans intestine. We show that CHC-1/AP-1-mediated polarized transport intersects with a sphingolipid-dependent apical sorting process. Depleting each presumed trafficking component mislocalizes the same set of apical membrane molecules basolaterally, including the polarity regulator PAR-6, and generates ectopic lateral lumens. GFP::CHC-1 and BODIPY-ceramide vesicles associate perinuclearly and assemble asymmetrically at polarized plasma membrane domains in a co-dependent and AP-1-dependent manner. Based on these findings, we propose a trafficking pathway for apical membrane polarity and lumen morphogenesis that implies: (1) a clathrin/AP-1 function on an apically directed transport route; and (2) the convergence of this route with a sphingolipid-dependent apical trafficking path. PMID:22535410

  10. Effects of electron heating on the current driven electrostatic ion cyclotron instability and plasma transport processes along auroral field lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supriya B. Ganguli; Peter J. Palmadesso; Horace G. Mitchell

    1988-01-01

    Fluid simulations of the plasma along auroral field lines in the return current region have been performed to show that the onset of electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) related anomalous resistivity and the consequent heating of electrons leads to much higher transverse ion temperature than the current driven EIC instability (CDICI) alone would produce. Anomalous resistivity enhances ion heating in two

  11. Effects of eletron heating on the current driven electrostatic ion cyclotron instability and plasma transport processes along auroral field lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supriya B. Ganguli; Horace G. Mitchell; Peter J. Palmadesso

    1988-01-01

    Fluid simulations of the plasma along auroral field lines in the return current region have been performed. It is shown that the onset of electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) related anomalous resistivity and the consequent heating of electrons leads to a transverse ion temperature that is much higher than that produced by the current driven EIC instability (CDICI) alone. Two processes

  12. Effects of electron heating on the current driven electrostatic ion cyclotron instability and plasma transport processes along auroral field lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supriya B. Ganguli; Peter J. Palmadesso; Horace G. Mitchell

    1988-01-01

    Fluid simulations of the plasma along auroral field lines in the return current tregion have been performed to show that the onset of electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) related anomalous resistivity and the consequent heating of electrons leads to much higher transverse ion temperature than the current driven EIC instability (CDICI) alone would produce. Anomalous resistivity enhances ion heating in two

  13. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  14. Single-Bunch Electron Cloud Effects in the GLC/NLC, US-Cold and TESLA Low Emittance Transport Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, D.

    2005-04-12

    This paper examines the severity of the electron cloud effects in the Low Emittance Transport (LET) of linear colliders including the Bunch-Compressor System (BCS) and Beam Delivery System (BDS). We examine the electron cloud effects in the normal-conducting GLC/NLC or X-Band, and the super-conducting US-Cold and TESLA linear collider designs through the use of specially developed computer simulation codes. An estimate of the critical cloud density is given for the BDS and BCS of the X-Band collider.

  15. TTFields alone and in combination with chemotherapeutic agents effectively reduce the viability of MDR cell sub-lines that over-express ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents may result in reduced sensitivity to structurally unrelated agents, a phenomenon known as multidrug resistance, MDR. The purpose of this study is to investigate cell growth inhibition of wild type and the corresponding MDR cells by Tumor Treating Fields - TTFields, a new cancer treatment modality that is free of systemic toxicity. The TTFields were applied alone and in combination with paclitaxel and doxorubicin. Methods Three pairs of wild type/MDR cell lines, having resistivity resulting from over-expression of ABC transporters, were studied: a clonal derivative (C11) of parental Chinese hamster ovary AA8 cells and their emetine-resistant sub-line EmtR1; human breast cancer cells MCF-7 and their mitoxantrone-resistant sub lines MCF-7/Mx and human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and their doxorubicin resistant MDA-MB-231/Dox cells. TTFields were applied for 72 hours with and without the chemotherapeutic agents. The numbers of viable cells in the treated cultures and the untreated control groups were determined using the XTT assay. Student t-test was applied to asses the significance of the differences between results obtained for each of the three cell pairs. Results TTFields caused a similar reduction in the number of viable cells of wild type and MDR cells. Treatments by TTFields/drug combinations resulted in a similar increased reduction in cell survival of wild type and MDR cells. TTFields had no effect on intracellular doxorubicin accumulation in both wild type and MDR cells. Conclusions The results indicate that TTFields alone and in combination with paclitaxel and doxorubicin effectively reduce the viability of both wild type and MDR cell sub-lines and thus can potentially be used as an effective treatment of drug resistant tumors. PMID:20492723

  16. Plyler Prize and APS Fellow Introductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathanson, Gilbert

    2014-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Physics is delighted to announce the 2013 APS Fellows sponsored by DCP and to honor the 2014 Earl K. Plyler Prize Award winner. The new APS Fellows are: Ilan Benjamin, Hua Guo, Manos Mavrikakis, Josef Paldus, Joern Siepmann, Hans-Peter Steinrueck, Douglas Tobias, Angela Wilson, and Yijing Yan. The citations for each awardee will be read out loud. I will also introduce Prof. Lai-Sheng Wang of the Department of Chemistry at Brown University, who was awarded the 2014 Plyler Prize for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics. Please come learn about these extraordinary scientists during this prize session. Prof. Wang's Plyler Prize talk will follow immediately after this introduction. For more information, see http://www.aps.org/units/dcp/.

  17. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - TRANSPORTABILITY FACTORS FOR FUGITIVE DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a table of factors, one for each county in the US, reflecting the portion of fugitive dust removed very close to the source via impaction on vegetation and similar mechanisms. Factors were based on land cover in area (county or grid cell) A praft final product was...

  18. Effect of magnetic fringe field and interference on beam matching in a Medium Energy Beam Transport line of the Spallation Neutron Source linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. G.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-08-01

    A Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line is employed in the Spallation Neutron Source linear accelerator (linac) to match the beam from a radio frequency quadrupole to a drift tube linac and to perform other functions. The MEBT lattice consists of 14 electromagnetic quadrupoles and other devices. The quads have very small aspect ratios (steel length over aperture diameter), and they are densely packed in the lattice. Significant fringe fields and magnetic interference cause difficulties in beam matching. We have performed 3D modeling of the magnets, expanded simulation data to 3D multipoles, computed their linear optical properties, and compared their performance with that predicted by simple hard-edge models. This paper reports our findings and a proposed general solution to the problem.

  19. Nanopattern fabrication via AP-UVO exposure of a self-organized block copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ye-Sul; Kim, Ah Ra; Ham, Yong-Hyun; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Do, Lee-Mi; Kim, Hong Seung

    2012-02-01

    Block copolymers were used to achieve nanoscale patterning. Block copolymers, particularly polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA), produce patterns from which one block polymer may be selectively etched. However, the selective wet etching of PMMA with acetic acid can induce the remaining PS structures to collapse due to capillary forces between adjacent PS domains during drying. This study presents an alternative approach to the formation of nanoscale patterns by using an atmospheric UV-ozone (AP-UVO, ? = 365 nm) exposure system. Compared with the general etching system, AP-UVO exposure is relatively low cost, can potentially be scaled up, and proceeds via a simple process. In addition, we demonstrate that the line and space (L/S) sizes of the block copolymer pattern can be controlled by using the AP-UVO etch time. Also, we were able to obtain well-ordered patterns from the combining the AP-UVO exposure process with a control process of block copolymers conditions. These results suggest that the AP-UVO exposure method with block copolymers may be used to form etch masks, particularly for the fabrication of graphene nanoribbons, quantum dots, nano grid wires, and nanopores.

  20. Power Saving Control for Battery-Powered Portable WLAN APs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Masakatsu; Hiraguri, Takefumi

    This paper proposes a power saving control function for battery-powered portable wireless LAN (WLAN) access points (APs) to extend the battery life. The IEEE802.11 standard does not support power saving control for APs. To enable a sleep state for an AP, the AP forces the stations (STAs) to refrain from transmitting frames using the network allocation vector (NAV) while the AP is sleeping. Thus the sleep state for the AP can be employed without causing frame loss at the STAs. Numerical analysis and computer simulation reveal that the newly proposed control technique conserves power compared to the conventional control.

  1. Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Toru [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higa, Shinji [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Arimitsu, Junsuke [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Naka, Tetsuji [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ogata, Atsushi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shima, Yoshihito [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Fujimoto, Minoru [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamadori, Tomoki [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki [Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan); Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kawase, Ichiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshio [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: ttanak@imed3.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2006-02-03

    Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1.

  2. SAR studies of dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes as inhibitors of the multidrug-resistance phenotype in a Leishmania tropica line overexpressing a P-glycoprotein-like transporter.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Selva, Fernando; Campillo, Mercedes; Reyes, Carolina P; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Castanys, Santiago; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Pardo, Leonardo; Gamarro, Francisco; Ravelo, Angel G

    2004-01-29

    A series of dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes isolated from the leaves of Maytenus cuzcoina (1-10) or semisynthetic derivatives (11-30) have been tested on a multidrug-resistant Leishmania tropica line overexpressing a P-glycoprotein-like transporter to determine their ability to revert the resistance phenotype and to modulate intracellular drug accumulation. Almost all natural compounds showed potent reversal activity with different degrees of selectivity. Compounds 2, 7, and 8 are the most effective reversal agents tested against the multidrug resistance phenotype of Leishmania. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships using the comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were employed to characterize the steric (contribution of 5.4%), electrostatic (58.9%), lipophilic (10.0%), and hydrogen-bond-donor (13.3%) and -acceptor (7.5%) requirements of these sesquiterpenes as modulators at the P-glycoprotein-like transporter. The most salient features of these requirements are the H-bond interaction between the substituents at the C-2 and C-6 positions with the receptor. PMID:14736239

  3. Transport of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor into liposomes across the blood-brain barrier: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaoling; Li, Guoqi; Li, Xiao; Lin, Caina; Yu, Ding; Luan, Shuo; Ma, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was encapsulated into liposomes in order to protect it from enzyme degradation in vivo and promote its permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, GDNF conventional liposomes (GDNF-L) and GDNF target sterically stabilized liposomes (GDNF-SSL-T) were prepared. The average size of liposomes was below 90 nm. A primary model of BBB was established and evaluated by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability. This BBB model was employed to study the permeability of GDNF liposomes in vitro. The results indicated that the liposomes could enhance transport of GDNF across the BBB and GDNF-SSL-T had achieved the best transport efficacy. The distribution of GDNF liposomes was studied in vivo. Free GDNF and GDNF-L were eliminated rapidly in the circulation. GDNF-SSL-T has a prolonged circulation time in the blood and favorable brain delivery. The values of the area under the curve (AUC(0-1 h)) in the brain of GDNF-SSL-T was 8.1 times and 6.8 times more than that of free GDNF and GDNF-L, respectively. These results showed that GDNF-SSL-T realized the aim of targeted delivery of therapeutic proteins to central nervous system. PMID:24583850

  4. Use of On-Line Tracers as a Diagnostic Tool in General Circulation Model Development. 2; Transport Between the Troposphere and Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David H.; Lerner, Jean; Shah, Kathy; Suozzo, Robert

    1999-01-01

    A key component of climate/chemistry modeling is how to handle the influx into (and egress from) the troposphere. This is especially important when considering tropospheric ozone, and its precursors (e.g., NO(x) from aircraft). A study has been conducted with various GISS models to determine the minimum requirements necessary for producing realistic troposphere-stratosphere exchange. Four on-line tracers are employed: CFC-11 and SF6 for mixing from the troposphere into the stratosphere, Rn222 for vertical mixing within the troposphere, and 14C for mixing from the stratosphere into the troposphere. Four standard models are tested, with varying vertical resolution, gravity wave drag and location of the model top, and additional subsidiary models are employed to examine specific features. The results show that proper vertical transport between the troposphere and stratosphere in the GISS models requires lifting the top of the model considerably out of the stratosphere, and including gravity wave drag in the lower stratosphere. Increased vertical resolution without these aspects does not improve troposphere-stratosphere exchange. The transport appears to be driven largely by the residual circulation within the stratosphere; associated E-P flux convergences require both realistic upward propagating energy from the troposphere, and realistic pass-through possibilities. A 23 layer version with a top at the mesopause and incorporating gravity wave drag appears to have reasonable stratospheric-tropospheric exchange, in terms of both the resulting tracer distributions and atmospheric mass fluxes.

  5. Hypermethylation of the human proton-coupled folate transporter (SLC46A1) minimal transcriptional regulatory region in an antifolate-resistant HeLa cell line.

    PubMed

    Diop-Bove, Ndeye Khady; Wu, Julia; Zhao, Rongbao; Locker, Joseph; Goldman, I David

    2009-08-01

    This laboratory recently identified a novel proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) that mediates intestinal folate absorption and transport of folates into the central nervous system. The present study focuses on the definition of the minimum transcriptional regulatory region of this gene in HeLa cells and the mechanism(s) underlying the loss of PCFT expression in the methotrexate-resistant HeLa R1-11 cell line. The PCFT transcriptional regulatory controls were localized between -42 and +96 bases from the transcriptional start site using a luciferase-reporter gene system. The promoter is a G + C rich region of 139 nucleotides contained in a CpG island. HeLa R1-11 cells have no mutations in the PCFT open reading frame and its promoter; the transcription/translation machinery is intact because transient transfections in HeLa R1-11 and wild-type HeLa cells produced similar luciferase activities. Hypermethylation at CpG sites within the minimal transcriptional regulatory region was shown in HeLa R1-11 cells as compared with the parental PCFT-competent HeLa cells, using bisulfite conversion and sequence analysis. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in a substantial restoration of transport and PCFT mRNA expression and small but significant decreases in methylation in the promoter region. In vitro methylation of the transfected reporter plasmid inhibited luciferase gene expression. Cytogenetics/fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated a loss of half the PCFT gene copies in HeLa R1-11 as compared with PCFT-competent HeLa cells. Taken together, promoter silencing through methylation and gene copy loss accounted for the loss of PCFT activity in antifolate-resistant HeLa R1-11 cells. PMID:19671745

  6. Characterization of a pituitary-tumor-derived cell line, TtT/GF, that expresses Hoechst efflux ABC transporter subfamily G2 and stem cell antigen 1.

    PubMed

    Mitsuishi, Hideo; Kato, Takako; Chen, Mo; Cai, Li-Yi; Yako, Hideji; Higuchi, Masashi; Yoshida, Saishu; Kanno, Naoko; Ueharu, Hiroki; Kato, Yukio

    2013-11-01

    The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is composed of five types of endocrine cells and of non-endocrine folliculo-stellate cells that produce various local signaling molecules. The TtT/GF cell line is derived from pituitary tumors, produces no hormones and has folliculo-stellate cell-like characteristics. The biological function of TtT/GF cells remains elusive but several properties have been postulated (support of endocrine cells, control of cell proliferation, scavenger function). Recently, we observed that TtT/GF cells have high resistance to the antibiotic G418 and low influx for Hoechst 33342, indicating the presence of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that efflux multiple drugs, i.e., a property similar to that of stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, we examine TtT/GF cells for the presence of ABC transporters, for the efflux ability of Hoechst 33342 and for those genes characteristic of TtT/GF cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ABC transporters demonstrated that Abcb1a, Abcb1b and Abcg2, regarded as stem cell markers, were characteristically expressed in TtT/GF cells but not in Tpit/F1 and L?T2 cells. Furthermore, the remarkable low-efflux ability of Hoechst 33342 from TtT/GF cells was confirmed by using inhibitors and contrasted with the abilities of Tpit/F1 and L?T2 cells. The high and specific expression of stem cell antigen 1 (Sca1) in TtT/GF cells was confirmed by real-time PCR. We also demonstrated those genes that are expressed abundantly and characteristically in TtT/GF, suggesting that TtT/GF cells have unique characteristics similar to those of stem/progenitor cells of endothelial or mesenchymal origin. Thus, the present study has revealed an intriguing property of TtT/GF cells, providing a new clue for an understanding of the function of this cell line. PMID:23881407

  7. APS 1002 Financial Engineering Instructor: Roy Kwon

    E-print Network

    APS 1002 Financial Engineering Instructor: Roy Kwon E-mail: rkwon@mie.utoronto.ca Course description: This course provides an introduction to financial engineering concepts especially relevant-income securities e.g. bonds, basic derivative securities e.g. options, portfolio (mean-variance) optimization

  8. APS Presents Awards at 2007 ABRCMS Conference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

    2008-02-01

    The APS presented awards to six minority undergraduate researchers for their oral and poster presentations in the physiological sciences at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS) at the Austin Convention Center in Austin, TX from November 7-10, 2007. ABRCMS is a national conference designed to facilitate increased minority involvement in biomedical and behavioral science careers.

  9. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  10. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

  11. APS Presents Awards at 2006 ABRCMS Conference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

    2007-04-01

    An article from The Physiologist. The APS presented awards to minority undergraduate researchers and was a major conference sponsor at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS) at the Anaheim Convention Center and Anaheim Marriott hotel in Anaheim, CA from November 8-11, 2006.

  12. Period Refinement for AP Canum Venaticorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudner, David Z.; McDuffie, Margaret

    1988-10-01

    The RR Lyrae variable AP CVN was examined for period changes in the interval 1964-1987 on plates taken at the Maria Mitchell Observatory. There is no evidence for period change in the interval. Revised linear elements are: JD(max)= 2443812.358 + 0.5746399 N.

  13. The Promise of AP World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  14. C-A/AP/#321 August 2008

    E-print Network

    C-A/AP/#321 August 2008 Higher order model power calculation of the 56 MHz SRF cavity E.M. Choi calculation of the 56 MHz SRF cavity E. M. Choi August 28, 2008 Abstract In this report, the HOM power superconducting RF cavity (SRF) is going to be installed in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) ring

  15. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-12-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107.

  16. Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and…

  17. Analysis of temporal noise in CMOS APS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Tian; Boyd A. Fowler; Abbas El Gamal

    1999-01-01

    Temporal noise sets a fundamental limit on image sensor performance, especially under low illumination and in video applications. In a CCD image sensor, temporal noise is well studied and characterized. It is primarily due to the photodetector shot noise and the thermal and 1\\/f noise of the output charge to voltage amplifier. In a CMOS APS several addition sources contribute

  18. CMOS APS ASIC testing and evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Moussa; T. A. Elkhatib; H. Haddara; H. F. Ragaie

    2004-01-01

    An ASIC CMOS image Active Pixel Sensor (APS) with combined linear and logarithmic modes of operation is presented. The chip consists of a 64 x 64 pixel array, together with its digital control and timing circuits. Test structures including individual photodiodes and pixels are also integrated for characterization purpose. The chip features selectable linear and logarithmic modes of operation, digitally

  19. Structuring the AP Art History Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herscher, Walter R.

    2013-01-01

    While AP (Advanced Placement) Art History may be taught within the art department in many schools, social studies teachers are equally capable of teaching the course well. They have the historical background to discuss the reasons for changes in art styles. A teacher's preparation is similar to teaching a course stressing political history,…

  20. Pulsation tomography of rapidly oscillating Ap stars. Resolving the third dimension in peculiar pulsating stellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikova, T.; Sachkov, M.; Kochukhov, O.; Lyashko, D.

    2007-10-01

    Aims:We present detailed analysis of the vertical pulsation mode cross-section in ten rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars based on spectroscopic time-series observations. The aim of this analysis is to derive from observations a complete picture of how the amplitude and phase of magnetoacoustic waves depend on depth. Methods: We use the unique properties of roAp stars, in particular chemical stratification, to resolve the vertical structure of p-modes. Our approach consists of characterising pulsational behaviour of a carefully chosen, but extensive sample of spectral lines. We analyse the resulting amplitude-phase diagrams and interpret observations in terms of pulsation wave propagation. Results: We find common features in the pulsational behaviour of roAp stars. Within a sample of representative elements the lowest amplitudes are detected for Eu ii (and Fe in 33 Lib and in HD 19918), then pulsations go through the layers where H? core, Nd, and Pr lines are formed. There RV amplitude reaches its maximum, and after that decreases in most stars. The maximum RV of the second REE ions is always delayed relative to the first ions. The largest phase shifts are detected in Tb iii and Th iii lines. Pulsational variability of the Th iii lines is detected here for the first time. The Y ii lines deviate from this picture, showing even lower amplitudes than Eu ii lines but half a period phase shift relative to other weakly pulsating lines. We measured an extra broadening, equivalent to a macroturbulent velocity from 4 to 11-12 km s-1 (where maximum values are observed for Tb iii and Th iii lines), for pulsating REE lines. The surface magnetic field strength is derived for the first time for three roAp stars: HD 9289 (2 kG), HD 12932 (1.7 kG), and HD 19918 (1.6 kG). Conclusions: The roAp stars exhibit similarity in the depth-dependence of pulsation phase and amplitude, indicating similar chemical stratification and comparable vertical mode cross-sections. In general, pulsations waves are represented by a superposition of the running and standing wave components. In the atmospheres of roAp stars with the pulsation frequency below the acoustic cut-off frequency, pulsations have a standing-wave character in the deeper layers and behave like a running wave in the outer layers. Cooler roAp stars develop a running wave higher in the atmosphere. In stars with pulsation frequency close to the acoustic cut-off one, pulsation waves have a running character starting from deep layers. The transition from standing to running wave is accompanied by an increase in the turbulent broadening of spectral lines. Based on observations made with the SAO 6-m telescope, with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, and the ESO VLT (DDT programme 274.D-5011 and programme 072.D-0138, retrieved through the ESO archive). Table 3 and Figs. 5, 6, 8-10, 12, 13 and 15-18 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Curcumin inhibits AP-2?-induced apoptosis in the human malignant testicular germ cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chang; Zhao, Xiao-meng; Li, Xiao-feng; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-ting; Liu, Xi-zhi; Ding, Xiao-feng; Xiang, Shuang-lin; Zhang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of curcumin on proliferation and apoptosis in testicular cancer cells in vitro and to investigate its molecular mechanisms of action. Methods: NTera-2 human malignant testicular germ cell line and F9 mouse teratocarcinoma stem cell line were used. The anti-proliferative effect was examined using MTT and colony formation assays. Hoechst 33258 staining, TUNEL and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assays were used to analyze cell apoptosis. Protein expression was examined with Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical staining. Results: Curcumin (5, 10 and 15 ?mol/L) inhibited the viability of NTera-2 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Curcumin significantly inhibited the colony formation in both NTera-2 and F9 cells. Curcumin dose-dependently induced apoptosis of NTera-2 cells by reducing FasL expression and Bcl-2-to-Bax ratio, and activating caspase-9, -8 and -3. Furthermore, curcumin dose-dependently reduced the expression of AP transcription factor AP-2? in NTera-2 cells, whereas the pretreatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 blocked both the curcumin-induced reduction of AP-2? and antiproliferative effect. Curcumin inhibited ErbB2 expression, and decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK in NTera-2 cells. Conclusion: Curcumin induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in NTera-2 cells via the inhibition of AP-2?-mediated downstream cell survival signaling pathways. PMID:23685957

  2. CYLD Inhibits Tumorigenesis and Metastasis by Blocking JNK/AP1 Signaling at Multiple Levels

    PubMed Central

    de Marval, Paula Miliani; Lutfeali, Shazia; Jin, Jane Y.; Leshin, Benjamin; Selim, M. Angelica; Zhang, Jennifer Y.

    2011-01-01

    CYLD has been recognized as a tumor suppressor due to its dominant genetic linkage to multiple types of epidermal tumors and a range of other cancers. The molecular mechanisms governing CYLD control of skin cancer are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that K14-driven epidermal expression of a patient relevant and catalytically deficient CYLD truncation mutant (CYLDm) sensitized mice to skin tumor development in response to DMBA/TPA-challenge. Tumors developed on transgenic mice were prone to malignant progression and lymph node metastasis, and displayed increased activation of JNK and the downstream c-Jun and c-Fos proteins. Most importantly, topical application of a pharmacological JNK inhibitor significantly reduced tumor development and abolished metastasis in the transgenic mice. Further in line with these animal data, exogenous expression of CYLDm in A431, a human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line, markedly enhanced cell growth, migration and subcutaneous tumor growth in an AP1-depdendent manner. In contrast, expression of the wild type CYLD inhibited SCC tumorigenesis and AP1 function. Most importantly, CYLDm not only increased JNK activation but also induced an upregulation of K63-ubiquitination on both c-Jun and c-Fos, leading to sustained AP1 activation. Our findings uncovered c-Jun and c-Fos as novel CYLD-targets and underscore that CYLD controls epidermal tumorigenesis through blocking the JNK/AP1 signaling pathway at multiple levels. PMID:21478324

  3. Hexose transport in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) negative lymphoma lines and their EBV converted, virus genome carrying sublines.

    PubMed

    Siegert, W; Mönch, T

    1981-11-01

    Increased hexose uptake is a marker for viral transformation, as has been shown in non-human fibroblasts transformed by oncogenic viruses. If this phenomenon is a general expression of viral induced transformation it should also apply on different oncogenic virus-cell systems. Recently two human EBV-negative lymphoma lines were converted to a stable EBV-positive state by infection with EBV. According to their biochemical and biological properties they enable us to study events associated with EBV-transformation. We analysed the uptake of (3H) glucosamine and (3H) 2-deoxy-D-glucose into BJAB and Ramos and their EBV-converted sublines and found a clear increase of the rate of uptake of both sugars in the EBV-positive sublines. Control experiments confirmed that the increased uptake was due to alterations on the level of the hexose membrane carriers and not due to increased metabolism. The observation of increased hexose uptake in the only presented available virus transformed human cell system is a strong argument for the general importance of this transformation-associated membrane change. PMID:6275931

  4. 76 FR 82079 - AP1000 Design Certification Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...Quality Systems Manual, as described in the AP1000 Design Control Document...Design Report for the AP1000...Quality Systems Manual...proposed changes to the design of the PCCS to add manual maintenance...

  5. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for residential fireplaces and woodstoves which are incorporated into AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness infor...

  6. The Cryptosporidium parvum ApiAP2 gene family: insights into the evolution of apicomplexan AP2 regulatory systems

    PubMed Central

    Oberstaller, Jenna; Pumpalova, Yoanna; Schieler, Ariel; Llinás, Manuel; Kissinger, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    We provide the first comprehensive analysis of any transcription factor family in Cryptosporidium, a basal-branching apicomplexan that is the second leading cause of infant diarrhea globally. AP2 domain-containing proteins have evolved to be the major regulatory family in the phylum to the exclusion of canonical regulators. We show that apicomplexan and perkinsid AP2 domains cluster distinctly from other chromalveolate AP2s. Protein-binding specificity assays of C. parvum AP2 domains combined with motif conservation upstream of co-regulated gene clusters allowed the construction of putative AP2 regulons across the in vitro life cycle. Orthologous Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) expression has been rearranged relative to the malaria parasite P. falciparum, suggesting ApiAP2 network rewiring during evolution. C. hominis orthologs of putative C. parvum ApiAP2 proteins and target genes show greater than average variation. C. parvum AP2 domains display reduced binding diversity relative to P. falciparum, with multiple domains binding the 5?-TGCAT-3?, 5?-CACACA-3? and G-box motifs (5?-G[T/C]GGGG-3?). Many overrepresented motifs in C. parvum upstream regions are not AP2 binding motifs. We propose that C. parvum is less reliant on ApiAP2 regulators in part because it utilizes E2F/DP1 transcription factors. C. parvum may provide clues to the ancestral state of apicomplexan transcriptional regulation, pre-AP2 domination. PMID:24957599

  7. Relationship between ?-AP peptide aggregation and microglial activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carme Casal; Joan Serratosa; Josep M. Tusell

    2002-01-01

    We compared the relationship between the state of aggregation of two peptides (?-AP 25-35 and ?-AP 1-42) and microglial activation. After 7 days at 37°C ?-AP 25-35 was in an amorphous state and did not activate microglial cells. In the same conditions, aggregated ?-AP 1-42 activated these cells and caused changes in microglial ramification, increasing the proliferation index and inducing

  8. Dose calculations using MARS for Bremsstrahlung beam stops and collimators in APS beamline stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dooling

    2010-01-01

    The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MARS is used to model the generation of gas bremsstrahlung (GB) radiation from 7-GeV electrons which scatter from residual gas atoms in undulator straight sections within the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Additionally, MARS is employed to model the interactions of the GB radiation with components along the x-ray beamlines and then determine

  9. Study of CMOS APS Responsivity Enhancement: Ring-Shaped Photodiode

    E-print Network

    Study of CMOS APS Responsivity Enhancement: Ring-Shaped Photodiode Tatiana Danov, Igor Shcherback the possibilities of CMOS APS spectral response improvement are discussed. Thorough submicron scanning results sensitivity. Index Terms - APS (Active Pixel Sensor), CMOS image sensor, minority carriers, diffusion

  10. AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant safety overview for spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gorgemans, J.; Mulhollem, L.; Glavin, J.; Pfister, A.; Conway, L.; Schulz, T.; Oriani, L.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and costs. The AP1000 design uses passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as AC power, component cooling water, service water or HVAC. Furthermore, these passive features 'fail safe' during a non-LOCA event such that DC power and instrumentation are not required. The AP1000 also has simple, active, defense-in-depth systems to support normal plant operations. These active systems provide the first level of defense against more probable events and they provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the probabilistic risk assessment. The AP1000 passive safety approach allows the plant to achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of an accident for 72 hours without operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the U.S. Utility Requirement Document and the European Utility Requirements for passive plants. Limited operator actions are required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool via passive means. In line with the AP1000 approach to safety described above, the AP1000 plant design features multiple, diverse lines of defense to ensure spent fuel cooling can be maintained for design-basis events and beyond design-basis accidents. During normal and abnormal conditions, defense-in-depth and other systems provide highly reliable spent fuel pool cooling. They rely on off-site AC power or the on-site standby diesel generators. For unlikely design basis events with an extended loss of AC power (i.e., station blackout) or loss of heat sink or both, spent fuel cooling can still be provided indefinitely: - Passive systems, requiring minimal or no operator actions, are sufficient for at least 72 hours under all possible pool heat load conditions. - After 3 days, several different means are provided to continue spent fuel cooling using installed plant equipment as well as off-site equipment with built-in connections. Even for beyond design basis accidents with postulated pool damage and multiple failures in the passive safety-related systems and in the defense-in-depth active systems, the AP1000 multiple spent fuel pool spray and fill systems provide additional lines of defense to prevent spent fuel damage. (authors)

  11. Analysis of the Retrograde Transport of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF), Neurturin, and Persephin Suggests That In Vivo Signaling for the GDNF Family is GFRa Coreceptor-Specific

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie L. Leitner; Derek C. Molliver; Patricia A. Osborne; Richard Vejsada; Judy P. Golden; Patricia A. Lampe; Ann C. Kato; Jeffrey Milbrandt; Eugene M. Johnson Jr

    Neurturin (NRTN) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are members of a family of trophic factors with similar actions in vitro on certain neuronal classes. Retrograde trans- port of GDNF and NRTN was compared in peripheral sensory, sympathetic, and motor neurons to determine whether in vivo these factors are transported selectively by different neuronal populations. After sciatic nerve injections,

  12. NF-?B inhibition significantly upregulates the norepinephrine transporter system, causes apoptosis in pheochromocytoma cell lines and prevents metastasis in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Pacak, Karel; Sirova, Marta; Giubellino, Alessio; Lencesova, Lubomira; Csaderova, Lucia; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are specific types of neuroendocrine tumors that originate in the adrenal medulla or sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Although these tumors are intensively studied, a very effective treatment for metastatic PHEO or PGL has not yet been established. Preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for these tumors are very much required. Therefore, in the present study we tested the effect of triptolide (TTL), a potent nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) inhibitor, on the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter system (NET), considered to be the gatekeeper for the radiotherapeutic agent 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). We measured changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NET and correlated them with proapoptotic factors and metastasis inhibition. The study was carried out on three different stable pheochromocytoma cell lines. We found that blocking NF-?B with TTL or capsaicin (KPSC) increased both NET mRNA and protein levels. Involvement of NF-?B in the upregulation of NET was verified by mRNA silencing of this site and also by using NF-?B antipeptide. Moreover, MIBG transport was increased in TTL-treated cells and in vivo treatment with TTL significantly reduced metastatic burden in a metastatic animal model of pheochromocytoma. The present study for the first time shows mechanistically how NF-?B inhibitors can be successfully used in the treatment of metastatic PHEO/PGL by a significant upregulation of NET to increase the efficacy of 131I-MIBG and by the induction of apoptosis. PMID:22407736

  13. Unexpected Heterodivalent Recruitment of NOS1AP to nNOS Reveals Multiple Sites for Pharmacological Intervention in Neuronal Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Li; Melero-Fernandez de Mera, Raquel M; Chen, Jia; Ba, Wei; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Zhang, Mingjie; Courtney, Michael J

    2015-05-13

    The protein NOS1AP/CAPON mediates signaling from a protein complex of NMDA receptor, PSD95 and nNOS. The only stroke trial for neuroprotectants that showed benefit to patients targeted this ternary complex. NOS1AP/nNOS interaction regulates small GTPases, iron transport, p38MAPK-linked excitotoxicity, and anxiety. Moreover, the nos1ap gene is linked to disorders from schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and autism to cardiovascular disorders and breast cancer. Understanding protein interactions required for NOS1AP function, therefore, has broad implications for numerous diseases. Here we show that the interaction of NOS1AP with nNOS differs radically from the classical PDZ docking assumed to be responsible. The NOS1AP PDZ motif does not bind nNOS as measured by multiple methods. In contrast, full-length NOS1AP forms an unusually stable interaction with nNOS. We mapped the discrepancy between full-length and C-terminal PDZ motif to a novel internal region we call the ExF motif. The C-terminal PDZ motif, although neither sufficient nor necessary for binding, nevertheless promotes the stability of the complex. It therefore potentially affects signal transduction and suggests that functional interaction of nNOS with NOS1AP might be targetable at two distinct sites. We demonstrate that excitotoxic pathways can be regulated, in cortical neuron and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rat, either by the previously described PDZ ligand TAT-GESV or by the ExF motif-bearing region of NOS1AP, even when lacking the critical PDZ residues as long as the ExF motif is intact and not mutated. This previously unrecognized heterodivalent interaction of nNOS with NOS1AP may therefore provide distinct opportunities for pharmacological intervention in NOS1AP-dependent signaling and excitotoxicity. PMID:25972165

  14. Epithelial transport of deoxynivalenol: involvement of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (ABCC2).

    PubMed

    Videmann, Bernadette; Tep, Jonathan; Cavret, Séverine; Lecoeur, Sylvaine

    2007-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a major mycotoxic contaminant of cereal grains in Europe and North America. Human and animal contamination occurs mainly orally, and the toxin must traverse the intestinal epithelial barrier before inducing potential health effects. This study investigates the mechanisms of DON transepithelial transfer. Investigations using the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line showed a basal-to-apical polarized transport of the toxin. Both apical-basolateral (AP-BL) and basolateral-apical (BL-AP) transfers were time- and concentration-dependent, and not saturable between 5 and 30 microM DON. Arrhenius plot analysis revealed that transfer of 10 microM DON was temperature-dependent, with apparent activation energy E(a)=3.2 kcal mol(-1) in the AP-BL direction, and E(a)=10.4 kcal mol(-1) in the BL-AP direction. Intracellular DON accumulation was increased and DON efflux was decreased by ATP depletion, by P-glycoprotein inhibitor valspodar and by MRP2 inhibitor MK571, but not by BCRP inhibitor Ko143. Intracellular DON accumulation was then investigated using epithelial cell lines transfected with human P-glycoprotein or MRP2. This accumulation was decreased in LLCPK1-MDR1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cells, compared to wild-type cells, and the decrease could be reversed by valspodar or MK571. Taken together, these results suggest that DON is a substrate for both P-glycoprotein and MRP2. PMID:17543436

  15. Zinc transporter 2 (SLC30A2) can suppress the vesicular zinc defect of adaptor protein 3-depleted fibroblasts by promoting zinc accumulation in lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Falcón-Pérez, Juan M.; Dell’Angelica, Esteban C.

    2007-01-01

    Zinc accumulation in the lumen of cytoplasmic vesicles is one of the mechanisms by which cells can store significant amounts of this essential but potentially toxic biometal. Previous studies had demonstrated reduced vesicular zinc levels in fibroblasts from mutant mice deficient in adaptor protein 3 (AP-3), a complex involved in protein trafficking to late endosomes and lysosomes. We have observed a similar phenotype in the human fibroblastoid cell line, M1, upon small interference RNA-mediated AP-3 knockdown. A survey of the expression and localization of zinc transporter (ZnT) family members identified ZnT2, ZnT3 and ZnT4 as likely mediators of vesicular zinc accumulation in M1 cells. Expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged ZnT2 and ZnT3 promoted accumulation of vesicular zinc as visualized using the indicator zinquin. Moreover, GFP-ZnT2 overexpression elicited a significant accumulation of zinc within mature lysosomes, which in untransfected M1 cells contained little or no chelatable zinc, and restored the zinc storage capability of AP-3-deficient cells. These results suggest that ZnT2 can facilitate vesicular zinc accumulation independently of AP-3 function, and validate the M1 fibroblastoid line as a human cell culture system amenable to the study of vesicular zinc regulation using techniques compatible with functional genomic approaches. PMID:17349999

  16. APS Conference on Understanding the Biological Clock: From Genetics to Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Martin

    1996-01-01

    The Conference was designed to take advantage of the fusion of two intellectually dominant but heretofore separate lines of clock research, vertebrate physiology and invertebrate and microbial genetics. The APS Conference attracted 251 scientists, 68 of whom were students. In addition to the excellent speaker program organized by Dunlap and Loros, the attendees also submitted 93 volunteer abstracts that were programmed in poster sessions. Thirty-four percent of the submitted abstracts were first authorized by a female student or scientist.

  17. Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

    1997-09-01

    A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm{sup 2} (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented.

  18. Leading modes of variability in AP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    We present a study of the low-frequency variability of the zonal-mean circulation in full-physics, steady-state AP simulations. The leading mode appears to conform to a delayed-oscillator paradigm. We analyze the involvement of fluxes of moisture and angular momentum, both in the inner domain and at the boundaries, in shaping and sustaining this mode, and we discuss its sensitivity to peculiarities of simulations with current GCMs, such as non-conservation.

  19. Vacuum chamber thermal protection for the APS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Kramer; E. A. Crosbie; S. Kim; R. Wehrle; M. Yoon

    1989-01-01

    The authors summarize the results of a task group that studied the vacuum-chamber thermal protection problem for the Advanced Photon Source (APS). It is pointed out that the high-power-density photon beams in the proposed next generation of synchrotron light sources introduce new risks to the integrity of the ring vacuum chambers. In these machines, power densities are such that vacuum

  20. Estrogen receptor pathways to AP1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Kushner; David A. Agard; Geoffrey L. Greene; Thomas S. Scanlan; Andrew K. Shiau; Rosalie M. Uht; Paul Webb

    2000-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) binds to estrogen response elements in target genes and recruits a coactivator complex of CBP-pl60 that mediates stimulation of transcription. ER also activates transcription at AP-1 sites that bind the Jun\\/Fos transcription factors, but not ER. We review the evidence regarding mechanisms whereby ER increases the activity of Jun\\/Fos and propose two pathways of ER action depending

  1. Modeling and simulation of CMOS APS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Blanco-Filgueira; P. Lopez; Diego Cabello; J. Ernst; H. Neubauer; J. Hauer

    2009-01-01

    This work studies the importance of the peripheral collection in the overall photoresponse in deep sub-micron CMOS 3T active pixel sensors (APS), focusing on the contribution of the bottom surface of the depletion region. We analyze a semi-analytical expression, inspired by previous works, that models the photoresponse of a set of fabricated pixels with octagonal photodiodes that could be easily

  2. In-pixel autoexposure cmos aps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orly Yadid-Pecht; Alexander Belenky

    2003-01-01

    A CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) with in-pixel auto- exposure and a wide dynamic-range linear output is described. The chip features a unique architecture enabling a customized number of additional bits per pixel per readout, with minimal effect on the sensor spatial or temporal resolution. By utilizing multiple read- outs via real-time feedback, each pixel in the field of view

  3. Cultural Diversity in AP Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Frances R.

    2006-01-01

    Teaching AP Art History is like running on a treadmill that is moving faster than a teacher can run. Many teachers are out of breath before the end of the term and wonder how in the world they can cover every chapter. Because time is short and art from pre-history through to the present, including the non-European traditions, must be covered, this…

  4. Differential Expression of Folate Receptor-Alpha, Sodium-Dependent Multivitamin Transporter, and Amino Acid Transporter (B (0, +)) in Human Retinoblastoma (Y-79) and Retinal Pigment Epithelial (ARPE-19) Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Jwala, Jwala; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Boddu, Sai Hanuman Sagar; Pal, Dhananjay

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The overall objective of this study was to investigate the differential expression of folate receptor-alpha (FR-?), sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), and amino acid transporter [B (0, +)] in retinoblastoma (Y-79) and retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells. Methods Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was performed to confirm the existence of FR-?, SMVT, and B (0, +) in Y-79 and ARPE-19?cell lines. Quantitative real-time PCR was also performed to determine the relative expression of FR-?, SMVT, and B (0, +) at mRNA level in these cell lines. Quantitative uptake of [3H] Folic acid, [3H] Biotin, and [14C] Arginine was studied in Y-79 and ARPE-19?cells. Further, saturation kinetics of [3H] Folic acid, [3H] Biotin, and [14C] Arginine was performed in the presence of various concentrations of respective cold substrates to determine the kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) in Y-79 and ARPE-19?cells. Results PCR analysis had confirmed the existence of FR-?, SMVT, and B (0, +) in Y-79 and ARPE-19?cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis had shown significantly higher expression of FR-?, SMVT, and B (0, +) mRNA levels in Y-79?cells compared with ARPE-19?cells. Quantitative uptake of [3H] Folic acid, [3H] Biotin, and [14C] Arginine was found to be significantly higher in Y-79?cells relative to ARPE-19?cells. [3H] Folic acid uptake process followed saturation kinetics with apparent Km of 8.29?nM and Vmax of 393.47?fmol/min/mg protein in Y-79?cells and Km of 80.55?nM and Vmax of 491.86?fmol/min/mg protein in ARPE-19?cells. [3H] Biotin uptake process also displayed saturation kinetics with Km of 8.53??M and Vmax of 14.12?pmol/min/mg protein in Y-79?cells and Km of 138.25??M and Vmax of 38.85?pmol/min/mg protein in ARPE-19?cells. [14C] Arginine uptake process followed saturation kinetics with Km of 16.77??M and Vmax of 348.27?pmol/min/mg protein in Y-79?cells and Km of 52.03??M and Vmax of 379.21?pmol/min/mg protein in ARPE-19?cells. Conclusions This work demonstrated for the first time the higher expression and affinity of FR-?, SMVT, and B (0, +) mRNA levels in retinoblastoma (Y-79) cells compared with retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells. PMID:22304562

  5. Cloning and characterisation of hAps1 and hAps2, human diadenosine polyphosphate-metabolising Nudix hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Nick R; McLennan, Alexander G; Safrany, Stephen T

    2002-01-01

    Background The human genome contains at least 18 genes for Nudix hydrolase enzymes. Many have similar functions to one another. In order to understand their roles in cell physiology, these proteins must be characterised. Results We have characterised two novel human gene products, hAps1, encoded by the NUDT11 gene, and hAps2, encoded by the NUDT10 gene. These cytoplasmic proteins are members of the DIPP subfamily of Nudix hydrolases, and differ from each other by a single amino acid. Both metabolise diadenosine-polyphosphates and, weakly, diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. An apparent polymorphism of hAps1 has also been identified, which leads to the point mutation S39N. This has also been characterised. The favoured nucleotides were diadenosine 5',5"'-pentaphosphate (kcat/Km = 11, 8 and 16 × 103M-1s-1 respectively for hAps1, hAps1-39N and hAps2) and diadenosine 5',5"'-hexaphosphate (kcat/Km = 13, 14 and 11 × 103M-1s-1 respectively for hAps1, hAps1-39N and hAps2). Both hAps1 and hAps2 had pH optima of 8.5 and an absolute requirement for divalent cations, with manganese (II) being favoured. Magnesium was not able to activate the enzymes. Therefore, these enzymes could be acutely regulated by manganese fluxes within the cell. Conclusions Recent gene duplication has generated the two Nudix genes, NUDT11 and NUDT10. We have characterised their gene products as the closely related Nudix hydrolases, hAps1 and hAps2. These two gene products complement the activity of previously described members of the DIPP family, and reinforce the concept that Ap5A and Ap6A act as intracellular messengers. PMID:12121577

  6. NF-?B inhibition significantly upregulates the norepinephrine transporter system, causes apoptosis in pheochromocytoma cell lines and prevents metastasis in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Pacak, Karel; Sirova, Marta; Giubellino, Alessio; Lencesova, Lubomira; Csaderova, Lucia; Laukova, Marcela; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2012-11-15

    Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are specific types of neuroendocrine tumors that originate in the adrenal medulla or sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Although these tumors are intensively studied, a very effective treatment for metastatic PHEO or PGL has not yet been established. Preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for these tumors are very much required. Therefore, in this study we tested the effect of triptolide (TTL), a potent nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) inhibitor, on the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter (NET) system, considered to be the gatekeeper for the radiotherapeutic agent 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). We measured changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NET and correlated them with proapoptotic factors and metastasis inhibition. The study was performed on three different stable PHEO cell lines. We found that blocking NF-?B with TTL or capsaicin increased both NET mRNA and protein levels. Involvement of NF-?B in the upregulation of NET was verified by mRNA silencing of this site and also by using NF-?B antipeptide. Moreover, in vivo treatment with TTL significantly reduced metastatic burden in an animal model of metastatic PHEO. The present study for the first time shows how NF-?B inhibitors could be successfully used in the treatment of metastatic PHEO/PGL by a significant upregulation of NET to increase the efficacy of 131I-MIBG and by the induction of apoptosis. PMID:22407736

  7. The discovery of high-amplitude 10.9-minute oscillations in the cool magnetic Ap star HD 115226

    E-print Network

    O. Kochukhov; T. Ryabchikova; S. Bagnulo; G. Lo Curto

    2007-12-20

    We present the discovery of pulsational variations in the cool magnetic Ap star HD 115226 -- the first high-amplitude rapidly oscillating Ap star discovered with time-series spectroscopy. Using high-resolution spectra obtained with the HARPS instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope, we detect radial velocity variations with a period of 10.86 min in Pr III, Nd III, Dy III lines and in the narrow cores of hydrogen lines. Pulsational amplitudes exceed 1 km/s in individual lines of Nd III. The presence of running waves in the stellar atmosphere is inferred from a phase shift between the radial velocity maxima of rare-earth and hydrogen lines. Our abundance analysis demonstrates that HD 115226 exhibits typical roAp spectroscopic signature, notably ionization anomaly of Pr, Nd and Dy. We discuss the discovery of pulsations in HD 115226 in the context of recent spectroscopic studies of roAp stars and point to the existence of correlation between spectroscopic pulsational amplitude and the stellar rotation rate.

  8. A 1 1\\/4 inch 8.3M pixel digital output CMOS APS for UDTV application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Takayanagi; M. Shirakawa; K. Mitani; M. Sugawara; S. Iversen; J. Moholt; J. Nakamura; E. R. Fossum

    2003-01-01

    A 3936×2196 pixel CMOS APS has a 10 b column-based ADC. It operates at 49.5 MHz in a progressive scanning mode at 60 frames\\/s and achieves a 2000 TV line resolution, sensitivity of 4200 b\\/lux-s, and power consumption of less than 760 mW.

  9. Columbia Engineering AP Credit Chart 2011-2011 2 June 2011 *Up to 3 AP credits may be applied toward minor requirements.

    E-print Network

    Hone, James

    Columbia Engineering AP Credit Chart 2011-2011 2 June 2011 *Up to 3 AP credits may be applied Engineering AP Credit Chart 2011-2011 2 June 2011 *Up to 3 AP credits may be applied toward minor requirements credit must start with Calculus II. #12;Columbia Engineering AP Credit Chart 2011-2011 2 June 2011 *Up

  10. Stratification of chemical elements in the atmosphere of the Ap star 53 Camelopardalis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babel, J.; Lanz, T.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed abundance analysis of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ca, and Ti in the Ap star 53 Cam from IUE high-resolution spectra has been performed. It is found that UV lines give significantly lower abundance than visible lines for Cr and Fe. Theoretical spectra of Cr II line calculated with the stratified chromium abundance distributions predicted a priori by the diffusion-mass loss model match well both visible and UV lines. The spectral shape of the Ca II K line and its variation are well accounted for by the diffusion model with mass loss. A spectrum synthesis with a stratified abundance well reproduces the observations. These findings provide convincing evidence for stratification in the photosphere of 53 Cam.

  11. Seasonal characteristics of the large-scale moisture flux transport over the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, H.; Ammar, K.

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between the lower tropospheric (1000 to 850 hPa) large-scale moisture flux transport and the precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula (AP), on a seasonal basis, using the NCEP-NCAR gridded dataset for the 53-year period (1958-2010), is investigated. The lower tropospheric moisture flux divergence occurs due to the Hadley cell-based descending air over the AP, as well as due to the presence of Somali jet in dry season (June to September) for the southern (?22° N) AP domain, leading to significantly reduced precipitation in the AP. The AP thus acts more as a net transporter of moisture flux from adjacent Sea areas to nearby regions. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Artic Oscillation (AO) climatic indices are found to modulate significantly the net seasonal moisture flux into the AP region animating from the Mediterranean Sea, and the Arabian Sea, both for the northern (?22° N) and southern AP domains.

  12. Current-transport mechanism in Au/V-doped PVC+TCNQ/p-Si structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecimer, H.; Vural, Ö.; Kaya, A.; Alt?ndal, ?.

    2015-03-01

    The forward and reverse bias current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Au/V-doped polyvinyl chloride+Tetracyanoquino dimethane/porous silicon (PVC+TCNQ/p-Si) structures have been investigated in the temperature range of 160-340 K. The zero bias or apparent barrier height (BH) (?ap = ?Bo) and ideality factor (nap = n) were found strongly temperature dependent and the value of nap decreases, while the ?ap increases with the increasing temperature. Also, the ?ap versus T plot shows almost a straight line which has positive temperature coefficient and it is not in agreement with the negative temperature coefficient of ideal diode or forbidden bandgap of Si (?Si = -4.73×10-4eV/K). The high value of n cannot be explained only with respect to interfacial insulator layer and interface traps. In order to explain such behavior of ?ap and nap with temperature, ?ap Versus q/2kT plot was drawn and the mean value of (?Bo) and standard deviation (?s) values found from the slope and intercept of this plot as 1.176 eV and 0.152 V, respectively. Thus, the modified (ln(Io/T2)-(q?s)2/2(kT)2 versus (q/kT) plot gives the ?Bo and effective Richardson constant A* as 1.115 eV and 31.94 A?(cm?K)-2, respectively. This value of A*( = 31.94 A?(cm?K)-2) is very close to the theoretical value of 32 A?(cm?K)-2 for p-Si. Therefore, the forward bias I-V-T characteristics confirmed that the current-transport mechanism (CTM) in Au/V-doped PVC+TCNQ/p-Si structures can be successfully explained in terms of the thermionic emission (TE) mechanism with a Gaussian distribution (GD) of BHs at around mean BH.

  13. Evolutionary On-line Learning of Cooperative Behavior with Situation-Action-Pairs

    E-print Network

    Denzinger, Jörg

    with agents based on prototype situation-action-pairs and the nearest-neighbor rule. For such an agent model-agent systems into off-line and on-line learning approaches. While off-line learning ap- proaches are based. In this paper we present an approach to on-line learning that is based on off-line learning techniques, namely

  14. Ozone mitigation tests at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Wang Zhibi

    1996-09-01

    Ozone is generated in the APS experimental stations whenever the x-ray beam has a chance to interact with air. Ozone concentrations in an experimental station have to be below a certain defined limit (current OSHA regulations specify 0.08 ppm as the maximum limit) before an experimenter can reenter the hutch. This limit is said to be currently under study for a downward adjustment. One method of depleting the ozone generated in an experimental station is mitigation through either adsorption or direct destruction. In recent tests, both methods were tried using commercially available units. Test results and some analytical predictions are presented.

  15. APS Living History Project Continues to Grow

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-02-01

    This is an article from The Physiologist. The APS Living History Project continues to gain traction as members invite senior members at their institutions to reminisce about their careers. Our membersÂ? efforts are consistent with CouncilÂ?s goal when it initiated the program Â? to chronicle the exploits and experiences of senior members of the Society. Over the last several years, we have lost a number of eminent physiologists who made significant contributions to the discipline of physiology and to the Society. The Living History Project is one way to capture the images, experiences and wisdom of our senior members for the benefit of future generations of physiologists.

  16. APS/123-QED FIG. 1: LSI

    E-print Network

    Hasegawa, Shuji

    APS/123-QED -- -- I. 10-9 m 10-6 m 1 -- Fig.1 2 0.1 m FIG. 1: LSI 2 scanning tunneling microscopy, STM 1980 #12;2 FIG. 2: SiH4 II. Fig.2 Si (3s)2 (3p)2 sp3 Si Si Fig.3 Fig.4 GaAs GaAlAs (2DEG) molecular beam epitaxy, (chemical va- por deposition) Fig.5 3 GaAs III. Fig.2 #12;3 FIG. 3: ( ) Fig.2 Si

  17. Mutagenesis of cysteine 81 prevents dimerization of the APS1 subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and alters diurnal starch turnover in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Hädrich, Nadja; Hendriks, Janneke H M; Kötting, Oliver; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Feil, Regina; Zeeman, Samuel C; Gibon, Yves; Schulze, Waltraud X; Stitt, Mark; Lunn, John E

    2012-04-01

    Many plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, retain a substantial portion of their photosynthate in leaves in the form of starch, which is remobilized to support metabolism and growth at night. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyses the first committed step in the pathway of starch synthesis, the production of ADP-glucose. The enzyme is redox-activated in the light and in response to sucrose accumulation, via reversible breakage of an intermolecular cysteine bridge between the two small (APS1) subunits. The biological function of this regulatory mechanism was investigated by complementing an aps1 null mutant (adg1) with a series of constructs containing a full-length APS1 gene encoding either the wild-type APS1 protein or mutated forms in which one of the five cysteine residues was replaced by serine. Substitution of Cys81 by serine prevented APS1 dimerization, whereas mutation of the other cysteines had no effect. Thus, Cys81 is both necessary and sufficient for dimerization of APS1. Compared to control plants, the adg1/APS1(C81S) lines had higher levels of ADP-glucose and maltose, and either increased rates of starch synthesis or a starch-excess phenotype, depending on the daylength. APS1 protein levels were five- to tenfold lower in adg1/APS1(C81S) lines than in control plants. These results show that redox modulation of AGPase contributes to the diurnal regulation of starch turnover, with inappropriate regulation of the enzyme having an unexpected impact on starch breakdown, and that Cys81 may play an important role in the regulation of AGPase turnover. PMID:22098298

  18. MR imaging during arterial-portography (MR-AP) in the detection of hepatic tumor: comparison with CT-AP.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, Y; Nakajo, M; Miyazono, N; Kajiya, Y; Fujiyoshi, F; Ichinari, N

    1997-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the detection rate of hepatic space occupying lesion (SOL)s between computed tomography during arterial portography (CT-AP) and magnetic resonance imaging during arterial portography (MR-AP) and the differences in time intensity curve on MR-AP between HCC, metastatic tumor, FNH, and hemangioma. We performed CT-AP and MR-AP in 17 patients including 14 cases of HCC and one each of metastasis, FNH, and hemangioma. MR-AP was performed by Turbo-FLASH sequence. There was no statistically significant difference between CT-AP and MR-AP in detecting satellite lesions in terms of smallest diameter and number of flow defects (p > 0.05). Hemangioma showed rapid enhancement after the first pass and, consequently, the same enhancement as the hepatic parenchyma. MR-AP was comparable to CT-AP in the detection of hepatic SOLs. Hemangioma showed an enhancement pattern different from those of HCC, metastatic tumor, and FNH, which showed patterns similar to each other. PMID:9495785

  19. A new scheme for multidimensional line transfer. III. A two-dimensional Lagrangian variable tensor method with discontinuous finite-element Sn transport

    SciTech Connect

    Dykema, P.G.; Klein, R.I.; Castor, J.I. [University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    We describe a new code{emdash}ALTAIR{emdash}that has been developed to solve the time-dependent non-LTE problem for a multilevel atom in two-dimensional axisymmetric geometry on a Lagrangian mesh of arbitrary complexity. The method and results are presented here for a two-level atom. The extension to a multilevel atom is made by the equivalent two-level atom (ETLA) methods we have recently described in Paper II of this series. The source function of the line formed by the two-level atom is iterated to self-consistency with the radiation field, which is obtained from a system of coupled moment equations that employs an Eddington tensor closure using the double-splitting method described in Paper I of this series. The Eddington tensor itself is derived from a formal solution of the photon transport equation, which is based on a new discontinuous finite-element technique; the tensor moment system uses a continuous representation. The Eddington tensor is updated in an outer iteration loop, within which the double-splitting iteration is used to find the self-consistent source function for a given tensor. The resulting method shows very rapid convergence of the scattering iteration, even for optically thick regions with scattering albedo near unity. In addition, the spatial structure of the solution is rather insensitive to the shape of the spatial zones; the calculation of problems with zone aspect ratios of 1000 to 1 causes no difficulty. Application to several benchmark calculations, including radiative transfer in a nonorthogonal mesh, is discussed. We find that for two-dimensional problems of astrophysical interest, many angle rays are required to ensure an accurate solution. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  20. Relationship between beta-AP peptide aggregation and microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Casal, Carme; Serratosa, Joan; Tusell, Josep M

    2002-02-22

    We compared the relationship between the state of aggregation of two peptides (beta-AP 25-35 and beta-AP 1-42) and microglial activation. After 7 days at 37 degrees C beta-AP 25-35 was in an amorphous state and did not activate microglial cells. In the same conditions, aggregated beta-AP 1-42 activated these cells and caused changes in microglial ramification, increasing the proliferation index and inducing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) release. Neither peptide induced a release of nitric oxide (NO). As the toxicity of beta-AP peptides in cell culture is associated with the formation of amyloid fibrils, we also examined the toxicity of both peptides in microglial cell cultures and in PC 12 cell cultures. The results suggest that the two beta-AP fragments studied have similar neurotoxic effects but different pro-inflammatory activities. PMID:11844474

  1. Radiation characteristics of scintillator coupled CMOS APS for radiography conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwang Hyun Kim; Soongpyung Kim; Dong-Won Kang; Dong-Kie Kim

    2006-01-01

    Under industrial radiography conditions, we analyzed short-term radiation characteristics of scintillator coupled CMOS APS (hereinafter SC CMOS APS). By means of experimentation, the contribution of the transmitted X-ray through the scintillator to the properties of the CMOS APS and the afterimage, generated in the acquired image even at low dose condition, were investigated. To see the transmitted X-ray effects on

  2. The APS control system network upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K. v.; Leibfritz, D.; McDowell, W. P.

    1999-10-22

    When it was installed,the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system network was at the state-of-the-art. Different aspects of the system have been reported at previous meetings [1,2]. As loads on the controls network have increased due to newer and faster workstations and front-end computers, we have found performance of the system declining and have implemented an upgraded network. There have been dramatic advances in networking hardware in the last several years. The upgraded APS controls network replaces the original FDDI backbone and shared Ethernet hubs with redundant gigabit uplinks and fully switched 10/100 Ethernet switches with backplane fabrics in excess of 20 Gbits/s (Gbps). The central collapsed backbone FDDI concentrator has been replaced with a Gigabit Ethernet switch with greater than 30 Gbps backplane fabric. Full redundancy of the system has been maintained. This paper will discuss this upgrade and include performance data and performance comparisons with the original network.

  3. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection of a resistant tomato line with a silenced sucrose transporter gene LeHT1 results in inhibition of growth, enhanced virus spread, and necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Assaf Eybishtz; Yuval Peretz; Dagan Sade; Rena Gorovits; Henryk Czosnek

    2010-01-01

    To identify genes involved in resistance of tomato to Tomato yellow leaf curl\\u000a virus (TYLCV), cDNA libraries from lines resistant (R) and susceptible (S) to the virus were compared. The hexose transporter LeHT1 was found to be expressed preferentially in R tomato plants. The role of LeHT1 in the establishment of TYLCV resistance was studied in R plants where LeHT1

  4. ANL/APS/TB-34 Experimental Facilities Division

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    ......................................................................25 2.7 Interlock Systems and Instrumentation.....................................................................25 2.7.1 The APS Personnel Safety System ............................................................26 2.7.2 The Equipment Protection System

  5. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104

    SciTech Connect

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-02-25

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

  6. Phonon transport in semiconductor heterostructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Hyldgaard; Gerald D. Mahan

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the in-plane and perpendicular phonon transport in semiconductor heterostructures. For the in-plane transport we explain the significant reduction of the thermal conductivity observed[1,2] in GaAs\\/AlAs superlattices at room temperatures. Specifically, we explain how the microroughness and monolayer island defects enhances the phonon-interface scattering. We estimate a bulk-phonon mean free path, l_mfp&ap;1150 Åsignificantly longer than the layer thicknesses, d=50--700

  7. Lithium and Isotopic Ratio Li6/Li7 in Magnetic roAp Stars as an Indicator of Active Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N.; Shavrina, A.; Lyashko, D.; Nesvacil, N.; Drake, N.; Smirnova, M.

    2015-04-01

    The lines of lithium at 6708 Å and 6103 Å are analyzed in high resolution spectra of some sharp-lined and slowly rotating roAp stars. Three spectral synthesis codes— STARSP, ZEEMAN2, and SYNTHM—were used. New lines of rare earth elements (REE) from the DREAM database and the lines calculated on the basis of the NIST energy levels were included. Magnetic splitting and other line broadening processes were taken into account. For both lithium lines, the enhanced abundances of lithium in the atmospheres of the stars studied are obtained. The lithium abundance determined from the Li 6103 Å line is higher than that from the Li 6708 Å for all the stars. This may be evidence of vertical lithium stratification, abnormal temperature distribution, or unidentified blending of the 6103 Å line. Our work on two roAp stars, HD 83368 and HD 60435 (Shavrina et al. 2001) provides evidence of an enhanced lithium abundance near the magnetic-field poles. We can expect similar effects in the sharp-lined roAp stars. High lithium abundance for all the stars and the estimates of the 6Li/7Li ratio (0.2–0.5) can be explained by production of Li in the cosmic ray spallation reactions in the interstellar medium where the stars were born, and by preservation of the original 6Li and 7Li by strong magnetic fields of these stars. The values of the 6Li/7Li ratio expected from production by cosmic rays are about 0.5–0.8 (Knauth et al. 2003; Webber et al. 2002). New laboratory and theoretical gf-values for REE lines are necessary in order to refine our estimates of lithium abundances and the isotopic ratio.

  8. Genome-Wide Identification of the Target Genes of AP2-O, a Plasmodium AP2-Family Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Izumi; Iwanaga, Shiroh; Kato, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Issei; Yuda, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Stage-specific transcription is a fundamental biological process in the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasite. Proteins containing the AP2 DNA-binding domain are responsible for stage-specific transcriptional regulation and belong to the only known family of transcription factors in Plasmodium parasites. Comprehensive identification of their target genes will advance our understanding of the molecular basis of stage-specific transcriptional regulation and stage-specific parasite development. AP2-O is an AP2 family transcription factor that is expressed in the mosquito midgut-invading stage, called the ookinete, and is essential for normal morphogenesis of this stage. In this study, we identified the genome-wide target genes of AP2-O by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and elucidate how this AP2 family transcription factor contributes to the formation of this motile stage. The analysis revealed that AP2-O binds specifically to the upstream genomic regions of more than 500 genes, suggesting that approximately 10% of the parasite genome is directly regulated by AP2-O. These genes are involved in distinct biological processes such as morphogenesis, locomotion, midgut penetration, protection against mosquito immunity and preparation for subsequent oocyst development. This direct and global regulation by AP2-O provides a model for gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites and may explain how these parasites manage to control their complex life cycle using a small number of sequence-specific AP2 transcription factors. PMID:26018192

  9. Metallized solid rocket propellants based on AN/AP and PSAN/AP for access to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, S.; Signoriello, D.; Gabardi, A.; Molinari, M.; Galfetti, L.; Deluca, L. T.; Cianfanelli, S.; Klyakin, G. F.

    2009-09-01

    Solid rocket propellants based on dual mixes of inorganic crystalline oxidizers (ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium perchlorate (AP)) with binder and a mixture of micrometric-nanometric aluminum were investigated. Ammonium nitrate is a low-cost oxidizer, producing environment friendly combustion products but with lower specific impulse compared to AP. The better performance obtained with AP and the low quantity of toxic emissions obtained by using AN have suggested an interesting compromise based on a dual mixture of the two oxidizers. To improve the thermal response of raw AN, different types of phase stabilized AN (PSAN) and AN/AP co-crystals were investigated.

  10. Functional Characterization of a Vesicular Glutamate Transporter in an Interneuron That Makes Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Connections in a Molluscan Neural Circuit.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian; Alexeeva, Vera; Chen, Song-An; Yu, Ke; Due, Michael R; Tan, Li-Nuo; Chen, Ting-Ting; Liu, Dan-Dan; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Vilim, Ferdinand S; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2015-06-17

    Understanding circuit function requires the characterization of component neurons and their neurotransmitters. Previous work on radula protraction in the Aplysia feeding circuit demonstrated that critical neurons initiate feeding via cholinergic excitation. In contrast, it is less clear how retraction is mediated at the interneuronal level. In particular, glutamate involvement was suggested, but was not directly confirmed. Here we study a suspected glutamatergic retraction interneuron, B64. We used the representational difference analysis (RDA) method to successfully clone an Aplysia vesicular glutamate transporter (ApVGLUT) from B64 and from a glutamatergic motor neuron B38. Previously, RDA was used to characterize novel neuropeptides. Here we demonstrate its utility for characterizing other types of molecules. Bioinformatics suggests that ApVGLUT is more closely related to mammalian VGLUTs than to Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans VGLUTs. We expressed ApVGLUT in a cell line, and demonstrated that it indeed transports glutamate in an ATP and proton gradient-dependent manner. We mapped the ApVGLUT distribution in the CNS using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Further, we demonstrated that B64 is ApVGLUT positive, supporting the idea that it is glutamatergic. Although glutamate is primarily an excitatory transmitter in the mammalian CNS, B64 elicits inhibitory PSPs in protraction neurons to terminate protraction and excitatory PSPs in retraction neurons to maintain retraction. Pharmacological data indicated that both types of PSPs are mediated by glutamate. Thus, glutamate mediates the dual function of B64 in Aplysia. More generally, our systematic approaches based on RDA may facilitate analyses of transmitter actions in small circuits with identifiable neurons. PMID:26085636

  11. The Relationship between Advanced Placement and College Graduation. 2005 AP Study Series, Report 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Chrys; Mellor, Lynn; Jian, Shuling

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between college graduation rates and student participation and success in Advanced Placement (AP) courses and exams. We reviewed three approaches to examining this relationship: 1) comparing the college graduation rates of AP and non-AP students; 2) comparing the college graduation rate of AP and non-AP…

  12. Raising Rigor, Getting Results: Lessons Learned from AP Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakelyn, David

    2009-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), which enables high school students to take introductory college-level courses, is the nation's oldest example of a rigorous, common curriculum. Students who score well on AP exams are more likely to persist in college and earn a degree. The Advanced Placement Expansion project of the National Governors Association Center…

  13. Argonne National Laboratory high performance network support of APS experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin J. Knot; Robert J. McMahon

    1996-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is currently positioned to provide access to high performance regional and national networks. Much of the impetus for this effort is the anticipated needs of the upcoming experimental program at the APS. Some APS collaborative access teams (CATs) are already pressing for network speed improvements and security enhancements. Requirements range from the need for high data rate,

  14. AP-102/104 Retrieval control system qualification test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-05-18

    This Qualification Test Procedure documents the results of the qualification testing that was performed on the Project W-211, ''Initial Tank Retrieval Systems,'' retrieval control system (RCS) for tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. The results confirm that the RCS has been programmed correctly and that the two related hardware enclosures have been assembled in accordance with the design documents.

  15. Exact noise analysis of a CMOS BDJ APS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Feruglio; Victor Fouad Hanna; Georges Alquié; Gabriel Vasilescu

    2005-01-01

    At low illumination levels, the performance of image sensors is severely limited by their intrinsic electrical noise. In the buried double junction (BDJ) active pixel sensor (APS), as in any CMOS image sensor, noise is primarily due to the photodetector and to the in-pixel transistors. In this paper, we present an exact noise analysis of CMOS BDJ APS in charge

  16. CMOS APS crosstalk: modeling, technology and design trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shcherback Igor; Belenky Alex; O. Yadid-Pecht

    2004-01-01

    In this work based on a unique sub-micron scanning system (S-cube system) measurements of the lateral photoresponse and crosstalk (CTK) in CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) have been investigated and an analytical model was developed for crosstalk estimation in photodiode based CMOS APS arrays. Based on handy process and design data only, our model estimates the CTK contribution to the

  17. Low-noise readout using active reset for CMOS APS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boyd A. Fowler; Michael D. Godfrey; Janusz Balicki; John Canfield

    2000-01-01

    Pixel reset noise sets the fundamental detection limit on photodiode based CMOS image sensors. Reset noise in standard active pixel sensor (APS) is well understood and is of order kT\\/C. In this paper we present a new technique for resetting photodiodes, called active reset, which reduces reset noise without adding lag. Active reset can be applied to standard APS. Active

  18. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - PAVED AND UNPAVED ROAD DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for paved and unpaved roads which are incorporated into AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness information. As re...

  19. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - LANDFILLS (COMBUSTION CONTROLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for landfills, in particular for combustion devices fed by landfill gas, for incorporation into AP-42. AP-42 is a massive collection of information concerning processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and co...

  20. AP233: An Information Model for Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebes, Georg

    2009-01-01

    In today's world, information is abundant. We have no problems generating it. But we are challenged to find, organize, and exchange information. center dot A standardized model of information can help. Such a model nearly completed its development for Systems Engineering. It is referred to as AP233 (AP = Application Protocol).

  1. Post-translational Regulation of an Aplysia Glutamate Transporter During Long-Term Facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Sol; Khabour, Omar; Fioravante, Diasinou; Byrne, John H.; Eskin, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of glutamate transporters accompanies plasticity of some glutamatergic synapses. The regulation of glutamate uptake at the Aplysia sensorimotor synapse during long-term facilitation (LTF) was investigated. Previously, increases in levels of ApGT1 (Aplysia glutamate transporter 1) in synaptic membranes were found to be related to long-term increases in glutamate uptake. In this study, we found that regulation of ApGT1 during LTF appears to occur post-translationally. Serotonin (5-HT) a transmitter that induces LTF did not increase synthesis of ApGT1. A pool of ApGT1 appears to exist in sensory neuron somata, which is transported to the terminals by axonal transport. Blocking the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)- Golgi-trans-Golgi network (TGN) pathway with Brefeldin A prevented the 5-HT-induced increase in ApGT1 terminals. Also, 5-HT produced changes in post-translational modifications of ApGT1 as well as changes in the levels of an ApGT1-coprecipitating protein. These results suggest that regulation of trafficking of ApGT1 from the vesicular trafficking system (RER-Golgi-TGN) in the sensory neuron somata to the terminals by post-translational modifications and protein interactions appears to be the mechanism underlying the increase in ApGT1, and thus, glutamate uptake during memory formation. PMID:19046322

  2. Transcriptional complexity and roles of Fra-1/AP-1 at the uPA/Plau locus in aggressive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moquet-Torcy, Gabriel; Tolza, Claire; Piechaczyk, Marc; Jariel-Encontre, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Plau codes for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), critical in cancer metastasis. While the mechanisms driving its overexpression in tumorigenic processes are unknown, it is regulated by the AP-1 transcriptional complex in diverse situations. The AP-1 component Fra-1 being overexpressed in aggressive breast cancers, we have addressed its role in the overexpression of Plau in the highly metastatic breast cancer model cell line MDA-MB231 using ChIP, pharmacological and RNAi approaches. Plau transcription appears controlled by 2 AP-1 enhancers located -1.9 (ABR-1.9) and -4.1 kb (ABR-4.1) upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) of the uPA-coding mRNA, Plau-001, that bind Fra-1. Surprisingly, RNA Pol II is not recruited only at the Plau-001 TSS but also upstream in the ABR-1.9 and ABR-4.1 region. Most Pol II molecules transcribe short and unstable RNAs while tracking down toward the TSS, where there are converted into Plau-001 mRNA-productive species. Moreover, a minority of Pol II molecules transcribes a low abundance mRNA of unknown function called Plau-004 from the ABR-1.9 domain, whose expression is tempered by Fra-1. Thus, we unveil a heretofore-unsuspected transcriptional complexity at Plau in a reference metastatic breast cancer cell line with pleiotropic effects for Fra-1, providing novel information on AP-1 transcriptional action. PMID:25200076

  3. Tank 241-AP-105, cores 208, 209 and 210, analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-10-24

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-AP-105. Push mode core segments were removed from Risers 24 and 28 between July 2, 1997, and July 14, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-AP-105 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1997) and Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, or total organic carbon (TOC) analysis exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP and DQO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group, and are not considered in this report. Appearance and Sample Handling Two cores, each consisting of four segments, were expected from Tank 241-AP-105. Three cores were sampled, and complete cores were not obtained. TSAP states core samples should be transported to the laboratory within three calendar days from the time each segment is removed from the tank. This requirement was not met for all cores. Attachment 1 illustrates subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis and identifies their sources. This reference also relates tank farm identification numbers to their corresponding 222-S Laboratory sample numbers.

  4. APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - Monitoring System Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort; Dimitri Hochard

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), along with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Pubic Service (APS), is monitoring the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant to determine the costs to produce hydrogen fuels (including 100% hydrogen as well as hydrogen and compressed natural gas blends) for use by fleets and other operators of advanced-technology vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cost data will be used as benchmark data by technology modelers as well as research and development programs. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 18 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen per day by electrolysis. It can store up to 155 kg of hydrogen at various pressures up to 6,000 psi. The dispenser island can fuel vehicles with 100% hydrogen at 5,000 psi and with blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas at 3,600 psi. The monitoring system was designed to track hydrogen delivery to each of the three storage areas and to monitor the use of electricity on all major equipment in the Pilot Plant, including the fuel dispenser island. In addition, water used for the electrolysis process is monitored to allow calculation of the total cost of plant operations and plant efficiencies. The monitoring system at the Pilot Plant will include about 100 sensors when complete (50 are installed to date), allowing for analysis of component, subsystems, and plant-level costs. The monitoring software is mostly off-the-shelve, with a custom interface. The majority of the sensors input to the Programmable Automation Controller as 4- to 20-mA analog signals. The plant can be monitored over of the Internet, but the control functions are restricted to the control room equipment. Using the APS general service plan E32 electric rate of 2.105 cents per kWh, during a recent eight-month period when 1,200 kg of hydrogen was produced and the plant capacity factor was 26%, the electricity cost to produce one kg of hydrogen was $3.43. However, the plant capacity factor has been increasing, with a recent one-month high of 49%. If a plant capacity factor of 70% can be achieved with the present equipment, the cost of electricity would drop to $2.39 per kg of hydrogen. In this report, the power conversion (76.7%), cell stack (53.1%), and reverse osmosis system (7.14%) efficiencies are also calculated, as is the water cost per kg of hydrogen produced ($0.10 per kg). The monitoring system has identified several areas having the potential to lower costs, including using an reverse osmosis system with a higher efficiency, improving the electrolysis power conversion efficiency, and using air cooling to replace some or all chiller cooling. These activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory for the AVTA, which is part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  5. Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP) and an 0-AP/HTPB-Based Propellant

    SciTech Connect

    BEHRENS JR.,RICHARD; MINIER,LEANNA M.G.

    1999-10-25

    A study to characterize the low-temperature reactive processes for o-AP and an AP/HTPB-based propellant (class 1.3) is being conducted in the laboratory using the techniques of simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results presented in this paper are a follow up of the previous work that showed the overall decomposition to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The decomposition is characterized by the occurrence of one major event that consumes up to {approx}35% of the AP, depending upon particle size, and leaves behind a porous agglomerate of AP. The major gaseous products released during this event include H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl. The recent efforts provide further insight into the decomposition processes for o-AP. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates (GFRs) for the products indicate that the major decomposition event consists of three chemical channels. The first and third channels are affected by the pressure in the reaction cell and occur at the surface or in the gas phase above the surface of the AP particles. The second channel is not affected by pressure and accounts for the solid-phase reactions characteristic of o-AP. The third channel involves the interactions of the decomposition products with the surface of the AP. SEM images of partially decomposed o-AP provide insight to how the morphology changes as the decomposition progresses. A conceptual model has been developed, based upon the STMBMS and SEM results, that provides a basic description of the processes. The thermal decomposition characteristics of the propellant are evaluated from the identities of the products and the temporal behaviors of their GFRs. First, the volatile components in the propellant evolve from the propellant as it is heated. Second, the hot AP (and HClO{sub 4}) at the AP-binder interface oxidize the binder through reactions that preferentially strip the hydrogen from the binder and yield HCl and H{sub 2}O with some oxidation of the carbon from the binder. Third, the o-AP in the propellant decomposes in the same manner as in neat o-AP. Finally, AP-derived gaseous products interact with other ingredients in the propellant.

  6. APS Position Statements- APS Guiding Principles for the Care and Use of Vertebrate Animals in Research and Training

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-07-16

    The Guiding Principles for the Care and Use of Vertebrate Animals in Research and Training are an updated version of a document first adopted by the APS Council in 1953. The Guiding Principles represent a code of ethics for APS members who work with animals. They provide a framework intended to promote the humane treatment of animals and are also used to evaluate research submitted for publication in APS journals. The update is intended to clarify certain elements of the Guiding Principles and make them easier to apply in practical situations. In addition, because the Guiding Principles are based upon U.S. animal welfare requirements, the update adds provisions to address the fact that other countries have different animal welfare requirements. This change was needed because of the increasing number of physiologists from around the world who are joining the APS and submitting articles for publication in APS journals.

  7. Mass spectrometry quantification of PICALM and AP180 in human frontal cortex and neural retina

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junjun; Pikuleva, Irina A.; Turko, Illarion V.

    2013-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have suggested that endocytic factor, such as phosphatidylinositol-binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM), may be implicated in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The cellular functions of PICALM are in line with this possibility: (i) PICALM is involved in regulation of amyloid-? levels and (ii) PICALM is important for a pre-synaptic function, which is diminished in AD. To facilitate the analysis of PICALM, we developed a quantitative method to assess expression level of PICALM in different biological samples. For this purpose, a stable isotope-labeled quantification concatamer (QconCAT) of PICALM was designed, expressed, purified and characterized. The PICALM QconCAT was firstly used as an internal standard in a multiple reaction monitoring assay to measure PICALM concentrations in the human frontal cortex, tissue strongly affected by AD. A second endocytic factor which is highly homologous to PICALM and also functions in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, clathrin coat assembly protein AP180 (AP180), was quantified as well. Because age-related macular degeneration (AMD) shares several clinical and pathological features with AD, the measurements were then extended to human normal neural retina. Overall, the developed method is suitable for PICALM and AP180 quantitative analysis in various biological samples of interest. PMID:23954523

  8. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be...

  9. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be...

  10. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be...

  11. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  12. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  13. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  14. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  15. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  16. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be...

  17. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375 Transportation...and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be...

  18. Effect of radiation on the regulation of sodium-dependent glucose transport in LLC-PK1 epithelial cell line: possible model for gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Moran; L. Davis; M. Hagan

    1986-01-01

    Low concentrations of glucose induce cultured kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1) to produce hexose transport proteins. We have investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on this induction process in plateau-phase cultures. The induced production of hexose transporters, requiring approximately 6 to 9 days for complete expression, can be inhibited by irradiation during the first 4 days. After the fourth postinduction day,

  19. Effect of radiation on the regulation of sodium-dependent glucose transport in LLC-PK⁠epithelial cell line: possible model for gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Moran; L. Davis; M. Hagan

    1986-01-01

    Low concentrations of glucose-cultured kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PKâ) to produce hexose-transport proteins. The effects of ionizing radiation were investigated on this induction process in plateau-phase cultures. The induced production of hexose transporters, requiring approximately 6 to 9 days for complete expression, can be inhibited by irradiation during the first 4 days. After the fourth post-induction day, radiation sensitivity decreases with

  20. BMCC1 Is an AP-2 Associated Endosomal Protein in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Clement W. K.; Lee, Soon; Kim, Misook; Buck, Marion; Teng, Linda; Clarke, Raymond; Gardiner, Robert A.; Lavin, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    The prostate cancer antigen gene 3 (PCA3) is embedded in an intron of a second gene BMCC1 (Bcl2-/adenovirus E1B nineteen kDa-interacting protein 2 (BNIP-2) and Cdc42GAP homology BCH motif-containing molecule at the carboxyl terminal region 1) which is also upregulated in prostate cancer. BMCC1 was initially annotated as two genes (C9orf65/PRUNE and BNIPXL) on either side of PCA3 but our data suggest that it represents a single gene coding for a high molecular weight protein. Here we demonstrate for the first time the expression of a >300 kDa BMCC1 protein (BMCC1-1) in prostate cancer and melanoma cell lines. This protein was found exclusively in the microsomal fraction and localised to cytoplasmic vesicles. We also observed expression of BMCC1 protein in prostate cancer sections using immunohistology. GST pull down, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry protein interaction studies identified multiple members of the Adaptor Related Complex 2 (AP-2) as BMCC1 interactors. Consistent with a role for BMCC1 as an AP-2 interacting endosomal protein, BMCC1 co-localised with ?-adaptin at the perinuclear region of the cell. BMCC1 also showed partial co-localisation with the early endosome small GTP-ase Rab-5 as well as strong co-localisation with internalised pulse-chase labelled transferrin (Tf), providing evidence that BMCC1 is localised to functional endocytic vesicles. BMCC1 knockdown did not affect Tf uptake and AP-2 knockdown did not disperse BMCC1 vesicular distribution, excluding an essential role for BMCC1 in canonical AP-2 mediated endocytic uptake. Instead, we posit a novel role for BMCC1 in post-endocytic trafficking. This study provides fundamental characterisation of the BMCC1 complex in prostate cancer cells and for the first time implicates it in vesicle trafficking. PMID:24040105

  1. BMCC1 is an AP-2 associated endosomal protein in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Harris, Janelle L; Richards, Renée S; Chow, Clement W K; Lee, Soon; Kim, Misook; Buck, Marion; Teng, Linda; Clarke, Raymond; Gardiner, Robert A; Lavin, Martin F

    2013-01-01

    The prostate cancer antigen gene 3 (PCA3) is embedded in an intron of a second gene BMCC1 (Bcl2-/adenovirus E1B nineteen kDa-interacting protein 2 (BNIP-2) and Cdc42GAP homology BCH motif-containing molecule at the carboxyl terminal region 1) which is also upregulated in prostate cancer. BMCC1 was initially annotated as two genes (C9orf65/PRUNE and BNIPXL) on either side of PCA3 but our data suggest that it represents a single gene coding for a high molecular weight protein. Here we demonstrate for the first time the expression of a >300 kDa BMCC1 protein (BMCC1-1) in prostate cancer and melanoma cell lines. This protein was found exclusively in the microsomal fraction and localised to cytoplasmic vesicles. We also observed expression of BMCC1 protein in prostate cancer sections using immunohistology. GST pull down, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry protein interaction studies identified multiple members of the Adaptor Related Complex 2 (AP-2) as BMCC1 interactors. Consistent with a role for BMCC1 as an AP-2 interacting endosomal protein, BMCC1 co-localised with ?-adaptin at the perinuclear region of the cell. BMCC1 also showed partial co-localisation with the early endosome small GTP-ase Rab-5 as well as strong co-localisation with internalised pulse-chase labelled transferrin (Tf), providing evidence that BMCC1 is localised to functional endocytic vesicles. BMCC1 knockdown did not affect Tf uptake and AP-2 knockdown did not disperse BMCC1 vesicular distribution, excluding an essential role for BMCC1 in canonical AP-2 mediated endocytic uptake. Instead, we posit a novel role for BMCC1 in post-endocytic trafficking. This study provides fundamental characterisation of the BMCC1 complex in prostate cancer cells and for the first time implicates it in vesicle trafficking. PMID:24040105

  2. AP-1-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Persicaria chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Young-Jin; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Yang, Woo Seok; Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Han Gyung; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoon, Keejung; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Persicaria chinensis L. has been prescribed to cure numerous inflammatory disorders. We previously analyzed the bioactivity of the methanol extract of this plant (Pc-ME) against LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and found that it prevented HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The purpose of the current study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which Pc-ME inhibits activator protein- (AP-) 1 activation pathway and mediates its hepatoprotective activity. To investigate the putative therapeutic properties of Pc-ME against AP-1-mediated inflammation and hepatotoxicity, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 and U937 cells, a monocyte-like human cell line, and an LPS/D-galactosamine- (D-GalN-) induced acute hepatitis mouse model were employed. The expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin- (IL-) 1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) was significantly diminished by Pc-ME. Moreover, Pc-ME reduced AP-1 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and differentiated U937 cells. Additionally, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of Pc-ME pretreated orally in a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-intoxicated acute liver injury by demonstrating the significant reduction in elevated serum AST and ALT levels and histological damage. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that Pc-ME could function as an antihepatitis remedy suppressing MAPK/AP-1-mediated inflammatory events. PMID:25878717

  3. [Formation of transcription factors AP-1 during learning in Helix].

    PubMed

    Grinkevich, L N; Lisachev, P D; Merkulova, T I

    2001-06-01

    An increase in the DNA-binding activity for the AP-1-family factors was shown to occur after food aversion conditioning. Learning experiments in vitro enhanced the DNA-binding activity. Effects of simultaneous action of serotonine and calcium on activation of transcriptional AP-1 factors was suppressed by inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein-kinases KN62 as well as by inhibitor of MAP-kinases PD98059. The co-operative induction of transcriptional AP-1 family factors activation by serotonine-induced and calcium-dependent regulatory systems may be one of the mechanisms of aversive conditioning in the CNS of the land snail. PMID:11534202

  4. TRANSPORTATION (1:100,000 SCALE) - PIPE AND TRANSMISSION (NEUSE RIVER BASIN, NC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pipelines, transmission lines, and miscellaneous transportation features from USGS 100,000-scale Digital Line Graphs (DLG) Transportation for Neuse River Watershed study area. Purpose: To define miscellaneous transportation lines in Neuse River Watershed study area. The ...

  5. The Arabidopsis Cell Plate-Associated Dynamin-Like Protein, ADL1Ap, Is Required for Multiple Stages of Plant Growth and Development1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung-Ho; Busse, James S.; Dickey, Carrie; Rancour, David M.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamin and dynamin-like proteins are GTP-binding proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. In soybean, a 68-kD dynamin-like protein called phragmoplastin has been shown to be associated with the cell plate in dividing cells (Gu and Verma, 1996). Five ADL1 genes encoding dynamin-like proteins related to phragmoplastin have been identified in the completed Arabidopsis genome. Here we report that ADL1Ap is associated with punctate subcellular structures and with the cell plate in dividing cells. To assess the function of ADL1Ap we utilized a reverse genetic approach to isolate three separate Arabidopsis mutant lines containing T-DNA insertions in ADL1A. Homozygous adl1A seeds were shriveled and mutant seedlings arrested soon after germination, producing only two leaf primordia and severely stunted roots. Immunoblotting revealed that ADL1Ap expression was not detectable in the mutants. Despite the loss of ADL1Ap, the mutants did not display any defects in cytokinesis, and growth of the mutant seedlings could be rescued in tissue culture by the addition of sucrose. Although these sucrose-rescued plants displayed normal vegetative growth and flowered, they set very few seeds. Thus, ADL1Ap is critical for several stages of plant development, including embryogenesis, seedling development, and reproduction. We discuss the putative role of ADL1Ap in vesicular trafficking, cytokinesis, and other aspects of plant growth. PMID:11351070

  6. An AP4B1 frameshift mutation in siblings with intellectual disability and spastic tetraplegia further delineates the AP-4 deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdollahpour, Hengameh; Alawi, Malik; Kortüm, Fanny; Beckstette, Michael; Seemanova, Eva; Komárek, Vladimír; Rosenberger, Georg; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2015-02-01

    The recently proposed adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) deficiency syndrome comprises a group of congenital neurological disorders characterized by severe intellectual disability (ID), delayed or absent speech, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and growth retardation. AP-4 is a heterotetrameric protein complex with important functions in vesicle trafficking. Mutations in genes affecting different subunits of AP-4, including AP4B1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4M1, have been reported in patients with the AP-4 deficiency phenotype. We describe two siblings from a non-consanguineous couple who presented with severe ID, absent speech, microcephaly, growth retardation, and progressive spastic tetraplegia. Whole-exome sequencing in the two patients identified the novel homozygous 2-bp deletion c.1160_1161delCA (p.(Thr387Argfs*30)) in AP4B1. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation in the siblings and revealed it in the heterozygous state in both parents. The AP4B1-associated phenotype has previously been assigned to spastic paraplegia-47. Identification of a novel AP4B1 alteration in two patients with clinical manifestations highly similar to other individuals with mutations affecting one of the four AP-4 subunits further supports the observation that loss of AP-4 assembly or functionality underlies the common clinical features in these patients and underscores the existence of the clinically recognizable AP-4 deficiency syndrome. PMID:24781758

  7. Validation of the new trapped environment AE9/AP9/SPM at low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.

    2014-09-01

    The completion of the international space station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community an ideal proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport codes and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the space transportation system (STS; shuttle) provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code developments by indicating the need for an improved dynamic model of the low Earth orbit (LEO) trapped environment. Additional studies using thermo-luminescent detector (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) area monitors, and computer aided design (CAD) model of earlier ISS configurations, confirmed STS observations that, as input, computational dosimetry requires an environmental model with dynamic and directional (anisotropic) behavior, as well as an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) definition of the vehicle attitude and orientation along the orbit of ISS. At LEO, a vehicle encounters exposure from trapped particles and attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Within the trapped field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensities of the trapped particles during the solar quiet and active times. At active times, solar energetic particles (SEP) generated by solar flare or coronal mass ejection (CME) also contribute to the exposure at high northern and southern latitudes. Among the more established trapped models are the historic and popular AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s, the historic and less popular CRRES electron/proton, dating back to 1990s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. The AE9/AP9/SPM model is a major improvement over the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models. This model is derived from numerous measurements acquired over four solar cycles dating back to the 1970s, roughly representing 40 years of data collection. In contrast, the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models were limited to only a few months of measurements taken during the prior solar minima and maxima. The dual goal of this paper is to first validate the AE8/AP8 and AE9/AP9/SPM trapped models against ISS dosemetric measurements for a silicon based detector, to assess the improvements in the AE9/AP9/SPM model as compared to AE8/AP8 model. The validation is done at selected target points within ISS-6A configuration during its passage through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). For such validation, only the isotropic spectrum of either model is needed. As a second goal, the isotropic spectra of both trapped models are re-casted into anisotropic spectra by modulating them with a measurement derived angular formalism which is applicable to trapped protons. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution, the paper ignores the AE8 and AE9 component of the models and presents the angular validation of AP8 and AP9 against measurements from the compact environment anomaly sensor (CEASE) science instrument package, flown onboard the tri-service experiment-5 (TSX-5) satellite during the period of June 2000-July 2006. The spin stabilized satellite was flown in a 410 × 1710 km, 69° inclination orbit, allowing it to be exposed to a broad range of LEO regime. Particular emphasize is put on the validation of proton flux profiles at differential 40 MeV and integral >40 MeV, in the vicinity of SAA where protons exhibit east-west (EW) anisotropy and have a relatively narrow pitch angle distribution. Within SAA, the EW anisotropy results in different level of exposure to each side of CEASE instrument package, allowing the extraction of anisotropic proton spectra from the measurements. While the magnitude of the EW effect at LEO depends on a multitude of factors such as trapped proton energy, orientation of the spacecraft along the velocity vector and altitude of the spacecraft, for this part, the paper draws quantitative conclusions on t

  8. Simultaneous and sequential display of ICU AP-chest images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, David; Good, Walter F.; King, Jill L.

    1992-05-01

    The display of a large number of projection radiographs (e.g., AP chest images) for comparison purposes poses potential problems for any electronic environment. In an attempt to assess the concept of rapid sequential viewing, 10 series of AP chest images were each reviewed on a high-resolution workstation under two conditions: (1) simultaneous display of each series in a mosaic configuration; and (2) separate image display in which each image was viewed individually in a rapid sequential mode. In our study, the sequential display was believed subjectively to be of comparable or higher quality by four of six readers. Diagnostic performance (patient improved; no change; patient condition worsened) was comparable for both display modes. Readers were somewhat more comfortable with the simultaneous (mosaic) configuration. Our preliminary results indicate that after minimal training, rapid sequential viewing of AP-chest images may be a reasonable alternative for the display of a series of AP chest images in the ICU.

  9. QCD on the Massively Parallel Computer AP1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akemi, K.; Fujisaki, M.; Okuda, M.; Tago, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hioki, S.; Miyamura, O.; Takaishi, T.; Nakamura, A.; de Forcrand, Ph.; Hege, C.; Stamatescu, I. O.

    We present the QCD-TARO program of calculations which uses the parallel computer AP1000 of Fujitsu. We discuss the results on scaling, correlation times and hadronic spectrum, some aspects of the implementation and the future prospects.

  10. DETAIL VIEW OF AP 50, MAIN FLOOR LEVEL, PLATFORM BSOUTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AP 50, MAIN FLOOR LEVEL, PLATFORM B-SOUTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. DETAIL VIEW OF AP 66, MAIN FLOOR LEVEL, PLATFORM BNORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AP 66, MAIN FLOOR LEVEL, PLATFORM B-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF AP 65, SECOND FLOOR LEVEL, PLATFORM DSOUTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AP 65, SECOND FLOOR LEVEL, PLATFORM D-SOUTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. Our Organic World Pre-AP Chemistry-Project

    E-print Network

    Our Organic World Pre-AP Chemistry-Project Purpose: To study specific areas of organic chemistry developing the learning book just remember what you liked to do when you were a little kid." 5. Time limit

  14. The intermediate energy X-ray beamline at the APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McChesney, J. L.; Reininger, R.; Ramanathan, M.; Benson, C.; Srajer, G.; Abbamonte, P.; Campuzano, J. C.

    2014-05-01

    The optical design of the Intermediate Energy X-ray (IEX) beamline at the APS has been optimized to study emergent phenomena via angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSXS). Driven by the scientific requirements of these two techniques the beamline consists of two separate branchlines sharing the same source, heat absorbing optics and monochromator, but each having its own refocusing optics. The ARPES branch is optimized for a very high 'resolving power' and a small spot at the sample; whereas, the RSXS branch is designed for high flux and a low beam divergence at the sample. The very high 'resolving power' in the ARPES branch is achieved by using a monochromator which consists of a plane mirror and a variable line spacing grating that focuses the beam at all photon energies. A flux higher than 1010 photons/s at a 'resolving power' better than 5×104 will be available at the sample position of the ARPES beamline on a spot size (FWHM) smaller than 21 × 4 ?m2 (hor.×ver.) for photon energies between 250 and 1660 eV. A second grating will increase the flux by more than a factor of 10 at a 'resolving power' of 104. The flux expected at the RSXS branch for energies between 250 eV and 1900 eV is higher than 4×1012 photons/s at 'resolving power' around 2.5×103. The expected spot in this branch is sub-millimeter and the beam divergence is less than 0.3 mrad (FWHM).

  15. Divisions Iv-V / Working Group ap & Related Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, Gautier; Cunha, Margarida; Dworetsky, Michael; Kochukhov, Oleg; Kupka, Friedrich; LeBlanc, Francis; Monier, Richard; Paunzen, Ernst; Pintado, Olga; Piskunov, Nikolai; Ziznovsky, Jozef

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the Working Group on Ap and Related Stars (ApWG) is to promote and facilitate research about stars in the spectral type range from B to early F that exhibit surface chemical peculiarities and related phenomena. This is a very active field of research, in which a wide variety of new developments have taken place since 2009, as illustrated by the following selected highlights.

  16. An overview of the APS 352-MHz rf systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nassiri, A.; Cours, A.; Grelick, A.; Horan, D.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Smith, T.L.; Song, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

    1997-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV full energy positron storage ring for generating synchrotron radiation with an injector. The booster synchrotron rf system consists o a single 1-MW klystron which drives four five-cell cavities at 352 MHz. The storage ring cavities consist of four groups of four single cells powered by two 1-MW klystrons for 100-mA operation. An overview of the operation of the APS 352-MHz rf systems is presented.

  17. Again, Maryland Ranks #1 in Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    For a second year in a row, Maryland ranked first nationwide in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP (Advanced Placement) exam. A score of 3 or higher on the 5-point scale is considered mastery of college-level work. Maryland also continues to show strong gains in the number of students taking an AP exam,…

  18. Ce-doped scintillators: LSO and LuAP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lempicki; J. Glodo

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we compare the scintillator performance of the two of the leading contenders for Positron Emission Tomography, both cerium doped: Lu2SiO5 (LSO) and LuAlO3 (LuAP). LSO crystals come in two categories, characterized by high (H) or low (L) light output. Such a distinction is not found in LuAP, but its output is consistently lower than that of LSO-H.

  19. Photodiode Peripheral Utilization Effect on CMOS APS Pixel Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suat Utku Ay

    2008-01-01

    A photodiode (PD)-type CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) pixel is comprised of a reverse-biased p-n-junction diode (PD) for photon conversion and charge storage, and a number of MOS transistors. Junction capacitance of the PD has two major components; bottom plate (area) and side wall (periphery). Both play important roles in the electro-optical performance of PD-APS pixels. This paper reports PD

  20. A New Photon Counting Detector: Intensified CMOS-APS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Bonanno; Massimiliano Belluso; Antonio Calì; Alessandro Carbone; Rosario Cosentino; Angelo Modica; Salvo Scuderi; Cristina Timpanaro; Michela Uslenghi

    2004-01-01

    A new type of position sensor (CMOS-APS) used as readout system in MCP-based intensified photon counter is presented. Thanks to CMOS technology, the pixel addressing and the readout circuits as well as the analogue-to-digital converters are integrated into the chip. These unique characteristics make the CMOS-APS a very compact, low power consumption, photon counting system. The more classical Photon Counting

  1. Scintillator and CMOS APS Imager for Radiography Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwang Hyun Kim; Young Soo Kim

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated X-ray image performance for several scintillators and a CMOS APS imager by both diagnostic radiography and mammography conditions. Commercially available scintillators such as Lanex screen, needle structured CsI (Tl), and fiber optic structured CsI (Tl) were coupled with a CMOS APS imager. The X-ray machines used in this study were fixed tube voltage of 80 kVp and variable

  2. Evaluation of CMOS APS imager for digital radiography and mammography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwang Hyun Kim; Jeon Sung Chae; Sun Woo Yuk; Young Soo Kim; Young Ki Chi; Gyuseong Cho

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated image performance of scintillator coupled CMOS APS imager for radiography and mammography conditions, respectively. 80 kVp and 28 kVp of X-ray tube voltage at the SID of 720 mm and 600 mm were set for each condition. Commercially available scintillator such as Lanex screen, needle structured CsI(Tl), and fiber optic structured CsI (Tl) were coupled CMOS APS imager.

  3. Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) for the AP1000 Simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichi Hayashi; Gianfranco Saiu; Richard F. Wright

    2006-01-01

    The AP1000 is two-loop 1100 MWe advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) that uses passive safety features to enhance plant safety and to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 uses proven technology, which builds on over 30 years of operating PWR experience. The API000 final design certification was approved by the

  4. ccsd-00022115,version1-2Apr2006 APS/123-QED Magneto-optical spectroscopy of (Ga,Mn)N epilayers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ccsd-00022115,version1-2Apr2006 APS/123-QED Magneto-optical spectroscopy of (Ga,Mn)N epilayers S on the magneto-optical spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence of a set of wurtzite (Ga,Mn)N epilayers with a low Mn content, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The sharpness of the absorption lines associated to the Mn3

  5. LMP-associated Proteolytic Activities and TAP-dependent Peptide Transport for Class I MHC Molecules Are Suppressed in Cell Lines Transformed by the Highly Oncogenic Adenovirus 12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rinat Rotem-Yehudar; Marcus Groettrup; Andrea Soza; Peter M. Kloetzel; Rachel Ehrlich

    Summary Expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of cells trans- formed by adenovirus 12 (Ad12) is generally very low, and correlates with the in vivo oncoge- nicity of this virus. In primary embryonal fibroblasts (H-26) that express a transgenic swine class I antigen (PD 1), Ad12-mediated transformation results in inhibition in transport of newly syn-

  6. Quantitative determinations of the steady state transcript levels of hexokinase isozymes and glucose transporter isoforms in normal rat tissues and the malignant tumor cell line AH130

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Shinohara; Kenji Yamamoto; Katsuyuki Inoo; Naoshi Yamazaki; Hiroshi Terada

    1998-01-01

    The steady state transcript levels of the four hexokinase (HK) isozymes and four glucose transporter (GLUT) isoforms were determined quantitatively by Northern analysis of RNA samples from rat tissues using synthetic fragments of the RNAs encoding the HK isozymes and GLUT isoforms. Results showed that the levels of HK isozyme transcripts were low in rat tissues, the level of that

  7. Induction of cells differentiation and ABC transporters expression by a myco-estrogen, zearalenone, in human choriocarcinoma cell line (BeWo)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Prouillac; Bernadette Videmann; Michelle Mazallon; Sylvaine Lecoeur

    2009-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone, produced by Fusarium species, is a worldwide contaminant of concern in cereals and other plant products. Due to its estrogenic activity, zearalenone (ZEA) is known to have toxicological effect in animals on reproductive system and the placental transfer of ZEA was suggested by in vivo studies. Although passive diffusion is the principal transport mechanism across the placenta,

  8. Orion :F rom On-line Interaction to Off-line Delegation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Seneff; Chian Chuu; D. Scott Cyphers

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces orion ,ac onversational sys- tem that performs off-line tasks and initiates later contact with au ser at ap re-negotiated time. Orion has two major episodes of activity: the enrollment of new tasks and the execution of pending tasks. The task manager periodically checks the pend- ing tasks and updates their status, sending off requests to other servers

  9. The ap-2 clathrin adaptor mediates endocytosis of an inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptor in human NK cells.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Amanda K; Alvarez Arias, Diana A; Oshinsky, Jennifer; James, Ashley M; Serebriiskii, Ilya; Campbell, Kerry S

    2014-11-01

    Stable surface expression of human inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) is critical for controlling NK cell function and maintaining NK cell tolerance toward normal MHC class I(+) cells. Our recent experiments, however, have found that Ab-bound KIR3DL1 (3DL1) readily leaves the cell surface and undergoes endocytosis to early/recycling endosomes and subsequently to late endosomes. We found that 3DL1 internalization is at least partially mediated by an interaction between the ?2 subunit of the AP-2 clathrin adaptor complex and ITIM tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic domain of 3DL1. Disruption of the 3DL1/?2 interaction, either by mutation of the ITIM tyrosines in 3DL1 or mutation of ?2, significantly diminished endocytosis and increased surface expression of 3DL1 in human primary NK cells and cell lines. Furthermore, we found that the 3DL1/AP-2 interaction is diminished upon Ab engagement with the receptor, as compared with untreated cells. Thus, we have identified AP-2-mediated endocytosis as a mechanism regulating the surface levels of inhibitory KIRs through their ITIM domains. Based on our results, we propose a model in which nonengaged KIRs are internalized by this mechanism, whereas engagement with MHC class I ligand would diminish AP-2 binding, thereby prolonging stable receptor surface expression and promoting inhibitory function. Furthermore, this ITIM-mediated mechanism may similarly regulate the surface expression of other inhibitory immune receptors. PMID:25238755

  10. Mobile docking of REMUS-100 equipped with USBL-APS to an unmanned surface vehicle: A performance feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Mario, II

    The overall objective of this work is to evaluate the ability of homing and docking an unmanned underwater vehicle (Hydroid REMUS 100 UUV) to a moving unmanned surface vehicle (Wave-Adaptive Modular Surface Vehicle USV) using a Hydroid Digital Ultra-Short Baseline (DUSBL) acoustic positioning system (APS), as a primary navigation source. An understanding of how the UUV can rendezvous with a stationary USV first is presented, then followed by a moving USV. Inherently, the DUSBL-APS is susceptible to error due to the physical phenomena of the underwater acoustic channel (e.g. ambient noise, attenuation and ray refraction). The development of an APS model has allowed the authors to forecast the UUV's position and the estimated track line of the USV as determined by the DUSBL acoustic sensor. In this model, focus is placed on three main elements: 1) the acoustic channel and sound ray refraction when propagating in an inhomogeneous medium; 2) the detection component of an ideal DUSBL-APS using the Neyman-Pearson criterion; 3) the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and receiver directivity impact on position estimation. The simulation tool is compared against actual open water homing results in terms of the estimated source position between the simulated and the actual USBL range and bearing information.

  11. Fulfillment-based Fairness: A New Fairness Notion for Multi-AP Wireless Hotspots

    E-print Network

    Qiao, Daji

    Fulfillment-based Fairness: A New Fairness Notion for Multi-AP Wireless Hotspots Wei Zhou and Daji: {zhouwei, daji}@iastate.edu Abstract-- Today, most wireless hotspots deploy multiple APs (Access Points proposed for single-AP wireless hotspots exhibit various performance anomalies in multi-AP wireless

  12. Past, Present, and Future of AP Chemistry: A Brief History of Course and Exam Alignment Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrogan, Serena

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Placement (AP) Program's commitment to continually enhance alignment with current best practices in college-level learning, the AP Program is currently evaluating and redesigning courses and exams, one of which launched during the 2013-2014 academic school year: AP chemistry. The history of the AP chemistry course and…

  13. Comparative Uptake Studies of Bioadhesive and Non-Bioadhesive Nanoparticles in Human Intestinal Cell Lines and Rats: The Effect of Mucus on Particle Adsorption and Transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Behrens; Ana Isabel Vila Pena; Maria José Alonso; Thomas Kissel

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. The interaction of nanoparticles (NP), consisting of hydrophobic polystyrene, bioadhesive chitosan, and stealth PLA-PEG with two human intestinal cell lines, the enterocyte-like Caco-2 and mucus-secreting MTX-E12, was investigated and compared to the in vivo NP uptake in rats.

  14. WNK4 Diverts the Thiazide-sensitive NaCl Cotransporter to the Lysosome and Stimulates AP-3 Interaction*

    PubMed Central

    Subramanya, Arohan R.; Liu, Jie; Ellison, David H.; Wade, James B.; Welling, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    With-no-lysine kinase 4 (WNK4) inhibits electroneutral sodium chloride reabsorption by attenuating the cell surface expression of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC). The underlying mechanism for this effect remains poorly understood. Here, we explore how WNK4 affects the trafficking of NCC through its interactions with intracellular sorting machinery. An analysis of NCC cell surface lifetime showed that WNK4 did not alter the net rate of cotransporter internalization. In contrast, direct measurements of forward trafficking revealed that WNK4 attenuated the rate of NCC surface delivery, inhibiting the anterograde movement of cotransporters traveling to the plasma membrane from the trans-Golgi network. The response was paralleled by a dramatic reduction in NCC protein abundance, an effect that was sensitive to the lysosomal protease inhibitor leupeptin, insensitive to proteasome inhibition, and attenuated by endogenous WNK4 knockdown. Subcellular localization studies performed in the presence of leupeptin revealed that WNK4 enhanced the accumulation of NCC in lysosomes. Moreover, NCC immunoprecipitated with endogenous AP-3 complexes, and WNK4 increased the fraction of cotransporters that associate with this adaptor, which facilitates cargo transport to lysosomes. WNK4 expression also increased LAMP-2-positive lysosomal content, indicating that the kinase may act by a general AP-3-dependent mechanism to promote cargo delivery into the lysosomal pathway. Taken together, these findings indicate that WNK4 inhibits NCC activity by diverting the cotransporter to the lysosome for degradation by way of an AP-3 transport carrier. PMID:19401467

  15. Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership | Prof. Robin Sacks 1 APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership

    E-print Network

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership | Prof. Robin Sacks 1 APS 1010 Cognitive and Psychological Foundations of Effective Leadership Prof. Robin Sacks Course Description This course investigates the cognitive and psychological foundations

  16. The unusual roAp star KIC 8677585

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balona, L. A.; Catanzaro, G.; Crause, L.; Cunha, M. S.; Gandolfi, D.; Hatzes, A.; Kabath, P.; Uytterhoeven, K.; De Cat, P.

    2013-07-01

    KIC 8677585 is a roAp star in the Kepler field which is unique in that there are four low-frequency variations of unknown origin in addition to more than 20 high-frequency roAp modes. We analysed all available spectroscopy and conclude that the star has a constant radial velocity and most likely not a binary. We estimate its effective temperature to be Teff = 7300 ± 200 K from high-dispersion spectra. We present an analysis of 829 d of Kepler short-cadence data which shows clear frequency and amplitude variations with a time-scale of months. The dominant low-frequency peak at 3.142 d-1 has the same frequency and amplitude variation as one of the roAp modes. We therefore conclude that the low frequencies are oscillations in the roAp star itself, but the driving mechanism is unknown. We find several frequency spacings among the roAp modes equal to the dominant low frequency, suggestive of non-linear interactions. There is also a clear spacing of 37.2 ?Hz which we interpret as the large separation and deduce that log g = 3.90 ± 0.03. Models with these parameters which take into account the effect of the magnetic field on the oscillations are able to reproduce the observed range of roAp frequencies, but not the observed large separation. It is found that the properties of the oscillations are sensitive to the assumed stellar parameters and that a more detailed analysis is required. The fact that low frequencies are closely coupled to the roAp frequencies calls into question our current understanding of pulsation in these stars.

  17. Study of Pulsations in the Atmosphere of the roAp star HD 137949

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, M.; Hareter, M.; Ryabchikova, T.; Wade, G.; Kochukhov, O.; Weiss, W. W.

    The roAp star HD 137949 (33 Lib) shows the most complex pulsational behaviour among all roAp stars. Mkrtichian et al. (2003) found nearly anti-phase pulsations of Nd II and Nd III lines, which they attribute to the presence of a pulsation node high in the atmosphere of HD 137949. This was confirmed by Kurtz at al. (2005), who also find that in some REE lines the main frequency, corresponding to 8.27 min, and its harmonic have almost equal RV amplitudes. Based on high accuracy observations Ryabchikova et al. (2007a) studied pulsational characteristics of the HD 137949 atmosphere in detail. In general, spectroscopy provides 3D resolution of modes and allows to search for the photometrically undetectable frequencies. The high-accuracy space photometry provides very high-precision measurements of detected pulsation frequencies and enables an accurate phasing of multi-site spectroscopic data. A combination of simultaneous spectroscopy and photometry represents the most sophisticated asteroseismic dataset for any roAp star. In 2009 the star HD 137949 became a target of an intense observing campaign that combined ground-based spectroscopy with space photometry, obtained with the MOST satellite. We collected 780 spectra using the ESPaDOnS spectrograph mounted on the 3.6 m CFHT telescope; 374 spectra were obtained with the FIES spectrograph mounted on the 2.56-m NOT to perform the time-resolved spectroscopy of HD 137949. In addition, we used 111 UVES spectra (2004) from the ESO archive to check the mode stability. The frequency analysis of the new radial velocity (RV) measurements confirmed the previously reported frequency pattern (two frequencies and the first harmonic of the main frequency), and revealed an additional frequency at 1.991 mHz. The new frequency solution fits perfectly the RV variations from the 2004 and 2009 observational sets providing a strong support for the p-mode stability in the roAp star HD 137949 for at least 5 years.

  18. Heterologous expression of ApGSMT2 and ApDMT2 genes from Aphanothece halophytica enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying HeChunmei; Chunmei He; Lihua Li; Zhili Liu; Aifang Yang; Juren Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The glycine-methylation biosynthetic pathway of glycinebetaine (GB) has been investigated, but only a few studies on GB accumulation\\u000a in transgenic higher plants have utilized this pathway. In this study, two methyltransferase genes named ApGSMT2 and ApDMT2, encoding proteins catalyzing GB biosynthesis from glycine, were cloned from a relative strain of Aphanothece halophytica. The potential roles of ApGSMT2 and ApDMT2 in

  19. AHuman Canalicular Multispecific Organic Anion Transporter (cMOAT) Gene Is Overexpressed in Cisplatin-resistant Human Cancer Cell Lines with Decreased Drug Accumulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Taniguchi; Morimasa Wada; Kimitoshi Kohno; Takanori Nakamura; Takeshi Kawabe; Mina Kawakami; Kazuhiro Kagotani; Katsuzumi Okumura; Shin-ichi Akiyama; Michihiko Kuwano

    By targetingthe AlP bindingconserveddomainin three AlP binding cassette superfamily proteins (P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance pro tein, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator), we isolated the cDNA of a new AlP binding cassette superfamily that was specifically enhanced in a cisplatin-resistant human head and neck cancer KB cell line. A human clone homologous to rat cnnalicular multispecific organic anion trans. porter (cMOAT)was found

  20. Oligomeric Structure and Functional Characterization of the Urea Transporter from Actinobacillus pleuropneunomiae

    PubMed Central

    Raunser, Stefan; Mathai, John C.; Abeyrathne, Priyanka D.; Rice, Amanda J.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Walz, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Urea transporters facilitate urea permeation across cell membranes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Bacteria use urea either as a means to survive in acidic environments and/or as a nitrogen source. The urea transporter ApUT from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the pathogen that causes porcine pleurisy and pneumonia, was expressed in E. coli and purified. Analysis of the recombinant protein using cross-linking and blue-native gel electrophoresis established that ApUT is a dimer in detergent solution. To determine the urea transport kinetics of ApUT, purified protein was reconstituted into proteoliposomes, and urea efflux was measured by stopped-flow fluorometry. The measured urea flux was saturable, could be inhibited by phloretin, and was not affected by pH. Two-dimensional crystals of the biologically active ApUT show that it is also dimeric in a lipid membrane and provide the first structural information on a member of the urea transporter family. PMID:19361419

  1. Multipurpose active pixel sensor (APS)-based microtracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl C.; Zhu, David Q.

    1998-12-01

    A new, photon-sensitive, imaging array, the active pixel sensor (APS) has emerged as a competitor to the CCD imager for use in star and target trackers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has undertaken a program to develop a new generation, highly integrated, APS-based, multipurpose tracker: the Programmable Intelligent Microtracker (PIM). The supporting hardware used in the PIM has been carefully selected to enhance the inherent advantages of the APS. Adequate computation power is included to perform star identification, star tracking, attitude determination, space docking, feature tracking, descent imaging for landing control, and target tracking capabilities. Its first version uses a JPL developed 256 X 256-pixel APS and an advanced 32-bit RISC microcontroller. By taking advantage of the unique features of the APS/microcontroller combination, the microtracker will achieve about an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass and power consumption compared to present state-of-the-art star trackers. It will also add the advantage of programmability to enable it to perform a variety of star, other celestial body, and target tracking tasks. The PIM is already proving the usefulness of its design concept for space applications. It is demonstrating the effectiveness of taking such an integrated approach in building a new generation of high performance, general purpose, tracking instruments to be applied to a large variety of future space missions.

  2. CD2AP Regulates SUMOylation of CIN85 in Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Niedenthal, Rainer; Klaus, Malte; Teng, Beina; Worthmann, Kirstin; King, Benjamin L.; Peterson, Kevin J.; Haller, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Podocytes are highly differentiated and polarized epithelial cells located on the visceral side of the glomerulus. They form an indispensable component of the glomerular filter, the slit diaphragm, formed by several transmembrane proteins and adaptor molecules. Disruption of the slit diaphragm can lead to massive proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome in mice and humans. CD2AP is an adaptor protein that is important for the maintenance of the slit diaphragm. Together with its paralogue, CIN85, CD2AP belongs to a family of adaptor proteins that are primarily described as being involved in endocytosis and downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase activity. We have shown that full-length CIN85 is upregulated in podocytes in the absence of CD2AP, whereas in wild-type cells, full-length CIN85 is not detectable. In this study, we show that full-length CIN85 is postranslationally modified by SUMOylation in wild-type podocytes. We can demonstrate that CIN85 is SUMOylated by SUMO-1, -2, and -3 and that SUMOylation is enhanced in the presence of CD2AP. Conversion of lysine 598 to arginine completely abolishes SUMOylation and leads to increased binding of CIN85 to nephrin. Our results indicate a novel role for CD2AP in regulating posttranslational modification of CIN85. PMID:22203040

  3. Cytokines alter the expression and activity of the multidrug resistance transporters in human hepatoma cell lines; analysis using RT-PCR and cDNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gigi; Piquette-Miller, Micheline

    2003-11-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines suppress the hepatic expression of the multidrug resistance transporters in rodents, indicating potential usefulness in chemotherapy. Our objective was to investigate their impact in human hepatoma cells. HuH 7 and HepG2 cells were treated with IL-1beta, IL-6, or TNF-alpha for 0-72 h. Expression and activity of MDR1 and the MRP (MRP1, 2, 3, and 6) transporters were examined by RT-PCR, efflux assays, and microarrays. Significant reductions in the MDR1-mediated efflux of Rhodamine 123 and MDR1 mRNA levels were observed in HuH 7 cells treated with IL-6, TNF-alpha, or IL-1beta and in TNF-alpha-treated HepG2 cells. However, cytokine-treated HuH7 cells also demonstrated 1.6- to 2.6-fold greater efflux of the MRP substrate, 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-CF) and higher MRP3 mRNA levels (p < 0.05). IL-1beta and IL-6 treatments increased MRP activity and MRP1 mRNA levels in HepG2 cells (p < 0.05). Microarrays studies performed in IL-6 and TNF-alpha-treated HepG2 cells detected similar changes in the expression of the MDR1 and MRP transporters, but this did not reach significance. However, the microarrays confirmed cytokine-mediated induction of several acute phase proteins. Our data suggests that although cytokine-mediated suppression of PGP may alter drug resistance in malignant cells, these cytokines may also impose an induction in other multidrug resistance genes. PMID:14603501

  4. How to Find a Bug in Ten Thousand Lines Transport Solver? Outline of Experiences from AN Advection-Diffusion Code Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, K.; Bombardelli, F.

    2011-12-01

    Almost all natural phenomena on Earth are highly nonlinear. Even simplifications to the equations describing nature usually end up being nonlinear partial differential equations. Transport (ADR) equation is a pivotal equation in atmospheric sciences and water quality. This nonlinear equation needs to be solved numerically for practical purposes so academicians and engineers thoroughly rely on the assistance of numerical codes. Thus, numerical codes require verification before they are utilized for multiple applications in science and engineering. Model verification is a mathematical procedure whereby a numerical code is checked to assure the governing equation is properly solved as it is described in the design document. CFD verification is not a straightforward and well-defined course. Only a complete test suite can uncover all the limitations and bugs. Results are needed to be assessed to make a distinction between bug-induced-defect and innate limitation of a numerical scheme. As Roache (2009) said, numerical verification is a state-of-the-art procedure. Sometimes novel tricks work out. This study conveys the synopsis of the experiences we gained during a comprehensive verification process which was done for a transport solver. A test suite was designed including unit tests and algorithmic tests. Tests were layered in complexity in several dimensions from simple to complex. Acceptance criteria defined for the desirable capabilities of the transport code such as order of accuracy, mass conservation, handling stiff source term, spurious oscillation, and initial shape preservation. At the begining, mesh convergence study which is the main craft of the verification is performed. To that end, analytical solution of ADR equation gathered. Also a new solution was derived. In the more general cases, lack of analytical solution could be overcome through Richardson Extrapolation and Manufactured Solution. Then, two bugs which were concealed during the mesh convergence study uncovered with the method of false injection and visualization of the results. Symmetry had dual functionality: there was a bug, which was hidden due to the symmetric nature of a test (it was detected afterward utilizing artificial false injection), on the other hand self-symmetry was used to design a new test, and in a case the analytical solution of the ADR equation was unknown. Assisting subroutines designed to check and post-process conservation of mass and oscillatory behavior. Finally, capability of the solver also checked for stiff reaction source term. The above test suite not only was a decent tool of error detection but also it provided a thorough feedback on the ADR solvers limitations. Such information is the crux of any rigorous numerical modeling for a modeler who deals with surface/subsurface pollution transport.

  5. The AP-1 Clathrin-adaptor Is Required for Lysosomal Enzymes Sorting and Biogenesis of the Contractile Vacuole Complex in Dictyostelium Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lefkir, Yaya; de Chassey, Benoît; Dubois, Annick; Bogdanovic, Aleksandra; Brady, Rebecca J.; Destaing, Olivier; Bruckert, Franz; O'Halloran, Theresa J.; Cosson, Pierre; Letourneur, François

    2003-01-01

    Adaptor protein complexes (AP) are major components of the cytoplasmic coat found on clathrin-coated vesicles. Here, we report the molecular and functional characterization of Dictyostelium clathrin-associated AP-1 complex, which in mammalian cells, participates mainly in budding of clathrin-coated vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The ?-adaptin AP-1 subunit was cloned and shown to belong to a Golgi-localized 300-kDa protein complex. Time-lapse analysis of cells expressing ?-adaptin tagged with the green-fluorescent protein demonstrates the dynamics of AP-1–coated structures leaving the Golgi apparatus and rarely moving toward the TGN. Targeted disruption of the AP-1 medium chain results in viable cells displaying a severe growth defect and a delayed developmental cycle compared with parental cells. Lysosomal enzymes are constitutively secreted as precursors, suggesting that protein transport between the TGN and lysosomes is defective. Although endocytic protein markers are correctly localized to endosomal compartments, morphological and ultrastructural studies reveal the absence of large endosomal vacuoles and an increased number of small vacuoles. In addition, the function of the contractile vacuole complex (CV), an osmoregulatory organelle is impaired and some CV components are not correctly targeted. PMID:12802059

  6. AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    O’ Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, III, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim; (OHSU- Cancer Instit.); (ARIAD)

    2010-09-07

    Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABL{sup T315I} mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and preclinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multitargeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABL{sup T315I}-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML.

  7. AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance

    PubMed Central

    O’Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABLT315I mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and pre-clinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multi-targeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABLT315I-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML. PMID:19878872

  8. The fundamental parameters of the Ap star 78 Virginis. Could 78 Vir be a rapidly oscillating Ap star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraut, K.; Cunha, M.; Brandão, I.; Loridat, J.; Mourard, D.; Meilland, A.; Nardetto, N.; McAlister, H.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Vargas, N.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Determining the effective temperature of Ap stars, including the roAp stellar pulsators, is a difficult task owing to their strong magnetic field and their related spotted surfaces. It is, however, an important step towards constraining models of their complex atmosphere and testing proposed pulsation excitation mechanisms. Aims: Using the unique angular resolution provided by long-baseline visible interferometry, we aim at deriving accurate angular diameters of a number of Ap targets, so as to determine their unbiased effective temperature (Teff) and their accurate position in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, to estimate their mass and age, and to test non-adiabatic pulsation models. Interferometric results on four Ap stars have been published in earlier works. Here we report the results on a fifth, significantly hotter star. Methods: We observed 78 Vir with the visible spectrograph VEGA installed at the combined focus of the CHARA long-baseline optical array. We derived the limb-darkened diameter of this Ap star from our interferometric measurements. Based on photometric and spectroscopic data available in the literature, we estimated the star's bolometric flux and used it, in combination with its parallax and angular diameter, to determine the star's luminosity and effective temperature. We then used the derived fundamental parameters to perform a non-adiabatic pulsation analysis. Results: We determined a limb-darkened angular diameter of 0.346 ± 0.006 mas and deduced a linear radius of R = 2.11 ± 0.04 R?. Considering a bolometric flux of 2.73 ± 0.20 10-7 erg/cm2/s we obtained a luminosity of L/L? = 27 ± 2 and an effective temperature of Teff = 9100 ± 190 K. The non-adiabatic pulsation modeling allows us to predict that high overtone pulsations could be excited in 78 Vir at frequencies ranging from 1.2 to 1.9 mHz, provided that the magnetic field is capable of suppressing envelope convection in the polar regions. Conclusions: Visible long-baseline interferometry is a unique means of deriving accurate fundamental parameters of Ap stars. The Ap star 78 Vir is found to be a promising roAp-star candidate and one that would allow us to extend recent tests on the roAp stars' excitation mechanism towards the blue edge of the instability strip. Asteroseismic data of this star would, therefore, be of strong interest. Based on observations made with the VEGA/CHARA spectro-interferometer.

  9. Bremsstrahlung scattering calculations for the beam stops and collimators in the APS insertion-device beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Job, P.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Shu, D.

    1994-12-01

    Bremsstrahlung is produced in the APS storage ring by the interaction of positrons with the residual gas molecules in the vacuum chamber of the storage ring. The bremsstrahlung production causes a serious challenge in shielding the insertion-device beamlines because the entire straight section (15 meters) is in the line of sight of the beamline. The radiation emerges in a narrow cone tangential to the beam path with the characteristic emission angle 1/{gamma}, where {gamma} is E/mc{sup 2} which is the ratio of the kinetic energy to the rest mass for the positrons. This high-energy gamma radiation has an approximate 1/E spectrum with the maximum energy extending up to the particle energy (7 GeV for the APS). Bremsstrahlung, being high-energy photons, produces an electromagnetic shower when it encounters the beamline elements. A beamline element not thick enough to fully contain an electromagnetic shower can cause considerable scatter of the high-energy bremsstrahlung radiation. The low-energy component of the bremsstrahlung can also be scattered and create high dose rates in the first-optical and white-beam enclosures. The fully developed electromagnetic shower will have a photon spectrum almost independent of the material. The electromagnetic showers in the high-Z materials can also produce photoneutrons. This note reports the summary of EGS4 calculations performed on bremsstrahlung scattering from different beamline components in a typical APS insertion-device beamline. The related recommendations for shielding are also given. The shielding criterion adopted is a total dose rate of 2.5{mu}Sv/h (0.25 mrem/h) at 30 cm from the shield.

  10. C. Petrone et al.: "Magnetic measurement of the model magnet QD0 designed for the CLIC final focus beam transport line." CERN TE-MSC Internal Note, EDMS Nr: 1184196

    E-print Network

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Petrone, Carlo; Russenschuck, Stephan; Walckiers, Louis

    2012-01-01

    This note presents the results of the magnetic measurements performed on QD0, model magnet for the final focus transport line for CLIC (Fig. 1). This high-gradient, hybrid quadrupole has a yoke length of 0.1 m and an aperture of 8.3 mm. ND2Fe14B Permanent magnet blocks provide a gradient of 150 T/m, which can be further increased to 530 T/m when the four coils are excited to 18.3 A. The request was to measure the strength of the field and the multipole coefficients at different currents. The measurement of the field strength, by means of the single stretched wire system, was done in December 2011 in the I8 laboratory. The measurement of the multipole was done by means of the oscillating wire system [1][2].

  11. 49 CFR 192.365 - Service lines: Location of valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Service lines: Location of valves. 192.365 Section 192.365 Transportation...192.365 Service lines: Location of valves. (a) Relation to regulator or meter. Each service-line valve must be installed upstream of the...

  12. 49 CFR 192.365 - Service lines: Location of valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Service lines: Location of valves. 192.365 Section 192.365 Transportation...192.365 Service lines: Location of valves. (a) Relation to regulator or meter. Each service-line valve must be installed upstream of the...

  13. 49 CFR 192.365 - Service lines: Location of valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Service lines: Location of valves. 192.365 Section 192.365 Transportation...192.365 Service lines: Location of valves. (a) Relation to regulator or meter. Each service-line valve must be installed upstream of the...

  14. 49 CFR 192.365 - Service lines: Location of valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Service lines: Location of valves. 192.365 Section 192.365 Transportation...192.365 Service lines: Location of valves. (a) Relation to regulator or meter. Each service-line valve must be installed upstream of the...

  15. 49 CFR 192.365 - Service lines: Location of valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Service lines: Location of valves. 192.365 Section 192.365 Transportation...192.365 Service lines: Location of valves. (a) Relation to regulator or meter. Each service-line valve must be installed upstream of the...

  16. Power supply control units for APS ring magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Despe, O.D.

    1990-04-15

    The APS storage ring (1104 meters) is divided into 40 sectors. Each sector has 38 magnet coils in five magnet bases. Every alternate sector has an additional quadrupole magnet for skew correction. AR the main dipole magnets, two in each sector are connected in series and fed from one power supply unit. A base is controlled by one power supply control unit (PSCU). Each PSCU is connected to the host computer via a local area network (LAN). This note discusses the hardware configuration of the typical power supply control system used by the APS magnets and the software commands supported by the PSCU.

  17. Status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.; Arnold, N.; Berg, W.; Cours, A.; Fuja, R.; Grelick, A.; Ko, K.; Qian, Y.; Russell, T.; Sereno, N. [and others

    1994-09-01

    A 2856-MHz S-band, electron-positron linear accelerator (linac) has been constructed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). It is the source of particles and the injector for the other APS accelerators, and linac commissioning is well underway. The linac is operated 24 hours per day to support linac beam studies and rf conditioning, as well as positron accumulator ring and synchrotron commissioning studies. The design goal for accelerated positron current is 8-mA, and has been met. Maximum positron energy to date is 420-MeV, approaching the design goal of 450-MeV. The linac design and its performance are discussed.

  18. A parameter-free dynamic alternative to hyper-viscosity for coupled transport equations: Application to the simulation of 3D squall lines using spectral elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, Simone; Giraldo, Francis X.

    2015-02-01

    The stabilization of high order spectral elements to solve the transport equations for tracers in the atmosphere remains an active topic of research among atmospheric modelers. This paper builds on our previous work on variational multiscale stabilization (VMS) and discontinuity capturing (DC) (Marras et al. (2012) [7]) and shows the applicability of VMS+DC to realistic atmospheric problems that involve physics coupling with phase change in the simulation of 3D deep convection. We show that the VMS+DC approach is a robust technique that can damp the high order modes characterizing the spectral element solution of complex coupled transport problems. The method has important properties that techniques of more common use often lack: 1) it is free of a user-defined parameter, 2) it is anisotropic in that it only acts along the flow direction, 3) it is numerically consistent, and 4) it can improve the monotonicity of high-order spectral elements. The proposed method is assessed by comparing the results against those obtained with a fourth-order hyper-viscosity programmed in the same code. The main conclusion that arises is that tuning can be fully avoided without loss of accuracy if the dissipative scheme is properly designed. Finally, the cost of parallel communication is that of a second order operator which means that fewer communications are required by VMS+DC than by a hyper-viscosity method; fewer communications translate into a faster and more scalable code, which is of vital importance as we approach the exascale range of computing.

  19. Analysis of N-16 concentration in primary cooling system of AP1000 power reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohanda, Anis; Waris, Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen-16 (N-16) is one of the radiation safety parameter on the primary reactor system. The activation product, N-16, is the predominant contributor to the activity in the reactor coolant system during reactor operation. N-16 is activation product derived from activation of O-16 with fast neutron based on 16O(n,p)16N reaction. Thus study is needed and it performs to determine N-16 concentration in reactor coolant (primary coolant) in supporting radiation safety. One of the way is using analytical methode based on activation and redecay princip to obtain N-16 concentration. The analysis was performed on the configuration basis and operational of Westinghouse AP1000 power reactor in several monitoring points at coolant reactor system. The results of the calculation of N-16 concentration at the core outlet, reactor vessel outlet, pressurizer line, inlet and outlet of steam generators, primary pumps, reactor vessels inlet and core inlet are: 281, 257, 255, 250, 145, 142, 129 and 112 µCi/gram respectively. The results of analysis compared with AP1000 design control document as standard values. The verification showed very high accuracy comparation between analytical results and standard values.

  20. Control of machine functions or transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, M.D.; Lee, M.J.; Jaeger, J.; King, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    A computer code, COMFORT, has been developed at SLAC for on-line calculation of the strengths of magnetic elements in an electron storage ring or transport beam line, subject to first order fitting constraints on the ring or beam line parameters. This code can also be used off-line as an interactive lattice or beam line design tool.

  1. MLM polychromator monitoring soft-x-ray spectral line emissions of C, O, and Fe used in transport studies of the Phaedrus-T tokamak plasma during ohmic, rf-heated, and H-mode discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, S. P.; Finkenthal, M.; May, M. J.; Moos, H. W.

    1995-01-01

    The MLM (multilayer mirror) polychromator has two modes of operation. In the first mode, it simultaneously monitors the Ly ? and ? emissions of H-like O at 19.0 and 16.0 Å, respectively, the Ly ? emission of C at 33.7 Å, and the singlet and triplet transitions of He-like C at 40.5 Å. In the second mode, it simultaneously monitors the Ly ? and ? emissions of H-like C at 33.7 and 28.5 Å, respectively, as well as the 15.6 and 93.9 Å emissions of F-like Fe. The MLM polychromator has a wavelength resolution that varies from 0.3 Å at 16.0 Å to 2 Å at 40.5 Å and 7 Å at 93.9 Å. It was mounted on the midplane of the Phaedrus-T tokamak with its line of sight along the major radius. On a shot by shot basis, the MLM polychromator, with a temporal resolution of 1 ms and a spatial resolution of 1 cm, scanned the plasma in the z direction ±15 cm from the toroidal magnetic axis. Vertical asymmetries in the soft x-ray spectral line brightness profiles were measured and found to depend on the direction of BT. The brightness profiles were inverted and modeled with a poloidally asymmetric Gaussian emissivity profile. The measured results were compared with the predicted emissivity profiles to determine the transport of carbon.

  2. results and benefits... The Bittern Line Carbon

    E-print Network

    Everest, Graham R

    results and benefits... The Bittern Line Carbon Neutral Stations Transport Regeneration Ltd. June 2008 c a s e s t u d yCRed carbon reduction Project Summary Our client, Transport Regeneration Ltd., aims to make nine stations on the Bittern Line between Norwich and Sheringham carbon neutral

  3. 8 | NewScientist | 28 January 2012 RALPHWILSON/AP

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    8 | NewScientist | 28 January 2012 RALPHWILSON/AP Fracking is causing a furore in the US and Europe is scarce DRILLING INTO THE UNKNOWN SPECIALREPORT/FRACKING #12;28 January 2012 | NewScientist | 9 "Neighbours of new fracking operations complain of breathing difficulties and nausea" 100s of metres 1000s

  4. APS undulator and wiggler sources: Monte-Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.L.; Lai, B.; Viccaro, P.J.

    1992-02-01

    Standard insertion devices will be provided to each sector by the Advanced Photon Source. It is important to define the radiation characteristics of these general purpose devices. In this document,results of Monte-Carlo simulation are presented. These results, based on the SHADOW program, include the APS Undulator A (UA), Wiggler A (WA), and Wiggler B (WB).

  5. Automated Procurement System (APS) revised project management plan (DS-03)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Diane R.

    1995-01-01

    The Project Plan is the governing document for the implementation of the Automated Procurement System (APS). It includes a description of the proposed system, describes the work to be done, establishes a schedule of deliverables, and discusses the major standards and procedures to be followed.

  6. C-A/AP/#245 Electron gun for RHIC EBIS

    E-print Network

    C-A/AP/#245 July 2006 Electron gun for RHIC EBIS Alexander Pikin Collider-Accelerator Department Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY 11973 #12;Electron gun for RHIC EBIS Alexander Pikin 1. Introduction The method of forming the electron beam in a new gun for RHIC EBIS is the same as is being used for a Test

  7. C-A/AP/#244 Pepper Pot Emittance Meter

    E-print Network

    C-A/AP/#244 July 2006 Pepper Pot Emittance Meter A. Pikin, A. Kponou, J. Ritter, V. Zajic Collider-Accelerator Department Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY 11973 #12;Pepper pot emittance meter A. Pikin, A. Kponou primarily extracted from EBIS Test Stand, a new emittance meter has been designed and built. The motivation

  8. Accepted by ApJ. Periodicities in Solar Flare Occurrence

    E-print Network

    Bai, Taeil

    Accepted by ApJ. Periodicities in Solar Flare Occurrence: Analysis of Cycles 19­23 T. Bai Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 bai@quake.stanford.edu ABSTRACT Mid-range periodicities in solar flare spectra of major flare occurrence times for the time intervals analyzed by Ozguc & Atac and Bai, strongest

  9. APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellowship Awards Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

    2012-04-01

    This article is on page 48 of The Physiologist, April 2012. Since its inception in 1987, the APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellowship Program has awarded more than 810 travel fellowships to over 555 undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral students and to faculty members at minority institutions.

  10. APS/DPP 111207-se 1 University Fusion Association Meeting

    E-print Network

    · Grants and Solicitations · ITER · HEDLP Joint Program · Plasma Science · Issues and Plans #12;APS facilities rather than retaining the money for ITER and carrying it over to future fiscal years. · Senate 7 Grants and Solicitations · Theory ­ Review complete, 44 applications submitted, 17 funded · Sci

  11. ECE 572 Optoelectronics Instructor: A.P. DeFonzo

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    ECE 572 Optoelectronics Fall 2011 Instructor: A.P. DeFonzo Text: The Physics of Solar Cells Emitting Diode Power Generation Cell Characteristics Photons in , electrons Out: Basis Principles Electrons of photon effects Monocrystalline Devices Thin Film Devices Managing Light Beyond the Limits: High

  12. AP Biology Workshop: The Importance of Laboratory Work

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The College Board The College Board (The College Board; )

    2012-10-24

    This is a collection of essays that highlights the benefits of conducting lab experiments as part of the AP Biology curriculum. It encourages teachers to continue using learning tools like technology in lab experiments to enhance the classroom experience for students.

  13. Emission imaging of AP\\/HTPB propellant sandwich combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. T. Chorpening; M. Q. Brewster

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet emission imaging (305-315 nm) was used to study the combustion of sandwiches of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) in nitrogen at pressures up to 32 atm, with binder layers from 50 to 450 µm in thickness. The emission imaging was combined with a novel backlighting technique to allow determination of the corresponding surface shape during combustion. The

  14. Introduction Anteroposterior (AP) patterning of the developing neural tube

    E-print Network

    Blumberg, Bruce

    2653 Introduction Anteroposterior (AP) patterning of the developing neural tube is a crucial early in Spemann's Organizer such as noggin, follistatin or chordin become neuralized in the absence of mesoderm., 1995; Xu et al., 1995) that normally acts to repress neural fate. Organizer-expressed neural inducing

  15. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  16. DETAIL VIEW OF WINCH USED TO RAISE AND LOWER AP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF WINCH USED TO RAISE AND LOWER AP 93W, ROOF LEVEL, PLATFORM D-SOUTH, HB-3, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. Modeling Contaminants in AP-MS/MS Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Cloutier, Philippe; Coulombe, Benoit; Blanchette, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Identification of protein–protein interactions (PPI) by affinity purification (AP) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (AP-MS/MS) produces large data sets with high rates of false positives. This is in part because of contamination at the AP level (due to gel contamination, nonspecific binding to the TAP columns in the context of tandem affinity purification, insufficient purification, etc.). In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian approach to identify false-positive PPIs involving contaminants in AP-MS/MS experiments. Specifically, we propose a confidence assessment algorithm (called Decontaminator) that builds a model of contaminants using a small number of representative control experiments. It then uses this model to determine whether the Mascot score of a putative prey is significantly larger than what was observed in control experiments and assigns it a p-value and a false discovery rate. We show that our method identifies contaminants better than previously used approaches and results in a set of PPIs with a larger overlap with databases of known PPIs. Our approach will thus allow improved accuracy in PPI identification while reducing the number of control experiments required. PMID:21117706

  18. Validating Placement Rules for the APS Reading Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Santa Clarita, CA.

    A study was conducted to determine how best to use APS Reading Test scores for making English placement recommendations for students at College of the Canyons (COC) in Santa Clarita, California. The primary method used to establish cut scores involves comparing success rates for contrasting groups over a range of scores. The contrasting groups are…

  19. Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

  20. Early Telegraphic News Dispatches: The Forerunner of the AP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzlose, Richard A.

    The origin of the Associated Press (AP) lies in the early cooperative news gathering efforts of the editors of several New York newspapers. As early as May 1846, these editors were "pooling" their energies in response to newly developed modes of communication--the wire and wireless telegraph and the trans-oceanic steamship mail services. The…

  1. Transversal direct readout CMOS APS with variable shutter mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigehiro Miyatake; Masaru Miyamoto; Takashi Morimoto; Yasuo Masaki; Hideki Tanabe

    2002-01-01

    A transversal direct readout (TDR) structure for CMOS active pixel image sensors (APSs) eliminates the vertically striped fixed pattern noise. This novel architecture has evolved to incorporate a variable shutter mode as well as simplifying the pixel structure. This paper describes a 320 X 240- pixel TDR APS that not only exhibits neither vertically nor horizontally striped fixed pattern noise,

  2. CMOS APS imaging system application in star tracker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Li; Jinguo Liu; Xuekui Li; Yaxia Liu; Zhihang Hao

    2005-01-01

    Small satellites are capable of performing space explore missions that require accurate attitude determination and control. However, low weight, size, power and cost requirements limit the types of attitude sensor of small craft, such as CCD, are not practical for small satellites. CMOS APS is a good substitute for attitude sensors of small craft. Some of the technical advantages of

  3. CMOS APS crosstalk characterization via a unique submicron scanning system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Shcherback; Orly Yadid-Pecht

    2003-01-01

    This work introduces a novel way for CMOS APS crosstalk (CTK) determination and prediction based on our unique Submicron Scanning System (SSS) measurements. It enables the crosstalk magnitude determination, the tracking of its main causes, and can be used as a predictive tool for design optimization. A pronounced crosstalk asymmetry within the array which was revealed by the measurements is

  4. Bottom collection of photodiode-based CMOS APS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Blanco-Filgueira; P. Lopez; D. Cabello; J. Ernst; H. Neubauer; J. Hauer

    2008-01-01

    The market for solid-state image sensors has been experiencing an explosive growth in recent years resulting in CMOS sensors rapidly becoming one of the emerging sectors with more projection potential in the semiconductors industry. A CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) with a reverse biased p-n junction photodiode constitutes the structure of more widespread use, and it has been made a

  5. A test structure for characterization of CMOS APS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Elkhatib; S. Moussa; H. F. Ragaie; H. Haddara

    2003-01-01

    A test structure to characterize CMOS APS image sensor is presented. Individual photodiodes and pixels as well as an image sensor array of 64×64 active pixels with selectable linear or logarithmic operation modes are designed. A test chip includes these features in addition to on-chip timing and control digital circuits as well as correlated double sampling have been built on

  6. APS storage ring vacuum chamber: Section 1, Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Benaroya, R.; Roop, B.

    1995-07-01

    The vacuum characteristics of the APS storage ring vacuum chamber prototype, Section One (S1), is presented. The base pressure achieved was 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}, the welds contained no virtual or real leaks, the NeG strip mounting design and activation procedures have been determined, and S1 was found contaminated with hydrocarbons.

  7. APS, April 2008 The Gluon's spin contribution to the

    E-print Network

    G. Bunce APS, April 2008 The Gluon's spin contribution to the proton's spin ---as seen at RHIC* I "proton spin crisis" #12;· What else carries the proton spin ? Central question for the field. Orbital ang = + - = -+++ -+++ ^ ^^ , , Double longitudinal spin asymmetry ALL is sensitive to G #12;· How: ---collide beams of protons

  8. Fuel Cell Application Problems: Study Guide for AP Chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cox, Brian A.

    This study guide is intended for 10th-12th grade AP chemistry students studying fuel cell technology. Applicable National Science Education Standards are included in the document. The study guide includes a comparison of gasoline and hydrogen, a section on kinetic molecular theory, a section on electrochemistry and material on hydrogen fuel cells. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  9. Approximate entropy (ApEn) as a complexity measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincus, Steve

    1995-03-01

    Approximate entropy (ApEn) is a recently developed statistic quantifying regularity and complexity, which appears to have potential application to a wide variety of relatively short (greater than 100 points) and noisy time-series data. The development of ApEn was motivated by data length constraints commonly encountered, e.g., in heart rate, EEG, and endocrine hormone secretion data sets. We describe ApEn implementation and interpretation, indicating its utility to distinguish correlated stochastic processes, and composite deterministic/ stochastic models. We discuss the key technical idea that motivates ApEn, that one need not fully reconstruct an attractor to discriminate in a statistically valid manner—marginal probability distributions often suffice for this purpose. Finally, we discuss why algorithms to compute, e.g., correlation dimension and the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy, often work well for true dynamical systems, yet sometimes operationally confound for general models, with the aid of visual representations of reconstructed dynamics for two contrasting processes.

  10. SPES-2, the full-height, full-pressure, test facility simulating the AP600 plant: Main results from the experimental campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Medich, C.; Rigamonti, M. [SIET S.p.A., Piacenza (Italy); Martinelli, R. [ENEA-ERG, Rome (Italy); Tarantini, M. [ENEA-ERG-FISS, Bologna (Italy); Conway, L. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The SPES-2 is a full height, full pressure experimental test facility reproducing the Westinghouse AP600 reactor with a scaling factor of 1/395. The experimental plant, designed and operated by SIET in Piacenza, consists of a full simulation of the AP600 primary core cooling system including all the passive and active safety systems. In 1992, Westinghouse, in cooperation with ENEL, ENEA, SIET and ANSALDO developed an experimental program to test the integrated behavior of the AP600 passive safety systems. The SPES-2 test matrix, concluded in November 1994, has examined the AP600 passive safety system response for a range of small break LOCAs at different locations on the primary system and on the passive system lines; single steam generator tube ruptures with both passive and active non-safety systems, and a main steam line break transient to demonstrate the capability of passive safety systems for rapid cooldown. Each of the tests has provided detailed experimental results for verification of the capability of the analysis methods to predict the integrated passive safety system behavior.

  11. Anti-tumor peptide AP25 decreases cyclin D1 expression and inhibits MGC-803 proliferation via phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-, Src-, c-Jun N-terminal kinase- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-associated pathways.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jialiang; Cheng, Tao; Zhang, Lijun; Sun, Beicheng; Deng, Lei; Xu, Hanmei

    2015-09-01

    The anti-tumor peptide AP25 is a prototype integrin antagonist, which exhibits anti?angiogenic and anti?tumor activity. The molecular mechanisms by which AP25 inhibits the growth of the MGC?803 gastric carcinoma cell line were investigated in the present study. K?ras specific RNA interference by lentiviral infection was successfully induced in MGC?803 cells [MGC?803 short hairpin (sh)RNA group] and the expression levels of K?ras, phosphorylated extracellular signal?regulated kinase (p-ERK) and cyclin D1 were observed to be markedly decreased. By contrast, AP25 caused cell cycle arrest of intact MGC?803 cells and decreased p?ERK and cyclin D1 expression levels. Of note, 0.4?3.2 µM AP25 no longer inhibited MGC?803 shRNA growth, indicating that AP25, at such concentrations, exerts its effect mainly through the Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK pathway, whereas at 25 µM, AP25 was able to inhibit MGC?803 shRNA growth. Chemical inhibitors of Src, c?Jun N?terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphoinositide 3?kinase (PI3K) were used to confirm that 25 µM AP25 inhibited growth of cells in the MGC?803 shRNA group and activated intracellular signaling pathways with Src, JNK and PI3K as key enzymes. In conclusion, the present study revealed the signal transduction pathways activated by AP25 at low (0.4?3.2 µM) or high (25 µM) concentrations. It also confirmed that integrins, when interacting with the freely moving ligand AP25 instead of immobilized extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are able to initiate cell signaling via similar pathways as in the latter case but with a reversed effect, to inhibit cell growth. PMID:26063313

  12. Analysis of AP-1 function in cellular transformation pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, T; Murakami, M; Onai, N; Fukuda, E; Hashimoto, Y; Sonobe, M H; Kameda, T; Ichinose, M; Miki, K; Iba, H

    1994-01-01

    To understand the role of endogenous AP-1 activity in cellular transformation induced by oncogenes, we have made use of a fos mutant (supfos-1) and a jun mutant (supjun-1), either of which can function as a transdominant inhibitor of AP-1-mediated transcriptional regulation. Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with a series of transforming retroviruses were doubly infected with retrovirus carrying supfos-1 or supjun-1, and suppression of cellular transformation was monitored in terms of reversion to normal cellular morphology or acquisition of anchorage-dependent growth. Cellular transformation induced by several exogenously expressed transforming genes of the fos or jun family was efficiently suppressed, as expected. CEF transformed by v-src, v-yes, v-fps, c-Ha-ras, and N-terminally truncated c-raf were also induced to revert to the normal phenotype by these transdominant mutants, suggesting that functional transcription factor AP-1 activity is essential for the cellular transformation induced by these oncogenes. The suppression is not attributable to nonspecific inhibition of cellular proliferation, because CEF transformed by v-ros or v-myc were not induced to revert to the normal phenotype. We next analyzed changes in all known components of chicken AP-1 induced by v-src, c-Ha-ras, or activated c-raf transformation. The levels of both Fra-2 and c-Jun expression were elevated two- to fourfold, and hyperphosphorylation of Fra-2 was also observed. We further showed that Fra-2-c-Jun heterodimer is mainly responsible for the elevated AP-1 DNA-binding activity in these transformed cells, and we propose that this heterodimer play a crucial role in the transformation induced by these oncogenes. Images PMID:8189491

  13. AP Theory IV: Intrinsic Topological Quantum Langlands Theory

    E-print Network

    H. E. Winkelnkemper

    2010-10-25

    Without using any moduli, sheaves, stacks, nor any analytic, nor category-type arguments, we exhibit an analogue to Geometric Langlands Theory in an entirely model-independent, non-perturbative,purely smooth topological context in Artin Presentation Theory. A basic initial feature is that AP Theory, as a whole, is already, ab initio, a universal canonical 2D sigma-model, targeting smooth, compact, simply-connected 4-manifolds with a connected boundary, and its topological Planckian quantum starting point, as well as its cone-like, infinitely-generated at each stage, graded group of homology-preserving, but topology-changing transitions/interactions, exhibit the most general qualitative S-duality. We first point out the numerous mathematically rigorous, model-free, (i.e., intrinsic), topological AP analogues with the heuristic Kapustin-Witten version of Geometric Langlands theory, as well as the crucial differences between the two theories. The latter have to exist since AP Theory deals, a priori, essentially only with discrete group-theoretic presentation theory, not Lie group representation theory, not with category nor moduli theory, does not need classical SUSY, nor Feynman integrals, lattice models, etc., and furthermore is model-independent and characteristic of real dimension four. It will become clear that AP Langlands theory is a model-independent, cone-like, graded, compact completion and topological 'envelope' of 4D N=4 SUSY YM theory, their starting point, anchored, kept in place, so to speak, by a purely discrete group-theoretic analogue of Donaldson/Seiberg-Witten theory. Due to its discrete group-theoretic conceptual simplicity and universality, the AP Langlands program should also be considered to be a new type of intrinsic model-free symmetry, a universal Erlanger Program for Modern Physics.

  14. APS beamline standard components handbook. Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  15. Stimulation of Na,K-activated adenosine triphosphatase and active transport by low external K+ in a rat liver cell line

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Exposure of ARL 15 cells, an established line from adult rat liver, to concentrations of external K+ below 1 mM caused a rapid fall in intracellular K+ and a corresponding rise in intracellular Na+ that became maximal within 12 h. Upon continued exposure to low external K+, these initial changes were followed by a striking recovery such that, by 24 h, intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations approached their control values. Concomitant with this recovery, there was a substantial increase in Na,K-ATPase specific activity that was detectable at 12 h and maximal at 24 h. After restoration of the external K+ concentration, the elevated level of enzyme activity showed little change for at least 24 h. In contrast, restoration of external K+ resulted in a rapid rise in intracellular K+ and a fall in Na+ such that within 30 min the Na+/K+ ratio was lower than in control cells. This overshoot, together with a demonstrated increase in active 86Rb+ uptake under "Vmax" conditions, confirms that the enhancement in Na,K- ATPase specific activity in response to low external K+ represents an increase in functional Na,K pumping capacity. PMID:3009686

  16. Chromosome localization of human genes for clathrin adaptor polypeptides AP2 beta and AP50 and the clathrin-binding protein, VCP.

    PubMed

    Druck, T; Gu, Y; Prabhala, G; Cannizzaro, L A; Park, S H; Huebner, K; Keen, J H

    1995-11-01

    Clathrin-coated vesicles, involved in endocytosis and Golgi processing, have a surface lattice containing clathrin triskelia and stoichiometric amounts of additional components termed "assembly proteins," or APs. The AP form at the plasma membrane, AP2, is composed of two large subunits of 100-115 kDa, denoted AP2 alpha and AP2 beta, a medium chain of 50 kDa, designated AP50, and a small chain. We have determined human chromosomal locations of genes for a large AP2 beta (CLAPB1) and a medium (CLAPM1) AP subunit and of a novel clathrin-binding protein, VCP, that binds clathrin simultaneously with APs. Chromosomal in situ hybridization of a human genomic clone demonstrated that the CLAPM1 gene mapped to chromosome region 3q28. The gene for the CLAPB1 large subunit was mapped to 17q11.2-q12 by PCR amplification of an AP2 beta fragment from a panel of rodent-human hybrid DNAs. To map the human VCP sequence, a human-specific probe was made by RT-PCR of human mRNA using oligonucleotide primers from conserved regions of the porcine sequence. The amplified human fragment served as probe on Southern blots of hybrid DNAs to determine that the human VCP locus maps to chromosome region 9pter-q34. PMID:8595912

  17. Susceptibility of muridae cell lines to ecotropic murine leukemia virus and the cationic amino acid transporter 1 viral receptor sequences: implications for evolution of the viral receptor.

    PubMed

    Kakoki, Katsura; Shinohara, Akio; Izumida, Mai; Koizumi, Yosuke; Honda, Eri; Kato, Goro; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-06-01

    Ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (Eco-MLVs) infect mouse and rat, but not other mammalian cells, and gain access for infection through binding the cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1). Glycosylation of the rat and hamster CAT1s inhibits Eco-MLV infection, and treatment of rat and hamster cells with a glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, enhances Eco-MLV infection. Although the mouse CAT1 is also glycosylated, it does not inhibit Eco-MLV infection. Comparison of amino acid sequences between the rat and mouse CAT1s shows amino acid insertions in the rat protein near the Eco-MLV-binding motif. In addition to the insertion present in the rat CAT1, the hamster CAT1 has additional amino acid insertions. In contrast, tunicamycin treatment of mink and human cells does not elevate the infection, because their CAT1s do not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif. To define the evolutionary pathway of the Eco-MLV receptor, we analyzed CAT1 sequences and susceptibility to Eco-MLV infection of other several murinae animals, including the southern vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis), large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), and Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus). Eco-MLV infection was enhanced by tunicamycin in these cells, and their CAT1 sequences have the insertions like the hamster CAT1. Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian CAT1s suggested that the ancestral CAT1 does not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif, like the human CAT1, and the mouse CAT1 is thought to be generated by the amino acid deletions in the third extracellular loop of CAT1. PMID:24469466

  18. APS Presents Awards for the Best Physiology Project at Local Summer Science Camp

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

    2012-10-01

    This article is on page 174-175 of The Physiologist, October 2012. APS members continue to judge and present Science Fair Awards on behalf of the APS at local and regional science fairs for precollege students across the nation.

  19. Pituitary homeobox 2 (PITX2) protects renal cancer cell lines against doxorubicin toxicity by transcriptional activation of the multidrug transporter ABCB1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wing-Kee; Chakraborty, Prabir K; Thévenod, Frank

    2013-08-01

    The multidrug resistance (MDR) P-glycoprotein ABCB1 plays a major role in MDR of malignant cells and is regulated by various transcription factors, including Wnt/?-catenin/TCF4. The transcription factor PITX2 (Pituitary homeobox-2) is essential for embryonic development. PITX2 operates by recruiting and interacting with ?-catenin to increase the expression of growth-regulating genes, such as cyclin D1/2 and c-Myc. The importance of PITX2 in malignancy is not yet known. Here we demonstrate that in the renal cancer cell lines ACHN and A498, the level of ABCB1 expression and function correlate with nuclear PITX2 localization and PITX2-luciferase reporter gene activity (A498?>?ACHN). In A498 cells, doxorubicin toxicity is augmented by the ABCB1 inhibitor, PSC833. PITX2 overexpression increases ABCB1 expression and cell survival in ACHN cells. Silencing of PITX2 by siRNA downregulates ABCB1 and induces a greater chemotherapeutic response to doxorubicin in A498 cells, as determined by MTT cell viability and clonogenic survival assays. Two PITX2 binding sequences were identified in the ABCB1 promoter sequence. PITX2 binding was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. ?-Catenin is not required for PITX2 upregulation of ABCB1 because ABCB1 mRNA increased and doxorubicin toxicity decreased upon PITX2 overexpression in ?-catenin(-/-) cells. The data show for the first time that ABCB1 is a target gene of PITX2 transcriptional activity, promoting MDR and cell survival of cancer cells. PMID:23354914

  20. RelAp43, a Member of the NF-?B Family Involved in Innate Immune Response against Lyssavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Tangy, Frédéric; Weil, Robert; Bourhy, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    NF-?B transcription factors are crucial for many cellular processes. NF-?B is activated by viral infections to induce expression of antiviral cytokines. Here, we identified a novel member of the human NF-?B family, denoted RelAp43, the nucleotide sequence of which contains several exons as well as an intron of the RelA gene. RelAp43 is expressed in all cell lines and tissues tested and exhibits all the properties of a NF-?B protein. Although its sequence does not include a transactivation domain, identifying it as a class I member of the NF-?B family, it is able to potentiate RelA-mediated transactivation and stabilize dimers comprising p50. Furthermore, RelAp43 stimulates the expression of HIAP1, IRF1, and IFN-? - three genes involved in cell immunity against viral infection. It is also targeted by the matrix protein of lyssaviruses, the agents of rabies, resulting in an inhibition of the NF-?B pathway. Taken together, our data provide the description of a novel functional member of the NF-?B family, which plays a key role in the induction of anti-viral innate immune response. PMID:23271966

  1. Tumour growth and resistance to gemcitabine of pancreatic cancer cells are decreased by AP2? overexpression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Jonckheere; V Fauquette; L Stechly; N Saint-Laurent; S Aubert; C Susini; G Huet; N Porchet; I Van Seuningen; P Pigny

    2009-01-01

    Background:Activator protein-2? (AP-2?) is a transcription factor that belongs to the family of AP-2 proteins that have essential roles in tumorigenesis. Indeed, AP-2? is considered as a tumour-suppressor gene in different tissues such as colonic, prostatic or breast epithelial cells. Moreover, AP-2? also participates in the control of colon and breast cancer cells sensitivity towards chemotherapeutic drugs. Despite its potential

  2. Exploring Mars: The Ares Payload Service (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

    1999-08-01

    In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the design notably an improved re-entry cooling system and fueling stability analysis were done this year. More technical detail and a proposed international consortium to develop the SSTO is presented in another session of this year's Mars convention. We believe that there will be no human exploration of Mars based on the Shuttle or Expendable launch vehicles, and no resources available except for a cooperative international program. However, just as the world is learning to cooperate in peacekeeping, we hold out the hope that similar cooperation will develop for Mars exploration. With that in mind, this year we asked the question- "How will the human mission get to Mars if it has to use the SsTO for transportation?"

  3. Exploring Mars: the Ares Payload Service (APS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the design notably an improved re-entry cooling system and fueling stability analysis were done this year. More technical detail and a proposed international consortium to develop the SSTO is presented in another session of this year's Mars convention. We believe that there will be no human exploration of Mars based on the Shuttle or Expendable launch vehicles, and no resources available except for a cooperative international program. However, just as the world is learning to cooperate in peacekeeping, we hold out the hope that similar cooperation will develop for Mars exploration. With that in mind, this year we asked the question- "How will the human mission get to Mars if it has to use the SsTO for transportation?"

  4. Measure Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  5. Novel insect cell line capable of complex N-glycosylation and sialylation of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Laura A; Joosten, Christoph E; Hughes, Patrick R; Granados, Robert R; Shuler, Michael L

    2003-01-01

    Paucimannose or oligomannose structures are usually attached to glycoproteins produced by insect cells, while mammalian glycoproteins usually have complex glycans. The lack of complex glycosylation has limited the use of the insect cell baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), despite its high productivity and versatility. The availability of cell lines capable of complex glycosylation can overcome such a problem and potentially increase the utility of BEVS. In this work the capability of two novel cell lines, one from Pseudaletia unipuncta (A7S) and one from Danaus plexippus (DpN1), to produce and glycosylate a recombinant protein (secreted human placental alkaline phosphatase, SeAP) was assessed. SeAP produced by Tn5B1-4 cells at a low passage number (<200) was utilized for comparison. The optimal conditions for the production of SeAP by DpN1 cells were defined, and the glycosylation profiles of SeAP produced by the cell lines were quantitatively determined. Both the A7S and the DpN1 cells produced lower concentrations of SeAP than the Tn5B1-4 cells. Less than 5% of the glycans attached to SeAP produced by the Tn5B1-4 cells had complex forms. Glycans attached to SeAP from A7S cells contained 4% hybrid and 8% complex forms. Galactosylated biantennary structures were identified. Glycans attached to SeAP produced by the DpN1 cell line had 6% hybrid and 26% complex forms. Of the complex forms in SeAP from DpN1, 13% were identified as sialylated glycans. The galactosyltransferase activity of the three cell lines was measured and correlated to their ability to produce complex forms. Even though neither novel cell line produced as much recombinant protein as the Tn5B1-4 cells, the glycosylation of SeAP expressed by both cell lines was more complete. These novel cell lines represent interesting alternatives for the production of complex glycosylated proteins utilizing the BEVS. PMID:12573024

  6. Pulsation in the atmosphere of the roAp star HD 24712. I. Spectroscopic observations and radial velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikova, T.; Sachkov, M.; Weiss, W. W.; Kallinger, T.; Kochukhov, O.; Bagnulo, S.; Ilyin, I.; Landstreet, J. D.; Leone, F.; Lo Curto, G.; Lüftinger, T.; Lyashko, D.; Magazzù, A.

    2007-02-01

    Aims:We have investigated the structure of the pulsating atmosphere of one of the best studied rapidly oscillating Ap stars, HD 24712. Methods: For this purpose we analyzed spectra collected during 2001-2004. An extensive data set was obtained in 2004 simultaneously with the photometry of the Canadian MOST mini-satellite. This allows us to connect directly atmospheric dynamics observed as radial velocity variations with light variations seen in photometry. Results: We directly derived for the first time and for different chemical elements, respectively ions, phase shifts between photometric and radial velocity pulsation maxima indicating, as we suggest, different line formation depths in the atmosphere. This allowed us to estimate for the first time the propagation velocity of a pulsation wave in the outer stellar atmosphere of a roAp star to be slightly lower than the sound speed. We confirm large pulsation amplitudes (150-400 m s-1) for REE lines and the H? core, while spectral lines of the other elements (Mg, Si, Ca, and Fe-peak elements) have nearly constant velocities. We did not find different pulsation amplitudes and phases for the lines of rare-earth elements before and after the Balmer jump, which supports the hypothesis of REE concentration in the upper atmosphere above the hydrogen line-forming layers. We also discuss radial velocity amplitudes and phases measured for individual spectral lines as tools for a 3D tomography of the atmosphere of HD 24712. Based on observations collected at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, (DDT-274.D-5011), at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), and from MOST, a Canadian Space Agency mission operated jointly by Dynacon, Inc., the University of Toronto Institute of Aerospace Studies, and the University of British Columbia, with assistance from the University of Vienna. Tables 4, 5 and Fig. 9 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. AP STAR AWARDS Who is the shining star in your department?

    E-print Network

    AP STAR AWARDS Who is the shining star in your department? Give them the honor they deserve! Deadline for application is February 4, 2011 The AP Stars award was created to express appreciation professionals on campus? Previous AP Stars recipients are not eligible to win again for two (2) years after

  8. College Completion: Comparing AP®, Dual-Enrolled, and Nonadvanced Students. Research Report 2014-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Kelly; Matos-Elefonte, Haifa; Ewing, Maureen; Patel, Priyank

    2014-01-01

    The study presented here is an investigation and comparison of the relationships between the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) and dual-enrolled high school courses and college outcomes. Previous research provides evidence that participation in AP, and subsequent success on AP Exams, is positively related to various college outcomes including an…

  9. The U.S. Government's Assistance to the AP's World-Wide Expansion: 1912-1948.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud-Komiya, Jean-Luc

    A study of the extent of the diplomatic and commercial assistance provided by the United States government to the Associated Press (AP) from 1912 to 1948 shows AP's manager, Kent Cooper, to be less a champion of the free press than an efficient captain of industry in expanding AP influence across the globe. Early in the twentieth century, British,…

  10. AP Studio Art as an Enabling Constraint for Secondary Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) Studio Art is an influential force in secondary art education as is evident in the 31,800 portfolios submitted for review in 2008. From the perspectives of a high school educator and AP Reader, this author has observed how the constraints of the AP program can be used to generate support for high school art programs and…

  11. Outsourcing Home AP Management to the Cloud through an Open API

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Suman

    the most common among home devices today are wireless Access Points (APs) that are supplied by a number of diverse vendors -- Linksys, Netgear, DLink, TrendNet, Belkin, to name a few. In fact, wireless APs be implemented by home wireless APs to enable a cloud-based management service that enables coordination

  12. Implementation and Testing of Fault-Tolerant Photodiode-based Active Pixel Sensor (APS)

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    -tolerant photodiode APS was designed and fabricated using a CMOS 0.18µm process. Testing included both fully. This paper expands on the previous work by implementing the redundant photodiode APS in a CMOS 0.18µm processImplementation and Testing of Fault-Tolerant Photodiode-based Active Pixel Sensor (APS) Sunjaya

  13. CMOS APS PHOTORESPONSE AND CROSSTALK OPTIMIZATION ANALYSIS FOR SCALABLE CMOS TECHNOLOGIES

    E-print Network

    1 CMOS APS PHOTORESPONSE AND CROSSTALK OPTIMIZATION ANALYSIS FOR SCALABLE CMOS TECHNOLOGIES Igor developed for photoresponse estimation of a photodiode based CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS). We show its use for maximum pixel photosignal prediction and CMOS APS crosstalk (CTK) optimization. Our model reveals

  14. CMOS APS crosstalk characterization via a unique Sub-micron Scanning System

    E-print Network

    CMOS APS crosstalk characterization via a unique Sub-micron Scanning System Igor Shcherback, Orly introduces a novel way for CMOS APS crosstalk (CTK) determination and prediction based on our unique Sub out that CMOS APS crosstalk is mostly affected by the specific pixel architecture and the pixels

  15. Analysis of Temporal Noise in CMOS APS Hui Tian, Boyd Fowler, and Abbas El Gamal

    E-print Network

    El Gamal, Abbas

    Analysis of Temporal Noise in CMOS APS Hui Tian, Boyd Fowler, and Abbas El Gamal Information shot noise and the thermal and 1/f noise of the output charge to voltage amplifier. In a CMOS APS of the APS charge to voltage characteristics, which is becoming more pronounced as CMOS technology scales

  16. Characteristics of Fault-Tolerant Photodiode and Photogate Active Pixel Sensor (APS)

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    tolerant APS design has been implemented in a 0.18µm CMOS process for both a photodiode based and photogate compatibility with the standard CMOS process, the ability to integrate other components with the APS, a single the design and testing of a fault-tolerant APS using a photogate fabricated in a 0.18µm CMOS process as well

  17. Analysis of 1/f noise in CMOS APS Hui Tian, and Abbas El Gamal

    E-print Network

    El Gamal, Abbas

    Analysis of 1/f noise in CMOS APS Hui Tian, and Abbas El Gamal Information Systems Laboratory is used to analyze the effect of 1/f noise due to pixel level transistors in a CMOS APS. The results show noise, subthreshold operation, nonstationary 1/f noise model, time domain noise analysis, CMOS APS

  18. APS: 125 Years of Progress of Physiology as a Scientific Discipline and a Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Robert G.; Frank, Martin; Ra'anan, Alice; Matyas, Marsha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, CA, included events to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the founding of the American Physiological Society (APS) and reflect on the recent accomplishments of the society. Most of the APS activities in the past quarter century were guided by a series of strategic plans. Membership in the APS…

  19. A&P Job Title Job Code Search Required? Applications Programmer 2512 No

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    A&P Job Title Job Code Search Required? Applications Programmer 2512 No Applications Systems No #12;A&P Job Title Job Code Search Required? Assistant Director Educational Technology 9404 No Associate Director Physical Plant 9354 No Associate Director Purchasing 9326 No #12;A&P Job Title Job Code

  20. Curcumin modulates cellular AP-1, NF-kB, and HPV16 E6 proteins in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Alok; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Abhishek; Kohaar, Indu; Hedau, Suresh; Bharti, Alok C; Sarker, Subhodeep; Dey, Dipankar; Saluja, Daman; Das, Bhudev

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the natural antioxidant curcumin on the HPV16-positive oral carcinoma cell line 93VU147T and demonstrated that curcumin is not only a potent inhibitor for the activity of host nuclear transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kB but it also selectively suppresses transcription of the HPV16/E6 oncogene during the carcinogenic process in oral cancer cells. This study suggests a therapeutic potential of curcumin for high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV)-infected oral cancers. PMID:25932049

  1. Diadenosine polyphosphates (Ap3A and Ap4A) behave as alarmones triggering the synthesis of enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pietrowska-Borek, Ma?gorzata; Nuc, Katarzyna; Zielezi?ska, Ma?gorzata; Guranowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    It is known that cells under stress accumulate various dinucleoside polyphosphates, compounds suggested to function as alarmones. In plants, the phenylpropanoid pathways yield metabolites protecting these organisms against various types of stress. Observations reported in this communication link these two phenomena and provide an example of a metabolic “addressee” for an “alarm” signaled by diadenosine triphosphate (Ap3A) or diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A). In response to added Ap3A or Ap4A, seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana incubated in full nutrition medium increased both the expression of the genes for and the specific activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, enzymes that control the beginning of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Neither adenine mononucleotides (AMP, ADP or ATP) nor adenosine evoked such effects. Reactions catalyzed in vitro by these enzymes were not affected by Ap3A or Ap4A. PMID:23650569

  2. [Effect of diadenosine oligophosphates (Ap4A and Ap3A) and their phosphonate analogs on catalytic properties of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli].

    PubMed

    Biriukov, A P; Zakharova, O D; Lavrik, O I

    1987-09-01

    The influence of P1,P3-bis(5'-adenosyl)triphosphate (Ap3A), P1,P4-bis(5'-adenosyl)tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and its analogues, containing a residue of methylenediphosphonic acid in various positions of the oligophosphate chain, on the reactions catalysed by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli MRE-600 has been studied. The compounds do not affect significantly the rate of ATP-[32P]PPi-exchange nor maintain this reaction in the absence of ATP. The diadenosineoligophosphates are shown to be noncompetitive inhibitors of ATP in the tRNA aminoacylation by phenylalanine (for Ap4A Ki = 1,45.10(-3) M). The phosphonate analogues of Ap4A inhibit the synthesis of Ap3A depending on their structure. The conclusion is thus drawn that the E. coli MRE-600 phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase does not interact property with Ap4A and its phosphonate analogues. PMID:3322289

  3. On-line atomic data access

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Nash, J.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The need for atomic data is one which continues to expand in a wide variety of applications including fusion energy, astrophysics, laser- produced plasma research, and plasma processing. Modern computer database and communications technology nables this data to be placed on-line and obtained by users of the Internet. Presented here is a summary of the observations and conclusions regarding such on-line atomic data access derived from a forum held at the Tenth APS Topical Conference on Atomic Processes in Plasmas.

  4. Structural characterization of the N-terminal mineral modification domains from the molluscan crystal-modulating biomineralization proteins, AP7 and AP24.

    PubMed

    Wustman, Brandon A; Morse, Daniel E; Evans, John Spencer

    2004-08-01

    The AP7 and AP24 proteins represent a class of mineral-interaction polypeptides that are found in the aragonite-containing nacre layer of mollusk shell (H. rufescens). These proteins have been shown to preferentially interfere with calcium carbonate mineral growth in vitro. It is believed that both proteins play an important role in aragonite polymorph selection in the mollusk shell. Previously, we demonstrated the 1-30 amino acid (AA) N-terminal sequences of AP7 and AP24 represent mineral interaction/modification domains in both proteins, as evidenced by their ability to frustrate calcium carbonate crystal growth at step edge regions. In this present report, using free N-terminal, C(alpha)-amide "capped" synthetic polypeptides representing the 1-30 AA regions of AP7 (AP7-1 polypeptide) and AP24 (AP24-1 polypeptide) and NMR spectroscopy, we confirm that both N-terminal sequences possess putative Ca (II) interaction polyanionic sequence regions (2 x -DD- in AP7-1, -DDDED- in AP24-1) that are random coil-like in structure. However, with regard to the remaining sequences regions, each polypeptide features unique structural differences. AP7-1 possesses an extended beta-strand or polyproline type II-like structure within the A11-M10, S12-V13, and S28-I27 sequence regions, with the remaining sequence regions adopting a random-coil-like structure, a trait common to other polyelectrolyte mineral-associated polypeptide sequences. Conversely, AP24-1 possesses random coil-like structure within A1-S9 and Q14-N16 sequence regions, and evidence for turn-like, bend, or loop conformation within the G10-N13, Q17-N24, and M29-F30 sequence regions, similar to the structures identified within the putative elastomeric proteins Lustrin A and sea urchin spicule matrix proteins. The similarities and differences in AP7 and AP24 N-terminal domain structure are discussed with regard to joint AP7-AP24 protein modification of calcium carbonate growth. PMID:15222016

  5. Curcumin downregulates cell survival mechanisms in human prostate cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asok Mukhopadhyay; Carlos Bueso-Ramos; Devasis Chatterjee; Panayotis Pantazis; Bharat B Aggarwal

    2001-01-01

    While the role of nuclear transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) in cell proliferation, and of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in the suppression of apoptosis are known, their role in survival of prostate cancer cells is not well understood. We investigated the role of NF-?B and AP-1 in the survival of human androgen-independent (DU145) and -dependent (LNCaP) prostate cancer cell lines. Our

  6. CONCEPT OF THE VLHC PHOTON STOP EXPERIMENT IN THE APS SYNCHROTRON RADIATION BEAM LINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bauer; A. Barcikowski; K. Ewald; C. F. Foerster; P. Limon; J. Noonan; R. Rosenberg; E. Rotela; B. Rusthoven; S. Sharma; M. Pivi; I. Terechkine; W. C. Turner

    As part of Fermilab's recent Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) feasibility study, a water-cooled photon stop was proposed as a possibility to intercept the intense synchrotron radiation in the high field stage VLHC with minimal plug-power. The photon stop, if feasible, promises not only significant savings in cooling power compared to a solution in which the synchrotron radiation is extracted

  7. Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) Dependent Parallel Arrivals (DPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Colin L.

    2012-01-01

    The Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) team at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing a concept of operations to extend the current APS concept to support dependent approaches to parallel or converging runways along with the required pilot and controller procedures and pilot interfaces. A staggered operations capability for the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) tool was developed and designated as ASTAR10. ASTAR10 has reached a sufficient level of maturity to be validated and tested through a fast-time simulation. The purpose of the experiment was to identify and resolve any remaining issues in the ASTAR10 algorithm, as well as put the concept of operations through a practical test.

  8. APS/ESRF/SPring-8 2008 three-way meeting.

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, S.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2008-07-01

    To foster scientific collaborations among the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), and the Super Photon Ring-8 GeV (SPring-8), the three facilities meet on a regular basis to hold technical discussions on accelerator and beamline topics and management and operational issues of common interest. The 2008 Three-Way Meeting (3WM) was held on March 18-19 at the APS with more than 20 representatives from each facility. Satellite workshops were also held on the topics of X-ray Optics, Nanoscience with X-rays, User Services, and Accelerator R&D. The 3WM and satellite workshops served as platforms for presentations and discussions of new and exciting developments at the three synchrotron sources.

  9. Impedance studies - Part 4: The APS impedance budget

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    This note will wrap up the numerical results that were obtained in our calculations of the wake potentials, the loss factors, and the impedances for a variety of structures in the APS storage ring. It consists of five sections and one appendix. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 summarizes the hand calculations. The computer calculations are the subject 1 of Section 3. Section 4 discusses several tests in our numerical methods. Section 5 presents the APS impedance budget, along with some discussion. The appendix contains the figures of the structures, the longitudinal/transverse wake potentials and the real/imaginary part of the impedances of various sorts of geometries that have been included in the budget.

  10. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-01-20

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has directed the DOE to concentrate ear-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of issues (Conway 1993). The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process; Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.`` This document satisfies that requirement for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107).

  11. Real-time orbit feedback at the APS.

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J.

    1998-06-18

    A real-time orbit feedback system has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source in order to meet the stringent orbit stability requirements. The system reduces global orbit motion below 30Hz by a factor of four to below 5{micro}m rms horizontally and 2{micro}m rms vertically. This paper focuses on dynamic orbit stability and describes the all-digital orbit feedback system that has been implemented at the APS. Implementation of the global orbit feedback system is described and its latest performance is presented. Ultimately, the system will provide local feedback at each x-ray source point using installed photon BPMs to measure x-ray beam position and angle directly. Technical challenges associated with local feedback and with dynamics of the associated corrector magnets are described. The unique diagnostic capabilities provided by the APS system are discussed with reference to their use in identifying sources of the underlying orbit motion.

  12. Status of APS 1-Mwe Parabolic Trough Project

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Brosseau, D.; Kolb, G.; Moore, L.; Cable, R.; Price, H.

    2005-11-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is currently installing new power facilities to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources that will satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). During FY04, APS began construction on a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. Site preparation and construction activities continued throughout much of FY05, and startup activities are planned for Fall 2005 (with completion early in FY06). The plant will be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than the conventional steam Rankine cycle plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  13. 47 CFR 69.415 - Reallocation of certain transport expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Reallocation of certain transport expenses. 69.415 Section 69... § 69.415 Reallocation of certain transport expenses. (a) Beginning January...of the costs otherwise assigned to the transport category to the common line,...

  14. 47 CFR 69.415 - Reallocation of certain transport expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Reallocation of certain transport expenses. 69.415 Section 69... § 69.415 Reallocation of certain transport expenses. (a) Beginning January...of the costs otherwise assigned to the transport category to the common line,...

  15. 47 CFR 69.415 - Reallocation of certain transport expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Reallocation of certain transport expenses. 69.415 Section 69... § 69.415 Reallocation of certain transport expenses. (a) Beginning January...of the costs otherwise assigned to the transport category to the common line,...

  16. 47 CFR 69.415 - Reallocation of certain transport expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Reallocation of certain transport expenses. 69.415 Section 69... § 69.415 Reallocation of certain transport expenses. (a) Beginning January...of the costs otherwise assigned to the transport category to the common line,...

  17. 47 CFR 69.415 - Reallocation of certain transport expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Reallocation of certain transport expenses. 69.415 Section 69... § 69.415 Reallocation of certain transport expenses. (a) Beginning January...of the costs otherwise assigned to the transport category to the common line,...

  18. Overexpression of HARDY , an AP2\\/ERF gene from Arabidopsis, improves drought and salt tolerance by reducing transpiration and sodium uptake in transgenic Trifolium alexandrinum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaber M. AbogadallahReham; Reham M. Nada; Robert Malinowski; Paul Quick

    2011-01-01

    Trifolium alexandrinum L. was transformed with the Arabidopsis HARDY gene that belongs to the stress-related AP2\\/ERF (APETALA2\\/ethylene responsive element binding factors) superfamily of transcription\\u000a factors. The fresh weights of the transgenic lines L2 and L3 were improved by 42 and 55% under drought stress and by 38 and\\u000a 95% under salt stress compared to the wild type, respectively. The dry

  19. Linking radio and gamma-ray emission in Ap Librae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervet, O.; Boisson, C.; Sol, H.

    2015-06-01

    Ap Lib is one of the rare low-synchrotron-peaked blazars detected so far at TeV energies. This type of source is not properly modelled by standard one-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission scenarios. The aim of this paper is to study the relevance of additional components that should naturally occur in an SSC scenario for a better understanding of the emission mechanisms, especially at very high energies (VHE). We use simultaneous data from a multi-wavelength campaign of the Planck, Swift-UVOT, and Swift-XRT telescopes carried out in February 2010, as well as quasi-simultaneous data of WISE, Fermi, and HESS taken in 2010. The multi-lambda emission of Ap Lib is modelled by a blob-in-jet SSC scenario including the contribution of the base of the VLBI-extended jet, the radiative blob-jet interaction, the accretion disk, and its associated external photon field. We show that signatures of a strong parsec-scale jet and of an accretion disk emission are present in the spectral energy distribution. We can link the observational VLBI jet features from MOJAVE to parameters expected for a VHE-emitting blob accelerated near the jet base. The VHE emission appears to be dominated by the inverse-Compton effect of the blob relativistic electrons interacting with the jet synchrotron radiation. In this scenario, Ap Lib appears as an intermediate source between BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars. Ap Lib could be a bright representative of a specific class of blazars, in which the parsec-scale jet luminosity is no more negligible compared to the blob and contributes to the high-energy emission through inverse-Compton processes.

  20. Thrombin induces endothelial arginase through AP-1 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weifei; Chandrasekharan, Unni M; Bandyopadhyay, Smarajit; Morris, Sidney M; DiCorleto, Paul E; Kashyap, Vikram S

    2010-04-01

    Arterial thrombosis is a common disease leading to severe ischemia beyond the obstructing thrombus. Additionally, endothelial dysfunction at the site of thrombosis can be rescued by l-arginine supplementation or arginase blockade in several animal models. Exposure of rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) to thrombin upregulates arginase I mRNA and protein levels. In this study, we further investigated the molecular mechanism of thrombin-induced arginase changes in endothelial cells. Thrombin strikingly increased arginase I promoter and enzyme activity in primary cultured RAECs. Using different deletion and point mutations of the promoter, we demonstrated that the activating protein-1 (AP-1) consensus site located at -3,157 bp in the arginase I promoter was a thrombin-responsive element. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay further confirmed that upon thrombin stimulation, c-Jun and activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) bound to the AP-1 site, which initiated the transactivation. Moreover, loss-of-function studies using small interfering RNA confirmed that recruitment of these two transcription factors to the AP-1 site was required for thrombin-induced arginase upregulation. In the course of defining the signaling pathway leading to the activation of AP-1 by thrombin, we found thrombin-induced phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK or JNK1/2/3) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which were followed by the phosphorylation of both c-Jun and ATF-2. These findings reveal the basis for thrombin induction of endothelial arginase I and indicate that arginase inhibition may be an attractive therapeutic alternative in the setting of arterial thrombosis and its associated endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20032511

  1. Studies on Nonaluminized High Burning Rate AP-Composite Propellants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. GORE; A. N. NAZARE; C. N. DIVEKAR; S. K. HAIT; S. N. ASTHANA

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of replacement of hydroxyl terminated poly butadiene (HTPB) by butacene on the burning rates of a nonaluminized ammonium perchlorate (AP)–based composite propellant. A remarkable burning rate enhancement (60–100%) was observed on replacement of HTPB by butacene to the extent of 25%. Replacement of 50–75% HTPB by butacene led to further increase in burning rate by

  2. Infrared imaging of AP\\/HTPB laminate propellant flames

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Fitzgerald; M. Q. Brewster

    2008-01-01

    The combustion of ammonium perchlorate (AP), hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) two-dimensional laminate propellants is investigated using simultaneous infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) emission imaging at 1–50 atm. The IR (3300–3900 nm) measurements sense flame presence nominally via HCl rovibrational excitation and the UV (310 nm) measurements via OH electronic excitation, although continuum emission is also present. The following findings are made.

  3. Diffusion and Settling in Ap/Bp Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, S

    2003-04-09

    Ap/Bp stars are magnetic chemically peculiar early A and late B type stars of the main sequence. They exhibit peculiar surface abundance anomalies that are thought to be the result of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. The physics of diffusion in these stars are reviewed briefly and some model predictions are discussed. While models reproduce some observations reasonably well, more work is needed before the behavior of diffusing elements in a complex magnetic field is fully understood.

  4. Aps-based miniature sun sensor for earth observation nanosatellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello Buonocore; Michele Grassi; Giancarlo Rufino

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the research activity at the university of Naples concerning the design and prototype development of a low-cost APS-based miniature sun sensor for micro\\/nanosatellites applications. In the paper the sensor architecture is described, as well as the development of its prototype and of the facility for laboratory testing. Part of the project is also the development of a

  5. Research on Thin AP Architecture to Deploy Campus WLAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kailiang Liang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the program uses the wireless AP to deploy campus wlan, in order to achieve a wide network coverage and security, high-speed data transmission. To meet the future needs of the campus network, we use the 802.11n standard, and adopt a new technique in management: a hardware device by carrying two or more ssid, to achieve efficient management

  6. Architecture of the APS real-time orbit feedback system.

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J. A.; Lenkszus, F. R.

    1997-11-21

    The APS Real-Time Orbit Feedback System is designed to stabilize the orbit of the stored positron beam against low-frequency sources such as mechanical vibration and power supply ripple. A distributed array of digital signal processors is used to measure the orbit and compute corrections at a 1kHz rate. The system also provides extensive beam diagnostic tools. This paper describes the architectural aspects of the system and describes how the orbit correction algorithms are implemented.

  7. Normal Optical Flow measurement on a CMOS APS imager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swati Mehta; Ralph Etienne-cummings

    2004-01-01

    Results from a 2-D dense Normal Optical Flow measurement chip implemented in 0.5 ?m CMOS process are presented. The chip has a 92×52 array of APS pixels, occupies an area of 4.5 mm2 and consumes 2.6 mW power. To illustrate the operation of the chip, we present the results of individual blocks and then the whole structure. We also demonstrate

  8. Wide intrascene dynamic range CMOS APS using dual sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orly Yadid-Pecht; Eric R. Fossum

    1997-01-01

    A CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) that achieves wide intrascene dynamic range using dual sampling is reported. A 64×64 element prototype sensor with dual output architecture was fabricated using a 1.2 ?m n-well CMOS process with 20.4 ?m pitch photodiode-type active pixels. The sensor achieves an intrascene dynamic range of 109 dB without nonlinear companding

  9. Study of CMOS APS Responsivity Enhancement: Ring-Shaped Photodiode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Danov; Igor Shcherback; Orly Yadid-Pecht

    2005-01-01

    In this work the possibilities of CMOS APS spectral response improvement are discussed. Thorough submicron scanning results obtained from various ring-shaped pixel photodiodes with different inner radius, implemented in a standard CMOS 0.35µm technology, are compared with numerical computer simulations. The functional dependence of the pixel response on the ring opening size was discovered and formulated for various wavelengths illumination.

  10. Development of large and fast cmos aps cameras at latt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Beigbeder; E. Bourrec; M. Dupieux; G. Delaigue; S. Rondi; M. Rieutord; N. Meunier; T. Roudier

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004, at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Toulouse Tarbes (LATT), we work with CMOS APS detectors, firstly to develop a large-field,high-resolution camera for the observation of the solar supergranulation, secondly to develop a fast camera for an adaptive optics test bench. In these two projects, we use detectors from FillFactory, now continued by Cypress Semiconductor Corporation: IBIS4-14000, IBIS-16000, LUPA-4000, 14

  11. Study of CMOS APS responsivity enhancement: ring-shaped photodiode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Danov; Igor Shcherback; Orly Yadid-Pecht

    2005-01-01

    In this brief, the possibilities of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) spectral response improvement are discussed. Thorough submicrometer scanning results obtained from various ring-shaped pixel photodiodes with different inner radius, implemented in a standard CMOS 0.35-?m technology, are compared with numerical computer simulations and verified analytically. The functional dependence of the pixel response on the ring opening size

  12. Photoresponse Analysis and Pixel Shape Optimization for CMOS APS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Shcherback; Orly Yadid-Pecht

    A semi-analytical model has been developed for the estimation of the photoresponse of a photodiode-based CMOS active pixel\\u000a sensor (APS). This model, based on a thorough analysis of experimental data, incorporates the effects of substrate diffusion\\u000a as well as geometrical shape and size of the photodiode active area. It describes the dependence of pixel response on integration\\u000a photocarriers and on

  13. Essay: computers in the APS editorial office: the early years.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter

    2009-03-13

    APS journals in the late 1960s began to move from hot-metal print shops to tailor-made typewriters, next to special keyboards and a small computer, then to completely photocomposed journal pages. At the same time, internal editorial operations were being converted from paper handling and data records to completely electronic procedures. By 1990, it became feasible for authors to submit manuscripts to the journal electronically. PMID:19392091

  14. Essay: Computers in the APS Editorial Office: The Early Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Peter

    2009-03-01

    APS journals in the late 1960s began to move from hot-metal print shops to tailor-made typewriters, next to special keyboards and a small computer, then to completely photocomposed journal pages. At the same time, internal editorial operations were being converted from paper handling and data records to completely electronic procedures. By 1990, it became feasible for authors to submit manuscripts to the journal electronically.

  15. Packaging design criteria, transfer and disposal of 102-AP mixer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1994-11-23

    A mixer pump installed in storage tank 241-AP-102 (102-AP) has failed. This pump is referred to as the 102-AP mixer pump (APMP). The APMP will be removed from 102-AP 1 and a new pump will be installed. The main purpose of the Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to establish criteria necessary to design and fabricate a shipping container for the transfer and storage of the APMP from 102-AP. The PDC will be used as a guide to develop a Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP).

  16. AP Physics 1 & 2; Some Things Old and Some Things New

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In fall September 2014, AP Physics 1 and AP Physics 2 replaced the AP Physics B curriculum, with the first exams in the new courses coming up in May 2015. In this talk I will give an overview of the history and rationale for the changes, describe the process of developing the new Curriculum Framework, discuss changes in emphasis compared to AP Physics B, including the emphasis on laboratory work. Finally, I will give examples of the difference in the style of the questions to be used in the new AP exams.

  17. What do we know about the cardiac valve lesion in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

    PubMed

    Amigo, M-C

    2014-10-01

    Heart valve disease (HVD) is the most common cardiac manifestation in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Valve lesions should be described according to the established definition. HVD is progressive despite anticoagulant/antiplatelet treatments. Around 4-6% of patients with HVD in APS will require valve replacement surgery, which is considered a very high risk procedure in APS. Unfortunately, no recommendations regarding medical treatment of antiphospholipid antibodies-associated HVD can be made at this moment. There are evidence-based data and strong pathophysiologic rationale for considering HVD as a manifestation of APS. Thus, HVD should be included as a criterion of definite APS. PMID:25228720

  18. Extremely wideband signal shaping using one-and two-dimensional nonuniform nonlinear transmission lines

    E-print Network

    Marsden, Jerrold

    . A one-dimensional, nonlinear, nonuniform transmission line is proposed for narrow pulse generationExtremely wideband signal shaping using one- and two-dimensional nonuniform nonlinear transmission e.g., transmission lines as impedance transformers . These ap- proaches are inherently narrowband

  19. The FUS3 MAPK signaling pathway of the citrus pathogen Alternaria alternata functions independently or cooperatively with the fungal redox-responsive AP1 regulator for diverse developmental, physiological and pathogenic processes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Yang, Siwy Ling; Wang, Nan-Yi; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2010-04-01

    Alternaria alternata, the fungus that causes citrus brown spot, invades its hosts primarily through the production and action of a host-selective ACT toxin that kills citrus cells prior to invasion. In this study, we show that, in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated signaling pathway governs a number of biological functions, either separately or in a cooperative manner, with the AaAP1 gene encoding a transcription regulator. The reported MAPK is encoded by the AaFUS3 gene, which we show to be necessary for conidial development, resistance to copper fungicides, melanin biosynthesis, and particularly, for elaboration of the penetration process. In contrast, AaFUS3 negatively controls salt tolerance and production of several hydrolytic enzymes. AaFUS3 has no apparent role in the biosynthesis of host-selective toxin or in resistance to oxidative stress. Both AaAP1 and AaFUS3 are required for fungal resistance to 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), 2-chloro-5-hydroxypyridine (CHP), diethyl maleate (DEM), and many pyridine-containing compounds. A strain with mutations in both AaAP1 and AaFUS3 displayed an increased sensitivity to these compounds. Expression of the AaAP1 and AaFUS3 genes and phosphorylation of AaFUS3 were also induced by CHP, DEM, or TIBA. Expression of two genes coding for a putative MFS transporter was coordinately regulated by AaAP1 and AaFUS3. The AaAP1::sGFP (synthetic green fluorescent protein) fusion protein became localized in the nucleus in response to CHP or TIBA. Inactivation of the AaAP1 gene, however, promoted phosphorylation of AaFUS3. Taken together, our results indicate that A. alternata utilizes specialized or synergistic regulatory interactions between the AP1 and MAPK signaling pathways for diverse physiological functions. PMID:20036749

  20. Work plan, AP-102 mixer pump removal and pump replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, R.F.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this work plan is to plan the steps and estimate the costs required to remove the failed AP-102 mixer pump, and to plan and estimate the cost of the necessary design and specification work required to order a new, but modified, mixer pump including the pump and pump pit energy absorbing design. The main hardware required for the removal of the mixer is as follows: a flexible receiver and blast shield; a metal container for the pulled mixer pump; and a trailer and strongback to haul and manipulate the container. Additionally: a gamma scanning device will be needed to detect the radioactivity emanating from the mixer as it is pulled from the tank; a water spray system will be required to remove tank waste from the surface of the mixer as it is pulled from the AP-102 tank; and a lifting yoke to lift the mixer from the pump pit (the SY-101 Mixer Lifting Yoke will be used). A ``green house`` will have to be erected over the AP-102 pump pit and an experienced Hoisting and Rigging crew must be assembled and trained in mixer pump removal methods before the actual removal is undertaken.

  1. Margin Assessment of AP1000 Loss of Flow Transient

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, Edward L.; Hilton, Peter A.; Yixing Sung [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Reactor Coolant System (RCS) of the AP1000 plant consists of two circulating loops. Each loop contains two canned motor Reactor Coolant (RC) pumps that have a rotating inertia to provide RCS flow coast-down if power to the pumps is lost. Westinghouse analysis of the complete loss of flow (CLOF) accident in support of the AP1000 design certification was based on the USNRC-approved traditional methodology applied to operating plants. The RCS response during the transient was predicted using the LOFTRAN code based on a reactivity insertion curve highly skewed to the bottom of the reactor core, but the calculation of Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) was performed assuming a top-skewed axial power profile. A more realistic margin assessment can be made by using an improved method similar to Westinghouse RAVE methodology recently approved by the USNRC. The improved method uses the three-dimensional kinetic nodal code SPNOVA coupled with the reactor core thermal-hydraulic code VIPRE-W for predicting the reactor core response during the CLOF transient. The improved method significantly improves margin predictions by generating core power distributions consistent with the trip reactivity changes for the DNBR calculation. The margin assessment showed that the improved method resulted in a 19% DNBR increase as compared to the traditional method for the AP1000 CLOF transient. (authors)

  2. Long-term stability of the APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Error, J.

    2000-03-16

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, was commissioned in 1995 at Argonne National Laboratory and has been fully operational for beamline users since 1997. The APS storage ring can accommodate up to 68 user beamlines; about 70% of the available beamlines are currently in use by various collaborative access teams (CATs). The 7-GeV synchrotron light source produces light in the soft to hard x-ray range that is used for research in such areas as x-ray instrumentation; material, chemical and atomic sciences; biology; and geo/soil/environmental sciences. For the successful operation of an x-ray light source such as the Advanced Photon Source, the long-term stability of the concrete floor supporting the beam components and user beamlines is crucial. Settlements impact the orbit and location of the x-ray source points as well as the position of the x-ray beamlines. This paper compares the results of two successive resurveys of the APS accelerator components performed in 1995 and 1998.

  3. Long-term stability of the APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Error, J.

    1999-10-26

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation synchrotrons light source, was commissioned in 1995 at Argonne ''National Laboratory and has been fully-operational for beamline users since 1997. The APS storage ring can accommodate up to 68 user beamlines; about 70% of the available beamlines are currently in use by various collaborative access teams (CATS). The 7-GeV synchrotrons light source produces light in the soft to hard x-ray range that is used for research in such areas as x-ray instrumentation; material, chemical and atomic sciences; biology; and geo/soil/ environmental sciences. For the successful operation of an x-ray light source such as the Advanced Photon Source, the long-term stability of the concrete floor supporting the beam components and user beamlines is crucial. Settlements impact the orbit and location of the x-ray source points as well as the position of the x-ray beamlines. This paper compares the results of two successive resurveys of the APS accelerator components performed in 1995 and 1998.

  4. The Drosophila melanogaster Mutants apblot and apXasta Affect an Essential apterous Wing Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Bieli, Dimitri; Kanca, Oguz; Gohl, Daryl; Denes, Alexandru; Schedl, Paul; Affolter, Markus; Müller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The selector gene apterous (ap) plays a key role during the development of the Drosophila melanogaster wing because it governs the establishment of the dorsal-ventral (D-V) compartment boundary. The D-V compartment boundary is known to serve as an important signaling center that is essential for the growth of the wing. The role of Ap and its downstream effectors have been studied extensively. However, very little is known about the transcriptional regulation of ap during wing disc development. In this study, we present a first characterization of an essential wing-specific ap enhancer. First, we defined an 874-bp fragment about 10 kb upstream of the ap transcription start that faithfully recapitulates the expression pattern of ap in the wing imaginal disc. Analysis of deletions in the ap locus covering this element demonstrated that it is essential for proper regulation of ap and formation of the wing. Moreover, we showed that the mutations apblot and apXasta directly affect the integrity of this enhancer, leading to characteristic wing phenotypes. Furthermore, we engineered an in situ rescue system at the endogenous ap gene locus, allowing us to investigate the role of enhancer fragments in their native environment. Using this system, we were able to demonstrate that the essential wing enhancer alone is not sufficient for normal wing development. The in situ rescue system will allow us to characterize the ap regulatory sequences in great detail at the endogenous locus. PMID:25840432

  5. A Novel Cell Line Derived from Pleomorphic Adenoma Expresses MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2, and Shows Numeric Chromosomal Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Aline Semblano Carreira; Kataoka, Maria Sueli da Silva; Ribeiro, Nélson Antonio Bailão; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Alves, Sérgio Melo; Ribeiro, André L. Ribeiro; de Siqueira, Adriane Sousa; da Silva, Artur Luiz; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Freitas, Vanessa M.; Jaeger, Ruy G.; Pinheiro, João J. V.

    2014-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland neoplasm, and it can be locally invasive, despite its slow growth. This study aimed to establish a novel cell line (AP-1) derived from a human pleomorphic adenoma sample to better understand local invasiveness of this tumor. AP-1 cell line was characterized by cell growth analysis, expression of epithelial and myoepithelial markers by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, 3D cell culture assays, cytogenetic features and transcriptomic study. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) was also analyzed by immunofluorescence and zymography. Furthermore, epithelial and myoepithelial markers, MMPs and TIMPs were studied in the tumor that originated the cell line. AP-1 cells showed neoplastic epithelial and myoepithelial markers, such as cytokeratins, vimentin, S100 protein and smooth-muscle actin. These molecules were also found in vivo, in the tumor that originated the cell line. MMPs and TIMPs were observed in vivo and in AP-1 cells. Growth curve showed that AP-1 exhibited a doubling time of 3.342 days. AP-1 cells grown inside Matrigel recapitulated tumor architecture. Different numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies were visualized in cytogenetic analysis. Transcriptomic analysis addressed expression of 7 target genes (VIM, TIMP2, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, ACTA2 e PLAG1). Results were compared to transcriptomic profile of non-neoplastic salivary gland cells (HSG). Only MMP9 was not expressed in both libraries, and VIM was expressed solely in AP-1 library. The major difference regarding gene expression level between AP-1 and HSG samples occurred for MMP2. This gene was 184 times more expressed in AP-1 cells. Our findings suggest that AP-1 cell line could be a useful model for further studies on pleomorphic adenoma biology. PMID:25137137

  6. NF-?B/AP-1-Targeted Inhibition of Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Depigmenting Compound AP736 Derived from Natural 1,3-Diphenylpropane Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Van Thai; Beak, Heung Soo; Kim, Eunji; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Hossen, Muhammad Jahangir; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Yong; Joo, Yung Hyup; Lee, Chang Seok; Choi, Joonho; Shin, Hong-Ju; Hong, Sungyoul; Shin, Song Seok

    2014-01-01

    AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO)/prostaglandin (PG) E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264.7 cells. AP736 was found to strongly inhibit the production of both NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AP736 strongly inhibited both LPS-induced morphological changes and FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake. Furthermore, AP736 also downregulated the expression of multiple inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, and interleukin- (IL-) 1? in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Transcription factor analysis, including upstream signalling events, revealed that both NF-?B and AP-1 were targeted by AP736 via inhibition of the IKK/I?B? and IRAK1/TAK1 pathways. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that AP736 is a potential anti-inflammatory drug due to its suppression of NF-?B-IKK/I?B? and AP-1-IRAK1/TAK1 signalling, which may make AP736 useful for the treatment of macrophage-mediated skin inflammation. PMID:25386046

  7. The Heptameric SmAP1 and SmAP2 Proteins of the Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus Solfataricus Bind to Common and Distinct RNA Targets.

    PubMed

    Märtens, Birgit; Bezerra, Gustavo Arruda; Kreuter, Mathias Josef; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Manica, Andrea; Arkhipova, Valentina; Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Bläsi, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Sm and Sm-like proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved family with key roles in RNA metabolism. Sm-based regulation is diverse and can range in scope from eukaryotic mRNA splicing to bacterial quorum sensing, with at least one step in these processes being mediated by an RNA-associated molecular assembly built on Sm proteins. Despite the availability of several 3D-structures of Sm-like archaeal proteins (SmAPs), their function has remained elusive. The aim of this study was to shed light on the function of SmAP1 and SmAP2 of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso). Using co-purification followed by RNASeq different classes of non-coding RNAs and mRNAs were identified that co-purified either with both paralogues or solely with Sso-SmAP1 or Sso-SmAP2. The large number of associated intron-containing tRNAs and tRNA/rRNA modifying RNAs may suggest a role of the two Sso-SmAPs in tRNA/rRNA processing. Moreover, the 3D structure of Sso-SmAP2 was elucidated. Like Sso-SmAP1, Sso-SmAP2 forms homoheptamers. The binding of both proteins to distinct RNA substrates is discussed in terms of surface conservation, structural differences in the RNA binding sites and differences in the electrostatic surface potential of the two Sso-SmAP proteins. Taken together, this study may hint to common and different functions of both Sso-SmAPs in Sso RNA metabolism. PMID:25905548

  8. The Heptameric SmAP1 and SmAP2 Proteins of the Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus Solfataricus Bind to Common and Distinct RNA Targets

    PubMed Central

    Märtens, Birgit; Bezerra, Gustavo Arruda; Kreuter, Mathias Josef; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Manica, Andrea; Arkhipova, Valentina; Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Bläsi, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Sm and Sm-like proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved family with key roles in RNA metabolism. Sm-based regulation is diverse and can range in scope from eukaryotic mRNA splicing to bacterial quorum sensing, with at least one step in these processes being mediated by an RNA-associated molecular assembly built on Sm proteins. Despite the availability of several 3D-structures of Sm-like archaeal proteins (SmAPs), their function has remained elusive. The aim of this study was to shed light on the function of SmAP1 and SmAP2 of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso). Using co-purification followed by RNASeq different classes of non-coding RNAs and mRNAs were identified that co-purified either with both paralogues or solely with Sso-SmAP1 or Sso-SmAP2. The large number of associated intron-containing tRNAs and tRNA/rRNA modifying RNAs may suggest a role of the two Sso-SmAPs in tRNA/rRNA processing. Moreover, the 3D structure of Sso-SmAP2 was elucidated. Like Sso-SmAP1, Sso-SmAP2 forms homoheptamers. The binding of both proteins to distinct RNA substrates is discussed in terms of surface conservation, structural differences in the RNA binding sites and differences in the electrostatic surface potential of the two Sso-SmAP proteins. Taken together, this study may hint to common and different functions of both Sso-SmAPs in Sso RNA metabolism. PMID:25905548

  9. Altered AP-1 (activating protein-1) activity and c-jun activation in T cells exposed to the amide class herbicide 3,4-dichloropropionanilide (DCPA).

    PubMed

    Brundage, K M; Schafer, R; Barnett, J B

    2004-05-01

    3,4-Dichloropropionanilide (DCPA), the active ingredient of some postemergence herbicides, has been demonstrated to inhibit several immune system functions including cytokine production by T cells. The central role of cytokines in regulating the immune response suggests a possible mechanism by which DCPA inhibits the immune system. Since interleukin (IL)-2 is critical in regulating many immune functions, we chose to investigate the effect of DCPA on this cytokine. Using the human T lymphoma line, Jurkat, stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate acetate (PMA) and the calcium ionophore A23187 (Io), we determined that DCPA exposure decreased IL-2 secretion and mRNA levels in a dose dependent manner. We hypothesized that DCPA affected one or more of the transcription factors that regulate IL-2 gene transcription. Activating protein 1(AP-1) is a transcription factor that has been demonstrated to be required for optimal IL-2 gene transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated a decreased level of AP-1 DNA binding activity in DCPA-exposed Jurkat cells compared to control cells from 30 min to 2 h after stimulation. The altered AP-1 DNA binding kinetics was associated with a decrease in c-jun protein in these cells at 1 and 2 h after exposure and a decreased level of phosphorylated c-jun at 1-4 h after exposure. These results suggest a possible mechanism for DCPA-induced IL-2 inhibition; alteration in the activation of the c-jun component of AP-1. PMID:14976341

  10. The Role of JNK and p38 MAPK Activities in UVA-Induced Signaling Pathways Leading to AP-1 Activation and c-Fos Expression1

    PubMed Central

    Silvers, Amy L; Bachelor, Michael A; Bowden, G Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Abstract To further delineate ultraviolet A (UVA) signaling pathways in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, we examined the potential role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in UVA-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) transactivation and c-Fos expression. UVA-induced phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) proteins was detected immediately after irradiation and disappeared after approximately 2 hours. Conversely, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was significantly inhibited for up to 1 hour post-UVA irradiation. To examine the role of p38 and JNK MAPKs in UVA-induced AP-1 and c-fos transactivations, the selective pharmacologic MAPK inhibitors, SB202190 (p38 inhibitor) and SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), were used to independently treat stably transfected HaCaT cells in luciferase reporter assays. Both SB202190 and SP600125 dose-dependently inhibited UVA-induced AP-1 and c-fos transactivations. SB202190 (0.25–0.5 µM) and SP600125 (62–125 nM) treatments also primarily inhibited UVA-induced c-Fos expression. These results demonstrated that activation of both JNK and p38 play critical role in UVA-mediated AP-1 transactivation and c-Fos expression in these human keratinocyte cells. Targeted inhibition of these MAPKs with their selective pharmacologic inhibitors may be effective chemopreventive strategies for UVA-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:14511403

  11. Zip Line

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH

    2010-01-01

    In this design challenge activity, learners build a device to carry a Ping-Pong ball from the top of a zip line to the bottom in four seconds (or less!). Learners follow the design process to build the carrier that slides quickly down a zip line string, figure out how to keep something balanced, and identify ways to reduce friction.

  12. Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1019 Leadership in Project Management | Dr. Haig Baronikian 1 A) Title: APS1019 Leadership in Project Management

    E-print Network

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    Syllabus Fall 2014 | APS 1019 Leadership in Project Management | Dr. Haig Baronikian 1 A) Title: APS1019 Leadership in Project Management B) Description: Project management involves both leading people and managing resources to achieve the intended project outcomes and benefits. Leadership is often

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Clinical Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Strain APS211 and Its Daptomycin-Susceptible Progenitor APS210

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, David R.; Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Abbott, Iain J.; Spelman, Denis W.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the genetic factors contributing to daptomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, the draft genome of a clinically derived daptomycin-nonsusceptible isolate APS211 was generated and compared to the draft sequence of its susceptible progenitor strain APS210. Four genetic differences were identified including a previously described mutation within the mprF gene. PMID:26067951

  14. Recognition of dileucine-based sorting signals from HIV1 Nef and LIMP-II by the AP1  - 1 and AP3  - 3 hemicomplexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katy Janvier; Yukio Kato; Markus Boehm; Jeremy R. Rose; José A. Martina; Bong-Yoon Kim; Sundararajan Venkatesan; Juan S. Bonifacino

    2003-01-01

    he sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes is mediated by signals present in the cytosolic tails of the proteins. A subset of these signals conform to the (DE)XXXL(LI) consensus motif and mediate sorting via interactions with heterotetrameric adaptor pro- tein (AP) complexes. However, the identity of the AP sub- units that recognize these signals remains controversial. We have

  15. The relationship between plateau burning behavior and ammonium perchlorate particle size in HTPB-AP composite propellants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Fong; R. F. Smith

    1987-01-01

    The burning rates of series of bi- and trimodal AP-HTPB propellants have been incorporated into an empirical statistical model which describes a hypothetical pentamodal polydisperse AP pseudopropellant. This pseudopropellant is the linear summation of five unimodal polydisperse AP pseudopropellants. The five AP particle size distributions cover the range from 400 to 20 ..mu..m weight median diameter. The experimental propellants have

  16. Identification and Proteomic Analysis of Distinct UBE3A/E6AP Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Noël, Gustavo; Galligan, Jeffrey T.; Sowa, Mathew E.; Arndt, Verena; Overton, Thomas M.; Harper, J. Wade

    2012-01-01

    The E6AP ubiquitin ligase catalyzes the high-risk human papillomaviruses' E6-mediated ubiquitylation of p53, contributing to the neoplastic progression of cells infected by these viruses. Defects in the activity and the dosage of E6AP are linked to Angelman syndrome and to autism spectrum disorders, respectively, highlighting the need for precise control of the enzyme. With the exception of HERC2, which modulates the ubiquitin ligase activity of E6AP, little is known about the regulation or function of E6AP normally. Using a proteomic approach, we have identified and validated several new E6AP-interacting proteins, including HIF1AN, NEURL4, and mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MAPK6). E6AP exists as part of several different protein complexes, including the proteasome and an independent high-molecular-weight complex containing HERC2, NEURL4, and MAPK6. In examining the functional consequence of its interaction with the proteasome, we found that UBE3C (another proteasome-associated ubiquitin ligase), but not E6AP, contributes to proteasomal processivity in mammalian cells. We also found that E6 associates with the HERC2-containing high-molecular-weight complex through its binding to E6AP. These proteomic studies reveal a level of complexity for E6AP that has not been previously appreciated and identify a number of new cellular proteins through which E6AP may be regulated or functioning. PMID:22645313

  17. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  18. Presence of diadenosine 5',5''' -P1, P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) in mamalian cells in levels varying widely with proliferative activity of the tissue: a possible positive "pleiotypic activator".

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, E; Zamecnik, P C

    1976-01-01

    An accurate assay of diadenosine 5',5'''- P1,P4-tetraphosphate [A(5') pppp(5')A], which was shown to be formed in vitro in the backreaction of the amino acid activation step, has been developed in various cell lines in culture and in normal mouse liver or hepatoma in vivo. Use of radioactive labeling of acid-soluble nucleotides to high specific activity followed by chromatographic separation techniques yielded levels of Ap4A varying from 5 to 0.05 muM (from 30 pmol/mg of protein to 0.15 pmol), depending on the doubling time of the cell line or the proliferative state of the cells. The levels of Ap4A incells is inversely related to their doubling time, varying from 0.1 X 10(-4) of the cellular ATP levels in slowly growing cells to 20 X 10(-4) of the ATP levels of cells with rapid doubling times. The steady-state levels of ATP of different cell lines, although showing some fluctuations, are not related to the doubling time of the cells. Arrest of cellular proliferation by serum deprivation or amino acid starvation, which does not alter the cellular ATP levels more than 2-fold, does nevertheless cause a decrease of 30 to 50-fold in the Ap4A levels. Inhibition of protein synthesis by pactamycin or puromycin, or inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea, leads to a more dramatic decrease of 50 to 100-fold in intracellular Ap4A levels. The metabolic lability of Ap4A is also demonstrated by its rapid depletion after decreases in the ATP/ADP ratio. The possibility of Ap4A being a metabolic "signal nucleotide" that is formed at the onset of protein synthesis and is active in positive growth regulation (positive pleiotypic activation) is discussed. PMID:1069282

  19. ApiAP2 transcription factor restricts development of the Toxoplasma tissue cyst

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Joshua B.; Lucas, Olivier; De Silva, Erandi K.; Ma, YanFen; Sullivan, William J.; Weiss, Louis M.; Llinas, Manuel; White, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular differentiation leading to formation of the bradyzoite tissue cyst stage is the underlying cause of chronic toxoplasmosis. Consequently, mechanisms responsible for controlling development in the Toxoplasma intermediate life cycle have long been sought. Here, we identified 15 Toxoplasma mRNAs induced in early bradyzoite development that encode proteins with apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) DNA binding domains. Of these 15 mRNAs, the AP2IX-9 mRNA demonstrated the largest expression increase during alkaline-induced differentiation. At the protein level, we found that AP2IX-9 was restricted to the early bradyzoite nucleus and is repressed in tachyzoites and in mature bradyzoites from 30-d infected animals. Conditional overexpression of AP2IX-9 significantly reduced tissue cyst formation and conferred alkaline pH-resistant growth, whereas disruption of the AP2IX-9 gene increased tissue cyst formation, indicating AP2IX-9 operates as a repressor of bradyzoite development. Consistent with a role as a repressor, AP2IX-9 specifically inhibited the expression of bradyzoite mRNAs, including the canonical bradyzoite marker, bradyzoite antigen 1 (BAG1). Using protein binding microarrays, we established the AP2 domain of AP2IX-9 binds a CAGTGT DNA sequence motif and is capable of binding cis-regulatory elements controlling the BAG1 and bradyzoite-specific nucleoside triphosphatase (B-NTPase) promoters. The effect of AP2IX-9 on BAG1 expression was direct because this factor inhibits expression of a firefly luciferase reporter under the control of the BAG1 promoter in vivo, and epitope-tagged AP2IX-9 can be immunoprecipitated with the BAG1 promoter in parasite chromatin. Altogether, these results indicate AP2IX-9 restricts Toxoplasma commitment to develop the mature bradyzoite tissue cyst. PMID:23572590

  20. Liver X Receptor-Retinoid X Receptor (LXR-RXR) Heterodimer Cistrome Reveals Coordination of LXR and AP1 Signaling in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qi; Bai, Yuchen; Chang, Ken C. N.; Wang, Yongjun; Burris, Thomas P.; Freedman, Leonard P.; Thompson, Catherine C.; Nagpal, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) play a critical role in regulating lipid synthesis and transport in numerous tissues. In the skin, activation of LXR induces keratinocyte differentiation and improves epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. To elucidate the mechanism of LXR action in skin, we mapped its cistrome by identifying LXR?-RXR? binding sites using ChIP-on-chip in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). The cistrome was integrated with transcription data to obtain a global view of LXR action in keratinocyte biology. Here, we identify 2035 LXR?-RXR? binding sites containing 4794 LXR response elements in NHEKs and show the presence of consensus heterodimer active regions in genes involved in keratinocyte lipid transport/synthesis and terminal differentiation. Bioinformatics analysis of the cistrome revealed an enrichment of AP1 cis-regulatory motifs in the vicinity of the LXR?-RXR? binding sites. Importantly, we have demonstrated a direct interaction between LXR and Jun/Fos, indicating that the cooperation between LXR and AP1 may orchestrate keratinocyte differentiation. Finally, we corroborated these results by genome-wide mapping of the c-Fos and c-Jun cistromes in NHEKs, demonstrating that 77% of all the LXR?-RXR? binding regions show the presence of AP1 motifs at adjacent locations. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of LXR action in keratinocyte differentiation, lipid production and barrier formation, further strengthening the validation of LXR as a potential therapeutic target for skin disorders including skin aging, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis. PMID:21349840