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1

Line profile variations in rapidly oscillating Ap stars: resolution of the enigma  

E-print Network

We have carried out the first survey of the pulsational line profile variability in rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars. We analysed high signal-to-noise time-series observations of ten sharp-lined roAp stars obtained with the high-resolution spectrographs attached to the VLT and CFHT telescopes. We investigated in detail the variations of Pr III, Nd II, Nd III and Tb III lines and discovered a prominent change of the profile variability pattern with height in the atmospheres of all studied roAp stars. In every investigated star profile variability of at least one rare-earth ion is characterized by unusual blue-to-red moving features - a behaviour inexplicable in the framework of the standard oblique pulsator model of slowly rotating roAp stars. Using analysis of the line profile moments and spectrum synthesis calculations, we demonstrate that unusual oscillations in spectral lines of roAp stars arise from the pulsational modulation of line widths. This variation occurs approximately in quadrature with the radial velocity changes, and its amplitude rapidly increases with height in stellar atmosphere. We propose that the line width modulation is a consequence of the periodic expansion and compression of turbulent layers in the upper atmospheres of roAp stars. Thus, the line profile changes observed in slowly rotating magnetic pulsators should be interpreted as a superposition of two types of variability: the usual time-dependent velocity field due to an oblique low-order pulsation mode and an additional line width modulation, synchronized with the changes of stellar radius. Our explanation of the line profile variations of roAp stars solves the long-standing observational puzzle and opens new possibilities for constraining geometric and physical properties of the stellar magnetoacoustic pulsations.

O. Kochukhov; T. Ryabchikova; W. W. Weiss; J. D. Landstreet; D. Lyashko

2006-12-28

2

APS/123-QED Electrowetting with Contact Line Pinning  

E-print Network

on the micro-scale1­15 . By ap- plying electric fields via actuating electrodes (see Figure 1), surface tension that are used to shape, move, split, merge, and mix fluids in micro-scale devices. Applications pixels for laptops and video-speed smart paper3,9,10 . This paper is concerned with modeling and simu

Nochetto, Ricardo H.

3

Accessing, Mining, and Archiving an On-line Database -- The APS Catalog of the POSS I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The APS Catalog of the POSS I is an on-line database of over 100 million stars and galaxies (http://aps.umn.edu). A unique subset of this database with over 218,000 galaxies within 30 degrees of the North Galactic Pole, the MAPS-NGP, is now available at our web site. This diameter--selected catalog (>= 10 arcsec) is the deepest galaxy catalog constructed over such a large area of the sky (3000 sq. degrees). The MAPS-NGP includes many additional parameters for the galaxy images not available in the APS Catalog. Working with members of our computer science department, we have developed a morphological classifier for galaxies that divides our galaxy type into three classes -- early, intermediate, and late. We have applied data mining techniques to identify the most useful image parameters for input into a neural network and decision--tree based classifier pipeline. We are also archiving the APS Catalog for distribution to astronomical data centers including NASA's ADC and SIMBAD at CDS. The extragalactic subset will be integrated into the NASA/IPAC extragalactic database(NED). The MAPS-NGP has already been provided to NED. The APS is supported by NASA's Applied Information Systems Research Program.

Humphreys, R. M.; Cabanela, J. E.; Kriessler, J.

2000-12-01

4

Optical observations of the broad-lined type Ic supernova SN 2012ap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical observations of the type Ic supernova (SN Ic) SN 2012ap in NGC 1729 are presented. A comparison with other SNe Ic indicates that SN 2012ap is highly reddened (with E(B — V)host~0.8 mag) and may represent one of the most luminous SNe Ic ever observed, with an absolute V-band peak magnitude of ~ ?19.3±0.5 mag after extinction correction. The near-maximum-light spectrum shows wide spectral features that are typical of broad-lined SNe Ic. One interesting feature in the spectrum is the appearance of some narrow absorption features that can be attributed to the diffuse interstellar bands, consistent with the large reddening inferred from the photometric method. Based on the light curves and the spectral data, we estimate that SN 2012ap produced a 56Ni mass of ~ 0.3 ± 0.1Msolar 1 in the explosion, with an ejecta mass of 2.4?0.7+0.7Msolar and a kinetic energy of EK = 1.1?0.4+0.4 × 1052 erg. The properties of its progenitor are also briefly discussed.

Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Xu-Lin; Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Chen, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Tong-Jie

2015-02-01

5

NSLS-II Transport Line Progress  

SciTech Connect

The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

2012-05-20

6

Trafficking of the Menkes copper transporter ATP7A is regulated by clathrin-, AP-2–, AP-1–, and Rab22-dependent steps  

PubMed Central

The transporter ATP7A mediates systemic copper absorption and provides cuproenzymes in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) with copper. To regulate metal homeostasis, ATP7A constitutively cycles between the TGN and plasma membrane (PM). ATP7A trafficking to the PM is elevated in response to increased copper load and is reversed when copper concentrations are lowered. Molecular mechanisms underlying this trafficking are poorly understood. We assess the role of clathrin, adaptor complexes, lipid rafts, and Rab22a in an attempt to decipher the regulatory proteins involved in ATP7A cycling. While RNA interference (RNAi)–mediated depletion of caveolin 1/2 or flotillin had no effect on ATP7A localization, clathrin heavy chain depletion or expression of AP180 dominant-negative mutant not only disrupted clathrin-regulated pathways, but also blocked PM-to-TGN internalization of ATP7A. Depletion of the ? subunits of either adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) or AP-1 using RNAi further provides evidence that both clathrin adaptors are important for trafficking of ATP7A from the PM to the TGN. Expression of the GTP-locked Rab22aQ64L mutant caused fragmentation of TGN membrane domains enriched for ATP7A. These appear to be a subdomain of the mammalian TGN, showing only partial overlap with the TGN marker golgin-97. Of importance, ATP7A remained in the Rab22aQ64L-generated structures after copper treatment and washout, suggesting that forward trafficking out of this compartment was blocked. This study provides evidence that multiple membrane-associated factors, including clathrin, AP-2, AP-1, and Rab22, are regulators of ATP7A trafficking. PMID:23596324

Holloway, Zoe G.; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio; Howell, Gareth J.; Levecque, Clotilde; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Sztul, Elizabeth; Monaco, Anthony P.

2013-01-01

7

BEAM TRANSPORT LINES FOR THE BSNS.  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the design of two beam transport lines at the BSNS: one is the injection line from the Linac to the RCS and the other is the target line from the RCS to the target station. In the injection beam line, space charge effects, transverse halo collimation, momentum tail collimation and debunching are the main concerned topics. A new method of using triplet cells and stripping foils is used to collimate transverse halo. A long straight section is reserved for the future upgrading linac and debuncher. In the target beam line, large halo emittance, beam stability at the target due to kicker failures and beam jitters, shielding of back-scattering neutrons from the target are main concerned topics. Special bi-gap magnets will be used to reduce beam losses in the collimators in front of the target.

WEI, J.

2006-06-26

8

Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Ruland, R.E.

1991-10-01

9

[AP7157]019010PRA Absolute measurement of the resonance lines in heliumlike vanadium on an electron-beam ion trap  

E-print Network

PROOF COPY [AP7157]019010PRA Absolute measurement of the resonance lines in heliumlike vanadium measurements of the energies of resonance lines in heliumlike vanadium on an electron-beam ion trap at an absolute precision measurement of heliumlike resonance lines in vanadium (Z 23) to investi- gate

Chantler, Christopher T.

10

IV1. Yoon and E. Crosbie The APS Beam Transfer Line from Linac to Booster Synchrotron  

E-print Network

synchrotron. Another transfer system which guides the beam from the booster to the storage ring is described; the transfer line LTOA from the injector linac to the positron accumulator ring (PAR) and the transfer line ATOB from the accumulator ring to booster synchrotron. For the design, we assumed that the rms

Kemner, Ken

11

A novel motor, KIF13A, transports mannose-6-phosphate receptor to plasma membrane through direct interaction with AP-1 complex.  

PubMed

Intracellular transport mediated by kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) is a highly regulated process. The molecular mechanism of KIFs binding to their respective cargoes remains unclear. We report that KIF13A is a novel plus end-directed microtubule-dependent motor protein and associates with beta 1-adaptin, a subunit of the AP-1 adaptor complex. The cargo vesicles of KIF13A contained AP-1 and mannnose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR). Overexpression of KIF13A resulted in mislocalization of the AP-1 and the M6PR. Functional blockade of KIF13A reduced cell surface expression of the M6PR. Thus, KIF13A transports M6PR-containing vesicles and targets the M6PR from TGN to the plasma membrane via direct interaction with the AP-1 adaptor complex. PMID:11106728

Nakagawa, T; Setou, M; Seog, D; Ogasawara, K; Dohmae, N; Takio, K; Hirokawa, N

2000-11-10

12

Vacuum system control for the Heavy Ion Transport Line  

SciTech Connect

The Brookhaven AGS, 807 m in circumference, and the Tandem Van de Graaff are now joined together by a transport line, 600 m in length. This now allows heavy ions from the Tandem, up to fully stripped sulfur (M = 32) to be transported into the AGS and accelerated to 15 GeV/A. With the addition of a booster between the Tandem and the AGS in the near future, heavy ions such as gold (M = 200) can be accelerated to 30 Z/A GeV/A. This paper describes the HITL (Heavy Ion Transport Line) vacuum control system design and implementation.

Stattel, P.; Feigenbaum, I.; Hseuh, H.C.; Robinson, T.; Skelton, R.; Wong, V.

1987-01-01

13

TRANSPORT OF WASTE SIMULANTS IN PJM VENT LINES  

SciTech Connect

The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.

Qureshi, Z

2007-02-21

14

Golgi-Dependent Transport of Vacuolar Sorting Receptors Is Regulated by COPII, AP1, and AP4 Protein Complexes in Tobacco[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The cycling of vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs) between early and late secretory pathway compartments is regulated by signals in the cytosolic tail, but the exact pathway is controversial. Here, we show that receptor targeting in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) initially involves a canonical coat protein complex II–dependent endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi bulk flow route and that VSR–ligand interactions in the cis-Golgi play an important role in vacuolar sorting. We also show that a conserved Glu is required but not sufficient for rate-limiting YXX?-mediated receptor trafficking. Protein–protein interaction studies show that the VSR tail interacts with the ?-subunits of plant or mammalian clathrin adaptor complex AP1 and plant AP4 but not that of plant and mammalian AP2. Mutants causing a detour of full-length receptors via the cell surface invariantly cause the secretion of VSR ligands. Therefore, we propose that cycling via the plasma membrane is unlikely to play a role in biosynthetic vacuolar sorting under normal physiological conditions and that the conserved Ile-Met motif is mainly used to recover mistargeted receptors. This occurs via a fundamentally different pathway from the prevacuolar compartment that does not mediate recycling. The role of clathrin and clathrin-independent pathways in vacuolar targeting is discussed. PMID:24642936

Gershlick, David C.; de Marcos Lousa, Carine; Foresti, Ombretta; Lee, Andrew J.; Pereira, Estela A.; daSilva, Luis L.P.; Bottanelli, Francesca; Denecke, Jurgen

2014-01-01

15

Saxatilin inhibits TNF-?-induced proliferation by suppressing AP1-dependent IL8 expression in the ovarian cancer cell line MDAH 2774  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced proliferation of cancer cell line MDAH 2774 was significantly suppressed by treating the cells with saxatilin, a snake venom disintegrin. The suppressed proliferation was found to be associated with the level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression in the cells. TNF-?-induced IL-8 promoter activation that is inhibited by saxatilin treatment was dependent on activating protein-1 (AP-1) instead of

Dong Seok Kim; Yoon-Jung Jang; Ok-Hee Jeon; Doo-Sik Kim

2007-01-01

16

Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios  

SciTech Connect

This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B. [and others

1997-06-01

17

Saxatilin inhibits TNF-alpha-induced proliferation by suppressing AP-1-dependent IL-8 expression in the ovarian cancer cell line MDAH 2774.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced proliferation of cancer cell line MDAH 2774 was significantly suppressed by treating the cells with saxatilin, a snake venom disintegrin. The suppressed proliferation was found to be associated with the level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression in the cells. TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 promoter activation that is inhibited by saxatilin treatment was dependent on activating protein-1 (AP-1) instead of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB). Coexpression of dominant negative p38 (DN-p38) suggested that p38 is involved in the IL-8 promoter activity which is regulated by saxatilin or TNF-alpha. Experimental evidence clearly indicated that saxatilin inhibits TNF-alpha-induced proliferation of the ovarian cancer cells by suppressing IL-8 expression in AP-1-dependent manner. PMID:16806476

Kim, Dong Seok; Jang, Yoon-Jung; Jeon, Ok-Hee; Kim, Doo-Sik

2007-02-01

18

High-resolution polarization observations inside spectral lines of magnetic Ap stars. I. Instrumentation and observations of. beta. Coronae Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a coude photon-counting polarimeter capable of attaining (with a Fabry-Perot interferometer) a high resolution. A description of the instrument is given, with a discussion of various sources of systematic error in the polarimetry. Observations of linear and circular polarization in the spectrum of the Ap star ..beta.. Coronae Borealis, throughout the magnetic cycle, are obtained across an

E. F. Borra; A. H. Vaughan

1977-01-01

19

Polarized sorting of the copper transporter ATP7B in neurons mediated by recognition of a dileucine signal by AP-1.  

PubMed

Neurons are highly polarized cells having distinct somatodendritic and axonal domains. Here we report that polarized sorting of the Cu(2+) transporter ATP7B and the vesicle-SNARE VAMP4 to the somatodendritic domain of rat hippocampal neurons is mediated by recognition of dileucine-based signals in the cytosolic domains of the proteins by the ?1 subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-1. Under basal Cu(2+) conditions, ATP7B was localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane of the soma and dendrites but not the axon. Mutation of a dileucine-based signal in ATP7B or overexpression of a dominant-negative ?1 mutant resulted in nonpolarized distribution of ATP7B between the somatodendritic and axonal domains. Furthermore, addition of high Cu(2+) concentrations, previously shown to reduce ATP7B incorporation into AP-1-containing clathrin-coated vesicles, caused loss of TGN localization and somatodendritic polarity of ATP7B. These findings support the notion of AP-1 as an effector of polarized sorting in neurons and suggest that altered polarity of ATP7B in polarized cell types might contribute to abnormal copper metabolism in the MEDNIK syndrome, a neurocutaneous disorder caused by mutations in the ?1A subunit isoform of AP-1. PMID:25378584

Jain, Shweta; Farías, Ginny G; Bonifacino, Juan S

2015-01-15

20

Gibberellin Concentration and Transport in Genetic Lines of Pea 1  

PubMed Central

Effects of the Na and Le loci on gibberellin (GA) content and transport in pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoots were studied. GA1, GA8, GA17, GA19, GA20, GA29, GA44, GA8 catabolite, and GA29 catabolite were identified by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in extracts of expanding and fully expanded tissues of line C79-338 (Na Le). Quantification of GAs by gas chromatography-single-ion monitoring using deuterated internal standards in lines differing at the Na and Le alleles showed that na reduced the contents of GA19, GA20, and GA29 on average to <3% and of GA1 and GA8 to <30% of those in corresponding Na lines. In expanding tissues from Na le lines, GA1 and GA8 concentrations were reduced to approximately 10 and 2%, respectively, and GA29 content increased 2- to 3-fold compared with those in Na Le plants. There was a close correlation between stem length and the concentrations of GA1 or GA8 in shoot apices in all six genotypes investigated. In na/Na grafts, internode length and GA1 concentration of nana scions were normalized, the GA20 content increased slightly, but GA19 levels were unaffected. Movement of labeled GAs applied to leaves on Na rootstocks indicated that GA19 was transported poorly to apices of na scions compared with GA20 and GA1. Our evidence suggests that GA20 is the major transported GA in peas. Images Figure 2 PMID:16653128

Proebsting, William M.; Hedden, Peter; Lewis, Mervyn J.; Croker, Stephen J.; Proebsting, Lena N.

1992-01-01

21

Autoantibody profiling in APS.  

PubMed

The international consensus for the classification of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) requires clinical and laboratory criteria to be considered at an equal level for diagnosing APS. Thus, detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) being a hallmark of APS has been the object of intensive investigation over the past 40 years. However, appropriate detection of aPL still remains a laboratory challenge due to their heterogeneity comprising autoantibodies reactive to different phospholipid-binding plasma proteins, such as beta-2 glycoprotein I (?2GPI) and prothrombin. The relevance of aPL interacting with phospholipids other than cardiolipin (CL, diphosphatidylglycerol), such as phosphatidylserine (PS), remains elusive with regard to the diagnosis of APS. Recently, the concept of aPL profiling has been introduced to assess the risk of thrombotic complications in patients with APS. New assay techniques, apart from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) recommended by the international consensus for the classification of APS, have been proposed for multiplexing of aPL testing. Line immunoassays (LIAs) employing a novel hydrophobic solid phase for the simultaneous detection of different aPL seem to be an intriguing alternative. We evaluated a novel multiplex LIA employing a hydrophobic membrane coated with different phospholipid (PL)-binding proteins or PLs. The performance characteristics of this new multiplexing assay technique demonstrated its usefulness for aPL profiling. PMID:25228721

Roggenbuck, D; Somma, V; Schierack, P; Borghi, M O; Meroni, P L

2014-10-01

22

Transport line from the Linac to the SXLS ring  

SciTech Connect

Design of a transport line with highly restrictive space and beam size requirements and with flexibility in the orientation of the injector is presented. An analytic method, based on symbolic algebra is used to find optimal regions of the design parameters. The fine tuning of the parameter were than performed with standard matrix program. Special interest was paid to the question of dispersion vector matching large angle bend with very small bending radius using non-iron bending magnets with very small gap area. 3 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Bozoki, E.

1991-05-01

23

Thermal Transport Along the Dislocation Line in Silicon Carbide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We elucidate thermal conductivity along the screw dislocation line, which represents a transport direction inaccessible to classical theories. By using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we uncover a Burgers vector dependent thermal conductivity reduction in silicon carbide. The effect is uncorrelated with the classical modeling and originates in the highly deformed core region, which represents a significant source of anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering. High strain reduces the phonon relaxation time, especially in the longitudinal acoustic branches, and creates an effective internal thermal resistance around the dislocation axis. Our results have implications for designing materials useful for high-temperature electronics and thermoelectric applications.

Ni, Yuxiang; Xiong, Shiyun; Volz, Sebastian; Dumitric, Traian

2014-09-01

24

Thermal transport along the dislocation line in silicon carbide.  

PubMed

We elucidate thermal conductivity along the screw dislocation line, which represents a transport direction inaccessible to classical theories. By using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we uncover a Burgers vector dependent thermal conductivity reduction in silicon carbide. The effect is uncorrelated with the classical modeling and originates in the highly deformed core region, which represents a significant source of anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering. High strain reduces the phonon relaxation time, especially in the longitudinal acoustic branches, and creates an effective internal thermal resistance around the dislocation axis. Our results have implications for designing materials useful for high-temperature electronics and thermoelectric applications. PMID:25279633

Ni, Yuxiang; Xiong, Shiyun; Volz, Sebastian; Dumitric, Traian

2014-09-19

25

The Broad-lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-Ray Burst Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ? 20,000 km s-1 that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v >~ 27,000 km s-1). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ~2.7 M ?, a kinetic energy of ~1.0 × 1052 erg, and a 56Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M ?. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] ??6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z >~ Z ?, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B - V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Sanders, N. E.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Pickering, T. E.; Kawabata, K.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Marion, G. H.; Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

2015-01-01

26

Identification of the elements regulating the expression of the cell adhesion molecule MCAM/MUC18. Loss of AP-2 is not required for MCAM expression in melanoma cell lines.  

PubMed

The cell adhesion molecule melonoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM)/MUC18/CD146 is specifically up-regulated on tumors of neuroectodermal origin and in animal models confers metastatic capacity to human melanoma cells. To identify critical regions regulating MCAM expression in melanomas, 1 kilobase of the MCAM 5' region was analyzed for promoter activity and transcription factor binding in 1 glioma, 1 carcinoma, and 4 melanoma cell lines. The minimal MCAM promoter (-106/+22 base pair (bp)) consists of 4 Sp-1 sites, two AP-2 elements, one cAMP responsive element, and the initiator surrounding the transcriptional start site. Analysis of mutated constructs indicated that the cAMP-responsive element is a major transcriptional activator in the majority of cell lines. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that, in AP-2 expressing cells, the AP-2 site within the core promoter (-23 bp) has an inhibitory influence on MCAM expression while the AP-2 sites at -131 and -302 bp are activating. Functional AP-2 was observed in both MCAM positive and MCAM negative melanoma cell lines indicating that expression of MCAM does not require loss of this transcription factor. Furthermore, all MCAM constructs were strongly expressed in MCAM negative as well as MCAM positive cells, indicating that the expression of this gene is not controlled solely by the presence of transactivating factors binding to the investigated region. PMID:10938273

Mintz-Weber, C S; Johnson, J P

2000-11-01

27

Observation and analysis of self-amplified spontaneous emission at the APS low-energy undulator test line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exponential growth of self-amplified spontaneous emission at 530nm was first experimentally observed at the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line in December 1999. Since then, further detailed measurements and analysis of the results have been made. Here, we present the measurements and compare these with calculations based on measured electron beam properties and theoretical expectations.

N. D. Arnold; J. Attig; G. Banks; R. Bechtold; K. Beczek; C. Benson; S. Berg; W. Berg; S. G Biedron; J. A Biggs; M. Borland; K. Boerste; M. Bosek; W. R Brzowski; J. Budz; J. A Carwardine; P. Castro; Y.-C Chae; S. Christensen; C. Clark; M. Conde; E. A Crosbie; G. A Decker; R. J Dejus; H. DeLeon; P. K Den Hartog; B. N Deriy; D. Dohan; P. Dombrowski; D. Donkers; C. L Doose; R. J Dortwegt; G. A Edwards; Y. Eidelman; M. J Erdmann; J. Error; R. Ferry; J. Forrestal; H. Freund; H. Friedsam; J. Gagliano; W. Gai; J. N Galayda; R. Gerig; R. L Gilmore; E. Gluskin; G. A Goeppner; J. Goetzen; C. Gold; A. J Gorski; A. E Grelick; M. W Hahne; S. Hanuska; K. C Harkay; G. Harris; A. L Hillman; R. Hogrefe; J. Hoyt; Z. Huang; J. M Jagger; W. G Jansma; M. Jaski; S. J Jones; R. T Keane; A. L Kelly; C. Keyser; K.-J Kim; S. H Kim; M. Kirshenbaum; J. H Klick; K. Knoerzer; R. J Koldenhoven; M. Knott; S. Labuda; R. Laird; J. Lang; F. Lenkszus; E. S Lessner; J. W Lewellen; Y. Li; R. M Lill; A. H Lumpkin; O. A Makarov; G. M Markovich; M. McDowell; W. P McDowell; P. E McNamara; T. Meier; D. Meyer; W. Michalek; S. V. Milton; H. Moe; E. R Moog; L. Morrison; A. Nassiri; J. R Noonan; R. Otto; J. Pace; S. J Pasky; J. M Penicka; A. F Pietryla; G. Pile; C. Pitts; J. Power; T. Powers; C. C. Putnam; A. J Puttkammer; D. Reigle; L. Reigle; D. Ronzhin; E. R Rotela; E. F Russell; V. Sajaev; S. Sarkar; J. C Scapino; K. Schroeder; R. A Seglem; N. S Sereno; S. K Sharma; J. F Sidarous; O. Singh; T. L Smith; R. Soliday; G. A Sprau; S. J Stein; B. Stejskal; V. Svirtun; L. C Teng; E. Theres; K. Thompson; B. J Tieman; J. A Torres; E. M Trakhtenberg; G. Travish; G. F Trento; J. Vacca; I. B Vasserman; N. A Vinokurov; D. R Walters; J. Wang; X. J Wang; J. Warren; S. Wesling; D. L Weyer; G. Wiemerslage; K. Wilhelmi; R. Wright; D. Wyncott; S. Xu; B.-X. Yang; W. Yoder; R. B Zabel

2001-01-01

28

Beam transport radiation shielding for branch lines 2-ID-B and 2-ID-C  

SciTech Connect

The x-ray radiation shielding requirements beyond the first optics enclosure have been considered for the beam transport of the 2-ID-B and 2-ID-C branch lines of Sector 2 (SRI-CAT) of the APS. The first three optical components (mirrors) of the 2-ID-B branch are contained within the shielded first optics enclosure. Calculations indicate that scattering of the primary synchrotron beam by beamline components outside the enclosure, such as apertures and monochromators, or by gas particles in case of vacuum failure is within safe limits for this branch. A standard 2.5-inch-diameter stainless steel pipe with 1/16-inch-thick walls provides adequate shielding to reduce the radiation dose equivalent rate to human tissue to below the maximum permissible limit of 0.25 mrem/hr. The 2-ID-C branch requires, between the first optics enclosure where only two mirrors are used and the housing for the third mirror, additional lead shielding (0.75 mm) and a minimum approach distance of 2.6 cm. A direct beam stop consisting of at least 4.5 mm of lead is also required immediately downstream of the third mirror for 2-ID-C. Finally, to stop the direct beam from escaping the experimental station, a beam stop consisting of at least 4-mm or 2.5-mm steel is required for the 2-ID-B or 2-ID-C branches, respectively. This final requirement can be met by the vacuum chambers used to house the experiments for both branch lines.

Feng, Y.P.; Lai, B.; McNulty, I.; Dejus, R.J.; Randall, K.J.; Yun, W.

1995-08-01

29

Energy transport along the auroral field lines, Cluster results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cluster spacecrafts, during their perigeum passages, cross the auroral field lines at about 4 Re distance that is well above the main auroral acceleration region which is at a distance of about 2-3 Re. Therefore, Cluster is well suited to study such important questions as how is energy transported to the auroral acceleration region and what is the potential structure of upward current regions at high altitudes. Thanks to the Cluster flying formation of "pearls on the string" during auroral zone crossings we can estimate the temporal variations of the current sheets as well as their velocity. This information is used to make corrected potential structure estimates using E field data from EFW instrument. Then we discuss the energy source of the auroral acceleration based on comparisons between Poynting flux and particle energy flux. This is especially important in the light of opposite predictions of such important auroral acceleration models as traditional U-shape and S-shape model, as well as the recently proposed O-shape and field line resonance models.

Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Buchert, S. C.; Fazakerley, A.; Kistler, L. M.; Marklund, G.; Mouikis, C.; Olsson, A.; Reme, H.; Wahlund, J.

2001-12-01

30

PIPELINES, TRANSMISSION LINES, AND MISCELLANEOUS TRANSPORTATION FEATURES DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of pipelines, transmission lines, and miscellaneous transportation features for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was p...

31

Polarized Dendritic Transport and the AP1 ?1 Clathrin Adaptor UNC-101 Localize Odorant Receptors to Olfactory Cilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odorant receptors and signaling proteins are localized to sensory cilia on olfactory dendrites. Using a GFP-tagged odorant receptor protein, Caenorhabditis elegans ODR-10, we characterized protein sorting and transport in olfactory neurons in vivo. ODR-10 is transported in rapidly moving dendritic vesicles that shuttle between the cell body and the cilia. Anterograde and retrograde vesicles move at different speeds, suggesting that

Noelle D. Dwyer; Carolyn E. Adler; Justin Gage Crump; Noelle D. L'Etoile; Cornelia I. Bargmann

2001-01-01

32

Transport line for beam generated by ITEP Bernas ion source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A joint research and development program is underway to investigate beam transport systems for intense steady-state ion sources for ion implanters. Two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV are investigated using a modified Bernas ion source with an indirectly heated cathode. Results are presented for simulations of electrostatic systems performed to investigate the transportation of ion beams over a wide mass range: boron to decaborane.

Petrenko, S. V.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Pershin, V. I.; Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Poole, H. J.

2006-03-01

33

Transport line for beam generated by ITEP Bernas ion source  

SciTech Connect

A joint research and development program is underway to investigate beam transport systems for intense steady-state ion sources for ion implanters. Two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV are investigated using a modified Bernas ion source with an indirectly heated cathode. Results are presented for simulations of electrostatic systems performed to investigate the transportation of ion beams over a wide mass range: boron to decaborane.

Petrenko, S.V.; Kropachev, G.N.; Kuibeda, R.P.; Kulevoy, T.V.; Pershin, V.I.; Masunov, E.S.; Polozov, S.M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B.M.; Poole, H.J. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Kashirskoe Shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); PVI, Oxnard, California 93031-5023 (United States)

2006-03-15

34

The Zinc Transporter ZnT3 Interacts with AP-3 and It Is Preferentially Targeted to a Distinct Synaptic Vesicle Subpopulation  

PubMed Central

Synaptic vesicles (SV) are generated by two different mechanisms, one AP-2 dependent and one AP-3 dependent. It has been uncertain, however, whether these mechanisms generate SV that differ in molecular composition. We explored this hypothesis by analyzing the targeting of ZnT3 and synaptophysin both to PC12 synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMV) as well as SV isolated from wild-type and AP-3-deficient mocha brains. ZnT3 cytosolic tail interacted selectively with AP-3 in cell-free assays. Accordingly, pharmacological disruption of either AP-2- or AP-3-dependent SLMV biogenesis preferentially reduced synaptophysin or ZnT3 targeting, respectively; suggesting that these antigens were concentrated in different vesicles. As predicted, immuno-isolated SLMV revealed that ZnT3 and synaptophysin were enriched in different vesicle populations. Likewise, morphological and biochemical analyses in hippocampal neurons indicated that these two antigens were also present in distinct but overlapping domains. ZnT3 SV content was reduced in AP-3-deficient neurons, but synaptophysin was not altered in the AP-3 null background. Our evidence indicates that neuroendocrine cells assemble molecularly heterogeneous SV and suggests that this diversity could contribute to the functional variety of synapses. PMID:14657250

Salazar, Gloria; Love, Rachal; Werner, Erica; Doucette, Michele M.; Cheng, Su; Levey, Allan; Faundez, Victor

2004-01-01

35

Mechanisms of lead transport in two intestinal epithelial cell lines  

E-print Network

through the intestinal epithelium. Using two established intestinal epithelial cell lines, IEC-6 and Caco-2, we studied the effects of temperature, metabolic inhibitors, sulfhydryl group modifiers, blocking of integrins with the tripeptide Arginine...

Dekaney, Christopher Matthew

1996-01-01

36

DESIGN STUDY OF THE DIPOLE MAGNET FOR THE RHIC EBIS HIGH ENERGY TRANSPORT LINE  

E-print Network

DESIGN STUDY OF THE DIPOLE MAGNET FOR THE RHIC EBIS HIGH ENERGY TRANSPORT LINE Takeshi Kanesue studies of the dipole magnet for EBIS HEBT line is proceeding. The RHIC EBIS is a new high current highly charged heavy ion preinjector for RHIC. The dipole magnet discussed in this paper will be used to guide

37

The Mechanical Design for the DARHT-II Downstream Beam Transport Line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-msec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The down-stream beam transport line is approximately 20-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 15 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several speciality magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and to the beam dumps. There are two high power beam dumps, which are designed to absorb 80-kJ per pulse during accelerator start-up and operation. Aspects of the mechanical design of these elements are presented.

Westenskow, Glen

38

The Mechanical Design for the Darht-II Downstream Beam Transport Line  

E-print Network

This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-msec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The down-stream beam transport line is approximately 20-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 15 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several speciality magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and to the beam dumps. There are two high power beam dumps, which are designed to absorb 80-kJ per pulse during accelerator start-up and operation. Aspects of the mechanical design of these elements are presented.

Westenskow, G A; Duffy, P T; Paul, A C

2000-01-01

39

Two Novel Glycosides from the Fruits of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) Inhibit AP1 Transactivation and Cell Transformation in the Mouse Epidermal JB6 Cell Line1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni), a plant originally grown in the Hawaiian and Tahitian islands, has long been used by islanders to treat diseases, including cancer. Two novel glycosides, 6-O-(b-D-glucopy- ranosyl)-1-O-octanoyl-b-D-glucopyranose and asperulosidic acid, ex- tracted from the juice of noni fruits, were used to examine their effects on 12-O-tedtradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced AP-1 transactivation

Guangming Liu; Ann Bode; Wei-Ya Ma; Shengmin Sang; Chi-Tang Ho; Zigang Dong

2001-01-01

40

In Situ Proximity Ligation Detection of c-Jun/AP-1 Dimers Reveals Increased Levels of c-Jun/Fra1 Complexes in Aggressive Breast Cancer Cell Lines in Vitro and in Vivo*  

PubMed Central

Genetic and biochemical studies have shown that selective interactions between the Jun, Fos, and activating transcription factor (ATF) components of transcription factor activating protein 1 (AP-1) exhibit specific and critical functions in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. For instance, the ratio between c-Jun/c-Fos and c-Jun/ATF2 dimers in the cell can be a determining factor in the cellular response to oncogenic or apoptotic stimuli. Until recently, no methods were available to detect endogenous AP-1 complexes in cells and tissues in situ. Here, we validated the proximity ligation assay (PLA) for its ability to specifically visualize and quantify changes in endogenous c-Jun/c-Fos, c-Jun/ATF2, and c-Jun/Fra1 complexes by using, among others, partner-selective c-Jun mutants. Furthermore, we examined the levels of c-Jun/AP-1 dimers in cell lines representing different types of human breast cancer and found that aggressive basal-like breast cancer cells can be discriminated from much less invasive luminal-like cells by PLA detection of c-Jun/Fra1 rather than of c-Jun/ATF2 and c-Jun/c-Fos. Also in tumor tissue derived from highly metastatic basal-like MDA-MB231 cells, high levels of c-Jun/Fra1 complexes were detected. Together, these results demonstrate that in situ PLA is a powerful diagnostic tool to analyze and quantify the amounts of biologically critical AP-1 dimers in fixed cells and tissue material. PMID:20511396

Baan, Bart; Pardali, Evangelia; ten Dijke, Peter; van Dam, Hans

2010-01-01

41

On-line particle-swarm-optimization control for maglev transportation system via backstepping design procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the design of a backstepping particle-swarm-optimization control (BSPSOC) for the on-line levitated balancing and propulsive positioning of a magnetic-levitation (maglev) transportation system. The dynamic model of a maglev transportation system including levitated electromagnets and a propulsive linear induction motor (LIM) based on the concepts of mechanical geometry and motion dynamics is firstly constructed. In the proposed

Rong-Jong Wai; Kun-Lun Chuang

2008-01-01

42

Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II  

SciTech Connect

The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. During Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

Crisp, J; Fellenz, B; Fitzgerald, J; Heikkinen, D; Ibrahim, M A.

2011-10-01

43

Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum. PMID:25149019

Fang, Zheng-wu; Qi, Rui; Li, Xiao-fang; Liu, Zhi-xiong

2014-10-25

44

Design of the beam transport line and injection system of the compact storage ring for TTX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we present the design of the beam transport line and injection system of the compact storage ring for the Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray (TTX) source. The layout of the beam transport line fits in with the limited available space. The injection system is simplified, consisting of only one single kicker; the stray field on the reference orbit is also reduced without the septum magnet. We choose a travelling wave kicker and present both 2D and 3D simulations for the structure design.

Xu, HaiSheng; Huang, WenHui

2011-12-01

45

Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes.  

PubMed

Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to melanosomes are not clear. Here we exploit targeted mutagenesis of the acidic dileucine-based sorting signal in the pigment cell-specific protein OCA2 to dissect the relative roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in transport to melanosomes. We show that binding to AP-1 or AP-3 depends on the primary sequence of the signal and not its position within the cytoplasmic domain. Mutants that preferentially bound either AP-1 or AP-3 each trafficked toward melanosomes and functionally complemented OCA2 deficiency, but AP-3 binding was necessary for steady-state melanosome localization. Unlike tyrosinase, which also engages AP-3 for optimal melanosomal delivery, both AP-1- and AP-3-favoring OCA2 variants required BLOC-1 for melanosomal transport. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in OCA2 transport to melanosomes and indicate that BLOC-1 can cooperate with either adaptor during cargo sorting to LROs. PMID:22718909

Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Bennett, Dorothy C; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S; Marks, Michael S

2012-08-01

46

Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes  

PubMed Central

Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to melanosomes are not clear. Here we exploit targeted mutagenesis of the acidic dileucine–based sorting signal in the pigment cell–specific protein OCA2 to dissect the relative roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in transport to melanosomes. We show that binding to AP-1 or AP-3 depends on the primary sequence of the signal and not its position within the cytoplasmic domain. Mutants that preferentially bound either AP-1 or AP-3 each trafficked toward melanosomes and functionally complemented OCA2 deficiency, but AP-3 binding was necessary for steady-state melanosome localization. Unlike tyrosinase, which also engages AP-3 for optimal melanosomal delivery, both AP-1– and AP-3–favoring OCA2 variants required BLOC-1 for melanosomal transport. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in OCA2 transport to melanosomes and indicate that BLOC-1 can cooperate with either adaptor during cargo sorting to LROs. PMID:22718909

Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K.; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.

2012-01-01

47

Differential sensitivities to lactate transport inhibitors of breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The tumour microenvironment is known to be acidic due to high glycolytic rates of tumour cells. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) play a role in extracellular acidification, which is widely known to be involved in tumour progression. Recently, we have described the upregulation of MCT1 in breast carcinomas and its association with poor prognostic variables. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of lactate transport inhibition in human breast cancer cell lines. The effects of ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, quercetin and lonidamine on cell viability, metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were assessed in a panel of different breast cancer cell lines. MCT1, MCT4 and CD147 were differently expressed among the breast cancer cell lines and, as expected, different sensitivities were observed for the three inhibitors. Interestingly, in the most sensitive cell lines, lactate transport inhibition induced a decrease in cell proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as an increase in cell death. Results were validated by silencing MCT1 expression using siRNA. The results obtained here support targeting of lactate transport as a strategy to treat breast cancer, with a special emphasis on the basal-like subtype, which so far does not have a specific molecular therapy. PMID:24174370

Morais-Santos, Filipa; Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Pinheiro, Sílvia; Vieira, André F; Paredes, Joana; Schmitt, Fernando C; Baltazar, Fátima; Pinheiro, Céline

2014-02-01

48

RISK ASSESSMENT ANALYSES USING EPA'S ON-LINE SITE-SPECIFIC TRANSPORT MODELS AND FIELD DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators and transport models to aid in risk assessment for subsurface contamination. The calculators (www.epa.gov/athens/onsite) provide several levels of tools and data. These include tools for generating commonly-used model input param...

49

Estimation of the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production and Pipe-line Transportation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of energy use effectiveness of oil production and pipe-line transport systems by the efficiency test is suggested. The concept of idealized analogs of the processes for calculation of the minimum necessary energy\\/work consumption on their realization is used. The idealized analogs, under the assumptions made for their forming, are described. Determining the theoretic energy consumption is based on

V. S. Stepanov; T. B. Stepanova

2007-01-01

50

Noble internal transport barriers and radial subdiffusion of toroidal magnetic lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal transport barriers (ITB's) observed in tokamaks are described by a purely magnetic approach. Magnetic line motion in toroidal geometry with broken magnetic surfaces is studied from a previously derived Hamiltonian map in situation of incomplete chaos. This appears to reproduce in a realistic way the main features of a tokamak, for a given safety factor profile and in terms

J. H. Misguich; J.-D. Reuss; D. Constantinescu; G. Steinbrecher; M. Vlad; F. Spineanu; B. Weyssow; R. Balescu

2003-01-01

51

THE ONSITE ON-LINE CALCULATORS AND TRAINING FOR SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT SITE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators called "OnSite" for assessing transport of environmental contaminants in the subsurface. The purpose of these calculators is to provide methods and data for common calculations used in assessing impacts from subsurface contaminatio...

52

Normal frames and linear transports along paths in line bundles. Applications to classical electrodynamics  

E-print Network

The definitions and some basic properties of the linear transports along paths in vector bundles and the normal frames for them are recalled. The formalism is specified on line bundles and applied to a geometrical description of the classical electrodynamics. The inertial frames for this theory are discussed.

Bozhidar Z. Iliev

2006-03-09

53

Focused transport of energetic particles along magnetic field lines draped around a coronal mass ejection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence is presented for focused transport of energetic particles along magnetic field lines draped around a coronal mass ejection. This evidence was obtained with the University of Maryland/Max-Planck-Institute experiment on the ISEE-3 spacecraft during the decay phase of the June 6, 1979, solar particle event. During the early portion of the decay phase of this event, interplanetary magnetic field lines were apparently draped around a coronal mass ejection, leading to a small focusing length on the western flank where ISEE 3 was located. A period of very slow decrease of particle intensity was observed, along with large sunward anisotropy in the solar wind frame, which is inconsistent with predictions of the standard Fokker-Planck equation models for diffusive transport. It was found possible to fit the observations, assuming that focused transport dominates and that the particle pitch angle scattering is isotropic.

Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Lee, M. A.; Klecker, B.; Ipavich, F. M.

1992-01-01

54

Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of container transportation modes along the Changjiang River main line and its delta area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Changjiang River (Yangtze) is one of the fastest growth areas of container transportation in China. Rail, road and water\\u000a transportation have competed against each other for container transportation in the Changjiang River main line and its delta\\u000a area. It is of significance to assess these different transportation modes scientifically in order to organize container transportation\\u000a efficiently in this area

Shi-yu Zhang; Han-liang Xiao

2003-01-01

55

The mechanical design for the second axis beam transport line for the DARHT facility  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) facility. The DARHT II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL, and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-µsec pulse length linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The downstream beam transport line is an 18-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 17 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several specialty magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and beam dumps. There is a high power beam dump, which is designed to absorb the 80-kJ of beam energy during accelerator start-up and operation. The beamline vacuum chamber has an 8-cm diameter aperture and operates at an average pressure of 10-7 Torr.

Bertolini, L R; Alford, O J; Paul, A C; Shang, C C; Westenkow, G A

1999-03-23

56

Experience with the NEG (nonevaporable getter) strips at the Brookhaven heavy ion transport line  

SciTech Connect

The AGS and the Tandem Van de Graaff, two valuable physics assets, are now jointed together by a transport line of 700 m in length. This line allows heavy ions from the Tandem, up to a fully striped silicon (M = 28) to be injected into the AGS and accelerated to energies of approximately 15 GeVamu. New areas of physics research at very high nuclear densities can now be studied using some of the extensive experimental facilities already existing at the AGS. With the addition of a booster synchrotron between the Tandem and the AGS, all heavier ions up to gold can also be accelerated. To minimize the beam loss due to charge exchange between the partially stripped heaviest ions (i.e. Au + 33 at 1 MeVamu) and the residual gas molecules, a vacuum of 10 /sup /minus/8/ Torr is required for this transport line. To achieve this vacuum, we have opted to use the combination of small ion pumps (20 1s diode type) and simple geometry was implemented which offers low cost (<$200m), easy installation and maintenance. Pressures of 10 /sup /minus/10/ and low 10 /sup /minus/9/ Torr have been maintained over the last two years following the initial activation. This paper describes the NEG strip system, and the experience obtained during the installation and the operation of this 700m heavy ion transport line (HITL).

Hseuh, H.C.; Benjamin, J.; Stattel, P.; Feigenbaum, I.; Manni, M.

1988-01-01

57

D-cycloserine uses an active transport mechanism in the human intestinal cell line Caco 2.  

PubMed Central

In a previous study we have shown that cultured epithelial cell lines can be used to measure the transepithelial passage of antimicrobial agents across the intestine and to obtain information on the mechanisms of transport utilized and predict the bioavailability of the antimicrobial agents after oral administration. In particular, among the drugs investigated, D-cycloserine had been shown to be transported in a polarized manner only in the intestinal cells. In the present work, further characterization of the transport of D-cycloserine in the human intestinal cell line Caco 2 has shown that this occurs in the apical-to-basolateral direction by an active mechanism which is energy dependent but only partially sodium dependent. Competition studies have also indicated that the transport of D-cycloserine occurs via a carrier for imino acids, amino acids with aliphatic side chains (L-Ala, D-Ala, and beta Ala), and L-Trp, L-Tyr, L-Cys, and alpha-amino isobutyric acid. This system may correspond to a proton-dependent system for L-proline and beta-alanine recently described for Caco 2 cells. In contrast with the cephalosporins, which are taken up by the Caco 2 cells via a dipeptide carrier, D-cycloserine transport cannot be inhibited by either cephalexin (a member of the class of cephalosporins) or dipeptides. PMID:8092820

Ranaldi, G; Islam, K; Sambuy, Y

1994-01-01

58

Quantum switch for single-photon transport in a coupled superconducting transmission-line-resonator array  

SciTech Connect

We propose and study an approach to realize quantum switch for single-photon transport in a coupled superconducting transmission-line-resonator (TLR) array with one controllable hopping interaction. We find that the single photon with arbitrary wave vector can transport in a controllable way in this system. We also study how to realize controllable hopping interaction between two TLRs via a Cooper-pair box (CPB). When the frequency of the CPB is largely detuned from those of the two TLRs, the variables of the CPB can be adiabatically eliminated and thus a controllable interaction between two TLRs can be obtained.

Liao Jieqiao; Sun, C. P. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Huang Jinfeng; Kuang Leman [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Liu Yuxi [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2009-07-15

59

Tuning spin polarization and spin transport of zigzag graphene nanoribbons by line defects.  

PubMed

From first-principles methods, the spin-dependent electronic properties of zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) with a line defect (558-defect) are investigated systematically and compared to those of the pristine ZGNR. Results show that the line defect possesses an obvious tuning effect on the spin-polarization of the edge carbon atoms of the defective ZGNRs, and the spin-polarization and spin-transport are sensitive to the position of line defects. The defective ZGNRs can realize a transition from antiferromagnetism (AFM) to ferrimagnetism and ferromagnetism (FM) via changing the position of line defects from the center to the zigzag edge of ZGNRs. More importantly, when the line defect is located at the one edge, the defective ZGNRs exhibit the long-range magnetic ordering at edges with a high Curie temperature up to 276 K, and the defective ZGNR system can generate a high-performance spin-filter effect in the large bias range, 0.0-0.5 V. Such a sensitive modulation for the spin-polarization and spin-transport holds great promise for applications of the graphene-based systems in nano-scale spintronic devices. PMID:25407715

Tang, G P; Zhang, Z H; Deng, X Q; Fan, Z Q; Zhu, H L

2014-12-01

60

Bit-Transport Capability of Broadband Multicarrier Power Line Channels Constrained by Radiated Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is proposed to test the bit-transport capability of the multi-carrier scheme on distribution power networks in the frequency range of 1-30 MHz. A frequency-dependent rigorous model of medium-voltage power networks made of branches of three-phase lines above a dissipative ground is utilized. The radiated electromagnetic field is predicted by means of a full wave procedure in the high

Marcello D'Amore; Maria Sabrina Sarto; Enzo Baccarelli; Mauro Biagi

2007-01-01

61

Dijkstra's Algorithm On-Line: An Empirical Case Study from Public Railroad Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic information systems are among the most prominent real-world applications of Dijkstra’s algorithm for shortest paths.\\u000a We consider the scenario of a central information server in the realm of public railroad transport on wide-area networks.\\u000a Such a system has to process a large number of on-line queries in real time. In practice, this problem is usually solved by\\u000a heuristical variations

Frank Schulz; Dorothea Wagner; Karsten Weihe

1999-01-01

62

Dijkstra's Algorithm On-Line: An Empirical Case Study from Public Railroad Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic information systems are among the most prominent real-world applications of Dijkstra's algorithm for shortest paths. We consider the scenario of a central information server in the realm of public railroad transport on wide-area networks. Such a system has to process a large number of on-line queries for optimal travel connections in real time. In practice, this problem is usually

Frank Schulz; Dorothea Wagner; Karsten Weihe

2000-01-01

63

The mechanical design for the second axis beam transport line for the DARHT Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-?sec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of X-rays for the purpose of radiographing

O. J. Alford; L. R. Bertolini; A. C. Paul; C. C. Shang; G. A. Westenskow

1999-01-01

64

The Mechanical Design for the DARHT-II Downstream Beam Transport Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-msec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense

Glen Westenskow; L. R. Bertolini; P. T. Duffy; A. C. Paul

2000-01-01

65

Opening AP to All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a school's effort to open Advanced Placement (AP) to all by challenging its students to take the leap into AP courses. Samuel W. Wolfson High School, on the south side of Jacksonville, Florida, is one of 27 schools in five cities across the country that chose to participate in a College Board initiative called EXCELerator.…

Gewertz, Catherine

2008-01-01

66

APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2012 APS Conferences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is on page 238 of The Physiologist, December 2012. The APS regularly awards Travel Fellowships for underrepresented minority students to attend the APS scientific meetings with funds provided by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). In the final year of support, these Fellowships provided up to $1,800 in expense reimbursement for meeting registration, transportation, meals, and lodging.

APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

2012-12-01

67

APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2008 APS Intersociety Meeting: The Integrative Biology of Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. The APS regularly awards Travel Fellowships for underrepresented minority scientists and students to attend APS scientific meetings with funds provided by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). These fellowships provide funds for registration, transportation, meals, and lodging. Seven fellows attended the APS Intersociety Meeting, ÃÂThe Biology of Exercise VÃÂ in Hilton Head, SC from September 24-27, 2008.

2009-02-01

68

APS: Active Parameter Searching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

APS finds Frequentist confidence limits on high-dimensional parameter spaces by using Gaussian Process interpolation to identify regions of parameter space for which chisquared is less than or equal to some specified limit. The code is written in C++, is robust against multi-modal chisquared functions and converges comparably fast to Monte Carlo methods. Code is also provided to draw Bayesian credible limits using the outputs of APS, though this code does not converge as well. APS requires the linear algebra libraries LAPACK, BLAS, and ARPACK (ascl:1311.010) to run.

Daniel, Scott F.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Schneider, Jeff

2014-08-01

69

Finasteride dose-dependently reduces the proliferation rate of the L nC ap human prostatic cancer cell line in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To assess the effects of finasteride, a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, and of classic antiandrogens on the growth rate of the LnCap human prostate carcinoma cell line, derived from a primary and well-differentiated neoplasm.Methods. Cell proliferation experiments in vitro with and without the antiandrogens cyproterone acetate, hydroxyflutamide, and finasteride in the 0.0001 to 10.0 ?M range.Results. The growth rate of the

Mauro Bologna; Paola Muzi; Leda Biordi; Claudio Festuccia; Carlo Vicentini

1995-01-01

70

Doppler Imaging of Ap Stars  

E-print Network

Doppler imaging, a technique which inverts spectral line profile variations of an Ap star into a two-dimensional abundance maps, provides new observational constraints on diffusion mechanism in the presence of a global magnetic field. A programme is presented here with the aim to obtain abundance distributions of at least five elements on each star, in order to study how different diffusion processes act under influence of a stellar magnetic field. The importance of this multi-element approach is demonstrated, by presenting the abundance maps of helium, magnesium, silicon, chromium and iron for the magnetic B9pSi star CU Virginis.

R. Kuschnig

1998-05-06

71

AP Central: AP Biology Course Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For students and educators seeking to learn more about the world of biology, this website is the perfect resource. Created by the College Board, this site contains information designed to help individuals prepare for the AP Biology examination. The resources here include a guide to conducting investigative labs in the classroom, an overview of quantitative skills, and several other preparatory items. In the Classroom Resources area, visitors can look over curriculum modules and field trip suggestions among other tools. The "Related Articles" section features pieces such as "Mendel's Legacy," "Gastrulation: Shaping the Embryo," and "DNA and Computers-A Marriage Made in Heaven." The site is rounded out by a series of course overviews crafted specially for AP Biology instructors.

72

Beam Transport of 4 GeV Protons from AGS to the Proton Interrogation Target of the Neutrino Line (Z_line) and Effect of the Air on the Transported Beam  

SciTech Connect

As part of the preparation for the Proton Interrogation Experiment, we have calculated the beam optics for the transport of 4 GeV protons, from the AGS extraction point, to the 'Cross-Section Target Wheel 1' and to the 'Proton Interrogation Target'. In this technical note we present three possible beam-transports each corresponding to a particular Fast Extracted Beam W B setup of the AGS. In addition we present results on the effect of the atmospheric air, (which fills the drift space of the last 100 [m] of the transport line), on the size of the beam, at two locations along the drift space, one location at the middle of the drift space and the other at the end where the 'Proton Interrogation Target' is placed. All the beam transports mentioned above require the removal of the WD1 dipole magnet, which is the first magnet of the W-line, because it acts as a limiting beam aperture, and the magnet is not used in the beam transport. An alternative solution of a beam transport, which does not require the removal of the WD1 magnet, is also presented. In this solution, which models the transport line using the TURTLE computer code[7], the vertical beam sizes at the location of the WD1 magnet is minimized to allow 'lossless' beam transport at the location of the WD1 magnet. A similar solution, but using a MAD model of the line, is also presented.

Tsoupas,N.; Ahrens, L.; Pile, P.; Thieberger, P.; Murray, M.M.

2008-10-01

73

Microfluidic transport by AC electroosmosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AC Electro-osmosis (ACEO) is a newly developed microfluidic mechanism, which can transport fluids and particles with low voltage that is suitable for integration with IC circuitry. We observed line formation of particles on electrodes by ACEO, leading to better understanding of ACEO microflows. Also by identifying a new ACEO mechanism from electrochemical reaction, we developed Asymmetric Polarization (A-P) ACEO technique, adding another dimension to ACEO. Both simulation and experiments have been performed to promote the understanding and optimization of ACEO devices. The experimental result of A-P ACEO is also presented in this paper.

Islam, Nazmul; Wu, Jie

2006-04-01

74

Performance of the reaction-product transport line associated with the TOFI (Time-of-Flight Isochronous) spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A reaction-product transport line with a solid angle acceptance of 2.8 msr and a momentum-to-charge acceptance of 28% has been constructed to deliver neutron-rich nuclei produced in heavy-target fragmentation reactions to the Time-Of-Flight Isochronous (TOFI) spectrometer. The design and performance of the transport line, which incorporates a mass-to-charge filter to reduce the rate of uninteresting ions entering the spectrometer, is described.

Vaziri, K.; Wohn, F.K.; Vieira, D.J.; Wollnik, H.; Wouters, J.M.

1986-08-01

75

Transport of intense ion beams and space charge compensation issues in low energy beam lines (invited).  

PubMed

Over the last few years, the interest of the international scientific community for high power accelerators in the megawatt range has been increasing. For such machines, the ion source has to deliver a beam intensity that ranges from several tens up to a hundred of mA. One of the major challenges is to extract and transport the beam while minimizing the emittance growth and optimizing its injection into the radio frequency quadrupole. Consequently, it is crucial to perform precise simulations and cautious design of the low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. In particular, the beam dynamics calculations have to take into account not only the space charge effects but also the space charge compensation of the beam induced by ionization of the residual gas. The physical phenomena occurring in a high intensity LEBT and their possible effects on the beam are presented, with a particular emphasis on space charge compensation. Then, beam transport issues in different kind of LEBTs are briefly reviewed. The SOLMAXP particle-in-cell code dedicated to the modeling of the transport of charge particles under a space charge compensation regime is described. Finally, beam dynamics simulations results obtained with SOLMAXP are presented in the case of international fusion materials irradiation facility injector. PMID:22380299

Chauvin, N; Delferrière, O; Duperrier, R; Gobin, R; Nghiem, P A P; Uriot, D

2012-02-01

76

APS Science 2009.  

SciTech Connect

It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report), the challenge of sustainable energy provides an opportunity for expanded involvement with industrial research. We were privileged to recruit several outstanding new leaders at the APS. Linda Young, from Argonne's Chemical Sciences Division, became the new Director of the X-ray Science Division (XSD). Chris Jacobsen (from Stony Brook University) has been added to Linda's team as an XSD Associate Division Director, joining George Srajer. Alexander (Sasha) Zholents (formerly of Berkeley Lab) became Director of the Accelerator Systems Division. Sasha is the inventor of the short-pulse x-ray scheme that we plan to implement in the APS-U to obtain very high average brightness, broadband, 1-ps x-ray pulses. Walter Lowe (formerly of Howard University) has taken a new position as senior advisor for outreach and development of the user community. Walter's role is to increase the diversity of the user community (with diversity read broadly to include users, institutions, and technical disciplines that are underrepresented at APS). Walter is also leading an effort to increase access for industrial users. I am confident that we have in place a great team to help our users and the APS take fullest advantage of the APS-U opportunity. In planning with users for the proposed APS-U, we focused on the need to study 'real materials under real conditions in real time' on spatial and temporal scales unavailable today. Only by studying materials as they are made-or as they perform-in difficult environments can we solve the grand challenge of higher-performance, sustainable materials for energy and health. The proposed APS-U will improve the brightness of penetrating x-rays produced by the APS over 100 times, and support our efforts in developing state-of-the-art instruments to address these challenges.

Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

2010-05-01

77

Downregulation of peptide transporter genes in cell lines transformed with the highly oncogenic adenovirus 12  

PubMed Central

The expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of cells transformed by adenovirus 12 (Ad12) is generally very low, and correlates with the high oncogenicity of this virus. In primary embryonal fibroblasts from transgenic mice that express both endogenous H-2 genes and a miniature swine class I gene (PD1), Ad12- mediated transformation results in suppression of cell surface expression of all class I antigens. Although class I mRNA levels of PD1 and H-2Db are similar to those in nonvirally transformed cells, recognition of newly synthesized class I molecules by a panel of monoclonal antibodies is impaired, presumably as a result of inefficient assembly and transport of the class I molecules. Class I expression can be partially induced by culturing cells at 26 degrees C, or by coculture of cells with class I binding peptides at 37 degrees C. Analysis of steady state mRNA levels of the TAP1 and TAP2 transporter genes for Ad12-transformed cell lines revealed that they both are significantly reduced, TAP2 by about 100-fold and TAP1 by 5-10-fold. Reconstitution of PD1 and H-2Db, but not H-2Kb, expression is achieved in an Ad12-transformed cell line by stable transfection with a TAP2, but not a TAP1, expression construct. From these data it may be concluded that suppressed expression of peptide transporter genes, especially TAP2, in Ad12-transformed cells inhibits cell surface expression of class I molecules. The failure to fully reconstitute H- 2Db and H-2Kb expression indicates that additional factors are involved in controlling class I gene expression in Ad12-transformed cells. Nevertheless, these results suggest that suppression of peptide transporter genes might be an important mechanism whereby virus- transformed cells escape immune recognition in vivo. PMID:7519239

1994-01-01

78

A new optical design for the BNL isotope production transport line  

SciTech Connect

The 200 MeV linac at BNL has recently been upgraded. As a result, 2.5 times more average beam current can be delivered to the Brookhaven Isotope Resource Center (BIRC), formerly called BLIP, a facility which produces radionuclides and radiopharmaceutical for the medical community, and also supports a research program seeking more effective diagnostic and therapeutic agents. The optics of the beam transport line to BIRC was redesigned to (a) reduce transverse fluctuations of the beam at the target due to any linac energy fluctuations, (b) produce a flat beam distribution at the target, in order to avoid melting certain target materials, and (c) handle the higher beam intensity while keeping radiation levels low. A profile monitor was also modified to monitor the flatness of the beam using the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). The above improvements will be described, and results of the commissioning of the line during the 1996 running period will be discussed.

Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Raparia, D.; Mapes, M.; Tsoupas, N.

1996-10-01

79

Auxin Transport Synchronizes the Pattern of Cell Division in a Tobacco Cell Line1  

PubMed Central

The open morphogenesis of plants requires coordination of patterning by intercellular signals. The tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Virginia Bright Italia) cell line VBI-0 provides a simple model system to study the role of intercellular communication in patterning. In this cell line, singular cells divide axially to produce linear cell files of distinct polarity. The trigger for this axial division is exogenous auxin. When frequency distributions of files are constructed over the number of cells per file during the exponential phase of the culture, even numbers are found to be frequent, whereas files consisting of uneven numbers of cells are rare. We can simulate these distributions with a mathematical model derived from nonlinear dynamics, which describes a chain of cell-division oscillators where elementary oscillators are coupled unidirectionally and where the number of oscillators is not conserved. The model predicts several nonintuitive properties of our experimental system. For instance, files consisting of six cells are more frequent than expected from a strictly binary division system. More centrally, the model predicts a polar transport of the coordinating signal. We therefore tested the patterns obtained after treatment with 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux carriers. Using low concentrations of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid that leave cell division and axiality of division unaltered, we observe that the frequencies of files with even and uneven cell numbers are equalized. Our findings are discussed in the context of auxin transport as synchronizing signal in cell patterning. PMID:14612587

Campanoni, Prisca; Blasius, Bernd; Nick, Peter

2003-01-01

80

Design, Modeling and Simulations in the RACE Project: Preliminary study for the development of a transport line  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiment (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25 MeV electron beam from a Linear Accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible divergence problem) different parameters and models were studied before a final design could be submitted for assembly. This report shows the first results obtained from different simulations of the transport line optics and dynamics.

Maidana, C. O.; Hunt, A. W. [Idaho Accelerator Center, Department of Physics, PO Box 8106, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Idaho State University, Department of Physics, PO Box 8106, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Beller, D.; Folkman, K. [Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, 1500 Alvin Ricken Drive, Pocatello, ID 83201 (United States)

2007-02-12

81

In Vitro Transport Mechanism of Psoralen in a Human Placental Cell Line (BeWo Cells).  

PubMed

The mechanism by which psoralen is transported across the placenta was investigated in the BeWo human placental cell line derived from choriocarcinoma in a transwell assay system using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry detection. Psoralen uptake by BeWo cells increased linearly over the concentration range of 0.01?µM to 100?µM (r (2)?=?0.997) and was not saturable. Psoralen uptake by BeWo cells was not affected by temperature (4?°C, room temperature, and 37?°C; p?>?0.05). Psoralen transport increased linearly over 180?min (r (2)?=?0.988) with 3.08?±?0.26?%, 5.47?±?0.21?%, 7.54?±?0.06?%, 9.40?±?0.37?%, 11.49?±?0.31?%, and 12.46?±?0.61?% transferred from the apical chamber to the basolateral chamber in the transwell assays at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180?min, respectively. The rate of transport showed the same tendency, increasing linearly from 0.13?±?0.01?pmol/s to 0.58?±?0.03?pmol/s over the concentration range of 25?µM to 100?µM (r (2)?=?0.989). The apparent permeability coefficient for psoralen (100?µM) was 5.62?±?0.24?×?10(-6)?cm/s and 5.53?±?0.47?×?10(-6)?cm/s before and after treatment with verapamil (100?µM), respectively (p?>?0.05). The efflux value for psoralen was approximately 1. These data show that psoralen is well absorbed and crosses the placental barrier via passive diffusion in the BeWo cell line. PMID:25626141

Guo, Jie; Song, Dianrong; Han, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanan; Wang, Yuhua; Du, Wenxin

2015-01-01

82

A conditionally immortalized epithelial cell line for studies of intestinal drug transport.  

PubMed

A new cell culture model that better mimics the permeability of the human small intestine was developed for studies of passive drug transport. The intestinal epithelial cell line, 2/4/A1, conditionally immortalized with a temperature-sensitive mutant of the growth-promoting oncogene simian virus 40 (SV40) large T, was grown on permeable supports. The cells grew at 33 degrees C, where the oncogene is fully active, but stopped growing and entered a differentiation program at 39 degrees C, where the oncogene is inactive. Significant cell death was observed at 39 degrees C and, therefore, growth conditions under which 2/4/A1 cells survive during the differentiation process were developed. Cells grown on extracellular matrices which contained laminin at an intermediate temperature of 37 degrees C formed viable differentiated monolayers with tight junctions, an increased expression of brush border enzymes, and a paracellular permeability that was comparable to that of the human small intestine. The permeability of 17 structurally diverse drugs gave a sigmoidal relationship with the absorbed fraction of the drugs after oral administration to humans. The relationship was compared with those obtained with the well established Caco-2 model and after in vivo perfusion of the human jejunum. The transport of drugs with low permeability in 2/4/A1 monolayers was comparable to that in the human jejunum, and up to 300 times faster than that in Caco-2 monolayers. The transport of drugs with high permeability was comparable in all models. These results indicate that 2/4/A1 monolayers are promising alternatives to Caco-2 monolayers for studies of passive drug transport. PMID:10454497

Tavelin, S; Milovic, V; Ocklind, G; Olsson, S; Artursson, P

1999-09-01

83

Characterization of immortalized choroid plexus epithelial cell lines for studies of transport processes across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier  

PubMed Central

Background Two rodent choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines, Z310 and TR-CSFB, were compared with primary rat CP epithelial cells and intact CP tissue with respect to transport protein expression, function and tight junction (TJ) formation. Methods For expression profiles of transporters and TJ proteins, qPCR and western blot analysis were used. Uptake assays were performed to study the functional activity of transporters and TJ formation was measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and visualized by electron microscopy. Results The expression of known ATP-binding cassette (Abc) transporter and solute carrier (Slc) genes in CP was confirmed by qPCR. Primary cells and cell lines showed similar, but overall lower expression of Abc transporters and absent Slc expression when compared to intact tissue. Consistent with this Mrp1, Mrp4 and P-gp protein levels were higher in intact CP compared to cell lines. Functionality of P-gp and Mrp1 was confirmed by Calcein-AM and CMFDA uptake assays and studies using [3H]bis-POM-PMEA as a substrate indicated Mrp4 function. Cell lines showed low or absent TJ protein expression. After treatment of cell lines with corticosteroids, RNA expression of claudin1, 2 and 11 and occludin was elevated, as well as claudin1 and occludin protein expression. TJ formation was further investigated by freeze-fracture electron microscopy and only rarely observed. Increases in TJ particles with steroid treatment were not accompanied by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Conclusion Taken together, immortalized cell lines may be a tool to study transport processes mediated by P-gp, Mrp1 or Mrp4, but overall expression of transport proteins and TJ formation do not reflect the situation in intact CP tissue. PMID:20704740

2010-01-01

84

Hydrogen transport diagnostics by atomic and molecular emission line profiles simultaneously measured for large helical device  

SciTech Connect

We observe the Balmer-{alpha}, -{beta}, and -{gamma} lines of hydrogen atoms and Q branches of the Fulcher-{alpha} band of hydrogen molecules simultaneously with their polarization resolved for large helical device. From the fit including the line splits and the polarization dependences by the Zeeman effect, the emission locations, intensities, and the temperatures of the atoms and molecules are determined. The emission locations of the hydrogen atoms are determined outside but close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS). The results are consistent with a previous work (Phys. Plasmas 12, 042501 (2005)). On the other hand, the emission locations of the molecules are determined to be in the divertor legs, which is farer from those of the atoms. The kinetic energy of the atoms is 1 {approx} 20 eV, while the rotational temperature of molecules is {approx}0.04 eV. Additionally, substantial wings, which originate from high velocity atoms and are not reproduced by the conventional spectral analysis, are observed in the Balmer line profiles. We develop a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of the atoms and molecules. The model reproduces the differences of the emission locations of the atoms and molecules when their initial temperatures are assumed to be 3 eV and 0.04 eV, respectively. From the model, the wings of the Balmer-{alpha} line is attributed to the high velocity atoms exist deep inside the LCFS, which are generated by the charge exchange collisions with hot protons there.

Fujii, K.; Shikama, T.; Hasuo, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Goto, M.; Morita, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2013-01-15

85

AP Biology Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of experiments and demonstrations presented by biology teachers addressing some of the most difficult-to-understand topics in the AP biology curriculum which include evolutionary traits, genetics, bacterial transformation, antibody diversity, comparative anatomy, photosynthesis, human genetics, protein synthesis, recombinant DNA and RNA polymerase.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;)

2003-06-03

86

Advancing beyond AP Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP

Hammond, Bruce G.

2009-01-01

87

Identification of transporters associated with Etoposide sensitivity of stomach cancer cell lines and methotrexate sensitivity of breast cancer cell lines by quantitative targeted absolute proteomics.  

PubMed

Membrane transporter proteins may influence the sensitivity of cancer cells to anticancer drugs that can be recognized as substrates. The purpose of this study was to identify proteins that play a key role in the drug sensitivity of stomach and breast cancer cell lines by measuring the absolute protein expression levels of multiple transporters and other membrane proteins and examining their correlation to drug sensitivity. Absolute protein expression levels of 90 membrane proteins were examined by quantitative targeted absolute proteomics using liquid chromatography-linked tandem mass spectrometry. Among them, 11 and 14 membrane proteins, including transporters, were present in quantifiable amounts in membrane fraction of stomach cancer and breast cancer cell lines, respectively. In stomach cancer cell lines, the protein expression level of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) was inversely correlated with etoposide sensitivity. MK571, an MRP inhibitor, increased both the cell-to-medium ratio of etoposide and the etoposide sensitivity of MRP1-expressing stomach cancer cell lines. In breast cancer cell lines, the protein expression level of reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) was directly correlated with methotrexate (MTX) sensitivity. Initial uptake rate and steady-state cell-to-medium ratio of [(3)H]MTX were correlated with both RFC1 expression level and MTX sensitivity. These results suggest that MRP1 modulates the etoposide sensitivity of stomach cancer cell lines and RFC1 modulates the MTX sensitivity of breast cancer cell lines. Our results indicate that absolute quantification of multiple membrane proteins could be a useful strategy for identification of candidate proteins involved in drug sensitivity. PMID:23197647

Obuchi, Wataru; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Uchida, Yasuo; Ohmine, Ken; Yamori, Takao; Terasaki, Tetsuya

2013-02-01

88

Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Blue Line vehicle evaluation. Final report Apr-Oct 79  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the results of engineering tests carried out on a pair of rapid transit cars for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. The tests were performed at the Transportation Test Center, Pueblo, Colorado, from April 1979 through October 1979. The scope of the test program included an evaluation of performance, ride quality, and interior and wayside noise, using standardized test procedures; special engineering tests were made to evaluate energy conservation methods and three types of experimental brake shoes. The tests showed that the vehicles met their design specification requirements with some deficiencies, notably in emergency braking rates. An energy conservation technique was evaluated, in which response characteristics of the vehicle propulsion system were modified to reduce energy needs due to aerodynamic drag at high speeds. Several potential energy-saving configurations were identified, with minimal impact on round-trip times. The experimental brake shoes tested were found to give performance comparable to the original equipment at normal operating speeds for the MBTA Blue Line, but were inferior at higher speeds.

Balaster, A.; Arnold, G.; Simmonds, K.; Francis, K.

1980-07-01

89

Apoptosis is regulated by the rate of glucose transport in an interleukin 3 dependent cell line  

PubMed Central

In the absence of a survival stimulus, the interleukin 3 (IL-3)- dependent IC.DP cell line undergoes a process termed programmed cell death or apoptosis. Survival can be induced by IL-3, which can also stimulate proliferation of IC.DP cells. IC.DP cells have been stably transfected with the p160v-abl protein tyrosine kinase, activation of the kinase at the permissive temperature permits cell survival in the absence of IL-3 by suppression of apoptosis, although the growth factor is still required for proliferation. Both IL-3 and activation of the v- ABL tyrosine kinase stimulated glucose transport, which may in part be due to a translocation of transporters to the cell surface. Inhibition of glucose uptake markedly increased the rate of apoptosis in these cells, an effect that could be reversed by the provision of alternative energy sources such as glutamine. Growth factor- or oncogene-mediated increases in glucose uptake may therefore represent an important regulatory point in the suppression of apoptosis. PMID:8064240

1994-01-01

90

Sorption and transport of radionuclides by tumbleweeds from two plastic-lined radioactive waste ponds.  

PubMed

Previous research has examined the uptake of radionuclides by tumbleweeds growing in contaminated soils, but none has heretofore examined the sorption of radionuclides to tumbleweeds blowing into radioactively contaminated water. Three tumbleweed species; Russian thistle (Salsola kali), Jim Hill mustard (Sisymbrium altissimum) and summer cypress (Kochia scoparia) blow in, and out of, two plastic-lined radioactive wastewater ponds, constructed in 1993 on the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in southeast Idaho. This research quantified radionuclide sorption to tumbleweeds, tumbleweed movement from the ponds, and determined radionuclide transport from the ponds. Average plant/water concentration factors associated with tumbleweeds taken from the ponds ranged from 5 for 152Eu to over 9000 for 54Mn. Based on changes in tumbleweed numbers and average concentrations associated with them, 66.2 MBq were estimated to have been transported from the ponds via tumbleweeds between 18 October 1994 and 8 November 1996. This amounts to about 0.01% of the non-tritium and 0.0002% of the tritium activity released to the ponds through 8 November 1996. A power function best described the radionuclide buildup curve for tumbleweeds submerged in the ponds. Visually marked tumbleweeds traveled from the ponds in the predominant wind direction a maximum of 737 m. Management practices which may reduce the number of tumbleweeds blowing both into and out of contaminated ponds are discussed. PMID:11381943

Warren, R W

2001-01-01

91

Influx and efflux transport as determinants of melphalan cytotoxicity: Resistance to melphalan in MDR1 overexpressing tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

There is a considerable variation in efficacy of melphalan therapy in multiple myeloma (MM) and other hematopoietic tumors. We hypothesized that this may be due to variations in the expression of influx and efflux transporters of melphalan. We measured the expression of the influx transporters LAT1, LAT2, and TAT1 and the efflux transporters MDR1, MRP1 and BCRP by quantitative RT-PCR and related their expression to the intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of melphalan in 7 MM and 21 non-MM hematopoietic tumor cell lines. Variation in the intracellular accumulation accounted for nearly half of the variation in the cytotoxicity of melphalan in MM cell lines (r(2)=0.47, P=0.04). High expression of the efflux transporter MDR1 was associated with low intracellular accumulation and low cytotoxicity of melphalan (r(2)=0.56, P=0.03 and r(2)=0.62, P=0.02, respectively). The effect was reversed by the MDR1 inhibitor cyclosporine. In addition, the MDR1 overexpressing HL-60 cell line showed 10-fold higher resistance to melphalan than the non-MDR1 expressing one. Again, the resistance was reversed by cyclosporine and by MDR1-specific shRNA. LAT1 was the major influx transporter in tumor cell lines with 4000-fold higher expression than LAT2. Down-regulation of LAT1 by siRNA reduced the melphalan uptake by 58% and toxicity by 3.5-fold, but natural variation in expression between the tumor cell lines was not associated with accumulation or cytotoxicity of melphalan. In conclusion, tumor-specific variations in the expression of the efflux transporter MDR1, but not of the influx transporter LAT1, affect the intracellular accumulation of melphalan and thus determine its cytotoxicity. PMID:19447222

Kühne, Annett; Tzvetkov, Mladen Vassilev; Hagos, Yohannes; Lage, Hermann; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Brockmöller, Jürgen

2009-07-01

92

Celecoxib Up Regulates the Expression of Drug Efflux Transporter ABCG2 in Breast Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Elevated expression of the drug efflux transporter ABCG2 seems to correlate with multidrug resistance of cancer cells. Specific COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib has been shown to enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to anticancer drugs. To clarify whether ABCG2 inhibition is involved in the sensitizing effect of celecoxib, we investigated whether the expression of ABCG2 in breast cancer cell lines, could be modulated by celecoxib. The expression of the multidrug resistant gene (ABCG2) at mRNA and protein level was detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Among three human breast cancer cell lines ABCG2 and COX-2 were highly expressed in MCF7-MX and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. The COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib up-regulated the expression of ABCG2 mRNA in MCF-7 and MCF7-MX cells, which was accompanied by increased ABCG2 protein expression. While celecoxib was able to block the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-mediated increase in COX-2 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells, it increased the expression of ABCG2 up to 4.27 times to the control level at mRNA level and with less intensity at protein level. Our findings provide evidence that celecoxib up-regulates ABCG2 expression in human breast cancer cells and proposed that ABCG2 is not involved in chemosensitizing effects of celecoxib.

Kalalinia, Fatemeh; Elahian, Fatemeh; Mosaffa, Fatemeh; Behravan, Javad

2014-01-01

93

On-Line Supervisory Control Design for Maglev Transportation System via Total Sliding-Mode Approach and Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the design of an on-line levitation and propulsion control for a magnetic-levitation (maglev) transportation system. First, the dynamic model of a maglev transportation system including levitated electromagnets driven by linear servo amplifiers and a propulsive linear induction motor (LIM) based on the concepts of mechanical geometry and motion dynamics is developed. Then, a total sliding-mode (TS)

Rong-Jong Wai; Kun-Lun Chuang; Jeng-Dao Lee

2010-01-01

94

Expression and adaptive regulation of amino acid transport system A in a placental cell line under amino acid restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans-placental transport of amino acids is vital for the developing fetus. Using the BeWo cell line as a placental model, we investigated the effect of restricting amino acid availability on amino acid transport system type A. BeWo cells were cultured either in amino acid-depleted (without non-essential amino acids) or control media for 1, 3, 5 or 6h. System A function

H N Jones; C J Ashworth; H J McArdle; Aberdeen AB

2006-01-01

95

Nonintercepting imaging diagnostics for the APS injector during storage ring top-up operations.  

SciTech Connect

The recently implemented top-up operating mode of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring has motivated an emphasis on nonintercepting imaging diagnostics in the injectors. We present the upgrades to the optical synchrotron radiation (OSR) monitors on the accumulator ring and injector synchrotron as well as the plans for a new OSR monitor on a chicane dipole in the linac and for an optical diffraction radiation (ODR) monitor for the 7-GeV transport line to the storage ring. Two key issues are signal strength for a single macropulse in the chicane and discriminating key transverse information from the visible light ODR, respectively.

Lumpkin, A. H. L.; Berg, W. J. B.; Yang, B. X. Y.

2002-05-15

96

Renal involvement in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-APS nephropathy.  

PubMed

Although the kidney represents a major target organ in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), renal involvement in APS was poorly recognized until recently. The most well-recognized renal manifestations of APS are the renal artery thrombosis/stenosis, renal infarction, hypertension, renal vein thrombosis, end-stage renal disease, increased allograft vascular thrombosis, some types of glomerular disease, and a small-vessel vaso-occlusive nephropathy, recently defined as APS nephropathy. APS nephropathy was first described in primary APS patients, characterized by acute thrombotic lesions in glomeruli and/or arterioles (thrombotic microangiopathy) and chronic vascular lesions such as fibrous intimal hyperplasia of arterioles and interlobular arteries, organized thrombi with or without recanalization, and fibrous arterial and arteriolar occlusions or focal cortical atrophy. APS nephropathy was also detected in further studies including patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS and SLE/non-APS patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies, independently of lupus nephritis. The same histologic lesions, especially thrombotic mictroangiopathy, were also observed in patients with catastrophic APS. The most frequent clinical and laboratory characteristics of APS nephropathy in all the above groups of patients are hypertension (often severe), proteinuria (ranging from mild to nephrotic range), hematuria, and acute or chronic renal insufficiency. PMID:19048414

Tektonidou, Maria G

2009-06-01

97

Physics AP B II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education (MITE), seeks to provide âÂÂhigh-quality, multimedia content on general education subjects to high school and college students.â This course, Advanced Placement Physics B II, is part two of a two-semester course and contains study materials, lessons, interactive media, and textbooks to help students prepare for the College Board AP Physics exam. Three course units, containing nineteen chapters in total, cover topics in electrostatics, conductors and capacitors, electric circuits, magnostatics, electromagnetism, wave motion, physical optics, geometric optics, atomics physics and quantum effect, and nuclear physics. Many of the chapters feature multimedia resources that employ a variety of interactive activities to help students absorb information. This is an excellent self-paced tool for students to use while preparing for the AP Physics exam, or as supplementary material for a physics course.

2008-07-08

98

AP Biology I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by HippoCampus, a project of The Monterey Institute for Technology and Education, this free online course covers all of the material outlined by the College Board as necessary to prepare students to pass the AP Biology exam and is designed to acquaint visitors with "the general concepts of life including reproduction, balance in nature, and the nature of living things." This section is the first of a two-semester AP Biology course and contains six units: Introduction to Biology; Cell Structure and Function; Genes; Principles of Heredity; Evolutionary Biology; and Biological Diversity. Each unit includes readings, lessons, and assignments and/or chapter tests with answers. The site also lists all the topics covered, indexed in both alphabetical and sequential order. It's a great place for students to get extra help in Biology and for instructors to find lecture and test materials for the classroom.

99

AP Biology II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by Hippocampus, a project of The Monterey Institute for Technology and Education, this free online course covers all of the material outlined by the College Board as necessary to prepare students to pass the AP Biology exam and is designed to acquaint visitors with "the general concepts of life including reproduction, balance in nature, and the nature of living things." This section is the second of a two-semester AP Biology course and contains six units: Energetics of Life; Animal Structure, Reproduction, and Development; Circulation, Body's Defenses, Nutrition; Nervous System and Internal Controls; Plants: Form and Function; and Ecology. Each unit includes readings, lessons, and assignments and/or chapter tests with answers. The site also lists all the topics covered, indexed in both alphabetical and sequential order. It's a great place for students to get extra help in Biology and for instructors to find lecture and test materials for the classroom.

100

Autosomal recessive spastic tetraplegia caused by AP4M1 and AP4B1 gene mutation: expansion of the facial and neuroimaging features.  

PubMed

Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP4) is a component of intracellular transportation of proteins, which is thought to have a unique role in neurons. Recently, mutations affecting all four subunits of AP4 (AP4M1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4B1) have been found to cause similar autosomal recessive phenotype consisting of tetraplegic cerebral palsy and intellectual disability. The aim of this study was analyzing AP4 genes in three new families with this phenotype, and discussing their clinical findings with an emphasis on neuroimaging and facial features. Using homozygosity mapping followed by whole-exome sequencing, we identified two novel homozygous mutations in AP4M1 and a homozygous deletion in AP4B1 in three pairs of siblings. Spastic tetraplegia, microcephaly, severe intellectual disability, limited speech, and stereotypic laughter were common findings in our patients. All patients also had similar facial features consisting of coarse and hypotonic face, bitemporal narrowing, bulbous nose with broad nasal ridge, and short philtrum which were not described in patients with AP4M1 and AP4B1 mutations previously. The patients presented here and previously with AP4M1, AP4B1, and AP4E1 mutations shared brain abnormalities including asymmetrical ventriculomegaly, thin splenium of the corpus callosum, and reduced white matter volume. The patients also had hippocampal globoid formation and thin hippocampus. In conclusion, disorders due to mutations in AP4 complex have similar neurological, facial, and cranial imaging findings. Thus, these four genes encoding AP4 subunits should be screened in patients with autosomal recessive spastic tetraplegic cerebral palsy, severe intellectual disability, and stereotypic laughter, especially with the described facial and cranial MRI features. PMID:24700674

Tüysüz, Beyhan; Bilguvar, Kaya; Koçer, Naci; Yalç?nkaya, Cengiz; Ça?layan, Okay; Gül, Ece; Sahin, Sezgin; Çomu, Sinan; Günel, Murat

2014-07-01

101

Radiological considerations in the operation of the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) is a facility that uses the existing APS linac to accelerate electrons up to an energy of 700 MeV. These electrons are transported through the Pm into a portion of the booster synchrotrons and on into the LEUTL main enclosure (MIL 97). Figure 1 shows the layout of the LEUTL building, which consists of

Moe

1998-01-01

102

Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×105 as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS.

Perry, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Mustapha, B.; Savard, G.

2015-01-01

103

Cycle-induced flow and transport in a model of alveolar liquid lining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplified model is developed for an alveolar liquid lining undergoing cyclic stretching which mimics breathing motions. A thin, viscous film coats an extensible alveolar wall with small aspect ratio, varepsilon. Scaling analysis and asymptotic theory are used to describe the interface profile and surfactant distribution during the oscillation cycle for either insoluble or soluble surfactants. The flow consists of two distinct regimes: an outer region away from the rigid endwalls where flow is near-parallel and a boundary-layer region at the rigid endwalls where flow is non-parallel. The system is solved asymptotically in the limit of varepsilon? 1 and small strain amplitudes, Delta ? 1. For leading order in varepsilon, steady streaming vortical flows are found at O(Delta(2)) and their size, number and flow direction depend on the system parameter values. This preliminary model can be useful for understanding alveolar transport characteristics for slowly diffusing molecules with large Péclet number, such as endogenous surfactants and proteins as well as delivered surfactants, drugs and genetic material that may occur in various therapies or partial liquid ventilation. The flow pattern also provides a pathway for cell cell signalling within the alveolus.

Wei, Hsien-Hung; Benintendi, Steven W.; Halpern, David; Grotberg, James B.

2003-05-01

104

Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source  

SciTech Connect

The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

Neri, L., E-mail: neri@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)] [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy) [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund (Sweden)] [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund (Sweden); Galatà, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell'università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)] [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell'università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Patti, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy) [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell'università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gozzo, A.; Lega, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy) [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania (Italy)

2014-02-15

105

Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

2014-02-01

106

Quality control and patient dosimetry in digital radiology. On line system: new features and transportability.  

PubMed

New features have been added to a system (QCONLINE) for auditing patient dosimetric and technical parameters 'on line', working on a digital radiology department and using the information contained in the DICOM header of some modalities. The audit of other parameters than patient doses have been included, setting alarm conditions to alert on malfunction of the X-ray system or bad operation modes, in addition to the evaluation of patient doses. A new module to analyse, collect and process the relevant information transferred by the modality performed procedure step (MPPS) service has been launched. Several examples with the exploitation of the new features are presented. The transportability of the system has been tested in two remote hospitals during several months. The new MPPS module has demonstrated to be a good tool to complement the information existing in the DICOM header. The system allows to help in the optimisation of digital radiology departments managing patient dosimetry and procedure data in real time. PMID:18283057

Vano, E; Ten, J I; Fernandez, J M; Prieto, C; Ordiales, J M; Martinez, D

2008-01-01

107

Supercomputing and Ap stars  

E-print Network

Certain problems in the field of stellar atmospheres, polarized radiative transfer and magnetic field diagnostics cannot be addressed by means of traditional sequential programming techniques because CPU times become prohibitive on even the fastest single processor machines when realistic physics and accurate numerical methods are employed. This contribution discusses the question of what kind of supercomputing approach is best suited for the modelling of Ap stars, pointing out the superiority of parallel computing with Ada95 over High Performance Fortran in all of the above-mentioned fields.

Martin J. Stift

1998-05-06

108

Mechanisms of cellular uptake, intracellular transportation, and degradation of CIGB-300, a Tat-conjugated peptide, in tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

CIGB-300 is a cyclic synthetic peptide that induces apoptosis in malignant cells, elicits antitumor activity in cancer animal models, and shows tumor reduction signs when assayed in first-in-human phase I trial in patients with cervical tumors. CIGB-300 impairs phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 through targeting the substrate's phosphoacceptor domain. CIGB-300 was linked to the cell penetrating peptide Tat to facilitate the delivery into cells. Previously, we showed that CIGB-300 had a differential antiproliferative behavior in different tumor cell lines. In this work, we studied differential antiproliferative behavior in terms of cellular uptake, intracellular transportation, and degradation in tumor cell lines with dissimilar sensitivity to CIGB-300. The internalization of CIGB-300 was studied in different malignant cell lines. We found that the cell membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as main receptors for extracellular CIGB-300 uptake. The most sensitive tumor cell lines showed higher intracellular incorporation of CIGB-300 in comparison to less sensitive cell lines. Furthermore, CIGB-300 uptake is time- and concentration-dependent in all studied cell lines. It was shown that CIGB-300 has the ability to penetrate cells mainly by direct membrane translocation. However, a minor proportion of the peptide uses an energy-dependent endocytic pathway mechanism to gain access into cells. CIGB-300 is internalized and transported into cells preferentially by caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Lysosomes are involved in CIGB-300 degradation; highly sensitive cell lines showed degradation at earlier times compared to low sensitive cells. Altogether, our data suggests a mechanism of internalization, vesicular transportation, and degradation for CIGB-300 in tumor cells. PMID:24773585

Benavent Acero, Fernando R; Perera Negrin, Yasser; Alonso, Daniel F; Perea, Silvio E; Gomez, Daniel E; Farina, Hernán G

2014-06-01

109

Functional description of APS beamline front ends  

SciTech Connect

Traditional synchrotron sources were designed to produce bending magnet radiation and have proven to be an essential scientific tool. Currently, a new generation of synchrotron sources is being built that will be able to accommodate a large number of insertion device (ID) and high quality bending magnet (BM) sources. One example is the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. The research and development effort at the APS is designed to fully develop the potential of this new generation of synchrotron sources. Of the 40 straight sections in the APS storage ring, 34 will be available for IDs. The remaining six sections are reserved for the storage ring hardware and diagnostics. Although the ring incorporates 80 BMs, only 40 of them can be used to extract radiation. The accelerator hardware shadows five of these 40 bending magnets, so the maximum number of BM sources on the lattice is 35. Generally, a photon beamline consists of four functional sections. The first section is the ID or the BM, which provides the radiation source. The second section, which is immediately outside the storage ring but inside a concrete shielding tunnel, is the front end, which is designed to control, define, and/or confine the x-ray beam. In the case of the APS, the front ends are designed to confine the photon beam. The third section, just outside the concrete shielding tunnel and on the experimental floor, is the first optics enclosure, which contains optics to filter and monochromatize the photon beam. The fourth section of a beamline consists of beam transports, additional optics, and experiment stations to do the scientific investigations. This document describes only the front ends of the APS beamlines.

Kuzay, T.

1993-02-01

110

Transport of phosphatidylserine via MDR1 (multidrug resistance 1)P-glycoprotein in a human gastric carcinoma cell line.  

PubMed Central

The ATP-binding cassette transporter multidrug resistance 1 P-glycoprotein (MDR1 Pgp) has been implicated with the transport of lipids from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While this has been unambigously shown for the fluorescent lipid analogues [N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl (C6-NBD)-phosphatidylcholine, -phosphatidylethanolamine, -sphingomyelin and -glucosylceramide, by using a novel approach we have now found significantly increased outward transport also for C6-NBD-phosphatidylserine (C6-NBD-PS) in EPG85-257 human gastric carcinoma cells overexpressing MDR1 (coding for MDR1 Pgp). The increased transport of C6-NBD-PS is mediated by MDR1 Pgp, shown by transport reduction nearly to the level of controls in the presence of MDR1 Pgp inhibitors [PSC 833, cyclosporin A and dexniguldipine hydrochloride (Dex)]. Addition of MK 571, a specific inhibitor of the MDR protein MRP1, does not decrease transport in either of the two cell lines. The plasma-membrane association of FITC-annexin V, a fluorescent protein conjugate binding PS, is significantly increased in MDR1-overexpressing cells as compared with controls, and can be reduced by an MDR1 Pgp inhibitor. This suggests that MDR1 Pgp transports endogenous PS, the lipid exhibiting the most pronounced transverse asymmetry in the plasma membrane. PMID:12071854

Pohl, Antje; Lage, Hermann; Müller, Peter; Pomorski, Thomas; Herrmann, Andreas

2002-01-01

111

AP1 function and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AP-1 (activating protein-1) is a collective term referring to dimeric transcription factors composed of Jun, Fos or ATF (activating transcription factor) subunits that bind to a common DNA site, the AP-1-binding site. As the complexity of our knowledge of AP-1 factors has increased, our understanding of their physiological function has decreased. This trend, however, is beginning to be reversed due

Michael Karin; Zheng-gang Liu; Ebrahim Zandi

1997-01-01

112

Michael Clay, MD AP-2 Resident  

E-print Network

Darren Salmi, MD AP-3 Resident Natalia Isaza, MD CP-1 Resident Adam Gomez, MD AP-1 Resident Karen Kunder, MD, PhD AP-3 Resident Jean Oak, MD, PhD AP-2 Resident Michael Ozawa, MD, PhD AP-1 Resident Ophir Vermesh, MD, PhD CP-1 Resident Gerlinde Wernig, MD AP-3 Resident Chris Soon, MD AP-2 Resident

Bogyo, Matthew

113

A demonstration of a transportable radio interferometric surveying system with 3-cm accuracy on a 307-m base line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A precision geodetic measurement system (Aries, for Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying) based on the technique of very long base line interferometry has been designed and implemented through the use of a 9-m transportable antenna and the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Communications Complex at Goldstone, California. A series of experiments designed to demonstrate the inherent accuracy of a transportable interferometer was performed on a 307-m base line during the period from December 1973 to June 1974. This short base line was chosen in order to obtain a comparison with a conventional survey with a few-centimeter accuracy and to minimize Aries errors due to transmission media effects, source locations, and earth orientation parameters. The base-line vector derived from a weighted average of the measurements, representing approximately 24 h of data, possessed a formal uncertainty of about 3 cm in all components. This average interferometry base-line vector was in good agreement with the conventional survey vector within the statistical range allowed by the combined uncertainties (3-4 cm) of the two techniques.

Ong, K. M.; Macdoran, P. F.; Thomas, J. B.; Fliegel, H. F.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Batelaan, P. D.; Paine, S. R.; Newsted, M. G.

1976-01-01

114

AP Calculus BC I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education, this free online course covers all of the material outlined by the College Board as necessary to prepare students to pass the AP Calculus BC exam. This course is divided into two semesters and this unit is the first of those two semesters, it is designed to "acquaint you with calculus principles such as derivatives, integrals, limits, approximation, applications and modeling, and sequences and series." The course is separated into four units, including functions and graphs, limits and continuity, derivatives, and application of the derivative. Each lesson has objectives, readings, multimedia lectures, and assessments with answers. The site is also indexed by subject, which can be browsed alphabetically or sequentially. It is a great place for students to enhance their calculus skills or for educators to find supplementary materials for the classroom.

2008-07-09

115

AP Physics C I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education, this free online course covers all of the material outlined by the College Board as necessary to prepare students to pass the AP Physics C exam. This course is divided into two semesters and this course is the first of those two semesters and is designed to acquaint you with topics in mechanics and classical electricity and magnetism. The first semester is devoted to Newtonian mechanics including: kinematics, laws of motion, work and energy, systems of particles, momentum, circular motion, oscillations, and gravitation. The second semester discusses the topics of electricity and magnetism. Each unit within the course has objectives, readings, lessons, response and discussion questions, as well as lab exercises. The site is also indexed by subject, which can be browsed alphabetically or sequentially. It is a great place for students to enhance their skills in physics or for educators to find supplementary materials for the classroom.

116

The interaction of celecoxib with MDR transporters enhances the activity of mitomycin C in a bladder cancer cell line  

PubMed Central

Background An in vitro model was developed to understand if celecoxib could synergize with Mitomycin C (MMC), commonly used for the prevention of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer recurrence, and eventually elucidate if the mechanism of interaction involves multi drug resistance (MDR) transporters. Methods UMUC-3, a non COX-2 expressing bladder cancer cell line, and UMUC-3-CX, a COX-2 overexpressing transfectant, as well as 5637, a COX-2 overexpressing cell line, and 5637si-CX, a non COX-2 expressing silenced 5637 cell line, were used in the present study. The expression of COX-2 and MDR pumps (P-gp, MDR-1 and BCRP) was explored through western blot. The anti-proliferative effect of celecoxib and MMC was studied with MTT test. Three biological permeability assays (Drug Transport Experiment, Substrate Transporter Inhibition, and ATP cell depletion) were combined to study the interaction between MDR transporters and celecoxib. Finally, the ability of celecoxib to restore MMC cell accumulation was investigated. Results The anti-proliferative effect of celecoxib and MMC were investigated alone and in co-administration, in UMUC-3, UMUC-3-CX, 5637 and 5637si-CX cells. When administered alone, the effect of MMC was 8-fold greater in UMUC-3. However, co-administration of 1 ?M, 5 ?M, and 10 ?M celecoxib and MMC caused a 2,3-fold cytotoxicity increase in UMUC-3-CX cell only. MMC cytotoxicity was not affected by celecoxib co-administration either in 5637, or in 5637si-CX cells. As a result of all finding from the permeability experiments, celecoxib was classified as P-gp unambiguous substrate: celecoxib is transported by MDR pumps and interferes with the efflux of MMC. Importantly, among all transporters, BCRP was only overexpressed in UMUC-3-CX cells, but not in 5637 and 5637si-CX. Conclusions The UMUC-3-CX cell line resembles a more aggressive phenotype with a lower response to MMC compared to the wt counterpart. However, the administration of celecoxib in combination to MMC causes a significant and dose dependent gain of the anti-proliferative activity. This finding may be the result of a direct interaction between celecoxib and MDR transporters. Indeed, BCRP is overexpressed in UMUC-3-CX, but not in UMUC-3, 5637, and 5637si-CX, in which celecoxib is ineffective. PMID:23705854

2013-01-01

117

AP-42 REVISION: COKE OVENS  

EPA Science Inventory

The document "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors" (AP-42) has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1972. Supplements to AP-42 have been routinely published to add new emission source categories and to update existing emission factor...

118

A database of AP stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A database for 3195 Ap stars, which can be used on an IBM-compatible personal computer, is described. It is essentially based on Renson's general catalogue of Ap and Am stars, but contains much additional information. It operates within the Dbase III Plus system.

Renson, P.; Kobi, D.; North, P.

1991-07-01

119

Paracellular Transport through Healthy and Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cell Lines – Do We Have a Proper Model?  

PubMed Central

It has been reported recently that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) besides transcellular chloride transport, also controls the paracellular permeability of bronchial epithelium. The aim of this study was to test whether overexpressing wtCFTR solely regulates paracellular permeability of cell monolayers. To answer this question we used a CFBE41o– cell line transfected with wtCFTR or mutant F508del-CFTR and compered them with parental line and healthy 16HBE14o– cells. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular fluorescein flux were measured under control and CFTR-stimulating conditions. CFTR stimulation significant decreased TER in 16HBE14o– and also in CFBE41o– cells transfected with wtCFTR. In contrast, TER increased upon stimulation in CFBE41o– cells and CFBE41o– cells transfected with F508del-CFTR. Under non-stimulated conditions, all four cell lines had similar paracellular fluorescein flux. Stimulation increased only the paracellular permeability of the 16HBE14o– cell monolayers. We observed that 16HBE14o– cells were significantly smaller and showed a different structure of cell-cell contacts than CFBE41o– and its overexpressing clones. Consequently, 16HBE14o– cells have about 80% more cell-cell contacts through which electrical current and solutes can leak. Also tight junction protein composition is different in ‘healthy’ 16HBE14o– cells compared to ‘cystic fibrosis’ CFBE41o– cells. We found that claudin-3 expression was considerably stronger in 16HBE14o– cells than in the three CFBE41o– cell clones and thus independent of the presence of functional CFTR. Together, CFBE41o– cell line transfection with wtCFTR modifies transcellular conductance, but not the paracellular permeability. We conclude that CFTR overexpression is not sufficient to fully reconstitute transport in CF bronchial epithelium. Hence, it is not recommended to use those cell lines to study CFTR-dependent epithelial transport. PMID:24945658

Weiser, Nelly; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Günzel, Dorothee; Schillers, Hermann

2014-01-01

120

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tat Protein Up-Regulates the Promoter Activity of the Beta-Chemokine Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 in the Human Astrocytoma Cell Line U-87 MG: Role of SP-1, AP-1, and NF-?B Consensus Sites  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein can specifically enhance expression and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) from human astrocytes. In this study, we show evidence that Tat-induced MCP-1 expression is mediated at the transcriptional level. Transient transfection of an expression construct encoding the full-length Tat into the human glioblastoma-astrocytoma cell line U-87 MG enhances reporter gene activity from cotransfected deletion constructs of the MCP-1 promoter. HIV-1 Tat exerts its effect through a minimal construct containing 213 nucleotides upstream of the translational start site. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that an SP1 site (located between nucleotides ?123 and ?115) is critical for both constitutive and Tat-enhanced expression of the human MCP-1 promoter, as mutation of this SP1 site significantly diminished reporter gene expression in both instances. Gel retardation experiments further demonstrate that Tat strongly enhances the binding of SP1 protein to its DNA element on the MCP-1 promoter. Moreover, we also observe an increase in the binding activities of transcriptional factors AP1 and NF-?B to the MCP-1 promoter following Tat treatment. Mutagenesis studies show that an upstream AP1 site and an adjacent NF-?B site (located at ?128 to ?122 and ?150 to ?137, respectively) play a role in Tat-mediated transactivation. In contrast, a further upstream AP1 site (?156 to ?150) does not appear to be crucial for promoter activity. We postulate that a Tat-mediated increase in SP1 binding activities augments the binding of AP1 and NF-?B, leading to synergistic activation of the MCP-1 promoter. PMID:10644332

Lim, Siew Pheng; Garzino-Demo, Alfredo

2000-01-01

121

2007 AP-S Graduate and Undergraduate Research Award Recipients Announced  

E-print Network

2007 AP-S Graduate and Undergraduate Research Award Recipients Announced C ongratulations to the spring and fall 2007 AP-S Graduate andUndergraduate Research Award recipients! These excellent students of the Education Column). AP-S Undergraduate Research Award Recipients Michael Carroll (Figure 2) Robert Parry

Gürel, Levent

122

Adaptor protein complexes and intracellular transport  

PubMed Central

The AP (adaptor protein) complexes are heterotetrameric protein complexes that mediate intracellular membrane trafficking along endocytic and secretory transport pathways. There are five different AP complexes: AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 are clathrin-associated complexes; whereas AP-4 and AP-5 are not. These five AP complexes localize to different intracellular compartments and mediate membrane trafficking in distinct pathways. They recognize and concentrate cargo proteins into vesicular carriers that mediate transport from a donor membrane to a target organellar membrane. AP complexes play important roles in maintaining the normal physiological function of eukaryotic cells. Dysfunction of AP complexes has been implicated in a variety of inherited disorders, including: MEDNIK (mental retardation, enteropathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, ichthyosis and keratodermia) syndrome, Fried syndrome, HPS (Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome) and HSP (hereditary spastic paraplegia). PMID:24975939

Park, Sang Yoon; Guo, Xiaoli

2014-01-01

123

Bicarbonate-dependent chloride transport drives fluid secretion by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3  

PubMed Central

Anion and fluid secretion are both defective in cystic fibrosis (CF); however, the transport mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Cl? and HCO3? secretion was measured using genetically matched CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient and CFTR-expressing cell lines derived from the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3. Forskolin stimulated the short-circuit current (Isc) across voltage-clamped monolayers, and also increased the equivalent short-circuit current (Ieq) calculated under open-circuit conditions. Isc was equivalent to the HCO3? net flux measured using the pH-stat technique, whereas Ieq was the sum of the Cl? and HCO3? net fluxes. Ieq and HCO3? fluxes were increased by bafilomycin and ZnCl2, suggesting that some secreted HCO3? is neutralized by parallel electrogenic H+ secretion. Ieq and fluid secretion were dependent on the presence of both Na+ and HCO3?. The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide abolished forskolin stimulation of Ieq and HCO3? secretion, suggesting that HCO3? transport under these conditions requires catalysed synthesis of carbonic acid. Cl? was the predominant anion in secretions under all conditions studied and thus drives most of the fluid transport. Nevertheless, 50–70% of Cl? and fluid transport was bumetanide-insensitive, suggesting basolateral Cl? loading by a sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1)-independent mechanism. Imposing a transepithelial HCO3? gradient across basolaterally permeabilized Calu-3 cells sustained a forskolin-stimulated current, which was sensitive to CFTR inhibitors and drastically reduced in CFTR-deficient cells. Net HCO3? secretion was increased by bilateral Cl? removal and therefore did not require apical Cl?/HCO3? exchange. The results suggest a model in which most HCO3? is recycled basolaterally by exchange with Cl?, and the resulting HCO3?-dependent Cl? transport provides an osmotic driving force for fluid secretion. PMID:22777674

Shan, Jiajie; Liao, Jie; Huang, Junwei; Robert, Renaud; Palmer, Melissa L; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; O'Grady, Scott M; Hanrahan, John W

2012-01-01

124

Dietary protein composition influences abundance of peptide and amino acid transporter messenger ribonucleic acid in the small intestine of 2 lines of broiler chicks.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of dietary protein composition on mRNA abundance of a peptide transporter (peptide transporter 1, PepT1), amino acid (AA) transporters [Na(+)-independent cationic and zwitterionic AA transporter (b(o,+)AT), excitatory AA transporter 3 (EAAT3), Na(+)-independent cationic and Na(+)-dependent neutral AA transporter 2 (y(+)LAT2), L-type AA transporter 1 (LAT1), and cationic AA transporter 1 (CAT1)], and a digestive enzyme (aminopeptidase N) in 2 lines (A and B) of broilers that differentially express PepT1 mRNA (line B > line A). From d 8 to 15 posthatch, birds were fed 1 of 3 diets. Protein sources included whey protein concentrate, a whey partial hydrolysate (WPH), or a mixture of free AA (AA) identical to the composition of whey. Quantities of mRNA were assayed by real-time PCR in the small intestine of males at d 8, 9, 11, 13, and 15. For all genes except LAT1, abundance of mRNA was greatest in line B birds that consumed the WPH diet (P < 0.006). When mRNA abundance was normalized to beta-actin quantities, this effect disappeared, demonstrating a generalized effect on gene expression in line B birds that consumed the hydrolysate. There was a greater villus height:crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05) in line B birds fed the WPH diet as compared with line A. In conclusion, line B birds, which express greater PepT1, displayed enhanced intestinal mucosal absorptive surface area and differential regulation of PepT1, AA transporters, and aminopeptidase N in response to dietary protein composition. PMID:20634522

Gilbert, E R; Li, H; Emmerson, D A; Webb, K E; Wong, E A

2010-08-01

125

APS controls overview  

SciTech Connect

The APS accelerator control system described in this report is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and interfaces to hardware. The operator interface is a UNIX-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The user has the ability to generate and alter control displays and to access the alarm handler, the archiver, interactive control programs, custom code, and other tools. The TCP/EP networking protocol has been selected as the underlying protocol for the control system network. TCP/EP is a commercial standard and readily available from network hardware vendors. Its implementation is independent of the particular network medium selected to implement the controls network. In the development environment copper Ethernet is the network medium; however, in the actual implementation a fiber-based system using hub technology will be utilized. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system.

NONE

1996-02-01

126

AP Physics C II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by HippoCampus, a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education, this free online course covers all of the material outlined by the College Board as necessary to prepare students to pass the AP Physics C exam. This course is divided into two semesters and this course is the second of those two semesters and is designed to acquaint you with topics in mechanics and classical electricity and magnetism. The first semester is devoted to Newtonian mechanics including: kinematics, laws of motion, work and energy, systems of particles, momentum, circular motion, oscillations, and gravitation. The second semester discusses the topics of electricity and magnetism. Each unit with in the course has objectives, readings, lessons, response and discussion questions, as well as lab exercises. The site is also indexed by subject, which can be browsed alphabetically or sequentially. It is a great place for students to enhance their skills in physics or for educators to find supplementary materials for the classroom.

127

APS Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2010 APS Conferences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From The Physiologist. Four travel fellows received funding to attend the 2010 APS Intersociety Meeting, ÃÂGlobal Change and Global Science: Comparative Physiology in a Changing World,ÃÂ from August 4-7, 2010 in Westminster, CO. Four travel fellows received funding to attend the APS Conference, ÃÂInflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease,ÃÂ from August 25-28, 2010 also in Westminster, CO. The application reviews were led by Committee Member, Johana Vallejo-Elias.

2010-12-01

128

Transport mechanisms of nicotine across the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2.  

PubMed

Ulcerative colitis is a disease more commonly seen in nonsmokers. Because nicotine was postulated to be a beneficial component of tobacco smoke for ulcerative colitis, various formulations of nicotine have been developed to improve the local bioavailability within the gastrointestinal tissue. In the present study, to characterize the disposition of nicotine in the intestines, we investigated intestinal nicotine transport using Caco-2 cells. Nicotine was predominantly transported across Caco-2 cell monolayers in a unidirectional mode, corresponding to intestinal secretion, by pH-dependent specific transport systems. The specific uptake systems appear to be distinct from organic cation transporters and the transport system for tertiary amines, in terms of its substrate specificity and the pattern of the interaction. These transport systems could play a role in the intestinal accumulation of nicotine from plasma and could also be responsible for the topical delivery of nicotine for ulcerative colitis therapy. These findings could provide useful information for the design of effective nicotine delivery. PMID:12130712

Fukada, Atsuko; Saito, Hideyuki; Inui, Ken-Ichi

2002-08-01

129

Transporter mRNA expression in a conditionally immortalized rat small intestine epithelial cell line (TR-SIE).  

PubMed

Small intestine epithelial cell lines (TR-SIE), which are established from the small intestine of transgenic rats harboring temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene (tsA58 Tg rat), were used to characterize the mRNA expression of small intestine transporters. TR-SIE cells had a polygonal morphology and expressed cytokeratin protein and villin mRNA. Although the large T-antigen was strongly expressed at 33 degrees C, this was reduced at 37 and 39 degrees C. Concomitantly, the cell growth was arrested at 37 and 39 degrees C compared with that at 33 degrees C, suggesting that TR-SIE cells are conditionally immortalized cell lines. RT-PCR analysis revealed that TR-SIE cells expressed ABCB1 (mdr1a and mdr1b), ABCB4 (mdr2), ABCC2 (mrp2), ABCC6 (mrp6), ABCG1, ABCG2 (bcrp/mxr), Slc21a7 (Oatp3), Slc15a1 (PepT1), and Slc16a1 (Mct1). Conditionally immortalized rat small intestine epithelial cell lines were established from tsA58 Tg rats and expressed the mRNA of intestinal transporters. PMID:15499194

Hosoya, Ken-ichi; Tomi, Masatoshi; Takayama, Megumi; Komokata, Yuko; Nakai, Daisuke; Tokui, Taro; Nishimura, Kenji; Ueda, Masatsugu; Obinata, Masuo; Hori, Satoko; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Amidon, Gordon L; Terasaki, Tetsuya

2004-08-01

130

A generalized framework for in-line energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo radiation transport  

SciTech Connect

A rigorous treatment of energy deposition in a Monte Carlo transport calculation, including coupled transport of all secondary and tertiary radiations, increases the computational cost of a simulation dramatically, making fully-coupled heating impractical for many large calculations, such as 3-D analysis of nuclear reactor cores. However, in some cases, the added benefit from a full-fidelity energy-deposition treatment is negligible, especially considering the increased simulation run time. In this paper we present a generalized framework for the in-line calculation of energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo transport simulations. This framework gives users the ability to select among several energy-deposition approximations with varying levels of fidelity. The paper describes the computational framework, along with derivations of four energy-deposition treatments. Each treatment uses a unique set of self-consistent approximations, which ensure that energy balance is preserved over the entire problem. By providing several energy-deposition treatments, each with different approximations for neglecting the energy transport of certain secondary radiations, the proposed framework provides users the flexibility to choose between accuracy and computational efficiency. Numerical results are presented, comparing heating results among the four energy-deposition treatments for a simple reactor/compound shielding problem. The results illustrate the limitations and computational expense of each of the four energy-deposition treatments. (authors)

Griesheimer, D. P. [Bertis Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States); Stedry, M. H. [Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 1072, Schenectady, NY 12301 (United States)

2013-07-01

131

Transport of intense ion beams and space charge compensation issues in low energy beam lines (invited)a)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few years, the interest of the international scientific community for high power accelerators in the megawatt range has been increasing. For such machines, the ion source has to deliver a beam intensity that ranges from several tens up to a hundred of mA. One of the major challenges is to extract and transport the beam while minimizing the emittance growth and optimizing its injection into the radio frequency quadrupole. Consequently, it is crucial to perform precise simulations and cautious design of the low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. In particular, the beam dynamics calculations have to take into account not only the space charge effects but also the space charge compensation of the beam induced by ionization of the residual gas. The physical phenomena occurring in a high intensity LEBT and their possible effects on the beam are presented, with a particular emphasis on space charge compensation. Then, beam transport issues in different kind of LEBTs are briefly reviewed. The SOLMAXP particle-in-cell code dedicated to the modeling of the transport of charge particles under a space charge compensation regime is described. Finally, beam dynamics simulations results obtained with SOLMAXP are presented in the case of international fusion materials irradiation facility injector.

Chauvin, N.; Delferrière, O.; Duperrier, R.; Gobin, R.; Nghiem, P. A. P.; Uriot, D.

2012-02-01

132

ABC drug transporter expression and functional activity in trophoblast-like cell lines and differentiating primary trophoblast.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters are expressed in the human placenta where they are thought to help protect the fetus from xenobiotics. To evaluate models for analysis of ABC transporter function and regulation in the placenta, we have characterized the expression and activity of multidrug resistance (MDR) 1/P glycoprotein (Pgp), MDR3/Pgp, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multidrug resistance proteins 1 and 2 (MRPs 1, 2) in differentiating primary trophoblast cells and BeWo and Jar cell lines. Real-time PCR and immunoblotting were used for analysis of mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Functional activity was measured using selective inhibitors of efflux of fluorescent substrates, calcein-AM (Pgp and MRPs) and Hoechst 33342 (BCRP). The levels of MDR1 mRNA and protein expression were much higher in trophoblast than in Jar and especially BeWo cells. Expression of MDR3 protein was also lower in BeWo cells. Levels of MDR3 expression were markedly higher than MDR1 levels in all tested cell types. Levels of both MDR1 and MDR3 expression decreased during trophoblast differentiation/syncytialization. BCRP was highly expressed in all cell types and increased with trophoblast differentiation. MRP1 expression was much lower in trophoblasts compared with both cell lines. In contrast to its abundant mRNA expression, MRP2 protein was practically undetectable in BeWo and Jar cells and was present only at very low levels in trophoblast. Functional studies confirmed the presence of active Pgp and BCRP in all studied cell types, whereas MRP functional activity was detected only in BeWo and Jar cells. Both cell lines may be useful models for studying various aspects of placental ABC transporter expression and function, but also have significant limitations. With respect to their ABC protein expression profile, Jar cells are more similar to nondifferentiated cytotrophoblast, whereas BeWo appear to more closely reflect differentiated syncytiotrophoblast. PMID:16322349

Evseenko, Denis A; Paxton, James W; Keelan, Jeffrey A

2006-05-01

133

Different Behavioral and Physiological Response in two Genetic Lines of Laying Hens Following Transportation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Physiological and behavioral response to transportation stress were examined in chickens selected for high group productivity and survivability (HGPS) resulting from reduced cannibalism and flightiness in colony cages and in chickens from Dekalb XL (DXL) commercial strain. At 13 wks of age, 96 pulle...

134

AP180 couples protein retrieval to clathrin-mediated endocytosis of synaptic vesicles.  

PubMed

How clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) retrieves vesicle proteins into newly formed synaptic vesicles (SVs) remains a major puzzle. Besides its roles in stimulating clathrin-coated vesicle formation and regulating SV size, the clathrin assembly protein AP180 has been identified as a key player in retrieving SV proteins. The mechanisms by which AP180 recruits SV proteins are not fully understood. Here, we show that following acute inactivation of AP180 in Drosophila, SV recycling is severely impaired at the larval neuromuscular synapse based on analyses of FM 1-43 uptake and synaptic ultrastructure. More dramatically, AP180 activity is important to maintain the integrity of SV protein complexes at the plasma membrane during endocytosis. These observations suggest that AP180 normally clusters SV proteins together during recycling. Consistent with this notion, SV protein composition and distribution are altered in AP180 mutant flies. Finally, AP180 co-immunoprecipitates with SV proteins, including the vesicular glutamate transporter and neuronal synaptobrevin. These results reveal a new mode by which AP180 couples protein retrieval to CME of SVs. AP180 is also genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease. Hence, the findings of this study may provide new mechanistic insight into the role of AP180 dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24456281

Vanlandingham, Phillip A; Barmchi, Mojgan Padash; Royer, Suzanne; Green, Rebekah; Bao, Hong; Reist, Noreen; Zhang, Bing

2014-04-01

135

AP180 Couples Protein Retrieval to Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis of Synaptic Vesicles  

PubMed Central

How clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) retrieves vesicle proteins into newly formed synaptic vesicles (SVs) remains a major puzzle. Besides its roles in stimulating clathrin-coated vesicle formation and regulating SV size, the clathrin assembly protein AP180 has been identified as a key player in retrieving SV proteins. The mechanisms by which AP180 recruits SV proteins are not fully understood. Here, we show that following acute inactivation of AP180 in Drosophila, SV recycling is severely impaired at the larval neuromuscular synapse based on analyses of FM 1-43 uptake and synaptic ultrastructure. More dramatically, AP180 activity is important to maintain the integrity of SV protein complexes at the plasma membrane during endocytosis. These observations suggest that AP180 normally clusters SV proteins together during recycling. Consistent with this notion, SV protein composition and distribution are altered in AP180 mutant flies. Finally, AP180 co-immunoprecipitates with SV proteins, including the vesicular glutamate transporter and neuronal synaptobrevin. These results reveal a new mode by which AP180 couples protein retrieval to CME of SVs. AP180 is also genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease. Hence, the findings of this study may provide new mechanistic insight into the role of AP180 dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24456281

Vanlandingham, Phillip A; Barmchi, Mojgan Padash; Royer, Suzanne; Green, Rebekah; Bao, Hong; Reist, Noreen; Zhang, Bing

2014-01-01

136

Effect of Line Defects on the Electrical Transport Properties of Monolayer MoS _2 Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a computational study on the impact of line defects on the electronic properties of monolayer MoS2. Four different kinds of line defects with Mo and S as the bridging atoms, consistent with recent theoretical and experimental observations are considered herein. We employ the density functional tight-binding (DFTB) method with a Slater-Koster type DFTB-CP2K basis set for evaluating the material properties of perfect and the various defective MoS2 sheets. The transmission spectra is computed with a DFTB-Non-Equilibrium Greens Function (NEGF) formalism. We also perform a detailed analysis of the carrier transmission pathways under a small bias and investigate the phase shifts in the transmission eigenstates of the defective MoS2 sheets. Our simulations show a 2-4 folds decrease in carrier conductance of MoS2 sheets in the presence of line defects as compared to that for the perfect sheet.

Sengupta, Amretashis; Saha, Dipankar; Niehaus, Thomas A.; Mahapatra, Santanu

2015-01-01

137

Hypoxia induced upregulation and function of the thiamine transporter, SLC19A3 in a breast cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Adaptive responses within hypoxic tumor microenvironments require the altered expression of Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters to maintain nutrient uptake in support of cellular metabolism and biosynthesis. Using a real time PCR array strategy to further characterize changes in transporter expression within a chronic hypoxia breast cancer cell line model (BT474), we have found a 31 fold increase in the expression of the thiamine transporter, SLC19A3. Thus, further investigations into the expression changes of the thiamine transporters, SLC19A2 and SLC19A3, and the role of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) regulating their expression were conducted. Chronic culturing of BT474 cells in 1% O2 up to 142 days consistently demonstrated a high level of SLC19A3 expression with a mean of approximately 40 fold with no change in SLC19A2. A corresponding 2 fold increase in thiamine uptake over 15 min was measured in chronic hypoxic BT474 cells compared to normoxia. Acute 1% O2 exposure of BT474 cells up to 72 h demonstrated a 7.5 fold increase in SLC19A3 expression. The chemical hypoxia mimetic deferoxamine, resulted in an approximately 70 fold increase in SLC19A3 expression. Stable shRNA knockdown of HIF-1? reduced hypoxia mediated SLC19A3 up-regulation by approximately 3 fold compared to scrambled construct. In conclusion, SLC19A3 transporter expression was observed to be up-regulated under acute, chronic and DFO induced hypoxia. The attenuated increase in SLC19A3 expression after HIF-1? knockdown suggests a role for HIF-1? mediated pathways regulating SLC19A3 gene expression. PMID:20930543

Sweet, Rebecca; Paul, Amber; Zastre, Jason

2010-12-01

138

Extracellular ATP modulates ion transport via P2Y purinoceptors in a middle-ear epithelial cell line.  

PubMed

Mucus and cellular debris are eliminated from the middle-ear cavity through the E-tube by the mucociliary system. Depth of the periciliary fluid layer is thought to be regulated by epithelial ion transport activity. Since impairment of the mucociliary system is a key step in the development of otitis media with effusion, we investigated the ion transport mechanisms of the middle-ear epithelium using the middle-ear MESV cell line. ATP has been shown to modulate ion transport as well as various cellular functions in several cell types via purinoceptors. In order to investigate a possible modulation of the transport activity of MESV cells, we evaluated short-circuit current (Isc) changes in response to specific stimulation of putative purinoceptors by ATP and its various analogs. ATP dramatically increased Isc, while adenosine had no effect, thus demonstrating the presence of P2 receptors according to the original classification by Burnstock. The rank order of potency of purinoceptor agonists for stimulation of Isc on the apical side (ATP > UTP > gamma-SATP > beta-SADP > 2-methylthio-ATP, 2MeSATP > beta, gamma-methylene-ATP, beta,gamma-MeATP) and on the basolateral side (ATP > gamma-SATP > UTP > beta-SADP > 2 MeSATP > beta,gamma-MeATP), along with studies using selective antagonists and intracellular calcium measurements are consistent with a P2Y receptor subtype. The ATP-induced increase in Isc was related to sodium transport. This modulation might be of importance in stress conditions such as inflammation. PMID:9186973

Yen, P T; Herman, P; Van den Abbeele, T; Tan, C T; Bordure, P; Marianowski, R; Friedlander, G; Tran Ba Huy, P

1997-01-01

139

Obesity-Linked Homologues TfAP-2 and Twz Establish Meal Frequency in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

In all animals managing the size of individual meals and frequency of feeding is crucial for metabolic homeostasis. In the current study we demonstrate that the noradrenalin analogue octopamine and the cholecystokinin (CCK) homologue Drosulfakinin (Dsk) function downstream of TfAP-2 and Tiwaz (Twz) to control the number of meals in adult flies. Loss of TfAP-2 or Twz in octopaminergic neurons increased the size of individual meals, while overexpression of TfAP-2 significantly decreased meal size and increased feeding frequency. Of note, our study reveals that TfAP-2 and Twz regulate octopamine signaling to initiate feeding; then octopamine, in a negative feedback loop, induces expression of Dsk to inhibit consummatory behavior. Intriguingly, we found that the mouse TfAP-2 and Twz homologues, AP-2? and Kctd15, co-localize in areas of the brain known to regulate feeding behavior and reward, and a proximity ligation assay (PLA) demonstrated that AP-2? and Kctd15 interact directly in a mouse hypothalamus-derived cell line. Finally, we show that in this mouse hypothalamic cell line AP-2? and Kctd15 directly interact with Ube2i, a mouse sumoylation enzyme, and that AP-2? may itself be sumoylated. Our study reveals how two obesity-linked homologues regulate metabolic homeostasis by modulating consummatory behavior. PMID:25187989

Williams, Michael J.; Goergen, Philip; Rajendran, Jayasimman; Zheleznyakova, Galina; Hägglund, Maria G.; Perland, Emelie; Bagchi, Sonchita; Kalogeropoulou, Argyro; Khan, Zaid; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B.

2014-01-01

140

Sorption and transport of radionuclides by tumbleweeds from two plastic-lined radioactive waste ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has examined the uptake of radionuclides by tumbleweeds growing in contaminated soils, but none has heretofore examined the sorption of radionuclides to tumbleweeds blowing into radioactively contaminated water. Three tumbleweed species; Russian thistle (Salsola kali), Jim Hill mustard (Sisymbrium altissimum) and summer cypress (Kochia scoparia) blow in, and out of, two plastic-lined radioactive wastewater ponds, constructed in 1993

Ronald W Warren

2001-01-01

141

Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions  

SciTech Connect

The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup ?} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)] [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico)] [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

2014-02-15

142

Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions.  

PubMed

The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H(-) beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree. PMID:24593428

Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Lettry, Jacques; Midttun, Øystein; Scrivens, Richard

2014-02-01

143

The Role of the Clathrin Adaptor AP-1: Polarized Sorting and Beyond  

PubMed Central

The selective transport of proteins or lipids by vesicular transport is a fundamental process supporting cellular physiology. The budding process involves cargo sorting and vesicle formation at the donor membrane and constitutes an important process in vesicular transport. This process is particularly important for the polarized sorting in epithelial cells, in which the cargo molecules need to be selectively sorted and transported to two distinct destinations, the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Adaptor protein (AP)-1, a member of the AP complex family, which includes the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A and the epithelium-specific AP-1B, regulates polarized sorting at the trans-Golgi network and/or at the recycling endosomes. A growing body of evidence, especially from studies using model organisms and animals, demonstrates that the AP-1-mediated polarized sorting supports the development and physiology of multi-cellular units as functional organs and tissues (e.g., cell fate determination, inflammation and gut immune homeostasis). Furthermore, a possible involvement of AP-1B in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and cancer, is now becoming evident. These data highlight the significant contribution of AP-1 complexes to the physiology of multicellular organisms, as master regulators of polarized sorting in epithelial cells. PMID:25387275

Nakatsu, Fubito; Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

144

Effect of TEI-6720, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, on the nucleoside transport in the lung cancer cell line A549.  

PubMed

To examine the effect of 2-(3-cyano-4-isobutoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid (TEI-6720), an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, on purine metabolism in the lung cancer cell line A549, the activities of adenosine deaminase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, xanthine oxidase, and guanase together with pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase were measured with or without the addition of TEI-6720, and the extracellular concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, inosine, uracil, and uridine were measured after the addition of inosine or uridine to the incubation medium with or without TEI-6720. Moreover, the Na-independent nucleoside transport was determined in A549 cells with or without TEI-6720. TEI-6720 inhibited the activity of xanthine oxidase in A549 cells, but did not affect other enzymes. During incubation, TEI-6720 not only prevented a decrease in the inosine concentration in inosine-containing medium, but also a decrease in the uridine concentration in uridine-containing medium. Furthermore, the Na-independent transport of uridine was inhibited by TEI-6720 with a K(i) value of 4.1 micromol/l. These results indicate that TEI-6720 is an inhibitor of the Na-independent nucleoside transport of uridine and inosine, as well as xanthine oxidase. PMID:10629441

Yamamoto, T; Moriwaki, Y; Fujimura, Y; Takahashi, S; Tsutsumi, Z; Tsutsui, T; Higashino, K; Hada, T

2000-01-01

145

On the abundance of Europium. [in Ap and Am stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inclusion of the effects of hyperfine splitting can significantly lower the abundance estimate of Eu from singly ionized lines which lie on the flat portion of the curve of growth. In the 21 cool Ap stars studied by Adelman and the five Am stars studied by Smith, the Eu abundance was reduced by 0.4 dex on the average. In individual cases, the reductions were as great as 0.9 dex. This makes the Eu abundance comparable to that of its neighboring rare earths Sm and Gd in the Ap stars and less than Sm and Gd in the Am stars, but still substantially overabundant with respect to solar values.

Hartoog, M. R.; Cowley, C. R.; Adelman, S. J.

1974-01-01

146

Extending Observational Volume and Heat Transport Records of the Indonesian Throughflow Using Repeat Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT) Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is the only tropical link between ocean basins on the planet, carrying roughly 10\\times 106 m3/s (10 Sv) of thermocline water from the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean. The ITF varies on interannual and decadal time scales, forced by ENSO, the Asian monsoons and interannual climate variability in the Indian Ocean basin. To date, direct current measurements of the ITF have been limited to two years duration, which is not enough to fully describe this Pacific-to-Indian connection on long-period scales. Recent measurements taken from December 1996 to July 1998 in the Makassar Strait of the Indonesian seas provide a detailed vertical and temporal picture of the ITF through its main channel, but only provide 1.7 years of record. Temperature data from a repeat expendable bathythermograph (XBT) program have been collected between Shark Bay, Australia and Sunda Strait between Sumatra and Java, Indonesia since 1982. This repeat line is perpendicular to the path of ITF outflow into the Indian Ocean South Equatorial Current at 12ºS, allowing for geostrophic calculations of ITF volume transport into the Indian Ocean. A geostrophic transport time series is constructed from the Australia-Indonesia repeat XBT line and compared to the Makassar time series, finding excellent correlations for the 1.7-year duration of the Makassar series. It is inferred that the repeat XBT line may serve as an appropriate proxy record for interior ITF flow, extending the observational record of the ITF for at least two decades. The twenty-year record of ITF flow is most strongly influenced by ENSO, but is significantly influenced by other climatic process.

Vranes, K.; Gordon, A.; Susanto, D.

2004-12-01

147

Going below the line: creating transportable brands for Australia's dark market  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate non-point-of-sale cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents. Results: The tobacco industry has continued to market their products despite severe restrictions on legal marketing activity. They made careful plans to circumvent regulation well in advance. In preparation for bans, they chose and strengthened existing brands to enable their continued success in a dark market and prepared the consumer for bans by increasing their spending on below the line activities. Bans reduced the industry's effectiveness and efficiency. After bans new brand launches stopped: instead key existing brands were strengthened via alterations to the product, line extensions, and stretching loopholes in the legislation as far as possible. In line with the general trend towards integrated marketing, a range of activities have been used in combination, including guerrilla marketing, advertising in imported international magazines, altering the pack, sponsorships, brand stretching, event promotions, lifestyle premiums, and the development of corporate websites. Conclusions: The tobacco industry acknowledges that marketing restrictions have an impact, validating their continued use in tobacco control. The industry is extremely creative in circumventing these marketing restrictions, requiring tobacco marketing regulations to be informed by marketing expertise, regularly updated, and to adopt the broadest possible scope. Tobacco control advocates, particularly those communicating with young people, could learn from the creativity of the tobacco industry. PMID:14645953

Carter, S

2003-01-01

148

AP Chemistry Course Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people with a penchant for benzene rings and other topics, the AP Chemistry Course site is a great resource. Designed for both educators and students, the site contains resources for teaching to the AP exam as well as a wealth of other items. Interested parties should explore the Classroom Resources where they will find seven different lab activities, such as "Misconceptions and Issues in Quantum Theory" and "Women Scientists of the Manhattan Project.â Additionally, the site features Other Core Resources which includes an open forum for educators along with some basic overviews for crafting a one-semester course in chemistry.

149

AP Human Geography and Success on the AP Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom projects that explore culture and globalization enhance the curriculum and help students see how geography directly connects to their lives. These authors contend that a project-based approach can supplement the teaching of an AP Human Geography course, and visualize this course as an essential tool for students to truly understand how…

Roncone, John; Newhalfen, Nate

2013-01-01

150

Filament wound metal lined propellant tanks for future Earth-to-orbit transports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For future Earth-to-orbit transport vehicles, reusability and lighter weights are sought for the main propellant tanks. To achieve this, a filament wound tank with a metal liner and an intermediate layer of foam-filled honeycomb is proposed. A hydrogen tank is used as an example. To accommodate mismatches in the expansion of liner and overwrap a design is proposed wherin the liner is configured so that the extension of the liner under pressure matches the expected contraction of the same liner due to the presence of a cryogen. In operation, the liner is pressurized at a rate such that the pressure strain matches the contraction due to decrease in temperature. As an alternate approach, compressive pre-stress is placed in the liner such that it will not separate from the overwrap. A finite element program is used to show stresses in the liner and overwrap for various tank pressures for the pre-stressed liner concept. A fracture mechanics analysis is made of the liners to determine tank life. The tank concept shown has a similar weight to the Shuttle external hydrogen tank, but the filament wound tank is expected to be reusable. Integration of the propellant tanks into a future transport vehicle is discussed.

Macconochie, Ian O.; Davis, Robert B.; Freeman, William T., Jr.

1988-01-01

151

BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 Proteins Function in Concert with Rab38 and Rab32 Proteins to Mediate Protein Trafficking to Lysosome-related Organelles*  

PubMed Central

Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) are synthesized in specialized cell types where they largely coexist with conventional lysosomes. Most of the known cellular transport machinery involved in biogenesis are ubiquitously expressed and shared between lysosomes and LROs. Examples of common components are the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelle complex (BLOC)-2. These protein complexes control sorting and transport of newly synthesized integral membrane proteins from early endosomes to both lysosomes and LROs such as the melanosome. However, it is unknown what factors cooperate with the ubiquitous transport machinery to mediate transport to LROs in specialized cells. Focusing on the melanosome, we show that the ubiquitous machinery interacts with cell type-specific Rab proteins, Rab38 and Rab32, to facilitate transport to the maturing organelle. BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 coimmunoprecipitated with Rab38 and Rab32 from MNT-1 melanocytic cell extracts. BLOC-2, AP-3, AP-1, and clathrin partially colocalized with Rab38 and Rab32 by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy in MNT-1 cells. Rab38- and Rab32-deficient MNT-1 cells displayed abnormal trafficking and steady state levels of known cargoes of the BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 pathways, the melanin-synthesizing enzymes tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1. These observations support the idea that Rab38 and Rab32 are the specific factors that direct the ubiquitous machinery to mediate transport from early endosomes to maturing LROs. Additionally, analysis of tyrosinase-related protein-2 and total melanin production indicates that Rab32 has unique functions that cannot be carried out by Rab38 in melanosome biogenesis. PMID:22511774

Bultema, Jarred J.; Ambrosio, Andrea L.; Burek, Carolyn L.; Di Pietro, Santiago M.

2012-01-01

152

Cell Reports Dynamics of Intracellular Clathrin/AP1-  

E-print Network

Cell Reports Report Dynamics of Intracellular Clathrin/AP1- and Clathrin/AP3-Containing Carriers.09.025 SUMMARY Clathrin/AP1- and clathrin/AP3-coated vesicular carriers originate from endosomes and the trans/AP1 and cla- thrin/AP3 carriers are similar to those of endocytic clathrin/AP2 pits and vesicles

Kirchhausen, Tomas

153

Time resolved spectroscopy of the cool Ap star HD 213637*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of high time resolution spectra of the chemically peculiar Ap star HD 213637. The star shows rapid radial velocity variations with a period close to the photometric pulsation period. Radial velocity pulsation amplitudes vary significantly for different rare earth elements. The highest pulsation amplitudes belong to lines of Tb III (˜360 m s-1), Pr II (˜250 m s-1) and Pr III (˜230 m s-1). We did not detect any pulsations from spectral lines of Eu II and in H?, in contrast to many other roAp stars. We also did not find radial velocity pulsations using spectral lines of other chemical elements, including Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba. There are phase shifts between the maxima of pulsation amplitudes of different rare earth elements and ions, which is evidence of an outwardly running magneto-acoustic wave propagating through the upper stellar atmosphere.

Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.

2015-02-01

154

AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

Robelen, Erik W.

2012-01-01

155

APS undergraduate brainstorming summit report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IN 2004, the Education Committee was charged with seeking additional strategies to increase the exposure of undergraduate students to physiology studies and careers. Following a reaffirmation of this charge in the 2006 strategic plan, the American Physiological Society (APS) hosted an undergraduate brainstorming summit in late September of 2006.

PhD Robert G. Carroll (East Carolina State University Department of Physiology); PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education); Van Doze (University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences Pharmacology, Physiology, and Therapeutics); PhD Richard Faircloth (Anne Arundel Community College Dept. of Biology); Patricia Finkenstadt (Phoenix College); PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences)

2007-12-09

156

AP Management and Handover support  

E-print Network

AP Management and Handover support (802.11f) Renato Lo Cigno http Points Protocol ­ IAPP One in IEEE: 802.11f (already standard ... not much implemented ) mainly supports coordinated handovers, 802.11r (resource management), 802.11k (fast handover for vehicular applications) One

Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

157

AP Management and Handover support  

E-print Network

AP Management and Handover support CapWap and 802.11f Renato Lo Cigno ­ Alessandro Villani www · Two main proposal for standardization of an Inter Access Points Protocol ­ IAPP · One in IEEE: 802.11f (already standard ... not much implemented ) mainly supports coordinated handovers, 802.11r (resource

Jain, Raj

158

AP Management and Handover support  

E-print Network

AP Management and Handover support (CAPWAP - 802.11f) Renato Lo Cigno http proposal for standardization of an Inter Access Points Protocol ­ IAPP n One in IEEE: 802.11f (already standard ... not much implemented L) mainly supports coordinated handovers, 802.11r (resource management

Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

159

Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasmas along open magnetic field lines: Plasma profile variation  

SciTech Connect

Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along an open magnetic field line is characterized by strong temperature anisotropy, which is driven by two effects. The first is magnetic moment conservation in a non-uniform magnetic field, which can transfer energy between parallel and perpendicular degrees of freedom. The second is decompressional cooling of the parallel temperature due to parallel flow acceleration by conventional presheath electric field which is associated with the sheath condition near the wall surface where the open magnetic field line intercepts the discharge chamber. To the leading order in gyroradius to system gradient length scale expansion, the parallel transport can be understood via the Chew-Goldbeger-Low (CGL) model which retains two components of the parallel heat flux, i.e., q{sub n} associated with the parallel thermal energy and q{sub s} related to perpendicular thermal energy. It is shown that in addition to the effect of magnetic field strength (B) modulation, the two components (q{sub n} and q{sub s}) of the parallel heat flux play decisive roles in the parallel variation of the plasma profile, which includes the plasma density (n), parallel flow (u), parallel and perpendicular temperatures (T{sub Parallel-To} and T{sub Up-Tack }), and the ambipolar potential ({phi}). Both their profile (q{sub n}/B and q{sub s}/B{sup 2}) and the upstream values of the ratio of the conductive and convective thermal flux (q{sub n}/nuT{sub Parallel-To} and q{sub s}/nuT{sub Up-Tack }) provide the controlling physics, in addition to B modulation. The physics described by the CGL model are contrasted with those of the double-adiabatic laws and further elucidated by comparison with the first-principles kinetic simulation for a specific but representative flux expander case.

Guo Zehua; Tang Xianzhu [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-08-15

160

Effects of Transport Inhibitors on the Cellular Uptake of Carboxylated Polystyrene Nanoparticles in Different Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology is expected to play a vital role in the rapidly developing field of nanomedicine, creating innovative solutions and therapies for currently untreatable diseases, and providing new tools for various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and gene therapy. In order to optimize the efficacy of nanoparticle (NP) delivery to cells, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms by which NPs are internalized by cells, as this will likely determine their ultimate sub-cellular fate and localisation. Here we have used pharmacological inhibitors of some of the major endocytic pathways to investigate nanoparticle uptake mechanisms in a range of representative human cell lines, including HeLa (cervical cancer), A549 (lung carcinoma) and 1321N1 (brain astrocytoma). Chlorpromazine and genistein were used to inhibit clathrin and caveolin mediated endocytosis, respectively. Cytochalasin A and nocodazole were used to inhibit, respectively, the polymerisation of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Uptake experiments were performed systematically across the different cell lines, using carboxylated polystyrene NPs of 40 nm and 200 nm diameters, as model NPs of sizes comparable to typical endocytic cargoes. The results clearly indicated that, in all cases and cell types, NPs entered cells via active energy dependent processes. NP uptake in HeLa and 1321N1 cells was strongly affected by actin depolymerisation, while A549 cells showed a stronger inhibition of NP uptake (in comparison to the other cell types) after microtubule disruption and treatment with genistein. A strong reduction of NP uptake was observed after chlorpromazine treatment only in the case of 1321N1 cells. These outcomes suggested that the same NP might exploit different uptake mechanisms to enter different cell types. PMID:21949717

dos Santos, Tiago; Varela, Juan; Lynch, Iseult; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A.

2011-01-01

161

AP-2? regulates amyloid beta-protein stimulation of apolipoprotein E transcription in astrocytes.  

PubMed

Two key players involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are amyloid beta protein (A?) and apolipoprotein E (apoE). A? increases apoE protein levels in astrocytes which is associated with cholesterol trafficking, neuroinflammatory responses and A? clearance. The mechanism for the increase in apoE protein abundance is not understood. Based on different lines of evidence, we propose that the beta-adrenergic receptor (?AR), cAMP and the transcription factor activator protein-2 (AP-2) are contributors to the A?-induced increase in apoE abundance. This hypothesis was tested in mouse primary astrocytes and in cells transfected with an apoE promoter fragment with binding sites for AP-2. A?(42) induced a time-dependent increase in apoE mRNA and protein levels which were significantly inhibited by ?AR antagonists. A novel finding was that A? incubation significantly reduced AP-2? levels and significantly increased AP-2? levels in the nuclear fraction. The impact of A?-induced translocation of AP-2 into the nucleus was demonstrated in cells expressing AP-2 and incubated with A?(42). AP-2 expressing cells had enhanced activation of the apoE promoter region containing AP-2 binding sites in contrast to AP-2 deficient cells. The transcriptional upregulation of apoE expression by A?(42) may be a neuroprotective response to A?-induced cytotoxicity, consistent with apoE's role in cytoprotection. PMID:22325097

Rossello, Ximena S; Igbavboa, Urule; Weisman, Gary A; Sun, Grace Y; Wood, W Gibson

2012-03-20

162

A transverse emittance and acceptance measurement system in a low-energy beam transport line.  

PubMed

A transverse beam emittance and acceptance measurement system has been developed to visualize the relationship between the injected beam emittance and the acceptance of a cyclotron. The system is composed of a steering magnet, two pairs of slits to limit the horizontal and vertical phase-space, a beam intensity detector just behind the slits for the emittance measurement, and a beam intensity detector in the cyclotron for the acceptance measurement. The emittance is obtained by scanning the slits and measuring the beam intensity distribution. The acceptance is obtained by measuring the distribution of relative beam transmission by injecting small emittance beams at various positions in a transverse phase-space using the slits. In the acceptance measurement, the beam from an ion source is deflected to the defined region by the slits using the steering magnet so that measurable acceptance area covers a region outside the injection beam emittance. Measurement tests were carried out under the condition of accelerating a beam of (16)O(6+) from 50.2 keV to 160 MeV. The emittance of the injected beam and the acceptance for accelerating and transporting the beam to the entrance of the extraction deflector were successfully measured. The relationship between the emittance and acceptance is visualized by displaying the results in the same phase-plane. PMID:24593469

Kashiwagi, H; Miyawaki, N; Kurashima, S; Okumura, S

2014-02-01

163

A transverse emittance and acceptance measurement system in a low-energy beam transport line  

SciTech Connect

A transverse beam emittance and acceptance measurement system has been developed to visualize the relationship between the injected beam emittance and the acceptance of a cyclotron. The system is composed of a steering magnet, two pairs of slits to limit the horizontal and vertical phase-space, a beam intensity detector just behind the slits for the emittance measurement, and a beam intensity detector in the cyclotron for the acceptance measurement. The emittance is obtained by scanning the slits and measuring the beam intensity distribution. The acceptance is obtained by measuring the distribution of relative beam transmission by injecting small emittance beams at various positions in a transverse phase-space using the slits. In the acceptance measurement, the beam from an ion source is deflected to the defined region by the slits using the steering magnet so that measurable acceptance area covers a region outside the injection beam emittance. Measurement tests were carried out under the condition of accelerating a beam of {sup 16}O{sup 6+} from 50.2 keV to 160 MeV. The emittance of the injected beam and the acceptance for accelerating and transporting the beam to the entrance of the extraction deflector were successfully measured. The relationship between the emittance and acceptance is visualized by displaying the results in the same phase-plane.

Kashiwagi, H., E-mail: kashiwagi.hirotsugu@jaea.go.jp; Miyawaki, N.; Kurashima, S.; Okumura, S. [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)] [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

2014-02-15

164

Gas Transport and Density Control in the HYLIFE Heavy-Ion Beam Lines  

SciTech Connect

The effective propagation and focusing of heavy-ion beams in the final-focus magnet region of inertial fusion target chambers require controlling the background gas density and pressure in the beam tubes. Liquid vortexes will coat the inside of the tubes next to the beam ports and will help eliminate the need for mechanical shutters to mitigate the venting of target chamber background gas into the final-focus magnet region. Before the neutralizing region, the beam space charge is high, and ablation and target debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region may cause voltage breakdown. Previous studies focused on evaluating the amount of target chamber debris reaching the entrance of the beam ports. The TSUNAMI code has now been used to assess the density, temperature, and velocity of the vortex debris transported {approx}3 m up the beam tubes and reaching the final-focus magnet region, assuming that the liquid vortexes are perfectly absorbing surfaces. To further mitigate debris deposition in the final-focus magnet region, and prevent voltage breakdown, a 'magnetic shutter' has been envisaged to divert the debris out of the final-focus region. This shutter will prevent the hot ablation debris from reaching the magnet region and, coupled to some ionizing scheme, will conveniently suppress early ingression of debris into the final-focus magnet region.

Debonnel, Christophe S.; Welch, Dale R.; Rose, David V.; Lawrence, Simon S.Yu; Peterson, Per F

2003-05-15

165

Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

Whitlock, Kristin

2013-01-01

166

Detecting protected layer-3 rogue APs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unauthorized rogue access points (APs), such as those brought into a corporate campus by employees, pose a security threat as they may be poorly managed or insufficiently secured. Any attacker in the vicinity can easily get onto the internal network through a rogue AP, bypassing all perimeter security measures. Existing detection solutions work well for detecting layer-2 rogue APs. It

Hongda Yin; Guanling Chen; Jie Wang

2007-01-01

167

R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line  

SciTech Connect

As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

2008-01-01

168

Molecular evolution of the AP2 subfamily.  

PubMed

The AP2 (APETALA2)/EREBP (Ethylene Responsive Element Binding Protein) multigene family includes developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors. AP2/EREBP genes are divided into two subfamilies: AP2 genes with two AP2 domains and EREBP genes with a single AP2/ERF (Ethylene Responsive Element Binding Factor) domain. Based on previous phylogenetic analyses, AP2 genes can be divided into two clades, AP2 and ANT groups. To clarify the molecular evolution of the AP2 subfamily, we isolated and sequenced genes with two AP2 domains from three gymnosperms, Cycas revoluta, Ginkgo biloba, and Gnetum parvifolium,as well as from the moss Physcomitrella patens. Expressions of AP2-like genes, including AP2, in Arabidopsis thaliana are regulated by the microRNA miR172. We found that the target site of miR172 is significantly conserved in gymnosperm AP2 homologs, suggesting that regulatory mechanisms of gene expression using microRNA have been conserved over the three hundred million years since the divergence of gymnosperm and flowering plant lineages. We inferred a phylogenetic relationship of these genes with the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and seed-plant genes available in public DNA databases. The phylogenetic tree showed that the AP2 subfamily diverged into the AP2 and ANT groups before the last common ancestor of land plants and after C. reinhardtii diverged from the land-plant lineage. The tree also indicated that each AP2 and ANT group further diverged into several clades through gene duplications prior to the divergence of gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:16388920

Shigyo, Mikao; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Ito, Motomi

2006-02-01

169

APS Presents Awards at 2008 ABRCMS Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article in The Physiologist. APS Presents Awards at Annual ABRCMS Conference APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2008 APS Intersociety Meeting: The Integrative Biology of Exercise Education Special Sessions at Experimental Biology 2009 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- APS Presents Awards at Annual ABRCMS Conference The APS presented awards to minority undergraduate researchers and was a major conference sponsor at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS) at DisneyÃÂs Coronado Springs Resort, Lake Buena Vista, FL from November 5-9, 2008.

2009-02-01

170

Functional Identification and Characterization of the Brassica Napus Transcription Factor Gene BnAP2, the Ortholog of Arabidopsis Thaliana APETALA2  

PubMed Central

BnAP2, an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, has been isolated from Brassica napus cultivar Zhongshuang 9. The cDNA of BnAP2, with 1, 299 bp in length, encoded a transcription factor comprising of 432 amino acid residues. Results from complementary experiment indicated that BnAP2 was completely capable of restoring the phenotype of Arabidopsis ap2-11 mutant. Together with the sequence and expression data, the complementation data suggested that BnAP2 encodes the ortholog of AtAP2. To address the transcriptional activation of BnAP2, we performed transactivation assays in yeast. Fusion protein of BnAP2 with GAL4 DNA binding domain strongly activated transcription in yeast, and the transactivating activity of BnAP2 was localized to the N-terminal 100 amino acids. To further study the function of BnAP2 involved in the phenotype of B. napus, we used a transgenic approach that involved targeted RNA interference (RNAi) repression induced by ihp-RNA. Floral various phenotype defectives and reduced female fertility were observed in B. napus BnAP2-RNAi lines. Loss of the function of BnAP2 gene also resulted in delayed sepal abscission and senescence with the ethylene-independent pathway. In the strong BnAP2-RNAi lines, seeds showed defects in shape, structure and development and larger size. Strong BnAP2-RNAi and wild-type seeds initially did not display a significant difference in morphology at 10 DAF, but the development of BnAP2-RNAi seeds was slower than that of wild type at 20 DAF, and further at 30 DAF, wild-type seeds were essentially at their final size, whereas BnAP2-RNAi seeds stopped growing and developing and gradually withered. PMID:22479468

Xiong, Zhiyong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Lijun; Yu, Jingyin; Lu, Changming; Wei, Wenhui

2012-01-01

171

The APS control system network  

SciTech Connect

The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the {open_quotes}Standard Model.{close_quotes} The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions.

Sidorowicz, K.V.; McDowell, W.P.

1995-12-31

172

The APS in Public Affairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the American Physical Society was created for the interchange of scientific ideas, the call to the founding meeting included the observation that the organization "could not fail to have an important influence in all matters affecting the interest of physicists". However for most of its history APS did not behave like "just another interest group in American society". Instead, at the beginning, it limited itself to such successful initiatives as the creation of the Bureau of Standards and such unsuccessful ones as adoption of the metric system. After World War II, speaking out on behalf of the freedom of science and scientists, such as Astin, Condon, and Oppenheimer, became important. In the 1970's, pushed by members, the Society became more "political", sponsoring sessions and studies on defense issues, taking a stand for the Equal Rights Amendment and creating the Panel on Public Affairs and the Forum on Physics and Society. Only in the last fifteen years has the APS unabashedly lobbied for the economic interests of physics and physicists. Adopting this new, if unavoidable role may have unintended consequences for the willingness and effectiveness of APS in speaking out on other public issues.

Lustig, Harry

2000-04-01

173

Dynamics of intracellular clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 containing carriers  

PubMed Central

Clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 coated vesicular carriers originate from endosomes and the TGN. We report here the real-time visualization of these structures in living cells reliably tracked by using rapid, three-dimensional imaging with a spinning-disk confocal microscope. We imaged relatively sparse, diffraction-limited, fluorescent objects containing chimeric fluorescent protein (clathrin light chain, ? adaptor subunits or dynamin2) with a spatial precision of up to ~ 30 nm and a temporal resolution of ~ 1 sec. The dynamic characteristics of the intracellular clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 carriers are similar to those of endocytic clathrin/AP2 pits and vesicles; the clathrin/AP1 coats are, on average, slightly shorter-lived than their AP2 and AP3 counterparts. We confirmed that while dynamin2 is recruited as a burst to clathrin/AP2 pits immediately before their budding from the plasma membrane, we found no evidence supporting a similar association of dynamin2 with clathrin/AP1 or clathrin/AP3 carriers at any stage during their lifetime. We found no effects of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function or the K44A dominant negative mutant of dynamin on AP1 and AP3 dynamics. This observation suggests that an alternative budding mechanism, yet to be discovered, is responsible for the scission step of clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 carriers. PMID:23103167

Kural, Comert; Tacheva-Grigorova, Silvia K.; Boulant, Steeve; Cocucci, Emanuele; Baust, Thorsten; Duarte, Delfim; Kirchhausen, Tom

2012-01-01

174

AP reclamation and reuse in RSRM propellant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solid propellant ingredient reclamation pilot plant has been evaluated at the Strategic Operations of Thiokol Corporation, located in Brigham City, Utah. The plant produces AP wet cake (95 percent AP, 5 percent water) for recycling at AP vendors. AP has been obtained from two standard propellant binder systems (PBAN and HTPB). Analytical work conducted at Thiokol indicates that the vendor-recrystallized AP meets Space Shuttle propellant specification requirements. Thiokol has processed 1-, 5-, and 600-gallon propellant mixes with the recrystallized AP. Processing, cast, cure, ballistic, mechanical, and safety properties have been evaluated. Phillips Laboratory static-test-fired 70-pound and 800-pound BATES motors. The data indicate that propellant processed with reclaimed AP has nominal properties.

Miks, Kathryn F.; Harris, Stacey A.

1995-01-01

175

AP600 passive residual heat removal heat exchanger test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AP600 reactor is a pressurized water reactor being designed to utilize a passive residual heat removal (PRHR) heat exchanger as the safety grade means for residual heat removal. The PRHR heat exchanger is utilized during many design basis events and is especially important in mitigating non-loss-of-coolant accidents such as loss of normal feedwater and feedwater line break. The PRHR

M. M. Corletti; L. E. Hochreiter; D. Squarer

1990-01-01

176

Signal processes and ROS production in glucose transport regulation by thrombopoietin and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulation factor in a human leukaemic cell line.  

PubMed

In M07e cells, a human megakaryocytic leukaemia line, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in response to cytokines acting as intracellular messengers to modulate glucose transport. The aim of this work was to study the signal cascade involved in the acute glucose transport activation in cells exposed to growth factors, such as granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulation factor (GM-CSF) and thrombopoietin (TPO), to better understand some aspects of the aberrant proliferation in leukaemia. Results confirm ROS involvement in modulation of glucose transport in this cell line. Furthermore, GM-CSF and TPO produced changes in Glut1 phosphorylation and specific inhibitors employed to identify protein kinases involved in Glut activation by these cytokines proved that Akt, PLC gamma, Syk and the Src family take part in signal transduction leading to Glut1 activation. PMID:18075837

Maraldi, Tullia; Prata, Cecilia; Fiorentini, Diana; Zambonin, Laura; Landi, Laura; Hakim, Gabriele

2007-12-01

177

A di-leucine-based motif in the cytoplasmic tail of LIMP-II and tyrosinase mediates selective binding of AP-3.  

PubMed Central

Among the various coats involved in vesicular transport, the clathrin associated coats that contain the adaptor complexes AP-1 and AP-2 are the most extensively characterized. The function of the recently described adaptor complex AP-3, which is similar to AP-1 and AP-2 in protein composition but does not associate with clathrin, is not known. By monitoring surface plasmon resonance we observed that AP-3 is able to interact with the tail of the lysosomal integral membrane protein LIMP-II and that this binding depends on a DEXXXLI sequence in the LIMP-II tail. Furthermore, AP-3 bound to the cytoplasmic tail of the melanosome-associated protein tyrosinase which contains a related EEXXXLL sequence. The tails of LIMP-II and tyrosinase either did not interact, or only interacted poorly, with AP-1 or AP-2. In contrast, the cytoplasmic tails of other membrane proteins containing di-leucine and/or tyrosine-based sorting signals did not bind AP-3, but AP-1 and/or AP-2. This points to a function of AP-3 in intracellular sorting to lysosomes and melanosomes of a subset of cargo proteins via di-leucine-based sorting motifs. PMID:9482728

Höning, S; Sandoval, I V; von Figura, K

1998-01-01

178

ABC AND SLC TRANSPORTER EXPRESSION AND POT SUBSTRATE CHRACTERIZATION ACROSS THE HUMAN CMEC/D3 BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER CELL LINE  

PubMed Central

Purpose Initial studies indicate that the newly developed hCMEC/D3 cell line may prove to be a useful model for studying the physiology of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium. The purpose of this study was to assess the mRNA expression of several ABC and SLC transporters, with an emphasis on the Proton-Coupled Oligopeptide Transporter Superfamily (POT) transporters in this immortalized BBB cell model. The transport kinetics of POT-substrates was also evaluated. Methods The hCMEC/D3 cell line was maintained in a modified EGM-2 medium in collagenated culture flasks and passaged every 3–4 days at approximately 85%–95% confluence. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of a variety of ABC and SLC transporters was evaluated using qRT-PCR arrays, while additional qRT-PCR primers were designed to assess the expression of POT members. The transport kinetics of mannitol and urea were utilized to quantitatively estimate the intercellular pore radius, while POT substrate transport was also determined to assess the suitability of the cell model from a drug screening perspective. Optimization of the cell line was attempted by culturing with on laminin and fibronectin enhanced collagen and in the presence of excess Ca2+. Results HCMEC/D3 cells express both hPHT1 and hPHT2, while little to no expression of either hPepT1 or hPepT2 was observed. The relative expression of other ABC and SLC transporters is discussed. While POT substrate transport does suggest suitability for BBB drug permeation screening, the relative intercellular pore radius was estimated at 19Å, significantly larger than that approximated in vivo. Culturing with extracellular matrix proteins did not alter mannitol permeability. Conclusion These studies characterized this relevant human hCMEC/D3 BBB cell line with respect to both the relative mRNA expression of various ABC and SLC transporters, and its potential utility as an in vitro screening tool for brain permeation. Additional studies are required to adequately determine the potential to establish an in vivo correlation. PMID:20524699

Carl, Stephen M.; Lindley, David J.; Couraud, Pierre O.; Weksler, Babette B.; Romero, Ignacio; Mowery, Stephanie A.; Knipp, Gregory T.

2010-01-01

179

Glutathione peroxidase-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in human keratinocytes  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we found a role for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. UVA irradiation not only increased AP-2{alpha}, but also caused accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the cell culture media, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself could induce the expression of AP-2{alpha}. By catalyzing the removal of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from cells through over-expression of GPx-1, induction of AP-2{alpha} expression by UVA was abolished. Induction of transcription factor AP-2{alpha} by UVA had been previously shown to be mediated through the second messenger ceramide. We found that not only UVA irradiation, but also H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself caused increases of ceramide in HaCaT cells, and C2-ceramide added to cells induced the AP-2{alpha} signaling pathway. Finally, forced expression of GPx-1 eliminated UVA-induced ceramide accumulation as well as AP-2{alpha} expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that GPx-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression by suppressing the accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

Yu Lei [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Venkataraman, Sujatha [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Coleman, Mitchell C. [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Spitz, Douglas R. [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wertz, Philip W. [Dows Institute for Dental Research, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Domann, Frederick E. [Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, and Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)]. E-mail: frederick-domann@uiowa.edu

2006-12-29

180

Investigation of transport of genistein, daidzein and their inclusion complexes prepared with different cyclodextrins on Caco-2 cell line.  

PubMed

Isoflavonoids are widespread constituents in medical plants especially in legumes (Fabaceae), but occur in other different plant families as well (Rosaceae, Iridaceae, Amaranthaceae). Their antioxidant, estrogen-like, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects make them promising compounds in therapy of important disorders especially in estrogen related diseases. Poor solubility in aqueous system of genistein and daidzein needs a solubility enhancement for pharmaceutical use. These compounds are suitable guest molecules for inclusion complex formation with cyclodextrins (CDs) considering matching their size and polarity. The molecular encapsulation with beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD), gamma-cyclodextrin (?-CD), hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and random methyl-beta cyclodextrin (RAMEB-CD) results in a solid, molecularly dispersed form and in a significantly improved aqueous solubility of genistein and daidzein. Determining enhancement in solubility and bioavailability we investigated the transport of these inclusion complexes across Caco-2 cell line comparing that of the pure compounds and found significant improving effect of the different CD derivatives on membrane permeation of the two isoflavone aglycons. PMID:23810850

Daruházi, Agnes Emma; Kiss, Tímea; Vecsernyés, Miklós; Szente, Lajos; Sz?ke, Eva; Lemberkovics, Eva

2013-10-01

181

Identification of a novel cell-penetrating peptide targeting human glioblastoma cell lines as a cancer-homing transporter.  

PubMed

Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) as a novel biomedical delivery system have been highly anticipated, since they can translocate across biological membranes and are capable of transporting their cargo inside live cells with minimal invasiveness. However, non-selective internalization in various cell types remains a challenge in the clinical application of CPPs, especially in cancer treatment. In this study, we attempted to identify novel cancer-homing CPPs to target glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which is often refractory and resistant to treatment. We screened for CPPs showing affinity for the human GBM cell line, U87MG, from an mRNA display random peptide library. One of the candidate peptides which amino-acid sequence was obtained from the screening showed selective cell-penetrating activity in U87MG cells. Conjugation of the p16(INK4a) functional peptide to the GBM-selective CPP induced cellular apoptosis and reduced phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein levels. This indicates that the CPP was capable of delivering a therapeutic molecule into U87MG cells inducing apoptosis. These results suggest that the novel CPP identified in this study permeates with high affinity into GBM cells, revealing it to be a promising imaging and therapeutic tool in the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:25562654

Higa, Moritoshi; Katagiri, Chiaki; Shimizu-Okabe, Chigusa; Tsumuraya, Tomoyuki; Sunagawa, Masanori; Nakamura, Mariko; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Takayama, Chitoshi; Kondo, Eisaku; Matsushita, Masayuki

2015-02-01

182

Microstructural changes produced by annealing in particles of industrial APS1, APS2, AND APS3 aluminum powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.During annealing in the air on in an argon atmosphere, nodulized particles of industrial APS-1, APS-2, and APS-3 aluminum powders crack and acquire internal porosity.2.On heating in the air at 600 and 650°C, aluminum powder undergoes oxidation and the ?-Al2O3 crystals present in it increase in size. Heating in an argon atmosphere is also accompanied by oxidation, which is due

A. I. Litvintsev; K. V. Ivashko; L. N. Klimova

1970-01-01

183

Donepezil, tacrine and alpha-phenyl-n-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) inhibit choline transport by conditionally immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cell lines (TR-BBB).  

PubMed

In the present study, we have characterized the choline transport system and examined the influence of various amine drugs on the choline transporter using a conditionally immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cell line (TR-BBB) in vitro. The cell-to-medium (C/M) ratio of [3H]choline in TR-BBB cells increased time-dependently. The initial uptake rate of [3H]choline was concentration-dependent with a Michaelis-Menten value, Km, of 26.2 +/- 2.7 microM. The [3H]choline uptake into TR-BBB was Na+-independent, but was membrane potential-dependent. The [3H]choline uptake was susceptible to inhibition by hemicholinium-3, and tetraethylammonium (TEA), which are organic cation transporter substrates. Also, the uptake of [3H]choline was competitively inhibited with Ki values of 274 microM, 251 microM and 180 microM in the presence of donepezil hydrochloride, tacrine and alpha-phenyl-n-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), respectively. These characteristics of choline transport are consistent with those of the organic cation transporter (OCT). OCT2 mRNA was expressed in TR-BBB cells, while the expression of OCT3 or choline transporter (CHT) was not detected. Accordingly, these results suggest that OCT2 is a candidate for choline transport at the BBB and may influence the BBB permeability of amine drugs. PMID:15918518

Kang, Young-Sook; Lee, Kyeong-Eun; Lee, Na-Young; Terasaki, Tetsuya

2005-04-01

184

Human L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): characterization of function and expression in tumor cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

System L is a major nutrient transport system responsible for the transport of large neutral amino acids including several essential amino acids. We previously identified a transporter (L-type amino acid transporter 1: LAT1) subserving system L in C6 rat glioma cells and demonstrated that LAT1 requires 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) for its functional expression. Since its oncofetal expression was suggested

Osamu Yanagida; Yoshikatsu Kanai; Arthit Chairoungdua; Do Kyung Kim; Hiroko Segawa; Tomoko Nii; Seok Ho Cha; Hirotaka Matsuo; Jun-ichi Fukushima; Yoshiki Fukasawa; Yoshiko Tani; Yutaka Taketani; Hiroshi Uchino; Ju Young Kim; Jun Inatomi; Isao Okayasu; Ken-ichi Miyamoto; Eiji Takeda; Tomoyuki Goya; Hitoshi Endou

2001-01-01

185

Inland Water Transport Decision Support System for Sustainable Development Based on Data Warehouse and On-Line Analytical Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the lack of effective evaluation on the sustainable development of inland water transport, an indicator system is designed for evaluation, illustration and checking of inland water transport sustainable development and an inland water transport decision support system for sustainable development is constructed based on data warehouse and online analytical processing (OLAP). The system structure includes 5 layers: application interface

Li Ke; Yang Shanfeng

2009-01-01

186

ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING OF TANKS 241-AN-102 & 241-AP-107 & 241-AP-108 IN SUPPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the corrosion rates that were measured using electrochemical methods for tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102), 241-AP-107 (AP 107), and 241-AP-108 (AP-108) performed under test plant RPP-PLAN-38215. The steel used as materials of construction for AN and AP tank farms was A537 Class 1. Test coupons of A537 Class 1 carbon steel were used for corrosion testing in the AN-107, AP-107, and AP-108 tank waste. Supernate will be tested from AN-102, AP-107, and Ap-108. Saltcake testing was performed on AP-108 only.

WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

2008-11-20

187

Predicting carrier-mediated hepatic disposition of rosuvastatin in man by scaling from individual transfected cell-lines in vitro using absolute transporter protein quantification and PBPK modeling.  

PubMed

In contrast to primary hepatocytes, estimating carrier-mediated hepatic disposition by using a panel of single transfected cell-lines provides direct information on the contribution of the individual transporters to the net disposition. The most direct way to correct for differences in transporter abundance between cell-lines and tissue is by using absolute protein quantification. In the present study, the performance of this strategy to predict human hepatic uptake transport was investigated and compared with traditional scaling from primary human hepatocytes. Rosuvastatin was used as a model compound. The uptake activity was measured in HEK293 cell-lines stably overexpressing OATP1B1(?)1a, OATP1B3 or OATP2B1, the major transporters involved in human hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin, or expressing OATP1B1(?)15, associated with reduced hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin. The abundance of these transporter proteins in the outer membranes of HEK293-cells, in human primary hepatocytes and in human liver tissue was determined by LC-MS/MS. The measured activity, corrected for protein abundance and scaled to the whole liver, gave a very accurate prediction of the hepatic intrinsic clearance observed in vivo. Embedded in a PBPK model describing the hepatic disposition and enterohepatic circulation, the collective in vitro data resulted in a good explanation of the observed oral and intravenous pharmacokinetic profiles of rosuvastatin. The model allowed simulation of the effect of polymorphic variants of OATP1B1 on rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. These results encourage a larger scale validation. This approach may facilitate prediction of drug-drug interactions, scaling of transporter processes across subpopulations (children, diseased patients), and may be extended to tissues for which primary cells may be more difficult to obtain. PMID:25261337

Bosgra, Sieto; van de Steeg, Evita; Vlaming, Maria L; Verhoeckx, Kitty C; Huisman, Maarten T; Verwei, Miriam; Wortelboer, Heleen M

2014-12-18

188

APS high heat load monochromator  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

1993-02-01

189

Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D., E-mail: leitnerd@nscl.msu.edu; Cole, D.; Machicoane, G.; Tobos, L. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)] [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2014-02-15

190

Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations. PMID:24593473

Winklehner, D; Leitner, D; Cole, D; Machicoane, G; Tobos, L

2014-02-01

191

Transportation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit designed to increase students' knowledge and understanding of diesel and gasoline engines, providing an introduction for students interested in more specialized training in the automobile field and its scientific principles through math, science, and chemistry. It will also help students realize the importance of transportation, and will help them meet their needs in math through problem solving by dealing with materials in their world, letting them develop skills and techniques through hands-on experience. Includes more than 20 problems to solve.

Bryant, Joyce

2007-05-12

192

An immortalized human blood-nerve barrier endothelial cell line for in vitro permeability studies.  

PubMed

Solute and macromolecular transport studies may elucidate nutritional requirements and drug effects in healthy and diseased peripheral nerves. Endoneurial endothelial cells are specialized microvascular cells that form the restrictive blood-nerve barrier (BNB). Primary human endoneurial endothelial cells (pHEndECs) are difficult to isolate, limiting their widespread availability for biomedical research. We developed a simian virus-40 large T-antigen (SV40-LTA) immortalized human BNB cell line via stable transfection of low passage pHEndECs and observed continuous growth in culture for >45 population doublings. As observed with pHEndECs, the immortalized BNB endothelial cells were Ulex Europaeus agglutinin-1-positive and endocytosed low density lipoprotein, but lost von Willebrand factor expression. Glucose transporter-1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT), large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1), creatine transporter (CRT), and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1) mRNA expression were retained at all passages with loss of alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression after passages 16-20. Compared with an SV40-LTA immortalized human blood-brain barrier endothelial cell line, there was increased ?-GT protein expression, equivalent expression of organic anion transporting polypeptide-C (OATP-C), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT-3), MCT-1, and LAT-1, and reduced expression of AP, CRT, and P-gp by the BNB cell line at passage 20. Further studies demonstrated lower transendothelial electrical resistance (~181 vs. 191 ? cm(2)), equivalent permeability to fluoresceinated sodium (4.84 vs. 4.39 %), and lower permeability to fluoresceinated high molecular weight (70 kDa) dextran (0.39 vs. 0.52 %) by the BNB cell line. This cell line retained essential molecular and biophysical properties suitable for in vitro peripheral nerve permeability studies. PMID:23104242

Yosef, Nejla; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

2013-03-01

193

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 111 (2013) Printed 31 May 2013 (MN LATEX style file v2.2) Do the close binaries HD 22128 and HD 56495 contain Ap  

E-print Network

the close binaries HD 22128 and HD 56495 contain Ap or Am stars? C.P. Folsom1 , G.A. Wade2 , N.M. Johnson2 1; Accepted: 2013 ABSTRACT HD 22128 and HD 56495 are both double-lined spectroscopic binary systems with short orbital periods, which have been proposed to host magnetic Ap stars. Ap stars in short period binary

194

Glucose regulates both glucose transport and the glucose transporter gene expression in a hamster-derived pancreatic Beta-cell line (HIT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We studied the effect of chronic exposure to high glucose on the glucose transport regulation in hamster pancreatic Beta cells in permanent culture (HIT). Cells were exposed to either 5.5 mmol\\/l or 16.7 mmol\\/l glucose for 48 h and then glucose transport was studied by measuring the (3H)-2-deoxyglucose uptake for 5 and 10 min at 37 °C. The 2- deoxyglucose

F. Purrello; M. Buscema; M. Vetri; C. Vinci; C. Gatta; F. Forte; A. M. Rabuazzo; R. Vigneri

1991-01-01

195

Influx and efflux transport as determinants of melphalan cytotoxicity: Resistance to melphalan in MDR1 overexpressing tumor cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a considerable variation in efficacy of melphalan therapy in multiple myeloma (MM) and other hematopoietic tumors. We hypothesized that this may be due to variations in the expression of influx and efflux transporters of melphalan. We measured the expression of the influx transporters LAT1, LAT2, and TAT1 and the efflux transporters MDR1, MRP1 and BCRP by quantitative RT-PCR

Annett Kühne; Mladen Vassilev Tzvetkov; Yohannes Hagos; Hermann Lage; Gerhard Burckhardt; Jürgen Brockmöller

2009-01-01

196

RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS A.P.S. Selvadurai  

E-print Network

nd Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Quebec City, pp.2.154-2.172. 9. Selvadurai, A.P.S., Bauer, G Conference, Quebec City, pp.2.211-2.224. #12;10. Selvadurai, A.P.S. (1979) The flexure of a uniformly loaded

Barthelat, Francois

197

Advanced Placement Program: What's Changing in AP  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The AP Program has recently redesigned several courses in science, history, and world languages in an effort to stay strongly aligned with college credit policies and to prepare students for future learning and career pursuit. This website focuses on informing AP teachers about what's changing in AP, from course scope to exam preparation. The AP Chemistry revision will take effect in Fall, 2013. The change that will impact physics teachers most directly is the replacement of AP Physics B with two new year-long courses: AP Physics 1 Algebra-Based and AP Physics 2 Algebra-Based (scheduled to be deployed Fall, 2014). The changes to each course were guided by National Research Council and National Science Foundation recommendations, following several years of collaborations among university educators and master AP teachers. Especially noteworthy are the changes that integrate science practice as an essential component of the curriculum, along with statements that pair the essential knowledge (learning goal) to the appropriate science practice and articulate specific performance objectives.

2012-12-26

198

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - WILDLAND FIRES  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is aimed at consolidating, selecting, and disseminating the most appropriate data and methods for estimating air emissions from wildfires and prescribed burns. The product will replace a current section of AP-42, but may not take the precise form of an AP-42 secti...

199

The status of APS, BESSRC, and NEET.  

SciTech Connect

We present a brief summary of the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and of the facilities at two of the APS sectors operated by the Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotrons Radiation Center (BESSRC). This is followed by a report on recent measurements at BESSRC on the phenomenon of Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition (NEET).

Ahmad, I.; Dunford, R. W.; Esbensen, H.; Gemmell, D. S.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Rutt, U.; Southworth, S. H.

1999-03-10

200

Combustion Response of AP Composite Propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cohen & Strand model for AP composite propellants is applied as boundary conditions, one for AP and one for binder, in solving the heat conduction equation in each to compute linear and non-linear combustion response properties for each and for the aggregate propellant. Iterations couple AP and binder through the quasi-steady flame processes. Illustrative results for linear response functions (pressure-coupled and velocity-coupled) are presented for a monomodal AP propellant varying AP size, pressure and crossflow speed, and examples of non-linear responses to arbitrary waveforms are shown. A quantitative comparison with response function data is limited to one well-characterized research formulation. Mechanistic implications are discussed, including recommendations for future modeling work.

Shusser, Michael; Cohen, Norman S.; Culick, E. C.

2000-01-01

201

Observational studies of roAp stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars are high-overtone, low-degree p-mode pulsators that are also chemically peculiar magnetic A stars. Until recently the classical asteroseismic analysis i.e. frequency analysis, of these stars was based on ground and space photometric observations. Significant progress was achieved through access to uninterrupted, ultra-high-precision data from MOST, COROT and Kepler satellites. Over the last ten years the study of roAp stars has been altered drastically from an observational point of view through studies of time-resolved, high-resolution spectra. Their unusual pulsational characteristics, caused by an interplay between the short vertical lengths of the pulsation waves and strong stratification of chemical elements, allow us to examine the upper roAp atmosphere in more detail than is possible for any star except the Sun. In this paper I review the results of recent studies of the pulsations of roAp stars.

Sachkov, M.

2014-11-01

202

Reciprocal regulation among miR395, APS and SULTR2;1 in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Sulfur element plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development. Recently, we have demonstrated that miR395 is crucial for the sulfate homeostasis through regulating the sulfate uptake, transport and assimilation in Arabidopsis thaliana. miR395 controls the sulfate concentration in the shoot by targeting three ATP sulfurylase genes (APS), which encode the first enzymes catalyzing sulfate activation in sulfur assimilation pathway. Furthermore, miR395 also regulates the transport of sulfate between leaves. Under sulfate starvation conditions, upregulated miR395 represses the expression of SULTR2;1, which then confined the transport of sulfate from mature to young leaves. Of note, transcript expression analysis suggested that, unlike APS1 and APS4 mRNA, APS3 and shoot SULTR2;1 is in accordance with miR395 in response to sulfate deprivation. We proposed that the differential regulation of targets by miR395 may be required for adaptation to the sulfate deficiency environment. In addition, our results revealed that there is reciprocal regulation between SULTR2;1 and APS genes through miR395. PMID:20935495

Liang, Gang

2010-01-01

203

Reciprocal regulation among miR395, APS and SULTR2;1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Sulfur element plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development. Recently, we have demonstrated that miR395 is crucial for the sulfate homeostasis through regulating the sulfate uptake, transport and assimilation in Arabidopsis thaliana. miR395 controls the sulfate concentration in the shoot by targeting three ATP sulfurylase genes (APS), which encode the first enzymes catalyzing sulfate activation in sulfur assimilation pathway. Furthermore, miR395 also regulates the transport of sulfate between leaves. Under sulfate starvation conditions, up-regulated miR395 represses the expression of SULTR2;1, which then confined the transport of sulfate from mature to young leaves. Of note, transcript expression analysis suggested that, unlike APS1 and APS4 mRNA, APS3 and shoot SULTR2;1 is in accordance with miR395 in response to sulfate deprivation. We proposed that the differential regulation of targets by miR395 may be required for adaptation to the sulfate deficiency environment. In addition, our results revealed that there is reciprocal regulation between SULTR2;1 and APS genes through miR395. PMID:20935495

Liang, Gang; Yu, Diqiu

2010-10-01

204

Overexpression of BpAP1 induces early flowering and produces dwarfism in Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula.  

PubMed

The involvement of APETALA1 (AP1) in the flowering transition has been the focus of much research. Here, we produced Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula (birch) lines that overexpressed BpAP1 using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation; we obtained five independent 35S::BpAP1 transgenic lines. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern, northern and western analyses were used to identify the transformants. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), BpAP1 expression in roots, shoots, leaves and terminal buds of 35S::BpAP1 transgenic lines was significantly higher than that in the wild type (WT, P < 0.01). The average height of 2-year-old 35S::BpAP1 plants was significantly lower (41.17%) than that of non-transgenic plants. In the 35S::BpAP1 lines, inflorescences emerged successively beginning 2 months after transplanting. In addition, the length-diameter ratio of fully developed male and female inflorescences were both significantly less than those of the WT (P < 0.05), i.e. the morphological characteristic was stubby. The male inflorescences emerged early, with empty, draped anthers, and pollen was rarely produced, whereas the female floret structure was not different from WT. The pistils developed normally and could accept pollen, leading to the production of hybrid progeny (F1 ). F1 plants completed flowering within only 1 year after sowing. We demonstrate that BpAP1 can be inherited through sexual reproduction. Overexpression of BpAP1 caused early flowering and dwarfism; these lines had an obviously shortened juvenile phase. These results greatly increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the flowering transition and enhance genetic studies of birch traits, and they open up new possibilities for the breeding of birch and other woody plants. PMID:24200078

Huang, Haijiao; Wang, Shan; Jiang, Jing; Liu, Guifeng; Li, Huiyu; Chen, Su; Xu, Huanwen

2014-08-01

205

aP2-Cre-Mediated Inactivation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Causes Hydrometra  

PubMed Central

In this study we describe the reproductive phenotypes of a novel mouse model in which Cre-mediated deletion of ER? is regulated by the aP2 (fatty acid binding protein 4) promoter. ER?-floxed mice were crossed with transgenic mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the control of the aP2 promoter to generate aP2-Cre/ER?flox/flox mice. As expected, ER? mRNA levels were reduced in adipose tissue, but in addition we also detected an 80% reduction of ER? levels in the hypothalamus of aP2-Cre/ER?flox/flox mice. Phenotypic analysis revealed that aP2-Cre/ER?flox/flox female mice were infertile. In line with this, aP2-Cre/ER?flox/flox female mice did not cycle and presented 3.8-fold elevated estrogen levels. That elevated estrogen levels were associated with increased estrogen signaling was evidenced by increased mRNA levels of the estrogen-regulated genes lactoferrin and aquaporin 5 in the uterus. Furthermore, aP2-Cre/ER?flox/flox female mice showed an accumulation of intra-uterine fluid, hydrometra, without overt indications for causative anatomical anomalies. However, the vagina and cervix displayed advanced keratosis with abnormal quantities of accumulating squamous epithelial cells suggesting functional obstruction by keratin plugs. Importantly, treatment of aP2-Cre/ER?flox/flox mice with the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole caused regression of the hydrometra phenotype linking increased estrogen levels to the observed phenotype. We propose that in aP2-Cre/ER?flox/flox mice, increased serum estrogen levels cause over-stimulation in the uterus and genital tracts resulting in hydrometra and vaginal obstruction. PMID:24416430

Antonson, Per; Matic, Marko; Portwood, Neil; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Bryzgalova, Galyna; Gao, Hui; Windahl, Sara H.; Humire, Patricia; Ohlsson, Claes; Berggren, Per-Olof; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

2014-01-01

206

Regulation of Aggression by Obesity-Linked Genes TfAP-2 and Twz Through Octopamine Signaling in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

In Drosophila, the monoamine octopamine, through mechanisms that are not completely understood, regulates both aggression and mating behavior. Interestingly, our study demonstrates that the Drosophila obesity-linked homologs Transcription factor AP-2 (TfAP-2; TFAP2B in humans) and Tiwaz (Twz; KCTD15 in humans) interact to modify male behavior by controlling the expression of Tyramine ?-hydroxylase and Vesicular monanime transporter, genes necessary for octopamine production and secretion. Furthermore, we reveal that octopamine in turn regulates aggression through the Drosophila cholecystokinin satiation hormone homolog Drosulfakinin (Dsk). Finally, we establish that TfAP-2 is expressed in octopaminergic neurons known to control aggressive behavior and that TfAP-2 requires functional Twz for its activity. We conclude that genetically manipulating the obesity-linked homologs TfAP-2 and Twz is sufficient to affect octopamine signaling, which in turn modulates Drosophila male behavior through the regulation of the satiation hormone Dsk. PMID:24142897

Williams, Michael J.; Goergen, Philip; Rajendran, Jayasimman; Klockars, Anica; Kasagiannis, Anna; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B.

2014-01-01

207

77 FR 24480 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program-Reopening the AP Test Fee...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reopening the AP Test Fee Fiscal Year 2012 Competition AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary...reopening the AP Test Fee fiscal year 2012 competition...AP Test Fee fiscal year (FY) 2012 competition (February 15 notice). That...

2012-04-24

208

Development of the AP Technology Through Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the historical development of the AP Technology (Aluval, Voreppe, France) pot series starting with the AP13 in the 1960s, followed by the AP18 and the AP30 in the 1980s and 1990s. For most of the modern-era technology, from the late 1970s on, development has been based on a three-stage pattern, the first one being the pot modeling, followed by the pot prototype stage, and then the industrial stage, which fully validated the technology. This development pattern has proven to be successful since it has led to the very robust AP Technology pot design generation and a large number of greenfield smelters built in the 1990-2010 selected the AP Technology design. AP60 is the latest of this series: The development at the prototype level was initiated in the 1990s and is presented in the article. It is now followed by the first industrial realization at Jonquière with the startup in late 2013 and the full validation of the technology in mid-2014. The development of APXe, which aims at very low energy consumption, uses many common elements pertaining to the AP60 design and is presented in the article. AP Technology has also addressed the need for continuous and fast improvement of pot performances adapted to each existing client or site specifics; for this purpose, a new development methodology has recently emerged thanks to the very high modeling capabilities. This methodology, based on the validation of "technology bricks" and their integration in the final design following a strict process, is presented in the last section of this article.

Charmier, F.; Martin, O.; Gariepy, R.

2015-01-01

209

The A&P Professor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kevin Patton is the president emeritus of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) and he is also the brains behind the A&P (Anatomy & Physiology) Professor website. Patton has worked to create this online collection of resources for people teaching human anatomy and physiology, and it's a great counterpart to his blog of the same name. Visitors should start by looking over one of the five tabs at the top of the page, which include Resources, Topics, and How To. The How To contains resources for educators about producing online lectures and various in-class student response systems. The files here are dynamic, and they include interactive sections that make the material quite lively. Moving on, the Resources area includes an online version of an anatomy & physiology textbook created by Patton, along with links to other high-quality resources. Finally, the Lion's Den section of the site contains links to Patton's syllabi, course handouts, and a range of introductory materials for anyone who might be teaching a basic anatomy & physiology course.

Patton, Kevin T.

2012-04-06

210

Off-line algorithm for calculation of vertical tracer transport in the troposphere due to deep convection  

E-print Network

A modified cumulus convection parametrisation scheme is presented. This scheme computes the mass of air transported upward in a cumulus cell using conservation of moisture and a detailed distribution of convective precipitation ...

Belikov, D. A.

211

Extracellular ATP Modulates Ion Transport via P2Y Purinoceptors in a Middle-Ear Epithelial Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucus and cellular debris are eliminated from the middle-ear cavity through the E-tube by the mucocüiary system. Depth of the periciliary fluid layer is thought to be regulated by epithelial ion transport activity. Since impairment of the mucocüiary system is a key step in the development of otitis media with effusion, we investigated the ion transport mechanisms of the middle-ear

P.-T. Yen; P. Herman; T. van den Abbeele; C.-T. Tan; P. Bordure; R. Marianowski; G. Friedlander; P. Tran Ba Huy

1997-01-01

212

Enhancement of the helium resonance lines in the solar atmosphere by suprathermal electron excitation I: non-thermal transport of helium ions  

E-print Network

Models of the solar transition region made from lines other than those of helium cannot account for the strength of the helium lines. However, the collisional excitation rates of the helium resonance lines are unusually sensitive to the energy of the exciting electrons. Non-thermal motions in the transition region could drive slowly-ionizing helium ions rapidly through the steep temperature gradient, exposing them to excitation by electrons characteristic of higher temperatures than those describing their ionization state. We present the results of calculations which use a more physical representation of the lifetimes of the ground states of He I and He II than was adopted in earlier work on this process. New emission measure distributions are used to calculate the temperature variation with height. The results show that non-thermal motions can lead to enhancements of the He I and He II resonance line intensities by factors that are comparable with those required. Excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions would reduce the effects of non-thermal transport. The effects of non-thermal motions are more consistent with the observed spatial distribution of helium emission than are those of excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions alone. In particular, they account better for the observed line intensity ratio I(537.0 A)/I(584.3 A), and its variation with location.

G. R. Smith; C. Jordan

2002-08-16

213

Endosomal and AP-3-Dependent Vacuolar Trafficking Routes Make Additive Contributions to Candida albicans Hyphal Growth and Pathogenesis?†  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans mutants deficient in vacuolar biogenesis are defective in polarized hyphal growth and virulence. However, the specific vacuolar trafficking routes required for hyphal growth and virulence are unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two trafficking routes deliver material from the Golgi apparatus to the vacuole. One occurs via the late endosome and is dependent upon Vps21p, while the second bypasses the endosome and requires the AP-3 complex, including Aps3p. To determine the significance of these pathways in C. albicans hyphal growth and virulence, aps3?/?, vps21?/?, and aps3?/? vps21?/? mutant strains were constructed. Analysis of vacuolar morphology and localization of the vacuolar protein Mlt1p suggests that C. albicans Aps3p and Vps21p mediate two distinct transport pathways. The vps21?/? mutant has a minor reduction in hyphal elongation, while the aps3?/? mutant has no defect in hyphal growth. Interestingly, the aps3?/? vps21?/? double mutant has dramatically reduced hyphal growth. Overexpression of the Ume6p transcriptional activator resulted in constitutive hyphal growth of wild-type, aps3?/?, and vps21?/? strains and formation of highly vacuolated subapical compartments. Thus, Ume6p-dependent transcriptional responses are sufficient to induce subapical vacuolation. However, the aps3?/? vps21?/? mutant formed mainly pseudohyphae that lacked vacuolated compartments. The aps3?/? strain was virulent in a mouse model of disseminated infection; the vps21?/? mutant failed to kill mice but persisted within kidney tissue, while the double mutant was avirulent and cleared from the kidneys. These results suggest that while the AP-3 pathway alone has little impact on hyphal growth or virulence, it is much more significant when endosomal trafficking is disrupted. PMID:20870878

Palmer, Glen E.

2010-01-01

214

Transmembrane Segment 11 Appears to Line the Purine Permeation Pathway of the Plasmodium falciparum Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (PfENT1)*  

PubMed Central

Purine transport is essential for malaria parasites to grow because they lack the enzymes necessary for de novo purine biosynthesis. The Plasmodium falciparum Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (PfENT1) is a member of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) gene family. PfENT1 is a primary purine transport pathway across the P. falciparum plasma membrane because PfENT1 knock-out parasites are not viable at physiologic extracellular purine concentrations. Topology predictions and experimental data indicate that ENT family members have eleven transmembrane (TM) segments although their tertiary structure is unknown. In the current work, we showed that a naturally occurring polymorphism, F394L, in TM11 affects transport substrate Km. We investigated the structure and function of the TM11 segment using the substituted cysteine accessibility method. We showed that mutation to Cys of two highly conserved glycine residues in a GXXXG motif significantly reduces PfENT1 protein expression levels. We speculate that the conserved TM11 GXXXG glycines may be critical for folding and/or assembly. Small, cysteine-specific methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents reacted with four TM11 Cys substitution mutants, L393C, I397C, T400C, and Y403C. Larger MTS reagents do not react with the more cytoplasmic positions. Hypoxanthine, a transported substrate, protected L393C, I397C, and T400C from covalent modification by the MTS reagents. Plotted on an ?-helical wheel, Leu-393, Ile-397, and Thr-400 lie on one face of the helix in a 60° arc suggesting that TM11 is largely ? helical. We infer that they line a water-accessible surface, possibly the purine permeation pathway. These results advance our understanding of the ENT structure. PMID:20335165

Riegelhaupt, Paul M.; Frame, I. J.; Akabas, Myles H.

2010-01-01

215

Transmembrane segment 11 appears to line the purine permeation pathway of the Plasmodium falciparum equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (PfENT1).  

PubMed

Purine transport is essential for malaria parasites to grow because they lack the enzymes necessary for de novo purine biosynthesis. The Plasmodium falciparum Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (PfENT1) is a member of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) gene family. PfENT1 is a primary purine transport pathway across the P. falciparum plasma membrane because PfENT1 knock-out parasites are not viable at physiologic extracellular purine concentrations. Topology predictions and experimental data indicate that ENT family members have eleven transmembrane (TM) segments although their tertiary structure is unknown. In the current work, we showed that a naturally occurring polymorphism, F394L, in TM11 affects transport substrate K(m). We investigated the structure and function of the TM11 segment using the substituted cysteine accessibility method. We showed that mutation to Cys of two highly conserved glycine residues in a GXXXG motif significantly reduces PfENT1 protein expression levels. We speculate that the conserved TM11 GXXXG glycines may be critical for folding and/or assembly. Small, cysteine-specific methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents reacted with four TM11 Cys substitution mutants, L393C, I397C, T400C, and Y403C. Larger MTS reagents do not react with the more cytoplasmic positions. Hypoxanthine, a transported substrate, protected L393C, I397C, and T400C from covalent modification by the MTS reagents. Plotted on an alpha-helical wheel, Leu-393, Ile-397, and Thr-400 lie on one face of the helix in a 60 degrees arc suggesting that TM11 is largely alpha helical. We infer that they line a water-accessible surface, possibly the purine permeation pathway. These results advance our understanding of the ENT structure. PMID:20335165

Riegelhaupt, Paul M; Frame, I J; Akabas, Myles H

2010-05-28

216

APS Council Holds Fall Council Meeting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an article from The Physiologist. The APS Council held their fall meeting at the Scottsdale Marriott at McDowell Mountains, Scottsdale, AZ, November 8-9, 2007. Council received reports from the Publications, Finance, Membership, Education, and other Committees. APS staff members Marsha Matyas, Robert Price, Alice RaÂ?anan, and Margaret Reich joined the meeting to assist with the committee report presentations.

2008-02-01

217

Simplified SBLOCA Analysis of AP1000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AP1000 is a 1000 MWe advanced nuclear power plant design that uses passive safety features such as a multi-stage, automatic depressurization system (ADS) and gravity-driven, safety injection from core make-up tanks (CMTs) and an in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) to mitigate SBLOCA events. The period of most safety significance for AP1000 during a SBLOCA event is typically associated

William L

2004-01-01

218

APS Receives Continued Funding from NIDDK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Press Release - BETHESDA, MD (September 22, 2010)Â? The American Physiological Society (APS; www.the-APS.org) has received continued funding from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK) for an additional two years of support effective July 1, 2010. The goal of the project is to encourage highly qualified students from groups underrepresented in the biomedical/behavioral sciences (especially underrepresented minority students) to pursue professional careers in physiological/biomedical sciences.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2010-09-22

219

Effect of Magnetic Fringe Field and Interference on Beam Matching in a Medium Energy Beam Transport Line of the Spallation Neutron Source Linac  

SciTech Connect

A Medium-Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line is employed in the SNS linac to match the beam from an RFQ to a DTL and to perform other functions. The MEBT lattice consists of fourteen electromagnetic quadrupoles and other devices. The quads have very small aspect ratios (steel length over aperture diameter), and they are densely packed in the lattice. Significant fringe fields and magnetic interference cause difficulties in beam matching. We have performed 3D simulations of the magnets, computed their optical properties, and compared their performance with what predicted by simple hard edge models. This paper reports our findings and a general solution to the problem.

Wang, Jian-Guang [ORNL; Zhang, Yan [ORNL

2011-01-01

220

Radial Velocity Variations in Pulsating Ap Stars. II. 33 Librae  

E-print Network

We present precise relative radial velocity (RV) measurements for the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star 33 Librae measured from high resolution data spanning the wavelength interval 5000--6200 A. We find that pulsational radial velocity amplitude determined over a broad wavelength range (~100 A) depends on the spectral region that is examined and can be as high as 60 m/s at 5600 A and as low as 7 m/s in the 5900 A region. RV measurements of individual spectral lines can show even higher RV amplitudes. The acoustic cross-sections of the atmosphere, i.e. the phase and amplitude of the pulsations, as a function of optical depth is found for spectral lines of Ca, Cr, Fe, La, Ce, Gd, Er and Nd. This analysis shows that pulsation phase is variable through the atmosphere and that Nd III lines pulsate almost 180 degrees out-of-phase with those of Nd II features and are formed significantly higher in the stellar atmosphere. This conclusively establishes the presence of at least one radial node to the pulsations in the upper stellar atmosphere. The histogram of pulsational phases for all individual spectral feature shows a bi-modal Gaussian distribution with 17% of the lines having a pulsational phase approximatels 165 degrees out-of-phase with most other spectral lines. This is also consistent with the presence of a radial node in the stellar atmosphere. The accumulation of phase due to a running wave component can explain the 165 degree phase difference as well as the broader width (by a factor of two) of one of the Gaussian components of the phase distribution.

David E. Mkrtichian; Artie P. Hatzes; Antonio Kanaan

2003-07-18

221

The surface chemistry of the magnetic Ap star HD 147010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HD 147010 is a hot (Teff = 13 000 K), large-field magnetic Ap star that is a member of the Upper Scorpius-Centaurus Association, which means it is a star with a well-defined age (log t = 6.70). We offer a comprehensive analysis of the magnetic field and surface chemistry of HD 147010 based on seven spectra obtained using CFHT's ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter. This data set is sufficient to obtain a first-order model of the magnetic field and obtain the abundance distribution of He, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Sr, La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm. The magnetic field model is a low-order multipole expansion based on the variations of the line of sight and surface magnetic fields with rotation. Spectral synthesis was carried out using ZEEMAN, a program which takes into account the influence of the magnetic field. A simple model of uniform abundance in each of two rings in the observed magnetic hemisphere with equal spans in colatitude was used. The new magnetic field measurements enabled us to re-analyse the rotation period of HD 147010, finding P = 3.9207 ± 0.0003 d. The line of sight and surface magnetic field strengths vary from about -2000 to -5000 G and 11000 to 17000 G, respectively. Our analysis finds large overabundances of Fe-peak and rare-earth elements relative to the solar ratios. In all cases, where strong variability in surface chemistry is observed, abundances are higher near the magnetic equator as compared to the magnetic pole. HD 147010 appears to be an Ap star that is highly rich in rare-earth elements that are of the order of 105 times more abundant than in the Sun. This analysis adds to the growing number of hot Ap stars for which both the magnetic field and abundance distribution have been studied in detail.

Bailey, J. D.; Landstreet, J. D.

2013-06-01

222

Acute regulation of glucose transport in a monocyte-macrophage cell line: Glut-3 affinity for glucose is enhanced during the respiratory burst.  

PubMed Central

Activation of the respiratory burst imposes acute metabolic demands on phagocytic cells. These are met by mobilizing internal energy stores and by increasing the utilization of exogenous energy, including glucose in the circulation. To determine whether the increased glucose uptake that is known to be associated with the respiratory burst involves the regulation of glucose transporter molecules, the intrinsic transport properties of glucose transporters on the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were determined after activation with PMA, N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP) and the cytokines granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 3 (IL-3). Treatment with PMA resulted in a 2-fold increase in respiratory burst activity within 10 min; this was associated with a 30-50% increase in 2-deoxyglucose uptake and a 4-fold increase in transporter affinity for glucose. Similarly, fMLP, GM-CSF and IL-3 treatments stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake that was associated with a 3-4-fold increase in transporter affinity for glucose. To determine whether the changes observed in 2-deoxyglucose uptake in response to PMA, fMLP and growth factors were influenced by phosphorylation of the sugar, 3-O-methylglucose, which is not phosphorylated, was used. Increased 3-O-methylglucose uptake and increased transporter affinity for glucose were also observed after PMA, fMLP and GM-CSF treatments. Whereas both fMLP and GM-CSF stimulated superoxide production, IL-3 failed to activate respiratory burst activity. The protein kinase inhibitors genistein and staurosporine inhibited the increase in 2-deoxyglucose uptake observed with fMLP and GM-CSF, and partly reversed the affinity increase towards that of untreated control cells. In contrast, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin had little effect on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in response to these activators. Western blotting with subtype-specific antisera showed that Glut-3 was the predominant transporter on RAW 264.7 cells. These studies demonstrate that acute regulation of glucose transporters occurs in response to activators that promote respiratory burst activity, and show that this regulation involves both tyrosine kinases and protein kinase C activity. PMID:9359403

Ahmed, N; Kansara, M; Berridge, M V

1997-01-01

223

Characteristics of AP bias in spin valve memory elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spin valve memory element biased with a pair of antiparallel (AP) coupled ferromagnetic layer was analyzed and modeled via micromagnetic simulation. In an AP structure, an external field results in a torque, causing the antiparallel magnetization (AP) axis to rotate towards the direction orthogonal to the field. In addition, due to its strength difference between the two AP layers, the

Jian-Gang Zhu; Youfeng Zheng

1998-01-01

224

Expression and functional activity of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) transporter in the human choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo.  

PubMed

1. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) is a drug efflux transporter that is believed to affect the drug disposition of several drugs and xenobiotics. In the present study, we evaluated the localization and functional expression of BCRP in the human choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo, an in vitro model of the human trophoblast, and compared it with the expression of P-glycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1) as the most widely studied placental transporter. In addition, the expression of BCRP at the mRNA level was compared with that of MDR1 in the human term placenta. 2. Western blotting analysis revealed high endogenous expression of BCRP protein in BeWo cells. Using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that the BCRP transporter appears to be localized predominantly at the apical plasma membrane. Functional studies showed a significant effect of the BCRP inhibitors GF120918 (5 micromol/L) and Ko143 (1 micromol/L) on mitoxantrone accumulation and, thus, confirmed efflux activity of BCRP in BeWo cells. 3. Using absolute mRNA quantification with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we found high expression of BCRP in BeWo cells, whereas no transcript of MDR1 (P-glycoprotein), the most extensively studied drug transporter, was detected. 4. In the human placenta, BCRP was localized predominantly in the syncytiotrophoblast layer; however, immunopositivity for the BXP-21 antibody was also observed in fetal vessels of the chorionic villi. The number of BCRP transcripts in the human term placenta was found to be more than 10-fold higher compared with the expression of MDR1. 5. In conclusion, we suggest that BeWo cells could serve as a suitable in vitro model to study trans-trophoblast transport of BCRP substrates and that placental BCRP can play an important role in preventing the accumulation of potentially toxic xenobiotics in the trophoblast cells. PMID:16445700

Ceckova, Martina; Libra, Antonin; Pavek, Petr; Nachtigal, Petr; Brabec, Marianne; Fuchs, Renate; Staud, Frantisek

2006-01-01

225

Copernicus observations of the Ap star Epsilon Ursae Majoris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral scans of the Ap star Epsilon UMa made with the Copernicus satellite show strong line blanketing from profuse Cr II and Fe II lines. In the spectral region covering 1900 to 3000 A, about 500 lines are present which suppress the apparent continuum by at least 15-30%. An accurate line-identification list is compiled showing Eu II present in addition to Mn II and Ni II. The identification of Eu II, however, rests on very stringent identification limits for Fe II. If these are relaxed, the existence of Eu II is dubious. There are no broad features in this spectral region which would suggest strong photoionization discontinuities by metals, but one feature near 2137 A might contain the photoionization edge due to Cr I 5S lying 0.94 eV above the ground level. However, a significant correlation between the line-blanketing strength and the amplitude of the OAO-2 ultraviolet light curves was found such that both monotonically increase in the same proportion toward shorter wavelengths. This gives additional strength to the suggestion that variations in the metal line-blanketing cause the observed photometric variations.

Mallama, A. D.; Molnar, M. R.

1977-01-01

226

The chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660  

SciTech Connect

In this work I present the determination of chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660, a possible rapid oscillating star. As all the magnetic chemically peculiar objects, it presents CNO underabundance and overabundance of iron peak elements of ?100 times and of rare earths up to 4 dex with respect to the Sun. The determination was based on the conversion of the observed equivalent widths into abundances simultaneously to the determination of effective temperature and gravity. Since the Balmer lines of early type stars are very sensitive to the surface gravity while the flux distribution is sensitive to the effective temperature, I have adopted an iterative procedure to match the H{sub ?} line profile and the observed UV-Vis-NIR magnitudes of HD94660 looking for a consistency between the metallicity of the atmosphere model and the derived abundances. From my spectroscopic analysis, this star belongs to the no-rapid oscillating class.

Giarrusso, M. [Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy)

2014-05-09

227

ADVANCED PLACEMENT (AP) # AP Course Title Crs Num MSU Course Title Credit  

E-print Network

ADVANCED PLACEMENT (AP) # AP Course Title Crs Num MSU Course Title Credit 13 Art History ARTH 200IA Environmental Sci & Lab BIOE 103CS Environmental Sci & Society 4 43 European History HSTR 101IH Western Art of World Civilization I 3 AND ARTH 201IA Art of World Civilization II 3 14 Art: Studio Art

Dyer, Bill

228

ANL/APS/TB-24 Diamond Monochromators for APS Undulator-A Beamlines  

E-print Network

synthetic diamonds can currently be obtained in the minimum necessary size (typically 4-5 mm on a sideANL/APS/TB-24 Diamond Monochromators for APS Undulator-A Beamlines R.C. Blasdell, L. A. Assoufid .................................................................................1 2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF DIAMONDS ..................................................5 2

Kemner, Ken

229

Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed.

Steen, F.H.

1997-12-22

230

Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

1981-01-01

231

Simplified SBLOCA Analysis of AP1000  

SciTech Connect

The AP1000 is a 1000 MWe advanced nuclear power plant design that uses passive safety features such as a multi-stage, automatic depressurization system (ADS) and gravity-driven, safety injection from core make-up tanks (CMTs) and an in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) to mitigate SBLOCA events. The period of most safety significance for AP1000 during a SBLOCA event is typically associated with the actuation of the fourth stage of the ADS and subsequent transition from CMT to IRWST safety injection. As this period of a SBLOCA is generally of a quasi-steady nature, the integral performance of the AP1000 can be understood and evaluated with a simplified model of the reactor vessel, ADS, and safety injection from the CMTs and IRWST. The simplified model of the AP1000 consists of a series of steady state simulations that uses drift flux in the core region and homogeneous treatment of the core exit region including the ADS flow paths to generate a family of core flow demand curves as a function of system pressure (i.e. mass flow required to satisfy core cooling). These core flow demand curves are plotted against passive safety system supply curves from the CMTs and IRWST to demonstrate the adequacy of the integral performance of the AP1000 during the most important phase of a SBLOCA. (author)

Brown, William L. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA 15230 (United States)

2004-07-01

232

Identification of AP80978, a Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus Replication That Targets NS4B  

PubMed Central

A small-molecule inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) designated AP89652 was identified by screening a compound library with an HCV genotype 1b subgenomic replicon assay. AP89652 contains two chiral centers, and testing of two syn enantiomers revealed that activity in the replicon assay resided with only one, AP80978, whose 50% effective concentration (EC50) (the concentration at which a 50% reduction in Renilla luciferase levels was observed relative to an untreated control) was 630 nM. AP80978 was inhibitory against HCV genotypes 1a and 1b but not genotype 2a. In a replicon clearance assay, the potency and clearance rate of AP80978 were similar to those of telaprevir (VX950) and cyclosporine (CsA). AP80978 was nontoxic when tested against a panel of human cell lines, and inhibitory activity was HCV specific in that there was limited activity against negative-strand viruses, an alphavirus, and flaviviruses. By selection of resistant replicons and assessment of activity in genotype 1b/2a intergenotypic replicons, the viral protein target of this compound was identified as NS4B. NS4B F98V/L substitutions were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis as AP80978 resistance-associated mutations. When tested against HCV produced in cell culture, the compound was significantly more potent than other HCV inhibitors, including VX950, CsA, and 2?-C-methyladenosine (2?C-meA). In addition, AP80977, the enantiomer that was inactive in the replicon assay, had activity against the virus, although it was lower than the activity of AP80978. These results suggest that AP80978 has the potential to be optimized into an effective antiviral drug and is a useful tool to further study the role of NS4B in HCV replication. PMID:24709254

Dufner-Beattie, Jodi; O'Guin, Andrew; O'Guin, Stephanie; Briley, Aaron; Wang, Bin; Balsarotti, Jennifer; Roth, Robert; Starkey, Gale; Slomczynska, Urszula; Noueiry, Amine; Olivo, Paul D.

2014-01-01

233

M ap Info ... SQL Server " , ,,oe , , ,  

E-print Network

M ap Info ¿...°·¨º SQL Server °¿" » , ,,oe , , ´ , ´· (~'·§ G IS º£,--^--¿¸ø , ~' 210093^ Delphi °`¸ M ap Info ¿...° SQL Server °¿~¨«,,--··¢¡£ ,,...·° : G IS; ¿...° ; ,,--°¿ ; ¨«,,··¢ ;M ap Info; SQL Server --...·"¯ : P208¡¡¡¡ ~­OE°¶´º : A ¡¡¡¡ ~´­"¯ : 1000- 3177(2001) 61- 0026- 0030 1¡¡¡¡ --¯¢ (G

Li, Xiang

234

Single-Bunch Electron Cloud Effects in the GLC/NLC, US-Cold and TESLA Low Emittance Transport Lines  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the severity of the electron cloud effects in the Low Emittance Transport (LET) of linear colliders including the Bunch-Compressor System (BCS) and Beam Delivery System (BDS). We examine the electron cloud effects in the normal-conducting GLC/NLC or X-Band, and the super-conducting US-Cold and TESLA linear collider designs through the use of specially developed computer simulation codes. An estimate of the critical cloud density is given for the BDS and BCS of the X-Band collider.

Bates, D.

2005-04-12

235

Sorting of the Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid Precursor Protein Mediated by the AP-4 Complex  

SciTech Connect

Adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is the most recently discovered and least well-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes that mediate sorting of transmembrane cargo in post-Golgi compartments. Herein, we report the interaction of an YKFFE sequence from the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the {micro}4 subunit of AP-4. Biochemical and X-ray crystallographic analyses reveal that the properties of the APP sequence and the location of the binding site on 4 are distinct from those of other signal-adaptor interactions. Disruption of the APP-AP-4 interaction decreases localization of APP to endosomes and enhances {gamma}-secretase-catalyzed cleavage of APP to the pathogenic amyloid-{beta} peptide. These findings demonstrate that APP and AP-4 engage in a distinct type of signal-adaptor interaction that mediates transport of APP from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes, thereby reducing amyloidogenic processing of the protein.

Burgos, Patricia V.; Mardones, Gonzalo A.; Rojas, Adriana L.; daSilva, Luis L.P.; Prabhu, Yogikala; Hurley, James H.; Bonifacino, Juan S. (NIH)

2010-08-12

236

The Clathrin Adaptor AP-1A Mediates Basolateral Polarity  

PubMed Central

Summary Clathrin and the epithelial-specific clathrin adaptor AP-1B mediate basolateral trafficking in epithelia. However, several epithelia lack AP-1B and mice knocked-out for AP-1B are viable, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms that control basolateral polarity. Here, we demonstrate a distinct role of the ubiquitous clathrin adaptor AP-1A in basolateral protein sorting. Knock-down of AP-1A causes missorting of basolateral proteins in MDCK cells but only after knock-down of AP-1B, suggesting that AP-1B can compensate for lack of AP-1A. AP-1A localizes predominantly to the TGN and its knock-down promotes spillover of basolateral proteins into common recycling endosomes, the site of function of AP-1B, suggesting complementary roles of both adaptors in basolateral sorting. Yeast two-hybrid assays detect interactions between the basolateral signal of TfR and the medium subunits of both AP-1A and AP-1B. The basolateral sorting function of AP-1A reported here establishes AP-1 as a major regulator of epithelial polarity. PMID:22516199

Gravotta, Diego; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Mattera, Rafael; Deborde, Sylvie; Banfelder, Jason R.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

2013-01-01

237

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - TRANSPORTABILITY FACTORS FOR FUGITIVE DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The product is a table of factors, one for each county in the US, reflecting the portion of fugitive dust removed very close to the source via impaction on vegetation and similar mechanisms. Factors were based on land cover in area (county or grid cell) A praft final product was...

238

E6AP mediates regulated proteasomal degradation of the nuclear receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 in immortalized cells.  

PubMed

The steroid receptor coactivator oncogene, amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1; also known as ACTR/RAC-3/TRAM-1/SRC-3/p/CIP), is amplified and overexpressed in a variety of epithelial tumors. AIB1 has been reported to have roles in both steroid-dependent and steroid-independent transcription during tumor progression. In this report, we describe that the cellular levels of AIB1 are controlled through regulated proteasomal degradation. We found that serum withdrawal or growth in high cell density caused rapid degradation of AIB1 protein, but not mRNA, in immortalized cell lines. Proteasome inhibitors prevented this process, and high molecular weight ubiquitylated species of AIB1 were detected. Nuclear export was required for proteasomal degradation of AIB1 and involved the ubiquitin ligase, E6AP. AIB1/E6AP complexes were detected in cellular extracts, and reduction of cellular E6AP levels with E6AP short interfering RNA prevented proteasomal degradation of AIB1. Conversely, overexpression of E6AP promoted AIB1 degradation. The COOH terminus of AIB1 interacted with E6AP in vitro and deletion of this region in AIB1 rendered it resistant to degradation in cells. From our results, we propose a model whereby signals promoted by changes in the cellular milieu initiate E6AP-mediated proteasomal degradation of AIB1 and thus contribute to the control of steady-state levels of this protein. PMID:16951183

Mani, Aparna; Oh, Annabell S; Bowden, Emma T; Lahusen, Tyler; Lorick, Kevin L; Weissman, Allan M; Schlegel, Richard; Wellstein, Anton; Riegel, Anna T

2006-09-01

239

Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils  

SciTech Connect

Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1.

Hirano, Toru [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higa, Shinji [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Arimitsu, Junsuke [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Naka, Tetsuji [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ogata, Atsushi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shima, Yoshihito [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Fujimoto, Minoru [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamadori, Tomoki [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki [Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan); Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kawase, Ichiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshio [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Rheumatic Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: ttanak@imed3.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

2006-02-03

240

APS Presents Awards at 2007 ABRCMS Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The APS presented awards to six minority undergraduate researchers for their oral and poster presentations in the physiological sciences at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS) at the Austin Convention Center in Austin, TX from November 7-10, 2007. ABRCMS is a national conference designed to facilitate increased minority involvement in biomedical and behavioral science careers.

APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

2008-02-01

241

Why are magnetic AP stars slowly rotating?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational data on rotation of Ap stars suggest that the bulk of their rotation rates orm a separate Maxwellian distribution with an average value 3-4 times lower than the normal star distribution. No evidences for a significant angular momentum (AM) loss on the main sequence (MS) have been found. It is thus concluded that Ap stars must lose a large fraction of their initial angular momentum (AM) in the pre-MS phase of evolution, most probably as a result of the interaction of their primordial magnetic fields with accretion disks and stellar winds. The observationally most acceptable values of accretion rate from the disk, 10^(-8) M_(Sun)/year, of mass loss rate via a magnetized wind, 10^(-8) M_(Sun)/year, and of the surface magnetic field, 1 kG on the ZAMS, result in the AM loss in full agreement with observations. There exists a separate group of extremely slowly rotating Ap stars, with periods of the order of 10-100 years. They are too numerous to come from the distribution describing the bulk of Ap stars. It is conjectured that their extremely low rotation rates are the result of additional AM loss on the MS.

Stepien, K.

1998-04-01

242

Yasir Suhail KvAP channel  

E-print Network

till 100oC, easy to crystallize · Crystal structure worked out by x-ray #12;3 KvAP · Monoclonal during depolarization (channel open) to expose the epitope · The Plan ... ­ Introduce cysteine at a specific site ­ Biotynilate the cysteine residue ­ Use avidin binding to biotinylated cysteine to probe

Yue, David

243

APS Forum on Education Summer 2006 Newsletter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The APS Forum on Education (FEd) Summer 2006 Newsletter's Teacher Preparation Section articles included:The Learning Assistant Model for Teacher Education in Science and Technology by Valerie Otero,Undergraduate Learning Assistants at the University of Arkansas by Gay Stewart, andCreating and Sustaining a Teaching and Learning Professional Community at Seattle Pacific University by Lane Seeley and Stamatis Vokos.

2007-09-07

244

APS Presents Awards at 2006 ABRCMS Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An article from The Physiologist. The APS presented awards to minority undergraduate researchers and was a major conference sponsor at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS) at the Anaheim Convention Center and Anaheim Marriott hotel in Anaheim, CA from November 8-11, 2006.

APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

2007-04-01

245

AP Biology Investigation #6: Cellular Respiration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Advanced Placement Investigation into cellular respiration (#6). The investigation was developed by the College Board for use in AP Biology classes. Students begin by investigating the question, What factors affect the rate of cellular respiration in multicellular organisms? Later, students investigate one of their own questions that arose during the first investigation. Wisconsin Fast Plants are used as a model organism.

Approach, Ap B.

246

The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

2005-01-01

247

Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and…

Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

2013-01-01

248

Na/Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCn1 in the Kidney Medullary Thick Ascending Limb Cell Line is Upregulated under Acidic Conditions and Enhances Ammonium Transport  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined the effect of bicarbonate transporters on ammonium/ammonia uptake in the medullary thick ascending limb cell line ST-1. Cells were treated with 1 mM ouabain and 0.2 mM bumetanide to minimize carrier-mediated NH4+ transport, and the intracellular accumulation of 14C-methylammonium/methylammonia (MA) was determined. In CO2?HCO3?-free solution, cells at normal pH briefly accumulated 14C-MA over 7 min and reached a plateau. In CO2?HCO3? solution, however, cells markedly accumulated 14C-MA over the experiment period of 30 min. This CO2?HCO3?-dependent accumulation was reduced by the bicarbonate transporter blocker 4,4’-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2’-disulfonate (DIDS; 0.5 mM). Replacing Cl– with gluconate reduced the accumulation but the reduction was more substantial in the presence of DIDS. Incubating cells at pH 6.8 (adjusted with NaHCO3 in 5% CO2) for 24 h lowered the mean steady-state intracellular pH to 6.96, significantly lower than 7.28 for controls. DIDS reduced 14C-MA accumulation in controls but had no effect after acidic incubation. Immunoblot showed that NBCn1 was upregulated after acidic incubation and in NH4Cl-containing media. The Cl/HCO3 exchanger AE2 was present but its expression remained unaffected by acidic incubation. Expressed in Xenopus oocytes, NBCn1 increased carrier-mediated 14C-MA transport, which was abolished by replacing Na+. Two-electrode voltage clamp of oocytes exhibited negligible current after NH4Cl application. These results suggest that DIDS-sensitive HCO3? extrusion normally governs NH4+/NH3 uptake in the MTAL cells. We propose that, under acidic conditions, DIDS-sensitive HCO3? extrusion is inactivated while NBCn1 is upregulated to stimulate NH4+ transport. PMID:20591978

Lee, Soojung; Lee, Hye Jeong; Yang, Han Soo; Thornell, Ian M.; Bevensee, Mark O.; Choi, Inyeong

2010-01-01

249

THE EVALUATION OF PEPTIDE/HISTIDINE TRANSPORTER 1 (PHT1) FUNCTION: UPTAKE KINETICS UTILIZING A COS-7 STABLY TRANSFECTED CELL LINE  

PubMed Central

There have been relatively few studies focused on the proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter (POT) superfamily member, Peptide/Histidine Transporter 1 (PHT1), with respect to its contribution to the ADME of peptides and peptide-based drugs. These studies were conducted to determine hPHT1-mediated, H+-dependent uptake kinetics of histidine, carnosine, Gly-Sar and valacyclovir in stably transfected hPHT1-COS-7 cells comparative to kinetics determined in an empty vector (Mock) stably transfected cell line. The results suggest that Gly-Sar appears to be a substrate for PHT1 based on efflux from the stably transfected hPHT1 COS-7 cells. Histidine and Gly-Sar concentration- and time-dependent studies suggest mixed-uptake kinetics. These studies suggest that stably transfected hPHT1-COS-7 cells exhibit different uptake kinetics than those observed in our previous studies and illustrate the requirement for experiments to delineate the physiological role of hPHT1. PMID:23888104

Lindley, David J.; Carl, Stephen M.; Mowery, Stephanie A.; Knipp, Gregory T.

2012-01-01

250

Transport of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor into Liposomes across the Blood-Brain Barrier: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies  

PubMed Central

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was encapsulated into liposomes in order to protect it from enzyme degradation in vivo and promote its permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, GDNF conventional liposomes (GDNF-L) and GDNF target sterically stabilized liposomes (GDNF-SSL-T) were prepared. The average size of liposomes was below 90 nm. A primary model of BBB was established and evaluated by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability. This BBB model was employed to study the permeability of GDNF liposomes in vitro. The results indicated that the liposomes could enhance transport of GDNF across the BBB and GDNF-SSL-T had achieved the best transport efficacy. The distribution of GDNF liposomes was studied in vivo. Free GDNF and GDNF-L were eliminated rapidly in the circulation. GDNF-SSL-T has a prolonged circulation time in the blood and favorable brain delivery. The values of the area under the curve (AUC(0–1 h)) in the brain of GDNF-SSL-T was 8.1 times and 6.8 times more than that of free GDNF and GDNF-L, respectively. These results showed that GDNF-SSL-T realized the aim of targeted delivery of therapeutic proteins to central nervous system. PMID:24583850

Wu, Shaoling; Li, Guoqi; Li, Xiao; Lin, Caina; Yu, Ding; Luan, Shuo; Ma, Chao

2014-01-01

251

Growth-stimulating effect on transferrin on a hybridoma cell line: Relation to transferrin iron-transporting function  

SciTech Connect

The relation of the growth-stimulating capacity of transferrin to its iron-transporting function was investigated in mouse hybridoma PLV-01 cells cultivated in a chemically defined medium. The cells were precultivated in protein-free medium supplemented either with ferric citrate (cells with a high intracellular iron level) or with iron-saturated transferrin (cells with a low intracellular iron level). Iron uptake was monitored after the application of {sup 59}Fe-labeled ferric citrate or pig transferrin. Cultivation of the cells at the optimum growth-stimulating concentration (500{mu}M) of ferric citrate resulted in an intracellular iron level about 100-fold higher than that of cells cultivated at the optimum transferrin concentration. Replacement of pig transferrin with bovine transferrin resulted in similar intracellular iron levels, but the growth-stimulating effect of bovine transferrin was more than one order of magnitude lower. Cells with a high intracellular iron level grew equally well when cultivated with iron-saturated transferrin or with apotransferrin + deferoxamine. The results suggest that transferrin can act as a cell growth factor only in the iron-saturated form. However, several findings of this work indicate that supplying cells with iron cannot be accepted as the full explanation of the transferrin growth-stimulating effect.

Kovar, J.; Franek, F. (Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

1989-06-01

252

Microcystin-LR induces anoikis resistance to the hepatocyte uptake transporter OATP1B3-expressing cell lines.  

PubMed

Microcystin-LR is a cyclic peptide released by several bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Understanding the mechanism of microcystin-LR toxicity is important, because of the both potencies of its acute cytotoxicity and tumor-promoting activity in hepatocytes of animals and humans. Recently, we have reported that the expression of human hepatocyte uptake transporter OATP1B3 was critical for the selective uptake of microcystin-LR into hepatocytes and for induction of its fatal cytotoxicity. In this study, we demonstrated a novel function of microcystin-LR which induced bipotential changes including anoikis resistance and cytoskeleton reorganization to OATP1B3-transfected HEK293 cells (HEK293-OATP1B3). After exposure to microcystin-LR, HEK293-OATP1B3 cells were divided to the floating cells and remaining adherent cells. After collection and reseeding the floating cells into a fresh flask, cells were confluently proliferated (HEK293-OATP1B3-FL) under the microcystin-LR-free condition. Both the proliferated HEK293-OATP1B3-FL and remaining adherent HEK293-OATP1B3-AD cells changed the character with down- and up-regulation of E-cadherin, respectively. Additionally, these cells acquired resistance to microcystin-LR. These results suggest that microcystin-LR could be associated with not only tumor promotion, but also epithelial-mesenchymal transition-mediated cancer metastasis. Furthermore, microcystin-LR might induce the cytoskeleton reorganization be accompanied epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:25456266

Takano, Hiroyuki; Takumi, Shota; Ikema, Satoshi; Mizoue, Nozomi; Hotta, Yuki; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Komatsu, Masaharu

2014-12-01

253

Comparison of In vitro Nanoparticles Uptake in Various Cell Lines and In vivo Pulmonary Cellular Transport in Intratracheally Dosed Rat Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present study, the potential drug delivery of nanoformulations was validated via the comparison of cellular uptake of nanoparticles in various cell lines and in vivo pulmonary cellular uptake in intratracheally (IT) dosed rat model. Nanoparticles were prepared by a bench scale wet milling device and incubated with a series of cell lines, including Caco-2, RAW, MDCK and MDCK transfected MDR1 cells. IT dosed rats were examined for the pulmonary cellular uptake of nanoparticles. The processes of nanoparticle preparation did not alter the crystalline state of the material. The uptake of nanoparticles was observed most extensively in RAW cells and the least in Caco-2 cells. Efflux transporter P-gp did not prevent cell from nanoparticles uptake. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles was also confirmed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cells and in bronchiolar epithelial cells, type II alveolar epithelial cells in the intratracheally administrated rats. The nanoparticles uptake in MDCK, RAW cells and in vivo lung epithelial cells indicated the potential applications of nanoformulation for poorly soluble compounds. The observed limited direct uptake of nanoparticles in Caco-2 cells suggests that the improvement in oral bioavailability by particle size reduction is via increased dissolution rate rather than direct uptake.

Lai, Yurong; Chiang, Po-Chang; Blom, Jason D.; Li, Na; Shevlin, Kimberly; Brayman, Timothy G.; Hu, Yiding; Selbo, Jon G.; Hu, Liangbiao George

2008-09-01

254

YB-1 represses AP1-dependent gene transactivation and interacts with an AP-1 DNA sequence  

PubMed Central

Involvement of the AP-1 (activator protein-1) transcription factor has been demonstrated previously in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell-cycle progression, in the control of cell migration, invasion and metastasis, and in signal transduction, stress responsiveness, DNA replication and DNA repair. YB-1 (Y-box-binding protein-1) has also been implicated in many of these processes. However, the mechanism by which YB-1 mediates these processes is poorly understood. In the present study, we report that overexpression of a transfected gene encoding YB-1 in human HeLa cervical carcinoma cells significantly represses the transactivation of a minimal AP-1 reporter construct in response to the tumour promoter PMA. YB-1 also represses mRNA expression and PMA-induced promoter transactivation of the endogenous AP-1 target gene encoding matrix metalloproteinase-12 (metalloelastase). YB-1 transrepression of both the minimal and matrix metalloproteinase-12 promoter reporter constructs is dependent on the AP-1 sequence. To identify new nuclear proteins that bind specifically to the AP-1 DNA-binding site, we devised a DNA-affinity-chromatography-based assay termed NAPSTER (nucleotide-affinity preincubation specificity test of recognition) and discovered a 49 kDa protein from human cancer cells that binds in a sequence-specific manner to the AP-1 DNA sequence. By tandem MS fragmentation sequencing analyses we determined that p49 is a YB-1. Immunoblotting of the NAPSTER-purified p49 protein using anti-YB-1 antibodies confirmed YB-1 binding to the AP-1 DNA sequence, as did gel mobility-supershift assays using YB-1 antibodies. This is the first report of YB-1 transrepression and interaction at the AP-1 DNA-binding site. PMID:15702969

2005-01-01

255

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This project develops emission factors, etc., for residential fireplaces and woodstoves which are incorporated into AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness infor...

256

The mitochondrial transport protein SLC25A43 affects drug efficacy and drug-induced cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The mitochondria have been identified as key players of apoptosis, cell proliferation and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of mitochondria in breast cancer and treatment failure remains unclear. We have previously shown a common deletion of the gene SLC25A43 in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. This gene is coding for a mitochondrial inner membrane transporter and, to date, little is known about the function of this protein. We have also found that low protein expression of SLC25A43 significantly correlates with a lower S phase fraction in HER2-positive breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether knockdown (KD) of SLC25A43 could have an effect on the cytotoxicity of different cytostatic drugs using MCF10A, MCF7 and BT-474 cells. Following siRNA-mediated KD of SLC25A43, one non-malignant and two breast cancer cell lines were exposed to the anthracycline epirubicin or the taxane paclitaxel. The HER2-positive breast cancer cells were also exposed to the targeted therapy trastuzumab and dual exposure to trastuzumab and paclitaxel. We found that KD of SLC25A43 resulted in a decreased cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel in the two cancer cell lines (P<0.05). Further analysis of cell cycle phase distribution showed that KD increased the paclitaxel-induced G2/M block in these two cell lines (P<0.05). KD of SLC25A43 also reduced the inhibitory effect of trastuzumab on cell proliferation in the HER2-positive cancer cell line BT-474 (P<0.05), and the drug-induced G0/G1 block (P<0.05). Moreover, SLC25A43 influenced the percentage of Ki-67-positive cells. Our findings demonstrate that the mitochondrial protein SLC25A43 affects drug efficacy and cell cycle regulation following drug exposure in breast cancer cell lines. PMID:23354756

Gabrielson, Marike; Tina, Elisabet

2013-04-01

257

CYLD Inhibits Tumorigenesis and Metastasis by Blocking JNK/AP1 Signaling at Multiple Levels  

PubMed Central

CYLD has been recognized as a tumor suppressor due to its dominant genetic linkage to multiple types of epidermal tumors and a range of other cancers. The molecular mechanisms governing CYLD control of skin cancer are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that K14-driven epidermal expression of a patient relevant and catalytically deficient CYLD truncation mutant (CYLDm) sensitized mice to skin tumor development in response to DMBA/TPA-challenge. Tumors developed on transgenic mice were prone to malignant progression and lymph node metastasis, and displayed increased activation of JNK and the downstream c-Jun and c-Fos proteins. Most importantly, topical application of a pharmacological JNK inhibitor significantly reduced tumor development and abolished metastasis in the transgenic mice. Further in line with these animal data, exogenous expression of CYLDm in A431, a human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line, markedly enhanced cell growth, migration and subcutaneous tumor growth in an AP1-depdendent manner. In contrast, expression of the wild type CYLD inhibited SCC tumorigenesis and AP1 function. Most importantly, CYLDm not only increased JNK activation but also induced an upregulation of K63-ubiquitination on both c-Jun and c-Fos, leading to sustained AP1 activation. Our findings uncovered c-Jun and c-Fos as novel CYLD-targets and underscore that CYLD controls epidermal tumorigenesis through blocking the JNK/AP1 signaling pathway at multiple levels. PMID:21478324

de Marval, Paula Miliani; Lutfeali, Shazia; Jin, Jane Y.; Leshin, Benjamin; Selim, M. Angelica; Zhang, Jennifer Y.

2011-01-01

258

Curcumin inhibits AP-2?-induced apoptosis in the human malignant testicular germ cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the effects of curcumin on proliferation and apoptosis in testicular cancer cells in vitro and to investigate its molecular mechanisms of action. Methods: NTera-2 human malignant testicular germ cell line and F9 mouse teratocarcinoma stem cell line were used. The anti-proliferative effect was examined using MTT and colony formation assays. Hoechst 33258 staining, TUNEL and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assays were used to analyze cell apoptosis. Protein expression was examined with Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical staining. Results: Curcumin (5, 10 and 15 ?mol/L) inhibited the viability of NTera-2 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Curcumin significantly inhibited the colony formation in both NTera-2 and F9 cells. Curcumin dose-dependently induced apoptosis of NTera-2 cells by reducing FasL expression and Bcl-2-to-Bax ratio, and activating caspase-9, -8 and -3. Furthermore, curcumin dose-dependently reduced the expression of AP transcription factor AP-2? in NTera-2 cells, whereas the pretreatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 blocked both the curcumin-induced reduction of AP-2? and antiproliferative effect. Curcumin inhibited ErbB2 expression, and decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK in NTera-2 cells. Conclusion: Curcumin induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in NTera-2 cells via the inhibition of AP-2?-mediated downstream cell survival signaling pathways. PMID:23685957

Zhou, Chang; Zhao, Xiao-meng; Li, Xiao-feng; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-ting; Liu, Xi-zhi; Ding, Xiao-feng; Xiang, Shuang-lin; Zhang, Jian

2013-01-01

259

Establishment of stable cell lines with high expression of heterodimers of human 4F2hc and human amino acid transporter LAT1 or LAT2 and delineation of their differential interaction with ?-alkyl moieties.  

PubMed

System L is a major transport system for cellular uptake of neutral amino acids. Among system L transporters, L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is responsible for the nutrient uptake in cancer cells, whereas L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2) is a transporter for non-cancer cells. In this study, we have established HEK293 cell lines stably expressing high levels of human LAT1 and LAT2 forming heterodimers with native human 4F2hc of the cells. We have found that L-[(14)C]alanine is an appropriate substrate to examine the function of LAT2, whereas L-[(14)C]leucine is used for LAT1. By using L-[(14)C]alanine on LAT2, we have for the first time directly evaluated the function of human LAT2 expressed in mammalian cells and obtained its reliable kinetics. Using ?-alkyl amino acids including ?-methyl-alanine and ?-ethyl-L-alanine, we have demonstrated that ?-alkyl groups interfere with the interaction with LAT2. These cell lines with higher practical advantages would be useful for screening and analyzing compounds to develop LAT1-specific drugs that can be used for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics. The strategy that we took to establish the cell lines would also be applicable to the other heterodimeric transporters with important therapeutic implications. PMID:22850614

Khunweeraphong, Narakorn; Nagamori, Shushi; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Nishinaka, Yumiko; Wongthai, Printip; Ohgaki, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Tominaga, Hideyuki; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Kanai, Yoshikatsu

2012-01-01

260

Flame structure in aluminized wide-distribution AP composite propellants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flame structure in wide-distribution ammonium-perchlorate (AP), hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene (HTPB) binder, aluminum (Al) composite propellants is studied using 2-D laminates with oxygenated binder. Very fine (2-?m) AP (FAP) is used to produce fuel-rich, matrix propellant (oxygenated binder) with a FAP\\/binder ratio of 75\\/25. Coarse AP (CAP) is simulated by pressed AP lamina. A flame-structure regime map for the CAP\\/oxy-fuel matrix interaction flame

M. Q. Brewster; J. C. Mullen

2010-01-01

261

Cellular characterization of pituitary adenoma cell line (AtT20 cell) transfected with insulin, glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) and glucokinase genes: Insulin secretion in response to physiological concentrations of glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   We investigated the mechanisms of insulin secretion by transfecting into a pituitary adenoma cell line (AtT20) a combination\\u000a of genes encoding human insulin (HI), glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) and glucokinase (GK), followed by studying the characteristics\\u000a of these cells. In static incubation, a cell line transfected with insulin gene alone (AtT20HI) secreted mature human insulin\\u000a but this was

S. Motoyoshi; T. Shirotani; E. Araki; K. Sakai; K. Kaneko; H. Motoshima; K. Yoshizato; A. Shirakami; H. Kishikawa; M. Shichiri

1998-01-01

262

Book Eyes Impact of AP Classes and Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At a time of mushrooming interest in Advanced Placement (AP) tests, a new book, "AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program," assembles studies on how capable the program is of meeting the increasingly diverse expectations held up for it. Growing out of a symposium held at Harvard in 2007, the book focuses on AP science courses…

Viadero, Debra

2010-01-01

263

APS-3.1.2.1.0 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

E-print Network

Office of Science #12;#12;APS Safety Assessment Document Change Record June 2012 iii The APS Final SafetyAPS-3.1.2.1.0 Rev. 4 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439 ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE SAFETY ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT June 2012 work sponsored by U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

Kemner, Ken

264

Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along open magnetic field lines: Parallel heat flux  

SciTech Connect

In a long mean-free-path plasma where temperature anisotropy can be sustained, the parallel heat flux has two components with one associated with the parallel thermal energy and the other the perpendicular thermal energy. Due to the large deviation of the distribution function from local Maxwellian in an open field line plasma with low collisionality, the conventional perturbative calculation of the parallel heat flux closure in its local or non-local form is no longer applicable. Here, a non-perturbative calculation is presented for a collisionless plasma in a two-dimensional flux expander bounded by absorbing walls. Specifically, closures of previously unfamiliar form are obtained for ions and electrons, which relate two distinct components of the species parallel heat flux to the lower order fluid moments such as density, parallel flow, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, and the field quantities such as the magnetic field strength and the electrostatic potential. The plasma source and boundary condition at the absorbing wall enter explicitly in the closure calculation. Although the closure calculation does not take into account wave-particle interactions, the results based on passing orbits from steady-state collisionless drift-kinetic equation show remarkable agreement with fully kinetic-Maxwell simulations. As an example of the physical implications of the theory, the parallel heat flux closures are found to predict a surprising observation in the kinetic-Maxwell simulation of the 2D magnetic flux expander problem, where the parallel heat flux of the parallel thermal energy flows from low to high parallel temperature region.

Guo Zehua; Tang Xianzhu [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-06-15

265

AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant safety overview for spent fuel cooling  

SciTech Connect

The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and costs. The AP1000 design uses passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as AC power, component cooling water, service water or HVAC. Furthermore, these passive features 'fail safe' during a non-LOCA event such that DC power and instrumentation are not required. The AP1000 also has simple, active, defense-in-depth systems to support normal plant operations. These active systems provide the first level of defense against more probable events and they provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the probabilistic risk assessment. The AP1000 passive safety approach allows the plant to achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of an accident for 72 hours without operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the U.S. Utility Requirement Document and the European Utility Requirements for passive plants. Limited operator actions are required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool via passive means. In line with the AP1000 approach to safety described above, the AP1000 plant design features multiple, diverse lines of defense to ensure spent fuel cooling can be maintained for design-basis events and beyond design-basis accidents. During normal and abnormal conditions, defense-in-depth and other systems provide highly reliable spent fuel pool cooling. They rely on off-site AC power or the on-site standby diesel generators. For unlikely design basis events with an extended loss of AC power (i.e., station blackout) or loss of heat sink or both, spent fuel cooling can still be provided indefinitely: - Passive systems, requiring minimal or no operator actions, are sufficient for at least 72 hours under all possible pool heat load conditions. - After 3 days, several different means are provided to continue spent fuel cooling using installed plant equipment as well as off-site equipment with built-in connections. Even for beyond design basis accidents with postulated pool damage and multiple failures in the passive safety-related systems and in the defense-in-depth active systems, the AP1000 multiple spent fuel pool spray and fill systems provide additional lines of defense to prevent spent fuel damage. (authors)

Gorgemans, J.; Mulhollem, L.; Glavin, J.; Pfister, A.; Conway, L.; Schulz, T.; Oriani, L.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

2012-07-01

266

R9AP targeting to rod outer segments is independent of rhodopsin and is guided by the SNARE homology domain  

PubMed Central

In vertebrate photoreceptor cells, rapid recovery from light excitation is dependent on the RGS9?G?5 GTPase-activating complex located in the light-sensitive outer segment organelle. RGS9?G?5 is tethered to the outer segment membranes by its membrane anchor, R9AP. Recent studies indicated that RGS9?G?5 possesses targeting information that excludes it from the outer segment and that this information is overridden by association with R9AP, which allows outer segment targeting of the entire complex. It was also proposed that R9AP itself does not contain specific targeting information and instead is delivered to the outer segment in the same post-Golgi vesicles as rhodopsin, because they are the most abundant transport vesicles in photoreceptor cells. In this study, we revisited this concept by analyzing R9AP targeting in rods of wild-type and rhodopsin-knockout mice. We found that the R9AP targeting mechanism does not require the presence of rhodopsin and further demonstrated that R9AP is actively targeted in rods by its SNARE homology domain. PMID:25009288

Pearring, Jillian N.; Lieu, Eric C.; Winter, Joan R.; Baker, Sheila A.; Arshavsky, Vadim Y.

2014-01-01

267

APS Museum "Dialogues with Darwin" Online Exhibition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Philosophical Society (APS) Museum's "Dialogues with Darwin" exhibition tells the story of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and considers the debates about evolution that came both before and after him. The online gallery features all objects, label texts, and wall texts on view in the actual exhibition. The site includes a link to an Educator's Guide which can be downloaded as a pdf file.

American Philosophical Society & Philadelphia Area Center for History of Science

268

Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report.

Esch, R.A.

1996-04-19

269

Cultural Diversity in AP Art History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching AP Art History is like running on a treadmill that is moving faster than a teacher can run. Many teachers are out of breath before the end of the term and wonder how in the world they can cover every chapter. Because time is short and art from pre-history through to the present, including the non-European traditions, must be covered, this…

Bolte, Frances R.

2006-01-01

270

APS storage ring vacuum system performance  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented.

Noonan, J.R.; Gagliano, J.; Goeppner, G.A. [and others

1997-06-01

271

Ectopic expression of AP-2? transcription factor suppresses glioma progression  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional factor AP-2? is a tumor suppressor gene and is downregulated in various neoplasms including glioma. Although the level of AP-2? is negatively associated with the grade of human glioma, the specific functions of AP-2? in glioma are still unknown. In this study, we experimentally showed that artificial overexpression of AP-2? in glioma T98G and U251 cells significantly downregulated the mRNA levels of Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, c-IAP2 and survivin, together with upregulation of the Hrk mRNA levels. Reintroduction of AP-2? also induced downregulation of the protein levels of survivin and VEGF in glioma cells. In biological assays with T98G and U251 cells, AP-2? reduced tumor cell growth, increased cell death, attenuated cell migration and endothelial tube formation. The AP-2? transcription factor may play an important role in suppressing glioma progression.

Su, Wenjing; Xia, Juan; Chen, Xueqin; Xu, Miao; Nie, Ling; Chen, Ni; Gong, Jing; Li, Xinglan; Zhou, Qiao

2014-01-01

272

APS Conference on Understanding the Biological Clock: From Genetics to Physiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Conference was designed to take advantage of the fusion of two intellectually dominant but heretofore separate lines of clock research, vertebrate physiology and invertebrate and microbial genetics. The APS Conference attracted 251 scientists, 68 of whom were students. In addition to the excellent speaker program organized by Dunlap and Loros, the attendees also submitted 93 volunteer abstracts that were programmed in poster sessions. Thirty-four percent of the submitted abstracts were first authorized by a female student or scientist.

Frank, Martin

1996-01-01

273

Proapoptotic effects of the novel proteasome inhibitor b-AP15 on multiple myeloma cells and natural killer cells.  

PubMed

The small molecule b-AP15 is a novel inhibitor of proteasome deubiquitination. Recent studies have shown that b-AP15 displays antitumor activity in several preclinical, solid tumor models. In this study, we show that b-AP15 triggers time- and dose-dependent apoptosis of the human multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines RPMI8226 and U266, as determined by phosphatidylserine exposure. Apoptosis was dependent on caspase activation and was partially dependent on cathepsin D. Furthermore, b-AP15 triggered processing of pro-caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in MM cells. b-AP15 also induced caspase-independent apoptosis in primary human natural killer cells. We also demonstrate that b-AP15 induces activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in MM cells, with activation of the proapoptotic protein Bax and a pronounced loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. The latter events, however, appeared largely independent of caspase activation. Our data suggest that proteasome deubiquitinase inhibitors may have potential for treatment of multiple myeloma patients. PMID:24291587

Feng, Xiaoli; Holmlund, Teresa; Zheng, Chengyun; Fadeel, Bengt

2014-03-01

274

Kinetics of manganese transport and gene expressions of manganese transport carriers in Caco-2 cell monolayers.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of manganese (Mn) transport in Caco-2 cell monolayers and the gene expressions of Mn transport carriers in apical (AP) and basolateral (BL) membranes. In experiment 1, the cells were treated with the medium containing 146 ?mol/L of Mn (MnSO4·H2O). Both the uptake and transport of Mn from AP-BL or from BL-AP at different time-points were assessed to determine the optimal time for kinetics of Mn transport. The transport of Mn increased linearly with higher efficiency values in AP-BL than in BL-AP direction, however, the uptake of Mn revealed an asymptotic pattern within 120 min. In experiment 2, the kinetics of Mn transport in AP-BL was determined with media containing Mn concentrations from 0 to 2,500 ?mol/L at 40 and 120 min, respectively, and mRNA levels of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin (FPN1) were determined in Caco-2 cells treated with the medium containing 0 or 800 ?mol/L of Mn for 120 min. The kinetics of Mn transport showed a carrier-mediated process when Mn concentrations were lower than 1,000 ?mol/L and a linear increment when Mn concentrations exceeded 1,000 ?mol/L at either 40 or 120 min. Mn treatment decreased (P < 0.01) DMT1 mRNA level and increased (P < 0.01) FPN1 mRNA level. The results from the present study suggested that Mn transport in AP-BL fit both carrier-mediated saturable and non-saturable diffusion processes, and Mn transport carriers DMT1 and FPN1 mediate the apical uptake and basolateral exit of Mn in Caco-2 cells. PMID:23996061

Li, Xiaoli; Xie, Jingjing; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Zhang, Lingyan; Zou, Yaxue; Wang, Qiuyue; Luo, Xugang; Li, Sufen

2013-12-01

275

&p.1:Abstract The MADS domain proteins AP1, AP3, PI, and AG are required to specify the four classes of organs  

E-print Network

&p.1:Abstract The MADS domain proteins AP1, AP3, PI, and AG are required to specify the four2) (class A); APETALA3 (AP3), PISTILLATA (PI) (class B); and AGAMOUS (AG) (class C). Mutations in these genes result in homeotic transformations of one floral organ into another. Four (AP1, AP3, PI, AG

Krizek, Beth

276

CSU, FULLERTON CREDIT FOR EXTERNAL EXAMS (AP, IB, CLEP) ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAMS (AP) SCORE UNITS COURSE CREDIT GEN EDUC BEGIN DATE END DATE  

E-print Network

CSU, FULLERTON CREDIT FOR EXTERNAL EXAMS (AP, IB, CLEP) ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAMS (AP) SCORE UNITS ENGL 101 GE I.B 3 ENGL 105 GE III.B.2 Updated 11/30/10 #12;CSU, FULLERTON CREDIT FOR EXTERNAL EXAMS (AP, IB, CLEP) ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAMS (AP) SCORE UNITS COURSE CREDIT GEN EDUC BEGIN DATE END DATE AP

de Lijser, Peter

277

NF-?B inhibition significantly upregulates the norepinephrine transporter system, causes apoptosis in pheochromocytoma cell lines and prevents metastasis in an animal model.  

PubMed

Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are specific types of neuroendocrine tumors that originate in the adrenal medulla or sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Although these tumors are intensively studied, a very effective treatment for metastatic PHEO or PGL has not yet been established. Preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for these tumors are very much required. Therefore, in this study we tested the effect of triptolide (TTL), a potent nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) inhibitor, on the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter (NET) system, considered to be the gatekeeper for the radiotherapeutic agent 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). We measured changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NET and correlated them with proapoptotic factors and metastasis inhibition. The study was performed on three different stable PHEO cell lines. We found that blocking NF-?B with TTL or capsaicin increased both NET mRNA and protein levels. Involvement of NF-?B in the upregulation of NET was verified by mRNA silencing of this site and also by using NF-?B antipeptide. Moreover, in vivo treatment with TTL significantly reduced metastatic burden in an animal model of metastatic PHEO. The present study for the first time shows how NF-?B inhibitors could be successfully used in the treatment of metastatic PHEO/PGL by a significant upregulation of NET to increase the efficacy of 131I-MIBG and by the induction of apoptosis. PMID:22407736

Pacak, Karel; Sirova, Marta; Giubellino, Alessio; Lencesova, Lubomira; Csaderova, Lucia; Laukova, Marcela; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

2012-11-15

278

The Charge Transport in Organic Field-Effect Transistor as an Interface Charge Propagation: The Maxwell-Wagner Effect Model and Transmission Line Approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By analyzing electric field migration in the pentacene organic field-effect transistor channel (OFET), visualized using the time-resolved microscopic optical second harmonic generation (TRM-SHG) is analyzed the propagation of injected carriers. We find that the accumulated charge propagation on the pentacene-gate insulator interface of the three-electrode system is clearly different from the drift in electric field of the two-electrode system. The propagation of injected carriers is evaluated on the basis of the Maxwell-Wagner effect model and the transmission line approximation. We show that the interface charge accumulation has a significant contribution to the charge transport in OFET. Proposed model for the transient state is beyond the limits of common used impedance spectroscopy models and represents extension of the small-signal analysis. Found relation between mobility and transit time helps in analysis of OFET transit time sensitive experiments such as the time-of-flight technique (TOF) or TRM-SHG.

Martin Weis,; Jack Lin,; Dai Taguchi,; Takaaki Manaka,; Mitsumasa Iwamoto,

2010-07-01

279

Multipassband photometric mapping of three fast rotating stars: HII 1883, AP 86 and AP 226  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of multipassband photometry was carried out for three rapidly rotating stars: HII 1883, AP 86 and AP 226. Two different approaches were used for starspot mapping. In the first approach the stellar spottedness is approximated by set of circular spots. Spot parameters (coordinates of the spot center, radius and temperature) are searched by fitting of observed light curves. The idea of the second approach is consisted in partition of the stellar surface into small areas. Searching of the temperature distribution is carried out by the fitting of the observed light curves. Stellar atmosphere theory was used for modeling of the theoretical light curves in both techniques.

Kolbin, A. I.; Sakhibullin, N. A.; Gabdeev, M. M.

2015-02-01

280

BOLITA , an Arabidopsis AP2\\/ERF-like transcription factor that affects cell expansion and proliferation\\/differentiation pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BOLITA (BOL) gene, an AP2\\/ERF transcription factor, was characterized with the help of an activation tag mutant and overexpression lines in Arabidopsis and tobacco. The leaf size of plants overexpressing BOL was smaller than wild type plants due to a reduction in both cell size and cell number. Moreover, severe overexpressors showed ectopic callus formation in roots. Accordingly, global

Nayelli Marsch-Martinez; Raffaella Greco; Jörg D. Becker; Shital Dixit; Jan H. W. Bergervoet; Aarati Karaba; Stefan de Folter; Andy Pereira

2006-01-01

281

Understanding copper sensitivity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) through the intracellular localization of copper transporters in a hepatocyte cell-line ZFL and the tissue expression profiles of copper transporters.  

PubMed

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a freshwater fish species of Cyprinidae known for its copper (Cu) intolerance, yet the underlying mechanisms of the sensitivity remain unclear. In this study, we examined the highly conserved molecular machineries in the copper handling system, namely ATOX1, ATP7A, ATP7B, and CTR1, by profiling their gene expression patterns among tissues before and after acute waterborne Cu exposure, and investigating their intracellular localization patterns using a zebrafish hepatocyte cell line, ZFL. We found that ATP7B was weak in its response toward Cu exposure to elicit its copper efflux function. Tissue distribution of these Cu transporters, however, revealed a distinct expression profile compared with mammals and other fish, particularly ATP7A, which unlike ATP7B was highly expressed in the liver, while ATP7B, not ATP7A, was specifically expressed in the intestine. ATOX1 transcript expression was also found to be significantly up-regulated with acute waterborne Cu, in contrast to the decreased expression found in other fish. A possible explanation for the Cu sensitivity in zebrafish is discussed. PMID:24658744

Leung, King Pong; Chen, Dongshi; Chan, King Ming

2014-05-01

282

Adaptor Protein Complexes AP-1 and AP-3 Are Required by the HHV-7 Immunoevasin U21 for Rerouting of Class I MHC Molecules to the Lysosomal Compartment  

PubMed Central

The human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) U21 gene product binds to class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and reroutes them to a lysosomal compartment. Trafficking of integral membrane proteins to lysosomes is mediated through cytoplasmic sorting signals that recruit heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which in turn mediate protein sorting in post-Golgi vesicular transport. Since U21 can mediate rerouting of class I molecules to lysosomes even when lacking its cytoplasmic tail, we hypothesize the existence of a cellular protein that contains the lysosomal sorting information required to escort class I molecules to the lysosomal compartment. If such a protein exists, we expect that it might recruit clathrin adaptor protein complexes as a means of lysosomal sorting. Here we describe experiments demonstrating that the ? adaptins from AP-1 and AP-3 are involved in U21-mediated trafficking of class I molecules to lysosomes. These experiments support the idea that a cellular protein(s) is necessary for U21-mediated lysosomal sorting of class I molecules. We also examine the impact of transient versus chronic knockdown of these adaptor protein complexes, and show that the few remaining ? subunits in the cells are eventually able to reroute class I molecules to lysosomes. PMID:24901711

Kimpler, Lisa A.; Glosson, Nicole L.; Downs, Deanna; Gonyo, Patrick; May, Nathan A.; Hudson, Amy W.

2014-01-01

283

Review of the APS SR RF systems.  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV full energy storage ring (SR) for generating synchrotron radiation with an injector. The storage ring cavities consist of four groups of four single cells powered by up to four 1-MW klystrons for up to 300-mA operation. A review of the operation of the rf system as well as rf-related beam dynamics is presented. This review includes rf power distribution, low-level feedback, control law, beam loading, beam instabilities, higher-order modes, and beam-induced multipactoring.

Song, J.J.; Cours, A.; Grelick, A.; Harkay, K.; Horan, D.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Nassiri, A.; Pile, G.; Smith, T.L.

1998-03-31

284

APS Insertion Devices: Recent Developments and Results.  

PubMed

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) now has a total of 23 insertion devices (IDs). Over two-thirds of them are installed on the storage ring. The installed devices include 18, 27 and 55 mm-period undulators; an 85 mm-period wiggler; a 16 cm-period elliptical multipole wiggler; and many 33 mm-period undulators. Most of the IDs occupy storage-ring straight sections equipped with 8 mm vertical-aperture vacuum chambers. All of the IDs were measured magnetically at the APS and, in most cases, underwent a final magnetic tuning in order to minimize variation in the various integrals of the field through the ID over the full gap range. Special shimming techniques to correct magnetic field parameters in appropriate gap-dependent ways were developed and applied. Measurements of the closed-orbit distortion as a function of the ID gap variation have been completed, and results are in a good agreement with magnetic measurements. Spectral diagnostics of the ID radiation, including measurements of the absolute spectral flux, brilliance and polarization, show excellent agreement between calculated and measured results. Studies of the sensitivity of IDs to radiation exposure and measurements of the dose rate received by the IDs are in progress. PMID:15263477

Gluskin, E

1998-05-01

285

The APS control system network upgrade.  

SciTech Connect

When it was installed,the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system network was at the state-of-the-art. Different aspects of the system have been reported at previous meetings [1,2]. As loads on the controls network have increased due to newer and faster workstations and front-end computers, we have found performance of the system declining and have implemented an upgraded network. There have been dramatic advances in networking hardware in the last several years. The upgraded APS controls network replaces the original FDDI backbone and shared Ethernet hubs with redundant gigabit uplinks and fully switched 10/100 Ethernet switches with backplane fabrics in excess of 20 Gbits/s (Gbps). The central collapsed backbone FDDI concentrator has been replaced with a Gigabit Ethernet switch with greater than 30 Gbps backplane fabric. Full redundancy of the system has been maintained. This paper will discuss this upgrade and include performance data and performance comparisons with the original network.

Sidorowicz, K. v.; Leibfritz, D.; McDowell, W. P.

1999-10-22

286

Development of Emergency Response Guidelines (ERGs) for AP1000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AP1000 is two-loop 1100 MWe advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) that uses passive safety features to enhance plant safety and to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 uses proven technology, which builds on over 30 years of operating PWR experience. The AP1000 final design certification has been approved by

Yuichi Hayashi; Gianfranco Saiu; Richard F. Wright

2006-01-01

287

Mutagenesis of cysteine 81 prevents dimerization of the APS1 subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and alters diurnal starch turnover in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.  

PubMed

Many plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, retain a substantial portion of their photosynthate in leaves in the form of starch, which is remobilized to support metabolism and growth at night. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyses the first committed step in the pathway of starch synthesis, the production of ADP-glucose. The enzyme is redox-activated in the light and in response to sucrose accumulation, via reversible breakage of an intermolecular cysteine bridge between the two small (APS1) subunits. The biological function of this regulatory mechanism was investigated by complementing an aps1 null mutant (adg1) with a series of constructs containing a full-length APS1 gene encoding either the wild-type APS1 protein or mutated forms in which one of the five cysteine residues was replaced by serine. Substitution of Cys81 by serine prevented APS1 dimerization, whereas mutation of the other cysteines had no effect. Thus, Cys81 is both necessary and sufficient for dimerization of APS1. Compared to control plants, the adg1/APS1(C81S) lines had higher levels of ADP-glucose and maltose, and either increased rates of starch synthesis or a starch-excess phenotype, depending on the daylength. APS1 protein levels were five- to tenfold lower in adg1/APS1(C81S) lines than in control plants. These results show that redox modulation of AGPase contributes to the diurnal regulation of starch turnover, with inappropriate regulation of the enzyme having an unexpected impact on starch breakdown, and that Cys81 may play an important role in the regulation of AGPase turnover. PMID:22098298

Hädrich, Nadja; Hendriks, Janneke H M; Kötting, Oliver; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Feil, Regina; Zeeman, Samuel C; Gibon, Yves; Schulze, Waltraud X; Stitt, Mark; Lunn, John E

2012-04-01

288

Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

RIECK, C.A.

1999-02-25

289

Action of a mammalian AP-endonuclease on DNAs of defined sequences.  

PubMed Central

An apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) specific endonuclease from mouse plasmacytoma cells (line MPC-11), was observed to cleave apurinic sites in oligonucleotides 9, 11, 12, 39 and 40 nucleotides in length. However, the enzyme failed to cleave AP-sites in two oligonucleotides 7 nucleotides in length. The maximum rates of digestion observed on these short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fragments were approximately 1/30 of the rates observed on double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). In studies using the Maxam-Gilbert DNA sequencing analysis, apurinic sites in purine-rich regions were preferentially cleaved in dsDNA but not in ssDNA, indicating that the enzyme has a sequence preference on dsDNA. These results suggest that some sites on DNA might be more efficiently repaired than others. Images PMID:2466239

Haukanes, B I; Helland, D E; Kleppe, K

1989-01-01

290

Na+Independent Transporters, LAT2 and b0,+, Exchange L-DOPA with Neutral and Basic Amino Acids in Two Clonal Renal Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the functional characteristics of L-DOPA transporters in two functionally different clonal subpopulations of opossum kidney (OKLC and OKHC) cells. The uptake of L-DOPA was largely Na+-independent, though in OKHC cells a minor component (~15%) required extracellular Na+. At least two Na+-independent transporters appear to be involved in L-DOPA uptake. One of these transporters has a broad

P. Gomes; P. Soares-da-Silva

2002-01-01

291

Is the Shine off the A.P. Apple?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes challenges facing College Board's efforts to expand Advanced Placement (A.P.) courses to provide equal access to previously underserved low-performing urban and rural school students while maintaining the program's high academic standards. Includes list of strategies school boards can use to achieve greater access to A.P. courses while…

Hurwitz, Nina; Hurwitz, Sol

2003-01-01

292

A Closer Examination of the Academic Benefits of AP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors sought to better understand the relationship between students participating in the Advanced Placement (AP) program and subsequent performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Focusing on students graduating from U.S. public high schools in 2010, the authors used propensity scores to match junior year AP examinees in 3 subjects to…

McKillip, Mary E. M.; Rawls, Anita

2013-01-01

293

AP-102/104 Retrieval control system qualification test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This Qualification Test Procedure documents the results of the qualification testing that was performed on the Project W-211, ''Initial Tank Retrieval Systems,'' retrieval control system (RCS) for tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. The results confirm that the RCS has been programmed correctly and that the two related hardware enclosures have been assembled in accordance with the design documents.

RIECK, C.A.

1999-05-18

294

Development of a superconducting undulator for the APS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the western hemisphere's premier x-ray synchrotron radiation source, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) continues to advance the state of the art in insertion device technology in order to maintain record high brightness, especially in the hard x-ray wavelength region. Due to the unique bunch pattern used for normal APS operations and its ultimate capabilities, the APS has chosen superconducting technology for its future hard x-ray undulator sources. In the last several years, the APS in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics has being developing the technology for planar, small-period superconducting undulators (SCUs). These developments include the design and construction of several prototypes and the construction of the necessary mechanical, vacuum, and cryogenic infrastructure at the APS site. Several prototypes of the SCU magnetic structure have been built and tested. The first SCU is assembled and will be installed in the APS storage ring at the end of 2012. Expected SCU performance in terms of x-ray brightness should noticeably exceed that of existing APS undulators. Immediately after commissioning, the SCU will be used at APS Sector 6 as the radiation source for high-energy x-ray studies.

Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Abliz, M.; Doose, C.; Fuerst, J.; Hasse, Q.; Kasa, M.; Lev, V.; Mezentsev, N.; Syrovatin, V.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Tsukanov, V.; Vasserman, I.; Gluskin, E.

2013-03-01

295

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - PAVED AND UNPAVED ROAD DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

This project develops emission factors, etc., for paved and unpaved roads which are incorporated into AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness information. As re...

296

AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - LANDFILLS (COMBUSTION CONTROLS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This project develops emission factors, etc., for landfills, in particular for combustion devices fed by landfill gas, for incorporation into AP-42. AP-42 is a massive collection of information concerning processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and co...

297

AccuNet/AP (Associated Press) Multimedia Archive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The AccuNet/AP Multimedia Archive is an electronic library containing the AP's current photos and a selection of pictures from their enormous print and negative library, as well as text and graphic material. It is composed of two photo databases as well as graphics, text, and audio databases. The features of this database are briefly described in…

Young, Terrence E., Jr.

2004-01-01

298

STEP AP233 + Standard PDM = Systems Engineering PDM ?  

E-print Network

STEP AP233 + Standard PDM = Systems Engineering PDM ? Roland Eckert1 , Wolfgang Mansel2 , Günther engineering environment. STEP ISO 10303 - AP233 provides an appropriate approach for integrating systems. A framework for a systems engineering PDM system is proposed and data exchange aspects discussed

Ulm, Universität

299

Raising Rigor, Getting Results: Lessons Learned from AP Expansion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advanced Placement (AP), which enables high school students to take introductory college-level courses, is the nation's oldest example of a rigorous, common curriculum. Students who score well on AP exams are more likely to persist in college and earn a degree. The Advanced Placement Expansion project of the National Governors Association Center…

Wakelyn, David

2009-01-01

300

APS Storage Ring Injection Topics: Optimization and Topup  

E-print Network

APS Storage Ring Injection Topics: Optimization and Topup Louis Emery, Michael Borland and Vadim Accumulator Ring (PAR) 2 Hz, 7 GeV Booster Synchrotron Photocathode gun and injector Dual thermionic rf guns Proportional to jitter amplitude Proportional to bpm noise #12;11 APS Storage Ring DBAstyle cell with 5m

Ohta, Shigemi

301

R9AP Overexpression Alters Phototransduction Kinetics in iCre75 Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Determine the impact of rod photoreceptor-specific expression of Cre recombinase on the kinetics of phototransduction in the mouse eye and identify changes in gene expression that underlie any observed phenotypic differences. Methods. Transretinal ERG and single-cell suction electrode recordings were used to measure the kinetics of phototransduction in a mouse line exhibiting rod photoreceptor–specific Cre recombinase expression, and the results were compared with those from control non–Cre-expressing littermates. Gene expression changes were evaluated using RNA sequencing transcriptome analysis. The pattern of expression of Rgs9bp was determined by mapping sequencing reads to the mouse genome and performing 3?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3?-RACE). Results. Expression of the rod-specific iCre75 transgene was accompanied by accelerated phototransduction inactivation, likely due to overexpression of the Rgs9bp gene, which encodes the Rgs9 anchor protein (R9AP). R9AP upregulation stabilized the RGS9 GAP complex, altering phototransduction kinetics. 3?-Race identified an abundant, unexpected Rgs9bp-Prm1 fusion mRNA in Cre-expressing mouse retinas, which was determined to be derived from a second transgene present in the iCre75 line. Conclusions. Here we report the presence of a second, R9AP-expressing transgene in the iCre75 mouse line, leading to altered kinetics of phototransduction. These results highlight an important caveat that must be considered when utilizing this mouse line for rod photoreceptor–specific gene loss of function studies. PMID:24526444

Sundermeier, Thomas R.; Vinberg, Frans; Mustafi, Debarshi; Bai, Xiaodong; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

2014-01-01

302

Spectroscopic study of pulsations in the atmosphere of roAp star 10 Aql  

E-print Network

We present the analysis of spectroscopic time-series observations of the roAp star 10 Aql. Observations were carried out in July 2006 with the UVES and SARG spectrographs simultaneously with the MOST mini-satellite photometry. All these data were analysed for radial velocity (RV) variations. About 150 lines out of the 1000 measured reveal clear pulsation signal. Frequency analysis of the spectroscopic data gives four frequencies. Three highest amplitude frequencies in spectroscopy coincide with the photometric ones. Phase-amplitude diagrams created for the lines of different elements/ions show that atmospheric pulsations may be represented by a superposition of the standing and running wave components, similar to other roAp stars. The highest RV amplitudes, 300-400 m/s, were measured for Ce II, Dy III, Tb III, and two unidentified lines at lambda 5471, 5556 A. We discovered ~0.4 period phase jump in the RV measurements across the Nd III line profiles. It indicates the presence of the pulsation node in stellar atmosphere. The phase jump occurs at nearly the same atmospheric layers for the two main frequencies. There is no rotational modulation in the average spectra for the 6 different nights we analysed.

M. Sachkov; O. Kochukhov; T. Ryabchikova; F. Leone; S. Bagnulo; W. W. Weiss

2007-12-09

303

APS team works smarter, cuts substation construction costs by 36%  

SciTech Connect

An aggressive, cost-cutting, team of T D employees at Arizona Public Service Co (APS) is building a new distribution substation in Phoenix for less than half the original cost that APS planners had calculated for the project's land, labor and materials. Scheduled for service in June of this year, APS analysts had originally projected land, labor and materials costs for the 20-MVA Bell substation at nearly $1.7-million-not including major equipment such as transformers, circuit breakers, and switches. However, after studying the project, an empowered APS crew was able to slash 36% off the original estimate-more than $610,000. What's more, APS spokesmen say that its new approach to substation construction and design has given its engineers and construction crews a laundry list of additional ideas to try out on future substation ventures. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1993-05-01

304

AP2 hemicomplexes contribute independently to synaptic vesicle endocytosis  

PubMed Central

The clathrin adaptor complex AP2 is thought to be an obligate heterotetramer. We identify null mutations in the ? subunit of AP2 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. ?-adaptin mutants are viable and the remaining ?2/? hemicomplex retains some function. Conversely, in ?2 mutants, the alpha/sigma2 hemicomplex is localized and is partially functional. ?-?2 double mutants disrupt both halves of the complex and are lethal. The lethality can be rescued by expression of AP2 components in the skin, which allowed us to evaluate the requirement for AP2 subunits at synapses. Mutations in either ? or ?2 subunits alone reduce the number of synaptic vesicles by about 30%; however, simultaneous loss of both ? and ?2 subunits leads to a 70% reduction in synaptic vesicles and the presence of large vacuoles. These data suggest that AP2 may function as two partially independent hemicomplexes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00190.001 PMID:23482940

Gu, Mingyu; Liu, Qiang; Watanabe, Shigeki; Sun, Lin; Hollopeter, Gunther; Grant, Barth D; Jorgensen, Erik M

2013-01-01

305

Using IB/AP exams to meet Honors College requirements Students who pass IB and AP exams will receive credit through the College of Charleston for the  

E-print Network

Using IB/AP exams to meet Honors College requirements Students who pass IB and AP exams to discuss IB/AP transfer credit and the courses that must be completed prior to graduation. The full list of IB and AP exams accepted by CofC can be found at http

Mitchener, W. Garrett

306

AP-3-dependent mechanisms control the targeting of a chloride channel (ClC-3) in neuronal and non-neuronal cells.  

PubMed

Adaptor protein (AP)-2 and AP-3-dependent mechanisms control the sorting of membrane proteins into synaptic vesicles. Mouse models deficient in AP-3, mocha, develop a neurological phenotype of which the central feature is an alteration of the luminal synaptic vesicle composition. This is caused by a severe reduction of vesicular levels of the zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3). It is presently unknown whether this mocha defect is restricted to ZnT3 or encompasses other synaptic vesicle proteins capable of modifying synaptic vesicle contents, such as transporters or channels. In this study, we identified a chloride channel, ClC-3, whose level in synaptic vesicles and hippocampal mossy fiber terminals was reduced in the context of the mocha AP-3 deficiency. In PC-12 cells, ClC-3 was present in transferrin receptor-positive endosomes, where it was targeted to synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMV) by a mechanism sensitive to brefeldin A, a signature of the AP-3-dependent route of SLMV biogenesis. ClC-3 was packed in SLMV along with the AP-3-targeted synaptic vesicle protein ZnT3. Co-segregation of ClC-3 and ZnT3 to common intracellular compartments was functionally significant as revealed by increased vesicular zinc transport with increased ClC3 expression. Our work has identified a synaptic vesicle protein in which trafficking to synaptic vesicles is regulated by AP-3. In addition, our findings indicate that ClC-3 and ZnT3 reside in a common vesicle population where they functionally interact to determine vesicle luminal composition. PMID:15073168

Salazar, Gloria; Love, Rachal; Styers, Melanie L; Werner, Erica; Peden, Andrew; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gearing, Marla; Wainer, Bruce H; Faundez, Victor

2004-06-11

307

Experience from Numerical Modelling of Bedload Transport at Steep Slopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sediment routing model for steep torrent channel networks called SETRAC has been developed and extensively tested. SETRAC has been ap- plied to well document case studies on flood events in torrential catchments with substantial sediment transport in the Austrian and Swiss Alps. The influ- ence of form roughness, armouring and transport by size fractions on modelling bedload transport is

Michael Chiari; Dieter Rickenmann

308

February 2006 5APS NEWS A Supplement to APS News Edited by Phillip F. Schewe, Ben Stein and Ernie Tretkoff  

E-print Network

February 2006 5APS NEWS A Supplement to APS News Edited by Phillip F. Schewe, Ben Stein and Ernie Tretkoff INTRODUCTION Physics News in 2005, a summary of physics highlights for the past year, was com- piled from items appearing in AIP's weekly newsletter Physics News Update, written by Phil Schewe

Tlusty, Tsvi

309

Tank 241-AP-105, cores 208, 209 and 210, analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-AP-105. Push mode core segments were removed from Risers 24 and 28 between July 2, 1997, and July 14, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-AP-105 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1997) and Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, or total organic carbon (TOC) analysis exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP and DQO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group, and are not considered in this report. Appearance and Sample Handling Two cores, each consisting of four segments, were expected from Tank 241-AP-105. Three cores were sampled, and complete cores were not obtained. TSAP states core samples should be transported to the laboratory within three calendar days from the time each segment is removed from the tank. This requirement was not met for all cores. Attachment 1 illustrates subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis and identifies their sources. This reference also relates tank farm identification numbers to their corresponding 222-S Laboratory sample numbers.

Nuzum, J.L.

1997-10-24

310

APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - Monitoring System Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), along with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Pubic Service (APS), is monitoring the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant to determine the costs to produce hydrogen fuels (including 100% hydrogen as well as hydrogen and compressed natural gas blends) for use by fleets and other operators of advanced-technology vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cost data will be used as benchmark data by technology modelers as well as research and development programs. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 18 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen per day by electrolysis. It can store up to 155 kg of hydrogen at various pressures up to 6,000 psi. The dispenser island can fuel vehicles with 100% hydrogen at 5,000 psi and with blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas at 3,600 psi. The monitoring system was designed to track hydrogen delivery to each of the three storage areas and to monitor the use of electricity on all major equipment in the Pilot Plant, including the fuel dispenser island. In addition, water used for the electrolysis process is monitored to allow calculation of the total cost of plant operations and plant efficiencies. The monitoring system at the Pilot Plant will include about 100 sensors when complete (50 are installed to date), allowing for analysis of component, subsystems, and plant-level costs. The monitoring software is mostly off-the-shelve, with a custom interface. The majority of the sensors input to the Programmable Automation Controller as 4- to 20-mA analog signals. The plant can be monitored over of the Internet, but the control functions are restricted to the control room equipment. Using the APS general service plan E32 electric rate of 2.105 cents per kWh, during a recent eight-month period when 1,200 kg of hydrogen was produced and the plant capacity factor was 26%, the electricity cost to produce one kg of hydrogen was $3.43. However, the plant capacity factor has been increasing, with a recent one-month high of 49%. If a plant capacity factor of 70% can be achieved with the present equipment, the cost of electricity would drop to $2.39 per kg of hydrogen. In this report, the power conversion (76.7%), cell stack (53.1%), and reverse osmosis system (7.14%) efficiencies are also calculated, as is the water cost per kg of hydrogen produced ($0.10 per kg). The monitoring system has identified several areas having the potential to lower costs, including using an reverse osmosis system with a higher efficiency, improving the electrolysis power conversion efficiency, and using air cooling to replace some or all chiller cooling. These activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory for the AVTA, which is part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

James Francfort; Dimitri Hochard

2005-07-01

311

Determination of absolute transport efficiencies of Be, Cd, In, Pb and Bi for electrothermal vaporization sample introduction into an inductively coupled plasma using an in-line electrostatic precipitator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel laboratory-constructed electrostatic precipitator for the determination of analyte transport efficiencies from a tube furnace electrothermal vaporization (ETV) sample introduction system is described. This simple experimental set up captures the analyte electrostatically using a negative corona discharge. The absolute transport efficiencies using experimental conditions typical of those applied to real analysis by ETV-ICP-MS were determined for Be, Cd, In, Pb and Bi to be 26±3, 39±8, 35±1, 50±11 and 35±1%, respectively. Pd and NaCl were evaluated as 'carriers' and were found to only marginally increase analyte transport for the elements investigated. Pd enhanced efficiencies 20-50% for all but Bi, which decreased by 17%. The NaCl produced transport enhancements of 10-50% for all five analytes. However, uncertainties in the measurements made several of the individual improvements statistically insignificant. The mean precipitator collection efficiency of the aerosol leaving the ETV for the five elements studied was found to be greater than 90% and was determined using the ICP-MS signal with the in-line precipitator's voltage either on or off. While 30 ETV firings were used for a single efficiency determination, reasonable precision could be obtained with approximately 10 firings while still employing reasonable analyte masses, i.e. approximately 20 ng. The transport results are in good agreement with previous studies using similar ETV design and analyte masses.

Ertas, Gulay; Holcombe, James A.

2003-09-01

312

APS Position Statements- APS Guiding Principles for the Care and Use of Vertebrate Animals in Research and Training  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Guiding Principles for the Care and Use of Vertebrate Animals in Research and Training are an updated version of a document first adopted by the APS Council in 1953. The Guiding Principles represent a code of ethics for APS members who work with animals. They provide a framework intended to promote the humane treatment of animals and are also used to evaluate research submitted for publication in APS journals. The update is intended to clarify certain elements of the Guiding Principles and make them easier to apply in practical situations. In addition, because the Guiding Principles are based upon U.S. animal welfare requirements, the update adds provisions to address the fact that other countries have different animal welfare requirements. This change was needed because of the increasing number of physiologists from around the world who are joining the APS and submitting articles for publication in APS journals.

2010-07-16

313

Enhancing and Archiving the APS Catalog of the POSS I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have worked on two different projects: 1) Archiving the APS Catalog of the POSS I for distribution to NASA's NED at IPAC, SIMBAD in France, and individual astronomers and 2) The automated morphological classification of galaxies. We have completed archiving the Catalog into easily readable binary files. The database together with the software to read it has been distributed on DVD's to the national and international data centers and to individual astronomers. The archived Catalog contains more than 89 million objects in 632 fields in the first epoch Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. Additional image parameters not available in the original on-line version are also included in the archived version. The archived Catalog is also available and can be queried at the APS web site (URL: http://aps.umn.edu) which has been improved with a much faster and more efficient querying system. The Catalog can be downloaded as binary datafiles with the source code for reading it. It is also being integrated into the SkyQuery system which includes the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 2MASS, and the FIRST radio sky survey. We experimented with different classification algorithms to automate the morphological classification of galaxies. This is an especially difficult problem because there are not only a large number of attributes or parameters and measurement uncertainties, but also the added complication of human disagreement about the adopted types. To solve this problem we used 837 galaxy images from nine POSS I fields at the North Galactic Pole classified by two independent astronomers for which they agree on the morphological types. The initial goal was to separate the galaxies into the three broad classes relevant to issues of large scale structure and galaxy formation and evolution: early (ellipticals and lenticulars), spirals, and late (irregulars) with an accuracy or success rate that rivals the best astronomer classifiers. We also needed to identify a set of parameters derived from the digitized images that separate the galaxies by type. The human eye can easily recognize complicated patterns in images such as spiral arms which can be spotty, blotchy affairs that are difficult for automated techniques. A galaxy image can potentially be described by hundreds of parameters, all of which may have some relation to the morphological type. In the set of initial experiments we used 624 such parameters, in two colors, blue and red. These parameters include the surface brightness and color measured at different radii, ratios of these parameters at different radii, concentration indices, Fourier transforms and wavelet decomposition coefficients. We experimented with three different classes of classification algorithms; decision trees, k-nearest neighbors, and support vector machines (SVM). A range of experiments were conducted and we eventually narrowed the parameters to 23 selected parameters. SVM consistently outperformed the other algorithms with both sets of features. By combining the results from the different algorithms in a weighted scheme we achieved an overall classification success of 86%.

Humphreys, Roberta M.

2003-01-01

314

Activator protein 1 (AP-1) contributes to EpCAM-dependent breast cancer invasion  

PubMed Central

Introduction EpCAM is a cell-surface glycoprotein that is overexpressed in the majority of epithelial carcinomas. However, the functional role of EpCAM in regulating cancer invasion remains controversial, and the mechanism(s) underlying EpCAM-mediated regulation of breast cancer invasion remain to be defined. Methods EpCAM expression was manipulated in breast cancer cell lines using RNA interference and cDNA expression constructs. Recombinant EpCAM was used to rescue EpCAM signaling following specific ablation of EpCAM. Protein and gene expression, invasion, transcription factor activity, and protein phosphorylation were measured using standard molecular biology techniques. Results In loss-of-function, and gain-of-function experiments we demonstrate that EpCAM expression is associated with increased breast cancer invasion in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate further that specific ablation of EpCAM expression is associated with decreased activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor activity. Phosphoprotein analyses confirm that specific ablation of EpCAM is associated with decreased phosphorylation of the AP-1 subunit c-Jun. Recombinant soluble extracellular EpCAM (rEpCAM) is able to rescue invasion, AP-1 transcription factor activity, and c-Jun phosphorylation in a dose-dependent fashion. Pharmacologic inhibitors, and constitutively active constructs of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway, suggest that the impact of EpCAM expression on AP-1 transcription factor activity is mediated through the JNK pathway. In functional rescue experiments, forced expression of c-Jun rescues invasion in breast cancer cells following specific ablation of EpCAM. Conclusions These data demonstrate for the first time that EpCAM expression can influence the JNK/AP-1 signal transduction pathway, and suggest that modulation of AP-1 transcription factor activity contributes to EpCAM-dependent breast cancer invasion. These data have important implications for the design and application of molecular therapies targeting EpCAM. PMID:22132731

2011-01-01

315

Abnormal expression of transcription factor AP-2? in pathologic placentas*  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent studies from our laboratory have indicated that the transcription factor AP-2? plays a critical role in the differentiation of human villous cytotrophoblast cells (CTB) to syncytiotrophoblast cells (STB). However, little is known about the expression of AP-2? in placentas from pathologic pregnancies. This study compares the expression of AP-2? in placentas from high-risk pregnancies to gestational age-matched controls. Paracentral sections from grossly unremarkable areas of 10 placentas from each group of pregnancies complicated by mild preeclampsia (PE), severe PE, diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic hypertension (HTN), fetal growth restriction (FGR) and 10 control cases of placentas from normal pregnancies matched for gestational age (CG) were double immunostained for AP-2? and E-cadherin. The total numbers of CTB and STB and the numbers of AP-2? positive and negative nuclei in both of these cell types were counted by two pathologists blinded to disease status, in ten representative 40x fields (HPF) for each placenta. Abnormal placental maturation in most of pathologic pregnancies was evidenced by a 1.5–1.7-fold lower STB to CTB ratio. AP-2? expression in STB was lower in mild PE, DM, HTN and FGR (p<0.0001 in each instance) and was higher by 2-fold in severe PE, though this increase was not statistically significant (p=0.3). Since AP-2? has been shown to be critical for villous CTB differentiation, our findings suggest that abnormalities in the AP-2? cascade of transcription factors and/or signaling molecules may contribute to the pathogenesis of the abnormal maturation in placentas in certain types of high-risk pregnancies. The different pattern of AP-2? expression in mild and severe PE clearly suggests that these conditions may have two independent pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:22575257

Sheridan, Rachel M.; Stanek, Jerzy; Khoury, Jane; Handwerger, Stuart

2012-01-01

316

Effect of radiation on the regulation of sodium-dependent glucose transport in LLC-PK1 epithelial cell line: possible model for gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low concentrations of glucose induce cultured kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1) to produce hexose transport proteins. We have investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on this induction process in plateau-phase cultures. The induced production of hexose transporters, requiring approximately 6 to 9 days for complete expression, can be inhibited by irradiation during the first 4 days. After the fourth postinduction day,

A. Moran; L. Davis; M. Hagan

1986-01-01

317

Effect of radiation on the regulation of sodium-dependent glucose transport in LLC-PK⁠epithelial cell line: possible model for gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low concentrations of glucose-cultured kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PKâ) to produce hexose-transport proteins. The effects of ionizing radiation were investigated on this induction process in plateau-phase cultures. The induced production of hexose transporters, requiring approximately 6 to 9 days for complete expression, can be inhibited by irradiation during the first 4 days. After the fourth post-induction day, radiation sensitivity decreases with

A. Moran; L. Davis; M. Hagan

1986-01-01

318

Monocarboxylate Transporter 4 Regulates Maturation and Trafficking of CD147 to the Plasma Membrane in the Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell Line MDA-MB-231  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastatic cancer cells increase glucose consumption and metabolism via glycolysis, producing large quantities of lactate. Recent work has shown that lactate efflux is mediated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCT), which are composed of a catalytic unit (MCT)and an accessory subunit (CD147) , comprising the functional lactate transporter. CD147, an extracellular matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)inducer, is highly expressed in metastatic cancer cells. Because

Shannon M. Gallagher; John J. Castorino; Dian Wang; Nancy J. Philp

2007-01-01

319

KCAT, Xradia, ALS and APS Performance Summary  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of components, subassemblies and assemblies of millimeter-size extent with micrometer-size features (mesoscale). These mesoscale objects include materials that vary widely in composition, density, geometry and embedded features. Characterizing these mesoscale objects is critical for corroborating the physics codes that underlie LLNL's Stockpile Stewardship mission. In this report we present results from our efforts to quantitatively characterize the performance of several x-ray systems in an effort to benchmark existing systems and to determine which systems may have the best potential for our mesoscale imaging needs. Several different x-ray digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT) systems exist that may be applicable to our mesoscale object characterization requirements, including microfocus and synchrotron systems. The systems we have benchmarked include KCAT (LLNL developed) and Xradia {mu}XCT (Xradia, Inc., Concord, CA), both microfocus systems, and Beamline 1-ID at the Advance Photon Source (APS) and the Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), both synchrotron based systems. The ALS Tomography Beamline is a new installation, and the data presented and analyzed here is some of the first to be acquired at the facility. It is important to note that the ALS system had not yet been optimized at the time we acquired data. Results for each of these systems has been independently documented elsewhere. In this report we summarize and compare the characterization results for these systems.

Waters, A; Martz, H; Brown, W

2004-09-30

320

High Pressure Reverse Flow APS Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design and test demonstration effort was undertaken to evaluate the concept of the reverse flow engine for the APS engine application. The 1500 lb (6672 N) thrust engine was designed to operate on gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen propellants at a mixture ratio of 4 and to achieve the objective performance of 435 sec (4266 Nsec/kg) specific impulse. Superimposed durability requirements called for a million-cycle capability with 50 hours duration. The program was undertaken as a series of tasks including the initial preliminary design, design of critical test components and finally, the design and demonstration of an altitude engine which could be used interchangeably to examine operating parameters as well as to demonstrate the capability of the concept. The program results are reported with data to indicate that all of the program objectives were met or exceeded within the course of testing on the program. The analysis effort undertaken is also reported in detail and supplemented with test data in some cases where prior definitions could not be made. The results are contained of these analyses as well as the test results conducted throughout the course of the program. Finally, the test data and analytical results were combined to allow recommendations for a flight weight design. This preliminary design effort is also detailed.

Senneff, J. M.

1972-01-01

321

Characterization of the human activator protein-2gamma (AP-2gamma) gene: control of expression by Sp1/Sp3 in breast tumour cells.  

PubMed Central

The activator protein-2 (AP-2) family of DNA-binding transcription factors are developmentally regulated and also play a role in human neoplasia. In particular, the AP-2gamma protein has been shown to be overexpressed in a high percentage of breast tumours. In the present study, we report the complete sequence determination of the human TFAP2C gene encoding the AP-2gamma transcription factor plus the mapping of the transcription start site used in breast tumour-derived cells. The 5'-end of the gene lies within a CpG island and transcription is initiated at a single site within a classical initiator motif. We have gone on to investigate why some breast tumour-derived cell lines readily express AP-2gamma, whereas others do not, and show that the proximal promoter (+191 to -312) is differentially active in the two cell phenotypes. DNase footprinting led to the identification of three Sp1/Sp3-binding sites within this region, two of which are absolutely required both for promoter function and cell-type-specific activity. By Western blotting a panel of expressing and non-expressing breast tumour lines we show that the latter have higher levels of Sp3. Furthermore, increasing Sp3 levels in AP-2gamma-expressing cells led to the repression of AP-2gamma promoter activity, particularly when Sp3 inhibitory function was maximized through sumoylation. We propose that differences in the level and activity of Sp3 between breast tumour lines can determine the expression level of their AP-2gamma gene. PMID:12733991

Hasleton, Mark D; Ibbitt, J Claire; Hurst, Helen C

2003-01-01

322

Development of Emergency Response Guidelines (ERGs) for AP1000  

SciTech Connect

The AP1000 is two-loop 1100 MWe advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) that uses passive safety features to enhance plant safety and to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 uses proven technology, which builds on over 30 years of operating PWR experience. The AP1000 final design certification has been approved by the NRC in December, 2005. The Emergency Response Guidelines (ERGs) have been developed for the AP1000. The generic ERGs for the low pressure reference PWR plant were used as the basic documents to develop the AP1000 ERGs. The AP1000 design differences from the reference plant were reviewed and reflected in the process of developing operational steps in each ERG. The AP1000 used PRA in both design and licensing. The provisions of the AP1000 PRA were also reviewed and incorporated into the ERGs Although the AP1000 design does not require operator actions for the first 72 hours after accidents, the operator actions with both safety-related and non-safety-related equipment have an important role to mitigate the consequence of accidents. In the event of a LOCA, the AP1000 safety-related passive core cooling system (PXS) provides sources of core makeup water along with an automatic depressurization system (ADS) consisting of several sets of redundant flow paths which are sequentially opened in stages to reduce the reactor coolant system (RCS) pressure in a controlled manner. The final stage of this system, ADS-4, consists of four large valves that open off the hot legs, reducing the pressure to allow gravity injection from the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) and eventually the containment sump recirculation. The AP1000 has non-safety-related normal residual heat removal system (RNS) pumps which can be used to provide low pressure pumped injection of cask loading pit and/or IRWST water and recirculation of containment water. These pumps are not required to operate following accidents. However, it is expected that they should be used if available and their operator actions should be incorporated into ERGs to restore safety-related PXS and/or to avoid ADS-4 actuation. Several LOCA and other cases were analyzed, including consideration of such operator actions as RNS injection, to support the development process of the AP1000 ERGs. These cases were modeled using the best-estimate state-of-art RELAP5 code. The analyses results show that RNS injection is effective for a typical small LOCA to avoid ADS-4 actuation. (authors)

Yuichi Hayashi [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., P.O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA, 15230-0355 (United States); Saiu, Gianfranco [ANSALDO NUCLEARE S.p.A, P.O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA, 15230-0355 (United States); Wright, Richard F. [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, P.O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA, 15230-0355 (United States)

2006-07-01

323

BMCC1 Is an AP-2 Associated Endosomal Protein in Prostate Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The prostate cancer antigen gene 3 (PCA3) is embedded in an intron of a second gene BMCC1 (Bcl2-/adenovirus E1B nineteen kDa-interacting protein 2 (BNIP-2) and Cdc42GAP homology BCH motif-containing molecule at the carboxyl terminal region 1) which is also upregulated in prostate cancer. BMCC1 was initially annotated as two genes (C9orf65/PRUNE and BNIPXL) on either side of PCA3 but our data suggest that it represents a single gene coding for a high molecular weight protein. Here we demonstrate for the first time the expression of a >300 kDa BMCC1 protein (BMCC1-1) in prostate cancer and melanoma cell lines. This protein was found exclusively in the microsomal fraction and localised to cytoplasmic vesicles. We also observed expression of BMCC1 protein in prostate cancer sections using immunohistology. GST pull down, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry protein interaction studies identified multiple members of the Adaptor Related Complex 2 (AP-2) as BMCC1 interactors. Consistent with a role for BMCC1 as an AP-2 interacting endosomal protein, BMCC1 co-localised with ?-adaptin at the perinuclear region of the cell. BMCC1 also showed partial co-localisation with the early endosome small GTP-ase Rab-5 as well as strong co-localisation with internalised pulse-chase labelled transferrin (Tf), providing evidence that BMCC1 is localised to functional endocytic vesicles. BMCC1 knockdown did not affect Tf uptake and AP-2 knockdown did not disperse BMCC1 vesicular distribution, excluding an essential role for BMCC1 in canonical AP-2 mediated endocytic uptake. Instead, we posit a novel role for BMCC1 in post-endocytic trafficking. This study provides fundamental characterisation of the BMCC1 complex in prostate cancer cells and for the first time implicates it in vesicle trafficking. PMID:24040105

Chow, Clement W. K.; Lee, Soon; Kim, Misook; Buck, Marion; Teng, Linda; Clarke, Raymond; Gardiner, Robert A.; Lavin, Martin F.

2013-01-01

324

Vps41p Function in the Alkaline Phosphatase Pathway Requires Homo-oligomerization and Interaction with AP3 through Two Distinct Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of proteins through the ALP (alkaline phosphatase) pathway to the vacuole requires the function of the AP-3 adaptor complex and Vps41p. However, unlike other adaptor protein- dependent pathways, the ALP pathway has not been shown to require additional accessory proteins or coat proteins, such as membrane recruitment factors or clathrin. Two independent genetic approaches have been used to identify

Tamara Darsow; David J. Katzmann; Christopher R. Cowles; Scott D. Emr

2001-01-01

325

An AP4B1 frameshift mutation in siblings with intellectual disability and spastic tetraplegia further delineates the AP-4 deficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

The recently proposed adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) deficiency syndrome comprises a group of congenital neurological disorders characterized by severe intellectual disability (ID), delayed or absent speech, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and growth retardation. AP-4 is a heterotetrameric protein complex with important functions in vesicle trafficking. Mutations in genes affecting different subunits of AP-4, including AP4B1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4M1, have been reported in patients with the AP-4 deficiency phenotype. We describe two siblings from a non-consanguineous couple who presented with severe ID, absent speech, microcephaly, growth retardation, and progressive spastic tetraplegia. Whole-exome sequencing in the two patients identified the novel homozygous 2-bp deletion c.1160_1161delCA (p.(Thr387Argfs*30)) in AP4B1. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation in the siblings and revealed it in the heterozygous state in both parents. The AP4B1-associated phenotype has previously been assigned to spastic paraplegia-47. Identification of a novel AP4B1 alteration in two patients with clinical manifestations highly similar to other individuals with mutations affecting one of the four AP-4 subunits further supports the observation that loss of AP-4 assembly or functionality underlies the common clinical features in these patients and underscores the existence of the clinically recognizable AP-4 deficiency syndrome. PMID:24781758

Abdollahpour, Hengameh; Alawi, Malik; Kortüm, Fanny; Beckstette, Michael; Seemanova, Eva; Komárek, Vladimír; Rosenberger, Georg; Kutsche, Kerstin

2015-02-01

326

The Yeast Adaptor Protein Complex, AP-3, Is Essential for the Efficient Delivery of Alkaline Phosphatase by the Alternate Pathway to the Vacuole  

PubMed Central

A novel clathrin adaptor-like complex, adaptor protein (AP)-3, has recently been described in yeast and in animals. To gain insight into the role of yeast AP-3, a genetic strategy was devised to isolate gene products that are required in the absence of the AP-3 ? chain encoded by APM3. One gene identified by this synthetic lethal screen was VPS45. The Vps pathway defines the route that several proteins, including carboxypeptidase Y, take from the late Golgi to the vacuole. However, vacuolar alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is transported via an alternate, intracellular route. This suggested that the apm3-? vps45 synthetic phenotype could be caused by a block in both the alternate and the Vps pathways. Here we demonstrate that loss of function of the AP-3 complex results in slowed processing and missorting of ALP. ALP is no longer localized to the vacuole membrane by immunofluorescence, but is found in small punctate structures throughout the cell. This pattern is distinct from the Golgi marker Kex2p, which is unaffected in AP-3 mutants. We also show that in the apm3-? mutant some ALP is delivered to the vacuole by diversion into the Vps pathway. Class E vps mutants accumulate an exaggerated prevacuolar compartment containing membrane proteins on their way to the vacuole or destined for recycling to the Golgi. Surprisingly, in AP-3 class E vps double mutants these proteins reappear on the vacuole. We suggest that some AP-3–dependent cargo proteins that regulate late steps in Golgi to vacuole transport are diverted into the Vps pathway allowing completion of transfer to the vacuole in the class E vps mutant. PMID:9412470

Stepp, J. David; Huang, Kristen; Lemmon, Sandra K.

1997-01-01

327

Comparison of In vitro Nanoparticles Uptake in Various Cell Lines and In vivo Pulmonary Cellular Transport in Intratracheally Dosed Rat Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study, the potential drug delivery of nanoformulations was validated via the comparison of cellular uptake of nanoparticles\\u000a in various cell lines and in vivo pulmonary cellular uptake in intratracheally (IT) dosed rat model. Nanoparticles were prepared\\u000a by a bench scale wet milling device and incubated with a series of cell lines, including Caco-2, RAW, MDCK and MDCK transfected\\u000a MDR1

Yurong Lai; Po-Chang Chiang; Jason D. Blom; Na Li; Kimberly Shevlin; Timothy G. Brayman; Yiding Hu; Jon G. Selbo; Liangbiao George Hu

2008-01-01

328

An improved model for the combustion of AP composite propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents several improvements to the BDP model of steady-state burning of AP composite solid propellants. The Price-Boggs-Derr model of AP monopropellant burning is incorporated to represent the AP. A separate energy equation is written for the binder to permit a different surface temperature from the AP; this includes an analysis of the sharing of primary diffusion flame energy, and correction of a BDP model inconsistency in treating the binder regression rate. A method for assembling component contributions to calculate the burning rates of multimodal propellants is also presented. Results are shown in the form of representative burning rate curves, comparisons with data, and calculated internal details of interest. Ideas for future work are discussed in an Appendix.

Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D.

1981-01-01

329

APS-2007 Elena Aprile First Results from the  

E-print Network

module. Current plan is to have a 100kg LXe dark matter experiment taking data in 2009. XENON neutron calibration with AmBe source #12;APS-2007 Elena Aprile Pulse tube cryocooler 15 kg LXe The XENON10

Golwala, Sunil

330

A Review of AP Calculus Graphing Calculator Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Review material on graphing calculator use from the College Board AP Calculus Course Description. The problems are mostly AB level. The page also contains a brief historical remark about Maria Gaetana Agnesi.

331

Tune measurement in the APS ring  

SciTech Connect

The APS system will contain three rings. The first is a positron accumulator ring (PAR). Its function is to coalesce 24, 30-ns-long positron bunches into one 290-ps bunch. The second is the injector synchrotron (IS). It accelerates the 450-MeV positron bunches to 7 Gev for injection into the storage ring (SR). Betatron and synchrotron motion frequently occurs in circular machines, without any deliberate excitation. However, the amplitudes of this motion cannot be predicted. Therefore, it is desirable to have controlled ways to excite these modes. Two types of devices will be used to excite the beam. One will be a magnetic kicker or bumper. All rings already have these devices planned for the horizontal direction for injecting and extracting beams. Some of these magnets will be used for exiting horizontal betatron motion. In the storage ring, a special kicker will be installed to produce up to 1 mm amplitude motion in the vertical direction. Two 8.4-in striplines (SL) (1/4 wavelength at 352 MHz) will be installed on all rings. One stripline in each ring will be used to drive all three tunes, and the other stripline will be used as a pickup. In the PAR and IS, the pickup stripline will be in a dispersive region. This will allow observation of both betatron and synchrotron motions. In the SR, the stripline will be in a nondispersive region because it is not practical to install it in a dispersive region. To do synchrotron tune measurements in the SR, one of the button BPMs located in a dispersive region will be used. To minimize development effort, as much of the BPM system electronics as possible will be used in the tune measurement system. The BPM electronics uses the AMP/PM conversion technique. This system operates at 352 MHz. Thus, tune measurement components were also designed to operate at 352 MHz.

Sellyey, W.; Kahana, E.; Wang, X.

1993-07-01

332

Validation of the new trapped environment AE9/AP9/SPM at low Earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The completion of the international space station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community an ideal proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport codes and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the space transportation system (STS; shuttle) provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code developments by indicating the need for an improved dynamic model of the low Earth orbit (LEO) trapped environment. Additional studies using thermo-luminescent detector (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) area monitors, and computer aided design (CAD) model of earlier ISS configurations, confirmed STS observations that, as input, computational dosimetry requires an environmental model with dynamic and directional (anisotropic) behavior, as well as an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) definition of the vehicle attitude and orientation along the orbit of ISS. At LEO, a vehicle encounters exposure from trapped particles and attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Within the trapped field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensities of the trapped particles during the solar quiet and active times. At active times, solar energetic particles (SEP) generated by solar flare or coronal mass ejection (CME) also contribute to the exposure at high northern and southern latitudes. Among the more established trapped models are the historic and popular AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s, the historic and less popular CRRES electron/proton, dating back to 1990s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. The AE9/AP9/SPM model is a major improvement over the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models. This model is derived from numerous measurements acquired over four solar cycles dating back to the 1970s, roughly representing 40 years of data collection. In contrast, the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models were limited to only a few months of measurements taken during the prior solar minima and maxima. The dual goal of this paper is to first validate the AE8/AP8 and AE9/AP9/SPM trapped models against ISS dosemetric measurements for a silicon based detector, to assess the improvements in the AE9/AP9/SPM model as compared to AE8/AP8 model. The validation is done at selected target points within ISS-6A configuration during its passage through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). For such validation, only the isotropic spectrum of either model is needed. As a second goal, the isotropic spectra of both trapped models are re-casted into anisotropic spectra by modulating them with a measurement derived angular formalism which is applicable to trapped protons. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution, the paper ignores the AE8 and AE9 component of the models and presents the angular validation of AP8 and AP9 against measurements from the compact environment anomaly sensor (CEASE) science instrument package, flown onboard the tri-service experiment-5 (TSX-5) satellite during the period of June 2000-July 2006. The spin stabilized satellite was flown in a 410 × 1710 km, 69° inclination orbit, allowing it to be exposed to a broad range of LEO regime. Particular emphasize is put on the validation of proton flux profiles at differential 40 MeV and integral >40 MeV, in the vicinity of SAA where protons exhibit east-west (EW) anisotropy and have a relatively narrow pitch angle distribution. Within SAA, the EW anisotropy results in different level of exposure to each side of CEASE instrument package, allowing the extraction of anisotropic proton spectra from the measurements. While the magnitude of the EW effect at LEO depends on a multitude of factors such as trapped proton energy, orientation of the spacecraft along the velocity vector and altitude of the spacecraft, for this part, the paper draws quantitative conclusions on t

Badavi, Francis F.

2014-09-01

333

Ku proteins interact with activator protein-2 transcription factors and contribute to ERBB2 overexpression in breast cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Introduction Activator protein-2 (AP-2) ? and AP-2? transcription factors contribute to ERBB2 gene overexpression in breast cancer. In order to understand the mechanism by which the ERBB2 gene is overexpressed we searched for novel AP-2 interacting factors that contribute to its activity. Methods Ku proteins were identified as AP-2? interacting proteins by glutathione serine transferase (GST)-pull down followed by mass spectrometry. Transfection of the cells with siRNA, expression vectors and reporter vectors as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were used to ascertain the implication of Ku proteins on ERBB2 expression. Results Nuclear proteins from BT-474 cells overexpressing AP-2? and AP-2? were incubated with GST-AP2 or GST coated beads. Among the proteins retained specifically on GST-AP2 coated beads Ku70 and Ku80 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The contribution of Ku proteins to ERBB2 gene expression in BT-474 and SKBR3 cell lines was investigated by downregulating Ku proteins through the use of specific siRNAs. Depletion of Ku proteins led to downregulation of ERBB2 mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, reduction of Ku80 in HCT116 cell line decreased the AP-2? activity on a reporter vector containing an AP-2 binding site linked to the ERBB2 core promoter, and transfection of Ku80 increased the activity of AP-2? on this promoter. Ku siRNAs also inhibited the activity of this reporter vector in BT-474 and SKBR3 cell lines and the activity of the ERBB2 promoter was further reduced by combining Ku siRNAs with AP-2? and AP-2? siRNAs. ChIP experiments with chromatin extracted from wild type or AP-2? and AP-2? or Ku70 siRNA transfected BT-474 cells demonstrated Ku70 recruitment to the ERBB2 proximal promoter in association with AP-2? and AP-2?. Moreover, Ku70 siRNA like AP-2 siRNAs, greatly reduced PolII recruitment to the ERBB2 proximal promoter. Conclusions Ku proteins in interaction with AP-2 (? and ?) contribute to increased ERBB2 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells. PMID:19906305

2009-01-01

334

Again, Maryland Ranks #1 in Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a second year in a row, Maryland ranked first nationwide in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP (Advanced Placement) exam. A score of 3 or higher on the 5-point scale is considered mastery of college-level work. Maryland also continues to show strong gains in the number of students taking an AP exam,…

Maryland State Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

335

The role of AP1 in glucocorticoid resistance in leukaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) but many patients develop glucocorticoid resistance on relapse. The ligand-activated glucocorticoid receptor inhibits activity of the AP-1 transcription factor and the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that up-regulation or over-expression of AP1-binding activity may be an important mechanism of glucocorticoid

S Bailey; AG Hall; ADJ Pearson; CPF Redfern

2001-01-01

336

APS Investigative Systems Associated with County Reported Domestic Elder Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the association between state-defined elder abuse investigation systems and rates of reported, investigated and substantiated domestic elder abuse.Methods: A mailed survey was administered to 1,763 adult protective service (APS) office investigators in 44 states and the District of Columbia. Information about investigative structures and investigations was obtained from 1,409 of the APS investigators, an 80% return rate.

Gerald J. Jogerst; Jeanette M. Daly; Jeffrey D. Dawson; Margaret F. Brinig; Gretchen A. Schmuch; Corinne Peek-Asa

2005-01-01

337

AP-3 regulates PAR1 ubiquitin-independent MVB/lysosomal sorting via an ALIX-mediated pathway.  

PubMed

The sorting of signaling receptors within the endocytic system is important for appropriate cellular responses. After activation, receptors are trafficked to early endosomes and either recycled or sorted to lysosomes and degraded. Most receptors trafficked to lysosomes are modified with ubiquitin and recruited into an endosomal subdomain enriched in hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS), a ubiquitin-binding component of the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, and then sorted into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/lysosomes. However, not all receptors use ubiquitin or the canonical ESCRT machinery to sort to MVBs/lysosomes. This is exemplified by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein-coupled receptor for thrombin, which sorts to lysosomes independent of ubiquitination and HRS. We recently showed that the adaptor protein ALIX binds to PAR1, recruits ESCRT-III, and mediates receptor sorting to ILVs of MVBs. However, the mechanism that initiates PAR1 sorting at the early endosome is not known. We now report that the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) regulates PAR1 ubiquitin-independent sorting to MVBs through an ALIX-dependent pathway. AP-3 binds to a PAR1 cytoplasmic tail-localized tyrosine-based motif and mediates PAR1 lysosomal degradation independent of ubiquitination. Moreover, AP-3 facilitates PAR1 interaction with ALIX, suggesting that AP-3 functions before PAR1 engagement of ALIX and MVB/lysosomal sorting. PMID:22833563

Dores, Michael R; Paing, May M; Lin, Huilan; Montagne, William A; Marchese, Adriano; Trejo, JoAnn

2012-09-01

338

Genome-wide analysis of the distribution of AP2/ERF transcription factors reveals duplication and CBFs genes elucidate their potential function in Brassica oleracea  

PubMed Central

Background Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) is one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide. The entire cabbage genome sequence and more than fifty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. However a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between cabbage and Arabidopsis; therefore, Arabidopsis is a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Transcription factors (TFs) are important regulators involved in plant development and physiological processes and the AP2/ERF protein family contains transcriptional factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development, as well as response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. However, no detailed expression profile of AP2/ERF-like genes is available for B. oleracea. Results In the present study, 226 AP2/ERF TFs were identified from B. oleracea based on the available genome sequence. Based on sequence similarity, the AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into five groups (DREB, ERF, AP2, RAV and Soloist) and 15 subgroups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic construction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns and interaction network were then predicted and analyzed. AP2/ERF transcription factor expression levels exhibited differences in response to varying abiotic stresses based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). BoCBF1a, 1b, 2, 3 and 4, which were highly conserved in Arabidopsis and B. rapa CBF/DREB genes families were well characterized. Expression analysis enabled elucidation of the molecular and genetic level expression patterns of cold tolerance (CT) and susceptible lines (CS) of cabbage and indicated that all BoCBF genes responded to abiotic stresses. Conclusions Comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of AP2/ERF superfamily genes and BoCBF family genes in B. oleracea is required to fully elucidate AP2/ERF, which will provide rich resources and opportunities to understand abiotic stress tolerance in crops. PMID:24888752

2014-01-01

339

Analysis of TFAP2A mutations in Branchio-Oculo-Facial Syndrome indicates functional complexity within the AP-2? DNA-binding domain.  

PubMed

Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the AP-2 transcription factor family has an important regulatory function in human craniofacial development. Notably, mutations in TFAP2A, the gene encoding AP-2?, have been identified in patients with Branchio-Oculo-Facial Syndrome (BOFS). BOFS is an autosomal-dominant trait that commonly presents with facial clefting, eye defects and branchial skin anomalies. Examination of multiple cases has suggested either simple haploinsufficiency or more complex genetic causes for BOFS, especially as the clinical manifestations are variable, with no clear genotype-phenotype correlation. Mutations occur throughout TFAP2A, but mostly within conserved sequences within the DNA contact domain of AP-2?. However, the consequences of the various mutations for AP-2? protein function have not been evaluated. Therefore, it remains unclear if all BOFS mutations result in similar changes to the AP-2? protein or if they each produce specific alterations that underlie the spectrum of phenotypes. Here, we have investigated the molecular consequences of the mutations that localize to the DNA-binding region. We show that although individual mutations have different effects on DNA binding, they all demonstrate significantly reduced transcriptional activities. Moreover, all mutant derivatives have an altered nuclear:cytoplasmic distribution compared with the predominantly nuclear localization of wild-type AP-2? and several can exert a dominant-negative activity on the wild-type AP-2? protein. Overall, our data suggest that the individual TFAP2A BOFS mutations can generate null, hypomorphic or antimorphic alleles and that these differences in activity, combined with a role for AP-2? in epigenetic events, may influence the resultant pathology and the phenotypic variability. PMID:23578821

Li, Hong; Sheridan, Ryan; Williams, Trevor

2013-08-15

340

49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General...

2012-10-01

341

49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General...

2011-10-01

342

49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General...

2013-10-01

343

49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation...Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General...

2010-10-01

344

The VLT LBG Redshift Survey - I. Clustering and dynamics of &ap;1000 galaxies at z&ap; 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the initial imaging and spectroscopic data acquired as part of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) VIMOS Lyman-break galaxy Survey. UBR (or UBVI) imaging covers five &ap;36 × 36 arcmin2 fields centred on bright z > 3 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), allowing &ap;21 000 2 < z 2 Lyman-break galaxies and 10 z > 2 QSOs from a total of

R. M. Bielby; T. Shanks; P. M. Weilbacher; L. Infante; N. H. M. Crighton; C. Bornancini; N. Bouché; P. Héraudeau; D. G. Lambas; J. Lowenthal; D. Minniti; N. Padilla; P. Petitjean; T. Theuns

2011-01-01

345

Past, Present, and Future of AP Chemistry: A Brief History of Course and Exam Alignment Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the Advanced Placement (AP) Program's commitment to continually enhance alignment with current best practices in college-level learning, the AP Program is currently evaluating and redesigning courses and exams, one of which launched during the 2013-2014 academic school year: AP chemistry. The history of the AP chemistry course and…

Magrogan, Serena

2014-01-01

346

AGAP1/AP-3-dependent endocytic recycling of M5 muscarinic receptors promotes dopamine release  

E-print Network

AGAP1/AP-3-dependent endocytic recycling of M5 muscarinic receptors promotes dopamine release Jacob release. We have identified a direct physical interaction between M5 and the AP-3 adaptor complex, and mediated the binding of AP-3 to M5. Interaction with AGAP1 and activity of AP-3 were required for the endo

Sulzer, David

347

Loss of AP-3 function affects spontaneous and evoked release at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses  

E-print Network

Loss of AP-3 function affects spontaneous and evoked release at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses for by the reformation of vesicles at plasma membrane and endosomes. Although the adaptor complex AP-3 was proposed on exocytosis remains unknown. Using mocha mice, which are deficient in functional AP-3, we identify an AP-3

Danglot, Lydia - Institut Jacques Monod, Université Paris 7

348

The Secret Gripes of Professor Klein: An AP-IB By Jay Mathews  

E-print Network

The Secret Gripes of Professor Klein: An AP-IB Drama By Jay Mathews Washington Post Staff Writer's analysis of AP and IB did not turn out the way either of them hoped. On June 4, Klein submitted his report on two courses, AP Calculus AB and IB Mathematics SL. Klein's analysis of AP and IB math was more

Klein, David

349

Stokes IQUV mapping of $\\alpha^2$ CVn & other Ap stars using ESPaDOnS and NARVAL  

E-print Network

New spectral line polarisation observations of 7 bright Ap stars have been obtained with the ESPaDOnS and Narval high resolution spectropolarimeters (Silvester et al. 2012). The aim of this data set is produce a series of surface magnetic field and surface chemistry maps for these Ap stars. We present new magnetic maps for the Ap star $\\alpha^2$ CVn using these new data and the MDI inversion code INVERS10. $\\alpha^2$ CVn is the first Ap star to be observed during two separate epochs using high resolution phase resolved spectropolarimetric $IQUV$ observations and as such allows us an insight into how stable the surface magnetic structure is over a decade timescale. We show that the new maps give a magnetic field structure consistent with the previous maps obtained by Kochukhov and Wade (2010) from lower quality MuSiCoS spectra taken a decade ago and that the field topology cannot be described by a dipolar or quadrupolar field.

Silvester, J; Wade, G A

2013-01-01

350

Quercetin modulates NF-kappa B and AP-1/JNK pathways to induce cell death in human hepatoma cells.  

PubMed

Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid, has been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties, but the precise molecular mechanisms of action are not thoroughly elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of quercetin (50 microM) on two main transcription factors (NF-kappa B and AP-1) related to survival/proliferation pathways in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) over time. Quercetin induced a significant time-dependent inactivation of the NF-kappa B pathway consistent with a downregulation of the NF-kappa B binding activity (from 15 min onward). These features were in concert with a time-dependent activation (starting at 15 min and maintained up to 18 h) of the AP-1/JNK pathway, which played an important role in the control of the cell death induced by the flavonoid and contributed to the regulation of survival/proliferation (AKT, ERK) and death (caspase-3, p38, unbalance of Bcl-2 proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins) signals. These data suggest that NF-kappa B and AP-1 play a main role in the tight regulation of survival/proliferation pathways exerted by quercetin and that the sustained JNK/AP-1 activation and inhibition of NF-kappa B provoked by the flavonoid induced HepG2 death. PMID:20358477

Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

2010-01-01

351

Pulsation in the atmosphere of the roAp star HD 24712. I. Spectroscopic observations and radial velocity measurements  

E-print Network

We have investigated the structure of the pulsating atmosphere of one of the best studied rapidly oscillating Ap stars, HD 24712. For this purpose we analyzed spectra collected during 2001-2004. An extensive data set was obtained in 2004 simultaneously with the photometry of the Canadian MOST mini-satellite. This allows us to connect directly atmospheric dynamics observed as radial velocity variations with light variations seen in photometry. We directly derived for the first time and for different chemical elements, respectively ions, phase shifts between photometric and radial velocity pulsation maxima indicating, as we suggest, different line formation depths in the atmosphere. This allowed us to estimate for the first time the propagation velocity of a pulsation wave in the outer stellar atmosphere of a roAp star to be slightly lower than the sound speed. We confirm large pulsation amplitudes (150-400 m/s) for REE lines and the Halpha core, while spectral lines of the other elements (Mg, Si, Ca, and Fe-peak elements) have nearly constant velocities. We did not find different pulsation amplitudes and phases for the lines of rare-earth elements before and after the Balmer jump, which supports the hypothesis of REE concentration in the upper atmosphere above the hydrogen line-forming layers. We also discuss radial velocity amplitudes and phases measured for individual spectral lines as tools for a 3D tomography of the atmosphere of HD 24712.

T. Ryabchikova; M. Sachkov; W. W. Weiss; T. Kallinger; O. Kochukhov; S. Bagnulo; I. Ilyin; J. D. Landstreet; F. Leone; G. Lo Curto; T. Luftinger; D. Lyashko; A. Magazzu

2006-11-28

352

Orion :F rom On-line Interaction to Off-line Delegation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces orion ,ac onversational sys- tem that performs off-line tasks and initiates later contact with au ser at ap re-negotiated time. Orion has two major episodes of activity: the enrollment of new tasks and the execution of pending tasks. The task manager periodically checks the pend- ing tasks and updates their status, sending off requests to other servers

Stephanie Seneff; Chian Chuu; D. Scott Cyphers

2000-01-01

353

TRANSPORTATION (1:100,000 SCALE) - PIPE AND TRANSMISSION (NEUSE RIVER BASIN, NC)  

EPA Science Inventory

Pipelines, transmission lines, and miscellaneous transportation features from USGS 100,000-scale Digital Line Graphs (DLG) Transportation for Neuse River Watershed study area. Purpose: To define miscellaneous transportation lines in Neuse River Watershed study area. The ...

354

CHOP and AP-1 cooperatively mediate PUMA expression during lipoapoptosis  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis is a key feature of hepatocyte cytotoxicity by saturated free fatty acids (FFA). This lipoapoptosis is dependent, in part, on the transcriptional upregulation of the BH3-only protein PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Although the activator protein (AP)-1 complex facilitates PUMA expression by saturated FFA, the transcription factor CAAT/enhancer binding homologous protein (CHOP) is also induced by ER stress and promotes apoptosis. To integrate the role of these two transcription factors in ER stress-induced apoptosis, we examined the relative contribution of CHOP and AP-1 in mediating PUMA induction by saturated FFA. Our results demonstrate that short-hairpin RNA-targeted knockdown of CHOP attenuates palmitate-induced apoptosis in Huh-7 cells. Loss of CHOP induction also reduced the increase in PUMA mRNA and protein levels as well as Bax activation by palmitate. No functional CHOP binding sites were identified in the PUMA promoter sequence. Rather, we observed that CHOP physically interacts with the AP-1 complex protein c-Jun upon palmitate treatment, and a CHOP:phosphorylated c-Jun heteromeric complex binds to the AP-1 consensus binding sequence within the PUMA promoter region. Finally, loss of function studies suggest that both transcription factors are necessary for maximal PUMA induction. Collectively, these data suggest that CHOP and AP-1 cooperatively mediate PUMA induction during hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. PMID:20430872

Cazanave, Sophie C.; Elmi, Nafisa A.; Akazawa, Yuko; Bronk, Steven F.; Mott, Justin L.

2010-01-01

355

Kinetic analysis and fragment screening with Fujifilm AP-3000.  

PubMed

We evaluated the performance of Fujifilm's new AP-3000 surface plasmon resonance biosensor for kinetic analysis and fragment screening. Using carbonic anhydrase II as a model system, we characterized a set of 10 sulfonamide-based inhibitors that range in molecular mass from 98 to 341Da and approximately 10,000-fold in affinity (0.4mM to 20nM). Although the data collected from the AP-3000 were generally similar to those collected using a Biacore T100, the AP-3000's stop-flow analyte delivery system complicated the shapes of the association- and dissociation-phase binding responses. We illustrate how reasonable estimates of the kinetic rate constants can be extracted from AP-3000 data by limiting data analysis to only the regions of the responses collected during flow conditions. We also provide an example of the results obtained for a fragment-screening study with the AP-3000, which is the ideal application of this technology. PMID:20371220

Rich, Rebecca L; Myszka, David G

2010-07-15

356

Characterization of Schistosome Tegumental Alkaline Phosphatase (SmAP)  

PubMed Central

Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminths that currently infect over 200 million people globally. The parasites can live for years in a putatively hostile environment - the blood of vertebrates. We have hypothesized that the unusual schistosome tegument (outer-covering) plays a role in protecting parasites in the blood; by impeding host immunological signaling pathways we suggest that tegumental molecules help create an immunologically privileged environment for schistosomes. In this work, we clone and characterize a schistosome alkaline phosphatase (SmAP), a predicted ?60 kDa glycoprotein that has high sequence conservation with members of the alkaline phosphatase protein family. The SmAP gene is most highly expressed in intravascular parasite life stages. Using immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy, we confirm that SmAP is expressed at the host/parasite interface and in internal tissues. The ability of living parasites to cleave exogenous adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and generate adenosine is very largely abolished when SmAP gene expression is suppressed following RNAi treatment targeting the gene. These results lend support to the hypothesis that schistosome surface enzymes such as SmAP could dampen host immune responses against the parasites by generating immunosuppressants such as adenosine to promote their survival. This notion does not rule out other potential functions for the adenosine generated e.g. in parasite nutrition. PMID:21483710

Bhardwaj, Rita; Skelly, Patrick J.

2011-01-01

357

Plastid-cytosol partitioning and integration of metabolic pathways for APS/PAPS biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Plants assimilate sulfate from the environment to synthesize biologically active sulfur-containing compounds required for growth and cellular development. The primary steps of sulfur metabolism involve sequential enzymatic reactions synthesizing adenosine 5?-phosphosulfate (APS) and 3?-phosphoadenosine 5’-phosphosulfate (PAPS). Recent finding suggests that an adenosine nucleotide transport system facilitating the exchange of PAPS and 3?-phosphoadenosine 5?-phosphate across the plastid envelope is essential for establishing an intimate connection between the plastidic and cytosolic sulfate assimilation pathways in plants. Subcellular partitioning and integration of metabolic pathways provide focal points for investigating metabolic flux regulations. This perspective article presents an integrative view of sulfur metabolic flux control mechanisms with an emphasis on subcellular partitioning of APS/PAPS biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25657651

Bohrer, Anne-Sophie; Kopriva, Stanislav; Takahashi, Hideki

2015-01-01

358

Signal-mediated, AP-1/Clathrin-dependent Sorting of Transmembrane Receptors to the Somatodendritic Domain of Hippocampal Neurons  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Plasma membranes of the somatodendritic and axonal domains of neurons are known to have different protein compositions, but the molecular mechanisms that determine this polarized protein distribution remain poorly understood. Herein we show that somatodendritic sorting of various transmembrane receptors in rat hippocampal neurons is mediated by recognition of signals within the cytosolic domains of the proteins by the µ1A subunit of the adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) complex. This complex, in conjunction with clathrin, functions in the neuronal soma to exclude somatodendritic proteins from axonal transport carriers. Perturbation of this process affects dendritic spine morphology and decreases the number of synapses. These findings highlight the primary recognition event that underlies somatodendritic sorting and contribute to the evolving view of AP-1 as a global regulator of cell polarity. PMID:22958822

Farías, Ginny G.; Cuitino, Loreto; Guo, Xiaoli; Ren, Xuefeng; Jarnik, Michal; Mattera, Rafael; Bonifacino, Juan S.

2012-01-01

359

APS storage ring vacuum system development  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, rf and insertion device systems. The vacuum system will operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr and is fabricated from aluminum. The system includes distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. An overview of the vacuum system design and details of selected development program results are presented. 5 refs.

Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Ferry, R.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.D.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

1991-01-01

360

How to Find a Bug in Ten Thousand Lines Transport Solver? Outline of Experiences from AN Advection-Diffusion Code Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost all natural phenomena on Earth are highly nonlinear. Even simplifications to the equations describing nature usually end up being nonlinear partial differential equations. Transport (ADR) equation is a pivotal equation in atmospheric sciences and water quality. This nonlinear equation needs to be solved numerically for practical purposes so academicians and engineers thoroughly rely on the assistance of numerical codes. Thus, numerical codes require verification before they are utilized for multiple applications in science and engineering. Model verification is a mathematical procedure whereby a numerical code is checked to assure the governing equation is properly solved as it is described in the design document. CFD verification is not a straightforward and well-defined course. Only a complete test suite can uncover all the limitations and bugs. Results are needed to be assessed to make a distinction between bug-induced-defect and innate limitation of a numerical scheme. As Roache (2009) said, numerical verification is a state-of-the-art procedure. Sometimes novel tricks work out. This study conveys the synopsis of the experiences we gained during a comprehensive verification process which was done for a transport solver. A test suite was designed including unit tests and algorithmic tests. Tests were layered in complexity in several dimensions from simple to complex. Acceptance criteria defined for the desirable capabilities of the transport code such as order of accuracy, mass conservation, handling stiff source term, spurious oscillation, and initial shape preservation. At the begining, mesh convergence study which is the main craft of the verification is performed. To that end, analytical solution of ADR equation gathered. Also a new solution was derived. In the more general cases, lack of analytical solution could be overcome through Richardson Extrapolation and Manufactured Solution. Then, two bugs which were concealed during the mesh convergence study uncovered with the method of false injection and visualization of the results. Symmetry had dual functionality: there was a bug, which was hidden due to the symmetric nature of a test (it was detected afterward utilizing artificial false injection), on the other hand self-symmetry was used to design a new test, and in a case the analytical solution of the ADR equation was unknown. Assisting subroutines designed to check and post-process conservation of mass and oscillatory behavior. Finally, capability of the solver also checked for stiff reaction source term. The above test suite not only was a decent tool of error detection but also it provided a thorough feedback on the ADR solvers limitations. Such information is the crux of any rigorous numerical modeling for a modeler who deals with surface/subsurface pollution transport.

Zamani, K.; Bombardelli, F.

2011-12-01

361

Relativistic Supernovae have Shorter-lived Central Engines or More Extended Progenitors: The Case of SN 2012ap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep, late-time X-ray observations of the relativistic, engine-driven, type Ic SN 2012ap allow us to probe the nearby environment of the explosion and reveal the unique properties of relativistic supernova explosions (SNe). We find that on a local scale of ~0.01 pc the environment was shaped directly by the evolution of the progenitor star with a pre-explosion mass-loss rate of \\dot{M} <5 × 10-6 {M? yr-1}, in line with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and the other relativistic SN 2009bb. Like sub-energetic GRBs, SN 2012ap is characterized by a bright radio emission and evidence for mildly relativistic ejecta. However, its late-time (?t ? 20 days) X-ray emission is ~100 times fainter than the faintest sub-energetic GRB at the same epoch, with no evidence for late-time central engine activity. These results support theoretical proposals that link relativistic SNe like 2009bb and 2012ap with the weakest observed engine-driven explosions, where the jet barely fails to break out. Furthermore, our observations demonstrate that the difference between relativistic SNe and sub-energetic GRBs is intrinsic and not due to line-of-sight effects. This phenomenology can either be due to an intrinsically shorter-lived engine or to a more extended progenitor in relativistic SNe.

Margutti, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Soderberg, A. M.; Guidorzi, C.; Morsony, B. J.; Sanders, N.; Chakraborti, S.; Ray, A.; Kamble, A.; Drout, M.; Parrent, J.; Zauderer, A.; Chomiuk, L.

2014-12-01

362

Oligomeric Structure and Functional Characterization of the Urea Transporter from Actinobacillus pleuropneunomiae  

PubMed Central

Urea transporters facilitate urea permeation across cell membranes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Bacteria use urea either as a means to survive in acidic environments and/or as a nitrogen source. The urea transporter ApUT from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the pathogen that causes porcine pleurisy and pneumonia, was expressed in E. coli and purified. Analysis of the recombinant protein using cross-linking and blue-native gel electrophoresis established that ApUT is a dimer in detergent solution. To determine the urea transport kinetics of ApUT, purified protein was reconstituted into proteoliposomes, and urea efflux was measured by stopped-flow fluorometry. The measured urea flux was saturable, could be inhibited by phloretin, and was not affected by pH. Two-dimensional crystals of the biologically active ApUT show that it is also dimeric in a lipid membrane and provide the first structural information on a member of the urea transporter family. PMID:19361419

Raunser, Stefan; Mathai, John C.; Abeyrathne, Priyanka D.; Rice, Amanda J.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Walz, Thomas

2009-01-01

363

Piping benchmark problems for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant  

SciTech Connect

To satisfy the need for verification of the computer programs and modeling techniques that will be used to perform the final piping analyses for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant, three benchmark problems were developed. The problems are representative piping systems subjected to representative dynamic loads with solutions developed using the methods being proposed for analysis for the AP600 standard design. It will be required that the combined license licensees demonstrate that their solutions to these problems are in agreement with the benchmark problem set.

Bezler, P.; DeGrassi, G.; Braverman, J.; Wang, Y.K.

1997-01-01

364

AP24534, a Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Potently Inhibits the T315I Mutant and Overcomes Mutation-Based Resistance  

SciTech Connect

Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABL{sup T315I} mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and preclinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multitargeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABL{sup T315I}-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML.

O’ Hare, Thomas; Shakespeare, William C.; Zhu, Xiaotian; Eide, Christopher A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Frank; Adrian, Lauren T.; Zhou, Tianjun; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Qihong; Metcalf, III, Chester A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Corbin, Amie S.; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Keats, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Thomas, Mathew; Zhou, Dong; Snodgrass, Joseph; Commodore, Lois; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Dalgarno, David C.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim; (OHSU- Cancer Instit.); (ARIAD)

2010-09-07

365

Incorporating the APS Catalog of the POSS I and Image Archive in ADS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of this contract was to develop the software to both create and access an on-line database of images from digital scans of the Palomar Sky Survey. This required modifying our DBMS (called Star Base) to create an image database from the actual raw pixel data from the scans. The digitized images are processed into a set of coordinate-reference index and pixel files that are stored in run-length files, thus achieving an efficient lossless compression. For efficiency and ease of referencing, each digitized POSS I plate is then divided into 900 subplates. Our custom DBMS maps each query into the corresponding POSS plate(s) and subplate(s). All images from the appropriate subplates are retrieved from disk with byte-offsets taken from the index files. These are assembled on-the-fly into a GIF image file for browser display, and a FITS format image file for retrieval. The FITS images have a pixel size of 0.33 arcseconds. The FITS header contains astrometric and photometric information. This method keeps the disk requirements manageable while allowing for future improvements. When complete, the APS Image Database will contain over 130 Gb of data. A set of web pages query forms are available on-line, as well as an on-line tutorial and documentation. The database is distributed to the Internet by a high-speed SGI server and a high-bandwidth disk system. URL is http://aps.umn.edu/IDB/. The image database software is written in perl and C and has been compiled on SGI computers with MIX5.3. A copy of the written documentation is included and the software is on the accompanying exabyte tape.

Humphreys, Roberta M.

1998-01-01

366

The Relationship between AP[R] Exam Performance and College Outcomes. Research Report No. 2009-4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on the relationship between students' Advanced Placement Program[R] (AP[R]) performance in AP English Language, Biology, Calculus, and U.S. History, and their subsequent college success. For each AP Exam studied, students were divided into three groups according to their AP Exam performance (no AP Exam taken, score of 1 or 2,…

Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Xiong, Xinhui

2009-01-01

367

Photospheric-Phase Spectropolarimetry and Nebular-Phase Spectroscopy of the Peculiar Type Ic Supernova 2002ap  

E-print Network

The early-time optical spectrum of the Type Ic supernova (SN) 2002ap was characterized by unusually broad features, leading some authors to designate it a "hypernova." We present optical spectropolarimetry of this object 16 and 37 days after the estimated date of explosion. After correcting for interstellar polarization, we find evidence for a high level of intrinsic continuum polarization at both epochs: p >~ 1.3% on day 16 and p >~ 1.0% on day 37. Prominent line polarization is also seen, especially in the trough of the Ca II near-infrared triplet during the second epoch. When interpreted in terms of the oblate, electron-scattering model atmospheres of Hoeflich (1991), our results imply an asymmetry of at least 20% (day 16) and 17% (day 37). The data suggest a fair degree of axisymmetry, although the polarization angle of the dominant polarization axes are different by about 55 deg. between the two epochs, implying a complex morphology for the thinning ejecta. In particular, there exists some spectropolarimetric evidence for a different distribution of Ca relative to iron-group elements. We also present flux spectra of SN 2002ap taken 131 and 140 days after the explosion. The spectra are characterized by a very weak continuum and broad emission lines, indicating that SN 2002ap has entered the nebular phase. The spectral features are substantially similar to those of ``normal'' SNe Ic in the nebular phase, and the emission lines are not significantly broader. However, some of the broad lines are very sharply peaked, and may possess a narrow component (probably unresolved by our spectra, FWHM <~ 400 km/s that is redshifted by ~ 580$ km/s with respect to the systemic velocity of the host galaxy.

Douglas C. Leonard; Alexei V. Filippenko; Ryan Chornock; Ryan J. Foley

2002-09-11

368

Iodine Volatility and pH Control in the AP-600 Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Two design-basis accidents for the AP-600 reactor are formulated and evaluate~ in which significant bypass of the principal pH control system occurs. Some iodine released from the reactor primary system is retained in the Incontainment Refaeling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) water, never entering the containment where trisodium phosphate produces a high pH. Some of this iodine is volatilized and is transported into the reactor containment airspace. in the worst case, a small fraction is released to the environment at design-basis leak rate, yielding a total cumulative iodine release at 30 days of 0.0352 mol (0.023% of core iodine inventory) due to the iodine volatilization bypassing the pH control system. No fission product removal in the containment atmosphere (i.e., natural deposition sprays) is considered.

Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.

1998-10-01

369

APS Forum on Education Newsletter - Summer 2010 Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the Teacher Preparation Section of this edition, Gay Stewart talks about the Arkansas Noyce Scholarship Program and Gabe Popkin discusses the PhysTEC Noyce. Other articles include an introduction to the APS Minority Bridge Program and an outline of some student opportunities available through the Center for Excellence in Education.

2010-07-06

370

Fabrication of the APS Storage Ring radio frequency accelerating cavities  

SciTech Connect

Specification, heat treatment, strength, and fatigue life of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Storage Ring 352-MHz radio frequency (RF) accelerating cavity copper is discussed. Heat transfer studies, including finite element analysis, and configuration of water cooling is described. Requirements for and techniques of machining are considered. Braze and electron beam joint designs are compared. Vacuum considerations during fabrication are discussed.

Primdahl, K.; Bridges, J.; DePaola, F.; Kustom, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Snee, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (US)

1993-07-01

371

Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

Physics Today, 1975

1975-01-01

372

APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellowship Awards Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is on page 48 of The Physiologist, April 2012. Since its inception in 1987, the APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellowship Program has awarded more than 810 travel fellowships to over 555 undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral students and to faculty members at minority institutions.

APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

2012-04-01

373

84th President of APS Joey P. Granger  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is on pages 41 and 45-49 of the PDF file. An article in The Physiologist April 2011 introducing Joey P. Granger and outlining what he views as the areas of strength in the APS and areas where improvment is needed.

PhD Joey P. Granger (University of Mississippi Medical Center Department of Physiology)

2011-04-01

374

AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With an annual yearly growth rate of 9.3 percent over the last two decades, Advanced Placement courses have become a juggernaut in American high school education. AP courses are routinely perceived as an indicator of educational rigor, and many schools push to enroll low-income or minority students in these courses in the hope of preparing them…

Sadler, Philip M., Ed.; Sonnert, Gerhard, Ed.; Tai, Robert H., Ed.; Klopfenstein, Kristin, Ed.

2010-01-01

375

Vibrational Mechanics: Nonlinear Dynamic Effects, General Ap-proach, Applications  

E-print Network

Review of: Vibrational Mechanics: Nonlinear Dynamic Effects, General Ap- proach, Applications Iliya.H.M. van der Heijden, University College London, UK Fast vibrations may have strong and sometimes pendulum by rapid oscillation of its point of support, the shift of a vibrating compass needle and the self

van der Heijden, Gert

376

APS storage ring vacuum chamber: Section 1, Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The vacuum characteristics of the APS storage ring vacuum chamber prototype, Section One (S1), is presented. The base pressure achieved was 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}, the welds contained no virtual or real leaks, the NeG strip mounting design and activation procedures have been determined, and S1 was found contaminated with hydrocarbons.

Benaroya, R.; Roop, B.

1995-07-01

377

Mechanistic studies of the ClpAP protease/  

E-print Network

CIpA, a member of the Hspl00/Clp subset of the AAA+ superfamily, is an energy-dependent chaperone, disassembling and remodeling its protein substrates. CIpA also serves as the ATPase component of the ClpAP protease, where ...

Farbman, Mary E

2008-01-01

378

AP Biology Workshop: The Importance of Laboratory Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of essays that highlights the benefits of conducting lab experiments as part of the AP Biology curriculum. It encourages teachers to continue using learning tools like technology in lab experiments to enhance the classroom experience for students.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board; )

2012-10-24

379

APS/123-QED Dust Successive Generations in Complex Plasmas  

E-print Network

APS/123-QED Dust Successive Generations in Complex Plasmas: A Cyclic Phenomenon in the Void Region´eans cedex 2, France (Dated: December 5, 2007) Dust formation and growth in plasmas are in most cases continuous cyclic phenomena. We show that the growth of new dust generations takes place in a dust free

Boyer, Edmond

380

The Nexus of Energy & Water APS, Berkeley, CA  

E-print Network

.D. Energy and Water 11 March 5, 2011 There Are Four Main Points to Remember 1. Energy and water There Are Two Main Cooling Approaches Open-Loop Cooling Closed-Loop Cooling Most water that is withdrawnThe Nexus of Energy & Water APS, Berkeley, CA Michael E. Webber, Ph.D. March 5, 2011 #12;Michael E

Kammen, Daniel M.

381

The accretion of interplanetary dust by Ap and Am stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accretion of interplanetary dust and comets by A-type stars is investigated to see whether this process can explain the overabundances of heavy elements in Ap and Am stars. The dust particles spiral in by the Poynting-Robertson effect and evaporate above the star. This process is evaluated by considering the evolution of silicate and graphite particles in the radiation field of Alpha Leo (B7 V). It is found that graphite particles evaporate above 20 stellar radii and silicate dust grains above 50 stellar radii. The evaporated atoms will be quickly ionized. In the case of Am stars the ions will wander off and not reach the photosphere, but in the case of Ap stars they can be trapped by the magnetic field of the star and reach the surface. The magnetosphere of a typical Ap star is modeled, and the fate of the ions is studied. The efficiency of accretion from the magnetosphere is sensitive to the presence of any plasma in the magnetosphere. The comet impact process is found capable of producing the abundance anomalies in Ap as well as Am stars, assuming that the comet impact rate is 0.03/yr, nearly the same as in the solar system.

Kumar, C. Krishna; Davila, Joseph M.; Rajan, R. Sundar

1989-01-01

382

ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED TRIVALENT ARSENICALS. Z Drobna1, I Jaspers2, D J Thomas3 and M Styblo1. 1Department of Pediatrics; 2Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3US EPA, RTP, NC, USA....

383

Clathrin functions in the absence of heterotetrameric adaptors and AP180-related proteins in yeast.  

PubMed Central

The major coat proteins of clathrin-coated vesicles are the clathrin triskelion and heterotetrameric associated protein (AP) complexes. The APs are thought to be involved in cargo capture and recruitment of clathrin to the membrane during endocytosis and sorting in the trans-Golgi network/endosomal system. AP180 is an abundant coat protein in brain clathrin-coated vesicles, and it has potent clathrin assembly activity. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are 13 genes encoding homologs of heterotetrameric AP subunits and two genes encoding AP180-related proteins. To test the model that clathrin function is dependent on the heterotetrameric APs and/or AP180 homologs, yeast strains containing multiple disruptions in AP subunit genes, as well as in the two YAP180 genes, were constructed. Surprisingly, the AP deletion strains did not display the phenotypes associated with clathrin deficiency, including slowed growth and endocytosis, defective late Golgi protein retention and impaired cytosol to vacuole/autophagy function. Clathrin-coated vesicles isolated from multiple AP deletion mutants were morphologically indistinguishable from those from wild-type cells. These results indicate that clathrin function and recruitment onto membranes are not dependent upon heterotetrameric adaptors or AP180 homologs in yeast. Therefore, alternative mechanisms for clathrin assembly and coated vesicle formation, as well as the role of AP complexes and AP180-related proteins in these processes, must be considered. PMID:10406795

Huang, K M; D'Hondt, K; Riezman, H; Lemmon, S K

1999-01-01

384

AP4 is required for mitogen- and c-MYC-induced cell cycle progression  

PubMed Central

AP4 represents a c-MYC-inducible bHLH-LZ transcription factor, which displays elevated expression in many types of tumors. We found that serum-starved AP4-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were unable to resume proliferation and showed a delayed S-phase entry after restimulation. Furthermore, they accumulated as tetraploid cells due to a cytokinesis defect. In addition, AP4 was required for c-MYC-induced cell cycle re-entry. AP4-deficient MEFs displayed decreased expression of CDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2), which we characterized as a conserved and direct AP4 target. Activation of an AP4 estrogen receptor fusion protein (AP4-ER) enhanced proliferation of human diploid fibroblasts in a CDK2-dependent manner. However, in contrast to c-MYC-ER, AP4-ER activation was not sufficient to induce cell cycle re-entry or apoptosis in serum-starved MEFs. AP4-deficiency was accompanied by increased spontaneous and c-MYC-induced DNA damage in MEFs. Furthermore, c-MYC-induced apoptosis was decreased in AP4-deficient MEFs, suggesting that induction of apoptosis by c-MYC is linked to its ability to activate AP4 and thereby cell cycle progression. Taken together, these results indicate that AP4 is a central mediator and coordinator of cell cycle progression in response to mitogenic signals and c-MYC activation. Therefore, inhibition of AP4 function may represent a therapeutic approach to block tumor cell proliferation. PMID:25261373

Jackstadt, Rene; Hermeking, Heiko

2014-01-01

385

AP4 is required for mitogen- and c-MYC-induced cell cycle progression.  

PubMed

AP4 represents a c-MYC-inducible bHLH-LZ transcription factor, which displays elevated expression in many types of tumors. We found that serum-starved AP4-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were unable to resume proliferation and showed a delayed S-phase entry after restimulation. Furthermore, they accumulated as tetraploid cells due to a cytokinesis defect. In addition, AP4 was required for c-MYC-induced cell cycle re-entry. AP4-deficient MEFs displayed decreased expression of CDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2), which we characterized as a conserved and direct AP4 target. Activation of an AP4 estrogen receptor fusion protein (AP4-ER) enhanced proliferation of human diploid fibroblasts in a CDK2-dependent manner. However, in contrast to c-MYC-ER, AP4-ER activation was not sufficient to induce cell cycle re-entry or apoptosis in serum-starved MEFs. AP4-deficiency was accompanied by increased spontaneous and c-MYC-induced DNA damage in MEFs. Furthermore, c-MYC-induced apoptosis was decreased in AP4-deficient MEFs, suggesting that induction of apoptosis by c-MYC is linked to its ability to activate AP4 and thereby cell cycle progression. Taken together, these results indicate that AP4 is a central mediator and coordinator of cell cycle progression in response to mitogenic signals and c-MYC activation. Therefore, inhibition of AP4 function may represent a therapeutic approach to block tumor cell proliferation. PMID:25261373

Jackstadt, Rene; Hermeking, Heiko

2014-09-15

386

Four cation-selective transporters contribute to apical uptake and accumulation of metformin in caco-2 cell monolayers.  

PubMed

Metformin is the frontline therapy for type II diabetes mellitus. The oral bioavailability of metformin is unexpectedly high, between 40 and 60%, given its hydrophilicity and positive charge at all physiologic pH values. Previous studies in Caco-2 cell monolayers, a cellular model of the human intestinal epithelium, showed that during absorptive transport metformin is taken up into the cells via transporters in the apical (AP) membrane; however, predominant transport to the basolateral (BL) side occurs via the paracellular route because intracellular metformin cannot egress across the BL membrane. Furthermore, these studies have suggested that the AP transporters can contribute to intestinal accumulation and absorption of metformin. Transporter-specific inhibitors as well as a novel approach involving a cocktail of transporter inhibitors with overlapping selectivity were used to identify the AP transporters that mediate metformin uptake in Caco-2 cell monolayers; furthermore, the relative contributions of these transporters in metformin AP uptake were also determined. The organic cation transporter 1, plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT), serotonin reuptake transporter, and choline high-affinity transporter contributed to approximately 25%, 20%, 20%, and 15%, respectively, of the AP uptake of metformin. PMAT-knockdown Caco-2 cells were constructed to confirm the contribution of PMAT in metformin AP uptake because a PMAT-selective inhibitor is not available. The identification of four intestinal transporters that contribute to AP uptake and potentially intestinal absorption of metformin is a significant novel finding that can influence our understanding of metformin pharmacology and intestinal drug-drug interactions involving this highly prescribed drug. PMID:25563903

Han, Tianxiang Kevin; Proctor, William R; Costales, Chester L; Cai, Hao; Everett, Ruth S; Thakker, Dhiren R

2015-03-01

387

AP Theory IV: Intrinsic Topological Quantum Langlands Theory  

E-print Network

Without using any moduli, sheaves, stacks, nor any analytic, nor category-type arguments, we exhibit an analogue to Geometric Langlands Theory in an entirely model-independent, non-perturbative,purely smooth topological context in Artin Presentation Theory. A basic initial feature is that AP Theory, as a whole, is already, ab initio, a universal canonical 2D sigma-model, targeting smooth, compact, simply-connected 4-manifolds with a connected boundary, and its topological Planckian quantum starting point, as well as its cone-like, infinitely-generated at each stage, graded group of homology-preserving, but topology-changing transitions/interactions, exhibit the most general qualitative S-duality. We first point out the numerous mathematically rigorous, model-free, (i.e., intrinsic), topological AP analogues with the heuristic Kapustin-Witten version of Geometric Langlands theory, as well as the crucial differences between the two theories. The latter have to exist since AP Theory deals, a priori, essentially only with discrete group-theoretic presentation theory, not Lie group representation theory, not with category nor moduli theory, does not need classical SUSY, nor Feynman integrals, lattice models, etc., and furthermore is model-independent and characteristic of real dimension four. It will become clear that AP Langlands theory is a model-independent, cone-like, graded, compact completion and topological 'envelope' of 4D N=4 SUSY YM theory, their starting point, anchored, kept in place, so to speak, by a purely discrete group-theoretic analogue of Donaldson/Seiberg-Witten theory. Due to its discrete group-theoretic conceptual simplicity and universality, the AP Langlands program should also be considered to be a new type of intrinsic model-free symmetry, a universal Erlanger Program for Modern Physics.

H. E. Winkelnkemper

2010-10-25

388

Comparative sensitivity of three mosquito cell lines for isolation of dengue viruses*  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies were carried out on three mosquito cell lines (C6/36 clone of Aedes albopictus, AP-61 from A. pseudoscutellaris, and TRA-284 from Toxorhynchites amboinensis) to determine their sensitivity to dengue virus isolation, growth, and handling characteristics for immunofluorescent testing. Virus isolation rates from human sera were the highest in the TRA-284-SF (a line adapted to serum-free medium), followed by the TRA-284 parental line and AP-61. Virus isolation was the lowest in the C6/36 line. All 3 cell lines were comparable in terms of ease of handling, but C6/36 cells were preferable for detecting infected cells by the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) because of frequent cell clumping in the AP-61 and TRA-284 lines. Early detection of viral antigen of all 4 serotypes in the infected cells by DFAT was dependent upon the virus titre in the serum. The AP-61 and TRA-284-SF cells were the best for early detection and identification of viral antigen. Similarly, both AP-61 and TRA-284 cells were more resistant than C6/36 cells to toxic effects of human sera. Based on the economy of using the serum-free medium, their higher sensitivity for dengue virus isolation, and their ease of handling, it is recommended that the TRA-284-SF cell line be used for routine dengue virus isolation in laboratories with cell culture capability. PMID:2861916

Kuno, G.; Gubler, D. J.; Vélez, M.; Oliver, A.

1985-01-01

389

Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

Grantier, David

2003-01-01

390

Californium: Scalable Cloud Services for the Internet of Things through CoAP  

E-print Network

Californium: Scalable Cloud Services for the Internet of Things through CoAP Matthias Kovatsch protocol in cloud environments. Our Californium (Cf) CoAP framework shows 33 to 64 times higher throughput

391

The Adolescent Novel in AP English: A Response to Patricia Spencer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the absence of adolescent literature in Advanced Placement (AP) English classes. Describes how a class of AP students and their teacher benefited from reading Robert Cormier's "The Chocolate War." (PRA)

McGee, Tim

1992-01-01

392

Synaptic and genomic responses to JNK and AP-1 signaling in Drosophilaneurons  

E-print Network

Background: The transcription factor AP-1 positively controls synaptic plasticity at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Although in motor neurons, JNK has been shown to activate AP-1, a positive regulator of growth and ...

Narayanan, Radhakrishnan

393

49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line...

2011-10-01

394

49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed...

2010-10-01

395

49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be...

2010-10-01

396

49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line...

2013-10-01

397

49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line...

2012-10-01

398

49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be...

2012-10-01

399

49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be...

2011-10-01

400

49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be...

2013-10-01

401

49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed...

2011-10-01

402

49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed...

2013-10-01

403

49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed...

2012-10-01

404

49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line...

2010-10-01

405

Exploring Mars: the Ares Payload Service (APS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the design notably an improved re-entry cooling system and fueling stability analysis were done this year. More technical detail and a proposed international consortium to develop the SSTO is presented in another session of this year's Mars convention. We believe that there will be no human exploration of Mars based on the Shuttle or Expendable launch vehicles, and no resources available except for a cooperative international program. However, just as the world is learning to cooperate in peacekeeping, we hold out the hope that similar cooperation will develop for Mars exploration. With that in mind, this year we asked the question- "How will the human mission get to Mars if it has to use the SsTO for transportation?"

Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

1999-01-01

406

Exploring Mars: The Ares Payload Service (APS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the design notably an improved re-entry cooling system and fueling stability analysis were done this year. More technical detail and a proposed international consortium to develop the SSTO is presented in another session of this year's Mars convention. We believe that there will be no human exploration of Mars based on the Shuttle or Expendable launch vehicles, and no resources available except for a cooperative international program. However, just as the world is learning to cooperate in peacekeeping, we hold out the hope that similar cooperation will develop for Mars exploration. With that in mind, this year we asked the question- "How will the human mission get to Mars if it has to use the SsTO for transportation?"

Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

1999-08-01

407

Susceptibility of muridae cell lines to ecotropic murine leukemia virus and the cationic amino acid transporter 1 viral receptor sequences: implications for evolution of the viral receptor.  

PubMed

Ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (Eco-MLVs) infect mouse and rat, but not other mammalian cells, and gain access for infection through binding the cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1). Glycosylation of the rat and hamster CAT1s inhibits Eco-MLV infection, and treatment of rat and hamster cells with a glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, enhances Eco-MLV infection. Although the mouse CAT1 is also glycosylated, it does not inhibit Eco-MLV infection. Comparison of amino acid sequences between the rat and mouse CAT1s shows amino acid insertions in the rat protein near the Eco-MLV-binding motif. In addition to the insertion present in the rat CAT1, the hamster CAT1 has additional amino acid insertions. In contrast, tunicamycin treatment of mink and human cells does not elevate the infection, because their CAT1s do not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif. To define the evolutionary pathway of the Eco-MLV receptor, we analyzed CAT1 sequences and susceptibility to Eco-MLV infection of other several murinae animals, including the southern vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis), large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), and Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus). Eco-MLV infection was enhanced by tunicamycin in these cells, and their CAT1 sequences have the insertions like the hamster CAT1. Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian CAT1s suggested that the ancestral CAT1 does not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif, like the human CAT1, and the mouse CAT1 is thought to be generated by the amino acid deletions in the third extracellular loop of CAT1. PMID:24469466

Kakoki, Katsura; Shinohara, Akio; Izumida, Mai; Koizumi, Yosuke; Honda, Eri; Kato, Goro; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Kubo, Yoshinao

2014-06-01

408

AP3: Cooperative, decentralized anonymous communication Alan Mislove Gaurav Oberoi Ansley Post Charles Reis Peter Druschel  

E-print Network

AP3: Cooperative, decentralized anonymous communication Alan Mislove Gaurav Oberoi Ansley Post communication services for participat- ing users. The Anonymizing Peer-to-Peer Proxy (AP3) sys- tem provides pseudonyms. AP3 is designed to be lightweight, low-cost and provides "probable innocence" anonymity

409

77 FR 35308 - Proposed Amendment of Restricted Area R-6601; Fort A.P. Hill, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amendment of Restricted Area R-6601; Fort A.P. Hill, VA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...designation of restricted area R-6601, Fort A.P. Hill, VA. The U. S. Army requested...Banks, U.S. Army Garrison, Fort A.P. Hill, VA 22427; telephone: (804)...

2012-06-13

410

78 FR 21817 - Amendment of Restricted Area R-6601; Fort A.P. Hill, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amendment of Restricted Area R-6601; Fort A.P. Hill, VA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...designation of restricted area R-6601, Fort A.P. Hill, VA. The U.S. Army requested...designation of restricted area R-6601, Fort A.P. Hill, VA, (77 FR 35308, June 13,...

2013-04-12

411

AP Studio Art as an Enabling Constraint for Secondary Art Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advanced Placement (AP) Studio Art is an influential force in secondary art education as is evident in the 31,800 portfolios submitted for review in 2008. From the perspectives of a high school educator and AP Reader, this author has observed how the constraints of the AP program can be used to generate support for high school art programs and…

Graham, Mark A.

2009-01-01

412

APS: 125 Years of Progress of Physiology as a Scientific Discipline and a Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, CA, included events to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the founding of the American Physiological Society (APS) and reflect on the recent accomplishments of the society. Most of the APS activities in the past quarter century were guided by a series of strategic plans. Membership in the APS…

Carroll, Robert G.; Frank, Martin; Ra'anan, Alice; Matyas, Marsha L.

2013-01-01

413

A remark on Ap'ery's numbers JeanPaul Allouche  

E-print Network

A remark on Ap'ery's numbers Jean­Paul Allouche CNRS, LRI Bâ??atiment 490, F­91405 Orsay Cedex France allouche@lri.fr Abstract The Ap'ery numbers, introduced in Ap'ery's celebrated proof of the irrationality mod p. In a paper appeared in this journal (64 (1995), 11--19), C. Radoux asserted that the same

Allouche, Jean-Paul

414

ENGINEERING+AMINOR HOW TO PURSUE A MINOR AP/IB CREDIT SUMMER SEMESTERS  

E-print Network

14 ENGINEERING+AMINOR HOW TO PURSUE A MINOR · AP/IB CREDIT · SUMMER SEMESTERS DOUBLE COUNTING, as long as they plan ahead and map out a clear objective with the help of an advisor. AP/IB CREDIT courses that can be replaced with AP/IB credit include math, chemistry, biol- ogy and even a General

Rohs, Remo

415

AP STAR AWARDS Who is the shining star in your department?  

E-print Network

AP STAR AWARDS Who is the shining star in your department? Give them the honor they deserve! Deadline for application is February 4, 2011 The AP Stars award was created to express appreciation professionals on campus? Previous AP Stars recipients are not eligible to win again for two (2) years after

416

Measure Lines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

Crissman, Sally

2011-01-01

417

[Effect of diadenosine oligophosphates (Ap4A and Ap3A) and their phosphonate analogs on catalytic properties of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli].  

PubMed

The influence of P1,P3-bis(5'-adenosyl)triphosphate (Ap3A), P1,P4-bis(5'-adenosyl)tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and its analogues, containing a residue of methylenediphosphonic acid in various positions of the oligophosphate chain, on the reactions catalysed by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli MRE-600 has been studied. The compounds do not affect significantly the rate of ATP-[32P]PPi-exchange nor maintain this reaction in the absence of ATP. The diadenosineoligophosphates are shown to be noncompetitive inhibitors of ATP in the tRNA aminoacylation by phenylalanine (for Ap4A Ki = 1,45.10(-3) M). The phosphonate analogues of Ap4A inhibit the synthesis of Ap3A depending on their structure. The conclusion is thus drawn that the E. coli MRE-600 phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase does not interact property with Ap4A and its phosphonate analogues. PMID:3322289

Biriukov, A P; Zakharova, O D; Lavrik, O I

1987-09-01

418

Diadenosine polyphosphates (Ap3A and Ap4A) behave as alarmones triggering the synthesis of enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

It is known that cells under stress accumulate various dinucleoside polyphosphates, compounds suggested to function as alarmones. In plants, the phenylpropanoid pathways yield metabolites protecting these organisms against various types of stress. Observations reported in this communication link these two phenomena and provide an example of a metabolic “addressee” for an “alarm” signaled by diadenosine triphosphate (Ap3A) or diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A). In response to added Ap3A or Ap4A, seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana incubated in full nutrition medium increased both the expression of the genes for and the specific activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, enzymes that control the beginning of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Neither adenine mononucleotides (AMP, ADP or ATP) nor adenosine evoked such effects. Reactions catalyzed in vitro by these enzymes were not affected by Ap3A or Ap4A. PMID:23650569

Pietrowska-Borek, Ma?gorzata; Nuc, Katarzyna; Zielezi?ska, Ma?gorzata; Guranowski, Andrzej

2011-01-01

419

Chromosome localization of human genes for clathrin adaptor polypeptides AP2{beta} and AP50 and the clathrin-binding protein, VCP  

SciTech Connect

Clathrin-coated vesicles, involved in endocytosis and Golgi processing, have a surface lattice containing clathrin triskelia and stoichiometric amounts of additional components termed {open_quotes}assembly proteins,{close_quotes} or APs. The AP form at the plasma membrane, AP2, is composed of two large subunits of 100-115 kDa, denoted AP2{alpha} and AP2{beta}, a medium chain of 50 kDa, designated AP50, and a small chain. We have determined human chromosomal locations of genes for a large AP2{beta} (CLAPB1) and a medium (CLAPM1) AP subunit and of a novel clathrin-binding protein, VCP, that binds clathrin simultaneously with A1`s. Chromosomal in situ hybridization of a human genomic clone demonstrated that the CLAPM1 gene mapped to chromosome region 3q28. The gene for the CLAPB1 large subunit was mapped to 17q11.2-q12 by PCR amplification of an AP2{beta} fragment from a panel of rodent-human hybrid DNAs. To map the human VCP sequence, a human-specific probe was made by RT-PCR of human mRNA using oligonucleotide primers from conserved regions of the porcine sequence. The amplified human fragment served as probe on Southern blots of hybrid DNAs to determine that the human VCP locus maps to chromosome region 9pter-q34. 13 refs., 2 figs.

Druck, T.; Gu, Y.; Prabhala, G. [Jefferson Cancer Inst., Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

420

Introduction to Physics of the Universe in AP Physics Classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Often students have difficulty understanding the connections that must be made between old and new concepts. This curriculum is designed to lead AP Physics students through this process with gamma ray bursts. Students will participate in various discussions, demonstrations, exercises and activities that lead them through universe basics, life cycles of stars, black holes, the electromagnetic spectrum, and they will learn about various NASA observatories. Ultimately, this will result in a better understanding of how astrophysicists have come to understand the gamma ray burst. This series of lessons was created for the three to four weeks after the AP Physics exam. The curriculum was developed through gathering resources from various scientific organizations, developing new ideas and speaking with scientists at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The result is a manual of lesson plans, activities and answer keys for teachers to use in their own classrooms.

Allen, Stephanie L.

2006-12-01

421

Status of APS 1-Mwe Parabolic Trough Project  

SciTech Connect

Arizona Public Service (APS) is currently installing new power facilities to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources that will satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). During FY04, APS began construction on a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. Site preparation and construction activities continued throughout much of FY05, and startup activities are planned for Fall 2005 (with completion early in FY06). The plant will be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than the conventional steam Rankine cycle plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

Canada, S.; Brosseau, D.; Kolb, G.; Moore, L.; Cable, R.; Price, H.

2005-11-01

422

Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) Dependent Parallel Arrivals (DPA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) team at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing a concept of operations to extend the current APS concept to support dependent approaches to parallel or converging runways along with the required pilot and controller procedures and pilot interfaces. A staggered operations capability for the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) tool was developed and designated as ASTAR10. ASTAR10 has reached a sufficient level of maturity to be validated and tested through a fast-time simulation. The purpose of the experiment was to identify and resolve any remaining issues in the ASTAR10 algorithm, as well as put the concept of operations through a practical test.

Smith, Colin L.

2012-01-01

423

CMOS APS digital camera based on enhanced parallel port  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CMOS APS become increasingly competitive with respect to their CCD counterparts, while adding advantages such as no blooming, simpler driving requirements and the potential of on-chip integration of sensor analogue circuitry, and digital processing functions. This paper discusses a CMOS digital camera based on EPP interface. A CMOS APS (OV7110) with VGA resolution (640 x 480) was selected as the image sensor, it can generate digital output of typically an 8 or 16 bit data bus in YUV or RGB mode, all the image controllling, e.g. frame rate, white balance, gamma control and exposure control all can be adjusted through 12C bus. The 12C bus control unit, FIFO and EPP interface, etc. are all integrated within a CPLD. The overall structure, working scheme and performance analyses of the camera were discussed in detail. Several images taken by the camera are provided and a detailed discussion of its quality, processing of image data, etc. is also given.

Liu, Zhi; Yang, Jingyi; Wang, Yefan; Hao, Zhihang

2002-09-01

424

Architecture of the APS real-time orbit feedback system.  

SciTech Connect

The APS Real-Time Orbit Feedback System is designed to stabilize the orbit of the stored positron beam against low-frequency sources such as mechanical vibration and power supply ripple. A distributed array of digital signal processors is used to measure the orbit and compute corrections at a 1kHz rate. The system also provides extensive beam diagnostic tools. This paper describes the architectural aspects of the system and describes how the orbit correction algorithms are implemented.

Carwardine, J. A.; Lenkszus, F. R.

1997-11-21

425

Studies on Nonaluminized High Burning Rate AP-Composite Propellants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the effect of replacement of hydroxyl terminated poly butadiene (HTPB) by butacene on the burning rates of a nonaluminized ammonium perchlorate (AP)–based composite propellant. A remarkable burning rate enhancement (60–100%) was observed on replacement of HTPB by butacene to the extent of 25%. Replacement of 50–75% HTPB by butacene led to further increase in burning rate by

G. M. GORE; A. N. NAZARE; C. N. DIVEKAR; S. K. HAIT; S. N. ASTHANA

2004-01-01

426

APS PhysicsQuest: Ben Franklin's Secret Message (2006)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site has links to the materials for the 2006 Physics Quest middle school competition, hosted by the APS. The 2006 lesson covers static electricity, conductors and insulators, heat, and optics. These are connected to the life and science of Benjamin Franklin. The experiments are designed for small groups in a classroom or after school setting. Each of the experiments gives students a clue to solve the mystery.

2011-08-12

427

Diffusion and Settling in Ap/Bp Stars  

E-print Network

Ap/Bp stars are magnetic chemically peculiar early A and late B type stars of the main sequence. They exhibit peculiar surface abundance anomalies that are thought to be the result of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. The physics of diffusion in these stars are reviewed briefly and some model predictions are discussed. While models reproduce some observations reasonably well, more work is needed before the behavior of diffusing elements in a complex magnetic field is fully understood.

S. Turcotte

2003-04-23

428

Packaging design criteria, transfer and disposal of 102-AP mixer pump  

SciTech Connect

A mixer pump installed in storage tank 241-AP-102 (102-AP) has failed. This pump is referred to as the 102-AP mixer pump (APMP). The APMP will be removed from 102-AP 1 and a new pump will be installed. The main purpose of the Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to establish criteria necessary to design and fabricate a shipping container for the transfer and storage of the APMP from 102-AP. The PDC will be used as a guide to develop a Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP).

Carlstrom, R.F.

1994-11-23

429

Margin Assessment of AP1000 Loss of Flow Transient  

SciTech Connect

The Reactor Coolant System (RCS) of the AP1000 plant consists of two circulating loops. Each loop contains two canned motor Reactor Coolant (RC) pumps that have a rotating inertia to provide RCS flow coast-down if power to the pumps is lost. Westinghouse analysis of the complete loss of flow (CLOF) accident in support of the AP1000 design certification was based on the USNRC-approved traditional methodology applied to operating plants. The RCS response during the transient was predicted using the LOFTRAN code based on a reactivity insertion curve highly skewed to the bottom of the reactor core, but the calculation of Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) was performed assuming a top-skewed axial power profile. A more realistic margin assessment can be made by using an improved method similar to Westinghouse RAVE methodology recently approved by the USNRC. The improved method uses the three-dimensional kinetic nodal code SPNOVA coupled with the reactor core thermal-hydraulic code VIPRE-W for predicting the reactor core response during the CLOF transient. The improved method significantly improves margin predictions by generating core power distributions consistent with the trip reactivity changes for the DNBR calculation. The margin assessment showed that the improved method resulted in a 19% DNBR increase as compared to the traditional method for the AP1000 CLOF transient. (authors)

Carlin, Edward L.; Hilton, Peter A.; Yixing Sung [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC (United States)

2006-07-01

430

JUNB/AP-1 controls IFN-? during inflammatory liver disease  

PubMed Central

Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of inflammatory liver disease is essential to design efficient therapeutic approaches. In hepatocytes, the dimeric transcription factor c-JUN/AP-1 is a major mediator of cell survival during hepatitis, although functions for other JUN proteins in liver disease are less defined. Here, we found that JUNB was specifically expressed in human and murine immune cells during acute liver injury. We analyzed the molecular function of JUNB in experimental models of hepatitis, including administration of concanavalin A (ConA) or ?-galactosyl-ceramide, which induce liver inflammation and injury. Mice specifically lacking JUNB in hepatocytes displayed a mild increase in ConA-induced liver damage. However, targeted deletion of Junb in immune cells and hepatocytes protected against hepatitis in experimental models that involved NK/NKT cells. The absence of JUNB in immune cells decreased IFN-? expression and secretion from NK and NKT cells, leading to reduced STAT1 pathway activation. Systemic IFN-? treatment or adenovirus-based IRF1 delivery to Junb-deficient mice restored hepatotoxicity, and we demonstrate that Ifng is a direct transcriptional target of JUNB. These findings demonstrate that JUNB/AP-1 promotes cell death during acute hepatitis by regulating IFN-? production in NK and NKT cells and thus functionally antagonizes the hepatoprotective function of c-JUN/AP-1 in hepatocytes. PMID:24200694

Thomsen, Martin K.; Bakiri, Latifa; Hasenfuss, Sebastian C.; Hamacher, Rainer; Martinez, Lola; Wagner, Erwin F.

2013-01-01

431

Long-term stability of the APS storage ring  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, was commissioned in 1995 at Argonne National Laboratory and has been fully operational for beamline users since 1997. The APS storage ring can accommodate up to 68 user beamlines; about 70% of the available beamlines are currently in use by various collaborative access teams (CATs). The 7-GeV synchrotron light source produces light in the soft to hard x-ray range that is used for research in such areas as x-ray instrumentation; material, chemical and atomic sciences; biology; and geo/soil/environmental sciences. For the successful operation of an x-ray light source such as the Advanced Photon Source, the long-term stability of the concrete floor supporting the beam components and user beamlines is crucial. Settlements impact the orbit and location of the x-ray source points as well as the position of the x-ray beamlines. This paper compares the results of two successive resurveys of the APS accelerator components performed in 1995 and 1998.

Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Error, J.

2000-03-16

432

Long-term stability of the APS storage ring  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation synchrotrons light source, was commissioned in 1995 at Argonne ''National Laboratory and has been fully-operational for beamline users since 1997. The APS storage ring can accommodate up to 68 user beamlines; about 70% of the available beamlines are currently in use by various collaborative access teams (CATS). The 7-GeV synchrotrons light source produces light in the soft to hard x-ray range that is used for research in such areas as x-ray instrumentation; material, chemical and atomic sciences; biology; and geo/soil/ environmental sciences. For the successful operation of an x-ray light source such as the Advanced Photon Source, the long-term stability of the concrete floor supporting the beam components and user beamlines is crucial. Settlements impact the orbit and location of the x-ray source points as well as the position of the x-ray beamlines. This paper compares the results of two successive resurveys of the APS accelerator components performed in 1995 and 1998.

Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Error, J.

1999-10-26

433

Purification of recombinant nacre-associated mineralization protein AP7 fused with maltose-binding protein.  

PubMed

Formation of biominerals often involves specific proteins that modulate the process of matrix assembly, nucleation, and crystal growth. AP7 is an aragonite-associated protein of 7 kDa and is intrinsically disordered. The structural disorder of AP7 makes it very difficult to express in Escherchiacoli. In this work, we report the first successful expression and purification of recombinant AP7 using the maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion approach. We obtain a high-yield production of recombinant MBP-AP7 protein inE. coli (?60 mg/L). We also establish an efficient protocol to remove the MBP fusion protein by Factor Xa, followed by purification using size-exclusion chromatography. Characterization of the recombinant AP7 protein has been carried out using MALDI-TOF, peptide mass fingerprinting, and circular dichroism (CD). The mass data confirm that the purified recombinant protein is AP7. The CD data suggest that the recombinant AP7 protein exists as partially disordered structure at neutral pH. The calcium carbonate precipitation assay shows that both MBP-AP7 and AP7 exhibit morphological modification on calcite crystallites. The co-precipitation of MBP-tagged AP7 derivatives and calcium carbonate generate different types of AP7 composite calcite and vaterite crystals. This system should be helpful to establish a model for understanding the structure/function relationship between the protein and inorganic mineral interaction. PMID:24837160

Huang, Yu-Chieh; Chang, Hsun-Hui; Mou, Yun; Chi, Peter; Chan, Jerry Chun Chung; Luo, Shih-Chi

2014-08-01

434

The interaction between the adaptor protein APS and Enigma is involved in actin organisation.  

PubMed

APS (adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains) is an adaptor protein phosphorylated by several tyrosine kinase receptors including the insulin receptor. To identify novel binding partners of APS, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening. We identified Enigma, a PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein that was previously shown to be associated with the actin cytoskeleton. In HEK 293 cells, Enigma interacted specifically with APS, but not with the APS-related protein SH2-B. This interaction required the NPTY motif of APS and the LIM domains of Enigma. In NIH-3T3 cells that express the insulin receptor, Enigma and APS were partially co-localised with F-actin in small ruffling structures. Insulin increased the complex formation between APS and Enigma and their co-localisation in large F-actin containing ruffles. While in NIH-3T3 and HeLa cells the co-expression of both Enigma and APS did not modify the actin cytoskeleton organisation, expression of Enigma alone led to the formation of F-actin clusters. Similar alteration in actin cytoskeleton organisation was observed in cells expressing both Enigma and APS with a mutation in the NPTY motif. These results identify Enigma as a novel APS-binding protein and suggest that the APS/Enigma complex plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organisation. PMID:15946664

Barrès, Romain; Gonzalez, Teresa; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tanti, Jean-François

2005-08-15

435

Regulation of amino acid transporters by adenoviral-mediated human insulin-like growth factor-1 in a mouse model of placental insufficiency in vivo and the human trophoblast line BeWo in vitro  

PubMed Central

Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that over-expression of human insulin-like growth factor-11 (hIGF-1) in the placenta corrects fetal weight deficits in mouse, rat, and rabbit models of intrauterine growth restriction without changes in placental weight. The underlying mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. To investigate the effect of intra-placental IGF-1 over-expression on placental function we examined amino acid transporter expression and localization in both a mouse model of placental Insufficiency (PI) and a model of human trophoblast, the BeWo Choriocarcinoma cell line. For in vitro human studies, BeWo Choriocarcinoma cells were maintained in F12 complete medium + 10%FBS. Cells were incubated in serum-free control media ± Ad-IGF-1 or Ad-LacZ for 48 h. MOIs of 10:1 and 100:1 were utilized. In BeWo, transfection efficiency was 100% at an MOI of 100:1 and Ad-IGF-1 significantly increased IGF-1 secretion, proliferation and invasion but reduced apoptosis compared to controls. In vitro, amino acid uptake was increased following Ad-IGF-1 treatment and associated with significantly increased RNA expression of SNAT1, 2, LAT1 and 4F2hc. Only SNAT2 protein expression was increased but LAT1 showed relocalization from a perinuclear location to the cytoplasm and cell membrane. For in vivo studies, timed-pregnant animals were divided into four groups on day 18; sham-operated controls, uterine artery branch ligation (UABL), UABL + Ad-hIGF-1 (108 PFU), UABL + Ad-LacZ (108 PFU). At gestational day 20, pups and placentas were harvested by C-section. Only LAT1 mRNA expression changed, showing that a reduced expression of the transporter levels in the PI model could be partially rectified with Ad-hIGF1 treatment. At the protein level, System L was reduced in PI but remained at control levels following Ad-hIGF1. The System A isoforms were differentially regulated with SNAT2 expression diminished but SNAT1 increased in PI and Ad-hIGF1 groups. Enhanced amino acid isoform transporter expression and relocalization to the membrane may be an important mechanism contributing to Ad-hIGF-1 mediated correction of placental insufficiency. PMID:24360522

Jones, H.; Crombleholme, T.; Habli, M.

2014-01-01

436

Curcumin downregulates cell survival mechanisms in human prostate cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the role of nuclear transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) in cell proliferation, and of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in the suppression of apoptosis are known, their role in survival of prostate cancer cells is not well understood. We investigated the role of NF-?B and AP-1 in the survival of human androgen-independent (DU145) and -dependent (LNCaP) prostate cancer cell lines. Our

Asok Mukhopadhyay; Carlos Bueso-Ramos; Devasis Chatterjee; Panayotis Pantazis; Bharat B Aggarwal

2001-01-01

437

NF-?B/AP-1-Targeted Inhibition of Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Depigmenting Compound AP736 Derived from Natural 1,3-Diphenylpropane Skeleton  

PubMed Central

AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO)/prostaglandin (PG) E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264.7 cells. AP736 was found to strongly inhibit the production of both NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AP736 strongly inhibited both LPS-induced morphological changes and FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake. Furthermore, AP736 also downregulated the expression of multiple inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, and interleukin- (IL-) 1? in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Transcription factor analysis, including upstream signalling events, revealed that both NF-?B and AP-1 were targeted by AP736 via inhibition of the IKK/I?B? and IRAK1/TAK1 pathways. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that AP736 is a potential anti-inflammatory drug due to its suppression of NF-?B-IKK/I?B? and AP-1-IRAK1/TAK1 signalling, which may make AP736 useful for the treatment of macrophage-mediated skin inflammation. PMID:25386046

Ha, Van Thai; Beak, Heung Soo; Kim, Eunji; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Hossen, Muhammad Jahangir; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Yong; Joo, Yung Hyup; Lee, Chang Seok; Choi, Joonho; Shin, Hong-Ju; Hong, Sungyoul; Shin, Song Seok

2014-01-01