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Sample records for aquaculture overcoming biological

  1. Guide to Using Drugs, Biologics, and Other Chemicals in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Guide to Using Drugs, Biologics, and Other Chemicals in Aquaculture (Guide) describes regulated products that are approved for use in U.S. aquaculture. The Guide also describes drugs that are not yet approved for use in the U. S. but that can be used under an Investigational New Animal Drug (INA...

  2. Overcoming biological barriers with ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakkar, Dhaval; Gupta, Roohi; Mohan, Praveena; Monson, Kenneth; Rapoport, Natalya

    2012-10-01

    Effect of ultrasound on the permeability of blood vessels and cell membranes to macromolecules and nanodroplets was investigated using mouse carotid arteries and tumor cells. Model macromolecular drug, FITC-dextran with molecular weight of 70,000 Da was used in experiments with carotid arteries. The effect of unfocused 1-MHz ultrasound and and perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether nanodroplets stabilized with the poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(D, L-lactide) block copolymer shells was studied. In cell culture experiments, ovarian carcinoma cells and Doxorubicin (DOX) loaded poly(ethylene oxide)-co-polycaprolactone nanodroplets were used. The data showed that the application of ultrasound resulted in permeabilization of all biological barriers tested. Under the action of ultrasound, not only FITC-dextran but also nanodroplets effectively penetrated through the arterial wall; the effect of continuous wave ultrasound was stronger than that of pulsed ultrasound. In cell culture experiments, ultrasound triggered DOX penetration into cell nuclei, presumably due to releasing the drug from the carrier. Detailed mechanisms of the observed effects require further study.

  3. Microbial diversity of biological filters in recirculating aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Harold J; Mirzoyan, Natella; Saito, Keiko

    2010-06-01

    Development of environmentally sustainable farming of marine and freshwater species using recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) requires a complete understanding of the biological component involved in wastewater treatment. This component integrates biofilters composed of microbial communities whose structure, dynamics, and activities are responsible for system success. Engineering highly efficient, environmentally sound, disease-free, and economically viable systems necessitates a thorough knowledge of microbial processes involved in all facets of RAS biofilters and has only recently been the focus of comprehensive studies. These studies have included the application of molecular tools to characterize community diversity and have identified key processes useful for improving system performance. In this paper we summarize the current understanding of the microbial diversity and physiology of RAS biofilters and discuss directions for future studies. PMID:20371171

  4. Comparing Denitrification Rates and Carbon Sources in Commercial Scale Upflow Denitrification Biological Filters in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic biological filtration systems employing nitrifying bacteria to remediate excess ammonia and nitrite concentrations are common components of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). However, significant water exchange may still be necessary to reduce nitrate concentrations to acceptable leve...

  5. Probiotic Bacteria as Biological Control Agents in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Verschuere, Laurent; Rombaut, Geert; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy

    2000-01-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and live food, with an evaluation of the results obtained so far. A new definition of probiotics, also applicable to aquatic environments, is proposed, and a detailed description is given of their possible modes of action, i.e., production of compounds that are inhibitory toward pathogens, competition with harmful microorganisms for nutrients and energy, competition with deleterious species for adhesion sites, enhancement of the immune response of the animal, improvement of water quality, and interaction with phytoplankton. A rationale is proposed for the multistep and multidisciplinary process required for the development of effective and safe probiotics for commercial application in aquaculture. Finally, directions for further research are discussed. PMID:11104813

  6. Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, L; Rombaut, G; Sorgeloos, P; Verstraete, W

    2000-12-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and live food, with an evaluation of the results obtained so far. A new definition of probiotics, also applicable to aquatic environments, is proposed, and a detailed description is given of their possible modes of action, i.e., production of compounds that are inhibitory toward pathogens, competition with harmful microorganisms for nutrients and energy, competition with deleterious species for adhesion sites, enhancement of the immune response of the animal, improvement of water quality, and interaction with phytoplankton. A rationale is proposed for the multistep and multidisciplinary process required for the development of effective and safe probiotics for commercial application in aquaculture. Finally, directions for further research are discussed. PMID:11104813

  7. Genomics in eels--towards aquaculture and biology.

    PubMed

    Minegishi, Yuki; Henkel, Christiaan V; Dirks, Ron P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2012-10-01

    Freshwater eels (genus Anguilla), especially the species inhabiting the temperate areas such as the European, American and Japanese eels, are important aquaculture species. Although artificial reproduction has been attempted since the 1930s and large numbers of studies have been conducted, it has not yet fully succeeded. Problems in eel artificial breeding are highly diverse, for instance, lack of basic information about reproduction in nature, no appropriate food for larvae, high mortality, and high individual variation in adults in response to maturation induction. Over the last decade, genomic data have been obtained for a variety of aquatic organisms. Recent technological advances in sequencing and computation now enable the accumulation of genomic information even for non-model species. The draft genome of the European eel Anguilla anguilla has been recently determined using Illumina technology and transcriptomic data based on next generation sequencing have been emerging. Extensive genomic information will facilitate many aspects of the artificial reproduction of eels. Here, we review the progress in genome-wide studies of eels, including additional analysis of the European eel genome data, and discuss future directions and implications of genomic data for aquaculture. PMID:22527267

  8. Overcoming bottlenecks in the membrane protein structural biology pipeline.

    PubMed

    Hardy, David; Bill, Roslyn M; Jawhari, Anass; Rothnie, Alice J

    2016-06-15

    Membrane proteins account for a third of the eukaryotic proteome, but are greatly under-represented in the Protein Data Bank. Unfortunately, recent technological advances in X-ray crystallography and EM cannot account for the poor solubility and stability of membrane protein samples. A limitation of conventional detergent-based methods is that detergent molecules destabilize membrane proteins, leading to their aggregation. The use of orthologues, mutants and fusion tags has helped improve protein stability, but at the expense of not working with the sequence of interest. Novel detergents such as glucose neopentyl glycol (GNG), maltose neopentyl glycol (MNG) and calixarene-based detergents can improve protein stability without compromising their solubilizing properties. Styrene maleic acid lipid particles (SMALPs) focus on retaining the native lipid bilayer of a membrane protein during purification and biophysical analysis. Overcoming bottlenecks in the membrane protein structural biology pipeline, primarily by maintaining protein stability, will facilitate the elucidation of many more membrane protein structures in the near future. PMID:27284049

  9. Enrichment and immobilization of sulfide removal microbiota applied for environmental biological remediation of aquaculture area.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang-Guo; Zheng, Yu; Tian, Weijun; Bai, Jie; Feng, Gong; Guo, Liang; Gao, Mengchun

    2016-07-01

    To remove sulfide in the deteriorating aquaculture sediment and water, sulfide-oxidizing microbiota was enriched from Jiaozhou Bay, China, by using sulfide-rich medium. Composition and structure of microbial communities in the enrichments were investigated by 16S rDNA molecular biotechniques. Results showed that microbial community structure continuously shifted and the abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria, i.e., Desulfobacterium, Desulfococcus and Desulfobacca apparently declined. Several halophile genera, Vibrio, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, Prochlorococcus, Pediococcus and Thiobacillus predominated finally in the microbiota. The enriched microbiota was capable of removing a maximum of 1000 mg/L sulfide within 12 h with 10% inoculum at pH 7.0, 20-30 °C. After immobilized, the microbiota presented excellent resistance to impact and could completely remove 600 mg/L sulfide in 12 h. Moreover, the immobilized microbiota recovered well even recycled for five times. In conclusion, the immobilized sulfide-removing microbiota showed a quite promising application for biological restoring of sulfide-rich aquaculture environment. PMID:27105167

  10. Biological treatment of shrimp aquaculture wastewater using a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Lyles, C; Boopathy, R; Fontenot, Q; Kilgen, M

    2008-12-01

    To improve the water quality in the shrimp aquaculture, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) has been tested for the treatment of shrimp wastewater. A SBR is a variation of the activated sludge biological treatment process. This process uses multiple steps in the same tank to take the place of multiple tanks in a conventional treatment system. The SBR accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence in a single reactor basin. This is achieved in a simple tank, through sequencing stages, which include fill, react, settle, decant, and idle. A laboratory scale SBR and a pilot scale SBR was successfully operated using shrimp aquaculture wastewater. The wastewater contained high concentration of carbon and nitrogen. By operating the reactor sequentially, viz, aerobic and anoxic modes, nitrification and denitrification were achieved as well as removal of carbon in a laboratory scale SBR. To be specific, the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 1,593 mg/l was reduced to 44 mg/l within 10 days of reactor operation. Ammonia in the sludge was nitrified within 3 days. The denitrification of nitrate was achieved by the anaerobic process and 99% removal of nitrate was observed. Based on the laboratory study, a pilot scale SBR was designed and operated to remove excess nitrogen in the shrimp wastewater. The results mimicked the laboratory scale SBR. PMID:18561032

  11. Proteomics: Challenges, Techniques and Possibilities to Overcome Biological Sample Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics is the large-scale study of the structure and function of proteins in complex biological sample. Such an approach has the potential value to understand the complex nature of the organism. Current proteomic tools allow large-scale, high-throughput analyses for the detection, identification, and functional investigation of proteome. Advances in protein fractionation and labeling techniques have improved protein identification to include the least abundant proteins. In addition, proteomics has been complemented by the analysis of posttranslational modifications and techniques for the quantitative comparison of different proteomes. However, the major limitation of proteomic investigations remains the complexity of biological structures and physiological processes, rendering the path of exploration paved with various difficulties and pitfalls. The quantity of data that is acquired with new techniques places new challenges on data processing and analysis. This article provides a brief overview of currently available proteomic techniques and their applications, followed by detailed description of advantages and technical challenges. Some solutions to circumvent technical difficulties are proposed. PMID:20948568

  12. Handbook for aquaculture water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient aquaculture production depends upon maintaining acceptable water quality conditions in culture units. This handbook discusses background information from chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering necessary for understanding the principles of water quality management in aquaculture. It a...

  13. Biologically Induced Deposition of Fine Suspended Particles by Filter-Feeding Bivalves in Land-Based Industrial Marine Aquaculture Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67±0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43±0.98 cm) was 77.84±7.77 and 6.37±0.67 mg ind−1•d−1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73±0.27 and 2.76±0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P<0.001). Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P<0.05). It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products. PMID:25250730

  14. Animal protein production modules in biological life support systems: Novel combined aquaculture techniques based on the closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Schreibman, M. P.

    Based on the experiences made with the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) which was primarily deveoloped for long-term and multi-generation experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station highly effective fresh water recycling modules were elaborated utilizing a combination of ammonia oxidizing bacteria filters and higher plants. These exhibit a high effectivity to eliminate phosphate and anorganic nitrogen compounds and arc. in addidition. able to contribute to the oxygen supply of the aquatic animals. The C.E.B.A.S. filter system is able to keep a closed artificial aquatic ecosystem containing teleost fishes and water snails biologically stable for several month and to eliminate waste products deriving from degraded dead fishes without a decrease of the oxygen concentration down to less than 3.5 mg/l at 25 °C. More advanced C.E.B.A.S. filter systems, the BIOCURE filters, were also developed for utilization in semiintensive and intensive aquaculture systems for fishes. In fact such combined animal-plant aquaculture systems represent highly effective productions sites for human food if proper plant and fish species are selected The present papers elucidates ways to novel aquaculture systems in which herbivorous fishes are raised by feeding them with plant biomass produced in the BIOCURE filters and presents the scheme of a modification which utilizes a plant species suitable also for human nutrition. Special attention is paid to the benefits of closed aquaculture system modules which may be integrated into bioregenerative life support systems of a higher complexity for, e. g.. lunar or planetary bases including some psychologiccal aspects of the introduction of animal protein production into plant-based life support systems. Moreover, the basic reproductive biological problems of aquatic animal breeding under reduced gravity are explained leading to a disposition of essential research programs in this context.

  15. Membrane biological reactor treatment of a saline backwash flow from a recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) can minimize water use, allowing fish production in regions where water is scarce and also placing the waterborne wastes into a concentrated and relatively small volume of effluent. The RAS effluent generated during clarifier backwash is usually small in vol...

  16. Evaluation of a Membrane Biological Reactor for Reclaiming Water, Alkalinity, Salts, Phosphorus, and Protein Contained in a High-Strength Aquacultural Wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capacity of a membrane biological reactor to provide nitrification, denitrification, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal of a high-strength aquaculture backwash flow (control condition), or the same flow amended with 100 mg/L of NO3-N and 3 mg/L of dissolved P (test condition), was assess...

  17. Some Physical, Chemical, and Biological Parameters of Samples of Scleractinium Coral Aquaculture Skeleton Used for Reconstruction/Engineering of the Bone Tissue.

    PubMed

    Popov, A A; Sergeeva, N S; Britaev, T A; Komlev, V S; Sviridova, I K; Kirsanova, V A; Akhmedova, S A; Dgebuadze, P Yu; Teterina, A Yu; Kuvshinova, E A; Schanskii, Ya D

    2015-08-01

    Physical and chemical (phase and chemical composition, dynamics of resorption, and strength properties), and biological (cytological compatibility and scaffold properties of the surface) properties of samples of scleractinium coral skeletons from aquacultures of three types and corresponding samples of natural coral skeletons (Pocillopora verrucosa, Acropora formosa, and Acropora nobilis) were studied. Samples of scleractinium coral aquaculture skeleton of A. nobilis, A. formosa, and P. verrucosa met the requirements (all study parameters) to materials for osteoplasty and 3D-scaffolds for engineering of bone tissue. PMID:26388568

  18. Overview of biology and aquaculture of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, P.; Kynard, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Z.; Li, D.

    2002-01-01

    Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii is a large riverine species (max. 3 m length and 190 kg weight) native to the Amur River. In the middle Amur River, males first spawn at 7-8 years of age and females at 9-10 years. Due to overfishing and habitat alteration, the abundance of wild stocks has rapidly declined in recent years. Using wild adults, artificial spawning began in the 1950s in China, and since the early 1990s Amur sturgeon has become the most popular sturgeon for aquaculture. The species is adaptive to many conditions of artificial culture, including traditional Chinese fish culture ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and cages. It will grow well on many types of food, and 1-year-old fish reared on commercial diets weigh 900-1200 g. Based on the examination of females reared for broodstock, first full sexual maturity is expected at 5-6 years of age.

  19. Overcoming Chemical, Biological, and Computational Challenges in the Development of Inhibitors Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Laraia, Luca; McKenzie, Grahame; Spring, David R; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Huggins, David J

    2015-06-18

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) underlie the majority of biological processes, signaling, and disease. Approaches to modulate PPIs with small molecules have therefore attracted increasing interest over the past decade. However, there are a number of challenges inherent in developing small-molecule PPI inhibitors that have prevented these approaches from reaching their full potential. From target validation to small-molecule screening and lead optimization, identifying therapeutically relevant PPIs that can be successfully modulated by small molecules is not a simple task. Following the recent review by Arkin et al., which summarized the lessons learnt from prior successes, we focus in this article on the specific challenges of developing PPI inhibitors and detail the recent advances in chemistry, biology, and computation that facilitate overcoming them. We conclude by providing a perspective on the field and outlining four innovations that we see as key enabling steps for successful development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting PPIs. PMID:26091166

  20. Overcoming Chemical, Biological, and Computational Challenges in the Development of Inhibitors Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Luca; McKenzie, Grahame; Spring, David R.; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.; Huggins, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) underlie the majority of biological processes, signaling, and disease. Approaches to modulate PPIs with small molecules have therefore attracted increasing interest over the past decade. However, there are a number of challenges inherent in developing small-molecule PPI inhibitors that have prevented these approaches from reaching their full potential. From target validation to small-molecule screening and lead optimization, identifying therapeutically relevant PPIs that can be successfully modulated by small molecules is not a simple task. Following the recent review by Arkin et al., which summarized the lessons learnt from prior successes, we focus in this article on the specific challenges of developing PPI inhibitors and detail the recent advances in chemistry, biology, and computation that facilitate overcoming them. We conclude by providing a perspective on the field and outlining four innovations that we see as key enabling steps for successful development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting PPIs. PMID:26091166

  1. The Role of Carrier Geometry in Overcoming Biological Barriers to Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Carolyn; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Bailey, Mark; Muzykantov, Vladimir R; Dziubla, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    For a variety of diseases, effective therapy is severely limited or rendered impossible due to an inability to deliver medications to the intended sites of action. Multiple barriers exist through the body, which have evolved over time to limit the migration of foreign compounds from entering the tissues. Turning toward biology as inspiration, it has been the general goal of drug delivery to create carrier strategies that mimic, in part, features of bacteria/ viruses that allow them overcome these barriers. By packaging drugs into nano and micron scale vehicles, it should be possible to completely change the biodistribution and residence times of pharmaceutically active compounds. Recently, due to advances in formulation technologies, it has become possible to control not just the material selection, surface chemistry, and/or size, but also the overall geometry and plasticity of the drug carriers. These approaches aid in the formulation of nonspherical particles such as, discs, rods, and even unique structures such as cubes and nanodiamonds. The adjustment of size and shape can be used for the aid or prevention in cellular uptake and also to overcome the vascular and mucosal barrier. In this review, we present a summary of some approaches used to control carrier shape and the impact these geometries have upon drug transport across biological barriers. PMID:26675218

  2. Aquaculture. Second Edition. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan S.; Crummett, Dan

    This teacher and student guide for aquaculture contains 15 units of instruction that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to aquaculture; (2) the aquatic environment; (3) fundamental fish biology; (4) marketing; (5) site selection; (6) facility design and layout; (7) water quality management; (8) fish health management; (9) commercial…

  3. Biomaterial Approaches to Enhancing Neurorestoration after Spinal Cord Injury: Strategies for Overcoming Inherent Biological Obstacles

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Justin R.; Eade, Amber M.; Osterhout, Donna J.

    2015-01-01

    While advances in technology and medicine have improved both longevity and quality of life in patients living with a spinal cord injury, restoration of full motor function is not often achieved. This is due to the failure of repair and regeneration of neuronal connections in the spinal cord after injury. In this review, the complicated nature of spinal cord injury is described, noting the numerous cellular and molecular events that occur in the central nervous system following a traumatic lesion. In short, postinjury tissue changes create a complex and dynamic environment that is highly inhibitory to the process of neural regeneration. Strategies for repair are outlined with a particular focus on the important role of biomaterials in designing a therapeutic treatment that can overcome this inhibitory environment. The importance of considering the inherent biological response of the central nervous system to both injury and subsequent therapeutic interventions is highlighted as a key consideration for all attempts at improving functional recovery. PMID:26491685

  4. Performance of an in-situ rotating biological contactor in a recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Marin, P; Donoso-Bravo, A; Campos, J L; Ruiz-Filippi, G; Chamy, R

    2011-01-01

    The start-up and activation of a nitrifying rotating biological contactor (RBC) and its performance inside a culture tank of rainbow trout were studied. First, in a lab-scale operation, the system was fed with a synthetic medium containing a high ammonia concentration (567 mg NH(4)(+)-N L(-1)) and operated at a high hydraulic retention time (HRT) (6.5 days) to minimize the wash-out of the biomass and promote the biofilm formation. Then, both inlet ammonia concentration and HRT were decreased in order to obtain operational conditions similar to those of the culture tank. During this period, the RBC was able to treat an ammonia loading rate (ALR) of 0.64 g N-NH(4)(+) L(-1) d(-1) with a removal efficiency within 70-100%. Pilot-scale experiments were carried out in culture tanks of rainbow trout. The operation of a recirculating system with the RBC unit was compared with a recirculating system without biological treatment and with a flow-through system. The use of this in-situ nitrifying unit allowed working at a recirculation ratio of 90% without negative effects on either growth or the condition factor of fishes. Up to 70% of ammonia generated was removed and a removal rate of 1.41 g NH(4)(+)-N m(-2) d(-1) was reached. PMID:22156125

  5. Determination of biological and physicochemical parameters of Artemia franciscana strains in hypersaline environments for aquaculture in the Colombian Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, William N; Durán, Gabriel C; Rada, Orlando C; Hernández, Licet C; Linero, Juan-Carlos G; Muelle, Igor M; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Background Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), also known as brine shrimp, are typical inhabitants of extreme environments. These hypersaline environments vary considerably in their physicochemical composition, and even their climatic conditions and elevation. Several thalassohaline (marine) environments along the Colombian Caribbean coast were surveyed in order to contribute to the knowledge of brine shrimp biotopes in South America by determining some vital biological and physicochemical parameters for Artemia survival. Additionally, cyst quality tests, biometrical and essential fatty acids analysis were performed to evaluate the economic viability of some of these strains for the aquaculture industry. Results In addition to the three locations (Galerazamba, Manaure, and Pozos Colorados) reported in the literature three decades ago in the Colombian Caribbean, six new locations were registered (Salina Cero, Kangaru, Tayrona, Bahía Hondita, Warrego and Pusheo). All habitats sampled showed that chloride was the prevailing anion, as expected, because of their thalassohaline origin. There were significant differences in cyst diameter grouping strains in the following manner according to this parameter: 1) San Francisco Bay (SFB-Control, USA), 2) Galerazamba and Tayrona, 3) Kangarú, 4) Manaure, and 5) Salina Cero and Pozos Colorados. Chorion thickness values were smaller in Tayrona, followed by Salina Cero, Galerazamba, Manaure, SFB, Kangarú and Pozos Colorados. There were significant differences in naupliar size, grouping strains as follows (smallest to largest): 1) Galerazamba, 2) Manaure, 3) SFB, Kangarú, and Salina Cero, 4) Pozos Colorados, and 5) Tayrona. Overall, cyst quality analysis conducted on samples from Manaure, Galerazamba, and Salina Cero revealed that all sites exhibited a relatively high number of cysts.g-1. Essential fatty acids (EFA) analysis performed on nauplii from cyst samples from Manaure, Galerazamba, Salina Cero and Tayrona revealed that cysts

  6. Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang-Zi; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, strain CZ-AM5(T), was isolated from an aerated biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain CZ-AM5(T) were non-spore-forming rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 1.2-2.0 µm long, and motile by means of one or two polar or lateral flagella. Strain CZ-AM5(T) was strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 4.0 %). The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c (80.3 %). Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the sole respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminolipid, an unknown phospholipid and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 60.4 mol%. Strain CZ-AM5(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.5 %) to Phaeobacter caeruleus LMG 24369(T); it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.0-96.5, 95.2-96.3, 96.2, 94.6-95.7 and 94.8-95.8 % to members of the genera Phaeobacter, Ruegeria, Citreimonas, Leisingera and Donghicola, respectively. However, phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CZ-AM5(T) did not join any of the above genera, but formed a distinct lineage in the trees. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain CZ-AM5(T) is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Cribrihabitans marinus is CZ-AM5(T) ( = CGMCC 1.13219(T) = JCM 19401(T)). PMID:24425741

  7. Biological Assessment of Aquaculture Effects on Effluent-Receiving Streams in Ghana Using Structural and Functional Composition of Fish and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Amisah, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream ( P = 0.0214) and upstream ( P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream ( P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations ( P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area.

  8. Biological assessment of aquaculture effects on effluent-receiving streams in Ghana using structural and functional composition of fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages.

    PubMed

    Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A; Amisah, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream (P = 0.0214) and upstream (P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream (P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations (P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area. PMID:22555961

  9. Removal of nutrients in denitrification system using coconut coir fibre for the biological treatment of aquaculture wastewater.

    PubMed

    Manoj, Valsa Remony; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2012-03-01

    Ideal bacterial support medium for fixed film denitrification processes/bioreactors must be inexpensive, durable and possess large surface area with sufficient porosity. The present study has been focussed on removing nitrate nitrogen at two different nitrate nitrogen loading rates (60 (NLR I) and 120 (NLR II) mg l(-1)) from simulated aquaculture wastewater. Coconut coir fibre and a commercially available synthetic reticulated plastic media (Fujino Spirals) were used as packing medium in two independent upflow anaerobic packed bed column reactors. Removal of nitrate nitrogen was studied in correlation with other nutrients (COD, TKN, dissolved orthophosphate). Maximum removal of 97% at NLR-I and 99% at NLR - II of nitrate nitrogen was observed in with either media. Greater consistency in the case of COD removal of upto 81% was observed at NLR II where coconut coir was used as support medium compared to 72% COD removal by Fujino Spirals. The results observed indicate that the organic support medium is just as efficient in nitrate nitrogen removal as conventionally used synthetic support medium. The study is important as it specifically focuses on denitrification of aquaculture wastewater using cheaper organic support medium in anoxic bioreactors for the removal of nitrate nitrogen; which is seldom addressed as a significant problem. PMID:23033693

  10. Aquaculture information package

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  11. Principles of nanoparticle design for overcoming biological barriers to drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Elvin; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Biological barriers to drug transport prevent successful accumulation of nanotherapeutics specifically at diseased sites, limiting efficacious responses in disease processes ranging from cancer to inflammation. Although substantial research efforts have aimed to incorporate multiple functionalities and moieties within the overall nanoparticle design, many of these strategies fail to adequately address these barriers. Obstacles, such as nonspecific distribution and inadequate accumulation of therapeutics, remain formidable challenges to drug developers. A reimagining of conventional nanoparticles is needed to successfully negotiate these impediments to drug delivery. Site-specific delivery of therapeutics will remain a distant reality unless nanocarrier design takes into account the majority, if not all, of the biological barriers that a particle encounters upon intravenous administration. By successively addressing each of these barriers, innovative design features can be rationally incorporated that will create a new generation of nanotherapeutics, realizing a paradigmatic shift in nanoparticle-based drug delivery. PMID:26348965

  12. Overcoming the Newtonian paradigm: the unfinished project of theoretical biology from a Schellingian perspective.

    PubMed

    Gare, Arran

    2013-09-01

    Defending Robert Rosen's claim that in every confrontation between physics and biology it is physics that has always had to give ground, it is shown that many of the most important advances in mathematics and physics over the last two centuries have followed from Schelling's demand for a new physics that could make the emergence of life intelligible. Consequently, while reductionism prevails in biology, many biophysicists are resolutely anti-reductionist. This history is used to identify and defend a fragmented but progressive tradition of anti-reductionist biomathematics. It is shown that the mathematico-physico-chemical morphology research program, the biosemiotics movement, and the relational biology of Rosen, although they have developed independently of each other, are built on and advance this anti-reductionist tradition of thought. It is suggested that understanding this history and its relationship to the broader history of post-Newtonian science could provide guidance for and justify both the integration of these strands and radically new work in post-reductionist biomathematics. PMID:23562477

  13. Overcoming biological constraints to enable the exploitation of microalgae for biofuels.

    PubMed

    Day, John G; Slocombe, Stephen P; Stanley, Michele S

    2012-04-01

    Microalgae have significant potential to form the basis of the next biofuel revolution. They have high growth and solar energy conversion rates. Furthermore, their osmotolerance, metabolic diversity and capacity to produce large amounts of lipids have attracted considerable interest. Although there are a handful of commercially successful examples of the photoautotrophic mass-culture of algae, these have focused on the production of higher value products (pigments, health-foods etc.). The technical and commercial challenges to develop an economically viable process for biofuels are considerable and it will require much further R&D. In this paper the biological constraints, with a particular focus on strain selection are discussed. PMID:21680178

  14. Overcoming the Rare Event Sampling Problem in Biological Systems with Infinite Swapping.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Nuria; Doll, J D; Meuwly, Markus

    2013-09-10

    Infinite swapping (INS) is a recently developed method to address the rare event sampling problem. For INS, an expanded computational ensemble composed of a number of replicas at different temperatures is used, similar to the widely used parallel tempering (PT) method. While the basic concept of PT is to sample various replicas of the system at different temperatures and exchange information between the replicas occasionally, INS uses the symmetrized distribution of configurations in temperature space, which corresponds to the infinite swapping limit of PT. The effect of this symmetrization and the enhanced information exchange between replicas is evaluated for three different biological systems representing different sampling problems in biology: (1) blocked alanine dipeptide, which is a small system and therefore optimal to evaluate sampling efficiency quantitatively, (2) Villin headpiece, which is used as a test case for the protein folding process, and (3) neuroglobin, which is used to evaluate the effects of enhanced information exchange between replicas for sampling the substate space of a folded protein. For these three test systems, PINS is compared to PT, and it is found that in all cases the sampling with PINS is substantially more efficient. PMID:26592410

  15. Quantification of Cell-Free DNA in Normal and Complicated Pregnancies: Overcoming Biological and Technical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Manokhina, Irina; Singh, Tanjot K.; Peñaherrera, Maria S.; Robinson, Wendy P.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) originating from placental trophoblast in maternal plasma provides a powerful tool for non-invasive diagnosis of fetal and obstetrical complications. Due to its placental origin, the specific epigenetic features of this DNA (commonly known as cell-free fetal DNA) can be utilized in creating universal ‘fetal’ markers in maternal plasma, thus overcoming the limitations of gender- or rhesus-specific ones. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of relevant approaches and assays evaluating the amount of cfDNA in maternal plasma throughout gestation (7.2–39.5 weeks). Two fetal- or placental- specific duplex assays (RPP30/SRY and RASSF1A/β-Actin) were applied using two technologies, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Both methods revealed similar performance parameters within the studied dynamic range. Data obtained using qPCR and ddPCR for these assays were positively correlated (total cfDNA (RPP30): R = 0.57, p = 0.001/placental cfDNA (SRY): R = 0.85, p<0.0001; placental cfDNA (RASSF1A): R = 0.75, p<0.0001). There was a significant correlation in SRY and RASSF1A results measured with qPCR (R = 0.68, p = 0.013) and ddPCR (R = 0.56, p = 0.039). Different approaches also gave comparable results with regard to the correlation of the placental cfDNA concentration with gestational age and pathological outcome. We conclude that ddPCR is a practical approach, adaptable to existing qPCR assays and well suited for analysis of cell-free DNA in plasma. However, it may need further optimization to surpass the performance of qPCR. PMID:24987984

  16. Biological denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier for recirculating aquaculture system effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song-Ming; Deng, Ya-Le; Ruan, Yun-Jie; Guo, Xi-Shan; Shi, Ming-Ming; Shen, Jia-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Nitrate removal is essential for the sustainable operation of recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). This study evaluated the heterotrophic denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier for RAS wastewater treatment. The effect of varied operational conditions (influent type, salinity and nitrate loading) on reactor performance and microbial community was investigated. The high denitrification rates of 0.53 ± 0.19 kg NO3(-)-N m(-3) d(-1) (salinity, 0‰) and 0.66 ± 0.12 kg NO3(-)-Nm(-3) d(-1) (salinity, 25‰) were achieved, and nitrite concentration was maintained below 1mg/L. In addition, the existence of salinity exhibited more stable nitrate removal efficiency, but caused adverse effects such as excessive effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissimilation nitrate reduce to ammonia (DNRA) activity. The degradation of PBS was further confirmed by SEM and FTIR analysis. Illumina sequencing revealed the abundance and species changes of functional denitrification and degradation microflora which might be the primary cause of varied reactor performance. PMID:26093254

  17. Holographic Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ian, Richard; King, Elisabeth

    1988-01-01

    Proposed is an exploratory study to verify the feasibility of an inexpensive micro-climate control system for both marine and freshwater pond and tank aquaculture, offering good control over water temperature, incident light flux, and bandwidth, combined with good energy efficiency. The proposed control system utilizes some familiar components of passive solar design, together with a new holographic glazing system which is currently being developed by, and proprietary to Advanced Environmental Research Group (AERG). The use of solar algae ponds and tanks to warm and purify water for fish and attached macroscopic marine algae culture is an ancient and effective technique, but limited seasonally and geographically by the availability of sunlight. Holographic Diffracting Structures (HDSs) can be made which passively track, accept and/or reject sunlight from a wide range of altitude and azimuth angles, and redirect and distribute light energy as desired (either directly or indirectly over water surface in an enclosed, insulated structure), effectively increasing insolation values by accepting sunlight which would not otherwise enter the structure.

  18. Using Synthetic Biology to Distinguish and Overcome Regulatory and Functional Barriers Related to Nitrogen Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Yang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Li; Wang, Ji-Long; Cheng, Qi; Dixon, Ray; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is a complex process requiring multiple genes working in concert. To date, the Klebsiella pneumoniae nif gene cluster, divided into seven operons, is one of the most studied systems. Its nitrogen fixation capacity is subject to complex cascade regulation and physiological limitations. In this report, the entire K. pneumoniae nif gene cluster was reassembled as operon-based BioBrick parts in Escherichia coli. It provided ∼100% activity of native K. pneumoniae system. Based on the expression levels of these BioBrick parts, a T7 RNA polymerase–LacI expression system was used to replace the σ54-dependent promoters located upstream of nif operons. Expression patterns of nif operons were critical for the maximum activity of the recombinant system. By mimicking these expression levels with variable-strength T7-dependent promoters, ∼42% of the nitrogenase activity of the σ54-dependent nif system was achieved in E. coli. When the newly constructed T7-dependent nif system was challenged with different genetic and physiological conditions, it bypassed the original complex regulatory circuits, with minor physiological limitations. Therefore, we have successfully replaced the nif regulatory elements with a simple expression system that may provide the first step for further research of introducing nif genes into eukaryotic organelles, which has considerable potentials in agro-biotechnology. PMID:23935879

  19. Biodegradation of persistent organics can overcome adsorption-desorption hysteresis in biological activated carbon systems.

    PubMed

    Abromaitis, V; Racys, V; van der Marel, P; Meulepas, R J W

    2016-04-01

    In Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) systems, persistent organic pollutants can be removed through a combination of adsorption, desorption and biodegradation. These processes might be affected by the presence of other organics, especially by the more abundant easily-biodegradable organics, like acetate. In this research these relations are quantified for the removal of the persistent pharmaceutical metoprolol. Acetate did not affect the adsorption and desorption of metoprolol, but it did greatly enhance the metoprolol biodegradation. At least part of the BAC biomass growing on acetate was also able to metabolise metoprolol, although metoprolol was only converted after the acetate was depleted. The presence of easily-degradable organics like acetate in the feeding water is therefore beneficial for the removal of metoprolol in BAC systems. The isotherms obtained from metoprolol adsorption and desorption experiments showed that BAC systems are subject to hysteresis; for AC bioregeneration to take place the microbial biomass has to reduce the concentration at the AC-biomass interface 2.7 times compared to the concentration at which the carbon was being loaded. However, given the threshold concentration of the MET degrading microorganisms (<0.08 μg/L) versus the average influent concentration (1.3 μg/L), bioregeneration is feasible. PMID:26855223

  20. Molecular Research in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular research and biotechnology have long been fields of study with applications useful to aquaculture and other animal sciences. Molecular Research in Aquaculture looks to provide an understanding of molecular research and its applications to the aquaculture industry in a format that allows in...

  1. All about Aquaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.; Patterson, B. Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Describes a sequence of activities in which students set up a classroom aquarium to learn about aquaculture. Discusses the aquarium system, filtration and maintenance, adding organisms to the system, technological considerations, aquaculture economics, and political and social aspects of aquaculture. (MDH)

  2. Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek

    2014-05-01

    Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and

  3. Low-head saltwater recirculating aquaculture systems utilized for juvenile red drum production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recirculating aquaculture systems reuse water with mechanical and biological treatment between each use and thus require wastewater treatment techniques for continuous waste removal. However, the traditional techniques and equipment utilized in recirculating aquaculture systems are expensive. The d...

  4. Disease in marine aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    populations. Some progress has been made in marine disease control through chemical treatment in intensive culture systems, principally through application and modification of methods developed for freshwater aquaculture. Major constraints to use of chemicals are restrictions due to public health concerns about food contamination, and the negative effects of some chemicals on biological filters and on algal food production. There is a continuing need, however, for development of specific treatments for acute disease episodes — such as the nitrofurans, developed in Japan, which are effective for some bacterial diseases. The history of aquaculture — freshwater as well as marine — has been characterized by transfers and introductions of species to waters beyond their present ranges. The process continues, and carries with it the possibility of transfers of pathogens to native species and to the recipient culture environments. International groups are attempting to define codes of practice to govern such mass movements, but examples of introductions of real or potential pathogens already exist. The most recent and the most dramatic is the world wide transfer of a virus pathogen of penaeid shrimps. Earlier examples include the introduction of a protozoan pathogen of salmonids to the western hemisphere, and the introduction of a parasitic copepod from the Far East to the west coast of North America and to France. The conclusion is inevitable — diseases are substantial deterrents to aquaculture production. Diagnostic and control procedures are and will be important components of emerging aquaculture technology.

  5. Geothermal aquaculture in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, S.

    1987-06-01

    Work in geothermal aquaculture and vertically integrated agriculture is undertaken by Washoe Aquaculture Limited, Gourmet Prawnz Inc., General Managing Partners. This approach to agriculture is researched at the integrated Prototype Aquaculture Facility (IPAF) at Hobo Hot Springs, Nevada. The principal objective at the IPAF is to use geothermal aquifers to commercially raise food, plants, and ornamental fish. At the IPAF, the feasibility of geothermal aquaculture has been demonstrated. The company has implemented many demonstration projects, including the cultivation of freshwater prawns, native baitfish, exotic tropical species, and commercially important aquatic plants.

  6. PECONIC BAY SYSTEM AQUACULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    PECONIC BAY SYSTEM AQUACULTURE This reference document serves as the aquaculture sub-section for Phase II of a four-phase series of economic studies being conducted by Economic Analysis, Inc., for the Peconic Estuary Program. It provides an evaluation of the history, current stat...

  7. Chemicals for worldwide aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnick, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations and therapeutants or other safe chemicals that are approved or acceptable for use in the aquaculture industry in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan are presented, discussing also compounds that are unacceptable for aquaculture. Chemical use practices that could affect public health are considered and details given regarding efforts to increase the number of registered and acceptable chemicals.

  8. Aquaculture: Challenges and promise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is the culture of aquatic organisms, which includes fish, mollusks, crustaceans, algae and plants. People have been involved in different forms of aquaculture for thousands of years, with early documented evidence dating back as far as 500 BC in China (Ling 1977). Today, the practice of ...

  9. Challenges in shrimp aquaculture due to viral diseases: distribution and biology of the five major penaeid viruses and interventions to avoid viral incidence and dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Seibert, Caroline H.; Pinto, Aguinaldo R.

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp aquaculture has been dramatically affected by many pathogenic diseases, mainly caused by five viruses: IHHNV, YHV, TSV, WSSV, and IMNV. Here we provide a state-of-the-art overview of these shrimp viruses, with emphasis on distribution, pathology, morphology, and genomic organization, in addition to current diagnostic methods and intervention practices. PMID:24031899

  10. Mucosal Health in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract The mucosal surfaces (skin, gill, and intestine) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, osmoregulation, and waste excretion. Aquaculture specie...

  11. Sustainable aquaculture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.E.

    1994-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine and assess the technical feasibility of the integration of plant and/or animal aquaculture systems into a sustainable agriculture. Although most researchers tend to avoid a precise definition of sustainable aquaculture, the implication that one gets from `reading between the lines` is that a sustainable agro-ecosystem is one which recycles materials at maximum energy efficiency. The `unspoken` standard against which comparisons of sustainability are often made is that of a mature natural ecosystem at a steady state. Cost comparisons of alternative systems will be used whenever possible, however, in many cases, conventional cost/benefit analysis will be of limited value in such an analysis. For aquaculture, such an analysis can best be conducted by analyzing the possibilities of integrating nutrients, water, and energy flow from aquaculture systems both to and from, conventional agricultural systems. The various aquaculture options are then qualitatively compared as their potential, limitations, environmental soundness, productivity, socio-economic viability and the availability of supporting technology. It is important to realize that the usefulness or applicability of any sustainable or integrated aquaculture practice is highly site specific.

  12. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations. PMID:26903962

  13. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations. PMID:26903962

  14. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of thiosemicarbazones, hydrazinobenzothiazoles and arylhydrazones as anticancer agents with a potential to overcome multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Pape, Veronika F S; Tóth, Szilárd; Füredi, András; Szebényi, Kornélia; Lovrics, Anna; Szabó, Pál; Wiese, Michael; Szakács, Gergely

    2016-07-19

    There is a constant need for new therapies against multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer. An attractive strategy is to develop chelators that display significant antitumor activity in multidrug resistant cancer cell lines overexpressing the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein. In this study we used a panel of sensitive and MDR cancer cell lines to evaluate the toxicity of picolinylidene and salicylidene thiosemicarbazone, arylhydrazone, as well as picolinylidene and salicylidene hydrazino-benzothiazole derivatives. Our results confirm the collateral sensitivity of MDR cells to isatin-β-thiosemicarbazones, and identify several chelator scaffolds with a potential to overcome multidrug resistance. Analysis of structure-activity-relationships within the investigated compound library indicates that NNS and NNN donor chelators show superior toxicity as compared to ONS derivatives regardless of the resistance status of the cells. PMID:27161177

  15. Understanding the recurrent large-scale green tide in the Yellow Sea: temporal and spatial correlations between multiple geographical, aquacultural and biological factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun; Chopin, Thierry; Gao, Suqin; Shan, Tifeng; Zhao, Xiaobo; Li, Jing

    2013-02-01

    The coast of Jiangsu Province in China - where Ulva prolifera has always been firstly spotted before developing into green tides - is uniquely characterized by a huge intertidal radial mudflat. Results showed that: (1) propagules of U. prolifera have been consistently present in seawater and sediments of this mudflat and varied with locations and seasons; (2) over 50,000 tons of fermented chicken manure have been applied annually from March to May in coastal animal aquaculture ponds and thereafter the waste water has been discharged into the radial mudflat intensifying eutrophication; and (3) free-floating U. prolifera could be stranded in any floating infrastructures in coastal waters including large scale Porphyra farming rafts. For a truly integrated management of the coastal zone, reduction in nutrient inputs, and control of the effluents of the coastal pond systems, are needed to control eutrophication and prevent green tides in the future. PMID:23176870

  16. Safety in Aquaculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durborow, Robert M.; Myers, Melvin L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, occupational safety interventions for agriculture-related jobs, specifically in aquaculture, are reviewed. Maintaining quality of life and avoiding economic loss are two areas in which aquaculturists can benefit by incorporating safety protocols and interventions on their farms. The information in this article is based on farm…

  17. Partitioned aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional aquaculture ponds provide a number of ecological services supporting fish and shellfish production. The pond provides confinement space for the aquatic organisms, while algal growth in the pond serves as the base of an aquatic food chain providing some or all of the feed, depending on p...

  18. Confinement Aquaculture. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaplaine School District, AR.

    The Delaplaine Agriculture Department Confinement Project, begun in June 1988, conducted a confinement aquaculture program by comparing the growth of channel catfish raised in cages in a pond to channel catfish raised in cages in the Black River, Arkansas. The study developed technology that would decrease costs in the domestication of fish, using…

  19. Aquacultural Occupational Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dung, Elaine; Wakui, Lawrence S.

    A study was conducted by the Office of the Chancellor for Community Colleges in Hawaii to assess the vocational skills required of workers in the aquaculture industry and to determine if these skills should be reflected in the community college curriculum. In addition to a review of relevant literature, the study involved field observations at 17…

  20. Aquaculture. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan S.

    This color-coded guide was developed to assist teachers in helping interested students plan, build, stock, and run aquaculture facilities of varied sizes. The guide contains 15 instructional units, each of which includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities for the teacher, instructor supplements,…

  1. Partitioned pond aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World aquaculture is dominated by the use of simple earthen ponds in which suitable water quality is maintained by photosynthetic processes. Relying upon sunlight to maintain water quality offers the lowest cost and most sustainable approach to fish or shellfish production, which explains the popula...

  2. Overcoming Barriers.

    PubMed

    Neal-Boylan, Leslie; Schmidt, Kari L

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Neal-Boylan's program of scholarship has always focused on nurse workforce issues. She recently published two books related to how nurses work. One (The Nurse's Reality Gap: Overcoming Barriers Between Academic Achievement and Clinical Success; Neal-Boylan, 2013) focused on the experience of new graduates from baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral programs. The second book, The Nurse's Reality Shift: Using Our History to Transform Our Future (Neal-Boylan, 2014), focuses on the problems nursing continues to face throughout our history and has failed to correct. PMID:26200309

  3. Marketing Netcoatings for Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company. PMID:25329615

  4. Marketing netcoatings for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company. PMID:25329615

  5. Overcoming prejudice.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, J M; Correa, J; Terto, V

    1998-02-01

    People of African descent comprise a large proportion of Brazil's population. While racism exists in the country, it is commonly denied. Most Afro-Brazilians live in poor areas, with poor health care services, sanitation, schools, and transport. Since HIV is linked to poverty, Afro-Brazilians are more affected by HIV than is the overall population. Although Afro-Brazilians contribute to Brazil's culture, they do not benefit from that contribution. Recognizing this considerable social problem, Project Araye was created in 1996 to address issues of race and HIV. Building upon religious and cultural traditions, the project is staffed by Afro-Brazilians who are knowledgeable in both health issues and Afro-Brazilian culture. Project Araye supports a wide range of diverse community leaders in linking sexual health and HIV with other health concerns which affect Afro-Brazilians such as sickle-cell anemia, diabetes, and leprosy. One important challenge has been overcoming the target population's denial of HIV and encouraging Afro-Brazilians to accept that HIV also affects them. Community leaders include religious leaders, rap musicians, artists, and other people respected by various communities. Activities include visits to samba dance schools, Umbanda and Candomble temples, and street youth groups to provide HIV-related information. PMID:12293758

  6. Contact zoonotic risks for aquaculture professionals in warm water aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture production and consumption of aquacultural products increases. This growth enhances an increase in zoonotic infection from either handling or ingestion of these products. The principal pathogens acquired topically from fish or shellfish through spine/pincer puncture or open wounds are A...

  7. Biological rational for sequential targeting of Bruton tyrosine kinase and Bcl-2 to overcome CD40-induced ABT-199 resistance in mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Chiron, David; Touzeau, Cyrille; Maïga, Sophie; Moreau, Philippe; Pellat-Deceunynck, Catherine; Le Gouill, Steven; Amiot, Martine

    2015-01-01

    The aggressive biological behavior of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and its short response to current treatment highlight a great need for better rational therapy. Herein, we investigate the ability of ABT-199, the Bcl-2-selective BH3 mimetic, to kill MCL cells. Among MCL cell lines tested (n = 8), only three were sensitive (LD50 < 200 nM). In contrast, all primary MCL samples tested (n = 11) were highly sensitive to ABT-199 (LD50 < 10 nM). Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL both confer resistance to ABT-199-specific killing and BCL2/(BCLXL + MCL1) mRNA ratio is a strong predictor of sensitivity. By mimicking the microenvironment through CD40 stimulation, we show that ABT-199 sensitivity is impaired through activation of NF-kB pathway and Bcl-xL up-regulation. We further demonstrate that resistance is rapidly lost when MCL cells detach from CD40L-expressing fibroblasts. It has been reported that ibrutinib induces lymphocytosis in vivo holding off malignant cells from their protective microenvironment. We show here for two patients undergoing ibrutinib therapy that mobilized MCL cells are highly sensitive to ABT-199. These results provide evidence that in situ ABT-199 resistance can be overcome when MCL cells escape from the lymph nodes. Altogether, our data support the clinical application of ABT-199 therapy both as a single agent and in sequential combination with BTK inhibitors. PMID:25797245

  8. Aquaculture: A Component of Low Cost Sanitation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses all phases of aquaculture, including commercial viability, sanitary and biological considerations, public health, financial/economic and sociological aspects. Current studies are detailed and options are discussed for their potential applicability to developing countries, considering requirements for capital and labor skills as well as physical needs such as land.

  9. 76 FR 9209 - Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... national approach for supporting sustainable aquaculture. The NOAA Aquaculture Program will host national.... Informational Briefings for the Public The NOAA Aquaculture Program will host a series of...

  10. Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in Asia.

    PubMed

    Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2014-01-15

    Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have not yet been properly evaluated. In this study we performed a probabilistic risk assessment for eight different aquaculture production scenarios in Asia by combining up-to-date information on the use of veterinary medicines and aquaculture production characteristics. The ERA-AQUA model was used to perform mass balances of veterinary medicinal treatments applied to aquaculture ponds and to characterize risks for primary producers, invertebrates, and fish potentially exposed to chemical residues through aquaculture effluents. The mass balance calculations showed that, on average, about 25% of the applied drug mass to aquaculture ponds is released into the environment, although this percentage varies with the chemical's properties, the mode of application, the cultured species density, and the water exchange rates in the aquaculture pond scenario. In general, the highest potential environmental risks were calculated for parasitic treatments, followed by disinfection and antibiotic treatments. Pangasius catfish production in Vietnam, followed by shrimp production in China, constitute possible hot-spots for environmental pollution due to the intensity of the aquaculture production and considerable discharge of toxic chemical residues into surrounding aquatic ecosystems. A risk-based ranking of compounds is provided for each of the evaluated scenarios, which offers crucial information for conducting further chemical and biological field and laboratory monitoring research. In addition, we discuss general knowledge gaps and research priorities for performing refined risk assessments of aquaculture medicines in the near future. PMID:24061054

  11. Public Health Perspectives on Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Gormaz, Juan G; Fry, Jillian P; Erazo, Marcia; Love, David C

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of all seafood consumed globally comes from aquaculture, a method of food production that has expanded rapidly in recent years. Increasing seafood consumption has been proposed as part of a strategy to combat the current non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, but public health, environmental, social, and production challenges related to certain types of aquaculture production must be addressed. Resolving these complicated human health and ecologic trade-offs requires systems thinking and collaboration across many fields; the One Health concept is an integrative approach that brings veterinary and human health experts together to combat zoonotic disease. We propose applying and expanding the One Health approach to facilitate collaboration among stakeholders focused on increasing consumption of seafood and expanding aquaculture production, using methods that minimize risks to public health, animal health, and ecology. This expanded application of One Health may also have relevance to other complex systems with similar trade-offs. PMID:25152863

  12. Exploring Aquaculture. Curriculum Guide for Agriscience 282.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a course in "Exploring Aquaculture, Agriscience 282," one of 28 semester courses in agricultural science and technology for Texas high schools. This introductory course is designed to acquaint students with the growing industry of aquaculture; it includes aquaculture career…

  13. Managing animal health from an aquaculture perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is the production of aquatic animals for food. The aquaculture industry is a rapidly expanding segment of U. S. agriculture and NOAA estimated the industry was worth $1.2 billion in 2011. Disease related losses in aquaculture either by decreased performance and/or mortality is estimate...

  14. Aquaculture Thesaurus: Descriptors Used in the National Aquaculture Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, James A.; And Others

    This document provides a listing of descriptors used in the National Aquaculture Information System (NAIS), a computer information storage and retrieval system on marine, brackish, and freshwater organisms. Included are an explanation of how to use the document, subject index terms, and a brief bibliography of the literature used in developing the…

  15. Enhancing fish performance in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture currently is the fastest growing agricultural industry and must continue to grow to meet the world’s increasing demand for seafood. Continued growth will depend upon advances in fish genetics and nutrition, and improvements in culture system design and management. The number and complexi...

  16. Microbial Genomics of Aquaculture Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious diseases cause substantial economic loss in aquaculture and are a factor limiting production of many species. Given increasing seafood demand worldwide, there is an escalating need for research to identify solutions to fish health problems. With the advent of pathogen and host-genome sequ...

  17. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed. PMID:18991902

  18. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Overcoming challenges Overcoming ...

  19. Monitoring bacterial diversity of the marine sponge Ircinia strobilina upon transfer into aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Naglaa M; Rao, Venkateswara; Hamann, Mark T; Kelly, Michelle; Hill, Russell T

    2008-07-01

    Marine sponges in the genus Ircinia are known to be good sources of secondary metabolites with biological activities. A major obstacle in the development of sponge-derived metabolites is the difficulty in ensuring an economic, sustainable supply of the metabolites. A promising strategy is the ex situ culture of sponges in closed or semiclosed aquaculture systems. In this study, the marine sponge Ircinia strobilina (order Dictyoceratida: family Irciniidae) was collected from the wild and maintained for a year in a recirculating aquaculture system. Microbiological and molecular community analyses were performed on freshly collected sponges and sponges maintained in aquaculture for 3 months and 9 months. Chemical analyses were performed on wild collected sponges and individuals maintained in aquaculture for 3 months and 1 year. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to assess the complexity of and to monitor changes in the microbial communities associated with I. strobilina. Culture-based and molecular techniques showed an increase in the Bacteroidetes and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria components of the bacterial community in aquaculture. Populations affiliated with Beta- and Deltaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and Planctomycetes emerged in sponges maintained in aquaculture. The diversity of bacterial communities increased upon transfer into aquaculture. PMID:18469126

  20. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Cruz, Patricia; Ibáñez, Ana L.; Monroy Hermosillo, Oscar A.; Ramírez Saad, Hugo C.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field. PMID:23762761

  1. Investigation of a novel approach for aquaculture site selection.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Lynne; Telfer, Trevor C; Ross, Lindsay G

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the potential use of two "species distribution models" (SDMs), Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent, for aquaculture site selection. SDMs are used in ecological studies to predict the spatial distribution of species based on analysis of conditions at locations of known presence or absence. Here the input points are aquaculture sites, rather than species occurrence, thus the models evaluate the parameters at the sites and identify similar areas across the rest of the study area. This is a novel approach that avoids the need for data reclassification and weighting which can be a source of conflict and uncertainty within the commonly used multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) technique. Using pangasius culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, as a case study, Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent SDMs were evaluated against two models developed using the MCE approach. Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent assess suitability based on similarity to existing farms, while the MCE approach assesses suitability using optimal values for culture. Mahalanobis Typicality considers the variables to have equal importance whereas Maxent analyses the variables to determine those which influence the distribution of the input data. All of the models indicate there are suitable areas for culture along the two main channels of the Mekong River which are currently used to farm pangasius and also inland in the north and east of the study area. The results show the Mahalanobis Typicality model had more high scoring areas and greater overall similarity than Maxent to the MCE outputs, suggesting, for this case study, it was the most appropriate SDM for aquaculture site selection. With suitable input data, a combined SDM and MCE model would overcome limitations of the individual approaches, allowing more robust planning and management decisions for aquaculture, other stakeholders and the environment. PMID:27444724

  2. Potential drivers of virulence evolution in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David A; Kurath, Gael; Brito, Ilana L; Purcell, Maureen K; Read, Andrew F; Winton, James R; Wargo, Andrew R

    2016-02-01

    Infectious diseases are economically detrimental to aquaculture, and with continued expansion and intensification of aquaculture, the importance of managing infectious diseases will likely increase in the future. Here, we use evolution of virulence theory, along with examples, to identify aquaculture practices that might lead to the evolution of increased pathogen virulence. We identify eight practices common in aquaculture that theory predicts may favor evolution toward higher pathogen virulence. Four are related to intensive aquaculture operations, and four others are related specifically to infectious disease control. Our intention is to make aquaculture managers aware of these risks, such that with increased vigilance, they might be able to detect and prevent the emergence and spread of increasingly troublesome pathogen strains in the future. PMID:26834829

  3. Exploring Larval Development and Applications in Marine Fish Aquaculture Using Pink Snapper Embryos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaru, Clyde; Haverkort-Yeh, Roxanne D.; Gorospe, Kelvin D.; Rivera, Malia Ana J.

    2014-01-01

    This biology investigation on "Pristipomoides filamentosus" larval development, survival, and aquaculture research was developed with three educational objectives: to provide high school students with (1) a scientific background on the biology and science of fisheries as well as overfishing, its consequences, and possible mitigations;…

  4. Overcoming: A Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brush, Barbara L.; Kirk, Keri; Gultekin, Laura; Baiardi, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an operational definition of overcoming as a first step in the systematic analysis of the concept. Using the method described by Walker and Avant (2005), the authors identify the attributes and characteristics of overcoming and its theoretical and practical application to nursing. Sample cases from clinical research illustrate the concept further. Further nursing research needs to test the theoretical relationships between overcoming and outcome variables. PMID:21806626

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Two Lytic Bacteriophages, φSt2 and φGrn1; Phage Therapy Application for Biological Control of Vibrio alginolyticus in Aquaculture Live Feeds.

    PubMed

    Kalatzis, Panos G; Bastías, Roberto; Kokkari, Constantina; Katharios, Pantelis

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a serious problem in aquaculture since they can result in massive mortalities in farmed fish and invertebrates. Vibriosis is one of the most common diseases in marine aquaculture hatcheries and its causative agents are bacteria of the genus Vibrio mostly entering larval rearing water through live feeds, such as Artemia and rotifers. The pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus strain V1, isolated during a vibriosis outbreak in cultured seabream, Sparus aurata, was used as host to isolate and characterize the two novel bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1 for phage therapy application. In vitro cell lysis experiments were performed against the bacterial host V. alginolyticus strain V1 but also against 12 presumptive Vibrio strains originating from live prey Artemia salina cultures indicating the strong lytic efficacy of the 2 phages. In vivo administration of the phage cocktail, φSt2 and φGrn1, at MOI = 100 directly on live prey A. salina cultures, led to a 93% decrease of presumptive Vibrio population after 4 h of treatment. Current study suggests that administration of φSt2 and φGrn1 to live preys could selectively reduce Vibrio load in fish hatcheries. Innovative and environmental friendly solutions against bacterial diseases are more than necessary and phage therapy is one of them. PMID:26950336

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Two Lytic Bacteriophages, φSt2 and φGrn1; Phage Therapy Application for Biological Control of Vibrio alginolyticus in Aquaculture Live Feeds

    PubMed Central

    Kalatzis, Panos G.; Bastías, Roberto; Kokkari, Constantina; Katharios, Pantelis

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a serious problem in aquaculture since they can result in massive mortalities in farmed fish and invertebrates. Vibriosis is one of the most common diseases in marine aquaculture hatcheries and its causative agents are bacteria of the genus Vibrio mostly entering larval rearing water through live feeds, such as Artemia and rotifers. The pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus strain V1, isolated during a vibriosis outbreak in cultured seabream, Sparus aurata, was used as host to isolate and characterize the two novel bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1 for phage therapy application. In vitro cell lysis experiments were performed against the bacterial host V. alginolyticus strain V1 but also against 12 presumptive Vibrio strains originating from live prey Artemia salina cultures indicating the strong lytic efficacy of the 2 phages. In vivo administration of the phage cocktail, φSt2 and φGrn1, at MOI = 100 directly on live prey A. salina cultures, led to a 93% decrease of presumptive Vibrio population after 4 h of treatment. Current study suggests that administration of φSt2 and φGrn1 to live preys could selectively reduce Vibrio load in fish hatcheries. Innovative and environmental friendly solutions against bacterial diseases are more than necessary and phage therapy is one of them. PMID:26950336

  7. Overcoming Biological, Behavioral and Structural Vulnerabilities: New Directions in Research to Decrease HIV Transmission in Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Darrell P.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Remien, Robert H.; Sandfort, Theodorus G. M.; Beyrer, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men, including transgender women, comprise a heterogeneous group of individuals, whose sexual behaviors and gender identities may varying widely between cultures and among individuals. Their sources of increased vulnerability to HIV are diverse, including the increased efficiency of HIV transmission via unprotected anal intercourse, sexual role versatility, asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections, as well as behavioral factors that may be associated with condomless sex with multiple partners. Societal stigmatization of homosexual behavior and gender non-conformity may result in internalized negative feelings that lead to depression, other affective disorders, and substance use, which in turn are associated with increased risk taking behaviors. Social stigma and punitive civil environments may lead to delays in seeking HIV and STD screening, and later initiation of antiretroviral therapy. The iPrEX study demonstrated that chemoprophylaxis can decrease HIV acquisition in MSM, and the HPTN 052 study established the biological plausibility that earlier initiation of HAART can decrease HIV transmission to uninfected partners. Despite these advances, MSM remain among the most significantly HIV-affected population in resource rich and limited settings. New studies will integrate enhanced understanding of the biology of enhanced rectal transmission of HIV and the focused use of antiretrovirals for prevention with culturally-tailored approaches that address the potentiating social and behavioral factors associated with enhanced HIV spread among MSM. PMID:23764630

  8. Overcoming biological, behavioral, and structural vulnerabilities: new directions in research to decrease HIV transmission in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Wheeler, Darrell P; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Remien, Robert H; Sandfort, Theodorus G M; Beyrer, Chris

    2013-07-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM), including transgender women, comprise a heterogeneous group of individuals whose sexual behaviors and gender identities may vary widely between cultures and among individuals. Their sources of increased vulnerability to HIV are diverse, including the increased efficiency of HIV transmission via unprotected anal intercourse, sexual role versatility, asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections, and behavioral factors that may be associated with condomless sex with multiple partners. Societal stigmatization of homosexual behavior and gender nonconformity may result in internalized negative feelings that lead to depression, other affective disorders, and substance use, which in turn are associated with increased risk-taking behaviors. Social stigma and punitive civil environments may lead to delays in seeking HIV and sexually transmitted disease screening, and later initiation of antiretroviral therapy. The iPrEX study demonstrated that chemoprophylaxis can decrease HIV acquisition in MSM, and the HIV prevention trials network 052 study established the biological plausibility that earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy can decrease HIV transmission to uninfected partners. Despite these advances, MSM remain among the most significantly HIV-affected population in resource-rich and limited settings. New studies will integrate enhanced understanding of the biology of enhanced rectal transmission of HIV and the focused use of antiretrovirals for prevention with culturally tailored approaches that address the potentiating social and behavioral factors associated with enhanced HIV spread among MSM. PMID:23764630

  9. Dried blood spot on-card derivatization: an alternative form of sample handling to overcome the instability of thiorphan in biological matrix.

    PubMed

    Mess, Jean-Nicholas; Taillon, Marie-Pierre; Côté, Cynthia; Garofolo, Fabio

    2012-12-01

    Thiorphan, the active metabolite of racecadotril, can undergo oxidation in biological matrices such as blood and plasma. In bioanalysis, a general approach for the stabilization of such a molecule is to derivatize the thiol group to a more stable thioether, often requiring complex handling procedures at the clinical site. In this research, the concept of dried blood spot (DBS) on-card derivatization was evaluated to stabilize thiorphan. DBS cards were in-house pre-treated with 2-bromo-3'-methoxyacetophenone and left to dry prior to blood spotting. Thiorphan was shown to be effectively derivatized to thiorphan-methoxyacetophenone once applied on the in-house pre-treated cards. Thiorphan-methoxyacetophenone was extracted by soaking a 6 mm DBS punch in methanol containing the internal standard (thiorphan-methoxyacetophenone-D₅). Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters XBridge C₁₈ column with a gradient elution of 5 mM NH₄HCO₃ and methanol in 2.5 min and detection by ESI(+)/MS/MS. A linear (weighted 1/x²) relationship was obtained over a concentration range of 5.00-600.00 ng/mL. The assay met regulatory guidelines acceptance criteria for sensitivity, selectivity, precision and accuracy, matrix effect, recovery, dilution integrity and multiple stability evaluations. The DBS on-card derivatization has shown to be an easy and reliable alternative form of sample collection for the quantification of thiorphan. PMID:22511292

  10. Live Attenuated Bacterial Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture has emerged as an important economical agribusiness, worldwide. Among the top barrier to growth of aquaculture is infectious disease that is causing severe economic losses. Bacterial species of more than 20 genera have been reported as causes of diseases. The risk of disease is often ...

  11. Alternative Protein Sources in Aquaculture Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture will remain as a major food producing sector in the foreseeable future. However, due to decreasing availability of land and water resources, increased land costs and stricter government regulations, modern aquaculture operations are geared toward product intensification and efficiency. S...

  12. World aquaculture: environmental impacts and troubleshooting alternatives.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  13. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  14. Better Management Practices for Recirculating Aquaculture Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under the 2004 federal aquaculture effluent limitation guidelines (Federal Register 2004), recirculating aquaculture systems with an annual production exceeding 45,454 kg (100,000 pounds) are classified as concentrated aquatic animal production (CAAP) facilities and are required to obtain a National...

  15. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    MedlinePlus

    Plugged milk ducts; Nipple soreness when breastfeeding; Breastfeeding - overcoming problems; Let-down reflex ... Breastfeeding (nursing) your baby can be a good experience for both the mother and the baby. It ...

  16. Overcoming job stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000884.htm Overcoming job stress To use the sharing features on this ... you stay healthy and feel better. Causes of Job Stress Although the cause of job stress is ...

  17. Aquaculture: global status and trends

    PubMed Central

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems. PMID:20713392

  18. Aquaculture, husbandry, and shipping at the Zebrafish International Resource Center.

    PubMed

    Varga, Z M

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) aquaculture systems, husbandry, and live fish shipping methods. The ZIRC has a recirculating water system with mechanical and biological filtration in its main fish facility, and a flow-through water system for its quarantine room. I describe basic husbandry methods for breeding, rearing larvae, feeding and shipping of fish. Whereas the procedures presented here are merely an overview and only the most essential methods are included, they offer starting points to set up, develop, refine, or troubleshoot methods in other fish facilities. PMID:27443942

  19. Aquaculture and husbandry at the zebrafish international resource center.

    PubMed

    Varga, Zoltán M

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the aquaculture system and the husbandry methods used at the Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC). ZIRC employs a recirculating water system with mechanical and biological filtration for its main facility, and a flow-through water system for its quarantine room. I describe basic husbandry methods for breeding, rearing larvae, and feeding and the extensive in-house health surveillance for the biosafety of the fish population. Whereas the description of these procedures is merely an overview and only the most essential methods are included, it offers several starting points to set up, refine, or troubleshoot other fish facilities. PMID:21924177

  20. Movement patterns of double-crested cormorants within aquaculture production areas in the Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing numbers of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and other fish-eating birds at commercial aquaculture production facilities have resulted in biological, economical, and social conflicts. Unfortunately, there is not a concerted effort to determine over-wintering populations o...

  1. Overcoming the Polyester Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Dorothy

    1988-01-01

    Urges community colleges to overcome their image problem by documenting the colleges' impact on their communities. Suggests ways to determine what data should be collected, how to collect the information, and how it can be used to empower faculty, staff, and alumni to change the institution's image. (DMM)

  2. Aquaculture: Environmental, toxicological, and health issues.

    PubMed

    Cole, David W; Cole, Richard; Gaydos, Steven J; Gray, Jon; Hyland, Greg; Jacques, Mark L; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Sawhney, Charu; Au, William W

    2009-07-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, supplying approximately 40% of the world's fish food. Besides such benefit to the society, the industry does have its problems. There are occupational hazards and safety concerns in the aquaculture industry. Some practices have caused environmental degradation. Public perception to farmed fish is that they are "cleaner" than comparable wild fish. However, some farmed fish have much higher body burden of natural and man-made toxic substances, e.g. antibiotics, pesticides, and persistent organic pollutants, than wild fish. These contaminants in fish can pose health concerns to unsuspecting consumers, in particular pregnant or nursing women. Regulations and international oversight for the aquaculture industry are extremely complex, with several agencies regulating aquaculture practices, including site selection, pollution control, water quality, feed supply, and food safety. Since the toxicological, environmental, and health concerns of aquaculture have not been adequately reviewed recently, we are providing an updated review of the topic. Specifically, concerns and recommendations for improving the aquaculture industry, and for protection of the environment and the consumers will be concisely presented. PMID:18790671

  3. The impact and control of biofouling in marine aquaculture: a review.

    PubMed

    Fitridge, Isla; Dempster, Tim; Guenther, Jana; de Nys, Rocky

    2012-01-01

    Biofouling in marine aquaculture is a specific problem where both the target culture species and/or infrastructure are exposed to a diverse array of fouling organisms, with significant production impacts. In shellfish aquaculture the key impact is the direct fouling of stock causing physical damage, mechanical interference, biological competition and environmental modification, while infrastructure is also impacted. In contrast, the key impact in finfish aquaculture is the fouling of infrastructure which restricts water exchange, increases disease risk and causes deformation of cages and structures. Consequently, the economic costs associated with biofouling control are substantial. Conservative estimates are consistently between 5-10% of production costs (equivalent to US$ 1.5 to 3 billion yr(-1)), illustrating the need for effective mitigation methods and technologies. The control of biofouling in aquaculture is achieved through the avoidance of natural recruitment, physical removal and the use of antifoulants. However, the continued rise and expansion of the aquaculture industry and the increasingly stringent legislation for biocides in food production necessitates the development of innovative antifouling strategies. These must meet environmental, societal, and economic benchmarks while effectively preventing the settlement and growth of resilient multi-species consortia of biofouling organisms. PMID:22775076

  4. Fluxes of greenhouse gases at two different aquaculture ponds in the coastal zone of southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; He, Qinghua; Huang, Jiafang; Tong, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    Shallow water ponds are important contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes into the atmosphere. Aquaculture ponds cover an extremely large area in China's entire coastal zone. Knowledge of greenhouse gas fluxes from aquaculture ponds is very limited, but measuring GHG fluxes from aquaculture ponds is fundamental for estimating their impact on global warming. This study investigated the magnitude of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from two coastal aquaculture ponds during 2011 and 2012 in the Shanyutan wetland of the Min River estuary, southeastern China, and determined the factors that may regulate GHG fluxes from the two ponds. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were 20.78 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 19.95 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 10.74 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the shrimp pond. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were -60.46 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 1.65 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 11.8 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the mixed shrimp and fish aquaculture pond during the study period. The fluxes of all three gases showed distinct temporal variations. The variations in the GHG fluxes were influenced by interactions with the thermal regime, pH, trophic status and chlorophyll-a content. Significant differences in the CO2 and N2O fluxes between the shrimp pond and the mixed aquaculture pond were observed from September to November, whereas the CH4 fluxes from the two ponds were not significantly different. The difference in the CO2 flux likely was related to the effects of photosynthesis, biological respiration and the mineralization of organic matter, whereas the N2O fluxes were controlled by the interactions between nitrogen substrate availability and pH. Water salinity, trophic status and dissolved oxygen concentration likely affected CH4 emission. Our results suggest that subtropical coastal aquaculture ponds are important contributors to regional CH4 and N2O emissions into the atmosphere, and their contribution to global warming must be considered

  5. Assessing the Aquaculture Curricula in the Northeastern Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Lawrence, Layle D.

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 70 secondary agriculture teachers who included aquaculture in the curriculum indicated they averaged 4.5 years experience teaching aquaculture. Limited facilities, equipment costs, and low teacher knowledge were barriers. Only eight had used all of the aquaculture curriculum materials from the National Council for…

  6. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... humans; and (3) Ornamental fish propagated and reared in an aquatic medium. (b) The aquacultural...

  7. Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture (fish farming) has played an ever-increasing role in providing people with fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production and in 2011 totaled 60 million tons valued at $119 billion. The production of food-fish from aquaculture...

  8. Aquaculture and stress management: a review of probiotic intervention.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S; Chakraborty, T; Kumar, V; DeBoeck, G; Mohanta, K N

    2013-06-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand for animal protein, aquaculture continuously requires new techniques to increase the production yield. However, with every step towards intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in stress level on the animal as well as on the environment. Feeding practices in aqua farming usually plays an important role, and the addition of various additives to a balanced feed formula to achieve better growth is a common practice among the fish and shrimp culturists. Probiotics, also known as 'bio-friendly agents', such as LAB (Lactobacillus), yeasts and Bacillus sp., can be introduced into the culture environment to control and compete with pathogenic bacteria as well as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. In addition, probiotics are non-pathogenic and non-toxic micro-organisms, having no undesirable side effects when administered to aquatic organisms. Probiotics are also known to play an important role in developing innate immunity among the fishes, and hence help them to fight against any pathogenic bacterias as well as against environmental stressors. The present review is a brief but informative compilation of the different essential and desirable traits of probiotics, their mode of action and their useful effects on fishes. The review also highlights the role of probiotics in helping the fishes to combat against the different physical, chemical and biological stress. PMID:22512693

  9. Overcoming associative learning.

    PubMed

    Haselgrove, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Thorndike (1898, 1911) rejected the idea that animal behavior was the consequence of reasoning, and suggested instead that the gradual acquisition of associations formed the basis of behavior-a contention that has had a significant impact on the development of animal learning theory. Despite this, comparative psychology provides a number of examples of behaviors that have been considered to be above and beyond the explanation of associative-, or reinforcement-learning mechanisms. These behaviors have motivated some researchers to propose higher-order cognitive abilities in animals, including (but not limited to) reasoning, sensitivity to ambiguity, and metacognition. However, other authors have questioned this claim, and provided alternative explanations for these behaviors from an associative perspective. With relevant examples, the steps that must be taken in order to overcome an associative explanation of behavior are described. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26986019

  10. Recirculation technology – The future of aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of farmed fish is eclipsing that of wild caught fish and will be supplying half of the total fish and shellfish for human consumption. With limited resources to increase the wild harvest fishing industry, the U. S. and foreign countries are expanding their aquaculture production. Betw...

  11. Best Management Practices for Responsible Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture has become a significant component of global fish production contributing about 380% in 2003 of fish products for human consumption. The proportion is likely to increase further due to increased demand of fish for food and stagnated capture fishery. Paralleling to the growth of aquacultu...

  12. New frontiers in mucosal health in aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic decline in sequencing costs brought about by a shift in the last 5-10 years to massively parallel sequencing platforms has far-reaching consequences for the study of mucosal health in aquaculture. Transcriptome sequencing and gene expression profiling (RNA-seq) offer a rapid approach t...

  13. Copper toxicity in aquaculture: A practical approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate has been used in aquaculture for many years to control weeds, algae, snails (which carry catfish trematode), and ecto-parasitic organisms in catfish production. Our research has also shown it to be safe and effective to treat fungus on various fish eggs (catfish, hybrid striped bass,...

  14. Government Seeking Ways to Encourage Aquaculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Constance

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. imports more than half its fish foods per year. As a result, the federal government is now showing an interest in aquaculture and has designated the Department of Agriculture as the lead agency for research, extension, and education. Catfish, salmon, and oyster farming are given as examples. (MA)

  15. Prevention of infectious diseases in aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahne, W.; Winton, J.R.; Kimura, T.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the most important limitations to the successful propagation of aquatic animals. Most of the losses caused by pathogens in aquaculture could be prevented by health inspection, adequate environment and sound management practices. Effective control measures, mainly based upon 1) avoidance of pathogens 2) modification of the environment 3) improvement of host resistance 4) vaccination and 5) chemoprophylaxis are described.

  16. Environmental Best Management Practices for Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book “Environmental Best Management Practices for Aquaculture” provides technical guidance to improve the environmental performance of fish and shellfish farming. The book is the only comprehensive guide to mitigation of environmental impacts of aquaculture. Topics include the histiory and use...

  17. Inverness College: Innovations in Aquaculture Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    This paper describes the aquaculture program developed at Inverness College in Scotland. Inverness is located in the Scottish Highlands and serves an area roughly the size of Belgium, but with a population of only 300,000. The regional infrastructure and human capital resources in the Highlands are relatively weak due to inadequate transportation,…

  18. The use of probiotics in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Hai, N V

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed. PMID:26119489

  19. Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Arthur, J Richard; Ogawa, Kazuo; Chinabut, Supranee; Adlard, Robert; Tan, Zilong; Shariff, Mohamed

    2005-09-30

    Asia contributes more than 90% to the world's aquaculture production. Like other farming systems, aquaculture is plagued with disease problems resulting from its intensification and commercialization. This paper describes the various factors, providing specific examples, which have contributed to the current disease problems faced by what is now the fastest growing food-producing sector globally. These include increased globalization of trade and markets; the intensification of fish-farming practices through the movement of broodstock, postlarvae, fry and fingerlings; the introduction of new species for aquaculture development; the expansion of the ornamental fish trade; the enhancement of marine and coastal areas through the stocking of aquatic animals raised in hatcheries; the unanticipated interactions between cultured and wild populations of aquatic animals; poor or lack of effective biosecurity measures; slow awareness on emerging diseases; the misunderstanding and misuse of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks; climate change; other human-mediated movements of aquaculture commodities. Data on the socio-economic impacts of aquatic animal diseases are also presented, including estimates of losses in production, direct and indirect income and employment, market access or share of investment, and consumer confidence; food availability; industry failures. Examples of costs of investment in aquatic animal health-related activities, including national strategies, research, surveillance, control and other health management programmes are also provided. Finally, the strategies currently being implemented in the Asian region to deal with transboundary diseases affecting the aquaculture sector are highlighted. These include compliance with international codes, and development and implementation of regional guidelines and national aquatic animal health strategies; new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and new information technology; new biosecurity measures including

  20. Vaccines for fish in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Sommerset, Ingunn; Krossøy, Bjørn; Biering, Eirik; Frost, Petter

    2005-02-01

    Vaccination plays an important role in large-scale commercial fish farming and has been a key reason for the success of salmon cultivation. In addition to salmon and trout, commercial vaccines are available for channel catfish, European seabass and seabream, Japanese amberjack and yellowtail, tilapia and Atlantic cod. In general, empirically developed vaccines based on inactivated bacterial pathogens have proven to be very efficacious in fish. Fewer commercially available viral vaccines and no parasite vaccines exist. Substantial efficacy data are available for new fish vaccines and advanced technology has been implemented. However, before such vaccines can be successfully commercialized, several hurdles have to be overcome regarding the production of cheap but effective antigens and adjuvants, while bearing in mind environmental and associated regulatory concerns (e.g., those that limit the use of live vaccines). Pharmaceutical companies have performed a considerable amount of research on fish vaccines, however, limited information is available in scientific publications. In addition, salmonids dominate both the literature and commercial focus, despite their relatively small contribution to the total volume of farmed fish in the world. This review provides an overview of the fish vaccines that are currently commercially available and some viewpoints on how the field is likely to evolve in the near future. PMID:15757476

  1. Is Our Food Future in the Sea? A Marine Education Infusion Unit on Aquaculture and Sea Farming. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzow, John W.; And Others

    Designed to introduce middle and junior high school teachers and students to aquaculture and sea farming, the information and lessons in this unit focus on the biology, economics, and gastronomics of these fresh and salt water activities. An extensive section containing teacher background information describes how to farm shellfish and finfish,…

  2. Probiotics as control agents in aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geovanny D, Gómez R.; Balcázar, José Luis; Ma, Shen

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

  3. New aquaculture drugs under FDA review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, James D.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Only eight active pharmaceutical ingredients available in 18 drug products have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in aquaculture. The approval process can be lengthy and expensive, but several new drugs and label claims are under review. Progress has been made on approvals for Halamid (chloramine-T), Aquaflor (florfenicol) and 35% PeroxAid (hydrogen peroxide) as therapeutic drugs. Data are also being generated for AQUI-S 20E, a fish sedative.

  4. Carotenoids in Aquaculture: Fish and Crustaceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerkeng, Bjorn

    This Chapter deals with selected topics on the use of carotenoids for colouration in aquaculture and incudes examples from ecological studies which support our understanding of functions and actions of carotenoids and colouration in fishes and crustaceans. Animal colours may be physical or structural in origin [1], e.g. Tyndall blues and iridescent diffraction colours, or they may be due to pigments, including carotenoids (Chapter 10).

  5. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  6. Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms. PMID:22408407

  7. Risks of using antifouling biocides in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211(®)), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms. PMID:22408407

  8. Fisheries And Aquaculture Resources And Their Interactions With Environment in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, H.

    2003-04-01

    Turkey, with 8333 km of coast line, 151 080 sq. km economic sea area, many rivers with 177 714 total length, nearly, 1 million ha of natural lakes, 500 000 ha of dam reservoirs has rich marine and inland aquatic resource potential. Despite of these large resources, Turkish fisheries has the characteristics of small-scale fisheries and in general it can be considered as coastal fisheries. There is also great potential for inland fisheries and aquaculture. Being in half closed position, these seas have different characteristics in respect of biological, physical, chemical and ecological points. In addition; Turkey has favourable geographic position between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, this potential seems not to be fully utilised and therefore fisheries is not a major sector in the economy. According to the statistics of the fisheries for 2000 published by the Turkish government, Turkey's total fisheries production was 582.376 tons. Total catch consists sea fish (441 690 tons, crustaceans and molluscs (18 831 tons), freshwater fish (42.824 tons) and aquaculture (79. 031 tons). The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) is the Ministry responsible for the overall fisheries and aquaculture development, administration, regulation, promotion and technical assistance. In the past two decades, marine fish farming using net cages has developed in the coastal waters throughout Turkey. Such fish farming has allowed the production of large amounts of valuable fish and their supply to the internal and external markets on a regular basis. However, fish farming is sometimes fallowed by organic pollution of the water and bottom sediment in the vicinity of the cages. A comprehensive land and coastal planning survey of almost the whole coast of Turkey is currently being conducted. This master plan designates areas to be developed for forestry, agriculture, industry, urbanisation, environmentally protected areas, etc. The plan was undertaken before the

  9. Meeting the Needs for More Fish Through Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giap, D. H.; Lam, T. J.

    2015-10-01

    Fish is one of the major sources of animal protein. Due to rising world populations, increasing income and urbanization, demand for fish has been increasing. In order to meet the need for more fish, aquaculture has become increasingly important as wild populations and production from capture fisheries have declined due to overfishing and poor management. In recent years, production from aquaculture has increased rapidly to address the shortfalls in capture fisheries, especially in Asia where aquaculture production accounts for about 90% of world aquaculture production by volume. This paper reviews the status of the world’s fish production, provides an update on Asian aquaculture, and highlights developments that are contributing to sustainable fish production, particularly integrated multi-trophic aquaculture and aquaponics.

  10. ADVANCED BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER THROUGH AQUACULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The studies were conducted using two four-celled raceways constructed in series, adjacent to a primary wastewater stabilization pond. One raceway functioned as the experimental system, while the other served as a control condition-1 experimental phase, which used a source of wast...

  11. Recirculation-aeration: Bibliography for aquaculture. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Perschbacher, P.W.; Powell, R.V.; Freeman, D.W.; Lorio, W.J.; Hanfman, D.T.

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography includes literature citations through 1992 related to water recirculation and aeration in aquaculture. The focus is on filtration, aeration, and circulation techniques in various aquaculture situations.

  12. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  13. Raft River aquaculture project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beleau, M.H.; Woiwode, J.G.

    1980-07-01

    The commercial potential for geothermal aquaculture was evaluated for 2 years at the Department of Energy's Raft River geothermal site in southcentral Idaho. Common carp '(Cyprinus carpio) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were selected as culture species. Objectives of the study included investigation of: (1) growth rates; (2) nutrition trials; (3) histological and physiological parameters; (4) bioaccumulation of heavy metals; and (5) reproductive capacity. The second year project efforts were primarily studying the effects of geothermal water on the reproductive capacity of common carp by: (1) determining the effects of geothermal water on gonadal development of common carp; and (2) determining the effects of geothermal water on common carp embryogenesis.

  14. Productivity, Fisheries and Aquaculture in Temperate Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. G.

    2002-12-01

    The past 30 years have seen many advances in our understanding of estuarine productivity. Data are available for a variety of primary, secondary and tertiary producers, and empirical productivity models covering the gamut from bacteria to fisheries yield have been constructed. However, there is still a shortage of understanding as to the structuring and control of the systems. Evidence to date suggests that estuarine fisheries are being over-exploited with several species highly endangered. While aquaculture does offer the prospect of continuing growth, concerns are starting to be expressed over its immediate and long-term environmental impacts.

  15. Contact zoonosis related to aquaculture: a growing concern

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture develops fast worldwide, with new cultured species and increased global transport of live aquaculture products. There is a growing recognition of zoonotic disease agents causing epidemics and carrier states in cultured fish and shellfish, especially from warm water systems, transmitted t...

  16. Students' Perceptions of Aquaculture Education in the Northeast Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Lawrence, Layle D.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 60 secondary agriculture students showed they appreciated the hands-on learning environment of aquaculture, found science and math concepts easier to understand, and gained practical skills. Although they rated aquaculture among their best high school experiences, few planned careers in it. (SK)

  17. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... human consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that are consumed...

  18. The Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production. Global aquaculture production in 2011 totaled 60 million tonnes (excluding aquatic plants) valued at US$119 billion, while global capture fishery production has remained static at approximately 90 million tonnes annually...

  19. A Review of Alternative Protein Sources in Aquaculture Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With a global sea food production of about 51.7 million tonnes in 2006, and an annual growth rate of 6.9% from 1970 to 2006, aquaculture is one of the fastest growing sectors in the food industry. Feed represents 40% to 70% of operating costs for aquaculture operations. Fish diets typically contain ...

  20. Aqua-Topics. Aquaculture for Youth and Youth Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVey, Eileen

    This booklet contains information on aquaculture and ideas for aquaculture projects. The information provided is for students at upper elementary through high school learning levels. Recommended activities at the end of the text are organized by level of difficulty. The activities can be modified depending on area and availability of resources. A…

  1. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... human consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that are consumed...

  2. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... human consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that are consumed...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... human consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that are consumed...

  4. Use of technologies to control reproduction in finfish aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proportion of food fish derived from aquaculture has increased dramatically over the past several decades and currently accounts for nearly 50% of the world's consumption. Since production from capture fisheries has stagnated, increased supplies of food fish will need to come from aquaculture. ...

  5. Treatment of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Floating Vegetated Mats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed for treating aquaculture wastewater. The goal is to improve wastewater quality sufficiently for it to be recycled to production ponds. One potential method for improving aquaculture wastewater is to use floating vegetation in treatment tanks. Alternatively, potential exists for ...

  6. In Brief: Environmental standards needed for offshore marine aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Congress should enact legislation that sets strong environmental standards for offshore marine aquaculture, the Marine Aquaculture Task Force recommended in a recent report. Aquaculture now accounts for about half of all seafood consumed in the world, and the industry is rapidly growing and expanding into regions offshore (more than 3 nautical miles from the coast) that are controlled by the federal government. The task force, which was organized by researchers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, examined the risks and benefits of marine aquaculture. They proposed that the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration be appointed the lead agency responsible for regulation of offshore marine aquaculture and for providing incentives for research and development. The main environmental standard proposed by the task force was to limit farming only to native species with local genetics unless the potential harm of escaped fish to local populations would be negligible.

  7. Hydroecological condition and potential for aquaculture in lakes of the arid region of Khorezm, Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crootof, Africa; Mullabaev, Nodirbek; Saito, Laurel; Atwell, Lisa; Rosen, Michael R.; Bekchonova, Marhabo; Ginatullina, Elena; Scott, Julian; Chandra, Sudeep; Nishonov, Bakhriddin; Lamers, John P.A.; Fayzieva, Dilorom

    2015-01-01

    With >400 small (<1 ha) lakes, the arid Khorezm Province in Uzbekistan may be well-suited for aquaculture production. Developing water resources to provide a local food supply could increase fish consumption while improving the rural economy. Hydroecological (biological and physical) and chemical characteristics (including legacy pesticides ΣDDT and ΣHCH) of four representative drainage lakes in Khorezm from 2006 to 2008 were analyzed for the lakes’ capability to support healthy fish populations. Lake characteristics were categorized as “optimal” (having little or no effect on growth and development), “tolerable” (corresponding to chronic or sub-lethal toxicity) and “lethal” (corresponding to acute toxicity). Results indicate that three lakes are likely well-suited for raising fish species, with water quality meeting World Bank aquaculture guidelines. However, the fourth lake often had salinity concentrations > optimal levels for local fish species. Pesticide concentrations in water of all four lakes were within tolerable aquaculture ranges. Although water ΣDDT concentrations were >optimal limits, results from chemical analysis of fish tissues and semi-permeable membrane devices indicated that study lake ΣDDT concentrations were not accumulating in fish or posing a human health threat. Land and water management to maintain adequate lake water quality are imperative for sustaining fish populations for human consumption.

  8. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from aquaculture: a review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2012-06-19

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 310 times that of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) over a hundred year lifespan. N(2)O is generated during microbial nitrification and denitrification, which are common in aquaculture systems. To date, few studies have been conducted to quantify N(2)O emission from aquaculture. Additionally, very little is known with respect to the microbial pathways through which N(2)O is formed in aquaculture systems. This review suggests that aquaculture can be an important anthropogenic source of N(2)O emission. The global N(2)O-N emission from aquaculture in 2009 is estimated to be 9.30 × 10(10) g, and will increase to 3.83 × 10(11)g which could account for 5.72% of anthropogenic N(2)O-N emission by 2030 if the aquaculture industry continues to increase at the present annual growth rate (about 7.10%). The possible mechanisms and various factors affecting N(2)O production are summarized, and two possible methods to minimize N(2)O emission, namely aquaponic and biofloc technology aquaculture, are also discussed. The paper concludes with future research directions. PMID:22594516

  9. Salmon Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A.; Henríquez, Luis A.; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:22905164

  10. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  11. Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institute on Aging at NIH Search form Search this site Menu Get Started Try These Exercises Go to My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating Sometimes it’s hard to make smart food choices . Here are some suggestions from Go4Life ...

  12. Overcoming Prejudices: An Invitational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Offers an invitational model for overcoming prejudices. The model, based on the five-step approach of M. Haberman (1994) and the conflict management plan of W. W. Purkey (1992) proposes an effective and sensitive method for dealing with prejudice and discrimination in the schools. (SLD)

  13. Overcoming Exclusion through Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian; Walshe, John

    Strategies for overcoming exclusion through adult learning were identified through case studies of 19 initiatives in the following countries: Belgium; Mexico; the Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; and the United Kingdom. The study programs involved a diverse array of formal, nonformal, and informal public sector, community, and enterprise-based…

  14. Helping Young Children Overcome Shyness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John

    This paper examines shyness--its causes and its impact on children--and presents several strategies based on social learning theory for parents and teachers to help young children overcome shyness. The paper also describes a personal application of these strategies on a young girl. The strategies presented for parents and teachers are: (1) tell…

  15. Controlling emerging infectious diseases in salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, J M; Osmundsen, T; Aunsmo, A; Mardones, F O; Rich, K M

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors review the impacts of diseases facing salmon aquaculture, drawing lessons from terrestrial animal diseases. They discuss the implementation of current control strategies, taking into account transmission patterns (vertical versus horizontal), disease reservoirs, and interactions with wild fish. In addition, the decision-making context of aquatic disease control and the institutional organisation of control strategies are considered, with particular emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of regulatory authorities and the private sector. Case studies on the emergence and control of infectious salmon anaemia worldwide and pancreas disease in Norway are used to examine some of the controversies that may influence decision making and provide lessons for the future. PMID:27044162

  16. Ecological theory as a foundation to control pathogenic invasion in aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    De Schryver, Peter; Vadstein, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Detrimental host–pathogen interactions are a normal phenomenon in aquaculture animal production, and have been counteracted by prophylactic use of antibiotics. Especially, the youngest life stages of cultivated aquatic animals are susceptible to pathogen invasion, resulting in disease and mortality. To establish a more sustainable aquatic food production, there is a need for new microbial management strategies that focus on ‘join them' and not the traditional ‘beat them' approaches. We argue that ecological theory could serve as a foundation for developing sustainable microbial management methods that prevent pathogenic disease in larviculture. Management of the water microbiota in aquaculture systems according to ecological selection principles has been shown to decrease opportunistic pathogen pressure and to result in an improved performance of the cultured animals. We hypothesize that manipulation of the biodiversity of the gut microbiota can increase the host's resistance against pathogenic invasion and infection. However, substantial barriers need to be overcome before active management of the intestinal microbiota can effectively be applied in larviculture. PMID:24892581

  17. Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Rosamond L.; Hardy, Ronald W.; Bureau, Dominique P.; Chiu, Alice; Elliott, Matthew; Farrell, Anthony P.; Forster, Ian; Gatlin, Delbert M.; Goldburg, Rebecca J.; Hua, Katheline; Nichols, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Aquaculture's pressure on forage fisheries remains hotly contested. This article reviews trends in fishmeal and fish oil use in industrial aquafeeds, showing reduced inclusion rates but greater total use associated with increased aquaculture production and demand for fish high in long-chain omega-3 oils. The ratio of wild fisheries inputs to farmed fish output has fallen to 0.63 for the aquaculture sector as a whole but remains as high as 5.0 for Atlantic salmon. Various plant- and animal-based alternatives are now used or available for industrial aquafeeds, depending on relative prices and consumer acceptance, and the outlook for single-cell organisms to replace fish oil is promising. With appropriate economic and regulatory incentives, the transition toward alternative feedstuffs could accelerate, paving the way for a consensus that aquaculture is aiding the ocean, not depleting it. PMID:19805247

  18. Heterotrophic denitrification of aquaculture effluent using fluidized sand biofilters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to consistently and cost-effectively reduce nitrate-nitrogen loads in effluent from recirculating aquaculture systems would enhance the industry's environmental stewardship and allow improved facility proximity to large markets in sensitive watersheds. Heterotrophic denitrification techn...

  19. Mytilus hybridisation and impact on aquaculture: A minireview.

    PubMed

    Michalek, K; Ventura, A; Sanders, T

    2016-06-01

    The three species in the blue mussel complex (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mytilus trossulus) show varying levels of hybridisation wherever they occur sympatrically. The spatial variation in hybridisation patterns is potentially governed by environmental conditions, larval dispersal and aquaculture practices. Commercial mussel cultivation has been shown to increase hybridisation through introduction of non-native species or spat transfer. There is evidence that mussel cultivation may promote commercially less desirable phenotypes (e.g. fragile shells), however, to what extent hybridisation impacts aquaculture is currently not clear. The aim of this review is to summarize the available information on Mytilus hybridisation patterns in Europe and their promotion through aquaculture practices in order to shed light on the overall implications for the aquaculture industry. PMID:27157133

  20. Feasibility study for aquaculture and space heating, Ft. Bidwell, California

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, G.

    1985-10-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture facilities and geothermal space heating at Ft. Bidwell, California were investigated. The lack of cold water is the limiting factor for aquaculture expansion and is also a problem for the town domestic water supply. A new cold water well approximately 1200 feet deep would provide for the aquaculture expansion and additional domestic water. A 2900 foot test well can be completed to provide additional hot water at approximately 200/sup 0/F and an estimated artesian flow of 500 gpm. If these wells are completed, the aquaculture facility could be expanded to produce 6000 two pound catfish per month on a continuous basis and provide space heating of at least 20 homes. The design provided allows for heating 11 homes initially with possible future expansion. 9 figs.

  1. Evaluation of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Health during a Superintensive Aquaculture Growout Using NMR-Based Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Schock, Tracey B.; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W.; Bearden, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

  2. Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Schock, Tracey B; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W; Bearden, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

  3. Issues, Impacts, and Implications of Shrimp Aquaculture in Thailand

    PubMed

    Dierberg; Kiattisimkul

    1996-09-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination.The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32 % of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993

  4. Interactions of aquaculture and waste disposal in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuemei, Zhai; Hawkins, S. J.

    2002-04-01

    Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper. Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture. Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organims, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

  5. Monitoring and managing microbes in aquaculture - Towards a sustainable industry.

    PubMed

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Sonnenschein, Eva C; Gram, Lone

    2016-09-01

    Microorganisms are of great importance to aquaculture where they occur naturally, and can be added artificially, fulfilling different roles. They recycle nutrients, degrade organic matter and, occasionally, they infect and kill the fish, their larvae or the live feed. Also, some microorganisms may protect fish and larvae against disease. Hence, monitoring and manipulating the microbial communities in aquaculture environments hold great potential; both in terms of assessing and improving water quality, but also in terms of controlling the development of microbial infections. Using microbial communities to monitor water quality and to efficiently carry out ecosystem services within the aquaculture systems may only be a few years away. Initially, however, we need to thoroughly understand the microbiomes of both healthy and diseased aquaculture systems, and we need to determine how to successfully manipulate and engineer these microbiomes. Similarly, we can reduce the need to apply antibiotics in aquaculture through manipulation of the microbiome, i.e. by the use of probiotic bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that fish pathogenic bacteria in live feed can be controlled by probiotics and that mortality of infected fish larvae can be reduced significantly by probiotic bacteria. However, the successful management of the aquaculture microbiota is currently hampered by our lack of knowledge of relevant microbial interactions and the overall ecology of these systems. PMID:27452663

  6. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed Central

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H.; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Gren, Åsa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A.; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H.; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture’s reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  7. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology) and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical) epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include: Improved taxonomic classification of viruses A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the ability to assimilate and

  8. Tocopherols in Seafood and Aquaculture Products.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Cláudia; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Nunes, Leonor; Cardoso, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Fish products contain various nutritionally beneficial components, namely, ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFA), minerals, and vitamins. Particularly, tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol) can be provided by seafood and aquaculture products. Hence, this review shows the various aspects of tocopherols in seafood and aquaculture products. For tocopherol determination in these products, HPLC methods coupled with diode array detection in the UV area of the spectrum or fluorescence detection have been shown as sensitive and accurate. These newest methods have helped in understanding tocopherols fate upon ingestion by seafood organisms. Tocopherols pass through the intestinal mucosa mainly by the same passive diffusion mechanism as fats. After absorption, the transport mechanism is thought to consist of two loops. The first loop is dietary, including chylomicrons and fatty acids bound to carrier protein, transporting lipids mainly to the liver. The other is the transport from the liver to tissues and storage sites. Moreover, tocopherol levels in fish organisms correlate with diet levels, being adjusted in fish body depending on diet concentration. For farmed fish species, insufficient levels of tocopherols in the diet can lead to poor growth performance or to nutritional disease. The tocopherol quantity needed as a feed supplement depends on various factors, such as the vitamer mixture, the lipid level and source, the method of diet preparation, and the feed storage conditions. Other ingredients in diet may be of great importance, it has been proposed that α-tocopherol may behave as a prooxidant synergist at higher concentrations when prooxidants such as transition metals are present. However, the antioxidant action of tocopherols outweighs this prooxidant effect, provided that adequate conditions are used. In fact, muscle-based foods containing higher levels of tocopherol show, for instance, higher lipid stability. Besides, tocopherols are important not

  9. Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

    1996-09-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993

  10. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Myers, Melvin L

    2010-10-01

    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections . PMID:20954037

  11. Denitrification and anammox in tropical aquaculture settlement ponds: an isotope tracer approach for evaluating N2 production.

    PubMed

    Castine, Sarah A; Erler, Dirk V; Trott, Lindsay A; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Eyre, Bradley D

    2012-01-01

    Settlement ponds are used to treat aquaculture discharge water by removing nutrients through physical (settling) and biological (microbial transformation) processes. Nutrient removal through settling has been quantified, however, the occurrence of, and potential for microbial nitrogen (N) removal is largely unknown in these systems. Therefore, isotope tracer techniques were used to measure potential rates of denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in the sediment of settlement ponds in tropical aquaculture systems. Dinitrogen gas (N(2)) was produced in all ponds, although potential rates were low (0-7.07 nmol N cm(-3) h(-1)) relative to other aquatic systems. Denitrification was the main driver of N(2) production, with anammox only detected in two of the four ponds. No correlations were detected between the measured sediment variables (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, iron, manganese, sulphur and phosphorous) and denitrification or anammox. Furthermore, denitrification was not carbon limited as the addition of particulate organic matter (paired t-Test; P = 0.350, n = 3) or methanol (paired t-Test; P = 0.744, n = 3) did not stimulate production of N(2). A simple mass balance model showed that only 2.5% of added fixed N was removed in the studied settlement ponds through the denitrification and anammox processes. It is recommended that settlement ponds be used in conjunction with additional technologies (i.e. constructed wetlands or biological reactors) to enhance N(2) production and N removal from aquaculture wastewater. PMID:22962581

  12. Denitrification and Anammox in Tropical Aquaculture Settlement Ponds: An Isotope Tracer Approach for Evaluating N2 Production

    PubMed Central

    Castine, Sarah A.; Erler, Dirk V.; Trott, Lindsay A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; de Nys, Rocky; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2012-01-01

    Settlement ponds are used to treat aquaculture discharge water by removing nutrients through physical (settling) and biological (microbial transformation) processes. Nutrient removal through settling has been quantified, however, the occurrence of, and potential for microbial nitrogen (N) removal is largely unknown in these systems. Therefore, isotope tracer techniques were used to measure potential rates of denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in the sediment of settlement ponds in tropical aquaculture systems. Dinitrogen gas (N2) was produced in all ponds, although potential rates were low (0–7.07 nmol N cm−3 h−1) relative to other aquatic systems. Denitrification was the main driver of N2 production, with anammox only detected in two of the four ponds. No correlations were detected between the measured sediment variables (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, iron, manganese, sulphur and phosphorous) and denitrification or anammox. Furthermore, denitrification was not carbon limited as the addition of particulate organic matter (paired t-Test; P = 0.350, n = 3) or methanol (paired t-Test; P = 0.744, n = 3) did not stimulate production of N2. A simple mass balance model showed that only 2.5% of added fixed N was removed in the studied settlement ponds through the denitrification and anammox processes. It is recommended that settlement ponds be used in conjunction with additional technologies (i.e. constructed wetlands or biological reactors) to enhance N2 production and N removal from aquaculture wastewater. PMID:22962581

  13. NANOPREPARATIONS TO OVERCOME MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE IN CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Niravkumar R.; Pattni, Bhushan S.; Abouzeid, Abraham H.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is the most widely exploited phenomenon by which cancer eludes chemotherapy. Broad variety of factors, ranging from the cellular ones, such as over-expression of efflux transporters, defective apoptotic machineries, and altered molecular targets, to the physiological factors such as higher interstitial fluid pressure, low extracellular pH, and formation of irregular tumor vasculature are responsible for multidrug resistance. A combination of various undesirable factors associated with biological surroundings together with poor solubility and instability of many potential therapeutic small & large molecules within the biological systems and systemic toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents has necessitated the need for nano-preparations to optimize drug delivery. The physiology of solid tumors presents numerous challenges for successful therapy. However, it also offers unique opportunities for the use of nanotechnology. Nanoparticles, up to 400 nm in size, have shown great promise for carrying, protecting and delivering potential therapeutic molecules with diverse physiological properties. In this review, various factors responsible for the MDR and the use of nanotechnology to overcome the MDR, the use of spheroid culture as well as the current technique of producing micro tumor tissues in vitro are discussed in detail. PMID:23973912

  14. Overcoming challenges in improvement work.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Helen

    2013-09-01

    The Health Foundation is an independent charity working to improve healthcare in the UK, so that we have a system of the highest possible quality-safe, effective, person-centred, timely, efficient and equitable. We believe that in order to achieve this, health services need to continually improve the way they work. The Foundation conducts research and evaluation, puts ideas into practice through improvement programmes, develops leaders and shares evidence to drive wider change. The work is a focused around two priority areas: patient safety and person-centred care. The Foundation has supported work to improve services for patients with kidney disease and, in common with other quality improvement projects, there have been challenges to overcome. Awareness of these common challenges can help others to be more prepared when planning service improvements. PMID:23941702

  15. Overcoming "the Valley of Death".

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Robin A

    2014-01-01

    On a global level there are major challenges arising from climate change, resource use and changing age demographics. These issues have created a global marketplace for novel innovative products and solutions which can help to combat and overcome these challenges which have created significant commercial opportunities for companies, particularly for small and medium size enterprises or SMEs. Companies most likely to take advantage of these opportunities will be those which can innovate in a timely manner. Innovation significantly contributes to higher productivity and economic growth, and is core to a company's competitiveness within often challenging marketplaces. However, many factors can stifle innovation. Companies can struggle to identify finance for early-stage development, the returns can be difficult to predict, and the innovation 'landscape' is often complex and unclear. This brief review describes some of the main issues with commercialising innovative ideas and provides guidance with respect to the often complicated funding landscape both on a National and European level. PMID:25549408

  16. In-tank aeration, a necessary compliment of loaded systems in an airlift recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water treatment components in recirculating aquaculture systems in generally address solids removal, nitrification, circulation, aeration, and degasification. Airlift pumps in a recirculating aquaculture system can address water circulation, aeration, and degasification. Recent data indicates oxygen...

  17. Does pond water reflectance influence double-crested cormorant selection of aquaculture pond?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) are a frequent and major avian predator on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and other aquaculture species throughout the southeastern USA. Although cormorant movements and occurrence within the aquaculture production region are understood, no s...

  18. An overview: biomolecules from microalgae for animal feed and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Yaakob, Zahira; Ali, Ehsan; Zainal, Afifi; Mohamad, Masita; Takriff, Mohd Sobri

    2014-12-01

    Despite being more popular for biofuel, microalgae have gained a lot of attention as a source of biomolecules and biomass for feed purposes. Algae farming can be established using land as well as sea and strategies can be designed in order to gain the products of specific interest in the optimal way. A general overview of the contributions of Algae to meet the requirements of nutrients in animal/aquaculture feed is presented in this study. In addition to its applications in animal/aquaculture feed, algae can produce a number of biomolecules including astaxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene, chlorophyll, phycobiliprotein, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), beta-1,3-glucan, and pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds which have been reviewed with respect to their commercial importance and current status. The review is further extended to highlight the adequate utilization of value added products in the feeds for livestock, poultry and aquaculture (with emphasis in shrimp farming). PMID:25984489

  19. Assessment of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system

    SciTech Connect

    Head, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    Research was conducted to address three objectives: 1) to determine the nitrogen cycling of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system; 2) to determine the energy budget of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system; and 3) to determine which low cost fish diets could be used as a replacement or supplement to commercial diets for Tilapia mossambica. A 6435 liter recirculating aquaculture system was enclosed in a 32.6 m/sup 2/ greenhouse. Water was recirculated through two 416 liter trickling filter towers and three 5.5 m long hydroponic troughs. The aquaculture tank was stocked with a polyculture of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) and the hydroponic troughs were planted with tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). The fishes were fed a commercial fish diet and the tomatoes were irrigated with the aquaculture water using a modified Nutrient Film Technique. The fish yield was 42.2 kg and the average tomato yield from 24 plants was 4.1 kg/plant. The combined fish and tomato production accounted for 65% of the total nitrogen input. Leaf analyses and visual inspection showed that the tomato plants from the hydroponic troughs were deficient in potassium and magnesium. An energy analysis of the greenhouse and aquaculture-hydroponic system showed that when combining the energy outputs of heat, fish, and tomatoes the energy ratio (energy output/energy input) was similar to literature values for milkfish pond culture. When only the fish production was considered the energy ratio was similar to literature values reported for intensive water recirculating systems.

  20. Use of sunlight to degrade oxytetracycline in marine aquaculture's waters.

    PubMed

    Leal, J F; Esteves, V I; Santos, E B H

    2016-06-01

    Oxytracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibiotic authorized for use in European aquaculture. Its photo-degradation has been widely studied in synthetic aqueous solutions, sometimes resorting to expensive methods and without proven effectiveness in natural waters. Thus, this work studied the possibility to apply the solar photo-degradation for removal of OTC from marine aquaculture's waters. For that, water samples were collected at different locals of the water treatment circuit, from two different aquaculture companies. Water samples were firstly characterized regarding to pH, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), organic carbon and UV-Vis spectroscopic characteristics. Then, the samples were spiked with OTC and irradiated using simulated sunlight in order to evaluate the matrix effects on OTC photo-degradation. From kinetic results, the apparent quantum yields and the outdoor half-life times, at 40°N for midsummer and midwinter days were estimated by the first time for these conditions. For a midsummer day, at sea level, the outdoor half-life time predicted for OTC in these aquaculture's waters ranged between 21 and 25 min. Additionally, the pH and salinity effects on the OTC photo-degradation were evaluated and it has been shown that high pH values and the presence of sea salt increase the OTC photo-degradation rate in aquaculture's waters, compared to results in deionised water. The results are very promising to apply this low-cost methodology using the natural sunlight in aquaculture's waters to remove OTC. PMID:27049790

  1. Oysters and aquaculture practices affect eelgrass density and productivity in a Pacific Northwest estuary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is widely recognized that bivalve aquaculture can have negative impacts on eelgrass through disturbance. In some bays in the Pacific Northwest (USA), certain oyster (Crassostrea gigas) aquaculture practices have been restricted to protect native eelgrass (Zostera marina). We argue that aquacultur...

  2. Research update for the Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture (fish farming) has played an ever-increasing role in providing people with fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production and in 2014 totaled 80 million tons valued at $140 billion. The production of food-fish from aquaculture h...

  3. Revising and Updating the Natural Resources and Aquaculture Components of the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Frederick W.

    Materials, including curriculum units, are provided for the natural resources and aquaculture components of the vocational agriculture curriculum. Aquaculture is a new component, added because of increased recognition of the opportunities offered by Connecticut's rich shoreline resources. A brochure and flyer on the aquaculture program follow a…

  4. Overcoming Degeneracies in Exoplanet Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benneke, Björn

    2015-08-01

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets can provide invaluable insights into the planets’ compositions, their formation and evolution histories, and even their habitability. Obtaining exoplanet spectra is observationally challenging; however, and we are generally limited to relatively low signal-to-noise, low spectral resolution, disk-integrated observations , often with relatively narrow wavelength coverage. This low data situation results in strong correlations and degeneracies between the different planet and atmospheric parameters of interest. In this talk, I will present a conceptual picture of how vital information about the planet is encoded in its observable spectrum. I will then give an overview about the wide range of correlations and degeneracies relevant to today’s exoplanet observations. Finally, I will demonstrate how some degeneracies can be overcome and improved constraints can be obtained by including prior knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and physics in the retrieval. I present a new atmospheric retrieval framework, SCARLET, that combines observational data and our prior (limited) knowledge of atmospheric processes in a statistical robust Bayesian framework. New results for hot Jupiters will be presented.

  5. Abundance, diversity and seasonal dynamics of predatory bacteria in aquaculture zero discharge systems.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Prem P; Pasternak, Zohar; van Rijn, Jaap; Nahum, Ortal; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2014-07-01

    Standard aquaculture generates large-scale pollution and strains water resources. In aquaculture using zero discharge systems (ZDS), highly efficient fish growth and water recycling are combined. The wastewater stream is directed through compartments in which beneficial microbial activities induced by creating suitable environmental conditions remove biological and chemical pollutants, alleviating both problems. Bacterial predators, preying on bacterial populations in the ZDS, may affect their diversity, composition and functional redundancy, yet in-depth understanding of this phenomenon is lacking. The dynamics of populations belonging to the obligate predators Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) were analyzed in freshwater and saline ZDS over a 7-month period using QPCR targeting the Bdellovibrionaceae, and the Bacteriovorax and Bacteriolyticum genera in the Bacteriovoracaeae. Both families co-existed in ZDS compartments, constituting 0.13-1.4% of total Bacteria. Relative predator abundance varied according to the environmental conditions prevailing in different compartments, most notably salinity. Strikingly, the Bdellovibrionaceae, hitherto only retrieved from freshwater and soil, also populated the saline system. In addition to the detected BALOs, other potential predators were highly abundant, especially from the Myxococcales. Among the general bacterial population, Flavobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteriaceae and unclassified Bacteria dominated a well mixed but seasonally fluctuating diverse community of up to 238 operational taxonomic units, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:24749684

  6. Feet, heat and scallops: what is the cost of anthropogenic disturbance in bivalve aquaculture?

    PubMed

    Robson, Anthony A; Halsey, Lewis G; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The effects of unnatural disturbances on the behaviour and energetics of animals are an important issue for conservation and commercial animal production. Biologging enables estimation of the energy costs of these disturbances, but not specifically the effect these costs have on growth; a key outcome measure for animal farming enterprises. We looked at how natural and anthropogenically induced activity and energy expenditure of king scallops Pecten maximus varies with temperature. These data were then used to model growth time of king scallops reared in an aquaculture facility under different temperatures and anthropogenic disturbance levels. The scallops exhibited a typical total metabolic rate (MR)-temperature curve, with a peak reached at a middling temperature. The percentage of their total MR associated with spinning and swimming, behavioural responses to disturbance, was considerable. Interestingly, as temperature increased, the activity MR associated with a given level of activity decreased; a hitherto unreported relationship in any species. The model results suggest there is a trade-off in the ambient temperature that should be set by hatcheries between the optimal for scallop growth if completely undisturbed versus mitigating against the energy costs elicited by anthropogenic disturbance. Furthermore, the model indicates that this trade-off is affected by scallop size. Aquaculture facilities typically have controls to limit the impact of human activities, yet the present data indicate that hatcheries may be advised to consider whether more controls could further decrease extraneous scallop behaviours, resulting in enhanced scallop yields and improved financial margins. PMID:27069659

  7. [Application of deactivating properties of some sorbents in aquaculture feed production].

    PubMed

    Vasukevich, T A; Nitievskaya, L S

    2014-01-01

    The possibility and effectiveness of application of selective sorbents for fish feed production in aquaculture in the area exposed to the radioactive pollution were studied. The investigations of the fish feed deactivating properties with additives of ferrocyn and potassium alginate, and magnesium on whitefish fry-fingerlings and yearlings were carried out. The study has shown that the ferrocyn performance is greater than 99% regardless of the fish age. 1% ferrocyn addition to feed allows increasing the acceptable concentration of feed compo- nents polluted by the above norm cesium radionuclide up to 20 times. The alginate additives in feed provide almost double decrease in the activity of fish tissues. The optimally effective alginate dose should exceed the calcium concentration in feed up to 4 times. It was found that utilization of the feedstock (fish meal, crops and legumes, oil meal and oil cake) polluted by radionuclides is possible in combined aquaculture feed pro- duction. The application of sorbents in feed will allow increasing the amount permissible for use of the feed components polluted above the norm; ensure the radiation safety of feed and, finally, the protection of aquatic biological resources from radioactive contamination. It is shown that the sorbent additive in feed is also jus- tified in case of fish farming in closed waters affected by radioactive pollution. Feeding by mixed fodder with the sorbent additives prevents fish from radionuclide intake from natural food sources. PMID:25980288

  8. Feet, heat and scallops: what is the cost of anthropogenic disturbance in bivalve aquaculture?

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Lewis G.; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The effects of unnatural disturbances on the behaviour and energetics of animals are an important issue for conservation and commercial animal production. Biologging enables estimation of the energy costs of these disturbances, but not specifically the effect these costs have on growth; a key outcome measure for animal farming enterprises. We looked at how natural and anthropogenically induced activity and energy expenditure of king scallops Pecten maximus varies with temperature. These data were then used to model growth time of king scallops reared in an aquaculture facility under different temperatures and anthropogenic disturbance levels. The scallops exhibited a typical total metabolic rate (MR)–temperature curve, with a peak reached at a middling temperature. The percentage of their total MR associated with spinning and swimming, behavioural responses to disturbance, was considerable. Interestingly, as temperature increased, the activity MR associated with a given level of activity decreased; a hitherto unreported relationship in any species. The model results suggest there is a trade-off in the ambient temperature that should be set by hatcheries between the optimal for scallop growth if completely undisturbed versus mitigating against the energy costs elicited by anthropogenic disturbance. Furthermore, the model indicates that this trade-off is affected by scallop size. Aquaculture facilities typically have controls to limit the impact of human activities, yet the present data indicate that hatcheries may be advised to consider whether more controls could further decrease extraneous scallop behaviours, resulting in enhanced scallop yields and improved financial margins. PMID:27069659

  9. Probabilistically determining roles of groundwater use in aquacultural fishponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Liou, Yi-Ting; Liang, Ching-Ping

    2010-07-01

    SummaryThis work probabilistically determined roles of groundwater use in farmed fishponds in the Pingtung plain, southern Taiwan. According to the standard of water quality for aquaculture, three hydrochemical parameters were considered - manganese, arsenic and ammonium-nitrogen. A minimal utilization ratio (UR) of groundwater was obtained from integrating the hydrochemical parameters diluted with surface water or seawater. Through the integration process, safe groundwater used for aquaculture can be determined effectively. Indicator kriging was adopted to estimate spatial probability distributions of UR. A proper groundwater role - UR < 0.1 (sparsely used), 0.1 ≦ UR < 0.5 (minor), 0.5 ≦ UR < 1 (major) or UR = 1 (completely used) - was gauged based on estimated probabilities. The analyzed results reveal that manganese and ammonium-nitrogen are the key factors influencing on groundwater use for aquaculture in this plain. After making the comparison of surveyed and estimated groundwater URs, this study recommends that groundwater in coastal townships can be sparsely used for elevating temperatures of pond water in winter. Meanwhile, inland townships of groundwater overuse should cultivate fish using surface water instead of groundwater; that is, groundwater plays a minor role in fishponds. Aquaculture industries using the substantial amount of groundwater are merely appropriate for development of few inland townships.

  10. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Cusack, C.; Casal, G.; Berry, A.; Nolan, G. D.

    2015-06-01

    The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. A shellfish model that includes growth and physiological interactions of mussels with the ecosystem and is fully embedded in the 3-D numerical modelling framework has been developed at the Marine Institute. This shellfish model has a microbial module designed to predict levels of coliform contamination in mussels. This model can also be used to estimate the carrying capacity of embayments, assess impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds and help to classify shellfish waters. The physical coastal model of southwest Ireland provides a three day forecast of shelf water movement in the region. This is assimilated into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end-users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish killing species. Further services include the use of models to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the marine fisheries resources. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  11. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Cusack, C.; Casal, G.; Berry, A.; Nolan, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. The authors give an overview of a shellfish model developed in-house and that was designed to predict the growth, the physiological interactions with the ecosystem, and the level of coliform contamination of the blue mussel. As such, this model is applicable in studies on the carrying capacity of embayments, assessment of the impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds, and the determination of shellfish water classes. Further services include the assimilation of the model-predicted shelf water movement into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish-killing species. Models are also used to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish, and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the resources of marine fisheries. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  12. Off-flavors in salmonids raised in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers of aquaculture products will typically verify the flavor quality of their product by sensory evaluation (flavor testing) before harvesting the crop for market. “Off-flavors” detected in the product may require holding the fish in a purging system containing fresh, clean water to depurate ...

  13. Effect of starch sources on extruded aquaculture feed containing DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is one of the most rapidly growing sectors of agriculture, and is a reliable growth market for the prepared feeds. A Brabender laboratory-scale single screw extruder was used to study the effect of various starch sources (cassava, corn, and potato), DDGS levels (20, 30, and 40% (wb)), an...

  14. Aquaculture: A Course of Study for Sand Point Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Public Information and Publications.

    This program is designed to involve students in the economy of their community. It combines an interdisciplinary educational program with practical field and laboratory experience. This program provides opportunities in the area of aquaculture, controlled cultivation of marketable species and the total ecological corrections necessary to maintain…

  15. Zebrafish as animal model for aquaculture nutrition research.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Pilar E; Medrano, Juan F; Feijoo, Carmen G

    2014-01-01

    The aquaculture industry continues to promote the diversification of ingredients used in aquafeed in order to achieve a more sustainable aquaculture production system. The evaluation of large numbers of diets in aquaculture species is costly and requires time-consuming trials in some species. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio) can solve these drawbacks as an experimental model, and represents an ideal organism to carry out preliminary evaluation of diets. In addition, zebrafish has a sequenced genome allowing the efficient utilization of new technologies, such as RNA-sequencing and genotyping platforms to study the molecular mechanisms that underlie the organism's response to nutrients. Also, biotechnological tools like transgenic lines with fluorescently labeled neutrophils that allow the evaluation of the immune response in vivo, are readily available in this species. Thus, zebrafish provides an attractive platform for testing many ingredients to select those with the highest potential of success in aquaculture. In this perspective article aspects related to diet evaluation in which zebrafish can make important contributions to nutritional genomics and nutritional immunity are discussed. PMID:25309575

  16. Zebrafish as animal model for aquaculture nutrition research

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Pilar E.; Medrano, Juan F.; Feijoo, Carmen G.

    2014-01-01

    The aquaculture industry continues to promote the diversification of ingredients used in aquafeed in order to achieve a more sustainable aquaculture production system. The evaluation of large numbers of diets in aquaculture species is costly and requires time-consuming trials in some species. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio) can solve these drawbacks as an experimental model, and represents an ideal organism to carry out preliminary evaluation of diets. In addition, zebrafish has a sequenced genome allowing the efficient utilization of new technologies, such as RNA-sequencing and genotyping platforms to study the molecular mechanisms that underlie the organism’s response to nutrients. Also, biotechnological tools like transgenic lines with fluorescently labeled neutrophils that allow the evaluation of the immune response in vivo, are readily available in this species. Thus, zebrafish provides an attractive platform for testing many ingredients to select those with the highest potential of success in aquaculture. In this perspective article aspects related to diet evaluation in which zebrafish can make important contributions to nutritional genomics and nutritional immunity are discussed. PMID:25309575

  17. An Inexpensive Recirculating Aquaculture System with Multiple Use Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scurlock, Gerald Don, Jr.; Cook, S. Bradford; Scurlock, Carrie Ann

    1999-01-01

    Describes the construction of an inexpensive recirculating aquaculture system that can hold up to 46 pounds of fish, invertebrates, and mussels for classroom use. The system is versatile, requires little maintenance, and can be used for both teaching and research purposes. (WRM)

  18. ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF WASTE WATER AQUACULTURE TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study attempted to ascertain the economic viability of aquaculture as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment systems for small municipalities in the Southwestern region of the United States. A multiple water quality objective level cost-effectiveness model was ...

  19. Peace Corps Aquaculture Training Manual. Training Manual T0057.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This Peace Corps training manual was developed from two existing manuals to provide a comprehensive training program in fish production for Peace Corps volunteers. The manual encompasses the essential elements of the University of Oklahoma program that has been training volunteers in aquaculture for 25 years. The 22 chapters of the manual are…

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND EFFECTS OF AQUACULTURE THERAPEUTANT POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potassium permanganate is a widely used freshwater aquaculture drug for the treatment and prevention of waterborne parasitic, bacterial and fungal diseases. However, it is not approved by the USFDA for use as a therapeutant. One of the requirements for approval is an ecological risk assessment. T...

  1. Application of airlift technology in recirculation aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marine hatcheries implementing recirculating aquaculture technology require pristine water quality and must be designed to provide a disease free environment as much as possible to limit disease transmission. Given the aggressive nature of a variety of marine pathogens, design considerations with re...

  2. International cooperation on the use of peracetic acid in aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will discuss collaborative efforts on research to evaluate the usefulness of peracetic acid (PAA) as a therapeutant in aquaculture. Research has been underway since 2009 with a scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (Berlin, Germany). Ther...

  3. Marine Polysaccharides in Microencapsulation and Application to Aquaculture: “From Sea to Sea”

    PubMed Central

    Borgogna, Massimiliano; Bellich, Barbara; Cesàro, Attilio

    2011-01-01

    This review’s main objective is to discuss some physico-chemical features of polysaccharides as intrinsic determinants for the supramolecular structures that can efficiently provide encapsulation of drugs and other biological entities. Thus, the general characteristics of some basic polysaccharides are outlined in terms of their conformational, dynamic and thermodynamic properties. The analysis of some polysaccharide gelling properties is also provided, including the peculiarity of the charged polysaccharides. Then, the way the basic physical chemistry of polymer self-assembly is made in practice through the laboratory methods is highlighted. A description of the several literature procedures used to influence molecular interactions into the macroscopic goal of the encapsulation is given with an attempt at classification. Finally, a practical case study of specific interest, the use of marine polysaccharide matrices for encapsulation of vaccines in aquaculture, is reported. PMID:22363241

  4. Meeting the quest for spatial efficiency: progress and prospects of extensive aquaculture within offshore wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, B. H.; Krause, G.; Michler-Cieluch, T.; Brenner, M.; Buchholz, C. M.; Busch, J. A.; Fisch, R.; Geisen, M.; Zielinski, O.

    2008-09-01

    Along the German North Sea coast, the observed high spatial competition of stakeholders has encouraged the idea of integrating open ocean aquaculture in conjunction with offshore wind farms beyond the 12 miles zone. The article provides an overview on the current state of transdisciplinary research on a potential implementation of such a multifunctional use concept on a showcase basis, covering biological, technical, economic and social/policy aspects as well as private-public partnerships and the relevant institutional bodies. We show that the cultivation of seaweeds and blue mussels is biologically and technically feasible in a high-energy environment using modified cultivation strategies. The point of departure of our multi-use concept was that the solid groundings of wind turbines could serve as attachment points for the aquaculture installations and become the key to the successful commercial cultivation of any offshore aquatic organism. However, spaces in between the turbines are also attractive for farming projects, since public access is restricted and thus the cultivation site protected from outside influences. An economic analysis of different operation scenarios indicates that the market price and the annual settlement success of juvenile mussels are the main factors that determine the breakeven point. Social and policy science research reveals that the integration of relevant actors into the development of a multi-use concept for a wind farm-mariculture interaction is a complex and controversial issue. Combining knowledge and experience of wind farm planners as well as mussel fishermen and mariculturists within the framework of national and EU policies is probably the most important component for designing and developing an effective offshore co-management regime to limit the consumption of ocean space.

  5. [Aquaculture in the Netherlands: problems and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Hogendoorn, H

    1986-11-15

    New interest is being focussed on the more than 100-year-old field of fish culture in the Netherlands. The systems of production available show varying degrees of control of the fish and their environment, and they have a corresponding yield: 0.01-250 kg/m3/year. The recently developed recirculation systems (40-80 kg/m3) make possible the commercial production of luxury species of fish, independently of climatological conditions and having minimum effects on the environment. Some technical aspects of reproduction, housing, nutrition, growth, health control and marketing of the fish require further attention. But the absence of a solid tradition of fish culture is the main problem in the development of fish culture in the Netherlands today. Good fish stockmanship is required at farmers' level. And the organisation and governmental support, that turned agriculture into a highly successful industry, are also essential. For the moment, the most promising commercial prospects are provided by a number of luxury fish species: trout, salmon, eel, sole, turbot, tilapia, catfish, seabass and seabream. A joint effort may help to overcome the remaining technical and logistical uncertainties. PMID:3798438

  6. A Study of the Aquaculture Industry in Texas to Assist in Establishing Aquaculture as a Course Offering in Agricultural Science and Technology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, John; And Others

    A 1989-90 project determined the knowledge and skills necessary for employment in the aquaculture industry. The study identified technical materials and other resources available in private industry and higher education institutions. Two surveys determined the status of aquaculture in Texas school districts and identified tasks performed by…

  7. Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, Mark; Karnjanakesorn, Choomjet

    1995-01-01

    Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production methods. The conversion of near-shore areas to shrimp culture, however, is proving to have many consequences that impinge on the environmental integrity of coastal areas. This paper reviews the development of Thailand's marine shrimp culture industry and examines the nature of the environmental impacts that are emerging. It then discusses the implications these have for rural poor and the long-term viability of the culture industry.

  8. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture. part 1: terminology and reporting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The removal of carbon dioxide gas in aquacultural systems is much more complex than for oxygen or nitrogen gas because of liquid reactions of carbon dioxide and their kinetics. Almost all published carbon dioxide removal information for aquaculture is based on the apparent removal value after the CO2(aq) + HOH ⇔ H2CO3 reaction has reached equilibrium. The true carbon dioxide removal is larger than the apparent value, especially for high alkalinities and seawater. For low alkalinity freshwaters (<2000 μeq/kg), the difference between the true and apparent removal is small and can be ignored for many applications. Analytical and reporting standards are recommended to improve our understanding of carbon dioxide removal.

  9. Liposarcoma in clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced in indoor aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Sharon, G; Benharroch, D; Kachko, L; Reis-Hevlin, N; Zilberg, D

    2015-06-01

    Clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced and grown in an experimental indoor aquaculture facility, presented with lipomatous tumours. A total of 14 affected fish were examined. Based on the total number of fish at the aquaculture facility at the time of outbreak of this pathology, the scope of the incident is estimated to be 1 of 300 fish. The tumours were characterized by the presence of mature adipocytes of variable sizes, lipoblasts and by an invasive behaviour, which affected internal organs, muscle, central nervous system and, in one case, an eye. Detailed macroscopic and histopathological features are presented. The suggested diagnosis is that of a well-differentiated liposarcoma, a diagnosis so far never applied to fish. The limited outbreak of the neoplasm lasted a few months in 2011 and did not recur. Possible factors leading to this phenomenon, notably the metastasis, are discussed. PMID:24917512

  10. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production. PMID:23392894

  11. Prospects of using marine actinobacteria as probiotics in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Das, Surajit; Ward, Louise R; Burke, Chris

    2008-12-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents have been banned for disease management in aquaculture systems due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance gene and enduring residual effects in the environments. Instead, microbial interventions in sustainable aquaculture have been proposed, and among them, the most popular and practical approach is the use of probiotics. A range of microorganisms have been used so far as probiotics, which include Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, bacteriophages, and unicellular algae. The results are satisfactory and promising; however, to combat the latest infectious diseases, the search for a new strain for probiotics is essential. Marine actinobacteria were designated as the chemical factory a long time ago, and quite a large number of chemical substances have been isolated to date. The potent actinobacterial genera are Streptomyces; Micromonospora; and a novel, recently described genus, Salinispora. Despite the existence of all the significant features of a good probiont, actinobacteria have been hardly used as probiotics in aquaculture. However, this group of bacteria promises to supply the most potential probiotic strains in the future. PMID:18841358

  12. Coastal Aquaculture Development in Bangladesh: Unsustainable and Sustainable Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, A. Kalam; Jensen, Kathe R.; Lin, C. Kwei

    2009-10-01

    Coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh consists mainly of two shrimp species ( Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Currently, there are about 16,237 marine shrimp ( P. monodon) farms covering 148,093 ha and 36,109 fresh water shrimp ( M. rosenbergii) farms covering 17,638 ha coastal area. More than 0.7 million people are employed in the farmed shrimp sector and in 2005-2006 the export value of shrimp was 403.5 million USD. Thus, coastal aquaculture contributes significantly to rural employment and economy but this is overshadowed by negative social and ecological impacts. This article reviews the key issues, constraints and opportunities of sustainable shrimp farming. In addition we present the results of two case studies from southwestern coastal areas where shrimp farming originated and central coastal areas where shrimp farming, especially M. rosenbergii, began in recent years. Lessons learned from the review and case studies are considered in the context of recommendations to encompass a socially equitable and ecologically sound coastal aquaculture.

  13. Research on China's aquaculture efficiency evaluation and influencing factors with undesirable outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianyue; Wang, Pingping

    2015-06-01

    Taking the aquaculture area, the number of farming boats and that of aquaculturist as input variables, the aquaculture production as desirable output variable and polluted economic loss as undesirable output variable, this paper conducts SBM model to evaluate the aquaculture efficiency based on the data of 16 aquaculture-developed provinces in China from 2004 to 2011. The results show the efficiency in China has not changed much in recent years with the efficiency values mainly between 0.39 and 0.53, and the efficiency of marine-aquaculture-dominated provinces is generally higher than that of freshwater-aquaculture-dominated ones. To analyze the difference under the efficiency, the panel Tobit model is used with education level factor, training factor, technology extension factor, technical level factor, scale factor and species factor as the efficiency influencing factors. The results show that technology extension factor and technical level factor have significant positive influence.

  14. Contaminant Area Aquaculture Program. Determination of the chemical suitability of a dredged material containment area for aquaculture. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tatem, H.E.

    1990-12-01

    This concerns use of dredged material containment areas (DMCA) for aquaculture, specifically for production of a crop intended for human consumption. New DMCA's used only periodically for dredged material disposal could be managed to produce valuable crops. Previous studies conducted by the Corps of Engineers, including one where shrimp was raised at a DMCA, and others relating to the effects of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms, are reviewed. The literature indicated that most dredged material is uncontaminated and that many sediment constituents such as metal are relatively unavailable to aquatic animals; DMCAs containing parts-per-million levels of organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or petroleum hydrocarbons should not be used for aquaculture without extensive testing.

  15. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams.

    PubMed

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian; Valenzuela, Jose; Ebersbach, Paul; von Tuempling, Wolf; Palma, Rodrigo; Encina, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Kamjunke, Norbert; Graeber, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradability are unknown. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the inputs of anthropogenic DOM from land-based aquaculture to the predominantly pristine river systems of North Patagonia. We hypothesized, that i) DOM exported from land-based aquaculture mainly consists of protein-like fluorescence (tyrosine and tryptophan) released from fish feces and food remains, and that ii) this DOM is highly degradable and therefore rapidly turned-over within the receiving streams. In the North Patagonian region we conducted a screening of ten land-based aquacultures and an intensive sampling campaign for one aquaculture. This was combined with longitudinal transects and a degradation experiment in order to couple the composition of DOM exported from land-based aquacultures to its degradability in streams. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by high-temperature catalytic oxidation and DOM composition by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. In the effluent of the ten screened aquacultures and in the repeated sampling of one aquaculture, we consistently found an increase of DOC concentrations and a dominance of protein-like fluorescence. The protein-like fluorescence rapidly disappeared downstream of the aquacultures, and in the degradation experiment. 21% of the DOC export from the repeatedly sampled aquaculture resulted from food addition and 76% from fish production. We conclude that large amounts of degradable DOM are exported from land-based aquacultures. This probably has strong effects on the ecological structure and function of North Patagonian streams, and similarly affected streams worldwide. PMID:26282747

  16. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China’s aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water’s surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine’s motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine’s mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02–0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000–52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13–0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110–208 m3/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10–15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3+–N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These

  17. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  18. IOOS: Aiding Aquaculture Industries and Their Harvest with Near Real-Time Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkering, H.; Shandy Buckley; Jan Newton; Julie Thomas

    2011-12-01

    networks are being designed to address scientific understanding and uncertainty as well as the management needs of various stakeholder groups. Better communication and delivery of near real time data will assist aquaculture growers to predict when larvae will recruit in the natural system, when and if to relocate crops, and when to pump water in a tanks system. Though an integrated west coast observational network satellite sea surface temperature, HAB tracking systems, ocean acidification buoys, and biological monitoring programs can be pulled together into a cohesive program. A network of scientists and industry stakeholders providing and utilizing a near real time data network saves money and increases efficiency. It is not possible to prevent variability in temperature, nutrients, pH and algal blooms, but increasing understanding will lead to more accurate predictions, and ultimately, better human adaptation to the harmful economic impacts of HABs and ocean acidification.

  19. The effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion, and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive aquaculture systems, particularly recirculating systems, utilize equipment such as aerators, air and water pumps, blowers, and filtration systems that inadvertently increase noise levels in fish culture tanks. Sound levels and frequencies measured within intensive aquaculture systems are w...

  20. Aquaculture in the Imperial Valley -- A geothermal success story

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1999-03-01

    The Salton Sea and Imperial Valley area of southern California has long been recognized as a hot spot of geothermal development. In the geothermal industry, this area has for some time been synonymous with electric power generation projects. Starting with the first plant in East Mesa in 1979, geothermal power has increased over the years to the present 400+ MW of installed capacity in the three primary areas of Salton Sea, Heber and East Mesa. Although most in the industry are aware of the millions of kilowatt-hours annually produced in this desert oasis of development, they remain surprisingly uninformed about the Valley`s other geothermal industry -- aquaculture. At present, there are approximately 15 fish farming (or aquaculture) operations clustered, for the most part, around the Salton Sea. All of these farms use geothermal fluids to control the temperature of the fish culture facilities so as to produce larger fish in a shorter period of time and to permit winter production which would otherwise not be possible. In aggregate, these farms produce on the order of 10,000,000 lbs of fish per year most of which is sold into the California market. Principle species are catfish, striped bass and tilapia. For the past several years, tilapia has been the fastest growing part of the aquaculture industry. In 1996, the total US consumption of tilapia was 62,000 lbs. Of this, only 16,000,000 lbs (26%) was domestically produced and the balance imported. The primary market for the fish on the West Coast is among the Asian-American populations in the major cities. Fish are shipped and sold liver at the retail level.

  1. Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

    2008-11-01

    It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

  2. [Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas and their role in aquaculture].

    PubMed

    Kompanets, E V; Isaeva, N M; Balakhnin, I A

    1992-01-01

    Bacteria of genus Aeromonas are constant components of microbiota of fresh reservoirs where they, together with other microorganisms, play the part of natural biofilter and promote water self-purification. They are necessarily present in normal microflora of hydrobionts inhabiting fresh reservoirs. The greatest attention is paid by the researchers to Aeromonas and biotrophs in connection with epizootics in aquaculture which have become more frequent, in particular, under fish breeding. That is why the review is, to more extent, concerned in the works of this trend made by the foreign and home researchers for the last decade. PMID:1406386

  3. Food intake rate and delivery strategy in aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Kui; Ma, Caihua; Gao, Huiwang; Li, Fengqi; Zhang, Meizhao; Qiu, Yantao; Wang, Bo

    2008-08-01

    In aquaculture, it is important to estimate in advance how much food cultured animals would take. The rate of food consumption by cultured animals to available food amount is defined as the food intake rate (FIR) in this paper. To some extents, FIR reflects the quality of food, the health of cultured animals and the delivery efficiency. In practice, it is difficult to estimate in advance the accurate quantity of food that cultured animal needs. Usually, food is provided more than the need by animals, causing excess food that may pollute water and environment. Our experiments in past years show that FIR at 80% is recommended.

  4. Inland marine fish culture in low-salinity recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing and increasingly health-conscious population, coupled with declining capture fisheries is driving an increased global demand for farm-raised seafood that can only be met through expansion of aquaculture. In 2007, aquaculture represented 33% of total global seafood production and is projec...

  5. An Examination of Integration of Academic and Vocational Subject Matter in the Aquaculture Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Carol A.; Walker, Nancy J.

    2000-01-01

    A study included interviews with 161 secondary agriculture teachers and 100 students, a survey (n=406), and focus groups. One-quarter of the teachers incorporated aquaculture; most who integrated curricula worked with science teachers. Students believed aquaculture enhanced their math and science performance and increased relevance. (SK)

  6. Comparative performance of CO2 measuring methods: Marine aquaculture recirculation system application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many methods are available for the measurement of dissolved carbon dioxide in an aqueous environment. Standard titration is the typical field method for measuring dissolved CO2in aquaculture systems. However, titrimetric determination of dissolved CO2 in marine water aquaculture systems is unsuitabl...

  7. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

  8. Role of production intensification on water use efficiency in catfish pond aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Availability of fresh water is sometimes considered to be a limiting factor for future aquaculture development. This is certainly true at specific local levels where aquaculture may conflict with other water uses. A good example is the Yazoo-Mississippi River floodplain in northwest Mississippi, whe...

  9. Integrated approaches for improving efficiency and sustainability of low-salinity marine aquaculture production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture in the U.S. must expand to meet the needs of a growing demand for seafood when productivity of capture fisheries is declining. In the U.S., production of marine finfish is underrepresented in the overall aquaculture industry output. Several factors challenge the large-scale adoption of...

  10. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  11. Why are prices in wild catch and aquaculture industries so different?

    PubMed

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; Lebrancón-Nieto, Joseba

    2013-12-01

    Through a comparative analysis of prices in capture fisheries and aquaculture sectors, the objectives of this paper are a) to investigate three the trends in prices of forage catches to feed the aquaculture species, b) to analyze the amount of fish species need to feed aquaculture species in order to assess the level of efficiency in resource use, and c) to examine the degree of economic concentration either in wild-catch industry and aquaculture sectors. The results show that prices of cultivated species are higher than prices of the same species when harvested from the sea. We explain this fact by the interplay of three forces. First, the amount of wild fish to feed aquaculture species continues to improve over time. Second, the pressure of fishing activities has not been reduced since catches of most forage fishes are declining, which induce higher prices of capture species that feed aquaculture production. Third, the level of seafood market concentration is significantly higher in aquaculture than in wild catches, which generates higher prices in aquaculture. PMID:24213993

  12. Low-head recirculating aquaculture system for juvenile red drum production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service and the Center for Aquaculture and Stock Enhancement at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute-FAU (HBOI-FAU) are collaborating to evaluate low-head recirculating aquaculture system designs to intensively produce red drum juveniles as part of the Florida Fish an...

  13. Update on the USDA-ARS and HBOI Sustainable Marine Aquaculture Research Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2001 the US Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service (UDSA-ARS) and Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution (HBOI) began a joint program to develop sustainable marine aquaculture technologies in closed recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) at the HBOI facility in Fort Pierce, F...

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group. PMID:27540076

  15. Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanfman, D.T.; Coleman, D.E.; Tibbitt, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography.

  16. Mixed responses of tropical Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Johann D.; Ganachaud, Alexandre; Gehrke, Peter C.; Griffiths, Shane P.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Johnson, Johanna E.; Le Borgne, Robert; Lehodey, Patrick; Lough, Janice M.; Matear, Richard J.; Pickering, Timothy D.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Gupta, Alex Sen; Senina, Inna; Waycott, Michelle

    2013-06-01

    Pacific Island countries have an extraordinary dependence on fisheries and aquaculture. Maintaining the benefits from the sector is a difficult task, now made more complex by climate change. Here we report how changes to the atmosphere-ocean are likely to affect the food webs, habitats and stocks underpinning fisheries and aquaculture across the region. We found winners and losers--tuna are expected to be more abundant in the east and freshwater aquaculture and fisheries are likely to be more productive. Conversely, coral reef fisheries could decrease by 20% by 2050 and coastal aquaculture may be less efficient. We demonstrate how the economic and social implications can be addressed within the sector--tuna and freshwater aquaculture can help support growing populations as coral reefs, coastal fisheries and mariculture decline.

  17. Authentication of fishery and aquaculture products by multi-element and stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Boyd, Claude E; Sun, Zhenlong

    2016-03-01

    The market of fishery and aquaculture products is globalized with increasing numbers of mislabeled products. This highlights the need for approaches to indentify the origin of these products. Among the measures used to identify the origin of other agro-products, multi-element and stable isotope analysis are promising approaches to identify the authenticity and traceability of fishery and aquaculture products. The present paper reviews the use of multi-element and stable isotope analysis to determine the origin of fishery and aquaculture products. Principles and limitations of each method will be illustrated and perspectives for traceability of fishery and aquaculture products will be discussed. The aim of this review is to mediate fundamental knowledge for the interpretation of experimental data on authentication of aquaculture products. PMID:26471677

  18. A Review of Aquaculture Practices and Their Impacts on Chemical Food Safety from a Regulatory Perspective.

    PubMed

    Boison, Joe O; Turnipseed, Sherri B

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture is currently one of the most rapidly growing food production industries in the world. The increasing global importance for this industry stems primarily from the fact that it is reducing the gap between the supply and demand for fish products. Commercial aquaculture contributes significantly to the economies of many countries since high-value fish species are a major source of foreign exchange. This review looks at the aquaculture industry, the issues raised by the production of fish through aquaculture for food security, the sustainability of the practice to agriculture, what the future holds for the industry in the next 10-20 years, and why there is a need to have available analytical procedures to regulate the safe use of chemicals and veterinary drugs in aquaculture. PMID:26024870

  19. Learn to Avoid or Overcome Leadership Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Auria, John

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is increasingly recognized as an important factor in moving schools forward, yet we have been relatively random in how we prepare and support them. Four obstacles often block or diminish their effectiveness. Avoiding or overcoming each of these requires an underlying set of skills and knowledge that we believe can be learned and…

  20. Successful Writing: Five Roadblocks to Overcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathleen P.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides essential strategies to be more successful in one of the major roles in academia: writing. Most academics struggle with roadblocks in their writing process. We are forever battling to complete research articles, manuscripts, grant proposals or other documents. The strategies and perspective shared here help overcome several…

  1. Students Write to Overcome Learning Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Dan; Backus, Ann

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the use of writing as a tool to monitor student growth and development. The value of writing to help overcome obstacles such as misconceptions and preconceptions is stressed. A concept map of a hierarchy of writing strategies is provided. Stressed is the value of writing in the development of process skills. (CW)

  2. Overcoming Barriers in Working with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heru, Alison M.; Drury, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Residency Review Committee for psychiatry outline the expected competencies for residents. These competencies include working with families. This article describes barriers that residents face when working with families, and offers ways to overcome these barriers. Method:…

  3. Overcoming Anarchy in the Advanced Language Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, John R.

    1990-01-01

    The coordination, articulation, and implementation of informed teaching techniques and objectives will help to overcome the anarchy and confusion that characterize higher education advanced-level foreign language classes, and will begin to produce a pool of highly competent foreign language speakers and writers. (33 references) (CB)

  4. Overcoming the Limitations of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David; Waters, Sandie; Dawson, Deonne; Lambert, Brent; Barclay, Matthew; Wade, David; Nelson, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    There are a number of issues that face individuals who would use learning objects for instructional purposes. These issues include problems with decontextualization, enabling meaningful reusability, and overcoming biases toward didactic approaches in the use of learning objects. We discuss these problems in some detail, and present a project-based…

  5. Understanding and Overcoming "Bottlenecks" in Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturts, Jill R.; Mowatt, Rasul A.

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogically, the term "bottleneck" refers to a moment when students may face barriers to understanding content in the process of learning. As instructors identify "bottlenecks" within their courses, they are faced with the challenge of how to best assist students in overcoming them. Further, most instructors want to know what selected teaching…

  6. Overcoming Xenophobia: Learning to Accept Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Judith A.

    1990-01-01

    Quality health education requires that health educators engage in the professional and personal development necessary to overcome xenophobia when working with special populations (obese, elderly, indigent, minorities, etc.). This article describes strategies employed in a university community health education class to help students overcome…

  7. Overcoming Barriers in the Media Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Web 2.0 has revolutionized one's ability to teach students in new and exciting ways. Students with disabilities can now overcome many barriers that once kept them from being successful in the regular education classroom. Media specialists can effectively advocate for students with disabilities. School library media specialists have the ability to…

  8. First Davis Strait discovery overcomes offshore hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, R.G.

    1982-04-01

    In spite of icebergs umpredictable currents and brief drilling seasons, the first discovery well was completed recently in the Davis Strait. The success of this well, known as Hekja 0-71, has opened the waters off the northeastern coast of Canada to more exploration. A discussion is presented of how the well was drilled, the problems encountered and how they were overcome.

  9. Overcoming Barriers to Engaging in College Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Lauren; Shaulskiy, Stephanie; Zircher, Andrew; Sanders, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Underprepared college students face transition issues that prevent full academic engagement. The written responses of 176 students in a learning-strategies course were used to develop a grounded model of overcoming barriers to academic engagement. Findings revealed contexts in which academic engagement involved high costs (i.e., effort, trade-off,…

  10. Application of Aquaculture Monitoring System Based on CC2530

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. L.; Liu, X. Q.

    In order to improve the intelligent level of aquaculture technology, this paper puts forward a remote wireless monitoring system based on ZigBee technology, GPRS technology and Android mobile phone platform. The system is composed of wireless sensor network (WSN), GPRS module, PC server, and Android client. The WSN was set up by CC2530 chips based on ZigBee protocol, to realize the collection of water quality parameters such as the water level, temperature, PH and dissolved oxygen. The GPRS module realizes remote communication between WSN and PC server. Android client communicates with server to monitor the level of water quality. The PID (proportion, integration, differentiation) control is adopted in the control part, the control commands from the android mobile phone is sent to the server, the server again send it to the lower machine to control the water level regulating valve and increasing oxygen pump. After practical testing to the system in Liyang, Jiangsu province, China, temperature measurement accuracy reaches 0.5°C, PH measurement accuracy reaches 0.3, water level control precision can be controlled within ± 3cm, dissolved oxygen control precision can be controlled within ±0.3 mg/L, all the indexes can meet the requirements, this system is very suitable for aquaculture.