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Sample records for arab jamahiriya mauritius

  1. The Social Supervision and Its Role in Developing of the School Social Service in Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekali, Karima A. A.; zain, Abdul-Aziz

    2010-01-01

    The new direction of the social control over the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya is a phase that began in Tripoli city in 1990. After opening of the Office of Education ministry, education and health as a result of the efforts made by the Department of Education, which affected the evolution of modern educational thought, which emphasizes the process of…

  2. Review of miscible flood performance, Intisar 'D' field, Socialist people's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

    SciTech Connect

    DesBrisay, C.L.; El Ghussein, B.; Holst, P.H.; Misellati, A.

    1981-01-01

    The Intisar 'D' reservoir is a major oil field in the Sirte Basin of the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. The field has been developed with bottom-water injection for pressure support and crestal high pressure miscible gas injection for enhanced oil recovery and gas conservation. This paper presents details of the reservoir performance and simulation study. Field performance results, have been history matched with a three-dimensional, 1,615-grid, two-component black oil simulator. The simulator prediction runs indicate that the final oil recovery efficiency for this dual displacement process will be approximately 70 percent. This high recovery is attributed to effective miscible displacement and gravity drainage together with efficient bottom-water displacement. 4 refs.

  3. Mauritius.

    PubMed

    1988-08-01

    The country of Mauritius is an island about 805 km east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. Included in the document are brief descriptions and compilations of facts about such points as geography, people, history, type of government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations, defense, and US-Mauritian relations. In 1987, population stood at 1,017,23, annual growth rate, 0.83%. Mauritius' infant mortality rate is 23.7/1000; the life expectancy for men is 64.4 years and for women is 71.2 years. Local hospitals and pharmacies are adequate. The eradication of malaria during World War II led to a population explosion. The population density is among the world's highest, at 1313 people per square mile. Degradation of the environment and drug trafficking and abuse are the country's most important socioeconomic problems. Government efforts to curb population growth have been very successful, with the growth rate falling below the population replacement level. PMID:12177988

  4. The NQF in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marock, Carmel

    2011-01-01

    The National Qualifications Framework (NQF) in Mauritius was created to play two distinct roles. First, it was intended to organise qualifications across the three main sectors of the education and training system: (1) primary and secondary education; (2) technical and vocational education and training (TVET)/workplace; and (3) tertiary education.…

  5. Country Profiles, Mauritius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xenos, Christos

    A profile of Mauritius is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  6. Playing School in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajkomar, Sraddha Shivani; Gupta, Anthea Fraser

    2008-01-01

    The development in Mauritius's three major languages is essentially sequential for most of the population: Creole, French, English. In schools, English is used alongside French (and some Creole) in Primary Standards 1 (ages five-six) to 3 (ages seven-eight). English is officially the sole medium of instruction from Primary Standard 4 (ages…

  7. [Entomological surveillance in Mauritius].

    PubMed

    Gopaul, R

    1995-01-01

    The entomological surveillance is an essential link in the fight against malaria in Mauritius. Because of the large number of malaria-infected travellers in Mauritius and the presence of the vector Anopheles arabiensis, the risk of local transmission is very real. The medical entomology division together with the malaria control unit and the health appointees exert a rigorous entomological surveillance of malaria. Field agents make entomological investigations of pilot villages and around the harbor and airport, where there have been cases of malaria, in addition to a few randomly chosen regions. All of the inhabited regions are accessible because of a good highway infrastructure, which enables a complete coverage for the entomological prospectives. Entomological controls are also conducted in the airplanes and the ships. All of the captured mosquitos and the harvested larva are transferred to a laboratory for identification, dissection or sensibility tests, etc. The larva of A. arabiensis have not yet developed resistance to Temephos and the adults are still sensitive to DDT. Thus, the larval habitats are treated with Temephos and DDT is sprayed in the residences where there have been native cases of malaria. The entomology division studies the ecology and the evolution of the larval habitats, as well as the impact of the anti-larval fight on the anophelene density. In addition to the chemical fight, a biological control is being tried with larva-eating fish such as Lebistes and Tilapia. In general, the anophelene density in Mauritius is low, but after the big summer rains, especially during a period of cyclones, there is a considerable increase of larval habitats and consequently a higher number of A. arabiensis. Therefore during this season, it is necessary to make an even more rigorous entomological surveillance. A. arabiensis has a strong exophile tendency even if it is endophage and exophage. This mosquito is zoophile, mostly towards cattle, and the

  8. DAMASCUS ARABIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FERGUSON, CHARLES A.; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED AS A TEXTBOOK FOR AN INTENSIVE COURSE IN THE SPOKEN ARABIC LANGUAGE OF DAMASCUS, SYRIA. CONTAINED IN THE TEXT ARE DETAILED GRAMMATICAL INFORMATION, STRUCTURAL AND PRONUNCIATION INFORMATION, AND A CUMULATIVE ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. (JH)

  9. 78 FR 75944 - Commencement of Claims Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (D.D.C.) 05-cv-1932. McDonald v. Socialist People's Arab Jamahiriya (D.D.C.) 06-cv- 729. MacQuarrie v. Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (D.D.C.) 04-cv-176. Patel v..., London, England, as alleged in McDonald v. Socialist People's Arab Jamahiriya (D.D.C.)...

  10. Is Mauritius Ready to Become the HRD Leader in Africa? An Assessment of Strategic Human Resource Development in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusoye, Indravidoushi C.; Oogarah, Kavi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the applicability of Strategic HRD in Mauritius. Additionally, it assesses if Mauritius, with a high HDI factor, can take the lead on Strategic HRD in Africa. Design/methodology/approach: This paper used a mixed-approach questionnaire. A sample of 21 managers was contacted and received a response rate of 67 per…

  11. Tunisian Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Abdelkader, Rached; And Others

    This instructional guide for Tunisian Arabic is designed to be used in language training of Peace Corps volunteers in Tunisia. It consists of 15 thematic units focusing on daily living skills and activities. Each contains a brief dialogue in transliterated Arabic, an English translation, lists of vocabulary and expressions, comprehension…

  12. Arabic Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This collection of 10 songs was prepared as supplementary material for the Defense Language Institute's basic course in Modern Standard Arabic. The songs appear in Arabic script with special vocabulary items glossed in English. The lyrics also appear in transliteration at the end of the text. Musical scores accompany some of the selections. [Not…

  13. “Saltwater Anopheles gambiae” on Mauritius*

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, H. E.

    1964-01-01

    In this paper the author reports the results of three months' study of the saltwater-breeding member of the Anopheles gambiae complex of sibling species on Mauritius. There is evidence for the views that this form's distribution on the island is limited by the availability of suitable breeding areas, that it does not usually disperse far from the breeding grounds or coast, and that it is probably not an important vector except, perhaps, in the near vicinity of its breeding places. Some new evidence is presented in support of the view that this form (and forms A and B) are distinct species. This turns on the observed close coexistence of these three forms on Mauritius, supported by a theoretical consideration of what would be expected to happen in such circumstances if a system of random mating prevailed. Evidence is given that the Mauritian saltwater-breeding form of the A. gambiae complex is conspecific with the form occurring on the east coast of Africa. The practical importance of reaching general agreement on the evolutionary status of the members of the A. gambiae complex is emphasized. PMID:14278002

  14. Fertility-inhibiting indices in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Horne, A D

    1992-01-01

    Bongaart's model for estimating fertility levels that was not available in Arab countries. In this study, El-Khorazaty's model was used to determine fertility-inhibiting indices for the Arab countries with available age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) and to compare differences regionally, residentially, and nationally. The value of total fecundity (TF) was set at 17 rather than at the Bongaart's recommended 15.3, in order to avoid the negative values for percentage reduction from TF obtained by Bulatao. Childbearing indices provided projected estimates of the mean age of first and last birth and the projected length of the reproductive period experienced by a new cohort of women with a specified ASFR. These estimated and UN estimates were used to indirectly estimate Bongaarts indices. Estimates were generated for Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mauritania, Morocco, Qatar, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen Arab Republic. 8 of these 16 countries showed fertility decline for the periods indicated: Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia with declines due top contraceptive use and lower proportions married; Bahrain and Kuwait due to lower proportions married; and Sudan and Yemen to lactational infecundability. Increases in fertility were found in Mauritania, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, due to lower lactational infecundability, higher proportions married, and lower contraceptive used; and in Libyan Arab Jamahiriyha due to shorter breast feeding durations, higher proportions married, and unmeasured factors. Little change was represented in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, and Syria until the late 1970s. The total fertility rate between 1980-85 for all Arabs was 6.2. The most important of Bongaart's intermediate fertility variables in reducing fecundity was proportion married, responsible for 27% of the decline in TF with an index of .760. The least important was contraceptive usage

  15. Investigating the Effectiveness of Pictorial Health Warnings in Mauritius: Findings From the ITC Mauritius Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kaai, Susan C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Driezen, Pete; Quah, Anne C. K.; Burhoo, Premduth

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Health warnings on tobacco packages are an effective strategy for informing the public about the harms associated with tobacco use. Most studies investigating the effectiveness of pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on cigarette packages are from high-income countries. This study evaluated the impact of PHWs on smokers’ perceptions and behavior in Mauritius, the first country in the World Health Organization African region to implement PHWs. Methods: Data were drawn from 3 waves of a nationally representative cohort of adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mauritius Survey (n = 668). Wave 1 was conducted in 2009, 6 months prior to the implementation of PHWs. Waves 2 and 3 were conducted 10–12 months and 20–21 months, respectively, postimplementation. Six established indicators of warning effectiveness were used to evaluate the effect of PHWs on smokers’ perceptions and behavior. Results: All indicators of warning effectiveness (salience, cognitive, and behavioral reactions) and the Label Impact Index, a weighted combination of 4 indicators, increased significantly between Waves 1 and 2. However, between Waves 2 and 3, there was a significant decline in the proportion of smokers who reported “avoiding looking” at labels. Conclusions: This study found that implementation of PHWs in Mauritius significantly enhanced the effectiveness of warnings, illustrating their value for other countries, particularly in Africa, at an early stage in tobacco control. The study also demonstrates the importance of revising PHWs to counteract wearout. The introduction of PHWs in Mauritius clearly demonstrates the benefits of employing an evidence-based approach to strengthen tobacco control policies. PMID:24747120

  16. Arab observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoohi, L. J.

    There are two main medieval Arab sources of astronomical observations: chronicles and astronomical treatises. Medieval Arabs produced numerous chronicles many of which reported astronomical events that the chroniclers themselves observed or were witnessed by others. Astronomical phenomena that were recorded by chroniclers include solar and lunar eclipses, cometary apparitions, meteors, and meteor showers. Muslim astronomers produced many astronomical treatises known as zijes. Zijes include records of mainly predictable phenomena, such as eclipses of the Sun and Moon. Unlike chronicles, zijes usually ignore irregular phenomena such as the apparitions of comets and meteors, and meteor showers. Some zijes include astronomical observations, especially of eclipses. Not unexpectedly, records in zijes are in general more accurate than their counterparts in chronicles. However, research has shown that medieval Arab chronicles and zijes both contain some valuable astronomical observational data. Unfortunately, much of the heritage of medieval Arab chroniclers and astronomers is still in manuscript form. Moreover, most of the huge numbers of Arabic manuscripts that exist in various libraries, especially in Arab countries, are still uncatalogued. Until now there is only one catalogue of zijes which was compiled in the fifties and which includes brief comments on 200 zijes. There is a real need for systematic investigation of medieval Arab historical and astronomical manuscripts which exist in many libraries all over the world.

  17. Secondary School Science and Technology in Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunma, Vandana

    In this paper, history of secondary school science in Mauritius is traced to identifyfactors, which may have influenced its link to technology of local significance. Theeconomy was based on agriculture. Sugar research was not only well developed, itwas crucial for sustaining the social status of the Franco Mauritian economic elite.Secondary school science on the other hand was unaffected by locally conductedscientific and technical research. It prepared students for examinations of Britishexamination boards and for further education in British universities. This resultedin narrowing of the curriculum to the detriment of important but `non-examinable'components of the syllabus. This `teaching to test' was further enhanced by limitededucational opportunities at each level. All attempts at introducing agriculture andpractical work in the curriculum were also futile because of the apathy descendantsof Indian and African immigrants had for agriculture.Today, there are many educational and vocational opportunities still the educationsystem founded on literary lines with examinations and subsequent selection atdifferent levels has become so deep rooted that any deflection from examinationrequirements is difficult.

  18. Did Mauritius really provide a "case study in Malthusian economics"?

    PubMed

    Greenaway, D; Milner, C

    1991-07-01

    "In the early 1960s James Meade visited Mauritius as adviser to a Commission evaluating population structure and growth. Out of that visit emerged two papers which were Malthusian in their prognosis of economic prospects for Mauritius. This paper reconsiders the Meade Evaluation and compares his predictions with actual outcomes. As it turns out, his pessimism was not justified. The factors which led him to reach his set of conclusions, and the factors which explain actual economic performance, are both assessed in detail." PMID:12317446

  19. Language of Instruction and Instructed Languages in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonck, Gerda

    2005-01-01

    Mauritius is a multilingual country with English, French and Creole as the main languages, and several ancestral languages which are mainly used for religious ceremonies. Most children speak Creole at home and learn English, French and one ancestral language in the first year of primary school. The educational dropout rate is 40-50% after primary…

  20. Student Loans Schemes in Mauritius: Experience, Analysis and Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohadeb, Praveen

    2006-01-01

    This study makes a comprehensive review of the situation of student loans schemes in Mauritius, and makes recommendations, based on best practices, for setting up a national scheme that attempts to avoid weaknesses identified in some of the loans schemes of other countries. It suggests that such a scheme would be cost-effective and beneficial both…

  1. Molecular characterisation of Xanthomonas strains isolated from aroids in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Khoodoo, M H R; Sahin, F; Donmez, M F; Fakim, Y Jaufeerally

    2005-06-01

    Mauritius is one of the largest world producers of Anthurium cut flowers but outbreaks of bacterial blight have never been reported on the island. This work was about the characterisation and identification of bacterial strains isolated from Anthurium andreanum, Dieffenbachia maculata and Aglaonema simplex in Mauritius. Fifteen strains, that showed the morphological properties of Xanthomonas on conventional media, were tested on two semi-selective media (Esculin-trehalose and cellobiose-starch). ELISA tests using a panel of monoclonal antibodies were carried out and three out of 15 strains reacted with a Xanthomonas-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb XII). Analysis using four sets of ribosomal primers revealed that the same three Mauritius strains shared conserved PCR products with reference xanthomonads including virulent strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae (Xad). BIOLOG tests and the Sherlock Microbial Identification system (MIDI) identified these three new strains at the species level as X. axonopodis. The complementary tests that were carried out clearly confirmed that the three strains are xanthomonads and, moreover, a DNA probe which showed specificity to Xad strains suggested that the three Mauritius strains are non-virulent forms of the pathogen causing Anthurium blight. PMID:15997710

  2. Does Human Capital Contribute to Economic Growth in Mauritius?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeliah, Harris; Seetanah, Boopen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Real gross domestic product (GDP) growth for Mauritius has averaged more than 5 per cent since 1970 and GDP per capita has increased more than tenfold between 1970 and 2012, from less than $500 to more than $9,000. It has often been reported that human capital, along with other growth enablers, has played an important role in this…

  3. Motivation among Public Primary School Teachers in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seebaluck, Ashley Keshwar; Seegum, Trisha Devi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to critically analyse the factors that affect the motivation of public primary school teachers and also to investigate if there is any relationship between teacher motivation and job satisfaction in Mauritius. Design/methodology/approach: Simple random sampling method was used to collect data from 250 primary…

  4. Human Resource Development in Mauritius: Context, Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Neeliah, Harris; Auckloo, Raj; Ragaven, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore human resource development (HRD) in Mauritius and the challenges and opportunities faced by organisations in different sectors in adopting HRD practices. Findings: This special issue presents four papers that explore dimensions of HRD in public sector, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and…

  5. Report on Educational Developments, 1974-1976. Mauritius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs (Mauritius).

    Educational development in Mauritius is directed by a Minister of Education and Cultural Affairs in conjunction with a government appointed advisory board. Education is the largest single item in the national budget and comprises 25% of estimated annual expenditure for 1977-8. The primary education system serves 92% of the primary school age…

  6. Arabic Online Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurshid, Zahiruddin

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the processing of Arabic materials at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia) library and describes the creation of an Arabic online catalog that supplements the catalog for non-Arabic materials. User needs are reviewed, library automation is discussed, and search strategies in the Arabic catalog are described.…

  7. System Dynamics Modelling of the Power Sector in Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deenapanray, Prakash N. K.; Bassi, Andrea M.

    2015-12-01

    A system dynamics model has been developed for the power sector of Mauritius, which captures a range of complex interactions between the economic, social and environmental aspects of the national economy, with deeper emphasis on the role of energy in these interactions. The model has been validated by replicating the historical trends of key development indicators, and its results were compared to the projections of the national utility company. The validation process shows that the model provides a faithful representation of the actual electricity sector of Mauritius, and can be easily adapted to the use of different assumptions. This paper describes the main characteristics of the model and its results as compared to electricity demand projections carried out by the Central Electricity Board to 2022. The results suggest that further analysis could be done to test alternative low carbon investment scenarios.

  8. Sex Differences on the WISC-R in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.; Irwing, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Sex differences on the WISC-R (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised) are examined in a sample of 1258 11 year olds in Mauritius. Boys obtained a significantly higher Full Scale IQ by 5.8 IQ points. Boys obtained a higher Performance IQ by 6.5 IQ points and a higher Verbal IQ by 1.0 IQ points. On the subtests, girls obtained a…

  9. Arab Education in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar'i, Sami Khalil

    Arab education in Israel and sociocultural, socioeconomic and political issues of being a minority in Israel are considered in this book. Arab education in Israel is traced from elementary to university levels, and from its historical background to its present administration. Numerous Arabic, English, and Hebrew studies in education are analyzed,…

  10. [The development of public health education: the Mauritius experience].

    PubMed

    Salamon, R; Lanièce, C; Daby, G; Lanièce, I; Mohith, J C; Drevet, D; Julvez, J; Fareed, D; Austin, I; Ducrey, T; Beylot, J

    1997-01-01

    A public course has been initiated in 1990 in Mauritius for covering the national growing needs of public health specialists. This training course was organized jointly by the Ministry of Health, the University of Bordeaux II and the French Cooperation. After 3 sessions dedicated specifically to the Mauritian physicians, the course has been re-designed for the needs of the other countries of the region. A feasibility study performed in 1994 in the countries of the Indian ocean region showed that during the past decade, the district level had become the focus point to integrate the health programs. This process has progressively transferred a wider and stronger part of the responsibilities from the central level to the district level and the survey showed that most of the health district managers were physicians that did not have the proper background for carrying such responsibilities. According to these results, a course curriculum was created by the Mauritian Ministry of Health and the University of Bordeaux II and submitted to various organisms supporting health program development in the region. This proposal was strongly supported by several agencies (the french Cooperation, Unicef, WHO, World Bank...) who agreed to sponsor candidates for that training course. The first session was organized in 1995, a second one in 1996. This training course is targeted to the medical doctors who are in charge of the management of health services at the district level. It is divided in two parts: A six-weeks intensive training course performed in Mauritius that include formal teaching and practical exercises in small groups for a total of 210 hours. The curriculum is mainly targeted on the various aspects of management as the management of health information (biostatistics epidemiology and computing), the management of human resources, financial resources and material resources. In addition to these main topics, there is an introduction to pedagogy, communication skills and

  11. Modeling of Mauritius as a Heterogeneous Mantle Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. C.; White, W. M.; Paul, D.; Duncan, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    Mauritius Island (20°20' S, 57°30' E) is located in the western Indian Ocean and is the penultimate volcanic island of the Réunion mantle plume. Mauritius has a well-established history of episodic volcanism and erosional hiatus, traditionally characterized by three chemically and temporally distinct eruptive phases: 1) the voluminous shield-building lavas of the Older Series (8.4-5.5 Ma), 2) the Intermediate Series (3.5-1.9 Ma), and 3) the Younger Series (1.0-0.00 Ma; Duncan, unpub. data). Recent collaboration with the Mauritian Water Resource Unit has permitted the study of a series of newly available drill cores, facilitating an advanced subsurface investigation into the evolution of the island. Radiometric dating of deep lava units from these cores has identified the earliest known sample from Mauritius (B18-1; 8.4 Ma) and demonstrated the existence of Intermediate and Younger Series lavas at previously unanticipated depths, some greater than 150 meters. Calculated volumes for the combined post- erosional lavas exceed 35 km3, closely resembling new results for Hawaiian analogues (20-60 km3; Garcia, pers. comm.). While these two post-erosional series remain temporally distinct (a 0.9 M.y. hiatus remains despite new dates), they are indistinguishable in major, trace, and isotopic composition. The shield building Older Series lavas are enriched in incompatible trace elements relative to the post-erosional lavas, an inverse relationship to that observed at both Hawaii (Maui, Oahu, and Kauai) and Tahaa (Societies). In contrast isotope systematics are consistent, with shield building lavas having more enriched isotopic signatures than post-erosional lavas. The observed differences cannot be explained solely by variations in the extent of partial melting and require distinct and heterogeneous sources for the shield and post-erosional lavas. Two magma generation scenarios for a heterogeneous mantle plume with enriched (eclogitic) and depleted (peridotitic

  12. Multi-hazard risk assessment of the Republic of Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysiak, Jaroslav; Galli, Alberto; Amadio, Mattia; Teatini, Chiara

    2013-04-01

    The Republic of Mauritius (ROM) is a small island developing state (SIDS), part of the Mascarene Islands in West Indian Ocean, comprised by Mauritius, Rodrigues, Agalega and St. Brandon islands and several islets. ROM is exposed to many natural hazards notably cyclones, tsunamis, torrential precipitation, landslides, and droughts; and highly vulnerable sea level rise (SLR) driven by human induced climate change. The multihazard risk assessment presented in this paper is aimed at identifying the areas prone to flood, inundation and landslide hazard, and inform the development of strategy for disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA). Climate risk analysis - a central component of the analysis - is one of the first comprehensive climate modelling studies conducted for the country. Climate change may lift the temperature by 1-2 degree Celsius by 2060-2070, and increase sizably the intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation events. According to the IPCC Forth Assessment Report (AR4), the expected Sea Level Rise (SLR) ranges between 16 and 49 cm. Individually or in combination, the inland flood, coastal inundation and landslide hazards affect large proportion of the country. Sea level rise and the changes in precipitation regimes will amplified existing vulnerabilities and create new ones. The paper outlines an Action plan for Disaster Risk Reduction that takes into account the likely effects of climate change. The Action Plan calls on the government to establish a National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction as recommended by the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015. It consists of nine recommendations which, if put in practice, will significantly reduce the annual damage to natural hazard and produce additional (ancillary) benefits in economic, social and environmental terms.

  13. Patterns of coccidial prevalence in lizards of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Leinwand, Ian; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Cole, Nik; Jones, Carl G; Daszak, Peter

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports prevalence of coccidial oocysts in fecal samples from 6 endemic and 2 introduced lizard species on Mauritius, an island nation in the Indian Ocean. Total coccidian prevalence was 54% (n = 341) for the endemic 'ornate day gecko,' Phelsuma ornata; 48% (n = 159) for the endemic 'Durrell's night gecko,' Nactus durrelli; 53% (n = 15) for the endemic 'Serpent Island night gecko,' N. serpensinsula; and 78% (n = 248) for the introduced gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus. These high prevalences may reflect lack of long-lasting immune response to coccidial infection. There were few significant differences in prevalence among age, island, sex, or body condition within species, suggesting that these coccidia are relatively nonpathogenic and have little effect on host fitness. Prevalence was higher in the dry season than the wet season. These data suggest other factors, such as low host immune response to reinfection, affect overall prevalence more significantly than the effect of humidity on oocyst survival on Mauritius. No coccidia were found in samples from the endemic 'Gunner's Quoin night gecko,' N. coindemirensis (n = 155), probably reflecting parasite extinction due to a host population bottleneck following historical introduction of rats. There was no evidence of competitive or facilitative interactions between Eimeria sp. and Isospora sp., but evidence of competition between 2 Eimeria species in the 'ornate day gecko,' Phelsuma ornata. No evidence was found of cross-species infection, suggesting that reptile coccidia have high host specificity and are, therefore, poor subjects for studies of parasite-mediated competition and the evolution of sex. PMID:16419754

  14. Gulf Arabic: Intermediate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    This Gulf Arabic text is designed for those who want to acquire a conversational tool beyond the basic level; it is also of interest to Arabists, anthropologists, and Arabic dialectologists. The language in this text is used in informal situations by the indigenous populations of the southern coast of the Persian Gulf. The text contains 21 lessons…

  15. Arab American Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Loretta

    Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…

  16. Modern Standard Arabic vs. Non-Standard Arabic: Where Do Arab Students of EFL Transfer From?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Abdulmoneim

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) by Arabic-speaking secondary school students. To see which variety students transferred from, they were asked to translate into English two versions of a short Arabic text: one Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), and the other non-standard Arabic (NSA). Results indicate the importance of…

  17. Decreasing prevalence of cigarette smoking in the middle income country of Mauritius: questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Helen S; Williams, Joanne W; de Courten, Maximilian P; Chitson, Pierrot; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Zimmet, Paul Z

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To describe changes in the prevalence of cigarette smoking in the middle income country of Mauritius from 1987 to 1998, and to relate these changes to legislative and health promotion efforts over the same period. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting Mauritius, an island in the Indian Ocean with a population of about 1.2 million (about 70% south Asian, 2% Chinese, and 28% Creole). Participants Data were obtained from 5072 participants in 1987, 6573 in 1992, and 6281 in 1998. Main outcome measures Prevalence of current smoking in 1987, 1992, and 1998, sales of cigarettes in Mauritius, and information on activities for control of tobacco. Results Self reported cigarette smoking has been decreasing in Mauritius since 1987, with the largest decrease between 1987 and 1992. From 1987 to 1998 smoking prevalence decreased by 23% in men and 61% in women. Smoking decreased across all age and ethnic groups and across different levels of income and education. Sales of cigarettes also decreased in line with smoking prevalence. Conclusions The introduction of cigarette taxes, a limited health promotion programme, and the absence of massive promotional campaigns by the sole tobacco company on Mauritius have led to a striking and continued decrease in smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption on the island. PMID:10926592

  18. The Arabic Language; Its Role in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chejne, Anwar G.

    This book reviews the position Arabic has traditionally occupied in Arab-Muslim society, and its role in the task of building a nation state. The work is aimed to aid students of Arabic and Arabic lore and add to a greater understanding of the historical factors which made Arabic a revered language in Arabic-Muslim cultural and religious…

  19. Slavery, smallpox, and revolution: 1792 in Ile de France (Mauritius).

    PubMed

    Vaughan, M

    2000-12-01

    In 1792 a slave-ship arrived on the french Indian Ocean island of Ile de France (Mauritius) from South India, bringing with it smallpox. As the epidemic spread, a heated debate ensued over the practice of inoculation. The island was in the throes of revolutionary politics and the community of French colonists were acutely aware of their new rights as 'citizens'. In the course of the smallpox epidemic, many of the political tenisons of the period came to focus on the question of inoculation, and were played out on the bodies of slaves. Whilst some citizens asserted their right, as property owners, to inoculate their slaves, others, equally vehemently, objected to the practice and asserted their right to protect their slaves from infection. Eighteenth-century colonial medicine was largely geared to keeping the bodies of slaves and workers productive and useful, but formal medicine never had a monopoly. Slaves on Ile de France brought with them a rich array of medical beliefs and practices from Africa, India, and Madagascar. We have little direct historical evidence for these, but we do know that many slaves came from areas in which forces of smallpox inoculation were known and practised. PMID:14535269

  20. Arab Education Going Medieval: Sanitizing Western Representation in Arab Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labidi, Imed

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the events of September 11, 2000, debate about Arab education as the new apparatus for religious fanaticism used by Arab extremist groups to entice hate and violence against the West took prominence in Western discourse. Considerable ink was spilled confusing hostile narratives in Arab curricula and the metaphors of identity…

  1. Arab American Journalism and Its Relation to Arab American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melki, Henry H.

    Because of the influence which the Arab press in the U.S. had on Arab literature, it was thought advisable to record a history of its development and find the relation between the two. Ten different newspapers and magazines that directly relate to Arabic literature were examined: "Kawkab Amerika,""Al-Huda,""Mer'at Al-Garb,""Al…

  2. Ambiguity Resolution in Lateralized Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayadre, Manar; Kurzon, Dennis; Peleg, Orna; Zohar, Eviatar

    2015-01-01

    We examined ambiguity resolution in reading in Arabic. Arabic is an abjad orthography and is morphologically similar to Hebrew. However, Arabic literacy occurs in a diglossic context, and its orthography is more visually complex than Hebrew. We therefore tested to see whether hemispheric differences will be similar or different from previous…

  3. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  4. Modern Iraqi Arabic: A Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkalesi, Yasin M.

    This book is an introductory textbook for those with no previous knowledge of Arabic or for those who know Arabic but want to learn the Iraqi dialect. The book is divided into 16 lessons: "Arabic Alphabet and Vowels"; "Greetings and Courtesy Expressions"; "Asking for Directions"; "Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part I"; "Arrival at Baghdad Airport,…

  5. Arab Stereotypes in Popular Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Janice J.

    1983-01-01

    Most popular fictional plots involving the Middle East--adventure stories, espionage, and themes of Western dependency on Arab oil--portray the Israelies as the good guys and the Arabs as the villians. People must be made aware that fictional literature is prejudiced and racially biased against Arabs. (RM)

  6. Dearborn: Modern Standard Arabic Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a roundup of the Arabic language instruction offered in the Dearborn, Michigan, school district. Only one of the district's 22 elementary schools--Becker--offers Arabic. Pupils receive at least two 40 minute periods of Arabic a week. The school gave up a two-way immersion program, in which students were taught half their…

  7. Master Plan for Education in the Year 2000: The Experience of Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsuramen, Armoogum

    2006-01-01

    The education system in Mauritius bears the influence of British education. Preprimary education is fee paying. Primary schooling is free and covers 6 years. This leads to a highly selective Certificate of Primary Education (CPE) which opens the doors of secondary schooling. Since 1991, secondary education is also free and compulsory. But 80% of…

  8. Interactive Whiteboard for Primary Schools in Mauritius: An Effective Tool or Just Another Trend?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahadur, Goonesh Kumar; Oogarah, Deorani

    2013-01-01

    Mauritius is among the few African countries where the interactive whiteboard has been implemented in all primary schools. The interactive whiteboard is an important tool in the classroom as it changes the mode of instruction. Many researches have been carried out in many countries to investigate the effectiveness of the interactive whiteboard.…

  9. Supporting Early Oral Language Skills for Preschool ELL in an EFL Context, Mauritius: Possibilities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auleear Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah

    2015-01-01

    In Mauritius, Kreol is the home language of the majority of school children, while English is the main language of literacy and the main written medium of instruction as from the first year of primary schooling. This has had a backwash effect on the preschool sector, where English is introduced. A cross-sectional study of local preschools revealed…

  10. Language Use and Attitudes in Mauritius on the Basis of the 2000 Population Census

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajah-Carrim, Aaliya

    2005-01-01

    Twelve languages--including the two prestigious colonial languages, English and French, a French-based creole and "ancestral" languages, such as Hindi and Mandarin--are spoken on the multiethnic island Mauritius. Given the multilingual and multiethnic nature of the nation, linguistic practices are an important way for Mauritians to assert or…

  11. Mauritian Creole and Language Attitudes in the Education System of Multiethnic and Multilingual Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajah-Carrim, Aaliya

    2007-01-01

    Mauritius is a multilingual postcolonial island of the Indian Ocean. Although the French-lexified creole, Mauritian Creole/Kreol, is the native language of 70% of the Mauritian population, it is excluded from the education system. Kreol lacks prestige because it is seen as broken French and associated with the local Creoles, a socioeconomically…

  12. Maternal Reports of Home Literacy Experiences in Multilingual Mauritius: A Case Study of Pre-Schoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auleear Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah

    2014-01-01

    While the extant literature has highlighted the important contribution of home literacy experiences to early literacy development, limited research has been carried out among children living in postcolonial contexts, where there is a mismatch between the home and school language. Such is the case of Mauritius. The present exploratory case study…

  13. Exposing Preschoolers to the Printed Word: A Case Study of Preschool Teachers in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah Auleear

    2013-01-01

    Mauritius is a multilingual island, where there is a linguistic and literacy paradox. While Mauritian Creole dominates as the spoken language of the population, English and French are the main print languages, as well as the main languages of literacy and education. In such a complex situation, preschool is an interesting terrain in which to…

  14. Receptive English Vocabulary in a Foreign Language Context: A Case Study of Preschoolers in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auleear Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah

    2014-01-01

    In Mauritius, English, the least socially used language, is the main language of literacy and the main written medium of instruction throughout the education system, starting from the first year of compulsory primary education. The importance of English as a school language is reflected in the 2003 Preschool Curriculum Guidelines, which mention…

  15. Language Shift and Maintenance in Multilingual Mauritius: The Case of Indian Ancestral Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoonauth, Anu

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study conducted in Mauritius between June and July 2009. The aim of this research was to investigate the use of Indian ancestral languages in the domestic domain by the younger generations. The data were collected in the field by means of a questionnaire and interviews from a quota sample of secondary school…

  16. Multilingual Language and Literacy Practices and Social Identities in Sunni Madrassahs in Mauritius: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah Auleear

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the connections among multilingual language practices, multilingual literacy practices, and social identities in two Sunni madrassahs in Mauritius. The study is framed by sociolinguistic and poststructuralist perspectives on language and identity, and social practice views of literacy. Data collection and analysis involved…

  17. Preventing the Reintroduction of Malaria in Mauritius: A Programmatic and Financial Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Tatarsky, Allison; Aboobakar, Shahina; Cohen, Justin M.; Gopee, Neerunjun; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Moonasar, Devanand; Phillips, Allison A.; Kahn, James G.; Moonen, Bruno; Smith, David L.; Sabot, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Sustaining elimination of malaria in areas with high receptivity and vulnerability will require effective strategies to prevent reestablishment of local transmission, yet there is a dearth of evidence about this phase. Mauritius offers a uniquely informative history, with elimination of local transmission in 1969, re-emergence in 1975, and second elimination in 1998. Towards this end, Mauritius's elimination and prevention of reintroduction (POR) programs were analyzed via a comprehensive review of literature and government documents, supplemented by program observation and interviews with policy makers and program personnel. The impact of the country's most costly intervention, a passenger screening program, was assessed quantitatively using simulation modeling. On average, Mauritius spent $4.43 per capita per year (pcpy) during its second elimination campaign from 1982 to 1988. The country currently spends $2.06 pcpy on its POR program that includes robust surveillance, routine vector control, and prompt and effective treatment and response. Thirty-five percent of POR costs are for a passenger screening program. Modeling suggests that the estimated 14% of imported malaria infections identified by this program reduces the annual risk of indigenous transmission by approximately 2%. Of cases missed by the initial passenger screening program, 49% were estimated to be identified by passive or reactive case detection, leaving an estimated 3.1 unidentified imported infections per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The Mauritius experience indicates that ongoing intervention, strong leadership, and substantial predictable funding are critical to consistently prevent the reestablishment of malaria. Sustained vigilance is critical considering Mauritius's enabling conditions. Although the cost of POR is below that of elimination, annual per capita spending remains at levels that are likely infeasible for countries with lower overall health spending. Countries currently embarking

  18. Teaching Islam and Arabic over the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissim, Chaim

    2004-01-01

    Arabic is the language of the Arab minority in Israel, the Palestinian Authority, and the neighbors of Israel (Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon). Hence, learning Arabic and Arab culture is very important to promoting understanding between Arabs and Jews. The concept of using the internet to promote learning and communication between students in…

  19. Yemeni Arabic II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    Instructional materials for advanced Sanaani Arabic, a dialect used predominantly for oral communication, include 25 units consisting of text derived from recordings of spontaneous conversations of native speakers in various communication situations. Some of the topics are: medical services, marriage, jobs, an interview, a car accident, proverbs…

  20. Arab World Almanac 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nucho, Leslie S., Ed.; Hurd, Robert, Ed.

    This document is a collection of three lessons to assist high school teachers in introducing the Arab world to their classrooms. The intended purpose of the lessons is to promote greater cross cultural awareness, understanding of the interdependence of peoples and nations, and appreciation for the different approaches other cultures may choose in…

  1. Arabic medicine and nephrology.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, G

    1994-01-01

    During the Dark Ages following the fall of the Roman Empire, the Arabic world was instrumental in fostering the development of the sciences, including medicine. The quest for original manuscripts and their translation into Arabic reached its climax in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, and the dissemination of the compiled texts was facilitated by the introduction of paper from the East. Foremost among the Arabic physicians were Rhazes, Avicenna, Haly Abbas and Albucasis, who lived during the period 950-1050 AD. Their writings not only followed Hippocrates and Galen, but also greatly extended the analytical approach of these earlier writers. The urine was studied and the function and diseases of the kidneys described. Despite the fact that experimentation on the human body was prohibited by religion, some anatomic dissection and observation seems to have been undertaken, and the pulmonary circulation was described by Ibn Nafis. Anatomic illustrations began to appear in Arabic texts, though they did not have the detail and artistic merit of those of Vesalius. PMID:7847454

  2. Spoken Chad Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This intensive course is designed to teach students to understand and speak Chad Arabic. The course is intended to be covered in approximately 360 hours in the classroom and the language laboratory. About 90 hours should be occupied with the pre-speech phase, which emphasizes passive recognition rather than active production. This phase consists…

  3. United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  4. The Early-Warning System for incoming storm surge and tide in the Republic of Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaard, Tom; de Lima Rego, Joao; Vatvani, Deepak; Virasami, Renganaden; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Republic of Mauritius (ROM) is a group of islands in the South West of the Indian Ocean, consisting of the main islands of Mauritius, Rodrigues and Agalega and the archipelago of Saint Brandon. The ROM is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, especially in the coastal zone, where a convergence of accelerating sea level rise and increasing intensity of tropical cyclones is expected to result in considerable economic loss, humanitarian stresses, and environmental degradation. Storm surges and swell waves are expected to be aggravated through sea level rise and climate change effects on weather patterns. Adaptation to increased vulnerability requires a re-evaluation of existing preparedness measures. The focus of this project is on more effective preparedness and issuing of alerts developing a fully-automated Early-Warning System for incoming storm surge and tide, together with the Mauritius Meteorological Services and the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Centre (NDRRMC), such that coastal communities in Mauritius, Rodrigues and Agalega Islands are able to evacuate timely and safely in case of predicted extreme water levels. The Mauritius Early-Warning System for storm surge and tide was implemented using software from Deltares' Open-Source and free software Community. A set of five depth-averaged Delft3D-FLOW hydrodynamic models are run every six-hours with a forecast horizon of three days, simulating water levels along the coast of the three main islands. Two regional models of horizontal resolution 5km force the three detailed models of 500m resolution; all models are forced at the surface by the 0.25° NOAA/GFS meteorological forecasts. In addition, our Wind-Enhancement Scheme is used to blend detailed cyclone track bulletin's info with the larger-scale Numerical Weather Predictions. Measured data is retrieved near real-time from available Automatic Weather Stations. All these workflows are managed by the operational

  5. Arabic character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, May

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a complete system for learning and recognizing Arabic characters. Arabic OCR faces technical problems not encountered in other languages such as cursiveness, overriding and overlapping of characters, multiple shapes per character and the presence of vowels above and below the characters. The proposed approach relies on the fact that the process of connecting Arabic characters to produce cursive writing tends to form a fictitious baseline. During preprocessing, contour analysis provides both component isolation and baseline location. In the feature extraction phase, the words are processed from right to left to generate a sequence of labels. Each label is one of a predetermined codebook that represents all possible bit distribution with respect to the baseline. At a certain position, which depends on the label context, a segmentation decision is taken. During training, a model is generated for each character. This model describes the probability of the occurrence of the labels at each vertical position. During recognition, the probability of the label observation sequence is computed and accumulated. The system has been tested on different typewritten, typeset fonts and diacriticized versions of both and the evaluation results are presented.

  6. An assessment on the recycling opportunities of wastes emanating from scrap metal processing in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Mauthoor, Sumayya; Mohee, Romeela; Kowlesser, Prakash

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents an assessment on the wastes namely slag, dust, mill scale and sludge resulting from scrap metal processing. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that there are various ways via which scrap metal processing wastes can be reused or recycled in other applications instead of simply diverting them to the landfill. These wastes are briefly described and an overview on the different areas of applications is presented. Based on the results obtained, the waste generation factor developed was 349.3 kg per ton of steel produced and it was reported that slag represents 72% of the total wastes emanating from the iron and steel industry in Mauritius. Finally the suitability of the different treatment and valorisation options in the context of Mauritius is examined. PMID:24433820

  7. Arabic Script and the Rise of Arabic Calligraphy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshahrani, Ali A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a concise coherent literature review of the Arabic Language script system as one of the oldest living Semitic languages in the world. The article discusses in depth firstly, Arabic script as a phonemic sound-based writing system of twenty eight, right to left cursive script where letterforms shaped by their…

  8. Education and the marginalisation of girls in post-GATT Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Bunwaree, S

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes the history and geography of Mauritius and its elitist colonial educational system; presents a literature review of female education, development, and position in the labor market; discusses the economy in the post-GATT era and wasted potential; and calls for a new educational order. Mauritius has a multiplicity of cultures and a complex cultural, socioeconomic, and political context. French colonialism is characterized as limiting expansion of education on the island. Education was expanded under British colonial rule; mass education was promoted, but not much changed in the nature and role of schooling. The elites of today are those descendants of diverse ethnic people who managed to become educated. Mauritians are marginalized today due to the lack of implementation of its official policy of equal opportunity. About 6% of primary school children leave the system illiterate. About 20% are functionally illiterate. Many leave primary schools without passing the Certificate of Primary Education tests. A 1994 survey indicated that female labor force participation rates were higher among persons with lower levels of education. Women have a subordinate role in the labor market due to a long history of a subordinate role, gender inequity, a large concentration of women in the clothing sector of the Export Processing Zone, and gender segregation in managerial and professional occupations and advancement. Some associate development with marginalization of women. Teachers and textbooks reinforce gender roles. Mauritius needs to retain students, gender sensitize the educational system, and eliminate job discrimination. PMID:12348993

  9. Modern Written Arabic, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naja, A. Nashat; Snow, James A.

    This second volume of Modern Written Arabic builds on the previous volume and is the second step designed to teach members of the Foreign Service to read the modern Arabic press. The student will gain recognitional mastery of an extensive set of vocabulary items and will be more intensively exposed to wider and more complex morphological and…

  10. Modern Written Arabic, Vol. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naja, A. Nashat

    This third and final volume builds on the previous two volumes prepared for use in the Foreign Service Institute programs of Arabic instruction for members of the United States Foreign Service and is intended to be used with the help of a native-speaking Arabic instructor and with tape recordings. This volume is intended to provide recognitional…

  11. Arab American Experiences in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Based upon field study and a review of the literature, this paper sought to describe the educational experiences that are common in the Middle East and North Africa. The paper explained the curriculum and pedagogy that are most commonly found in Arab schools. It also addresses the misconceptions that many Americans have regarding Arab education.…

  12. How Arabs Read Roman Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Mick; Meara, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Shows that native-speaking Arabic readers produce search functions that are radically different from the search functions of readers whose script uses the Roman alphabet (RAs). The processes used by Arabic readers are more akin to the processes used by RAs when searching arrays of shapes. (Author/LMO)

  13. Arabic sign language: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, M A

    2005-01-01

    Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced many sign languages, almost as many as Arabic-speaking countries, yet with the same sign alphabets. This article gives a tentative account of some sign languages in Arabic through reference to their possible evolution, which is believed to be affected by the diglossic situation in Arabic, and by comparing some aspects of certain sign languages (Jordanian, Palestinian, Egyptian, Kuwaiti, and Libyan) for which issues such as primes, configuration, and movement in addition to other linguistic features are discussed. A contrastive account that depicts the principal differences among Arabic sign languages in general and the spoken language is given. PMID:15778217

  14. Arab Contributions to Civilization. ADC Issues #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macron, Mary

    This booklet, designed to provide educational materials on Arab history and culture, describes the contributions of Islamic civilization to western civilization. To be Arab, like American, was and is a cultural trait rather than a racial mark. To be Arab meant to be from the Arabic speaking world of common traditions, customs, and values shaped by…

  15. Use of Arabic in Computerized Information Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Mohammed M.

    1984-01-01

    Identifies technical and linguistic problems associated with use of Arabic in input and output devices and describes efforts to introduce a unified code for the Arabic language (CODAR-U/FD). The Hydriyya Method, requirements for Arabic terminals suitable for library use, manufacturers of bilingual terminals, and Arabization of software are…

  16. Preliminary Geotechnical Investigation of Two Basaltic Landslide Sites in Mauritius, Offshore Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabycharun, Bhoopendra; Kuwano, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Kensuke; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Landslide hazards in developing areas in Mauritius became a great challenge as well as a fundamental concern for the government and the citizen of the country. In recent years, landslide disasters have caused losses of both public and private properties. In 2005, a large-scale landslide at Chitrakoot affected 54 houses and infrastructures, and it was reactivated in 2006, damaging another 14 houses. Vallee Pitot landslide is frequently reactivated in these years and threatening several houses in densely-populated zone. Although the long-term annual precipitation show slightly decreasing trend, number of tropical cyclone over Mauritius is clearly increasing at least in the past 3 decades. Being of volcanic origin, Mauritius has observed dramatic and quick weathering of the soil which may partly contributes to creating landslide-prone geo-environment. This study focuses on the preliminary geotechnical investigation of the above-mentioned two basaltic landslide areas in Mauritius. Recent investigation was conducted jointly by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport of Government of Mauritius on both sites from 2012 to 2015 to survey the landslide surface and to implement countermeasures works. In the field investigation, aerial photo interpretation was used to investigate the zone of cracks and scarps for both sites. The landslide areas for Chitrakoot and Vallee Pitot were estimated to 1.8 km2 and 5,000 m2 respectively. Both sites are located in the highly populated area in the capital city of Mauritius. The geological features of the sites were studied with the borehole core logging data obtained from 6 boreholes and it was found that possible sliding surface was observed in the colluvium layer consisting of gravels and stiff silty-clays, at depths from 6 to 10 m below the ground surface. The rate of landslide movement during heavy rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm/hr was elaborated with past records of

  17. Science policy in the Arab world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasawnih, Sami A.

    1986-03-01

    The paper gives an overview of recent trends in the development of policies and technology in the Arab world. It describes the problems that Arab policy-makers must address in order to set the Arab world on the road to scientific and technological self-reliance, with special emphasis on the shortcomings of the Arab education system and the problem of the brain drain. It also discusses the development of Arab policies on science and technology in the context of the need to democratize Arab society as a prerequisite to real advancement. And finally it surveys the efforts that Arab policy-makers have made in recent years to formulate coherent inter-Arab policies on science and technology. Arab national policy on science and technology for development must be formulated in accordance with the concepts of international co-operation and take full advantage of the vehicles for co-operation that exist today.

  18. An assessment of zoonotic and production limiting pathogens in rusa deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Jori, F; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Potts, A D; Jaumally, M R; Sauzier, J; Roger, M

    2014-08-01

    A population of approximately 70,000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius, being the main source of red meat for the local population. However, very limited information is available on the circulation of pathogens affecting the productivity and health of this species. To produce baseline data on the circulation of infectious pathogens in rusa deer under production, a serological survey and/or direct pathogen detection for six selected infectious diseases was undertaken in 2007 in a sample of 53% of the herds reared in semi-free-ranging conditions in hunting estates. Seropositive results were recorded for Johne's disease with an indirect ELISA test (1.7%, n = 351), heartwater with an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (95.5%, n = 178) and leptospirosis with a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) (25.9%, n = 363). Significant associations were found between seroprevalence to some of the leptospiral serogroups detected (Tarassovi, Pomona, Sejroe and Mini) and age of the animals, animal density or location of the estates (being more prevalent in hotter and more humid areas). In addition, Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were confirmed in two deer carcasses by culture and PCR, respectively. No antibodies against Brucella spp. nor Rift Valley Fever virus were detected with the use of respective indirect ELISA's. The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population. PMID:24382104

  19. Bhewa & Anor v. Govt. of Mauritius [15 May 1990. Summary of decision].

    PubMed

    1990-10-01

    The court held that enactment of the 1987 Civil Status (Amendment) Act, which repealed earlier legislation providing for a code of Muslim Personal Law, did not infringe on the religious freedom of the Muslim community guaranteed in the Constitution. It ruled that provisions of civil law requiring monogamy and designed to safeguard the family and protect women from discrimination are justifiable in a democratic society, even though they may be inconsistent with Muslim personal law. It also noted that civil marriage is essential "in furtherance of the obligations undertaken by Mauritius . . . under the International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights." PMID:12317792

  20. The decline of Arab oil revenues

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1981, Arab oil revenues have declined by about 40-50%. This has had an enormous impact on the Arab economies as well as on economic and political relations between the Arab world, the industrialised world and the Third world. This book reviews how lower oil revenues have affected Arab countries and the international economy. It also considers the future prospects for Arab oil and the world oil industry. It analyses the various assessment of the life span of oil, the forecasts concerning the development of alternative sources of energy and the factors governing the demand for oil. Although the outlook for the Arab economies appears gloomy in many respects, the book argues that there is potential within the Arab world to overcome the decline in oil revenues. However it will require great efforts in political and economic co-operation amongst Arab states.

  1. Functional or Anaphoric Control in Jordanian Arabic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Haq, Fawwaz Al-Abed

    1992-01-01

    Discusses functional and anaphoric control in complex sentences (sentences with more than one verb) in Jordanian Arabic within the framework of Lexical-Functional Grammar. It is argued that Jordanian Arabic utilizes anaphoric rather that functional control. (18 references) (JL)

  2. Interreligious education: Conceptualising a needs assessment framework for curriculum design in plural societies (with special reference to Mauritius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maudarbux, Mohammad Belall

    2016-06-01

    The growing debate on intercultural and interreligious dialogue has one major drawback: how to translate academic and theoretical contributions into practical tools for educators and policy makers. This paper aims to fill this gap by presenting a transferable "needs assessment model" based on five criteria and twenty measurable indicators of interreligious relations within a country. Using the example of Mauritius, a densely multilingual and multireligious country, the paper gives an inside view of the preparations which led to the launch of an innovative "Peace and Interfaith Studies" course at the University of Mauritius in 2010. The author was himself involved first as a curriculum consultant and then as a project manager of this course at the Council of Religions in Mauritius. After clarifying the differences between related concepts like multicultural education, intercultural education and religious education, the author defines "interreligious education" as being distinct from all of the above. The paper then proceeds to explain the rationale of interreligious education, followed by the identification of the critical factors which affect curriculum design and policy making. It uses these factors to highlight how each of them operates in Mauritius to create a web of complexity which makes interreligious education extremely volatile. This is followed by an overview of religious education in the Mauritian schooling system, an overview of the needs assessment framework and a description of the innovative "Peace and Interfaith Studies" course. The paper ends with a brief discussion of the main challenges of this model.

  3. Language, Education and Identities in Plural Mauritius: A Study of the Kreol, Hindi and Urdu Standard 1 Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah Auleear

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the context of the recent (2012) introduction of Kreol in the primary school curriculum in Mauritius. The time-tabling of Kreol as an optional subject offered at the same time as the other existing ancestral languages, institutionalised Kreol as an ancestral language, despite its status as a national language.…

  4. Solving the Acoustic Problem in Polyvalent Hall at Mauritius: Global Design Challenge Facing Larsen and Toubro, Limited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankar, Chetan S.; Raju, P. K.; Alur, Ramachandriah; Venkateswaran, Rajan; Elangovan, Rajasekar

    2011-01-01

    The architect for the Mauritius Auditorium project sat in his office at Larsen & Toubro's headquarters in Chennai, India, pondering the phone call he had just received from the vice president, Mr. K.P. Raghavan. The polyvalent hall of the conference center was about to be used to host its first rock concert in February 2005, but during a rehearsal…

  5. Molecular discrimination of phytoseiids associated with the red palm mite Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Mauritius and South Florida.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Heidi M; Hoy, Marjorie A

    2012-08-01

    Phytoseiid populations imported from Mauritius for evaluation for a classical biological control program in Florida, USA, were morphologically identified as Amblyseius largoensis Muma, a species associated with the red palm mite in south Florida and the Caribbean. Bayesian analysis and sequence divergences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and nuclear Elongation factor--I alpha (EF-Iα) genes and Neighbor-Joining analysis of High-fidelity-RAPD-PCR markers were used to discriminate between the south Florida and Mauritius populations. High-fidelity-RAPD-PCR markers in addition to Bayesian and sequence divergence analyses of the 12S rRNA sequences suggest that the Mauritius and south Florida populations are genetically different but whether these are species or population differences is unknown. The degenerate EF-Iα primers used to survey the phytoseiids amplified two different elongation factor sequences with distinct amino acid translations, the putative EF-Iα and an unknown elongation factor. Variability within the 12S gene was used to develop population-specific primers for identifying the Mauritius phytoseiids in the event they are released in south Florida. PMID:22527831

  6. Racialized Spaces in Teacher Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Place-Based Identities in Roche Bois, Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiehe, Elsa M.

    2013-01-01

    This eleven-month ethnographic study puts critical discourse analysis in dialogue with postmodern conceptualizations of space and place to explore how eight educators talk about space and in the process, produce racialized spaces in Roche Bois, Mauritius. The macro-historical context of racialization of this urban marginalized community informs…

  7. Girls and Science Education in Mauritius: A Study of Science Class Practices and Their Effects on Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naugah, Jayantee; Watts, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Background: The population of Mauritius consists of 52% females and scientific literacy is seen to be of vital importance for all young people if they are to be sufficiently equipped to meet the challenges of a fast changing world. Previous research shows, however, that science is not popular among girls. This paper explores one of many reasons…

  8. Beating the Language Barrier in Science Education: In-Service Educators' Coping with Slow Learners in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyparsade, Mohun; Auckloo, Pritee; Belath, Ismut; Dookhee, Helina; Hurreeram, Navin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes how in-service teachers in the pre-vocational sector in Mauritius adopted specific strategies to overcome the language barrier in the learning of science (Van Driel, Verloop & de Vos, 1998). Students of form III were taught few basic ideas related to "Earth & Space" through the use of role play and ICT. The…

  9. Interreligious education: Conceptualising a needs assessment framework for curriculum design in plural societies (with special reference to Mauritius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maudarbux, Mohammad Belall

    2016-08-01

    The growing debate on intercultural and interreligious dialogue has one major drawback: how to translate academic and theoretical contributions into practical tools for educators and policy makers. This paper aims to fill this gap by presenting a transferable "needs assessment model" based on five criteria and twenty measurable indicators of interreligious relations within a country. Using the example of Mauritius, a densely multilingual and multireligious country, the paper gives an inside view of the preparations which led to the launch of an innovative "Peace and Interfaith Studies" course at the University of Mauritius in 2010. The author was himself involved first as a curriculum consultant and then as a project manager of this course at the Council of Religions in Mauritius. After clarifying the differences between related concepts like multicultural education, intercultural education and religious education, the author defines "interreligious education" as being distinct from all of the above. The paper then proceeds to explain the rationale of interreligious education, followed by the identification of the critical factors which affect curriculum design and policy making. It uses these factors to highlight how each of them operates in Mauritius to create a web of complexity which makes interreligious education extremely volatile. This is followed by an overview of religious education in the Mauritian schooling system, an overview of the needs assessment framework and a description of the innovative "Peace and Interfaith Studies" course. The paper ends with a brief discussion of the main challenges of this model.

  10. Multiple Ethnic Origins of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages for the Population of Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Betancor, Eva; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Calaon, Diego; Čaval, Saša; Janoo, Anwar; Pestano, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the first genetic assessment of the contemporary Mauritian population. Small island nodes such as Mauritius played a critical role in historic globalization processes and revealing high-resolution details of labour sourcing is crucial in order to better understand early-modern diaspora events. Mauritius is a particularly interesting case given detailed historic accounts attesting to European (Dutch, French and British), African and Asian points of origin. Ninety-seven samples were analysed for mitochondrial DNA to begin unravelling the complex dynamics of the island's modern population. In corroboration with general demographic information, the majority of maternal lineages were derived from South Asia (58.76%), with Malagasy (16.60%), East/Southeast Asian (11.34%) and Sub-Saharan African (10.21%) also making significant contributions. This study pinpoints specific regional origins for the South Asian genetic contribution, showing a greater influence on the contemporary population from northern and southeast India. Moreover, the analysis of lineages related to the slave trade demonstrated that Madagascar and East Asia were the main centres of origin, with less influence from West Africa. PMID:24676463

  11. Multiple ethnic origins of mitochondrial DNA lineages for the population of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Fregel, Rosa; Seetah, Krish; Betancor, Eva; Suárez, Nicolás M; Čaval, Diego; Caval, Saša; Janoo, Anwar; Pestano, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the first genetic assessment of the contemporary Mauritian population. Small island nodes such as Mauritius played a critical role in historic globalization processes and revealing high-resolution details of labour sourcing is crucial in order to better understand early-modern diaspora events. Mauritius is a particularly interesting case given detailed historic accounts attesting to European (Dutch, French and British), African and Asian points of origin. Ninety-seven samples were analysed for mitochondrial DNA to begin unravelling the complex dynamics of the island's modern population. In corroboration with general demographic information, the majority of maternal lineages were derived from South Asia (58.76%), with Malagasy (16.60%), East/Southeast Asian (11.34%) and Sub-Saharan African (10.21%) also making significant contributions. This study pinpoints specific regional origins for the South Asian genetic contribution, showing a greater influence on the contemporary population from northern and southeast India. Moreover, the analysis of lineages related to the slave trade demonstrated that Madagascar and East Asia were the main centres of origin, with less influence from West Africa. PMID:24676463

  12. An assessment on the recycling opportunities of wastes emanating from scrap metal processing in Mauritius

    SciTech Connect

    Mauthoor, Sumayya; Mohee, Romeela; Kowlesser, Prakash

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Scrap metal processing wastes. • Areas of applications for slag, electric arc furnace dust, mill scale and wastewater sludge. • Waste generation factor of 349.3 kg per ton of steel produced. • Waste management model. - Abstract: This paper presents an assessment on the wastes namely slag, dust, mill scale and sludge resulting from scrap metal processing. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that there are various ways via which scrap metal processing wastes can be reused or recycled in other applications instead of simply diverting them to the landfill. These wastes are briefly described and an overview on the different areas of applications is presented. Based on the results obtained, the waste generation factor developed was 349.3 kg per ton of steel produced and it was reported that slag represents 72% of the total wastes emanating from the iron and steel industry in Mauritius. Finally the suitability of the different treatment and valorisation options in the context of Mauritius is examined.

  13. Arab Americans: Into the Multicultural Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    Long-standing anti-Arab racism in the U.S. has worsened in recent decades, fueled by U.S. military involvement in the Middle East and by the September 11 attack on the U.S. Arab American and Muslim children have been the targets of misunderstanding and discrimination. Following a historical introduction, discrimination against Arab American and…

  14. Governing Public Universities in Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally in Arab public universities, presidents are appointed by government authorities. Recently, in uprising Arab countries universities' presidents have been elected by universities' faculty members. Neither traditional nor self-governance pattern succeeded to modernise Arab universities. Reforming patterns of governance is…

  15. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  16. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  17. Topical Structure in Arabic-English Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakhri, Ahmed

    A study compared the topical structure (TS) of Arabic and English in order to determine whether Arab learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) transfer potential differences between Arabic and English in their English writing, or whether they use an altogether different TS indicative of developmental factors. Four sets of data were compared…

  18. Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alami, Wali A.; Hodge, Carlton T., Ed.

    The first section of this companion volume to "Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part I" (AL 002 041) presents the Arabic script version of the pre-drills in Lessons IA-IIB in that volume. The second and major section comprises 20 lessons consisting of pre-drills, texts, notes, and questions. All material in this volume appears in Arabic script…

  19. Arab-Americans and the Gulf Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noor Al-Deen, Hana S.

    A study examined the sentiment and impact of different types, channels, and forms of aggression against the Arab-American community during the Gulf Crisis. Data were selected from entries in the 1990 Anti-Arab Discrimination and Hate Crimes Log of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination (ADC) National Office. Results show that there were 129 acts of…

  20. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  1. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  2. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  3. Printed Arabic optical character segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Ayyesh, Muna; Qaroush, Aziz; Tumar, Iyad

    2015-03-01

    A considerable progress in recognition techniques for many non-Arabic characters has been achieved. In contrary, few efforts have been put on the research of Arabic characters. In any Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system the segmentation step is usually the essential stage in which an extensive portion of processing is devoted and a considerable share of recognition errors is attributed. In this research, a novel segmentation approach for machine Arabic printed text with diacritics is proposed. The proposed method reduces computation, errors, gives a clear description for the sub-word and has advantages over using the skeleton approach in which the data and information of the character can be lost. Both of initial evaluation and testing of the proposed method have been developed using MATLAB and shows 98.7% promising results.

  4. Yemen Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    1985-07-01

    The government of the Yemen Arab Republic does not have a population policy, but promotes family planning for health reasons since one of its goals is to reduce maternal and child mortality and morbidity. The 2nd 5-Year Plan (1982-86) aims for increased gross domestic product and per capita income, regional development, infrastructure development, job creation, and human resources mobilization. The population increased from 4.8 million in 1970 to 5.8 million in 1980 and is projected to reach 6.5 million by 1985 (indicating a 2.4% growth rate from 1980-1985). Life expectancy is 44 years for both sexes; infant mortality now stands at a high 156/1000 due largely to early marriage and little maternal care. The government concentrates on improving health care, mainly through its national health plans, by emphasizing immunization, education, and training doctors abroad. Current total fertility is 6.7, the birth rate is 48.5/1000, and the average age at marriage for girls is 13. Contraceptives and sterilization are available; abortion for contraceptive purposes is illegal. Up to 30% of Yemen's labor force may have emigrated to neighboring Gulf states and Saudi Arabia. The shortage in labor is partially made up by immigrants from the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, but the government still considers emigration too high since many of those who leave are the most skilled. There is no policy on international migration, due to the great value of remittances, but the government would like to encourage return migration. Yemen's urban population increased from 1.9% in 1950 to 15.3% in 1980. 4/5 of the population live in 5 of Yemen's 10 governorates. The government's policy seeks to strengthen the agricultural sector, improve living quality in rural areas, build up a balanced regional infrastructure, and establish more educational opportunities in small cities and villages. PMID:12314236

  5. Health information in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Aldabbagh, Dina; Alsharif, Khlood; Househ, Mowafa S

    2013-01-01

    Availability of online health information in the Arab world is growing rapidly, as well as the demand for it. Today, the Arab health consumer is searching for health information that is in Arabic and is culturally relevant. The purpose of this paper is to document the various initiatives around the development of online health information in the Arab world. The paper highlights the status of online health information in Arab counties with a specific focus on Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive search of both academic and gray literature was conducted in October 2012. Google Scholar, PubMed, the Google search engines were searched. Results show that there has been an increase in the number of health information websites being created in Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan and the United Arab Emirates. Examples of some these initiatives are discussed. Future challenges to the growth of health information content in the Arab world are also discussed. PMID:23823454

  6. Arabic Sign Language: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Fattah, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced…

  7. Trip Report United Arab Emirates

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A

    2004-10-06

    Keith Nakanishi and Arthur Rodgers traveled to the United Arab Emirates in February, 2004 to continue an on-going technical collaboration with UAE University and to service the two temporary LLNL seismic stations. Nakanishi and Rodgers then participated in the Gulf Seismic Forum, which was organized by LLNL and sponsored by the University of Sharjah.

  8. Machine-printed Arabic OCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassibi, Khosrow M.

    1994-02-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of our research in the development of an OCR system for recognition of machine-printed texts in languages that use the Arabic alphabet. The cursive nature of machine-printed Arabic makes the segmentation of words into letters a challenging problem. In our approach, through a novel preliminary segmentation technique, a word is broken into pieces where each piece may not represent a valid letter in general. Neural networks trained on a training sample set of about 500 Arabic text images are used for recognition of these pieces. The rules governing the alphabet and character-level contextual information are used for recombining these pieces into valid letters. Higher-level contextual analysis schemes including the use of an Arabic lexicon and n-grams is also under development and are expected to improve the word recognition accuracy. The segmentation, recognition, and contextual analysis processes are closely integrated using a feedback scheme. The details of preparation of the training set and some recent results on training of the networks will be presented.

  9. Moroccan Arabic Textbook. Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Rabat (Morocco).

    The textbook is designed for Peace Corps volunteers learning the variety of Arabic mostly widely spoken in Morocco. It contains 10 lessons, each consisting of a dialogue, vocabulary list, grammar notes, a popular proverb, and supplementary dialogue and/or idiomatic and socially correct expressions. Dialogue topics include introductions and…

  10. Country Profiles, United Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croley, H. T.

    A profile of the United Arab Republic is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition,…

  11. Arabic in Australian Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…

  12. Ending Discrimination Against Arab Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abourezk, James G.; Revell, Oliver B.

    1983-01-01

    Abourezk holds that Arab Americans are victims of much racial hatred and stereotyping and that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has been the primary governmental agency abusing the civil rights of this group. Revell, an official of the FBI, counters Abourezk's contentions. (GC)

  13. Whole-class interactions and code-switching in secondary mathematics teaching in Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehmohamed, Asifa; Rowland, Tim

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports a study of whole-class interactions in mathematics classrooms in a girls' secondary school in Mauritius. It focuses on three teachers and their instructional language practices. Analysis of audio-recordings of lessons showed that code-switching was commonly practised by all the teachers in the study. The teachers' comments on their use of language within the classroom show that although they are aware of the languages they use, they are not always conscious of their code-switching. Different functions of the teachers' code-switching practices were identified, indicating it can be an important support for learning mathematics, despite some related tensions that teachers face in using code-switch in their teaching. The paper concludes with some implications for national policy and for teacher education.

  14. An ethnopharmacological survey of natural remedies used by the Chinese community in Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Muthoorah, Luviksha Drushilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective To collect, preserve and document primary ethnopharmacological information on common natural remedies (NRs) used by the Chinese community to treat and/or manage common diseases in Mauritius, a tropical multicultural island in the Indian Ocean. Methods Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 52 key Chinese informants using a semi-structured questionnaire. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices, namely, the informant consensus factor (FIC), the use value, the fidelity level, the index of agreement on remedies and the relative importance were calculated. Results Plants (61) and animal species (17), belonging to 43 and 9 families respectively, constituted the exploited flora and fauna by the Chinese community. Based on the FIC the main categories of plants used were employed against injury and poisons due to external causes (FIC=0.97), diseases of the respiratory system (FIC=0.96), diseases of the eye and adnexa (FIC=0.95), undefined pains or illness (FIC=0.95), diseases during the postpartum period, diseases of the digestive system and diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (FIC=0.94 each). For zootherapy, diseases of the circulatory system, diseases of the eye and adnexa, diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases had total consensus (FIC=1.00). Conclusions It was found that the Chinese community of Mauritius still relies, to a great extent, on NRs which need to be preserved and used sustainably. Nonetheless, further research is needed to probe the possible active constituents that could be the basis of an evidence-based investigation to discover new drugs. PMID:25183116

  15. Natural family planning in Mauritius, Indian Ocean: utilization patterns and continuance predictors.

    PubMed

    Conner, G L; Veeder, N W

    1984-01-01

    Factors associated with discontinuation from an island-wide natural family planning program in Mauritius were examined in 2 stratified random samples of 300 (1976) and 350 (1980) acceptors. The data were gathered through records, educator observations, and field interviews with the 1980 sample. Comparison between those served by the Action Familiale program and characteristics of the Mauritius population as a whole suggests that the natural family planning program serves a somewhat better educated group of couples who have more employment security and smaller families than the general population. Acceptors selected the natural family planning method for reasons such as a desire to have a child according to a plan or to space children (29%), avoidance of the side effects of artificial contraception (21%), or as a result of a recommendation by a friend, relative, or professional (25%). 74% of acceptors in the 1980 sample expressed satisfaction with the method and indicated that their spouse shared this satisfaction. After 3.5-4.5 years of follow-up, 57% of acceptors in the 1976 sample had discontinued use of natural family planning. 9 variables in 4 categories--Administrative, Psychological-Motivational, Educator-Acceptor Relationship, and Family--were predictive of discontinuation. The major factors differentiating discontinuers from continuers were: 1) discontinuers had previously registered at Action Familiale and dropped out; 2) discontinuers placed more emphasis on spacing than on preventing pregnancies; 3) discontinuers discussed fewer topics with their educators; 4) discontinuers and their husbands seemed less interested in the natural method; 5) discontinuers had less family support for natural family planning; 6) educators experienced greater difficulty in teaching discontinuers; 7) discontinuers demonstrated less understanding of the symptothermal method; and 8) educators made fewer preregistration visits to the homes of discontinuers. PMID:12341667

  16. Antimicrobial resistance among enterobacteriaceae causing uncomplicated urinary tract infections in Mauritius: consequences of past misuse of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Issack, M I; Yee Kin Tet, H Y; Morlat, P

    2007-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine the nature and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens in Mauritius in order to provide guidance on the empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. The study was based on urine samples sent for bacteriological investigation at the Central Health Laboratory from unhospitalized patients over a 3-month period. Information on organisms isolated in pure growth and their antibiotic susceptibility was collected and analyzed. Entero - bacteriaceae accounted for over 80% of the 260 isolates obtained during the study period, and showed high rates of resistance to ampicillin (80%), co-trimoxazole (50%), nalidixic acid (34%) and ciprofloxacin (26%). Resistance to mecillinam and fosfomycin were only 2% and 0% respectively. The high rate of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in urine is cause for concern. Fluoroquinolones may not be very reliable for empirical treatment of urinary tract infections in Mauritius. Alternatives such as pivmecillinam and fosfomycin should be considered. PMID:17434833

  17. Ambivalence, Modernisation and Language Attitudes: French and Arabic in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Paul B.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the ambivalent attitude toward the major speech varieties used in Tunisia (French, Classical Arabic, and Tunisian Arabic) and seeks to show the effects of that ambivalence on language policy, especially with regard to Arabization and bilingualism. (EKN)

  18. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius. PMID:23240194

  19. High consumption of pulses is associated with lower risk of abnormal glucose metabolism in women in Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Wennberg, M.; Söderberg, S.; Uusitalo, U.; Tuomilehto, J.; Shaw, J. E.; Zimmet, P. Z.; Kowlessur, S.; Pauvaday, V.; Magliano, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate if consumption of pulses was associated with a reduced risk of developing abnormal glucose metabolism, increases in body weight and increases in waist circumference in a multi-ethnic cohort in Mauritius. Methods Population-based surveys were performed in Mauritius in 1992 and in 1998. Pulse consumption was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire in 1992 and outcomes were measured in 1998. At both time points, anthropometry was undertaken and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Results Mauritian women with the highest consumption of pulses (highest tertile) had a reduced risk of developing abnormal glucose metabolism [odds ratio 0.52; 95% CI 0.27, 0.99) compared with those with the lowest consumption, and also after multivariable adjustments. In women, a high consumption of pulses was associated with a smaller increase in BMI. Conclusions High consumption of pulses was associated with a reduced risk of abnormal glucose metabolism and a smaller increase in BMI in Mauritian women. Promotion of pulse consumption could be an important dietary intervention for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes and obesity in Mauritius and should be examined in other populations and in clinical trials. PMID:25346062

  20. Guiding Digital and Media Literacy Development in Arab Curricula through Understanding Media Uses of Arab Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melki, Jad P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of new media in the Arab uprisings and the news of widespread surveillance of digital and mobile media have triggered a renewed interest in Arab audiences research, particularly as it pertains to these audiences' critical abilities and digital media literacy competencies. Taken for granted have been Arab youth's widespread use of social…

  1. How Muslim Arab-Israeli Teachers Conceptualize the Israeli-Arab Conflict in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit; Gamal, Eshan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how Muslim Arab-Israeli teachers conceptualize the Israeli-Arab conflict with their students. The findings show that Arab schools are in a constant state of tension between opposing poles of identity and belonging. The teachers emphasize their students' alienation from the Israeli establishment and their…

  2. Arabs in the New World: Studies on Arab-American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Sameer Y., Ed.; Abraham, Nabeel, Ed.

    This book is a collection of articles and research materials on Arab-Americans. Part one of the book provides an historical overview of Arab-Americans, their reasons for emigration from Greater Syria, and profiles of the two major religious groups, Muslims and Christians, in the United States Arab population. Authors of this section include Alixa…

  3. Pemphigus in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Marwah A

    2015-01-01

    The Arab world lies geographically between the Atlantic coasts of northern Africa and the Arabian Gulf. This area has wide latitudinal differences as well as variable environmental conditions ranging from deserts to forests. Approximately 370 million individuals who share the Arabic language live in this area. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF) are the main subtypes of the pemphigus disease. Both pemphigus subtypes are present in many Arab countries; however, there is variation in the predominant subtype among countries. PV is the most common subtype in Egypt, Sudan, Morocco, Syria, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Yemen. On the other hand, PF is more prevalent in Libya and is endemic in Tunisia. Interestingly, there is variation in the dominant subtype in some cities within Morocco. For example, PF is more common in Marrakech which is the second largest city. The presence of anti-desmoglein 1 antibodies in the sera of normal Tunisians and the presence of anti-desmoglein 3 in normal Egyptians' sera suggested that environmental factors played a role in the disease pathogenesis in those areas. Further researches detected that traditional cosmetics were among the risk factors in Tunisia. Moreover, farming was suggested as a risk factor in Egypt, Tunisia and Sudan. Because there is no consensus for pemphigus treatment among the Arab countries, there is diversity in their pemphigus treatment regimens. Studying the demographic characteristics and the environmental conditions which caused the variations in the prevailing clinical phenotype will help us fill the gaps to understand the pathogenesis of the pemphigus disease. PMID:25558949

  4. Effect of cigarette tax increase in combination with mass media campaign on smoking behavior in Mauritius: Findings from the ITC Survey

    PubMed Central

    Azagba, Sunday; Burhoo, Premduth; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Background Mauritius has made great strides in adopting evidence-based tobacco control measures, including an increase in its cigarette excise tax and anti-tobacco mass media (Sponge) campaign. The primary objective of this study is to examine the combined effect of these measures on smoking behavior. Methods This study used longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Mauritius Survey, 2009–2011. Waves 1 and 2 were conducted before the tax increase and wave 3 was conducted shortly after the Sponge campaign and six months after the cigarette excise tax increase. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the effects of these two key tobacco control measures on smoking prevalence and the quantity of cigarettes smoked. Results The results showed that the combination of cigarette tax increase and the Sponge campaign had a significant negative effect on the prevalence of smoking in Mauritius and the number of cigarettes smoked among continuing smokers. Specifically, the measures significantly reduced the odds of being a smoker (AOR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81–0.97). For average daily cigarettes smoked, the measures had a significant reduction in cigarettes per day by about 6% (Incidence-rate ratios 0.94, 95% CI 0.89–0.99). Conclusions The combination of policy measures significantly reduced the consumption of cigarettes in Mauritius. While these results are encouraging, these efforts must be part of a sustained effort to further reduce the smoking prevalence in Mauritius. PMID:25701857

  5. Climate, Land-, Energy-, Water-use simulations (CLEWs) in Mauritius - an integrated optimisation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfstad, Thomas; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Ramos, Eunice; Zepeda, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Climate, Land, Energy and Water (CLEW) framework is a set of methodologies for integrated assessment of resource systems. It was developed to provide a means to simultaneously address matters pertaining to energy, water and food security. This is done while both considering the impact that the utilization of these resources have on our climate, as well as how our ability to continue using these resources could be impacted by climate change. CLEW is being applied in Mauritius to provide policy relevant analysis for sustainable development. The work aims to explore the interplay among the different elements of a national sustainable development strategy. A driving motivation is to address issues pertaining to policy cohesion, by exploring cross-sectoral impacts of individual policies and measures. The analysis explores how policies and actions intended to promote sustainability, have ramifications beyond the sector of the economy where it is applied. A primary concern is to ensure that efforts undertaken in pursuit of one policy goal do not inadvertently compromise progress towards attaining goals in other areas. Conversely there may be instances where an action has multiple benefits across various areas. Identifying such trade-offs and synergies can provide additional insights into development policy and support formulation of robust sustainable development strategies. The agreed sustainable development goals clearly illustrate the multi-faceted and multi-dimensional nature of the development challenge, with many overlapping and interlinked concerns. This work focuses on the link between food, energy, water and climate policy, which has shown to be particularly closely intertwined. In Mauritius, the highly interlinked and interdependent nature of the energy and sugar industries for example, highlights the need for coherent and integrated assessment of the role of these sectors in support of sustainable development in the country. Promoting energy self

  6. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  7. Linguistic Features of Pidgin Arabic in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds the light on Asian pidgin Arabic, particularly linguistic features of pidgin Arabic in Kuwait. The phonology, syntax and lexicon of the language are described on the basis of interviews conducted with forty Asian informants. The data are discussed in its relation to other studies. Also, the researcher discussed the implication of…

  8. PHONOLOGY AND SCRIPT OF LITERARY ARABIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-ANI, SALMAN H.; SHAMMAS, JACOB Y.

    THIS WORKBOOK IS DESIGNED TO INTRODUCE THE SOUND SYSTEM AND WRITING SYSTEM OF LITERARY ARABIC. THE MATERIAL IS LINGUISTICALLY ORIENTED, BASED ON A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH AND ARABIC. ACCOMPANYING TAPES FOR EACH UNIT PROVIDE THE STUDENT WITH PRACTICE IN LISTENING COMPREHENSION AND ORAL PRODUCTION. READING, WRITING, AND HOMEWORK EXERCISES…

  9. Modern Arabic Prose Literature: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Gassick, Trevor

    This is the preliminary draft of a planned "Introduction to Modern Arabic Prose Literature," the completed text of which "would offer basic biographical and bibliographical impressions, rather than extensive treatments, of the major figures in Arabic prose in the 19th and 20th centuries, along with concise assessments of their ranges of interests…

  10. On Bidirectional English-Arabic Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljlayl, M.; Frieder, O.; Grossman, D.

    2002-01-01

    Machine-Readable Dictionaries (MRD) and Machine Translation (MT) systems are important resources for query translation in Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR). Investigates use of MT systems and MRD to Arabic-English and English-Arabic CLIR. Translation ambiguity is the key problem. Presents three methods of query translation using a…

  11. Computer Program To Transliterate Into Arabic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, E.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual program for TRS-80, Model 12 (or equivalent) computer transliterates from English letters of computer keyboard to Arabic characters in output of associated printer. Program automatically changes character sequence from left-to-right of English to right-to-left of Arabic.

  12. Diagnostic CALL Tool for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsabaan, Majed; Ramsay, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Our proposed work is aimed at teaching non-native Arabic speakers how to improve their pronunciation. This paper reports on a diagnostic tool for helping non-native speakers of Arabic improve their pronunciation, particularly of words involving sounds that are not distinguished in their native languages. The tool involves the implementation of…

  13. Propionic acidemia in the Arab World.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Hatem

    2015-06-15

    The autosomal recessive disease propionic acidemia (PA) is an inborn error of metabolism with highly variable clinical manifestations, caused by a deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) enzyme, due to mutations in either PCCA or PCCB genes, which encode the alpha and beta subunits of the PCC enzyme, respectively. The classical clinical presentation consists of poor feeding, vomiting, metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, lethargy, neurological problems, and developmental delay. PA seems to be a prevalent disease in the Arab World. Arab patients with PA seem to have the same classical clinical picture for PA with distinctive associated complications and other diseases. Most of the mutations found in Arab patients seem to be specific to the Arab population, and not observed in other ethnic groups. In this review, I will discuss in details the clinical and molecular profile of Arab patients with PA. PMID:25865301

  14. Using Arabic CAPTCHA for Cyber Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Bilal; Alghathbar, Khaled S.; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alkelabi, Abdullah M.; Alajaji, Abdulaziz

    Bots are automated programs designed to make auto registrations in online services, resulting in wastage of resources and breach of web security. English based CAPTCHAs are used to prevent bots from abusing these online services. However, English based CAPTCHAs have some inherent flaws and have been broken by bots. In this paper, an Arabic text based CAPTCHA is proposed. The CAPTCHA text image is distorted with background noise. Background noise and dots in the Arabic text makes CAPTCHA hard to be broken by Arabic OCRs. The proposed scheme is useful in Arabic speaking countries and in protecting internet resources. The proposed CAPTCHA scheme is both secure and robust. Experimental results show that background noise is a good defense mechanism against OCR recognizing Arabic text.

  15. Spatial Analysis and GIS Applications for Estimating Monthly Rainfall Totals on Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staub, C. G.; Stevens, F. R.; Waylen, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reliable gridded rainfall data are critical for GIS-based climate change impact assessments, water resources planning and management, design of hydraulic works and urban development. Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are highly dependent on rainfall, more sensitive, and have a lower adaptive capacity to climate change than mainland countries yet are poorly studied. Extensive hydrometeorological records exist in Mauritius, offering a unique opportunity to model rainfall distribution and produce high resolution gridded datasets for GIS-based models. Multiple regression is used to model mean annual and monthly rainfall on the island for the period 1997 - 2011 and derive a physical basis for understanding spatial rainfall patterns. The models incorporate latitude, longitude, slope, distance to coast, elevation and their interactions accounting for 68% of the variance in mean annual rainfall and 55-72% of variance in mean monthly rainfall across the island. Spatial trends are removed from observed monthly rainfall totals and ordinary kriging is applied to the residuals. The regression and kriging results are combined to produce a high resolution, physically consistent gridded time-series dataset. Estimate and variance values from each month are then used to calculate 95% confidence interval surfaces. Cross-validation reveals close correspondence between predicted and observed values. This regression kriging approach captures what is currently understood about the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation in this mountainous sub-tropical location, giving us greater confidence in the reliability of the new rainfall estimates.

  16. Mapping of monthly soil erosion risk of mainland Mauritius and its aggregation with delineated basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigel, Rody; Rughooputh, Soonil

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the mapping of monthly soil erosion risk on Mauritius which was carried out using GIS, decision rules and readily available data namely, monthly rainfall depth, soil types, slope and land cover. Slope and soil were first combined to produce soil erosion susceptibility followed by land cover to produce erosion sensitivity, and then rainfall to produce erosion risk. The high erosion areas of the Island have been extracted from the soil erosion risk maps, whereby these areas can face land degradation problems and can be responsible for sediment discharge into wetlands located at the outlet of drainage basins. As such, drainage basins have been delineated using automatic catchment delineation tools and their percentage of high erosion areas computed. Basins with the greatest percentage of high erosion areas and particularly those that directly have a wetland at the outlet can be given priority for soil and water conservation efforts. The mapping reported in this paper can be adapted to other countries which need an erosion assessment for the identification of high erosion areas and priority action areas.

  17. Traditional Therapies Used to Manage Diabetes and Related Complications in Mauritius: A Comparative Ethnoreligious Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi; Mootoosamy, A.; Wambugu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Religious communities from Mauritius still rely on traditional therapies (TT) for primary healthcare. Nonetheless, there is still a dearth of scientific information on TT used by the different religious groups to manage diabetes and related complications (DRC). This study aimed to gather ethnomedicinal knowledge on TT used by the different religious groups against DRC. Diabetic patients (n = 95) and traditional healers (n = 5) were interviewed. Fifty-two plant species belonging to 33 families and 26 polyherbal formulations were documented to manage DRC. The most reported DRC was hypertension (n = 36). Leaves (45.2%) and juice (36%) were the most cited mode of preparation of herbal recipes. Plants which scored high relative frequency of citation were Citrus aurantifolia (0.55) and Morinda citrifolia (0.54). The cultural importance index showed that Ocimum tenuiflorum, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Camellia sinensis, and Ophiopogon japonicas were the most culturally important plants among Hindu, Muslim, Christian, and Buddhist community, respectively. Hindu and Muslim community showed the highest similarity of medicinal plants usage (Jaccard index = 95.8). Seven animal species distributed over 4 classes were recorded for the management of DRC. Plants and animals recorded as TT should be submitted to scientific studies to confirm safety and efficacy in clinical practice and to identify pharmacologically active metabolites. PMID:27200100

  18. A quantitative ethnopharmacological documentation of natural pharmacological agents used by pediatric patients in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Mahomoodally, M Fawzi; Sreekeesoon, D Priyamka

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric population constitutes the most vulnerable patients due to a dearth of approved drugs. Consequently, there is a pressing need to probe novel natural pharmacological agents in an endeavour to develop new drugs to address pediatric illnesses. To date, no studies have explored the use of natural therapies for pediatric health care in Mauritius. Parents (n = 325) from different regions of the island were interviewed. Quantitative indexes such as fidelity level (FL), informant consensus factor (F IC), and use-value (UV) were calculated. Thirty-two plants were reported to be used by pediatric patients. Gastrointestinal disorders (F IC = 0.97) encompassing regurgitation, infantile colic, and stomach aches were the most common ailments managed with herbs. Matricaria chamomilla used for infantile colic and its pharmacological properties has previously been documented for pediatric patients. Product from A. mellifera (UV = 0.75) was the most utilized zootherapy for managing cough. Most plants and animal products reported in this study have bioactive constituents supported by existing scientific literature but their use for the pediatric population is scant. The present ethnopharmacological study has opened new perspectives for further research into their pharmacology, which can subsequently support and facilitate timely pediatric medicinal product development. PMID:24949418

  19. A Quantitative Ethnopharmacological Documentation of Natural Pharmacological Agents Used by Pediatric Patients in Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi; Sreekeesoon, D. Priyamka

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric population constitutes the most vulnerable patients due to a dearth of approved drugs. Consequently, there is a pressing need to probe novel natural pharmacological agents in an endeavour to develop new drugs to address pediatric illnesses. To date, no studies have explored the use of natural therapies for pediatric health care in Mauritius. Parents (n = 325) from different regions of the island were interviewed. Quantitative indexes such as fidelity level (FL), informant consensus factor (FIC), and use-value (UV) were calculated. Thirty-two plants were reported to be used by pediatric patients. Gastrointestinal disorders (FIC = 0.97) encompassing regurgitation, infantile colic, and stomach aches were the most common ailments managed with herbs. Matricaria chamomilla used for infantile colic and its pharmacological properties has previously been documented for pediatric patients. Product from A. mellifera (UV = 0.75) was the most utilized zootherapy for managing cough. Most plants and animal products reported in this study have bioactive constituents supported by existing scientific literature but their use for the pediatric population is scant. The present ethnopharmacological study has opened new perspectives for further research into their pharmacology, which can subsequently support and facilitate timely pediatric medicinal product development. PMID:24949418

  20. Traditional Therapies Used to Manage Diabetes and Related Complications in Mauritius: A Comparative Ethnoreligious Study.

    PubMed

    Mahomoodally, M Fawzi; Mootoosamy, A; Wambugu, S

    2016-01-01

    Religious communities from Mauritius still rely on traditional therapies (TT) for primary healthcare. Nonetheless, there is still a dearth of scientific information on TT used by the different religious groups to manage diabetes and related complications (DRC). This study aimed to gather ethnomedicinal knowledge on TT used by the different religious groups against DRC. Diabetic patients (n = 95) and traditional healers (n = 5) were interviewed. Fifty-two plant species belonging to 33 families and 26 polyherbal formulations were documented to manage DRC. The most reported DRC was hypertension (n = 36). Leaves (45.2%) and juice (36%) were the most cited mode of preparation of herbal recipes. Plants which scored high relative frequency of citation were Citrus aurantifolia (0.55) and Morinda citrifolia (0.54). The cultural importance index showed that Ocimum tenuiflorum, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Camellia sinensis, and Ophiopogon japonicas were the most culturally important plants among Hindu, Muslim, Christian, and Buddhist community, respectively. Hindu and Muslim community showed the highest similarity of medicinal plants usage (Jaccard index = 95.8). Seven animal species distributed over 4 classes were recorded for the management of DRC. Plants and animals recorded as TT should be submitted to scientific studies to confirm safety and efficacy in clinical practice and to identify pharmacologically active metabolites. PMID:27200100

  1. Invasions, DNA barcodes, and rapid biodiversity assessment using ants of Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Using an understudied taxon (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) found on a tropical island (Mauritius) where native flora and fauna have been threatened by 400 years of habitat modification and introduced species, we tested whether estimated incidences of diversity and complementarity were similar when measured by standard morphological alpha-taxonomy or phylogenetic diversity (PD) based on a standardized mitochondrial barcode and corroborating nuclear marker. Results We found that costs related to site loss (considered loss of evolutionary history measured as loss of barcode PD) were not significantly different from predictions made either a) using standard morphology-based taxonomy, or b) measured using a nuclear marker. Integrating morphology and barcode results permitted us to identify a case of initially morphologically-cryptic variation as a new and endemic candidate species. However, barcode estimates of the relative importance of each site or network of sites were dramatically affected when the species in question was known to be indigenous or introduced. Conclusion This study goes beyond a mere demonstration of the rapid gains possible for diversity assessment using a standardized DNA barcode. Contextualization of these gains with ecological and natural history information is necessary to calibrate this wealth of standardized information. Without such an integrative approach, critical opportunities to advance knowledge will be missed. PMID:20003263

  2. Teaching about Arab Americans: What Social Studies Teachers Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Mahmoud

    External influences in the universal culture have significantly affected the image of Arab Americans and their children. Although Arab Americans are less visible than other minorities, the anti-Arab perception in the media makes them more visible in a negative way. Based on an ethnographic study investigating the experiences of Arabic-speaking…

  3. The Talented Arab Girl: Between Tradition and Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Hanna; Khalil, Mahmood

    2009-01-01

    Since Israel's independence in 1948 Arab females were the main beneficiaries of the law of mandatory education. Arab women aged 65+ have, on average, less than one year of formal education. Their granddaughters, aged 18-24, have about 12.5 years of schooling--a number that increases each year. As in many Arab countries, Arab girls in Israel tend…

  4. Text Organization and Transfer: The Case of Arab ESL Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakhri, Ahmed

    1994-01-01

    Explored the hypothesis that Arab learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) transfer Arabic text organization features into their English writing by examining essays written by 30 Arab ESL students and 30 non-Arab ESL students. The results indicated little evidence of transfer in either group. Implications for further research are discussed.…

  5. The Learning of Hebrew by Israeli Arab Students in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1998-01-01

    Examines Israeli Arab students' attitudes and cultural backgrounds in relation to their reading comprehension of Jewish and Arab stories. States Arab students' motivation toward learning Hebrew as a second language is instrumental. Finds students comprehend texts from their own culture (Arab) better than those from the unfamiliar culture…

  6. Motivation to Teach: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husny Arar, Khalid; Massry-Herzllah, Asmahan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to identify factors influencing teachers' motivation in the Arab education system. In-depth interviews with 10 school principals, 15 teachers and 3 counsellors, yielded three themes influencing Arab teachers' motivation: (1) Arab culture, (2) the school climate and (3) government policies. Arab teachers try to meet…

  7. Suicide among Arab-Americans

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M.; Tracy, Melissa; Scarborough, Peter; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Background Arab-American (AA) populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress—two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US. Methodology/Principal Findings ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC), the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12%) and women (16%). Conclusions/Significance Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans. PMID:21379577

  8. Girls and science education in Mauritius: a study of science class practices and their effects on girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naugah, Jayantee; Watts, Mike

    2013-11-01

    Background: The population of Mauritius consists of 52% females and scientific literacy is seen to be of vital importance for all young people if they are to be sufficiently equipped to meet the challenges of a fast changing world. Previous research shows, however, that science is not popular among girls. This paper explores one of many reasons why few girls opt for science subjects after compulsory schooling. Purpose: This study investigated the approaches to teaching in four science classrooms in Mauritius, with particular emphases on the preferences of girls as they learn science. Sample: A total of 20 student interviews and 16 teacher interviews were conducted in four schools in Mauritius. The four mixed-faith schools comprised two all-girl schools (one state, one fee-paying), and two mixed-sex schools (one state, one fee-paying), within urban, suburban and rural situations. Design and method: 80 non-participant lessons were observed, of which 60 were science lessons while the remaining 20 non-science lessons were in economics, accounts and commerce. Group interviews with five pupils in each of the four schools were conducted and 16 individual interviews with teachers in the four schools gave an insight into the pedagogic approaches used for the teaching and learning of science. Results: Transmissive approaches to teaching, giving little opportunity for collaborative or activity-based learning, were found to be the most important factors in alienating the girls from science. Conclusions: There need to be radical changes in approaches to teaching to retain young girls' interest in the sciences.

  9. Vowelling and semantic priming effects in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Mountaj, Nadia; El Yagoubi, Radouane; Himmi, Majid; Lakhdar Ghazal, Faouzi; Besson, Mireille; Boudelaa, Sami

    2015-01-01

    In the present experiment we used a semantic judgment task with Arabic words to determine whether semantic priming effects are found in the Arabic language. Moreover, we took advantage of the specificity of the Arabic orthographic system, which is characterized by a shallow (i.e., vowelled words) and a deep orthography (i.e., unvowelled words), to examine the relationship between orthographic and semantic processing. Results showed faster Reaction Times (RTs) for semantically related than unrelated words with no difference between vowelled and unvowelled words. By contrast, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) revealed larger N1 and N2 components to vowelled words than unvowelled words suggesting that visual-orthographic complexity taxes the early word processing stages. Moreover, semantically unrelated Arabic words elicited larger N400 components than related words thereby demonstrating N400 effects in Arabic. Finally, the Arabic N400 effect was not influenced by orthographic depth. The implications of these results for understanding the processing of orthographic, semantic, and morphological structures in Modern Standard Arabic are discussed. PMID:25528401

  10. Krabbe Disease in the Arab World

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Hatem

    2015-01-01

    The autosomal recessive inherited Krabbe disease (KD) is a devastating pediatric lysosomal storage disorder affecting white matter of the brain. It is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the lysosomal enzyme galactocerebrosidase. While most patients present with symptoms within the first 6 months of life, others present later in life throughout adulthood. The early infantile form of KD (EIKD) is frequent in the Muslim Arab population in Israel, with a very high prevalence of approximately 1/100 to 1/150 live births. The homozygous variant c.1582G > A (p.D528N) was found to be responsible for EIKD in Palestinian Arab patients. KD was reported in different Arab countries with much lower frequency. While most Arab patients presented with EIKD, late infantile and late onset KD forms were also reported. Most Arab patients presented with variable symptoms ranging from EIKD to late onset KD, with variable clinical findings. Based on literature studies, this review focuses on the clinical and molecular findings of KD patients with Arab ancestry, and highlights the need for developing universal genetic screening programs to overcome the under-reported status of KD prevalence in Arabia. This is expected to improve the prognosis of the disease and promote targeted molecular diagnostics to the Arab patients.

  11. Migration for employment among the Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Birks, S; Sinclair, C

    1979-10-01

    The large-scale recent migrations from Arab countries for jobs in the Persian Gulf and Libya are examined with analyses of the problems from the perspectives of both the importing and the exporting countries. In 1975 there were more than 2.5 million Arab workers living in Arab states other than their own, about 1/2 of whom were employed. Since that time the numbers have increased by about 9% annually; an estimated 1,570,000 Arab workers were living abroad in early 1979. It is estimated that another 975,000 non-Arab migrant workers were employed within the Arab world in January 1979, a total of over 2,500,000 migrants for employment in the Arab Near East. The sheer volume of this migration for employment and its relative importance within the labor markets of the Arab world, the impact that migration for employment has upon economic development, and the mutual independence among countries that labor exporting and importing brings about have made migrant labor movements a leading issue in the Near East. Focus is on the distribution of wealth in the Near East, population and workforce in the Arab states, economic development of the capital-rich and the capital-poor states, the international transfers of labor, and impacts on the labor-supply countries. The impacts of an emigrant workforce vary considerably with the conditions in the different exporting countries. Some of these effects are highlighted by citing examples from Egypt, Jordan, the Yemen and Sudan. PMID:12336017

  12. Arab culture and mental health care.

    PubMed

    Fakhr El-Islam, M

    2008-12-01

    This selective review describes recent literature and the author's experience with mental illness and mental health care, and the impact of cultural transformation on mental health in some Arab Islamic cultures, particularly in Egypt, Qatar and Kuwait. Traditional extended Arab families provide a structure for their members that may sometimes prevent and or compensate for the effects of parental loss and mental disability. The role of traditional families in the care of members and in medical decision-making is discussed. The impact of cultural change on Arab culture is also examined, as is the effect of intergenerational conflict in traditional families. PMID:19091731

  13. Phonological development of Kuwaiti Arabic: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Ayyad, Hadeel; Bernhardt, B May

    2009-11-01

    An overview of Kuwaiti Arabic is presented, with very preliminary data from two typically developing brothers (ages 2;4 and 5;2) and a 6-year-old with a severe sensorineural hearing impairment. The siblings show early mastery of many aspects of the complex Arabic phonological system, with universally expected later mastery of coronal fricatives and /r/. The 6-year-old shows patterns typical of children with hearing impairments, e.g. hypernasality, a prevalence of 'visible' segments, particularly labials, and simplified syllable structure. Her accurate use of /l/, /r/, and some gutturals, however, raise questions about the enhanced perceptibility and functionality of these segments in Arabic. PMID:19891521

  14. Religious and national group identification in adolescence: a study among three religious groups in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ng Tseung-Wong, Caroline; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2013-01-01

    Religious group identification is an important but understudied social identity. The present study investigates religious group identification among adolescents of different faiths (Hindu, Muslim, Christian) living in multicultural Mauritius. It further explores how religious and national group identities come together among religious majority and minority adolescents. For three age groups (11 to 19 years, N = 2152) we examined the strength of adolescents' religious and national group identification, the associations between these two identities, and the relationships to global self-esteem. Across age and religious group, participants reported stronger identification with their religious group than with the nation. Identification with both categories declined with age, with the exception of Muslims, whose strong religious identification was found across adolescence. The association between religious and national identification was positive, albeit stronger for the majority group of Hindus and for early adolescents. We examined the manner in which religious and national identities come together using a direct self-identification measure and by combining the separate continuous measures of identification. Four distinct clusters of identification (predominant religious identifiers, dual identifiers, neutrals, and separate individuals) that were differently associated with global self-esteem were found. Dual identifiers reported the highest level of global self-esteem. The clusters of identification did not fully correspond to the findings for the direct self-identification measure. The results are discussed in terms of the meaning of dual identity and the positive manner in which adolescents can manage their multiple identities while taking into account the ideological framework in which those identities are played out. PMID:22822906

  15. Historical perspectives on health. Early Arabic medicine.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Harry

    2004-07-01

    The Arabian conquests during and after the 7th century led to a spread of Islam as well as the consequential influence of theology on health through the teachings of the Qur'an (Koran). Although traditional medicine was widely accepted and used, the character of early aggrandisement of Arabic medicine involved a facility for adapting and absorbing Graeco-Roman knowledge. The translation schools and libraries, famous in both the East and West, preserved and expanded the knowledge acquired. European academic learning owed much to the Arabs. Information came through Spain to Italy, France and, later on, England. The founding of hospitals, whilst not an Arab initiative, received a fillip from the religious prescriptions for care of the sick. The Military Orders developed specialist institutions for the sick, probably as a result of what they saw during their sojourn in the Middle East. The legacy of Arabic medical care is still with us today and deserves understanding and greater appreciation. PMID:15301318

  16. Environmental Education in Some Arab States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Za'rour, George I.

    1981-01-01

    Briefly summarizes environmental education goals and topics as identified in elementary and secondary education curricula in four Arab states (Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Jordan) and describes environmental education nonformal efforts in Lebanon. (DC)

  17. Two and One Half Months As Consultant to the Government of Mauritius, Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs on Aspects of Biology Teaching-September to December, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rex

    Included is a description of the present status and needed improvements in biology teaching in Mauritius. Needed changes are described in terms of curriculum, examinations, preservice and inservice training of teachers, production of resource materials and simple apparatus, the use of educational television, radio broadcasts and audio-visual aids,…

  18. Evaluation of the EIA system on the Island of Mauritius and development of an environmental monitoring plan framework

    SciTech Connect

    Ramjeawon, T.; Beedassy, R

    2004-07-01

    The Environment Protection Act (EPA) in Mauritius provides for the application of an EIA license in respect of undertakings listed in its first schedule. Following the promulgation of the Act in June 1993, the Department of Environment (DOE) is issuing an average of 125 EIA licenses yearly. In general, the review exercise of an environmental impact assessment (EIA) is terminated once the license has been granted. The aim of this project was to evaluate the EIA system in Mauritius and to identify its weaknesses and strengths. One of the main weaknesses, besides the lack of EIA audits, is the absence of EIA follow-up monitoring. It is necessary to distinguish between monitoring done for regulatory purposes (compliance monitoring) and environmental monitoring related to the EIA. With the growth of the tourism industry on the island, coastal development projects have the potential to cause significant environmental impacts . A sample of EIA reports pertaining to this sector was assessed for its quality and follow-up mechanisms. Proposals for the contents of EIA Prediction Audits, Environmental Monitoring Plans (EMP) and the format for an EMP report are made.

  19. Macro- and microhabitat use of Telfair's skink ( Leiolopisma telfairii) on Round Island, Mauritius: implications for their translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernetta, Angelo P.; Bell, Diana J.; Jones, Carl G.

    2005-11-01

    The successful eradication of introduced rodents from islets off the coast of Mauritius has led to local conservation bodies investigating the possibility of translocation as a measure of safeguarding endemic reptile populations. The present study was the first to determine the habitat and microhabitat requirements of Telfair's skinks ( Leiolopisma telfairii) on Round Island, Mauritius, with a view to aiding future translocation projects to islands within their historic range. Contrasting preferences found for Telfair's skink at macro- and micro- habitat levels underline the importance of sampling at multiple ecological scales in such investigations. Significantly fewer sightings of L. telfairii were recorded in bare rock habitats compared to more vegetated habitats. Conversely, at a microhabitat scale principal component analysis indicated structural characteristics were the primary determinant of microhabitat choice. The first dietary analysis of Telfair's skinks confirmed their status as omnivores. Cockroaches ( Blattodea spp.) appeared to be a primary food source. Four exotic plant species were also present in faecal samples and the potential for L. telfairii to aid their dispersal is discussed. Implications for the long-term management and proposed translocation of Telfair's skinks are discussed.

  20. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  1. Arab women and the labour market.

    PubMed

    Bint Talal, B

    1996-01-01

    This article provides a summary and excerpts from a speech given by Her Royal Highness Basma bint Talal, sister of His Majesty King Hussein of Jordan, before the International Institute for Labor Studies of the International Labour Organization on March 26, 1996. Princess Talal spoke about the conditions among Arab women, their contributions to work and political life, and suggestions for the increased participation of women. Reference is made to the UN Development Report for 1995 that indicates a very low (under 20%) level of participation among Arab women in the labor force and a modest literacy rate of 40%. The developing country averages are higher than the averages for Arab women. Arab family networks and practices have benefitted women. Even the poorest Arab countries have less hunger and starvation than other developing countries. Rape is almost "nonexistent" and drugs and prostitution are limited. There are few births outside of marriage and few single parent families. Community violence is generally low, except within less-advantaged groups. Labor statistics do not count women engaged in farming and other domestic production activities. Low labor force participation rates among Arab women are attributed to high illiteracy, high fertility, and social customs. Almost 50% of Arab women are under 15 years old, and there is difficulty in creating opportunities for new female labor entrants due to the high unemployment rates for men (12.6%) and women (29.4%). The future looks more hopeful as literacy rates among women rise and school enrollment rates for women rise. Arab women are legally entitled to equal opportunities for work with men of the same qualifications. Women need to be encouraged to take up productive work and income generation and to assume political leadership roles. The Jordanian National Forum for Women and the Jordanian National Committee for Women are active at the grassroots and national levels. PMID:12347373

  2. A REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF SYRIAN ARABIC (BASED ON THE DIALECT OF DAMASCUS). ARABIC SERIES, NUMBER SEVEN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COWELL, MARK W.

    ARABIC, AS IT IS USED IN EVERYDAY CONVERSATION BY EDUCATED CITY-DWELLING SYRIANS, AND MOST PARTICULARLY BY NATIVES OF DAMASCUS, IS DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOK. THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR IS INTENDED, FIRST OF ALL, FOR STUDENTS WHO HAVE ALREADY ACQUIRED, OR ARE IN THE PROCESS OF ACQUIRING, AN ELEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE OF SYRIAN ARABIC, AND WHO WISH TO ENHANCE…

  3. The Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA): Its Development, Validation, and Results in Three Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

    2004-01-01

    The Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) was constructed and validated in a sample of undergraduates (17-33 yrs) in 3 Arab countries, Egypt (n = 418), Kuwait (n = 509), and Syria (n = 709). In its final form, the ASDA consists of 20 statements. Each item is answered on a 5-point intensity scale anchored by 1: No, and 5: Very much. Alpha…

  4. Terms of Address in Libyan Arabic Compared to Other Arabic Varieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abugharsa, ?Azza B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion about the terms of address used mainly in Libyan Arabic, and how they are similar and/or different from the terms used in other Arabic societies. In addition, the current paper describes how the use of such terms is determined by various social factors and perceptions, and how it is emphasized that these titles…

  5. Etudes de linguistique semitique et arabe (Studies of Semitic and Arabic Linguistics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    Various aspects of Arabic and Semitic linguistics are discussed in this text. The nine chapters include: (1) fundamental Semitic vocabulary and the classification of southern dialects; (2) observations on nominal derivation by affixation in several Semitic languages; (3) an automatic analysis of literary Arabic; (4) "Addad" and linguistic…

  6. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  7. Arab gene geography: From population diversities to personalized medical genomics

    PubMed Central

    Tadmouri, Ghazi O.; Sastry, Konduru S.; Chouchane, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    Genetic disorders are not equally distributed over the geography of the Arab region. While a number of disorders have a wide geographical presence encompassing 10 or more Arab countries, almost half of these disorders occur in a single Arab country or population. Nearly, one-third of the genetic disorders in Arabs result from congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities, which are also responsible for a significant proportion of neonatal and perinatal deaths in Arab populations. Strikingly, about two-thirds of these diseases in Arab patients follow an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. High fertility rates together with increased consanguineous marriages, generally noticed in Arab populations, tend to increase the rates of genetic and congenital abnormalities. Many of the nearly 500 genes studied in Arab people revealed striking spectra of heterogeneity with many novel and rare mutations causing large arrays of clinical outcomes. In this review we provided an overview of Arab gene geography, and various genetic abnormalities in Arab populations, including disorders of blood, metabolic, circulatory and neoplasm, and also discussed their associated molecules or genes responsible for the cause of these disorders. Although studying Arab-specific genetic disorders resulted in a high value knowledge base, approximately 35% of genetic diseases in Arabs do not have a defined molecular etiology. This is a clear indication that comprehensive research is required in this area to understand the molecular pathologies causing diseases in Arab populations. PMID:25780794

  8. Arabic Language Planning in the Age of Globalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkhafaifi, Hussein M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines Arabic language planning efforts, which so far have not been very successful, and suggests Arabic language planning agencies must closely examine the work of other planning organizations that have succeeded in achieving many of their goals. (Author/VWL)

  9. Faculty research productivity in six Arab countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouchedid, Kamal; Abdelnour, George

    2015-10-01

    This article analyses the research output of a sample of higher education institutions (HEIs) in six Arab countries in order to start quantifying academic research productivity in the wider region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). A questionnaire classifying HEIs was administered to 310 institutions in Lebanon, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Jordan. The study revealed a lack of capacity of HEIs to provide quality data, raising issues concerning institutional excellence and transparency. Those data which were available were analysed using a number of statistical methods. The result is that faculty research output in the Arab world is relatively low, confirming the existing notion of a lagging knowledge sector in the region. While traditional scholarship has focused on institutional factors such as budgetary allocation as one prime determinant of research productivity, this study claims that other factors need to be considered in explaining the low output, with broad implications for policy formulation. Such factors include overall satisfaction levels of academic staff, socialisation of faculty staff members into a research climate, and university mission vis-à-vis academic research. Given the distinct paucity of studies on faculty research productivity in HEIs in the Arab region, this study seeks to bridge this gap in the literature by providing original data derived from six Arab countries. The authors aim to provide a basis for further research into this topic.

  10. Pushing the Limits: Achieving Superior Arabic Fluency in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, Kevin James

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the current situation of Arabic education in the United States with an overarching question of, "What is the best way for a student of Arabic in the United States to achieve Superior proficiency?" This study focuses on two elite institutions of Arabic education in the United States. This study is based on 3 sources of…

  11. The Arabic Language and National Identity: A Study in Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Yasir

    This study of Arabic culture, language, history, and nationalism provides an inside view of key issues in understanding the Arab world. It combines detailed readings of Arabic nationalist literature, the scholarly literature on nationalism, and sociolinguistics work on language and national identity. Seven chapters focus on the following issues:…

  12. Arab American Students in Public Schools. ERIC Digest, Number 142.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This digest reviews ways to provide Arab Americans with a supportive school environment and all students with an accurate and unbiased education about the Middle East. The school climate will make Arab American students feel more welcome if Arab culture is included in multicultural courses and activities, and if the staff works to eliminate…

  13. The Internationalization of the Business Administration Curricula in Arab Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Ahmed Abdel-Rahman

    2006-01-01

    This is a study of the extent of the internationalization of the business administration curricula in Arab universities. It is based on a survey of 110 Arab colleges of business that comprise more than half of the overall population, 35% of whom responded. The study found that Arab colleges of business appear to be only moderately…

  14. Arabic as a Heritage Language in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Arabic language in the United States. Drawing on archival research and statistical analysis, the article is divided into 4 major sections. The first discusses the history of immigration from the Arab world to the United States, as well as past efforts at Arabic language maintenance. The article continues…

  15. Building Arab Americans' Cultural Identity and Acceptance with Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hazza, Tami Craft; Bucher, Katherine T.

    2008-01-01

    Literature can help children develop their own cultural identity, as it helps them understand and appreciate the culture of others. Research shows that in elementary schools some Arab American students are not exposed to stories that represent their culture. In addition, many teachers are not familiar with literature about Arabs or Arab Americans.…

  16. Never Say Never: The Case for Iraqi Judeo-Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Talia

    2006-01-01

    In light of a growing body of research on language death, this paper examines the situation of Judeo-Arabic, an ethnolect of Jews from Arabic-speaking countries with various written and spoken forms. More specifically, the fate of the Iraqi variety of Judeo-Arabic is discussed, particularly in the context of Montreal, Canada. Educational…

  17. The Complex Impact of Closeness: Studying Arab Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Michal; Essa, Rania

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between language and identity in the Israeli conflictual situation, exploring the perceptions of Israeli Arab adolescents in two different contexts: a mixed city and a homogeneous Arab town. Adolescents in the mixed city, although more exposed to Hebrew and to Jewish culture, develop a stronger sense of "Arab"…

  18. Along Freedom's Double Edge: The Arab Press Under Israeli Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Munir K.

    This paper examines the Arab press under Israeli occupation and presents two hypotheses: freedom of the press under occupation serves both Israeli interests and the Arab population, and freedom of the Arab press under occupation is "relative" and "controlled." By allowing freedom of expression, the Israelis achieve several aims: a free press will…

  19. Implementing Morocco's Arabization Policy: Two Problems of Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seckinger, Beverley

    Following its independence from France in 1956, Morocco declared Arabic its official language. Successive policies of Arabization have been devised with the aim of ultimately converting French language domains into Arabic ones. However, there are two kinds of problems with the way the Moroccan language situation has been described and analyzed for…

  20. The Problems of Translating Oriental Texts into Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Ma'Abrah, Mohamdd Akash

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the problems and difficulties that face the students of Arabic Language at Mu'tah University when translating oriental texts from English into Arabic in the academic year 2011-2012. The difficulties facing Arabic students when translating oriental texts has never been studied, rising an urgent need…

  1. Development and Evaluation of the Arabic Filial Piety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the validity and reliability of a new Arabic Filial Piety scale (AFPS) for use with informal Arab caregivers. Background: Filial piety, a term used to describe a set of family values in relation to parental care. This is the first measure of this construct for use with Arab populations in Israel. Method: A random sample of…

  2. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus Acacia,...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus Acacia, family Leguminosae. (b) The ingredient meets...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus...

  7. Correlates of Reading Fluency in Arabic: Diglossic and Orthographic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2005-01-01

    Arabic native speaking children are born into a unique linguistic context called diglossia (Ferguson, "word", 14, 47?56, [1959]). In this context, children grow up speaking a Spoken Arabic Vernacular (SAV), which is an exclusively spoken language, but later learn to read another linguistically related form, Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Forty-two…

  8. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  9. A Testing Instrument for High School Arabic, Level III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolowelsky, Joel B.

    The Arabic language examination was designed for Jewish immigrants from Syria wishing to satisfy New York State language requirements for high school graduation by indicating their proficiency in Arabic. The test is essentially a translation of a state test of Hebrew, and is intended to test Arabic at the third-year high school level. The…

  10. Cultures in Conflict: Arab Students in American Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Anne

    Cultural differences between Arabs and Americans may cause misunderstandings when Arab students come to study in American universities. As part of the author's plan to write a guidebook for Arab students who are new to American university life, this paper presents preliminary analysis of differences in the two cultures. The author hopes her…

  11. The Linguistic Affiliation Constraint and Phoneme Recognition in Diglossic Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Levin, Iris; Hende, Nareman; Ziv, Margalit

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effect of the phoneme's linguistic affiliation (Standard Arabic versus Spoken Arabic) on phoneme recognition among five-year-old Arabic native speaking kindergarteners (N=60). Using a picture selection task of words beginning with the same phoneme, and through careful manipulation of the phonological properties of target…

  12. Morphological structure in the Arabic mental lexicon: Parallels between standard and dialectal Arabic

    PubMed Central

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabic language is acquired by its native speakers both as a regional spoken Arabic dialect, acquired in early childhood as a first language, and as the more formal variety known as Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), typically acquired later in childhood. These varieties of Arabic show a range of linguistic similarities and differences. Since previous psycholinguistic research in Arabic has primarily used MSA, it remains to be established whether the same cognitive properties hold for the dialects. Here we focus on the morphological level, and ask whether roots and word patterns play similar or different roles in MSA and in the regional dialect known as Southern Tunisian Arabic (STA). In two intra-modal auditory-auditory priming experiments, we found similar results with strong priming effects for roots and patterns in both varieties. Despite differences in the timing and nature of the acquisition of MSA and STA, root and word pattern priming was clearly distinguishable from form-based and semantic-based priming in both varieties. The implication of these results for theories of Arabic diglossia and theories of morphological processing are discussed. PMID:24347753

  13. Morphological structure in the Arabic mental lexicon: Parallels between standard and dialectal Arabic.

    PubMed

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, William D

    2013-12-01

    The Arabic language is acquired by its native speakers both as a regional spoken Arabic dialect, acquired in early childhood as a first language, and as the more formal variety known as Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), typically acquired later in childhood. These varieties of Arabic show a range of linguistic similarities and differences. Since previous psycholinguistic research in Arabic has primarily used MSA, it remains to be established whether the same cognitive properties hold for the dialects. Here we focus on the morphological level, and ask whether roots and word patterns play similar or different roles in MSA and in the regional dialect known as Southern Tunisian Arabic (STA). In two intra-modal auditory-auditory priming experiments, we found similar results with strong priming effects for roots and patterns in both varieties. Despite differences in the timing and nature of the acquisition of MSA and STA, root and word pattern priming was clearly distinguishable from form-based and semantic-based priming in both varieties. The implication of these results for theories of Arabic diglossia and theories of morphological processing are discussed. PMID:24347753

  14. Attitudes towards Bilingual Arab-Hebrew Education in Israel: A Comparative Study of Jewish and Arab Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Shoham, Meyrav; Amara, Muhammad; Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura; 'Ali, Nohad

    2011-01-01

    This study examines attitudes towards bilingual Jewish-Arab education among Jewish and Arab adults in Israel. The sample consisted of 1014 respondents who participated in a national phone survey in late 2006. Results indicate that Arabs are significantly more supportive of bilingual education in Israel than Jews. Positive attitudes regarding the…

  15. The Realization of the Speech Act of Refusal in Egyptian Arabic by American Learners of Arabic as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morkus, Nader

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how the speech act of refusal is realized in Egyptian Arabic by intermediate and advanced American learners of Arabic as a foreign language. It also compared the performance of the learners to that of native speakers of Egyptian Arabic and native speakers of American English. The study aimed to investigate the relationship…

  16. Education in the Arab Gulf States and the Arab World; An Annotated Bibliographic Guide: Garland Reference Library of Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sanabary, Nagat

    This book is a 1,775-item bibliography of English-language literature published between 1950 and 1989 on education in the Arab Gulf States and the Arab world as well as general works on the Arab countries as a whole. The first chapter provides an introduction and discussion of major issues in various areas. The literature citations are grouped in…

  17. Rapid succession of plant associations on the small ocean island of Mauritius at the onset of the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Erik J.; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Vincent Florens, F. B.; Baider, Cláudia; Engels, Stefan; Dakos, Vasilis; Blaauw, Maarten; Bennett, K. D.

    2013-05-01

    The island of Mauritius offers the opportunity to study the poorly understood vegetation response to climate change on a small tropical oceanic island. A high-resolution pollen record from a 10 m long peat core from Kanaka Crater (560 m elevation, Mauritius, Indian Ocean) shows that vegetation shifted from a stable open wet forest Last Glacial state to a stable closed-stratified-tall-forest Holocene state. An ecological threshold was crossed at ˜11.5 cal ka BP, propelling the forest ecosystem into an unstable period lasting ˜4000 years. The shift between the two steady states involves a cascade of four abrupt (<150 years) forest transitions in which different tree species dominated the vegetation for a quasi-stable period of respectively ˜1900, ˜1100 and ˜900 years. We interpret the first forest transition as climate-driven, reflecting the response of a small low topography oceanic island where significant spatial biome migration is impossible. The three subsequent forest transitions are not evidently linked to climate events, and are suggested to be driven by internal forest dynamics. The cascade of four consecutive events of species turnover occurred at a remarkably fast rate compared to changes during the preceding and following periods, and might therefore be considered as a composite tipping point in the ecosystem. We hypothesize that wet gallery forest, spatially and temporally stabilized by the drainage system, served as a long lasting reservoir of biodiversity and facilitated a rapid exchange of species with the montane forests to allow for a rapid cascade of plant associations.

  18. Executive Function Differences Between Bilingual Arabic-English and Monolingual Arabic Children.

    PubMed

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than monolinguals, while others showed that monolinguals perform significantly better. Other studies showed no significant differences between both groups, findings which were argued to be due to methodological issues. A total of 50 Arabic monolingual and Arabic-English bilingual children ranging 7-10 years of age participated in the current study. Six executive function tasks, divided into two categories (inhibition of improper response tasks, and behavioral operational control tasks), were administered. Results did not show significant differences for most executive functions. PMID:25056578

  19. Image Making of Arab Americans: Implications for Teachers in Diverse Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Mahmoud F.

    Arab Americans are a very diverse group. Misinformation about Arab culture plays a significant role in American perceptions and understandings of Arab American students. Whenever major events occur in the Middle East, Arab Americans become the focus of investigation. However, the Arab American community has remained relatively silent. The media…

  20. "Arab Labor"'s Alternative Vision: The "Liberal Bargain" in the Welfare State of Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal-Ezer, Miri; Tidhar, Chava

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on "Independence Day", an episode of "Arab Labor" (first season, 2008), a pioneer bilingual Hebrew-Arabic satirical Israeli TV series, written by Sayed Kashua, an Arab-Israeli author and journalist. "Arab Labor" was a breakthrough in the Israeli popular TV scape, where, as a rule, Arab-Israeli citizens are either depicted…

  1. Arabic Spelling: Errors, Perceptions, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosh, Hezi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated common spelling errors among first language English speakers who study Arabic at the college level. A sample of 63 students (45 males and 18 females) was asked to write texts about a variety of topics and then to answer survey questions regarding their perceptions and strategies. Their writing produced 457 spelling errors,…

  2. Using Technology for Teaching Arabic Language Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrabtah, Adel; Nusour, Tayseer

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of using technology such as CD-ROM, computers, and internet to teach Arabic language grammar to students at Princess Alia University College at Al-Balqa University. The sample of the study consisted of 122 third year female students; (64) for the experimental group and (58) for the control group. The subjects of…

  3. Special Education in Arab Countries: Current Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab countries have undertaken various measures to develop special education programmes and services over the last three decades; nevertheless, major challenges remain regarding the expansion of these programmes and services and improving their quality. "This article provides an update on disability and special education in Arab…

  4. Dearborn Forms Elementary Arabic Language Program Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabrizi, Shereen

    2009-01-01

    The Dearborn Public Schools, with 18,300 students, is located in the Detroit urban area with the largest concentration of Arabic-speaking people in the United States. In order to prepare the students for the 21st century skills and global awareness and in response to parents' requests, the author in collaboration with the school principal and…

  5. Petroleum prospecting in the Arab world

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses about oil and gas exploration in the Arab countries. After describing the chemistry and formation of petroleum and steps involved in prospecting, the book surveys the history and results of prospecting in each country. It also provides diagrams, maps, appended reserves and production data, and English equivalent terms.

  6. The Changing Role of Arab Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayani, Ibrahim

    1980-01-01

    In most Arab countries, the emancipation of women has been retarded due to social conditions that are alien to Islamic precepts. Improvements in women's status are being made under the impact of modernization, mass education, and national struggles for liberation. (SK)

  7. The Linguistics of Loanwords in Hadrami Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saqqaf, Abdullah Hassan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore loanwords in Hadrami Arabic (Yemen). Most of these words, which are now diminishing due to the social and economical development in the region, reflect some stage of bilingualism when the Hadramis (natives of Hadramawt, Yemen) migrated to different parts of the world. The donor languages range from the tongues…

  8. English Teaching Profile: Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A description of the role and status of the English language in the Yemen Arab Republic begins with a general statement concerning the distribution of English speakers and the use of English language materials. Subsequent sections outline: (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education;…

  9. Introducing Literary Arabic, Volume II: Grammatical Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Sami A.; Greis, Naguib

    This volume, designed as a companion to "Introducing Literary Arabic" provides basic grammatical explanations essential in first-year courses. Each of the 15 units, with the exception of the first, contains related grammatical notes, paradigms, and illustrations. The grammatical rules are intended to make explicit general underlying structures.…

  10. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YUSHMANOV, N.V.

    THE PRESENT STUDY IS A TRANSLATION OF THE WORK "STROI ARABSKOGO YAZYKA" BY THE EMINENT RUSSIAN LINGUIST AND SEMITICS SCHOLAR, N.Y. YUSHMANOV. IT DEALS CONCISELY WITH THE POSITION OF ARABIC AMONG THE SEMITIC LANGUAGES AND THE RELATION OF THE LITERARY (CLASSICAL) LANGUAGE TO THE VARIOUS MODERN SPOKEN DIALECTS, AND PRESENTS A CONDENSED BUT…

  11. Arab oil and gas directory 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The directory provides detailed statistics and information on aspects of oil and gas production, exploration and developments in the 24 Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa and in Iran. It includes the texts of relevant new laws and official documents, official surveys, current projects and developments, up-to-date statistics covering OPEC and OAPEC member countries, and has 26 maps.

  12. Students from the Arab World and Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althen, Gary L., Ed.

    Information on the background and viewpoints of Middle Eastern students who are studying in the United States is presented in revised papers from a 1978 seminar, "The Middle East: The Arab World and Iran." In the first section of the report, "General Background," James Cowan reviews social and cultural factors, as well as questions of philosophy…

  13. Conceptual Change among Arab Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rass, Ruwaida Abu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a qualitative research study designed to examine the effectiveness of an attempt to make a conceptual change among pre-service teachers to their role as trainees and the role of their pedagogical advisor. The participants are six Arab-Muslim female student teachers who are highly influenced by their first learning…

  14. Arabic Phonology: An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Salman H.

    This book presents an acoustical and physiological Investigation of contemporary standard Arabic as spoken in Iraq. Spectrograms and X-ray sound films are used to perform the analysis for the study. With this equipment, the author considers the vowels, consonants, pharyngealized consonants, pharyngeals and glottals, duration, gemination, and…

  15. Predictors of Arab American Adolescent Tobacco Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Virginia Hill; Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Kulwicki, Anahid

    2006-01-01

    This study examined personal, psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental predictors in tobacco use for 1,671 Arab American adolescents. Cigarette smoking in the past 30 days was 6.9%. This increased from 1% at age 14 to 14% at age 18. Twenty-nine percent of the youths reported having ever smoked cigarettes. Experimentation with narghile was…

  16. Epidemiology of oral cancer in Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jaber, Abeer; Al-Nasser, Lubna; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review the oral cancer (OC) studies that were conducted in Arab countries with regard to epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis. Methods: A computer-based PubMed literature search was performed to retrieve studies conducted in the Arab world on epidemiology of OC. After screening for exclusion criteria, cross-referencing, and searching local journals, a total of 19 articles were included. Results: Eight prevalence studies found an OC prevalence ranging from 1.8 to 2.13 per 100,000 persons. Oral cancer patients were mostly in their fifth to sixth decade of life, and the incidence in younger age was reported in some Arab countries. Yemenis have an alarming high prevalence of OC among people younger than 45 years. Eleven studies explored determinants or prognosis of OC. Behavioral determinants such as smokeless tobacco (Shamma and Qat), and cigarette smoking were strongly associated with OC. Alcohol drinking and solar radiation exposures were cited as possible risk factors. The most affected sites were tongue, floor of the mouth, and lower lip variations in the affected site were attributed to the socio-cultural behavior of the populations under study. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequently detected cancer, and usually patients were in late stages (III and IV) at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion: No solid evidence exists regarding the true OC prevalence/incidence in most Arab countries due to the lack of national cancer registries and population-based studies. PMID:26905345

  17. Arabic Poetry: Guzzle a Ghazal! [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Bedouins of ancient Arabia and Persia made poetry a conversational art form, and several poetic forms developed from the participatory nature of tribal poetry. Today in most Arab cultures, people may still experience public storytelling and spontaneous poetry challenges in the streets. The art of turning a rhyme into sly verbal sparring is…

  18. A Beginner's Course in Tunisian Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amor, Taoufik Ben

    This guide is designed for the Arabic language training of Peace Corps volunteers serving in Tunisia and focuses on daily communication skills needed in that context. It contains 15 lessons, each made up of: a teacher's guide sheet, which outlines specific objectives, contents, and materials needed; a dialogue introducing the lesson's theme; a…

  19. ESR spectroscopic properties of irradiated gum Arabic.

    PubMed

    Leonor, S J; Gómez, J A; Kinoshita, A; Calandreli, I; Tfouni, E; Baffa, O

    2013-12-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of irradiated gum Arabic with doses between 0.5 and 5 kGy were studied. A linear relationship between the absorbed dose and the intensities of the ESR spectra was observed. ESR spectra of irradiated gum Arabic showed a decay of relative concentrations of free radicals originated by radiation and the production of at least two species of free radicals with half-times: 3.3 and 125.4 h. The results of spectral simulations for these radical groups were giso=2.0046; A=1.2 mT and gx=gy=2.0062, gz=2.0025. Hydration and dehydration of irradiated gum Arabic returns the ESR spectrum to its initial state before irradiation. The results show that ESR can be used as simple and reliable method to detect irradiated gum Arabic up to 60 days after initial radiation with doses on the order of 5 kGy. PMID:23870902

  20. Faculty Research Productivity in Six Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abouchedid, Kamal; Abdelnour, George

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the research output of a sample of higher education institutions (HEIs) in six Arab countries in order to start quantifying academic research productivity in the wider region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). A questionnaire classifying HEIs was administered to 310 institutions in Lebanon, Qatar, the United Arab…

  1. Aeromonas in Arab countries: 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Tawil, Khaled; Al Tomi, Abdurazzaq; Franka, Ezzadin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria. Using molecular techniques few studies reported genes encoding several toxins from aeromonads isolated from different sources. Among the antimicrobials examined in the present review third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides showed excellent activity and can be employed in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated human infections in Arabic countries. Whenever possible, treatment should be guided by the susceptibility testing results of the isolated organism. In the future, studies employing molecular testing methods are required to provide data on circulating genospecies and their modes of transmission in the community, and on their mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Microbiology laboratories and research centers are encouraged to look for these organisms in clinical, food and water sources to attain a better understanding of the public health risks from these organisms in Arab countries. PMID:26577192

  2. A segmentation-free approach to Arabic and Urdu OCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbour, Nazly; Shafait, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a generic Optical Character Recognition system for Arabic script languages called Nabocr. Nabocr uses OCR approaches specific for Arabic script recognition. Performing recognition on Arabic script text is relatively more difficult than Latin text due to the nature of Arabic script, which is cursive and context sensitive. Moreover, Arabic script has different writing styles that vary in complexity. Nabocr is initially trained to recognize both Urdu Nastaleeq and Arabic Naskh fonts. However, it can be trained by users to be used for other Arabic script languages. We have evaluated our system's performance for both Urdu and Arabic. In order to evaluate Urdu recognition, we have generated a dataset of Urdu text called UPTI (Urdu Printed Text Image Database), which measures different aspects of a recognition system. The performance of our system for Urdu clean text is 91%. For Arabic clean text, the performance is 86%. Moreover, we have compared the performance of our system against Tesseract's newly released Arabic recognition, and the performance of both systems on clean images is almost the same.

  3. [Cultural heritage and audiovisual creation in the Arab world].

    PubMed

    Aziza, M

    1979-01-01

    Audiovisual creation is facing in Arab countries problems arising from the use of imported techniques in order to reconstitute or transform their own reality. Arab audiovisual producers see this technique as an easy and efficient way to reproduce reality or construct conventionally an artificial universe. Sometimes, audiovisuals have an absolute suggestion power; sometimes, these techniques are faced with total incredulity. From a diffusion point of view, audiovisuals in the Arab world have a very specific status. The effects of television, studied by western researchers in their cultural environment, are not reproduced in the same fashion in the Arab cultural world. In the Arab world, the word very often still competes successfully with the picture, even after the appearance and adoption of mass media. Finally, one must mention a very interesting situation resulting from a linguistic phenomenon which is specific to the Arab world: the existence of 2 communication languages, one noble but little used, the other dialectical but popular. In all Arab countries, the News, the most political program, is broadcasted in the classical language, despite the danger of meaning distortion in the least educated public. The reason is probably that the classical Arab language enjoys a sacred status. Arab audiovisuals are facing several obstacles to their total and autonomous realization. The contribution of the Arab audiovisual producers is relatively modest, compared to some other areas of cultural creation. Arab film-making is looking more and more for the cooperation of contemporary writers. Contemporary literature is a considerable source for the renewal of Arab audiovisual expression. A relationship between film and popular cultural heritage could be very usefully established in both directions. Audiovisuals should treat popular cultural manifestations as a global social fact on several significant levels. PMID:12261391

  4. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

  5. Erosion and sedimentation in Arab countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This symposium is organized by the Iraqi National Committee for the International Hydrological Program (IHP) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) International Commission on Continental Erosion (ICCE). It will be held February 15-19, 1986, at the Water Research Center in Baghdad, Iraq. The program will cover a wide range of topics associated with erosion and sedimentation in Arab countries. These topics include soil erosion and sedimentation problems, erosion, transport and deposition processes, sediment yields, reservoir sedimentation, and river training.

  6. Unexpectedly high injection drug use, HIV and hepatitis C prevalence among female sex workers in the Republic of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Corceal, Sewraz

    2013-02-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) often have a disproportionately high prevalence of HIV infection and they, along with their clients, are considered a core group contributing to the transmission of HIV in many countries. In 2010, females who reported having vaginal/anal/oral sex in the last 6 months with a male in exchange for money or gifts, aged ≥15 years, and living in Mauritius were recruited into a survey using respondent driven sampling. Consenting females (n = 299) completed a behavioral questionnaire and provided venous blood for HIV, HCV and HBV testing. HIV seroprevalence among FSW was 28.9 % and 43.8 % were infected with HCV; among HIV seropositive FSW, 88.2 % were also infected with HCV. Almost 40 % of FSW reported injecting drugs sometime in their lives and 30.5 % of all FSW reported doing so in the previous 3 months. Among those who ever injected drugs, 82.5 % did so in the past 3 months and among those 60 % reported injecting drugs at least once a day. Among FSW who ever injected drugs, 17.5 % reported sharing a needle at last injection. Regression analyses found injection drug use behaviors to be positively associated with HIV seroprevalence. These findings indicate that FSW, especially those who inject drugs, are at high risk for HIV and HCV infection and transmission and illustrates the need for gender responsive HIV and injection drug use prevention and treatment models that respond to the unique situations that affect this population. PMID:22851154

  7. Report on the observed response of Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) upon encountering a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Prayitno, Bambang; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    We observed an encounter between a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and a group of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) at the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. A python (about 2 m in length) moved toward a group of lutungs in the trees. Upon seeing the python, an adult male and several adult female lutungs began to emit alarm calls. As the python approached, two adult and one sub-adult female jumped onto a branch near the python and began mobbing the python by shaking the branch. During the mobbing, other individuals in the group (including an adult lutung male) remained nearby but did not participate. The python then rolled into a ball-like shape and stopped moving, at which point the lutungs moved away. The total duration of the encounter was about 40 min, during which time the lutungs stopped feeding and grooming. Group cohesiveness during and after the encounter was greater than that before the encounter, indicating that lutungs adjust their daily activity in response to potential predation risk. PMID:26910233

  8. Towards a sight word list in Arabic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oweini, Ahmad; Hazoury, Katia

    2010-10-01

    While the English language boasts a century of research into its most frequently-used words, no such attempt has ever formally been made in the Arab world. This pioneering study presents a list of 500 commonly-used words in the Arabic language based on compilations of words gathered from a number of popular reading series in Lebanon, spanning grades K to 3. This list can serve as a powerful tool for language teachers—who face several challenges posed by the inherent nature of Arabic in terms of diglossia, orthography and morphology—and provide them with a handy list of words for their pupils. The study has its limitations in terms of scope, breadth and the nature of the technology used for counting words. Nonetheless, it makes a number of recommendations for the future, including the development of a readability formula based on this list, the expansion of the scope of this word list and improvement to increase its technical accuracy.

  9. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  10. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world

    PubMed Central

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5th leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10th as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease. PMID:27114755

  11. Spotting words in handwritten Arabic documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srihari, Sargur; Srinivasan, Harish; Babu, Pavithra; Bhole, Chetan

    2006-01-01

    The design and performance of a system for spotting handwritten Arabic words in scanned document images is presented. Three main components of the system are a word segmenter, a shape based matcher for words and a search interface. The user types in a query in English within a search window, the system finds the equivalent Arabic word, e.g., by dictionary look-up, locates word images in an indexed (segmented) set of documents. A two-step approach is employed in performing the search: (1) prototype selection: the query is used to obtain a set of handwritten samples of that word from a known set of writers (these are the prototypes), and (2) word matching: the prototypes are used to spot each occurrence of those words in the indexed document database. A ranking is performed on the entire set of test word images-- where the ranking criterion is a similarity score between each prototype word and the candidate words based on global word shape features. A database of 20,000 word images contained in 100 scanned handwritten Arabic documents written by 10 different writers was used to study retrieval performance. Using five writers for providing prototypes and the other five for testing, using manually segmented documents, 55% precision is obtained at 50% recall. Performance increases as more writers are used for training.

  12. Arabic writer identification based on diacritic's features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliki, Makki; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    Natural languages like Arabic, Kurdish, Farsi (Persian), Urdu, and any other similar languages have many features, which make them different from other languages like Latin's script. One of these important features is diacritics. These diacritics are classified as: compulsory like dots which are used to identify/differentiate letters, and optional like short vowels which are used to emphasis consonants. Most indigenous and well trained writers often do not use all or some of these second class of diacritics, and expert readers can infer their presence within the context of the writer text. In this paper, we investigate the use of diacritics shapes and other characteristic as parameters of feature vectors for Arabic writer identification/verification. Segmentation techniques are used to extract the diacritics-based feature vectors from examples of Arabic handwritten text. The results of evaluation test will be presented, which has been carried out on an in-house database of 50 writers. Also the viability of using diacritics for writer recognition will be demonstrated.

  13. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future. PMID:25770651

  14. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-04-25

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5(th) leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10(th) as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease. PMID:27114755

  15. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. Design/Methods The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. Discussion The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID

  16. Reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, reader self-perception, and arabic achievement of Arab-American students learning arabic as a second language.

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M

    2014-12-01

    The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed. PMID:25457094

  17. “We are Arabs:” The Embodiment of Virginity Through Arab and Arab American Women’s Lived Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was used to conduct in-depth interviews with ten women. We identified one over-arching theme Virginity as Identity, and two major themes Embodiment of Virginity and “We are Arabs.” To reach an embodied virginity, participants went through a disembodied virginity process, reflecting society’s perceptions and values of virginity related to anatomical presence of a hymen and society’s honor. “We are Arabs” describes the ways women identified with the Arab ethnic identity as a shared overall identification, but differed from one lived experience to another, and influenced how participants embodied virginity. Our participants provided a better understanding of the diverse meanings of virginity that move beyond the binary of virginity and virginity loss, and into a spectrum of embodied meanings. Findings suggest the need for future research around sexuality in Arab Americans with attention to socio-political contexts in order to understand the nature and context of sexual initiation and its impact on sexual behaviors and well-being. PMID:26865811

  18. Mid-Holocene vertebrate bone Concentration-Lagerstätte on oceanic island Mauritius provides a window into the ecosystem of the dodo ( Raphus cucullatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.; Hume, Julian P.; Bunnik, Frans; Florens, F. B. Vincent; Baider, Claudia; Shapiro, Beth; van der Plicht, Johannes; Janoo, Anwar; Griffiths, Owen; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Cremer, Holger; Vernimmen, Tamara; De Louw, Perry G. B.; Bholah, Assenjee; Saumtally, Salem; Porch, Nicolas; Haile, James; Buckley, Mike; Collins, Matthew; Gittenberger, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    Although the recent history of human colonisation and impact on Mauritius is well documented, virtually no records of the pre-human native ecosystem exist, making it difficult to assess the magnitude of the changes brought about by human settlement. Here, we describe a 4000-year-old fossil bed at Mare aux Songes (MAS) in south-eastern Mauritius that contains both macrofossils (vertebrate fauna, gastropods, insects and flora) and microfossils (diatoms, pollen, spores and phytoliths). With >250 bone fragments/m 2 and comprising 50% of all known extinct and extant vertebrate species ( ns = 44) of Mauritius, MAS may constitute the first Holocene vertebrate bone Concentration-Lagerstätte identified on an oceanic volcanic island. Fossil remains are dominated by extinct giant tortoises Cylindraspis spp. (63%), passerines (˜10%), small bats (7.8%) and dodo Raphus cucullatus (7.1%). Twelve radiocarbon ages [four of them duplicates] from bones and other material suggest that accumulation of fossils took place within several centuries. An exceptional combination of abiotic conditions led to preservation of bones, bone collagen, plant tissue and microfossils. Although bone collagen is well preserved, DNA from dodo and other Mauritian vertebrates has proved difficult. Our analysis suggests that from ca 4000 years ago (4 ka), rising sea levels created a freshwater lake at MAS, generating an oasis in an otherwise dry environment which attracted a diverse vertebrate fauna. Subsequent aridification in the south-west Indian Ocean region may have increased carcass accumulation during droughts, contributing to the exceptionally high fossil concentration. The abundance of floral and faunal remains in this Lagerstätte offers a unique opportunity to reconstruct a pre-human ecosystem on an oceanic island, providing a key foundation for assessing the vulnerability of island ecosystems to human impact.

  19. "Good Citizenship" through Bilingual Children Literature: Arabic and Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamir, Sara; Baratz, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research has been to evaluate the contribution of the genre of bilingual literature, Arabic and Hebrew, to citizenship education. Since the Israeli society is a multicultural society comprised of both nations, Arabs and Jews who live in conflicted environment, one must regard those textbooks as civic agents. Literature is a…

  20. Sex Differences in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2011-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…

  1. Arab Parents' Involvement in School Reform in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu

    2014-01-01

    Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study…

  2. Validity and Reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhamra, Rana A.; Al-Jazi, Aya B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Token Test for Children (2nd edition) (TTFC) is a measure for assessing receptive language. In this study we describe the translation process, validity and reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children (A-TTFC). Aims: The aim of this study is to translate, validate and establish the reliability of the Arabic Token Test for…

  3. Predicting Physical Activity in Arab American School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically grounded research on the determinants of Arab American children's physical activity is virtually nonexistent. Thus, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and social cognitive theory (SCT) to predict Arab American children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).…

  4. Nonformal Education in the Arab States: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobeih, Nabil Ahmed Amer

    The Arab states have come to realize the significance of nonformal education and its importance in achieving economic and social development. At present, however, support given by formal education for nonformal methods of education is minimal. In each of the Arab countries there exist many different kinds of nonformal education programs, all of…

  5. Arabic Women and English Language Learning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkarni, Ream

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to interview Arabic women students at Spring International Language Center to record their perceptions, rationale, goals, stories, and opinions about learning English in a U.S. language school. This research was conducted to understand the purposes and goals of Arabic women who come to the United Stated to study the…

  6. A Basic Course of Literary Arabic. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Salman H.; Shammas, Jacob Y.

    The material presented in this workbook, which is in preliminary form under revision, has been designed to introduce the basic aspects of the morphology and syntax of literary Arabic. It is intended to be used with and as a continuation of "The Phonology and Script of Literary Arabic," by the same authors. (See ED 012 912.) These two volumes,…

  7. Civil Rights Issues Facing Arab Americans in Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    This report is a summary statement of the Michigan Advisory Committee's study on civil rights issues facing Arab American communities in Michigan. It is based on information received by the Committee at a community forum held in Dearborn, Michigan, in 1999. Six sections focus on: (1) "Introduction," including Arab American demographics in Wayne…

  8. Mauritanian Arabic. Teacher's Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Raymond C.; And Others

    The teaching guide is designed to accompany a set of instructional materials in Mauritanian Arabic (Hassaniya) for Peace Corps volunteers. It provides information and techniques for language teaching in three volumes: (1) a literacy handbook--a volume of lessons on the Arabic alphabet and script; (2) a communication and culture handbook; and (3) a…

  9. Web-Based CALL for Arabic: Constraints and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corda, Alessandra; van der Stel, Mieke

    2004-01-01

    The first section of this paper gives a brief overview of the experiences with LAN-based CALL programs for Arabic in the past 7 years at Leiden University (The Netherlands). The second section discusses constraints and technical challenges related to the use of Web-based CALL for Arabic, focusing in particular on a new Web-based CALL application,…

  10. Modern Standard Arabic: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XX: Comprehension Drills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The last of 20 volumes of lessons designed for use in a full-time, intensive training program in Arabic is presented. The 128 lessons in this volume contain various types of comprehension drills. Lessons 14-128 are completely in Arabic. (AMH)

  11. A Morphological Analyzer for Vocalized or Not Vocalized Arabic Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amine Abderrahim, Med; Breksi Reguig, Fethi

    This research has been to show the realization of a morphological analyzer of the Arabic language (vocalized or not vocalized). This analyzer is based upon our object model for the Arabic Natural Language Processing (NLP) and can be exploited by NLP applications such as translation machine, orthographical correction and the search for information.

  12. Doublets in Arabic: Notes towards a Diachronic Phonological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahadin, Radwan S.

    1989-01-01

    Examines doublets in Arabic, discussing the alterations between the determinants in the doublets, and shows that the alterations are the result of phonological changes. It is concluded that the phonological changes are in agreement with changes that have occurred in other Semitic languages and in modern Arabic dialects. (30 references) (Author/VWL)

  13. The Modern Effects of Teacher Education on the Arab World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldakak, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The Arab world contains one of the greatest cultures and histories of any ethnic group in the world. However, since the 1980s, the education of this region has plummeted despite increases in school enrollers. This is prominently seen in the illiteracy rate of 30% throughout the Arab world. Furthermore, with a high unemployment rate of 14%, which…

  14. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  15. Taking Root: Arab-American Community Studies, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooglund, Eric, Ed.

    This book is the second in a series of works that seeks to examine the Arab-American experience. The original 1984 publication, "Taking Root, Bearing Fruit: The Arab-American Experience" featured surveys of 12 communities in all geographic regions of the United States. Such was the response to that report that its creators decided to continue the…

  16. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  17. Processability Approach to Arabic L2 Teaching and Syllabus Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Shatter, Ghassan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between the developmental hierarchy in the acquisition of Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2) and formal classroom instruction. It provides a general presentation of the current debate on the influence of formal instruction in the acquisition of L2. Special attention is given to the subset of…

  18. Morphological Structures in Visual Word Recognition: The Case of Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Awwad, Jasmin (Shalhoub)

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the function within lexical access of the main morphemic units from which most Arabic words are assembled, namely roots and word patterns. The present study focused on the derivation of nouns, in particular, whether the lexical representation of Arabic words reflects their morphological structure and whether recognition of a…

  19. The Learning of Arabic by Israeli Jewish Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1998-01-01

    Examines the learning of Arabic by Israeli Jewish children. Finds that children displayed negative attitudes toward learning Arabic, but had positive attitudes toward the classroom situation. Also finds that classroom situation was the best predictor of learning success. Suggests that children are influenced more by classroom environment than by…

  20. Attitudes of Kuwait University Students towards Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouhmama, Djilali; Bouhmama, Soumia

    2015-01-01

    This research work endeavors to examine Kuwait University language students' attitude towards Modern Standard Arabic under the spread of English as a dominant language. It attempts also to examine differences between males and females' attitudes towards English as medium of instruction as opposed to Modern Standard Arabic. The undertaken study…

  1. An American Honors Program in the Arab Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yyelland, Byrad

    2012-01-01

    The first Western honors program to be established in the Arab Gulf is offered in Doha, Qatar, on a small satellite campus of an American university. Doha is the capital city of Qatar, a sovereign Arab state physically located on a small peninsula bordering Saudi Arabia in the south and jutting into the Persian Gulf. With a population of only 1.7…

  2. Bringing the Arab World to U.S. Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    When Loren Siebert struggled to learn vocabulary for his introductory Arabic class three years ago, he figured he would buy tapes or a software package. Those kinds of aids had helped him learn French in high school and, more recently, conversational Indonesian. What he was disappointed to discover was a scarcity in offerings for Arabic, despite…

  3. Structure and Processing in Tunisian Arabic: Speech Error Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamrouni, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents experimental research on speech errors in Tunisian Arabic. The nonconcatenative morphology of Arabic shows interesting interactions of phrasal and lexical constraints with morphological structure during language production. The central empirical questions revolve around properties of "exchange errors". These errors can…

  4. What Has Happened to Arabs? Identity and Face Management Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Zidjaly, Najma

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I draw on contemporary theorizing on the concept of face (e.g., Ting-Toomey 1994, 2004; Tracy 2008) and research on Islamic and Arabic cultures and linguistic strategies (e.g., Beeman 1986; Hegland 1998; Wilce 2005; Al Zidjaly 2006) to explore the role that the Internet plays in enabling Muslim Arabs to manage or save their…

  5. Who Benefits from Foreign Universities in the Arab Gulf States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The Arab Gulf States are the largest hosts of international branch campuses globally. By increasing higher education capacity in the Arab Gulf States by over 30,000 places, foreign institutions have, through various forms of transnational provision, increased significantly the accessibility of higher education to young people living in these…

  6. Islam, Modernity and Education in the Arab States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlow, Sally

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the ways in which Arab education systems have responded to the challenges of modernity alongside framing structures of religion. Focusing mainly on the tertiary education sector, it offers a critical overview of the way in which Arab education authorities have sought, collectively and individually, to address both secular and…

  7. Students with Special Needs: Arabic Speaking Children in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenhouse, Judith

    This paper explores the problems of Arab children with hearing impairments living in Israel. It addresses the linguistic challenges involved such as the intrinsic problems of the Arabic language, the diglossia phenomenon expressed in colloquial dialects and literary registers, and the problems associated with a minority language in Israel. It…

  8. Implicit Referential Meaning with Reference to English Arabic Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zughoul, Basem

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how English implicit referential meaning is translated into Arabic by analyzing sentences containing implicit referential meanings found in the novel "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban". The analysis shows that the translation of English implicit referential meaning into Arabic can be…

  9. Arabic Supervised Learning Method Using N-Gram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanan, Majed; Rammal, Mahmoud; Zreik, Khaldoun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, classification of Arabic documents is a real problem for juridical centers. In this case, some of the Lebanese official journal documents are classified, and the center has to classify new documents based on these documents. This paper aims to study and explain the useful application of supervised learning method on Arabic texts…

  10. Why Are You Learning Arabic? Orientations, Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husseinali, Ghassan

    2005-01-01

    This is a case study of motivation to learn Arabic as a foreign language at the university level in the United States. Three students enrolled in second year Arabic were the participants. Data about each participant were collected through observation of weekly group conversations, and analysis of grade records for the whole semester during which…

  11. Arab Protests May Open Door for U.S. Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.; Wilhelm, Ian

    2011-01-01

    As protesters across the Arab world demand an end to autocratic regimes that have drained universities of resources and suffocated critical thinking, scholars see some hope of an Arab renaissance and a new opening for American involvement. From the ancient Library of Alexandria to a new Islamic-arts museum in Qatar that holds 700-year-old…

  12. On the Notions "Standard" and "Prestigious" in Arabic Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Muhammad H.

    This paper examines the results of two sociolinguistic studies of the Arabic spoken by men and women in Jordan and Syria in terms of sex differentiation in Arabic. The study reported in this paper proposes that the terms "prestigious" and "standard" should not be used interchangeably; accordingly, it reinterprets the previous findings. It is…

  13. Arabic (Modern Standard) Basic Course; Minimum Military Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This English-Arabic listing of approximately 500 military terms was prepared as supplementary material for the Defense Language Institute's basic course in Modern Standard Arabic (AL 002 034). [Not available in hard copy due to marginal legibility of the original document.] (AMM)

  14. Arab Contributions to World Knowledge: A Contemporary Curriculum Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hazza, Tami Craft; Lucking, Robert

    2015-01-01

    American K-12 school curricula are often bereft of acknowledgements of the historical contributions of Arab societies to our present-day intellectual heritage, an oversight most apparent in the sciences. Teachers in a thriving democracy are obliged to introduce contemporary scholarship that reflects the contributions of Arab scientists between the…

  15. Arabic Basic Course: Basic Dialogues for Airport Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet is intended for use as supplementary material in the Advanced Phase of the "Arabic Basic Course," developed and implemented at the Defense Language Institute. The purpose of this book is to acquaint students with specialized airport terminology pertaining to takeoff and landing procedures directed in modern, standard Arabic. The…

  16. Speed of Lexical Access to Arabic and English Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasali, Hesham H.; Aljomaa, Suliman S.

    2015-01-01

    To examining the role of cultural differences in speed of lexical access, we employed two types of Posner (1967) name matching task: Arabic and English types. We have conducted an experiment on 30 native Arabic speakers from King Saud University. The results showed that the lexical access to physically identical letters is faster than lexical…

  17. Infant Mortality and Life Expectancy in the Arab World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijim, Basheer K.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan designed to teach about variations in infant mortality and life expectancy in the Arab world, to identify the concept of spatial correlation, and to learn the location of Arab countries. Includes oil exports as a variable. Discusses methods of data and map interpretation. (RW)

  18. Contrastive Analysis of American and Arab Nonverbal and Paralinguistic Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safadi, Michaela; Valentine, Carol Ann

    To achieve effective intercultural communication, participants must understand how behavioral differences may lead to miscommunication. Such behavioral differences can be illustrated by Arab and American nonverbal behavior. Individualism is the ideal for the American middle class, whereas Arabs are motivated by public opinion. Yet in the Arab…

  19. Higher Education and Development in Arab Oil Exporters: The UAE [United Arab Emirates] in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Diederik

    As exporters of oil in the Middle East and throughout the world, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) must address the following challenges in the area of development and economic growth: (1) an increasingly integrated world economy in which technology and knowledge will be paramount; (2) the need to diversify its economy from a natural resource-based…

  20. The Sociolinguistic Patterns of Native Arabic Speakers: Implications for Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Anwar A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a descriptive analysis of speech acts in Arabic: forms of address, apologies, requests, expressions of gratitude, disagreement, greetings, refusals, partings, and telephone etiquette. Results reveal that linguistic formulas of each speech act were determined by social distance, formality of the situation, age, level of education, and…

  1. Who Is Studying Arabic and Why? A Survey of Arabic Students' Orientation at a Major University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husseinali, Ghassan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the initial motivation of learners of Arabic as a foreign language (AFL). One hundred and twenty students enrolled in first-year and second-year AFL classes participated in this study. The participants were classified into two major groups of learners according to their heritage background: The first group consisted of…

  2. Reading Skills in Three Orthographies: The Case of Trilingual Arabic-Hebrew-English-Speaking Arab Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Siegel, Linda S.

    2003-01-01

    Finds a significant relationship between the acquisition of word and pseudoword reading skills, working memory, and syntactic awareness skills within and across the three languages among a group of Israeli-Arab students ages 14-15 years. Notes that trilingualism of this nature seems not to have negative consequences for the development of oral…

  3. Gum Arabic as a Cause of Occupational Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Viinanen, Arja; Salokannel, Maija; Lammintausta, Kaija

    2011-01-01

    Background. Gum arabic is a potential sensitizer in food industry. Methods. We examined 11 candy factory workers referred to examinations due to respiratory and skin symptoms paying attention to exposure and sensitization to gum arabic. Skin tests, pulmonary function tests, and respiratory provocation tests were carried out as indicated by the symptoms and findings. Results. Occupational asthma, caused by gum arabic was diagnosed in 4/11 candy factory workers and two of them had also occupational contact urticaria and one had occupational rhinitis. One of them had oral symptoms associated with ingestion of products containing gum arabic. Conclusions. Airborne exposure to gum arabic may cause sensitization leading to allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria. PMID:21747872

  4. Attitudes toward Arab ascendance: Israeli and global perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pratto, Felicia; Saguy, Tamar; Stewart, Andrew L; Morselli, Davide; Foels, Rob; Aiello, Antonio; Aranda, María; Cidam, Atilla; Chryssochoou, Xenia; Durrheim, Kevin; Eicher, Veronique; Licata, Laurent; Liu, James H; Liu, Li; Meyer, Ines; Muldoon, Orla; Papastamou, Stamos; Petrovic, Nebojsa; Prati, Francesca; Prodomitis, Gerasimos; Sweetman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Arab nations are decades behind many other previously colonized nations in developing stronger economies, more democratic institutions, and more autonomy and self-government, in part as a result of external interference. The year 2011 brought the potential for greater Arab autonomy through popular uprisings against autocratic governments in Tunisia, Egypt, and Yemen, and through the Palestinian request for state recognition by the United Nations. We examined the psychology of support for Arab ascendancy among adults in 14 nations in the Balkans, the Middle East, Asia, Oceania, Europe, and North America. We predicted and found that people low on social dominance orientation endorsed forming an independent Palestinian state and desired that the Arab uprisings succeed. Rejection of ideologies that legitimize outside interference with Arabs mediated this support. Measures and model results were robust across world regions. We discuss theoretical implications regarding the advent of new ideologies and extending social dominance theory to address international relations. PMID:24311474

  5. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  6. The Influence of the Israel-Arab Conflict on Israeli-Jewish Students Learning Arabic as a Third Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1998-01-01

    The attitudes of 100 Israeli-Jewish students toward learning Arabic and coexistence with Arabs within Israel were investigated, as was their evaluation of characters they read about in familiar and unfamiliar texts. The students were found to possess low instrumental and low indoors integrative motivation, but their army service motivation and…

  7. Learning to Read in Arabic: Reading, Syntactic, Orthographic and Working Memory Skills in Normally Achieving and Poor Arabic Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1995-01-01

    Examines relationships between phonological skills and reading in 143 Arab children in Arab villages of central Israel. Finds that a word recognition test was highly correlated with phonological skills, semantic processing, syntactic knowledge, and short-term memory, and that poor readers significantly lagged in skill development. Discusses…

  8. The perception of Arabic and Japanese short and long vowels by native speakers of Arabic, Japanese, and Persian.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Kimiko

    2011-02-01

    This study examines the perception of short and long vowels in Arabic and Japanese by three groups of listeners differing in their first languages (L1): Arabic, Japanese, and Persian. While Persian uses the same alphabet as Arabic and Iranian students learn Arabic in school, the two languages are typologically unrelated. Further, unlike Arabic or Japanese, vowel length may no longer be contrastive in modern Persian. In this study, a question of interest was whether Persian listeners' foreign language learning experience or Japanese listeners' L1 phonological experience might help them to accurately process short and long vowels in Arabic. In Experiment 1, Arabic and Japanese listeners were more accurate than Persian listeners in discriminating vowel length contrasts in their own L1 only. In Experiment 2, Arabic and Japanese listeners were more accurate than Persian listeners in identifying the length categories in the "other" unknown language as well as in their own L1. The difference in the listeners' perceptual performance between the two experiments supports the view that long-term L1 representations may be invoked to a greater extent in the identification than discrimination test. The present results highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate test for assessing cross-language speech perception. PMID:21361455

  9. Arab Civil Society and Education in Israel: The Arab Pedagogical Council as a Contentious Performance to Achieve National Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaria, Ayman K.

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on recent developments in the field of education, this article grapples with the educational activism of Arab civil society in Israel. Specifically, it presents a case study of a recent initiative to establish an independent Arab Pedagogical Council (APC). I argue that this initiative, although controversial and challenging to the very…

  10. Subject Area Glossary. Arabic-English Vocabulary. Curriculum Bulletin Number 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    A glossary of commonly used and subject-area English words and their Arabic equivalents with romanization was prepared for teachers and Arabic-speaking, limited-English-speaking children in the Chicago public schools. It consists of: (1) a key to Arabic pronunciation of velarized consonants, glottal consonants, and Arabic double-consonants; (2) a…

  11. Effects of Exposure to Literary Arabic on Reading Comprehension in a Diglossic Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2000-01-01

    Examines the influence of exposure to literary Arabic of preschool children on their reading comprehension of literary Arabic stories in grades 1 and 2. Indicates better reading comprehension results for the children who were exposed to literary Arabic than for the children who were exposed only to spoken Arabic. (SC)

  12. The Role of Vowels in Reading Semitic Scripts: Data from Arabic and Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effect of vowels and context on reading accuracy of skilled adult native Arabic speakers in Arabic and in Hebrew, their second language. Reveals a significant effect for vowels and for context across all reading conditions in Arabic and Hebrew. Finds that the vowelized texts in Arabic and the pointed and unpointed texts in Hebrew…

  13. Governance and health in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Batniji, Rajaie; Khatib, Lina; Cammett, Melani; Sweet, Jeffrey; Basu, Sanjay; Jamal, Amaney; Wise, Paul; Giacaman, Rita

    2014-01-25

    Since late 2010, the Arab world has entered a tumultuous period of change, with populations demanding more inclusive and accountable government. The region is characterised by weak political institutions, which exclude large proportions of their populations from political representation and government services. Building on work in political science and economics, we assess the extent to which the quality of governance, or the extent of electoral democracy, relates to adult, infant, and maternal mortality, and to the perceived accessibility and improvement of health services. We compiled a dataset from the World Bank, WHO, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Arab Barometer Survey, and other sources to measure changes in demographics, health status, and governance in the Arab World from 1980 to 2010. We suggest an association between more effective government and average reductions in mortality in this period; however, there does not seem to be any relation between the extent of democracy and mortality reductions. The movements for changing governance in the region threaten access to services in the short term, forcing migration and increasing the vulnerability of some populations. In view of the patterns observed in the available data, and the published literature, we suggest that efforts to improve government effectiveness and to reduce corruption are more plausibly linked to population health improvements than are efforts to democratise. However, these patterns are based on restricted mortality data, leaving out subjective health metrics, quality of life, and disease-specific data. To better guide efforts to transform political and economic institutions, more data are needed for health-care access, health-care quality, health status, and access to services of marginalised groups. PMID:24452043

  14. Thermal waters of the Yemen Arab Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Dowgiallo, J.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal waters (30-61/sup 0/C) occur in springs and shallow drill-holes (max. 300 m) in several areas of the Yemen Arab Republic. Their mineral content is generally low ( < 1000-2000 ppm TDS) except for waters with high CO/sub 2/ content and those directly influenced by the evaporitic Baid formation (Tertiary) in the Western Lowlands along the Red Sea. The temperature anomalies occur in areas of Quaternary basaltic volcanism (Aden formation) and in fault zones connected with the eastern margin of the Red Sea graben. In the latter zones radiogenic heat may be contributed by Tertiary granitic intrusions.

  15. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis in Arab children.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Al, Y K; Shabani, I S; Lubani, M M; al-Ghawabi, M A; Ibrahim, M D; al-Mohtaseb, S; Duodin, K I

    1994-01-01

    Nineteen Arab children including six boys and 13 girls in ten sibships were diagnosed as having osteopetrosis over a 5-year period in various hospitals in Kuwait. Eighteen patients had an isolated autosomal recessive form and one had autosomal recessive osteopetrosis associated with renal tubular acidosis. The mean age of diagnosis was 24 months. Parental consanguinity was high amongst them (68%). Anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, failure to thrive, recurrent infections and neurological manifestations were common. Associated congenital abnormalities were found in 26%. Deafness, hydrocephalus and dental caries were relatively less common. A high mortality (37%) owing to infection was noted. The medical management and recommendations for patient care are discussed briefly. PMID:7516136

  16. Health care in the Yemen Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, S

    1988-01-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic has health-care problems similar to other developing countries yet lacks the abundant oil reserves of its Arabian peninsula neighbors to address these problems. An ambitious 5 year health plan developed in 1977 has been impeded by a lack of material and human resources. The infant mortality rate remains one of the highest in the world, schistosomiasis drains the energy of the people, and tuberculosis and malaria remain endemic. Progress is, however, being made in health-care educational programs within Sanaa University and the Health Manpower Institutes to develop the resources of the Yemeni people to meet the health-care needs of their country. PMID:3225123

  17. Siamese twins in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    el-Gohary, M A

    1998-03-01

    In the years 1985-1992, ten pairs of conjoined twins were born in the United Arab Emirates (UAE): one dicephalus, two teratopagi, and seven thoracoomphalopagi, one of which was still-born and three who were cared for in other hospitals. The first pair of thoraco-omphalopagus twins died of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 6 months after successful separation. The management of the third set of twins gave rise to moral and ethical problems often encountered in such situations, while one of the teratopagi was a unique case of a parasite projecting from the mouth of the normal twin. PMID:9563031

  18. Language Teaching in the Indian Ocean: Policy and Pedagogy in Three Developing Nations. A Study of the Formation of National Language Policies and Related Educational Programs in the Comoros, Mauritius, and Seychelles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Edmun B.

    The findings of a study of language and language education policy in each of the three independent nations of Comoros, Mauritius, and the Seychelles are reported in this book. Each country is discussed separately, focusing on the linguistic and educational history, the existing educational system, and current language policies and programs.…

  19. Disposal of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: comparison of five disposal alternatives in the small island state of Mauritius using a life cycle assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-01-01

    Used polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) dumped indiscriminately onto bare lands and water bodies constitute an eyesore. This problem is viewed as a serious impediment to the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius. Currently, over 100 million PET bottles are generated annually and the only fully operational disposal route is through the sole sanitary landfill. There is no formal segregation of waste and therefore used PET bottles are disposed of commingled with domestic waste. Despite a satisfactory waste collection system, a considerable amount of used PET bottles unfortunately end up in water bodies and on bare lands. An appreciable amount of PET bottles is now being collected separately for flake production prior to export to South Africa. This paper investigated the environmental impact of five waste management scenarios (100% landfill; 100% incineration with energy recovery; 50% incineration and 50% landfill; 34% flake production and 66% landfill; 100% flake production) for used PET bottles in Mauritius. Comparison of the five scenarios was based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology described in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. SimaPro 7.1 software was used to analyse the data. Comparison of the five scenarios showed that the highest environmental impacts occurred when 100% of used PET bottles were sent to the landfill. The comparison also indicated that there were least impacts on the environment when all used PET bottles were incinerated with energy recovery. PMID:22629630

  20. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    SciTech Connect

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking.

  1. Space missions in the Arab countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    Since about twenty years ago, artificial satellites for the Arab countries, were manufactured and released by developed countries for TV and communication purposes such as Arabsat, Nilesat, and Soryia. But with the starting of the 21st century, there are few space missions developed by Arab Countries in Cooperation with International Partners, in Alger, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt. Where: 1. The National Administration of Space Science and Technology in Alger developed two Experimental Space Missions released at November 2002 (AlgerSat-1), and November 2003 (AlgerSat-2). The program is still continuous for developing more space missions with High Technology for different purposes. 2. Space Research Institute in King Abd-Alaziz city for science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia developed three space missions in collaboration with international partners, where the three missions are released for different purposes. 3. The National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS) in Cairo-Egypt developed in cooperation with Ukraine a mission Egyptsat-1, by total price 30 million US, for the purpose of studding the desert geology and Environment. It will be released at October 2004. The program will be continued for developing more space mission by high technology. This paper describe in detail Arabian three programs for the three Arabian countries (Alger, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt), and will discuss on what we can expect for the future, focussing on international cooperation in the field of space science and technology.

  2. National characteristics and variation in Arabic handwriting.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadhrami, Ahmed A N; Allen, Mike; Moffatt, Colin; Jones, Allison E

    2015-02-01

    From each of four Arabic countries; Morocco, Tunisia, Jordan and Oman, 150 participants produced handwriting samples which were examined to assess whether national characteristics were discernible. Ten characters, which have different configurations depending upon their position in the word, along with one short word, were classified into distinguishable forms, and these forms recorded for each handwriting sample. Tests of independence showed that character forms used were not independent of country (p<0.001) for all but one character-position (this was dropped from subsequent analyses). A correspondence analysis ordination plot and analysis of similarity (R=0.326, p=0.0002) showed that whole samples were discernibly grouped by country, and a tree analysis produced a classification which was 71% accurate for the original data and 83% accurate for 80 new handwriting samples that underwent 'blind' classification. When the countries were combined into two regions, North Africa and Middle East, the grouping was more marked. Thus, there appears to be some scope for narrowing down the nationality, and particularly the wider geographical region of an author based upon the character forms they use in Arabic handwriting. PMID:25555233

  3. Arabic handwritten: pre-processing and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliki, Makki; Jassim, Sabah; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Sellahewa, Harin

    2012-06-01

    This paper is concerned with pre-processing and segmentation tasks that influence the performance of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems and handwritten/printed text recognition. In Arabic, these tasks are adversely effected by the fact that many words are made up of sub-words, with many sub-words there associated one or more diacritics that are not connected to the sub-word's body; there could be multiple instances of sub-words overlap. To overcome these problems we investigate and develop segmentation techniques that first segment a document into sub-words, link the diacritics with their sub-words, and removes possible overlapping between words and sub-words. We shall also investigate two approaches for pre-processing tasks to estimate sub-words baseline, and to determine parameters that yield appropriate slope correction, slant removal. We shall investigate the use of linear regression on sub-words pixels to determine their central x and y coordinates, as well as their high density part. We also develop a new incremental rotation procedure to be performed on sub-words that determines the best rotation angle needed to realign baselines. We shall demonstrate the benefits of these proposals by conducting extensive experiments on publicly available databases and in-house created databases. These algorithms help improve character segmentation accuracy by transforming handwritten Arabic text into a form that could benefit from analysis of printed text.

  4. The Jewish-Arab divide in life expectancy in Israel.

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, Dov; Anson, Jon

    2005-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth in Israel in 2001 was 77.7 years for males and 81.6 years for females among Jews, and 74.5 and 77.8 years for males and females, respectively, among Israeli Arabs. In spite of vast improvements in health conditions of the two populations since Israel's statehood in 1948, persistent disparities in life expectancy between the two groups have challenged the Israeli socialized health care system. These disparities are influenced primarily by differences between the two population groups in infant and child mortality rates. This early study suggests that the distribution of life expectancy across localities in Israel reflects the distribution of those localities' socio-economic condition index (not including health and medical care), and the distribution of medical services. The positive association between life expectancy and the index is pronounced, however, only within the Jewish population but not among Arabs. While there may be no significant difference in life expectancy among Jews and Arabs living in poorer communities, there are fewer Arabs living in relatively affluent communities. Thus, persistent higher concentration of poverty among Arabs than among Jews has sufficed to maintain the gap in life expectancy between them. In addition, however, there are population-specific effects: wealth and education are more protective among Jews than among Arabs, while medical services are more protective among Arabs. PMID:15722265

  5. Obesity-linked diabetes in the Arab world: a review.

    PubMed

    Abuyassin, B; Laher, I

    2015-06-01

    The Arab world is experiencing an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review summarizes the major pathological factors linking obesity to diabetes, focussing on current epidemiological data related to obese diabetic patients in the Arab world, the etiology of the disease and the genetic determinants of diabetes and obesity. There are alarming data related to the rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in children of Arab ethnicity. Replication studies identify several genetic variants in Arabs with obesitylinked diabetes. For example, variants of the ADIPOQ gene (the rs266729 single-nucleotide polymorphism) are associated with obesity and diabetes in various Arab countries. Gaps exist in our information about diabetes and obesity in Arab populations in relation to ethnic-specific cut-off points for diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. Further genome-wide association studies in obese and diabetic Arab populations could add to our understanding of the pathophysiology, prevention and reversal of this disease. PMID:26370001

  6. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    SciTech Connect

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  7. [Inter-Arab migration and development].

    PubMed

    Fergany, N

    1985-01-01

    This paper argues that interArab migration has weakened the potential for development in the region due to the specific characteristics of the migration and its extremely high level in the past decade. Data on migratory streams is inadequate concerning the volume of migrants, their characteristics, and their impact on socioeconomic structures in the Arab region. In the 1970s, the Arab region was increasingly polarized into oil exporting countries experiencing a massive increase in revenues and nonexporters which have become increasingly impoverished. A World Bank team estimated that, assuming rapid growth, the number of migrant workers in the principal oil-exporting countries would double between 1975-85 from 1.6 to 3.5 million, while the proportion Arab would decline from 65 to 55%. The total foreign population was expected to increase from 3 million in 1975 to 10 million in 1985, representing an increase from 25 to 40% of the total population of those receiving countries. The impact of emigration on the countries of origin was greater than the mere numbers of migrants would suggest, because most migrants tended to be working age men from the most dynamic population sectors, because of the large volume of nonmigrants dependent on the migrants' incomes, because of the large number of persons directly and indirectly involved in migration over time as a consequence of the constant turnover, and because of the macroeconomic effects of massive migration on the local economies. Mechanisms of selection in the countries of employment coupled with the rigidity of educational systems in the countries of origin result in shortages of qualified and sometimes even of unskilled labor in the countries of origin, leading to reduced productivity. Remissions are often viewed as beneficial for the country of origin, but in fact they encourage consumption of imported goods while entire sectors of the domestic economy stagnate or deteriorate. Remissions depend on economic activity of

  8. Syntactic Reordering for Arabic- English Phrase-Based Machine Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatem, Arwa; Omar, Nazlia

    Machine Translation (MT) refers to the use of a machine for performing translation task which converts text or speech in one Natural Language (Source Language (SL)) into another Natural Language (Target Language (TL)). The translation from Arabic to English is difficult task due to the Arabic languages are highly inflectional, rich morphology and relatively free word order. Word ordering plays an important part in the translation process. The paper proposes a transfer-based approach in Arabic to English MT to handle the word ordering problem. Preliminary tested indicate that our system, AE-TBMT is competitive when compared against other approaches from the literature.

  9. BabelMeSH and PICO Linguist in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mai A; Al-Khafaji, Jawad Thamer Jawad; Al-Shorbaji, Najeeb; Sara, Kaseem; Al-Ubaydli, Mohammad; Ghazzaoui, Ramez; Liu, Fang; Fontelo, Paul

    2008-01-01

    BabelMeSH is a multilanguage search for MEDLINE/PubMed. We created a database of Arabic translations of MeSH terms and other medical terms using MySQL and developed a Web interface for searching MEDLINE/PubMed in Arabic. We evaluated the accuracy of BabelMeSH using a list of medical terms from BMJ Clinical Evidence. The accuracy was 58% (machine scoring) and 65% human review.) The result obtained may be explained by variations in expressing medical terms in Arabic. PMID:18998782

  10. Discourse Analysis of the Political Speeches of the Ousted Arab Presidents during the Arab Spring Revolution Using Halliday and Hasan's Framework of Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Majali, Wala'

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to explore the salient linguistic features of the political speeches of the ousted Arab presidents during the Arab Spring Revolution. The sample of the study is composed of seven political speeches delivered by the ousted Arab presidents during the period from December 2010 to December 2012. Three speeches were delivered by…

  11. [The use of Arabic in the World Health Organization. Part Two].

    PubMed

    Aly, A M

    2008-01-01

    In part one of this paper we discussed the use of Arabic as an official and working language in the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and WHO Headquarters. We reviewed the arrangements made to rationalize the Arabic activities in WHO, the development of an authentic Arabic version of the WHO constitution, the impact of WHO restructuring on the Arabic programme and the establishment of the Arab Centre for Medical Literature in Kuwait. In this part we address the developments in Arabic medical terminology, the establishment of the Regional Arabic Programme and the unified WHO Programme of Arabic publications, and last but not least, the production of the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal in English, French and Arabic. PMID:19205618

  12. New statistical method for machine-printed Arabic character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua; Ding, Xiaoqing; Jin, Jianming; Halmurat, M.

    2004-12-01

    Although about 300 million people worldwide, in several different languages, take Arabic characters for writing, Arabic OCR has not been researched as thoroughly as other widely used characters (Latin or Chinese). In this paper, a new statistical method is developed to recognize machine-printed Arabic characters. Firstly, the entire Arabic character set is pre-classified into 32 sub-sets in terms of character forms, special zones that characters occupy and component information. Then directional features are extracted based on which modified quadratic discriminant function (MQDF) is utilized as classifier to deal with classification task. Finally, similar characters are discriminated before outputting recognition results. Encouraging experimental results on test sets show the validity of proposed method.

  13. New statistical method for machine-printed Arabic character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua; Ding, Xiaoqing; Jin, Jianming; Halmurat, M.

    2005-01-01

    Although about 300 million people worldwide, in several different languages, take Arabic characters for writing, Arabic OCR has not been researched as thoroughly as other widely used characters (Latin or Chinese). In this paper, a new statistical method is developed to recognize machine-printed Arabic characters. Firstly, the entire Arabic character set is pre-classified into 32 sub-sets in terms of character forms, special zones that characters occupy and component information. Then directional features are extracted based on which modified quadratic discriminant function (MQDF) is utilized as classifier to deal with classification task. Finally, similar characters are discriminated before outputting recognition results. Encouraging experimental results on test sets show the validity of proposed method.

  14. Immigrant Arab Americans and alcohol use: longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2014-12-01

    English proficiency is associated with alcohol use in some immigrants groups, but little is known about its association among Arab Americans. Ethnographic work suggests gender, religion, education, and age influence prevalence of alcohol use among Arab Americans. Two years prospective study of recent Iraqi refugees and non-Iraqi Arab immigrants in Michigan using bilingual surveys and interviewers. At Time 1, prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 20.5 % with males, Christians, better educated, older, and those with greater proficiency in English more likely to report ever drank. At Time 2, lifetime prevalence of drinking had increased to 34.0 %. In analysis of male new drinkers, risk factors were Christian, older age and greater proficiency in English. This study confirms drinking among recent immigrant Arab Americans varies by subgroups and suggests English proficiency may contribute to the increase in prevalence over time. PMID:24322655

  15. [The Arabic translation of Galen's De locis affectis].

    PubMed

    Garofalo, I

    1995-01-01

    The article concerns the Arabic translation of this tract in found in the works of Hubaish ibn al-Hasan Al-acsam in connection with an earlier Syriac translation of Hunain ibn Ishaq which is now lost. PMID:17228500

  16. The Arab Muslim client: implications for anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Sheets, D L; el-Azhary, R A

    1998-06-01

    The Arab Muslim client has unique cultural characteristics that should be incorporated into anesthetic care. In obtaining a preoperative assessment and consent, issues such as privacy, family roles, body language, group decision making, communication distances, and use of translators should be addressed. Intraoperatively, the need for modesty and the client's possible adherence to folk beliefs should also be recognized. Postoperatively, pain and overall needs assessments are a continuing challenge. The anesthetist must also understand the underlying family roles, the high correlation between fear and pain, and the possible coexisting folk beliefs when working within the labor and delivery setting. By addressing these unique issues, the anesthetist can provide appropriate and safe anesthetic care. PMID:9830857

  17. [Measure in Arabic and Middle Age medicine].

    PubMed

    Angeletti, L R

    1995-01-01

    During the XIVth century to the qualitative knowledge is superimposed the concept of the importance of a quantitative evaluation of natural phenomena. The Arabic works on science, first translated in Latin by Adelard of Bath, and the recovery of classical culture into Western Europe are discussed by Grosseteste, R. Bacon and Ockham with a separation of religious truth from the scientific findings; Jean Buridan (Paris) applied this meaning to physics and Simone di Castello (Bologna) considered the necessity of the measure of elements, qualities and humours to explain and correct health and disease. So, the logica nova was acquired also by medicine, as demonstrated by the works of Anthony Ricart and by the direct quantitation made by Santorio Santorio (early XVIIth c.), who constructed appropriate instruments for measurement of medical parameters. PMID:11640512

  18. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    PubMed

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  19. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used...

  20. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used...

  1. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used...

  2. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used...

  3. Epidemiological profile of common haemoglobinopathies in Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Hamamy, Hanan A; Al-Allawi, Nasir A S

    2013-04-01

    Haemoglobinopathies including the thalassemias and sickle cell disease are known to be prevalent inherited disorders in most Arab countries with varying prevalence rates and molecular characterisation. β-thalassemia is encountered in polymorphic frequencies in almost all Arab countries with carrier rates of 1-11 % and a varying number of mutations. The most widespread mutation in Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Tunisia and Algeria is the IVS-I-110 (G>A). In the Eastern Arabian Peninsula, the Asian Indian mutations (IVS-I-5 (G>C), codons 8/9 (+G) and IVS-I (-25 bp del)) are more common. The α-thalassemias are encountered in the majority of Arab countries in frequencies ranging from 1 to 58 % with the highest frequencies reported from Gulf countries. The (-α(3.7)) mutation is the most frequent followed by the non-deletional α2 polyadenylation signal mutation (AATAAA>AATAAG) and the α2 IVS1 5-bp deletion. The rates of sickle cell trait in Arab countries range from 0.3 to 30 %, with the Benin, the Arab-Indian and the Bantu haplotypes constituting the bulk of the haplotypes, leading to two major phenotypes; a mild one associated with the Arab-Indian and a severe one with the Benin and Bantu haplotypes. Public health approaches targeting prevention of haemoglobinopathies in Arab countries include newborn screening for sickle cell disease, and premarital screening for carriers of β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. These services are still patchy and inadequate in many Arab countries recommending the upgrade of these services with strengthening of the education and training of health care providers and raising public awareness on the feasibility of prevention and care for haemoglobinopathies. PMID:23224852

  4. Criterion-related validity of the Arabic Children's Depression Inventory.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, A M

    1998-06-01

    The Arabic Children's Depression Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory were administered to 109 Kuwaiti school students whose ages ranged from 14 to 18 years. Pearson correlations for total score on the two scales were .57, .83, and .75 for boys, girls, and the combined group, respectively, denoting the convergent validity of the new Arabic inventory against the Beck Depression Inventory as criterion. PMID:9676502

  5. Iraq: Eastern flank of the Arab world

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Iraq, holding oil reserves second only to those of Saudi Arabia in the Middle East, is locked in a war with Iran whose outcome will affect Western energy supplies and the prospects for stability in the Arabian Gulf. Yet Iraq even now remains little known to Western governments and publics. This study is intended to enlarge understanding of Iraqi behavior and of the concerns that motivate its leaders. Rather than selecting issues of importance to other countries, the author focuses on the forces that influence policy formulation in Iraq and evokes the perspective from which the Iraqi government itself views its problems and sets its priorities. Part 1 examines the country's evolution into modern Iraq, explaining why problems that have recurred throughout Iraqi history have bedeviled all recent Iraqi governments and created tension between ''Iraq the nation'' and ''Iraq the state.'' Part 2 discusses the Arab Ba'th Socialist party, which has dominated Iraqi political life since 1968. The author neither condemns nor praises this controversial party and its current leader, President Saddam Husain, but seeks to explain why they have adopted the positions and taken the actions that have characterized their rule. Part 3 analyzes the war between Iraq and Iran, its causes, and the decisions Iraq has made in light of its goals and its assumptions about Iran. The author finds that this is not simply ''a war over borders'' but a deeper conflict between Islamic conservatism and Arab nationalism. Looking beyond the war, the final chapter assesses Iraq's potential importance in the Middle East and to the world economy. 8 figs.

  6. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  7. The establishment of the United Arab Emirates

    SciTech Connect

    Taryam, A.O.

    1987-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates were established in response to the British decision to withdraw from the Gulf by 1971. This decision, announced in 1968, had left the rulers of the emirates perplexed and alarmed. After decades of mutual suspicion and rivalry, fostered by British imperial dominance, the emirates were now obliged to seek security in federal union. Early in 1968 came the bilateral agreement for union between Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Then followed three years of prolonged negotiations between nine emirates, Bahrain, Qatar, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Qaiwain, Ras al-Khaimah and Fujairah to establish a union of nine emirates. Constitutional wrangles as to what form the union would take and hard bargaining as to who would get what position or who would give up which claim, prevailed throughout the negotiations. Behrain was beset by Iranian claims and had no mind to enter into any agreement before this problem was solved. Qatar did not want to enter any agreement that did not ensure it a dominant position. Eventually Bahrain and Qatar dropped out of the talks and declared themselves independent states in 1971. The other seven emirates entered into serious negotiations that ended, also in 1971, with the formation of a federal state to be called the United Arab Emirates. This book chronicles this process which led to the establishment of the UAE and explains the circumstances which brought it about. It also examines the record of the first fifteen years of the federation and concludes that despite serious problems it has been broadly successful.

  8. Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Natsheh, Asem M.; Abandah, Gheith A.; Olama, Mohammed M.

    2011-04-01

    The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.

  9. Mashreq Arab interconnected power system potential for economic energy trading

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Shehri, A.M.; El-Amin, I.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    The Mashreq Arab countries covered in this study are Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. A feasibility study for the interconnection of the electrical networks of the Mashreq Arab countries, sponsored by the Arab Fund, was completed in June 1992. Each country is served by one utility except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The Mashreq Arab region has a considerable mix of energy resources. Egypt and Syria have some limited amounts of hydropower resources, and the Arabian Gulf region is abundant in fossil fuel reserves. Owing to the differences in energy production costs, a potential exists for substantial energy trading between electric utilities in the region. The major objective of this project is to study the feasibility of electric energy trading between the Mashreq Arab countries. The basis, assumptions, and methodologies on which this energy trading study is based relate to the results and conclusions arising out of the previous study, power plant characteristics and costs, assumptions on economic parameters, rules for economy energy exchange, etc. This paper presents the basis, methodology, and major findings of the study.

  10. Autosomal recessive disorders among Arabs: an overview from Kuwait.

    PubMed Central

    Teebi, A S

    1994-01-01

    Kuwait has a cosmopolitan population of 1.7 million, mostly Arabs. This population is a mosaic of large and small minorities representing most Arab communities. In general, Kuwait's population is characterized by a rapid rate of growth, large family size, high rates of consanguineous marriages within the Arab communities with low frequency of intermarriage between them, and the presence of genetic isolates and semi-isolates in some extended families and Bedouin tribes. Genetic services have been available in Kuwait for over a decade. During this time it has become clear that Arabs have a high frequency of genetic disorders, and in particular autosomal recessive traits. Their pattern is unique and some disorders are relatively common. Examples are Bardet-Biedl and Meckel syndromes, phenylketonuria, and familial Mediterranean fever. A relatively large number of new syndromes and variants have been delineated in Kuwait's population, many being the result of homozygosity for autosomal recessive genes that occurred because of inbreeding. Some of these syndromes have subsequently been found in other parts of the world, negating the concept of the private syndrome. This paper provides an overview of autosomal recessive disorders among the Arabs in Kuwait from a personal perspective and published studies, and highlights the need for genetic services in Arab countries with the goal of prevention and treatment of genetic disorders. PMID:8014972

  11. Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models

    SciTech Connect

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Natsheh, Asem M.; Abandah, Gheith A.; Olama, Mohammed M

    2011-01-01

    The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.

  12. Reproductive bionomics and life history traits of three gammaridean amphipods, Cymadusa filosa Savigny, Ampithoe laxipodus Appadoo and Myers and Mallacoota schellenbergi Ledoyer from the tropical Indian Ocean (Mauritius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appadoo, Chandani; Myers, Alan A.

    2004-12-01

    The reproductive bionomics and life history traits of two corophiid amphipods ( Ampithoe laxipodus, Cymadusa filosa) and one melitid ( Mallacoota schellenbergi) were studied in Mauritius (Indian Ocean) for the period March 1999 to February 2000. Results on the population structure, monthly size class variations, sex ratio, female reproductive states and fecundity are presented. The study demonstrates multivoltinism and continuous reproduction in the three species. Increase in number of juveniles was observed in warmer months for C. filosa and A. laxipodus. Sexual maturity was attained at smaller sizes in warmer months in the three species. Linear relationship on body length and number of eggs in brood pouch are presented. Size-independent analysis of egg number revealed a decrease in number of eggs in cooler months. Sex ratio is male skewed in M. schellenbergi and female skewed in C. filosa and A. laxipodus. Some of the plausible explanations for the reproductive strategies adopted by these three species in a tropical system are discussed.

  13. Addressing the repressed needs of the Arabic client.

    PubMed

    Dwairy, M

    1997-01-01

    In comparison to families in Western society, the traditional Arabic family plays a relatively greater role in providing support for adult progeny. This serves to condition adult offspring to continue to comply with the will and values of the family. Therefore, in exchange for familial support, Arabic individuals learn to repress authentic needs and emotions, and within that process they relinquish the need for self-actualization. Arabic society discourages individualism and opposes self-actualization by means of simultaneous punishment and moralization. Thus, there is a relatively greater development of the social value system (or superego) and comparatively less development of the self (or ego). In comparison to Western society, Arabic individuals continue to experience greater oppression during adulthood. Given these cultural differences, the processes of reliving and activating repressed needs and emotions, which ultimately serves to promote self-actualization, will transform intrapsychic conflicts into interpersonal and social ones. Thus, personal actions typically encouraged during Western psychotherapy are likely to produce significant social oppression. Indeed, promoting awareness of repressed needs and emotions often leads the Arabic client to become more helpless, because such wishes will rarely be socially sanctioned or satisfactorily fulfilled. Therefore, when addressing repressed needs and emotions in psychotherapy, ego strength, cultural identity, and degree of strictness of the client's family of origin must be considered. PMID:9231529

  14. Arabic validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in Arabic countries in recent years. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals and social systems, the use of the Internet may in certain cases become problematic and engender negative consequences in daily life. As no instrument in the Arabic language is available, however, to measure excessive Internet use, the goal of the current study was to validate an Arabic version of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS). Methods The Arabic version of the CIUS was administered to a sample of 185 Internet users and exploratory and confirmatory analyses performed. Results As found previously for the original version, a one-factor model of the CIUS had good psychometric properties and fit the data well. The total score on the CIUS was positively associated with time spent online. Conclusion The Arabic version of the CIUS seems to be a valid self-report to measure problematic Internet use. PMID:22126679

  15. Global geoscience transects in the Arab region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazangi, Mauwia

    The Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project is one of the most recent initiatives of the International Lithosphere Program (ILP). The GGT project is represented by ILP Coordinating Committee 7 (CC7), which is coordinated by J . Monger (Geological Survey of Canada, Vancouver). M. Barazangi (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.) is responsible for the coordination of the Middle East and North Africa region, which includes most of the Arab countries.The main objective of the GGT project is to strengthen and broaden international cooperation mainly through active participation of Earth scientists in constructing geological and geophysical transects, especially cross sections. The transects will be at least to Moho depth and will contain as much detail as transects of geological structures mapped on Earth's surface. The transects are being selected by the participating geoscientists to traverse all continents and, as much as possible, to form a continuous grid across political boundaries. Members of CC7 act as regional coordinators to help the local Earth scientists to initiate and implement GGT objectives. The implementation phase has to a large extent been standardized to follow clear guidelines that were developed by CC7 members. These guidelines are based on a modified and expanded version of the recent highly successful Continent-Ocean Transect project of the Geological Society of America.

  16. Transcript mapping for handwritten Arabic documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorigo, Liana M.; Govindaraju, Venu

    2007-01-01

    Handwriting recognition research requires large databases of word images each of which is labeled with the word it contains. Full images scanned in, however, usually contain sentences or paragraphs of writing. The creation of labeled databases of images of isolated words is usually tedious, requiring a person to drag a rectangle around each word in the full image and type in the label. Transcript mapping is the automatic alignment of words in a text file with word locations in the full image. It can ease the creation of databases for research. We propose the first transcript mapping method for handwritten Arabic documents. Our approach is based on Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and offers two primary algorithmic contributions. First is an extension to DTW that uses true distances when mapping multiple entries from one series to a single entry in the second series. Second is a method to concurrently map elements of a partially aligned third series within the main alignment. Preliminary results are provided.

  17. Intellectual system of identification of Arabic graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoullayeva, Gulchin G.; Aliyev, Telman A.; Gurbanova, Nazakat G.

    2001-08-01

    The studies made by using the domain of graphic images allowed creating facilities of the artificial intelligence for letters, letter combinations etc. for various graphics and prints. The work proposes a system of recognition and identification of symbols of the Arabic graphics, which has its own specificity as compared to Latin and Cyrillic ones. The starting stage of the recognition and the identification is coding with further entry of information into a computer. Here the problem of entry is one of the essentials. For entry of a large volume of information in the unit of time a scanner is usually employed. Along with the scanner the authors suggest their elaboration of technical facilities for effective input and coding of the information. For refinement of symbols not identified from the scanner mostly for a small bulk of information the developed coding devices are used directly in the process of writing. The functional design of the software is elaborated on the basis of the heuristic model of the creative activity of a researcher and experts in the description and estimation of states of the weakly formalizable systems on the strength of the methods of identification and of selection of geometric features.

  18. Seismic Monitoring for the United Arab Emirates

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Nakanishi, K

    2005-04-11

    There is potential for earthquakes in the United Arab Emirates and in the Zagros mountains to cause structural damage and pose a threat to safety of people. Damaging effects from earthquakes can be mitigated by knowledge of the location and size of earthquakes, effects on construction, and monitoring these effects over time. Although a general idea of seismicity in the UAE may be determined with data from global seismic networks, these global networks do not have the sensitivity to record smaller seismic events and do not have the necessary accuracy to locate the events. A National Seismic Monitoring Observatory is needed for the UAE that consists of a modern seismic network and a multidisciplinary staff that can analyze and interpret the data from the network. A seismic network is essential to locate earthquakes, determine event magnitudes, identify active faults and measure ground motions from earthquakes. Such a network can provide the data necessary for a reliable seismic hazard assessment in the UAE. The National Seismic Monitoring Observatory would ideally be situated at a university that would provide access to the wide range of disciplines needed in operating the network and providing expertise in analysis and interpretation.

  19. Emergency medicine in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It has been a decade since emergency medicine was recognized as a specialty in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this short time, emergency medicine has established itself and developed rapidly in the UAE. Large, well-equipped emergency departments (EDs) are usually located in government hospitals, some of which function as regional trauma centers. Most of the larger EDs are staffed with medically or surgically trained physicians, with board-certified emergency medicine physicians serving as consultants overseeing care. Prehospital care and emergency medical services (EMS) operate under the auspices of the police department. Standardized protocols have been established for paramedic certification, triage, and destination decisions. The majority of ambulances offer basic life support (BLS/Type 2) with a growing minority offering advanced life support (ALS/Type 3). Medicine residency programs were established 5 years ago and form the foundation for training emergency medicine specialists for UAE. This article describes the full spectrum of emergency medicine in the UAE: prehospital care, EMS, hospital-based emergency care, training in emergency medicine, and disaster preparedness. We hope that our experience, our understanding of the challenges faced by the specialty, and the anticipated future directions will be of importance to others advancing emergency medicine in their region and across the globe. PMID:24401695

  20. Medical responsibility in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Benomran, Fawzi

    2010-05-01

    Medical responsibility in the United Arab Emirates was formerly defined and governed according to Law 7 of 1975 for the practice of medical professions, which had been a part of civil law. The passing of Law 10 of 2008, namely the "Law on Medical Responsibility in UAE", enacted on 16th December 2008 created a new framework to deal with this issue. One of its provisions required medical practitioners to hold insurance policies, so that insurance companies pays damages to the plaintiff (patient) injured as a result of a physicians' negligence. This paper outlines the issue of medical responsibility and medical negligence. The author's translation of the new law into English is included so that its full text is available for the readers, especially expatriate doctors working in the UAE. Where appropriate, a brief comparison between the old law and new laws is also presented. The objective of this paper is to provide medical practitioners with basic information about the subject in general and to this legislation in particular. It is mandatory for doctors to realize inherent risks involved in the course of their practice. A basic knowledge of the law is required to avoid pitfalls and to safeguard oneself against errors arising from ignorance of the duties and rights of the professional person. PMID:20382353

  1. Report on Hate Crimes & Discrimination against Arab Americans, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Arab Anti Discrimination Committee, Washington, DC.

    Examples of hate crimes against Arab Americans in this report are those that were reported to the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), but the actual number of hate crimes and incidents of discrimination far exceeds those reported. As the report shows, Arab American civil rights were increasingly threatened in 1996-97 by the…

  2. Aspects of Modern Egyptian Arabic: Its Structure, Humor, Proverbs, Metaphors, Euphemisms and Common Expressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greis, Naguib

    The Arabic language used in Egypt is traditionally divided into two major types: classical and colloquial. The idea is that classical or literary Arabic is to be found mostly in formal writing and speaking, whereas colloquial Arabic is used mainly in daily conversation. When it comes to actual usage, however, this distinction is not always clearly…

  3. Examining Social Perceptions between Arab and Jewish Children through Human Figure Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yedidia, Tova; Lipschitz-Elchawi, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined social perceptions among 191 Arab and Jewish children who live in mixed neighborhoods in Israel. Human Figure Drawing assessment was used to examine the children's social perceptions. The drawings that the Jewish Israeli children created portrayed Arabs as the enemy, whereas the Arab Israeli children expressed a more positive…

  4. Learning from Students' Perspectives on Open Education at Arab Universities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansal, Vineet

    2009-01-01

    Open learning provides a unique opportunity to professionals for their continuing education and capacity building. Arab Open University, Kuwait (AOU) has been a successful enterprise with an objective to address the educational needs of masses in the Arab universities. Continuing education in the Arab region was the most neglected part of the…

  5. Leading a Quiet Revolution: Women High School Principals in Traditional Arab Society in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Shapira, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates why very few Arab women persevere to become principals in Arab high schools in Israel. It identifies these trailblazers' distinguishing characteristics through the narratives of two Arab women, high school principals, tracing their transition from teaching to management, describing the intertwining of their personal and…

  6. Recruiting Arab Fathers in a Center for Children at Risk in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchbinder, Eli; Jammal-Abboud, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Arab society in Israel is positioned between the traditional, collective values of Arab culture and the more prevalent Western individualistic values of the Israeli society at large. This poses a challenge for the welfare services in Israel, especially in the case of Arab clients, who tend to receive and interpret the social workers' messages as…

  7. Development and Adult Education in the Arab States: An Analysis of Some Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saber, Mohi El-Dine

    Contemporary cultural and educational changes in the Arab States are reviewed with respect to the effort to liberate Arab countries from illiteracy. The stated objective is to establish common intellectual ground between Arab adult educators (policy-makers, planners, or executive officers) through understanding the social, political, economic, and…

  8. Race, Politics, and Arab American Youth: Shifting Frameworks for Conceptualizing Educational Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Haj, Thea Renda Abu

    2006-01-01

    Educators concerned with creating equitable school environments for Arab American students must focus on how contemporary global and national politics shape the lives of these youth and their families. Arab immigrants and Arab American citizens alike experience specific forms of racial oppression that hold implications for school curricula,…

  9. Role of the Arab Universities in Labour Education: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobeih, Nabil Ahmed Amer

    Current and future prospects for workers' education in the Arab region, the relationship between Arab universities and workers' education, and the role of workers and their trade unions are discussed. In addition, examples of university activity in workers' education programs of some non-Arab countries are described. Although the climate is right…

  10. Perceptual Confusions of American-English Vowels and Consonants by Native Arabic Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Levy, Erika S.; Khamis-Dakwar, Reem; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of American-English (AE) vowels and consonants by young adults who were either (a) early Arabic-English bilinguals whose native language was Arabic or (b) native speakers of the English dialects spoken in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where both groups were studying. In a closed-set format, participants…

  11. The Usability of SEEQ in Quality Evaluation of Arabic Secondary Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    al-Muslim, M.; Arifin, Zamri

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the quality of Arabic education in Malaysia needs to be conducted on a continuous basis to achieve the objectives of Arabic education. Student Evaluation of Education Quality (SEEQ) was proposed as one of the evaluation instruments of the quality of Arabic education. This study aimed to evaluate the usability of SEEQ in the context…

  12. Techniques of Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language through Constructivist Paradigm: Malaysian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This analysis discusses the constructivist paradigm of teaching Arabic as a foreign language in Malaysian settings. This review examines the role of interactive multimedia in enhancing the chalk and talk methods of teaching Arabic in Malaysian schools. This paper also investigates the importance of Arabic Language in Malaysia. Furthermore, the…

  13. Deaf People, Modernity, and a Contentious Effort to Unify Arab Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Fityani, Kinda

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines a project to unify sign languages across twenty-two Arab countries. Proponents of the project, mainly pan-Arab governmental bodies with the support of members of the staff at the Al Jazeera satellite network, have framed the project as a human rights effort to advance the welfare of deaf Arab people. They have urged its…

  14. Help-Seeking Attitudes among Arab and Jewish Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilat, Itzhak; Ezer, Hanna; Sagee, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to explore the impact of ethnicity, gender, age and subjective well-being on help-seeking attitudes among Arab and Jewish adolescents in Israel. The sample comprised 395 Arab and 360 Jewish 7th- and 11th-grade pupils who were selected from six Arab and six Jewish schools in the north of Israel. The participants completed a…

  15. Orthographic Competence among Multilingual School Children: Writing Moroccan Arabic in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weth, Constanze

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents children's writing in their vernacular family language, Moroccan Arabic. It first provides some background to the family and school literacies of nine-year-old children of Moroccan Arabic (MA) background growing up in France with French literacy practices at school and Written Arabic literacy practices in the home. The paper…

  16. A Characterization of the Language of Iftah ya Simsim: Sociolinguistic and Educational Implications for Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Absi, Samir

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the Arabic version of "Sesame Street" addresses the choice of a simplified modern standard usage as the series' language, definition of this language variety in terms of its distinguishing linguistic characteristics, and the implications of this choice for the future of Arabic and Arabic language instruction. (Author/MSE)

  17. Mother-Tongue Interference in the Acquisition of English Articles by L1 Arabic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyab, Rana Abid

    2016-01-01

    Native speakers of Arabic face a number of problems in their attempt to acquire the English language. One of these problems is encountered in their attempt to use English articles. According to earlier studies, learning English articles by students whose mother-tongue is Arabic is one of the most frequent and significant difficulties Arab learners…

  18. Working with Arab American Families: Culturally Competent Practice for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haboush, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of Arab descent residing within the United States currently number between 1.2 million and 3.9 million. These families are characterized by considerable diversity depending upon their nationality, religion, and extent of acculturation to both Western and Arab cultures. More recently, Arab families have immigrated to the United States…

  19. Ancient Levantine Arabic: A Reconstruction Based on the Earliest Sources and the Modern Dialects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jallad, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the history and development of Arabic is greatly challenged by the dearth of sources. Most scholars who have undertaken this task in the past have relied almost exclusively on data from the Arabic grammatical tradition. These sources claimed that Arabic originated as the language of the Bedouin of the central and southern…

  20. Medicine Among New Immigrants and Arab Minorities in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Mishkin, Seymour

    1965-01-01

    The reaction to modern medicine and the general health of the new immigrants and Arab populations of Israel are described. The material was gathered during a threemonth visit to Israel where the author participated in the medical care of these persons. While these peoples still share many of the traditional medical superstitions and practices, the new immigrants have progressed much more during the 16 years of Israel's existence. At present over 99% of Jewish women give birth in hospital, whereas only 65% of Israeli Arabs do. The infant mortality rate among the Jews in 1963 was about 21 deaths per 1000 live births, about one-half the rate for Arabs. The importance of understanding the cultural background and social conflicts of these people as a preliminary to the provision of proper medical care is stressed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:14285305

  1. Cruel and Unusual: Negative Images of Arabs in American Popular Culture. Third Edition. ADC Issue Paper No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalak, Laurence

    This document addresses the negative image of Arabs among the U.S. public. While formal education has created many of the misconceptions about Arabs that abound in the west, many of the misconceptions come from the informal education of popular culture. The western image of the Arab is possibly more interesting than the reality of Arab culture.…

  2. Towards an Analysis of the Discourse of Arabic Song: A Case Study--Umm Kulthoum's Song "AlAtlal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Gameel Abdelmageed

    2015-01-01

    Arabic song has always played an important role in the life of Arabs. It reflects cultural attitudes and influences them. However, this major expressive discourse has been almost completely neglected in Arabic literary and critical studies. For this reason, this paper focuses on Arabic song, in the hope that my study will encourage other scholars…

  3. Factorial validity of the Arabic Obsessive-Compulsive Scale in two cultures.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David

    2002-06-01

    The Arabic Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory were administered to 87 Kuwaiti (Arabic version) and 73 American college students (English form). Pearson correlations for the total score on the Arabic scale and the four subscores of the Maudsley scale: Checking, Cleaning, Slowness, and Doubting were .72, .48, .50, and .61 for the Kuwaitis and .52, .40, .51, and .52 for the Americans. The loadings of the total score of the Arabic scale onto a factor of obsession and compulsion were .83 and .79 for Kuwaiti and American students, respectively, denoting a good factorial validity of the Arabic scale. PMID:12090521

  4. A preliminary study on the Trail-making Test in Arabic-English bilingual young adults.

    PubMed

    Abdul Razzak, Rima

    2013-01-01

    The Trail-Making Test (TMT) is used in different neuropsychological test batteries. It consists of two parts: TMT-Part A, which tests visual scanning and psychomotor speed, and TMT-Part B, which assesses more complex cognitive processes. TMT normative data have been established in many non-Arab countries either using the original English version or a version developed with the native language. The aim of this study was to compare TMT performance between the English TMT and a constructed Arabic TMT in young Arabic-English bilingual college students from three Arabian Gulf states. Scores from 83 participants who took the English TMT and 52 who took the Arabic TMT were included. Arabic TMT (both parts) scores were significantly poorer compared with English TMT scores. Arabic TMT scores were also poorer than were other norms for this age group and education level, but they were better than those reported from another study using the Arabic TMT. Moreover, there were nonsignificant differences in performance between participants from these three countries; however, these findings are inconclusive as sample sizes were small. These findings suggest that Arabic TMT norms cannot be unified for all Arabic countries, and separate Arabic TMT norms including all age groups and education levels must be established for each Arabic country. PMID:23373685

  5. Effect of partial replacement of gum arabic with carbohydrates on its microencapsulation properties.

    PubMed

    McNamee, B F; White, L E; O'Riordan, E D; O'Sullivan, M

    2001-07-01

    Gum arabic solutions (10% w/v) were emulsified with soy oil at oil/gum ratios of 0.25-5.0. At oil/gum ratios <1.0, it was established that gum arabic could be partially replaced with a nonsurfactant carbohydrate. To assess different carbohydrates as replacers for gum arabic, emulsions and spray-dried emulsions of soy oil and mixed solutions (10% w/v) of gum arabic and a range of carbohydrate wall materials (oil/gum = 0.5) were prepared and analyzed. Maize starch and glucose were ineffective as partial replacers of gum arabic, but maltodextrins of various dextrose equivalence values (5.5-38) successfully replaced 50% of the gum arabic. The microencapsulation efficiency of the gum arabic/maltodextrin stabilized powders was further increased by increasing total solids of the feed to the dryer and by increasing the atomizer nozzle diameter. PMID:11453779

  6. Management of microbial food safety in the Arab countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial food safety remains a major economical and public health concern in the Arab countries. Over the several past years, many of these countries have attempted to revise and upgrade food quality control and surveillance programs. However, these systems vary in scope and effectiveness. This rev...

  7. English Majors' Errors in Translating Arabic Endophora: Analysis and Remedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdellah, Antar Solhy

    2007-01-01

    Egyptian English majors in the faculty of Education, South Valley University tend to mistranslate the plural inanimate Arabic pronoun with the singular inanimate English pronoun. A diagnostic test was designed to analyze this error. Results showed that a large number of students (first year and fourth year students) make this error, that the error…

  8. The Function of Discourse Markers in Arabic Newspaper Opinion Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Kohlani, Fatima A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the function of discourse markers in Arabic newspaper opinion articles. In this study, discourse markers are not only connecting- words that contribute to the cohesion of text, but they are also crucial tools for achieving communicative act in the text. These expressions that come from different grammatical classes and…

  9. Teaching Culture in the Classroom to Arabic Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldin, Ahmad Abdel Tawwab Sharaf

    2015-01-01

    Arabic language learning comprises of certain elements, including syntactic ability, oral capability, dialect proficiency, and a change in state of mind towards different culture or society. For teachers and laymen alike, cultural competence, i.e., the knowledge of the customs, beliefs, and systems of another country, is indisputably an integral…

  10. Facing the Challenges of Educational Reform in the Arab World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami Akkary, Rima

    2014-01-01

    This paper pinpoints and discusses key aspects of the current approaches to school reform in the Arab world against the backdrop of what is accepted as the best practice in the international literature on effective school reform and educational change. The main goal of the paper is to highlight deeply ingrained assumptions and practices that are…

  11. Parenting Styles and Mental Health of Arab Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the parental styles and psychosocial adjustment of adolescents and the relationship between them in gifted as compared to nongifted Arab adolescents. Five scales --The Parental Authority Questionnaire, Child Attitude Toward Parents. Lipsitt's Self-Concept Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and The Psychological…

  12. Investigating Students' Beliefs about Arabic Language Programs at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shaye, Shaye S.

    2009-01-01

    The current study attempted to identify students' of Arabic programs beliefs about their chosen programs. To achieve this purpose, a survey was developed to collect the data from randomly selected students in liberal-arts and education-based programs at Kuwait University. The results showed that students were statistically differentiated as a…

  13. Compendium of Arab exploratory wells and petroleum fields, 1985 edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of primary and secondary information giving well name and province, operating company, completion date, exploration technique, bottom home formation, total depth, producing formations, lithology, geologic age, drilling results, and geologic, petrophysical, and production data. It covers all the Arab countries in a new format.

  14. From Marginalisation to Integration: Arab-Palestinians in Israeli Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Tamar; Jabareen, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The Arab-Palestinian minority in Israel, one-fifth of the country's population, has been underrepresented in Israeli institutions of higher education since the establishment of the state. This article focuses on the authors' shared aim of promoting diversity and multiculturalism in institutions of higher education in Israel. It first introduces…

  15. Comprehension of Three Word Orders in Kuwaiti Arabic Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljenaie, Khawla; Farghal, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    The present project is a case study of 68 Kuwaiti children (aged between 4 and 8) who acted out their interpretation of verbal stimuli involving three word orders in Kuwaiti Arabic Subject Verb Object (SVO), Verb Subject Object (VSO) and Topic-Comment (T-C) by using a set of props. The purpose is to investigate the way Kuwaiti children comprehend…

  16. Psychological Loneliness among Arab Students at Irbid National University, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kadoumi, Khawla; Sawalha, Abdel Muhdi; Al Momani, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of psychological loneliness among Arab students studying at Irbid National University, and to investigate the effect of year of study and gender of students on the level of psychological loneliness. The sample of the study consisted of 149 students, 133 males and 16 females from first, second,…

  17. Selected Bibliography of Arab Educational Materials, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    One hundred fifty-four English language annotations of books, articles, and government publications about education in 11 Arab countries are contained in this bibliography. Drawing from materials published in 1976, the bibliography examines education for all age groups and ability levels in Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi…

  18. Students and Their Teachers of Arabic: Beliefs about Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A study investigated beliefs about second language learning held by 27 adult students and 10 teachers of Arabic at the Yemen Language Center. The survey instrument consisted of 5 demographic statements and 47 statements concerning language learning in a Likert-type scaled response format. Results indicate students and teachers generally agreed…

  19. Stateside and Overseas Students of Arabic: Beliefs about Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A study investigated beliefs about language learning held by two groups of students studying Arabic: 41 students in conventional classroom language instruction at the University of Wisconsin in 1992 and 1993, and 27 in an immersion program at the Yemen Language Center (Yemen). The survey instrument consisted of 47 statements in a Likert-type scale…

  20. Entrepreneurship Education in the Arab States. Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamloumi, Jilani

    2013-01-01

    The report involves the findings of the final evaluation of the regional entrepreneurship education project in Arab States component II (2011-2012) (see ED560497), which is a joint activity between UNESCO and StratREAL Foundation. It aims to help the development of educational policies enabling the integration of entrepreneurship education within…

  1. Population research and research gaps in the Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Tabbarah, R; Mamish, M A; Gemayel, Y

    1978-01-01

    The responsiveness of population research in the Arab countries to the development needs of these countries was studied. The needs are determined on the basis of official government positions and an analysis of the population and development situations prevailing in the countries. Population research is research that deals primarily with 1 or more of 5 categories of variables generally considered the main concern of the population field: 1) the size, growth and structure of the population; 2) morbidity and mortality; 3) reproduction and family formation; 4) population distribution and internal migration; and 5) international migration. An intensive search was made to locate published and unpublished population research undertaken between 1960 and 1976 dealing with the Arab countries. Except for Egypt and Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia), interest in population concerns is generally of relatively recent origin in the Arab countries. The population issues of major concern to most Arab countries relate to population distribution and internal migration, international migration, and the shortage of qualified demographers. There is also general concern for differential mortality and the persistence of high mortality rates among certain socioeconomic groups and in certain geographic areas; and, in a few countries, for high rates of fertility and population growth. Egypt, Tunisia, and to some extent Morocco should be singled out for their long-term preoccupation with questions of overpopulation and their relatively long interest in the control of fertility and the implementation of family planning programs. PMID:12336254

  2. An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation of the Arabic /E/.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Salman H.

    Using acoustical evidence from spectrograms and physiological evidence from X-ray sound films, it appears that the most common allophone for the Arabic voiced pharyngeal fricative, at least in Iraqi, is a voiceless stop, and not a voiced fricative, as many believe. The author considers the phoneme in different environments and describes its…

  3. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  4. Verbal Inflection in the Acquisition of Kuwaiti Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljenaie, Khawla

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the distribution of imperfective and perfective verb inflections in Kuwaiti Arabic. Spontaneous speech of three children (1 ; 8-3; 1) was analyzed for accuracy and error types. The results showed that the verbal inflections appeared correct almost all the time (89-97% of the time). Agreement errors appeared 3-11% of the…

  5. The Arabs and the West: An Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorrock, William I.

    1991-01-01

    Traces history of European interaction with Islamic countries of Middle East from Crusades through World War I. Explains political expendiencies of war and resulting mandate system. Provides religious and political bases for Arab distrust of West. Concludes that no lasting peace is possible in area as long as Palestinian question is ignored. (DK)

  6. Family, Religion, and Work among Arab American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazal Read, Jen'nan

    2004-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of 501 Arab American women, this study examines the extent to which family behavior mediates the influence of religion on women's labor force activity. Prior research on families has largely overlooked the role of religion in influencing women's labor force decisions, particularly at different stages of the life…

  7. Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Bakr, Ashraf; Sallam, Khalid; Amin, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to estimate the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) recruited from three Arab countries. We also examine the relationship between comorbidity and children's cognitive functioning and gender. Children who received a diagnosis of ASD (n = 60) from a…

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  9. The Relationship between Letter Fluency Measures and Arabic GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated two widely-used early literacy skill's indicators in reflecting growth in first-grade language achievement skills. It compared two curriculum-based assessments of letter knowledge: Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) and Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) in the Arabic language. A sample of 125 first-grade students, 100 average…

  10. Modern Standard Arabic: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XIX: Grammatical Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The nineteenth of 20 volumes of lessons designed for use in a full-time, intensive training program in Arabic is presented. This volume is a companion to the preceding ones. It presents summaries and explanations of the major patterns which were explained and practiced in the preceding volumes. (AMH)

  11. The Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Rey AVLT): An Arabic Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharoni, Varda; Natur, Nazeh

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to adapt the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) into Arabic, to compare recall functioning among age groups (6:0 to 17:11), and to compare gender differences on various memory dimensions (immediate and delayed recall, learning rate, recognition, proactive interferences, and retroactive interferences). This…

  12. The Licensing of Negative Sensitive Items in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsarayreh, Atef

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the licensing conditions on Negative Sensitive Items (NSIs) in Jordanian Arabic (JA). JA exhibits both types of NSIs that are discussed in the literature: Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) and Negative Concord Items (NCIs). Although these two sets of items seem to form a natural class in the sense that they show certain…

  13. Culture and English Language Teaching in the Arab World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between culture and English language teaching (ELT) in the Arab World. A critical question arises in terms of ELT, that is, whether to teach culture along with English. To answer such a bewildering question, this article presents related literature and studies and discusses a theoretical frame based on…

  14. Morphological Decomposition in Arabic: Dissociation of Form and Semantic Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qasem, Mousa

    2010-01-01

    Traditional theories of Semitic morphology hold that two abstract morphemic units, the root (e.g., "k-t-b") and the word pattern (e.g., "-i-aa-"), are the basis for word formation (e.g., "kitaab" [book]). Previous lexical processing studies in Hebrew and Arabic have confirmed the independent morphemic status of these two units, and the root in…

  15. Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for the Arab Gulf Countries

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Takruri, Hamed R.; Hassan, Abdelmonem S.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    The concept of food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) has been promoted by several international organizations. However, there are no FBDG for the countries in the Arab region. As the Arab Gulf countries share similar a socioeconomic and nutrition situation, an attempt was made to develop FBDG for these countries. This paper summarizes the steps taken to develope such guidelines by the Arab Center for Nutrition. The FBDG were developed through 6 steps: (1) determination of the purpose and goals for establishing FBDG, (2) characteristics of FBDG, (3) determination of the food consumption patterns, (4) review the current nutrition situation, (5) determination of the lifestyle patterns that are associated with diet-related diseases and (6) formulating the FBDG. The FBDG consist of 14 simple and practical pieces of advice taking into consideration the sociocultural status and nutritional problems in the Arab Gulf countries. The FBDG can be a useful tool in educating the public in healthy eating and prevention of diet-related chronic diseases. PMID:22347625

  16. Performance Evaluation of the Arabic Language Multimedia Instruction: "Malaysian Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faryadi, Qais

    2008-01-01

    This Study evaluated the effectiveness of the Arabic language multimedia products existing in Malaysian markets. For the purpose of careful investigation, this research has applied blended models of the most trusted instructional design based on the field-tested theories of the most outspoken educational psychologists such as Mayer (2002), Keller…

  17. Women in Arab countries: challenging the patriarchal system?

    PubMed

    Fargues, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    Progress in the empowerment of Arab women was found to be low in a 2002 report. Yet Arab women's status is not reflected in continuing high fertility, which in 2000 had dropped sharply in one generation to 3.4. This paper discusses why fertility decline could nevertheless have taken place in the Arab countries. Islam has not stood in the way of fertility decline, as Iran and Algeria show. From the mid- 1970s to 1980s, subsidised consumption through oil wealth redistribution reduced the cost of children, and social conservatism kept married women out of the labour force, both of which promoted higher fertility. The early stages of fertility decline were mainly due to longer length of education of girls, rising female age at first marriage, e.g. 28 in urban Morocco and 29 in Libya, and entry into the labour force of young, single women. There is also a growing population sub-group of never-married young women. Collapsing oil prices and structural adjustment reduced household resources and became an effective fertility regulation factor. Girls born since the 1950s have not only been educated longer than their mothers, but also their fathers, which increases their authority. These factors, and women's activism and civil and political lobbying for the reform of personal status now underway in a number of Arab countries, could all challenge the patriarchal system. PMID:16035596

  18. Mauritanian Arabic. Grammar Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Timothy P.; Hanchey, Stephen

    A handbook to the grammar of Mauritanian Arabic (Hassaniya) is intended for Peace Corps volunteers, and is designed to focus attention on proper grammatical forms. Lesson topics include the article, personal pronouns, possessive pronouns, negation of the implied verb "to be," noun gender, adjective gender, number, "there is/are and there…

  19. Definitiness in Arabic from an Axiomatic Functionalist Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadj-Mohamed, S.

    The axiomatic functionalist approach to linguistic analysis, in which, by definition, syntactic relationships are asymmetrical and morphological relationships are symmetrical, provides the framework for a discussion of the grammatical identity of the definite article "al" in Arabic as either morphemic or syntactic. Criteria for the distinction of…

  20. Stuttering and Lexical Category in Adult Arabic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdalla, Fauzia; Robb, Michael P.; Al-Shatti, Tareq

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the content and function word dichotomy of speech disfluency found in English-speaking adults who stutter (AWS) was evident in a language other than English. A group of adult Arabic-speaking AWS were sampled across spontaneous speaking, oral reading, and single-word naming tasks. Moments of disfluency…

  1. Sociodemographic factors in Arab children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Amr, Mostafa; Bu Ali, WaleedAl; Hablas, Hatem; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatma; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Al-Shamy, Hemdan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is a critical gap in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) research with respect to manifestations of the condition in developing countries This study examined the influence of sociodemographic variables on the severity of autistic symptoms and behavioral profile in Arab children. Methods The total study sample comprised of 60 Arab children (38 boys and 22 girls) from three Arab countries (22 Jordanians, 19 Saudis and 19 Egyptians). The diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) was based on DSM-IV criteria supplemented by direct observation according to the Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism (ISAA) and assessment of Intelligent Quotient (IQ). Finally, parents rated their child on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results It was found that the housewives and Saudi parents described more autistic symptoms and externalizing behavior problems. A significant negative correlation was found between IQ and each of ISAA, CBCL Internalizing and Externalizing problems scores. Conclusion The study concluded that the clinical presentation of ASD may be shaped by cultural factors that are likely to help to formulate specific diagnosis and intervention techniques in Arab children with ASD. PMID:23346279

  2. Vowel Harmony in Palestinian Arabic: A Metrical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Salim, I. M.

    1987-01-01

    The autosegmental rule of vowel harmony (VH) in Palestinian Arabic is shown to be constrained simultaneously by metrical and segmental boundaries. The indicative prefix bi- is no longer an exception to VH if a structure is assumed that disallows the prefix from sharing a foot with the stem, consequently blocking VH. (Author/LMO)

  3. Female Supervisors of Arab School Education in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid Husny

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of women discipline supervisors in the Arab education system in Israel, through their professional development to their attainment of senior supervisory posts. It examines how they attain supervision posts and perform various managerial functions in what is considered a male role, in a patriarchal society,…

  4. Prosodic Phrasing and Modifier Attachment in Standard Arabic Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelghany, Hala

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the syntax-prosody interface in Standard Arabic, focusing on the ambiguity of a modifier (relative clause or adjective phrase) in relation to the two nouns in a complex noun phrase. Ambiguity resolution tendencies for this construction differ across languages, contrary to otherwise universal parsing tendencies. One…

  5. School-Based Management: Arab Education System in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Romi, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the issue of school-based management (SBM) in elementary schools in the Arab education system in Israel, comparing schools experienced in SBM, schools beginning to use SBM and schools that do not use SBM. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative research used a structured questionnaire to…

  6. Reading and Spelling Error Analysis of Native Arabic Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-rabia, Salim; Taha, Haitham

    2004-01-01

    This study was an investigation of reading and spelling errors of dyslexic Arabic readers ("n"=20) compared with two groups of normal readers: a young readers group, matched with the dyslexics by reading level ("n"=20) and an age-matched group ("n"=20). They were tested on reading and spelling of texts, isolated words and pseudowords. Two…

  7. Similarity and Enhancement: Nasality from Moroccan Arabic Pharyngeals and Nasals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellou, Georgia Eve

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of the articulation, acoustics, and perception of nasal and pharyngeal consonants and adjacent vowels were conducted to investigate nasality in Moroccan Arabic (MA). The status of nasality in MA is described as coarticulatorily complex, where two phoneme types (pharyngeal segments and nasal segments) yield similar…

  8. The Acquisition of English and Arabic Existential Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kulaib, Emad Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the acquisition of existential constructions (ECs) in English and in Spoken Arabic. It is the first of its kind in that it examines the acquisition of the pieces and the features that form ECs; namely, existential "there," the copula, definiteness, and agreement for English and existential "fii," definiteness,…

  9. Competency Based Language Education Curriculum Guide. [Tunisian Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choura, Abdessalem

    This curriculum guide is designed for the Arabic language training of Peace Corps workers in Tunisia, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. An introductory section describes the materials' organization and competency-based approach, and lists the 28 specific competencies targeted and the constructions taught within each…

  10. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 12601.../federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used in food in accordance with good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780...

  11. Towards Decentralized Management in United Arab Emirate (UAE) Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Taneiji, Shaikah; McLeod, Lorraine

    2008-01-01

    The Ministry of Education in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has announced that changes will be made in the ways in which its schools are managed. At present, most decisions are made centrally by the Ministry of Education, but moves have begun to decentralize some responsibilities and decisions to schools. The success of such reform is likely to be…

  12. Spelling Knowledge and Reading Development: Insights from Arab ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fender, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between spelling knowledge and reading skills among a group of 16 intermediate-level Arab learners of English as a second language (ESL) and a corresponding comparison group of 21 intermediate-level ESL learners in an English for academic purposes (EAP) program. A spelling task was used…

  13. Understanding the Transfer of Prepositions: Arabic to English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakkis, Khadija; Malak, Mirna Abdel

    2000-01-01

    Examines the extent to which Arab students rely on their first language (L1) prepositional knowledge in acquiring an understanding of prepositional usage in English. Identifies areas in which negative and positive transfer occur in the use of prepositions in English. (Author/VWL)

  14. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A. F.; Al-Hazmi, Ali M.; Warsy, Arjumand S.

    2011-01-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries. PMID:22199098

  15. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries.

    PubMed

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A F; Al-Hazmi, Ali M; Warsy, Arjumand S

    2011-11-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries. PMID:22199098

  16. Factors Affecting the Acquisition of Plural Morphology in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the development of plural morphology in Jordanian Arab children, and explores the role of the predictability, transparency, productivity, and frequency of different plural forms in determining the trajectory that children follow in acquiring this complex inflectional system. The study also re-examines the development of the…

  17. Quality in Higher Education: United Arab Emirates Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soomro, Tariq Rahim; Ahmad, Reyaz

    2012-01-01

    Quality in higher education is the major concern among researchers. Managing quality in higher education in a multicultural population with different approaches is not only challenging but an uphill task. This paper will focus on quality concern in higher education keeping in view, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) perspectives. A model to maintain…

  18. Ageing and intergenerational family ties in Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Kronfol, N M; Rizk, A; Sibai, A M

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the dominant issues in intergenerational ties in Arab countries with a view to highlighting patterns, trends and challenges as well as policy implications. The data were drawn from a review of scholarly work and published literature in Arab countries and from a regional mapping of ageing policies and programmes in 2012. Social and health ageing policies in the region have been set with the premise that the family represents the core safety net for older Arabs. Yet demographic, sociocultural and economic transitions, as well as political conflict in the Arab world, are bringing profound changes to familial structures. This review feeds into efforts to promote health and social reforms that approach intergenerational solidarity from several fronts: providing equitable old-age income security, fostering cross-generational interactions, embracing caregivers and home-based care, promoting age-responsive actions in emergencies and conflicts, and prioritizing context- and country-specific research on the levels, types and trends in intergenerational and familial support. PMID:26857721

  19. Linguistic Constraints on Children's Ability to Isolate Phonemes in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2007-01-01

    The study tested the effect of three factors on Arab children's (N = 256) phoneme isolation: "phoneme's linguistic affiliation" (standard phonemes vs. spoken phonemes), phoneme position (initial vs. final), and linguistic context (singleton vs. cluster). Two groups of children speaking two different vernaculars were tested. The two vernaculars…

  20. Achieving the Advanced Oral Proficiency in Arabic: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samimy, Keiko K.

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on a case study of a white American graduate student, Mark, who achieved "Superior" oral proficiency in Arabic according to the ACTFIi Oral Proficiency Scale. Based on multiple data sources (e.g., interviews, observation, document analysis), the study highlights Mark's multiple identities as a language learner, language…

  1. Agrarian Reform Policies and Development in the Arab Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baali, Fuad

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the nature, scope, and implications of the rural development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The first section of the paper deals with the forces that have caused changes in agrarian reform policies as they affected rural development in these countries. Specifically…

  2. Imagining Postnationalism: Arts, Citizenship Education, and Arab American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Haj, Thea Renda Abu

    2009-01-01

    This article explores an Arab American community arts organization as a site for promoting youth civic participation and social activism. Studying a citizenship education project outside the school walls, and focusing on the arts as a medium for this work, foregrounds the role of the symbolic for engaging youth as active participants in democratic…

  3. Science Education in Arab States: Bright Future or Status Quo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagher, Zoubeida R.; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the current state of science education in Arab states and anticipates some of the challenges faced by those states as they reform their science education. After discussing problems of illiteracy, access and quality we provide contextual information about the structure of the educational systems and describe recent efforts to…

  4. Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies among Arabic Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusri, Ghazali; Rahimi, Nik Mohd; Shah, Parilah M.; Wah, Wan Haslina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive and metacognitive strategies in learning oral Arabic among students at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia. The concept of these strategies was derived from the self-regulated learning framework, which consists of five components, namely rehearsal, elaboration, organization, critical thinking, and…

  5. Learning to Read in Arabic: The Long and Winding Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asaad, Hanan; Eviatar, Zohar

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relative contribution of visual abilities, accessibility of letter names, and phonological awareness, to text reading speed and accuracy of Arabic in first, third, and fifth grades. The results revealed that for all levels of skill, phonological awareness contributes significantly to reading accuracy, to the same degree. For…

  6. Recognition of printed Arabic text using machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Adnan

    1998-04-01

    Many papers have been concerned with the recognition of Latin, Chinese and Japanese characters. However, although almost a third of a billion people worldwide, in several different languages, use Arabic characters for writing, little research progress, in both on-line and off-line has been achieved towards the automatic recognition of Arabic characters. This is a result of the lack of adequate support in terms of funding, and other utilities such as Arabic text database, dictionaries, etc. and of course of the cursive nature of its writing rules. The main theme of this paper is the automatic recognition of Arabic printed text using machine learning C4.5. Symbolic machine learning algorithms are designed to accept example descriptions in the form of feature vectors which include a label that identifies the class to which an example belongs. The output of the algorithm is a set of rules that classifies unseen examples based on generalization from the training set. This ability to generalize is the main attraction of machine learning for handwriting recognition. Samples of a character can be preprocessed into a feature vector representation for presentation to a machine learning algorithm that creates rules for recognizing characters of the same class. Symbolic machine learning has several advantages over other learning methods. It is fast in training and in recognition, generalizes well, is noise tolerant and the symbolic representation is easy to understand. The technique can be divided into three major steps: the first step is pre- processing in which the original image is transformed into a binary image utilizing a 300 dpi scanner and then forming the connected component. Second, global features of the input Arabic word are then extracted such as number subwords, number of peaks within the subword, number and position of the complementary character, etc. Finally, machine learning C4.5 is used for character classification to generate a decision tree.

  7. Cigarette use among Arab Americans in the Detroit metropolitan area.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, V H; Kulwicki, A

    1992-01-01

    Use of cigarette tobacco by large proportions of the population of Middle Eastern countries has been reported; however, little is known about smoking behavior in one of America's fastest growing minorities, the Arab Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine cigarette smoking behavior of 237 randomly selected Arab American adults from a telephone listing in the Detroit area. Participants lived in the geographic Arab American community and identified with a Middle Eastern cultural heritage. Nurses, who spoke both English and Arabic, interviewed one adult family member using the 59-item self-report from the Cardiovascular Risk Factor Survey developed by Rice. Mean age of respondents was 40.4 years, 97 percent had been born in the Middle East, and 67 percent had been living in the United States 15 years or less. Current smokers rate was 38.9 percent, former smokers rate was 11.1 percent, never smokers rate was 50 percent, and the quit ratio (proportion of ever smokers who are former smokers) was 22.2 percent. Fifty-four percent of the current smokers were between 25 and 34 years of age; fewer women than men were former smokers, and the highest proportion of current smokers were Lebanese. Subjects who had smoked for the longest time were the least well educated. Arab Americans in this sample had a higher smoking rate, a lower quitting rate, and a much lower quit ratio when compared with national and State of Michigan data. With the growing numbers of Middle Eastern immigrants, there is potential for a dramatic increase in smoking-related health problems. PMID:1410242

  8. Affect of Arab News: Post-treaty Portrayal of Egypt and Israel in the Mass Media of Three Arab Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Anne Messerly

    A study of 4,692 news stories from Egyptian, Algerian, and Tunisian electronic and print news media was conducted to see how state-controlled media reflected government policy changes following the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty and the subsequent diplomatic break between Egypt and Arab League nations. The study found that the three controlled…

  9. Teaching the Arab World and the West … as an Arab in the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abboud, Samer

    2015-01-01

    How do the subjective experiences of faculty and students shape the classroom and the study of global politics? Can our subjective experiences support the pedagogical goal of developing critical thinking skills? In this article, I draw on my experiences teaching an undergraduate course called "The Arab World and the West" with respect to…

  10. Systematics, morphology, and ecological history of the Mascarene starlings (Aves: Sturnidae) with the description of a new genus and species from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Hume, Julian Pender

    2014-01-01

    Two endemic starlings, both extinct, have been described from the Mascarene Islands of Réunion and Rodrigues: the Hoopoe Starling, Huppe or Réunion Crested Starling Fregilupus varius, which is known from 19 skins and a single Holocene proximal end of a fossil femur, and the Rodrigues Starling Necropsar rodericanus, which is known as specimens only from fossils of most skeletal elements. Both were recorded alive in early accounts of Mascarene faunas. A third species of starling Cryptopsar ischyrhynchus gen. nov. sp. nov. is described herein from fossils from Mauritius, but was never reported in the early literature. This paper provides an analysis of the Sturnidae of the Mascarene Islands based on newly discovered fossil remains, and details historical reports and accounts. Their ecology and extinction are interpreted from historical evidence. Necropsar, Cryptopsar and Fregilupus clearly form part of the same clade, but morphological analysis shows that Necropsar and Cryptopsar are more closely related to each other than to Fregilupus and may have been part of a different colonisation event. All three genera appear to have their origins in SE Asia and have morphological similarities with the SE Asian sturnid genera, Sturnia and Gracupica, so they presumably colonised the islands via island-hopping during lower sea level stands.  PMID:25112426

  11. The Role of the Arab Open University, as a Distance Education Institution, in Social Communication and Development in the Arab Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakari, Mohammed I.; Alkhezzi, Fahad

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the ways by which Arab Open University (AOU) contributes to social development. Ever since it was founded in 2002 and with branches in seven Arab countries, the AOU has succeeded in allowing higher education access to students of all genders, nationalities, and age groups, including those who are over 60 years old.…

  12. Population, human resources, and development in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Tabbarah, R

    1981-06-01

    An important consequence of the over-abundance of capital resources in relation to land and labor is the pressure being placed in Arab development on the other factors of production, particularly human resources. The purpose of this discussion is to provide a brief analysis of this aspect of Arab development and to suggest, in broad terms, an outline for a course of action that would improve the contribution of human resources to development and promote the rationalization of the Arab development process. Attention is directed to the following: the meaning of human resources development; socioeconomic consequences of oil; population trends and issues; and the utilization and development of human resources. Human resources development is defined on both the micro and the macro levels. On the micro level, human resources development focuses on the individual in a society and on the institutions that give him/her the skills and other basic requirements needed for a dignified existence and an adequate degree of social participation. Human resources development on the macro level concentrates on aggregate concepts relating to the supply and utilization of human resources. The discovery of oil in relatively small Arab nations created a yet unknown development situation in which of the 3 factors of production--land, labor, and capital--the latter was in great abundance relative to the other 2 factors. 1 of the 1st results of this situation was the present transitional stage with its tremendous gap between the social and economic aspects of development, specifically a very high level of per capita income and wealth associated with an underdeveloped social and human resources infrastructure. To place Arab development on the right track, action needs to be taken on several fronts. The following are among the items that must be included on such an agenda: efforts to improve knowledge of the human resources supply, requirements, problems, and policy options through intensified

  13. Irradiation depolymerized guar gum as partial replacement of gum Arabic for microencapsulation of mint oil.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shatabhisa; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun; Singhal, Rekha S

    2012-11-01

    Spray dried microcapsules of mint oil were prepared using gum Arabic alone and its blends with radiation or enzymatically depolymerized guar gum as wall materials. Microcapsules were evaluated for retention of mint oil during 8-week storage during which qualitative changes in encapsulated mint oil was monitored using principal component analysis. The microcapsules with radiation depolymerized guar gum as wall material component could better retain major mint oil compounds such as menthol and isomenthol. The t(1/2) calculated for mint oil in microcapsules of gum Arabic, gum Arabic:radiation depolymerized guar gum (90:10), gum Arabic:enzyme depolymerized guar gum (90:10) was 25.66, 38.50, and 17.11 weeks, respectively. The results suggested a combination of radiation depolymerized guar gum and gum Arabic to show better retention of encapsulated flavour than gum Arabic alone as wall material. PMID:22944434

  14. Criterion-related validity of the Arabic Obsessive-Compulsive Scale in Kuwaiti and American students.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, A M; Lester, D

    1999-12-01

    The Arabic Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory were administered to 159 Kuwaiti (Arabic version) and 72 American college students (English version). Pearson correlations for total score on the two scales were .68 and .64 for Kuwaiti and Americans, respectively, denoting a good convergent validity of the new Arabic Obsessive-Compulsive Scale against scores on the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory in the two different national groups. PMID:10710965

  15. Contribution to the Vocal Print Recognition in Arabic Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachouri, Abdennaceur; Hdiji, Tarak; Sakka, Zied; Samet, Mounir

    The study presents a new database dedicated to speaker recognition applications. The main characteristics of this Arabic database are spoken by native and non-native speakers, a single session of sentence reading and relatively extensive speech samples suitable for learning person specific speech characteristics. This speech database is dedicated to the modelling and the representation of speakers. The representation consists in extracting parameters (MFCC: Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients or LPCC: Linear Prediction Cepstral Coefficients) that characterize the voice or a speaker's vocal print from isolated words either linked from the Arabic database prepared for this work. The technique used in the phase of recognition adapted to this type of data and that showed more performance is the one of HMM (Hidden Markov Models). One tidy preparation of the training database and a good choice of entrance parameters permits to finish an effective model.

  16. Analysis of Final Energy Consumption Patterns in 10 Arab Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.

    2009-08-01

    This study presents an analysis of the energy consumption patterns in 10 Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria. Commonalities and variations between these countries are discussed and explained through key economic and energy indicators, and the relationship between the overall final energy consumption per capita and the GDP per capita is examined. The distribution of the final energy consumption across different sectors is also analysed, and the patterns of consumption in the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors are discussed with focus on the types of energy consumed, and the main drivers of this consumption. The findings and the conclusions of this study are believed to be beneficial to the national energy policy planners in identifying possible strengths, weaknesses, and areas of emphasis and improvement in their strategic energy plans.

  17. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940-2015: A Review.

    PubMed

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  18. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940–2015: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  19. Iodine derivatives of chemically modified gum Arabic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat A; Ali, Akbar; Mazumdar, Nasreen

    2015-09-20

    Acetylated gum Arabic (AGA) derivatives with different degrees of substitution (DS 0.97-2.74) were synthesized using acetyl chloride and a base under varying reaction conditions. The AGA derivatives were obtained in the form of microspheres and thereafter stable iodine products were prepared by doping the microspheres with an iodinating agent, iodine monochloride (ICl). The reaction between electrophilic iodine and polar carbonyl groups was studied by FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, and UV-VIS spectroscopies. The products were also characterized by DSC, TGA and SEM studies. The incorporated iodine was released in aqueous medium as iodide ions (I(-)). A reaction scheme has been proposed for the iodination and de-iodination of the gum derivatives. This work suggests that the iodine derivatives of modified gum Arabic could be used as a source of iodide ions which is the nutritional form of iodine. PMID:26050909

  20. Delivery of health services in Arab countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Kronfol, N M

    2012-12-01

    This paper reviews the essential components of health care delivery systems in Arab countries and their development over the past 3 decades. The changes and challenges which evolved during the last half of the 20th century have had a significant impact on health systems and on health outcomes. An adequate network of hospitals and primary health care facilities has been established in most Arab countries of the Region. The increased participation of civil society has impacted positively on health systems. However, the main challenge is represented by the move towards market economies. In many developing economies, macroeconomic reforms have often necessitated cuts in public spending on social sectors. Cost-sharing policies have been implemented in order to compensate for diminishing government budgets allocated to health. However, this is not to minimize the enormous strides that have been made in all countries nor the important challenges that need to be addressed. PMID:23301398

  1. On Belonging: The American Adolescent of Arab Descent.

    PubMed

    Khouri, Lama Z

    2016-08-01

    Although American families of Arab origin come from 22 countries and from varied backgrounds and cultures, reports suggest that they suffer equally from acculturation stress, stereotyping, discrimination, and the reverberations of the aftermath of September 11 as well as global affairs. However, because children and adolescents from these families, particularly those who are newly arrived immigrants, tend to do well in school, they are rarely targeted by research or policy. This article uses the narratives of 5 middle school age male students from Arab descent who were in a support group that met for 3 years (2004-2007), beginning shortly after President George W. Bush's declaration of the war on the "axis of evil." I used vignettes from this group to illustrate the stressors this population faces. The final section suggests an option for supporting this population. PMID:27472891

  2. Self-esteem among Arab adolescents in Israel.

    PubMed

    Abu-Saad, I

    1999-08-01

    This study examined the level of global self-esteem of Arab adolescents in Israel and its relationship to perceived academic status and aspirations, interpersonal relationships, community type, and various demographic variables. A group of 1,560 11th- and 12th-grade Israeli-Arab adolescents answered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965). The results revealed significant relationships (a) between global self-esteem and students' evaluations of their scholastic levels, their schools' academic levels, and their plans to take matriculation exams and (b) between self-esteem and family and peer relations. There was a significant relationship between self-esteem and community type. Participants living in cities and villages scored higher than those living in Bedouin townships. There were no significant gender differences or differences among grade levels. PMID:10457762

  3. Revealing the superior perceptibility of words in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Timothy R; Paterson, Kevin B; Almabruk, Abubaker A A

    2010-01-01

    When alphabetic stimuli are presented very briefly, people perceive real words better than nonwords. It is generally accepted that this word superiority effect reflects the efficiency of visual word perception. However, much of what is known about this effect comes from research conducted in languages using the Latin alphabet (eg English, French, Italian), and little is known about whether alphabetic languages with visual properties fundamentally different from Latinate languages also produce word superiority effects. We report an experiment in which stimuli (words, illegal nonwords, and pseudowords) were presented in Arabic, which is a cursive script, read from right to left. The findings revealed advantages for words over pseudowords and illegal nonwords, and for pseudowords over illegal nonwords, indicating that the superiority effects reported for Latinate languages are also observed in Arabic. Implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in word recognition are discussed. PMID:20465177

  4. Reading, syntactic, orthographic, and working memory skills of bilingual Arabic-English speaking Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Siegel, Linda S

    2002-11-01

    This study assessed the reading, language, and memory skills of 56 bilingual Arab-Canadian children age's 9-14. English was their main instructional language, and Arabic was the language spoken at home. All children attended a Heritage Language Program in Toronto where they were taught to read and write Arabic. The children were administered word and pseudo-word reading, language, and working memory tests in English and Arabic. The majority of the children showed at least adequate proficiency in both languages. There was a significant relationship between the acquisition of word and pseudo-word reading working memory, and syntactic awareness skills in the two languages. The poor readers in Arabic had lower scores on all linguistic tasks, except the visual task. There were no significant differences between bilingual English Arabic children and monolingual English-speaking children on the reading, language, and memory tasks. However, bilingual English Arabic children who had reading problems in English had higher scores on English pseudo-word reading and spelling tasks than monolingual English-speaking children with reading disabilities, probably because of positive transfer from the regular nature of Arabic orthography. In this case, bilingualism does not appear to have negative consequences for the development of language reading skills in both languages--Arabic and English--despite the different nature of the two orthographies. PMID:12599919

  5. Arabic versions of the sleep timing questionnaire and the composite scale of morningness

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Hader; Tobar, Salwa; Fathi, Warda; Ibrahim, Ibtihal; Wood, Joel; Elassy, Mai; Elsayed, Hanan; Yassin, Amal; Salah, Hala; Eissa, Ahmed; El-Boraie, Hala; El-Boraie, Osama; Dobea, Ahmed; Osama, Haitham; Gomaa, Zeinab; El-Bahaei, Wafaa; Monk, Timothy H.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop Arabic versions of English language questionnaires to estimate morningness/eveningness and sleep variables. Methods We translated the Composite scale of morningness (CSM) and the Sleep Timing Questionnaire (STQ) [with added siesta questions] into Arabic; the Arabic versions were then back translated. The revised Arabic and the original English versions were next administered to bi-lingual Egyptians using a crossover design (n = 25). The Arabic versions of both scales were subsequently administered to an independent Egyptian sample (n = 79) and the siesta variables examined in relation to the CSM. Results Satisfactory correlations were present between the English and Arabic versions for total CSM scores (Spearman’s ρ=0.90, p < 0.001). All but one of the STQ variables were significantly correlated (Spearman’s ρ = 0.45 – 0.88, p < 0.05). In the Arabic version, the frequency of siesta naps per week was significantly correlated with the total CSM score, with evening types taking more naps (Spearman’s ρ = −0.23, p < 0.05). Conclusions Arabic versions of the STQ and CSM have been developed in Egypt, and are freely available. They can be used for behavioral research related to sleep and circadian function and can be adapted for use in other Arab speaking populations. PMID:25466780

  6. The effects of September 11 on Arab American nurses in metropolitan Detroit.

    PubMed

    Kulwicki, Anahid; Khalifa, Rose; Moore, Gary

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the effects of 9/11 on Arab American nurses' workplace discrimination in the Detroit metropolitan area. Thirty-four Arab American nurses completed a survey about perceptions and experiences related to discrimination before and after the terror attacks on 9/11. Most participants did not experience demotion, but some experienced intimidation and patient rejection more often or with the same frequency following 9/11. September 11 continues to negatively affect Arab Americans in the work environment. Studies are needed to further examine the workplace discrimination relationship with specific health indicators for Arab Americans. PMID:18263850

  7. Validation of an Arabic version of Fatigue Severity Scale

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Al-Hugail, Hind A.; AlSaif, Ranyah M.; Albawardi, Nada M.; Alnahdi, Ali H.; Daif, Abdulkader M.; Al-Arfaj, Hussein F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and test the psychometric properties of an Arabic version of Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS-Ar) that can be used to measure fatigue in Arabic patients with disorders where fatigue is a major symptom. Methods: Forward and backward translations of FSS were undertaken to develop an Arabic version. The validity and reliability of the FSS-Ar was then tested on 28 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 24 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and 31 healthy subjects. Exploratory factor analysis and hypothesis testing methods were used to examine construct validity. The correlation between FSS-Ar and the vitality domain of the RAND 36-Item Health was examined to test construct validity. The study was conducted at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between February and June 2012. Results: Using a score of ≥4.05 to define fatigue, 39 of 52 (75%) participants were fatigued compared with 10 out of 31 (32%) healthy participants. The correlation between the FSS-Ar and the vitality domain of the RAND-36 was acceptable (r = -0.46). Factor analysis showed that items of the FSS-Ar measured one underlying construct, namely, fatigue. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the FSS-Ar was acceptable (intraclass correlation coefficient model 2,1 = 0.80; Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84). Conclusion: The Arabic version of the FSS demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and was able to differentiate between patients with SLE or MS, and healthy subjects. PMID:26739978

  8. The international who's who of the Arab world. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This reference book provides an alphabetical listing of approximately 3,000 biographies of important Arabs including businessmen, diplomats, politicians, bankers, engineers, lawyers, judges, oil officials, physicians, scientists, religious leaders, academics, writers, journalists, and artists. Information for each individual includes full name, nationality and profession/position, education, career history, membership in professional associations, languages, personal interests and leisure activities, and full contact address with telephone and telex numbers where available. Indexed.

  9. Validation of Arabic versions of three sleep surveys

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Anwar E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on sleep health is lacking in developing countries, particularly among the Sudanese population. This contributes to a number of social and safety risks such as workplace injury, daytime sleepiness, automobile accidents, and more. The current study aims to validate three Arabic questionnaires related to sleep health, namely the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). Methods: A random sample of 83 Sudanese participants was surveyed for the purpose of testing the reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the ESS, ISI, and RLS. The present study used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of item scores to examine a potential single-factor structure of the ESS, ISI, and RLS. Reliability and validity of the instruments were assessed by internal consistency and construct validity, respectively. Results: The internal consistency within the ESS, ISI, and RLS subscales was high, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.84, 0.87, and 0.94, respectively. EFA results showed the RLS and ISI scales were dominated by a single-factor structure that explained at least 84.2% and 65.70% respectively of the total variance. The ESS required a two-factor solution that explained 64.5% of the total variance, so the single-factor structure does not appear to be a good measure of the Arabic version of the ESS. Conclusion: The Arabic versions of the ESS, ISI, and RLS are valid and reliable tools. The RLS and ISI seem to have better psychometric properties than the ESS. PMID:25745603

  10. A case of Candida guilliermondii abortion in an Arab mare

    PubMed Central

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species. PMID:24707460

  11. Lactase persistence variants in Arabia and in the African Arabs.

    PubMed

    Priehodová, Edita; Abdelsawy, Abdelhay; Heyer, Evelyne; Cerný, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP), the state enabling the digestion of milk sugar in adulthood, occurs only in some human populations. The convergent and independent origin of this physiological ability in Europe and Africa is linked with animal domestication that either had started in both places independently or had spread from the Near East by acculturation. However, it has recently been shown that at least in its southern parts, the population of Arabia not only has a different LP-associated mutation profile than the rest of Africa and Europe but also had experienced an independent demographic expansion occurring before the Neolithic around the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. In Arabia, LP is associated with mutation -13,915*G and not, as in Europe, with -13,910*T or, as in Africa, with -13,907*G and -14,010*C. We show here that, in Arabia, -13,915*G frequency conforms to a partial clinal pattern and that this specific mutation has likely been spread from Arabia to Africa only recently from the sixth century AD onward by nomadic Arabs (Bedouins) looking for new pastures. Arabic populations in Africa that still maintain a nomadic way of life also have more -13,915*G variants and fewer sub-Saharan L-type mitochondrial DNA haplogroups; this observation matches archaeological and historical records suggesting that the migration of Arabic pastoralists was accompanied by gradual sedentarization that allowed for admixture with the local African population. PMID:25401983

  12. Breast cancer screening interventions for Arabic women: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Hwang, Jasmine

    2015-06-01

    Similar to other Middle Eastern countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Qatar with increasing incidence and mortality rates. High mortality rates of breast cancer in the Middle Eastern countries are primarily due to delayed diagnosis of the disease. Thus screening and early detection of breast cancer are important in reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. With the aim of updating knowledge on existing interventions and developing effective intervention programs to promote breast cancer screening in Arabic populations in Qatar, this review addresses the question: What interventions are effective in increasing breast cancer knowledge and breast cancer screening rates in Arabic populations in Arabic countries and North America? Systematic literature review was performed to answer the proposed question. As the result of the search, six research studies were identified and appraised. From the findings, we infer several insights: (a) a language-appropriate and culturally sensitive educational program is the most important component of a successful intervention regardless of the study setting, (b) multi-level interventions that target both women, men, health care professionals, and/or larger health care system are more likely to be successful than single educational interventions or public awareness campaigns, and (c) more vigorous, personal and cognitive interventions that address psychosocial factors are likely to be more effective than less personal and informative interventions. This review has important implications for health care providers, intervention planners, and researchers. PMID:23975014

  13. Mutation spectrum of Joubert syndrome and related disorders among Arabs

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Salem, Salma; Al-Shamsi, Aisha M; Gleeson, Joseph G; Ali, Bassam R; Al-Gazali, Lihadh

    2014-01-01

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare autosomal recessive (AR), neurological condition characterized by dysgenesis of the cerebellar vermis with the radiological hallmark of molar tooth sign, oculomotor apraxia, recurrent hyperventilation and intellectual disability. Most cases display a broad spectrum of additional features, including polydactyly, retinal dystrophy and renal abnormalities, which define different subtypes of JS-related disorders (JSRDs). To date, 23 genes have been shown to cause JSRDs, and although most of the identified genes encode proteins involved in cilia function or assembly, the molecular mechanisms associated with ciliary signaling remain enigmatic. Arab populations are ethnically diverse with high levels of consanguinity (20–60%) and a high prevalence of AR disorders. In addition, isolated communities with very-high levels of inbreeding and founder mutations are common. In this article, we review the 70 families reported thus far with JS and JSRDs that have been studied at the molecular level from all the Arabic countries and compile the mutations found. We show that JS and the related JSRDs are genetically heterogeneous in Arabs, with 53 mutations in 15 genes. Thirteen of these mutations are potentially founder mutations for the region. PMID:27081510

  14. Writer adaptation in off-line Arabic handwriting recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Gregory R.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    2008-01-01

    Writer adaptation or specialization is the adjustment of handwriting recognition algorithms to a specific writer's style of handwriting. Such adjustment yields significantly improved recognition rates over counterpart general recognition algorithms. We present the first unconstrained off-line handwriting adaptation algorithm for Arabic presented in the literature. We discuss an iterative bootstrapping model which adapts a writer-independent model to a writer-dependent model using a small number of words achieving a large recognition rate increase in the process. Furthermore, we describe a confidence weighting method which generates better results by weighting words based on their length. We also discuss script features unique to Arabic, and how we incorporate them into our adaptation process. Even though Arabic has many more character classes than languages such as English, significant improvement was observed. The testing set consisting of about 100 pages of handwritten text had an initial average overall recognition rate of 67%. After the basic adaptation was finished, the overall recognition rate was 73.3%. As the improvement was most marked for the longer words, and the set of confidently recognized longer words contained many fewer false results, a second method was presented using them alone, resulting in a recognition rate of about 75%. Initially, these words had a 69.5% recognition rate, improving to about a 92% recognition rate after adaptation. A novel hybrid method is presented with a rate of about 77.2%.

  15. Non-communicable diseases in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Hanan F Abdul; Sibai, Abla; Khader, Yousef; Hwalla, Nahla; Fadhil, Ibtihal; Alsiyabi, Huda; Mataria, Awad; Mendis, Shanthi; Mokdad, Ali H; Husseini, Abdullatif

    2014-01-25

    According to the results of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, the burden of non-communicable diseases (cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung diseases, and diabetes) in the Arab world has increased, with variations between countries of different income levels. Behavioural risk factors, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity are prevalent, and obesity in adults and children has reached an alarming level. Despite epidemiological evidence, the policy response to non-communicable diseases has been weak. So far, Arab governments have not placed a sufficiently high priority on addressing the high prevalence of non-communicable diseases, with variations in policies between countries and overall weak implementation. Cost-effective and evidence-based prevention and treatment interventions have already been identified. The implementation of these interventions, beginning with immediate action on salt reduction and stricter implementation of tobacco control measures, will address the rise in major risk factors. Implementation of an effective response to the non-communicable-disease crisis will need political commitment, multisectoral action, strengthened health systems, and continuous monitoring and assessment of progress. Arab governments should be held accountable for their UN commitments to address the crisis. Engagement in the global monitoring framework for non-communicable diseases should promote accountability for effective action. The human and economic burden leaves no room for inaction. PMID:24452044

  16. Recruiting and Retaining Arab Muslim Mothers and Children for Research

    PubMed Central

    Aroian, Karen J.; Katz, Anne; Kulwicki, Anahid

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To describe successful and not-so-successful strategies for recruiting and retaining Arab Muslim immigrant women and their adolescent children for research. Design and Methods A longitudinal study of mother-child adjustment of Arab immigrants to the US is used for illustration. A panel of experts was assembled and provided culturally specific advice about gatekeepers, advertising, data collectors, data collection, and how to track and encourage participation at subsequent time points in the study. Findings Most of the strategies recommended by the panel were overwhelmingly positive, including advice about data collectors, how to collect data, financial incentives, avoiding offending families, and personal contacts. Hiring data collectors who were able to establish personal and culturally appropriate relationships with study participants was the single most successful recruitment and retention strategy. Advice from cultural experts about which gatekeepers to engage and how to advertise for study participants was not productive. Conclusions Researchers should not only assemble a panel of cultural experts to provide advice about group specific strategies to build trust and maintain cultural sensitivity, but also to budget generously for time for data collectors to build and maintain rapport with study populations who, like Arab immigrant women, highly value personal relationships. PMID:17044343

  17. Parenting Young Arab Children: Psychometric Properties of an Adapted Arabic Brief Version of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Badahdah, Abdallah; Le, Kien Trung

    2016-06-01

    Research has shown a connection between negative parenting practices and child conduct problems. One of the most commonly used measures to assess parenting practices is the Alabama parenting questionnaire (APQ). The current study aimed to culturally adapt and assess the psychometric properties of a short version of the APQ for use in Arabic cultures, using a sample of 251 Qatari parents of children ages 4-12. An exploratory factor analysis proposed a five-model solution that corresponds to the original proposed model in the full version of the APQ. The five constructs of the APQ correlated in the expected direction with the Conduct Problem Subscale from the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. This study provides support for the utility of the 15-item short version of the APQ in Arabic cultures. More studies are needed to validate the performance of the short version of APQ in clinical settings. PMID:26323582

  18. Euro-Arab School of Oncology: an educational collaborative activity of the European School of Oncology with the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Nicholas; Nicholas, Pavlidis; Gadallah, Mohsen; Mohsen, Gadallah; Cavalli, Franco; Franco, Cavalli; Costa, Alberto; Alberto, Costa

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we report on the new endeavor of the European School of Oncology to offer collaborative educational activity to the Arab oncologists. We present the 4-year detailed programme held in different Middle East countries with the organization of master classes, advanced courses, or symposia as well as the fellowship programme and the press media events. In addition, we assess the evaluation questionnaires given to the participants during the courses. PMID:20405354

  19. The Impact of Diglossia on Voweled and Unvoweled Word Reading in Arabic: A Developmental Study from Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Schiff, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    All native speakers of Arabic read in a language variety that is remarkably distant from the one they use in everyday speech. The study tested the impact of this distance on reading accuracy and fluency by comparing reading of Standard Arabic (StA) words, used in StA only, versus Spoken Arabic (SpA) words, used in SpA too, among Arabic native…

  20. News Outreach: Polish physics club reaches out with practical demonstrations Networking: Online workspace helps teachers to share ideas Mauritius: Telescope inspires science specification Fusion: EFDA sparks resources Olympiad: British team enjoys success at the International Physics Olympiad 2009 Nanoscience: 'Quietest' building in the world opens in Bristol, UK Conference: University of Leicester hosts the GIREP EPEC 2009 international conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    Outreach: Polish physics club reaches out with practical demonstrations Networking: Online workspace helps teachers to share ideas Mauritius: Telescope inspires science specification Fusion: EFDA sparks resources Olympiad: British team enjoys success at the International Physics Olympiad 2009 Nanoscience: 'Quietest' building in the world opens in Bristol, UK Conference: University of Leicester hosts the GIREP EPEC 2009 international conference

  1. Trajectories of Education in the Arab World: Legacies and Challenges. Routledge Advances in Middle East and Islamic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abi-Mershed, Osama, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Trajectories of Education in the Arab World" gives a broad yet detailed historical and geographical overview of education in Arab countries. Drawing on pre-modern and modern educational concepts, systems, and practices in the Arab world, this book examines the impact of Western cultural influence, the opportunities for reform and the…

  2. Mother-Child Attachment and Social Anxiety: Associations with Friendship Skills and Peer Competence of Arab Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Kerns, Kathryn A.; Rousseau, Sofie; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the joint and distinct contribution of attachment security and social anxiety to Arab children's peer competence in middle childhood. We focused on Arab children as very little research has examined close relationships for this group. A sample of 404 third-, fourth- and fifth-grade Arabic students (203 boys and…

  3. Psychometric Evaluation of an Arabic Version of the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale in Jordanian Muslim College Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Ahmad S.

    2015-01-01

    A review of the nursing and health-related literature on spirituality revealed that no valid and reliable research tool exists in Arabic for measuring spiritual beliefs and practices for Arab Muslim population. This study translated the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS) into Arabic and examined the psychometric properties of the…

  4. Teachers' Attitudes toward the Appointment of Women as School Leaders: The Case of the Arab Education System in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Abramovitz, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The trend towards gender equality in principalship appointments continues to interest researchers, especially when it appears in traditional societies that maintain patriarchal, anti-feminist attitudes and values. Arab society in Israel is undergoing transition from traditionalism to modernism. Arab women hold the majority of Arab school teaching…

  5. Embedded Vowels: Remedying the Problems Arising out of Embedded Vowels in the English Writings of Arab Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Mohamed Fazlulla

    2013-01-01

    L1 habits often tend to interfere with the process of learning a second language. The vowel habits of Arab learners of English are one such interference. Arabic orthography is such that certain vowels indicated by diacritics are often omitted, since an experienced reader of Arabic knows, by habit, the exact vowel sound in each phonetic…

  6. Orthographic, Phonological, and Morphological Skills and Children's Word Reading in Arabic: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ghanem, Reem; Kearns, Devin M.

    2015-01-01

    Current Arabic reading instruction places strong emphasis on orthographic skills and little emphasis on phonological and morphological skills. Yet, the role of each skill in reading development in Arabic is not well understood. The purpose of this literature review was to examine the degree to which children learning to read in Arabic use…

  7. A Cultural History of Education in the Arab World with Special Reference to the Arabian Gulf Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobeih, Nabil Ahmed Amer

    An overview of the development of formal education in the Arab countries over the past 12 centuries is presented. The overview, arranged into five major sections, emphasizes the interplay of indigenous and foreign cultural influences. Brief sections on the Great Arab Age (7th-10th centuries) and the decline of Arab culture (11th-17th centuries)…

  8. Error Analysis of Present Simple Tense in the Interlanguage of Adult Arab English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muftah, Muneera; Rafik-Galea, Shameem

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses errors on present simple tense among adult Arab English language learners. It focuses on the error on 3sg "-s" (the third person singular present tense agreement morpheme "-s"). The learners are undergraduate adult Arabic speakers learning English as a foreign language. The study gathered data from…

  9. The Arab States: A Programme To Renew Primary Education and Eradicate Illiteracy. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousif, Abdelwahid Abdalla

    The United Nations' Regional Programme for the Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and the Eradication of Adult Illiteracy in the Arab States by the Year 2000 (ARABUPEAL) began in 1987. Among the educational problems confronting Arab States are that their educational objectives do not specifically relate to development objectives,…

  10. School Principals' Perceptions of Teacher Evaluation in the Arab Education System in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hussain, Jamal; Essawi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine how principals of Arab schools view the evaluation of teachers and to determine whether and to what extent their perceptions of teacher evaluation differ. The Arab educational system in Israel is an integral part of the general educational system. For the most part it is run by Jewish administrators.…

  11. Taking Root, Bearing Fruit: The Arab-American Experience. ADC Issues. Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zogby, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This document reports on an examination of lifestyles, cultures, and heritage of Arab communities within the United States. After a historical overview of the arrival and settling of Arab-Americans in wave after wave of immigration, the work provides close-up views of different communities across the country. Each of those views introduces a few…

  12. 76 FR 29266 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ..., and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of April 6, 2011 (76 FR 19124). The conference... COMMISSION Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of the record \\1... imports from the United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails, provided for in subheadings 7317.00.55,...

  13. The Education of an Industrial Middle Class in Arab-Islamic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odeh, Ibrahim Assad

    1993-01-01

    Suggests a model of industrial education for the Arab world to help create an industrial middle class. Reviews existing Eurocentric industrial training models and proposes a synthesis of these models with Arab-Islamic culture in a kind of "industrial university," the Djamiat Al-Sinah. Illustrates the proposed curriculum with a year-by-year chart…

  14. Intercultural Communicative Competence Development during and after Language Study Abroad: Insights from Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the development and maintenance of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) among 352 American learners of Arabic who completed summer intensive language programs in five Arab countries. Data were collected through a survey that was based on the 2007 draft of the Culture Proficiency Guidelines (Lampe, 2007; later adopted by…

  15. Corpus Study of Tense, Aspect, and Modality in Diglossic Speech in Cairene Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshref, Ola Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Morpho-syntactic features of Modern Standard Arabic mix intricately with those of Egyptian Colloquial Arabic in ordinary speech. I study the lexical, phonological and syntactic features of verb phrase morphemes and constituents in different tenses, aspects, moods. A corpus of over 3000 phrases was collected from religious, political/economic and…

  16. University Studies in Adult Education in the Arab Countries (A Comparative Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobeih, Nabil Ahmed Amer

    That adult education is an important aspect of a country's development is an idea that is often overlooked by the institutions of higher education in the Arab countries. Although a need for adult continuing education and adult literacy training exists, these needs are often ignored or frowned upon by Arab universities, which have traditionally…

  17. Parental Acceptance and Rejection: Theory, Measures, and Research in the Arab World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Ramadan A.; Rohner, Ronald P.; Khaleque, Abdul; Gielen, Uwe P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this article is to summarize the rich and growing body of research that draws from parental acceptance-rejection theory (PARTheory) and associated measures as used throughout the Arab world. Methodology. This body of work includes more than 100 studies that explore the reliability and validity of Arabic adaptations of…

  18. Cultural Competence Clinic: An Online, Interactive, Simulation for Working Effectively with Arab American Muslim Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brian Daniel; Silk, Kami

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study investigates the impact of an online, interactive simulation involving an Arab American Muslim patient on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of 2nd-year medical students regarding culturally competent healthcare, both in general and specific to Arab American Muslim patients. Method: Participants (N = 199), were…

  19. Moral Courage from the Perspective of Arab Teachers in Jewish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratz, Lea

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to call attention to the phenomenon of female Muslim Arab teachers teaching in Israeli Jewish schools. The study examined the manner in which these female Muslim Arab teachers perceived their integration into the milieu of the Jewish schools, based on their descriptions of the various processes they experience when dealing…

  20. On the (Im)Possibility of Democratic Citizenship Education in the Arab and Muslim World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    The euphoria of the recent Arab Spring that was initiated in northern African countries such as Tunisia, Egypt and Libya and spilled over to Bahrain, Yemen and Syria brings into question as to whether democratic citizenship education or more pertinently, education for democratic citizenship can successfully be cultivated in most of the Arab and…

  1. Arab-American and Muslim-American Contributions: Resources for Secondary Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraqi, Monica M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab-Americans and Muslim-Americans live within the United States surrounded by misconceptions about their culture and religion, in part because of the limited inclusion of positive contributions by these groups within the social studies curriculum. This article attempts to highlight Arab-American and Muslim-American contributions within the U.S.…

  2. Collocational Strategies of Arab Learners of English: A Study in Lexical Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Raji Zughoul; Abdul-Fattah, Hussein S.

    Arab learners of English encounter a serious problem with collocational sequences. The present study purports to determine the extent to which university English language majors can use English collocations properly. A two-form translation test of 16 Arabic collocations was administered to both graduate and undergraduate students of English. The…

  3. Arab Youth in Canada: Acculturation, Enculturation, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Ashley D.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Results from 98 Arab youth in Canada showed that having a positive Arab culture orientation was related to greater family life satisfaction with family social support as a mediator. A positive European Canadian orientation was related to greater school life satisfaction, but this relation was not mediated by friend social support. Implications for…

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7031 - Secondary Arab boycott of Israel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Israel. 252.225-7031 Section 252.225-7031 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7031 Secondary Arab boycott of Israel. As prescribed in 225.7605, use the following provision: Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel (JUN 2005) (a) Definitions. As used...

  5. 48 CFR 252.225-7031 - Secondary Arab boycott of Israel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Israel. 252.225-7031 Section 252.225-7031 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7031 Secondary Arab boycott of Israel. As prescribed in 225.7605, use the following provision: Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel (JUN 2005) (a) Definitions. As used...

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7031 - Secondary Arab boycott of Israel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Israel. 252.225-7031 Section 252.225-7031 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7031 Secondary Arab boycott of Israel. As prescribed in 225.7605, use the following provision: Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel (JUN 2005) (a) Definitions. As used...

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7031 - Secondary Arab boycott of Israel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Israel. 252.225-7031 Section 252.225-7031 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7031 Secondary Arab boycott of Israel. As prescribed in 225.7605, use the following provision: Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel (JUN 2005) (a) Definitions. As used...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7031 - Secondary Arab boycott of Israel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Israel. 252.225-7031 Section 252.225-7031 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7031 Secondary Arab boycott of Israel. As prescribed in 225.7605, use the following provision: Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel (JUN 2005) (a) Definitions. As used...

  9. Arab Americans with Disabilities and Their Families: A Culturally Appropriate Approach for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khateeb, Jamal M.; Al Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khatib, Amal J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a brief introduction to Americans of Arab descent and a brief overview of Arab culture. Then, culturally appropriate counseling considerations related to family, attitudes toward disability, religion, communication, acculturation, help-seeking behaviors, and stereotypes are highlighted. In the last section, the authors provide…

  10. Acquiring Diglossia: Mutual Influences of Formal and Colloquial Arabic on Children's Grammaticality Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis-Dakwar, Reem; Froud, Karen; Gordon, Peter

    2012-01-01

    There are differences and similarities between Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and spoken varieties of Arabic, in all language domains. To obtain preliminary insights into interactions between the acquisition of spoken and standard varieties of a language in a diglossic situation, we employed forced-choice grammaticality judgments to investigate…

  11. A Field Guide for Continued Study of the Arabic Language in Yemen and Oman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critchfield, David Lawrence

    A set of materials for independent study of Arabic is designed for Peace Corps volunteers working in Oman and Yemen who have had Arabic language training but need additional skills. It establishes guidelines for independent study and working with a tutor, helps check language performance, and provides grammatical information for reference. The…

  12. Mother Tongue versus Arabic: The Post-Independence Eritrean Language Policy Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammad, Abdulkader Saleh

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the controversial discourses around the significance of the Arabic language in Eritrea. It challenges the arguments of the government and some scholars, who claim that the Arabic language is alien to Eritrean society. They argue that it was introduced as an official language under British rule and is only spoken by the Rashaida…

  13. Foolish Dreams in a Fabled Land: Living Co-Existence in an Israeli Arab School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of an ethnographic case study of an Israeli Arab middle school whose staff and students are Arab Israelis from the Moslem, Druze, and Christian population sectors. Against the Israeli backdrop of multiculturalism, political tensions, and terrorism, this school has created a multi-faceted curriculum for teaching…

  14. Advancement in Productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems from 2008 to 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Al-Sha'r, Awatif M.; AbuSeileek, Ali F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare between the advancements in the productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems between two years, 2008 and 2013. It also aims to evaluate the progress achieved by various systems of Arabic into English electronic translation between the two years. For tracing such advancement, a comparative analysis…

  15. The Relationship between Language and Reading in Bilingual English-Arabic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farran, Lama K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined the relationship between language and reading in bilingual English-Arabic children. The dissertation followed a two chapter Review and Research Format. Chapter One presents a review of research that examined the relationship between oral language and reading development in bilingual English-Arabic children. Chapter Two…

  16. Peace Education through Bilingual Children's Literature Written in Arabic and in Hebrew: Different Narratives, Different Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamir, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research has been to evaluate the contribution of the emerging Israeli genre of bilingual literature, Arabic and Hebrew, to peace education. Since Israeli society is a multicultural one comprised of two nations, Arabs and Jews who live in an environment of conflict, one must regard those textbooks as political socialization agents.…

  17. The Role of the Syllable in the Segmentation of Cairene Spoken Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquil, Rajaa

    2012-01-01

    The syllable as a perceptual unit has been investigated cross linguistically. In Cairene Arabic syllables fall into three categories, light CV, heavy CVC/CVV and superheavy CVCC/CVVC. However, heavy syllables in Cariene Arabic have varied weight depending on their position in a word, whether internal or final. The present paper investigates the…

  18. Intercultural Competence and Language Variety on Study Abroad Programs: L2 Learners of Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a project investigating over ninety learners of Arabic who studied abroad in the Arab world within the last few years. It explores their linguistic and cultural experiences during their time abroad. One of the most important issues in this paper is that of the development of intercultural competence on study abroad…

  19. Reading Arabic Shallow and Deep Genres: Indispensible Variables to Science of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussien, Abdelaziz M.

    2014-01-01

    Most principles and propositions in the science of reading are derived from research on Latin orthographies, usually, in English while much less is known about Semitic orthographies, namely, Arabic. This study investigated the effect of vowels and type of genre on oral accuracy, oral rate, and oral comprehension in reading Arabic orthography. A…

  20. Comparison of Native versus Nonnative Perception of Vowel Length Contrasts in Arabic and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukada, Kimiko

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the prediction that individuals are able to use the knowledge from their first language (L1) in processing the comparable sound contrasts in an unknown language. Two languages, Arabic and Japanese, which utilize vowel duration contrastively, were examined. Native Arabic (NA) and native Japanese (NJ) listeners' discrimination…