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Sample records for arabia al-khobar abha

  1. Pollen Concentration in the Atmosphere of Abha City, Saudi Arabia and its Relationship with Meteorological Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwadie, Hussein M.

    A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Abha city, Saudi Arabia with the relation to meteorological parameters is presented. Investigations were undertaken from January to December 2006 using a Burkard 7 day volumetric spore trap. A total of 6,492 pollen grains m-3 belonging to 50 pollen taxa was detected. Poaceae represented 55.1% of total pollen, Leguminosae (11.7%), Compositae (6.1%), Solanaceae (4.6%) and Cupressaceae (4.2%). Pollen grains were found throughout the year. July represented the highest peak of pollen number and also the highest pollen taxa. The monthly variation of pollen taxa and their relationship to meteorological parameters were investigated. It was found that the pollen concentration is positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall, relative humidity and wind velocity. May-September represented the months of highest pollen number (95% of total pollen).

  2. Breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice among school teachers in Abha female educational district, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inadequate knowledge, or inappropriate practice, of breastfeeding may lead to undesirable consequences. The aim of this study was to assess breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among female teachers in the Abha Female Educational District and identify factors that may affect breastfeeding practice in the study population. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among school teachers in Abha Female Educational District during the months of April to June, 2011. Breastfeeding KAP of participants who had at least one child aged five years or younger at the time of the study were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire, based on their experience with the last child. Results A total of 384 women made up of 246 (61.1%) primary-, 89 (23.2%) intermediate- and 49 (12.8%) high-school teachers participated in the study. One hundred and nineteen participants (31%) started breastfeeding their children within one hour of delivery, while exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was reported only by 32 (8.3%) participants. Insufficient breast milk and work related problems were the main reasons given by 169 (44%) and 148 (38.5%) of participants, respectively, for stopping breastfeeding before two years. Only 33 participants (8.6%) had attended classes related to breastfeeding. However, 261 participants (68%) indicated the willingness to attend such classes, if available, in future pregnancies. Conclusions This study revealed that breast milk insufficiency and adverse work related issues were the main reasons for a very low rate of exclusive breastfeeding among female school teachers in Abha female educational district, Saudi Arabia. A very low rate of attending classes addressing the breastfeeding issues during pregnancy, and an alarming finding of a high percentage of babies receiving readymade liquid formula while still in hospital, were also brought out by the present study. Such findings, if

  3. Breast cancer knowledge and related behaviors among women in Abha City, southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Ahmed A; Hassanein, Mervat H A; Nahar, Shamsun; Farheen, Aesha; Gaballah, Inasse I; Mohamed, Amani; Rabie, Faten M; Aftab, Razia

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,092 women attending urban primary health care centers in Abha City southwestern Saudi Arabia about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and related practices. Only 22.0% heard about mammography, and 41.5% heard about breast self-examination (BSE). More than half of the women in the study identified changes occurring in case of breast cancer and identified risk factors. Only 8.3% were examined by clinical breast examination (CBE), 6.2% were examined by mammography, and 29.7% performed BSE. The study points to the insufficient knowledge of women and the low practice of BSE, CBE, and mammography. Public awareness should be enhanced by all available means including mass media, schools, social gatherings, and waiting areas in primary health care centers. There is an urgent need for continuing medical education programs for health care workers in the region concerning breast cancer. PMID:23797712

  4. Pattern of hand injuries in children and adolescents in a teaching hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mirdad, T

    2001-03-01

    Over a seven-year period, 136 children and adolescents with hand injuries were prospectively studied at the Accident and Emergency Department of Asir Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, to determine the pattern of hand injury. The male:female ratio was 1.7:1.0, both left and right hands were relatively equally injured. The age group ranged from two months to 16 years (average 5.3 years). The finger most commonly injured was the middle finger (24.6%) followed by the index finger (18.7%). The most common type of hand injury was crush injuries caused by doors at home (52.2%), heavy objects (6.6%) and injuries caused by grinding machines (6.6%). Since youngsters are often unaware of the dangers in their environment it is necessary to redesign the doors of our homes with safety devices to prevent injuries. Application of hydraulic automatic door closures is a simple but useful way of ensuring smooth and safe closing of doors in homes. PMID:11329697

  5. A study of determinants of low birth weight in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoneim, I

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the role of women's work as a possible determinant (among others) of low birth weight in the population of women followed in a Primary Health Care (PHC) center in Abha, Southern Saudi Arabia. All antenatal care files for all deliveries in the preceding 5 years were studied and the relevant data from 7067 files were collected and analyzed. Low birth weight was significantly higher in working mothers (odds ratio=1.31), adolescent mothers (odds ratio= 2.56), and low parity mothers (OR= 1.28). Anemia of the mother contributed an odds ratio of 1.23 for low birth weight baby and inadequate antenatal care (less than 3 visits during pregnancy) had an odds ratio of 1.9. Female babies were significantly more prone to low birth weight (odds ratio 1.34). It is suggested that further evaluation of women's work conditions to detect and remedy stressful conditions especially during pregnancies, health education and better antenatal care may prevent a good proportion of low birth weight deliveries. PMID:15565933

  6. Geotechnical studies for evaluation and limitations of environmental and engineering hazards that affect the economic infrastructure in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, Fathy; Al-Salami, Ali E.

    2014-12-01

    Abha is the capital of Asir province in Saudi Arabia. It is situated 2200 meters (7200 ft) above the sea level in the fertile mountains of the south-western Saudi Arabia. One of the most important structures of this region is Abha dam that acts as a barrier that impounds water or underground streams thereby retaining the ground water of the region. With the passage of time, various environmental factors such as ground movement, wind and changes in temperature may have significant effect on these various structure factors and may lead to invisible cracks and other structural defects. Because the dams and tunnels are prone to sudden collapse, there is potential great risk to lives of the people and significant economic loss in this area. The use of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electric resistivity techniques is a non-invasive scan and could assess the conditions of various built structures as well as the earth beneath or surrounding it. So the GPR system with appropriate types of antennas (1.5 GH, 1 GH, 400 MH and 100 MH) and electrical resistivity in one dimension (VES) and two dimensions (electrical profiling and imaging) is used in this work. This work aims to investigate the dam structure, developing cracks or areas of increased moisture. Also to study the surrounding areas to detect seepage from pond that may affect nearby buildings and the dam itself. It reveals that, the depth of water bearing layer ranges from 2 m to 10 m, where the three geoelectric layers are present. The first layer has resistivity values ranging from 44 Ω m-1200 Ω m with thickness ranging from 3 m to 18 m that is interpreted as the wadi deposits. The second layer having resistivity values from 11 Ω m to 137 Ω m is interpreted as the water saturated in the fractured basements. The third layer of resistivity values ranging from 2200 Ω m to 90,000 Ω m is interpreted as dry, massive basements. The GPR results provided internal images of the slab, showing its morphology, areas

  7. Influence of lifestyle patterns on perceptions of obesity and overweight among expatriates in Abha city of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Gaffar Sarwar

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the influence of lifestyle patterns such as watching TV, working with computer and idle sitting time on perceptions of obesity and beliefs about overweight are associated with obesity and overweight amongst Expatriates in Abha. Materials and Methods: The method used in this study was a cross-sectional survey with a self-administered paper-based questionnaire. The survey collected information on lifestyle choices and the risk factors that contribute to obesity. In addition, height and weight were measured. Results: Greater number of our study subjects spent over 2 h/day without any physical activity, specifically accounting for over 2 h/day each in viewing TV, computer, and spending idle time. This increased lack of physical activities was significantly associated with overweight. While the overweight subjects were aware of very wide options for treating their condition, a significant number believed in self-effort in managing their diet and exercise regimen as the best efforts to reduce their overweight. Interestingly very few overweight subjects considered medication or surgery as a potential therapeutic option and 75% of the overweight subjects considered overweight to be of no or only slight concern on wellbeing. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity among expatriates within Saudi Arabia poses an important public health problem. The lack of awareness about the potential impact of obesity on health and optimal treatment options is a serious concern, which needs to be addressed by appropriate public health programs at national level. PMID:26283823

  8. The Dental Solid Waste Management in Different Categories of Dental Laboratories in Abha City, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Al-Qahtani, Ali S.; Al-Qarni, Marie M.; Al-Homrany, Rami M.; Aboalkhair, Ayyob E.; Madalakote, Sujatha S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the awareness, attitude, practice and facilities among the different categories of dental laboratories in Abha city. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 dental technicians were surveyed in the study. The dental laboratories included in the study were teaching institute (Group I), Government Hospital (Group II), Private Dental Clinic (Group III) and Independent laboratory (Group IV). The pre-tested anonymous questionnaire was used to understand knowledge, attitude, facilities, practice and orientation regarding biomedical waste management. Results: The knowledge of biomedical waste categories, colour coding and segregation was better among Group I (55-65%) and Group II (65-75%). The lowest standard of waste disposal was practiced at Group IV (15-20%) and Group III (25-35%). The availability of disposal facilities was poor at Group IV. The continuous education on biomedical waste management lacked in all the Groups. Conclusion: The significant improvement in disposal facilities was required at Group III and Group IV laboratories. All dental technicians were in need of regular training of biomedical waste management. Clinical Significance: The dental laboratories are an integral part of dental practice. The dental laboratories are actively involved in the generation, handling and disposal of biomedical waste. Hence, it is important to assess the biomedical waste management knowledge, attitude, facilities and practice among different categories of dental laboratories. PMID:26962373

  9. Hypertension care at primary health care centers: a report from Abha, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Homrany, Mohammed A; Khan, Mohd Yunus; Al-Khaldi, Yahia Mater; Al-Gelban, Khalid S; Al-Amri, Hasan Saed

    2008-11-01

    It is well known that effective management of hypertension reduces the incidence of myo-cardial infarction, stroke and vascular complications. The Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, introduced the Quality Assurance Guidelines with the hope to improve the management of hypertension in its centers. We conducted an audit of two Primary Health Care Centers namely, Al-Manhal (MPHCC) and Al-Numais (NPHCC), to evaluate how well hypertension was managened at these centers. A check list was derived from the Quality Assurance Manual to audit the process and to assess the health outcome. A retrospective study on a chosen sample of 120 files of hypertensive patients, out of 256 from both the Primary Health Care Centers was performed, during the last three months of the year 2000. Results showed that 61% of the patients were between 45-64 years of age, 56% were females, 85% were married, 54% were illiterate and 7.5% were smokers. A total of 92% of the patients had primary hypertension and 25% had a positive family history of hypertension. Beta-blockers were the most commonly used drugs in both the centers. Although the recording of the information was not perfect, there was no statistical difference in the socio-demongraphic data and also the means of the total score in both the centres. On the other hand, carrying out the important procedures for hypertensive patients was found to be better at MPHCC in comparison to NPHCC (p < 0.05). The commonly missed procedures were chest x-rays, electrolytes and ECG. Hypertension was well controlled in 63% of the patients, 58% were found to have obesity, 9% suffered from hypertension-related complications while almost 50% had good compliance to appointment in both the centers. Our study reveals that the process of hypertension care at the two Primary Health Care Centres in Aseer region was not in accordance with the recommended national standards. The reasons include lack of updating systems, recall system and provision of

  10. A study of some psycho-social characteristics of blind and deaf male students in Abha City, Asir region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abolfotouh, M A; Telmesani, A

    1993-07-01

    Psychosocial characteristics including depression, attitude towards their handicap, hobbies and problems of living situations have been studied among 152 male students in the Institute for the Blind (n = 44) and in the Institute for the Deaf (n = 108) in Abha City. All students were subjected to a constructed Arabic version of the rating scale 'Children Depression Inventory (CDI)'. They were categorised according to their scores on this CDI, into depressed and non-depressed. Also, an interview questionnaire was administered to collect data related to the handicap, such as age of onset, and its cause and family history of the same handicap. The effect of the handicap upon the attitudes of students in relation to their social tendencies, hobbies and problems in living situations was studied. The mean ages for blind and deaf students were 15.70 and 13.04 years respectively. About 91.% and 75.% of blind and deaf students respectively were born with their handicap. Depression was more prevalent among the blind (14%) than among the deaf (6.5%) students. Difficulty in mobility was the main problem among blind students (44%) while difficulty in communication with people was the main problem among the deaf (52%). Reading was the commonest hobby for the blind (51%), while playing football was the commonest among the deaf (62%). This information should be considered when planning for rehabilitative services for these groups. PMID:8356208

  11. The 9th Annual Meeting of the Saudi Association of Neurological Surgery Dammam, Saudi Arabia, 3-5 March 2015

    PubMed Central

    Al-Habib, Amro

    2015-01-01

    The 9th Saudi Association of Neurological Surgery (9th SANS) Annual Meeting was held in the Sheraton Dammam Hotel and Towers, Dammam, Saudi Arabia on March 3-5, 2015, organized by the Department of Neurosurgery, University of Dammam with a theme of “Research is the Bridge to the Future.” The meeting was preceded by a Public Awareness Campaign on March 2, 2015 held at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, and several pre-conference workshops that were highly beneficial for neurosurgery today. The scientific program was loaded with innovative and interactive presentations from respected and reputable speakers from different parts of the world. Abstracts were carefully selected and reviewed based on their scientific value and relevance to the clinical, surgical, academic, and research aspects of neurosurgery in the Kingdom, and the world.

  12. Epidemiological aspects of prematurity in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qurashi, Faisal O.; Yousef, Abdullah A.; Awary, Bassam H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the epidemiological characteristics of prematurity and survival rate in preterm infants diagnosed at a university hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out of 476 preterm infants who were admitted with the diagnosis of prematurity to King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between June 2008 and 2013. Demographics, birth weight, and neonatal survival rate were analyzed. Results: Four hundred and seventy-six preterm infants were admitted with a total prevalence of 7.5%. Descriptive analysis revealed 55% were males. Extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks’ gestation) comprised 9% and very preterm infants (28 to <32 weeks’ gestation) comprised 20%. Extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants (<1000 g) comprised 11%. One hundred and fifty-seven (32%) infants were small for gestational age. Out of the total number of ELBW infants, 58% of them were discharged. The overall mortality was 7.6%. The mortality rate of male infants was 53%. The survival to discharge according to gestational age ranged from 30-97.6%. Conclusion: The estimated prevalence of preterm births in a university hospital in eastern province of Saudi Arabia, is consistent with various studies from different parts of the world. PMID:27052284

  13. Trends in Ectopic Pregnancies in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Abdulaziz Al-Turki, Haifa

    2013-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in ectopic pregnancies (EP) in a tertiary care center of Eastern Saudi Arabia. Method. Information about patients with ectopic pregnancies who had been admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, between January 2000 and 31 December 2011 was collected from a computerized hospital registry. Age-specific ectopic pregnancy incidence was calculated. The data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences), version 14.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). Results. There were 274 EPs during the study period; the yearly incidence in terms of 24,098 deliveries was 1.19%. The average age was 28.99 Å 5.62 years. During a three-year period (2000–2002), the incidence was 0.92%; from 2003 to 2005, the incidence was 1.01%; from 2006 to 2008, the incidence was 1.51%; and from 2009 to 2011, the incidence was 1.35%. Age-adjusted ectopic pregnancy incidence rates steadily increased from 92.23 per 10,000 women years during the period 2000–2002 to 149.408 during the 2006–2008 period; since then, it has declined to 110.313 per 10,000 women years. Conclusions. Our study reveals that the incidence of EP has decreased from what it had been during the mid-2000s but has remained significantly elevated when compared to the early 2000s. PMID:23533797

  14. Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

    2013-12-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

  15. Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2014-01-01

    This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.  PMID:25544092

  16. Diabetic retinopathy and the associated risk factors in diabetes type 2 patients in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Razia A.; Khalil, Shamsun N.; Al-Qahtani, Mohammad A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the proportion and grades of retinopathy and its risk factors in diabetes type 2 patients. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 401 type 2 diabetic patients. A questionnaire and checklist were used to collect the data. Retinopathy was diagnosed and graded by fundus photographs and slit lamp examination. The duration of diabetes, age of patients, age at onset of diabetes, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c level, blood pressure, and complications were noted. Results: The mean age of male and female patients was 54.93 and 54.25 years; 57.6% were males. The mean age of onset and mean duration of diabetes were 43.91 and 13.4 years, respectively. The proportion of retinopathy was 36.4%. Grades of retinopathy were: Mild 57.5%, moderate 19.9%, severe nonproliferative 11%, and proliferative retinopathy 11.6%; 7.2% of patients had maculopathy. Retinopathy was significantly associated with older age, younger age at onset, longer duration of disease, poorly controlled blood sugar, hypertension, insulin use; the presence of neuropathy and nephropathy appeared as a significant risk. Younger age at onset, longer duration, and insulin use appeared as the strongest predictors for diabetic retinopathy. Conclusions: More than a third (36.4%) of the diabetic patients attending a diabetic center had retinopathy. The control of the risk factors may reduce both prevalence and consequences of retinopathy. PMID:26929725

  17. Attitudes and practices of complementary and alternative medicine among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Abahussain, Nada A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Saudi Arabian adolescents. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 736 adolescents (358 males, 378 females) aged 15-19 years from secondary schools. The study was carried out in Al-Khobar city, Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The findings revealed that the use of CAM by adolescents in their lifetime ranged from 1.6% for acupuncture to 58.6% for honey treatment, with significant differences between genders, except in the use of dietary supplements, black cumin, and acupuncture therapies. Females were more likely to use CAM for treating abdominal pains, cold and flu, and cough than males (P < 0.000). Family members and friends (67.7%) were the main source of CAM usage, followed by television (10%), and Internet (8%). Religious and medicinal herb healers were the CAM healers most commonly visited by adolescents. Nearly 21-43% of adolescents had positive attitudes toward CAM, with some significant differences between males and females. It can be concluded that CAM is widely used by Saudi adolescents, but caution should be exercised for the safe usage of some CAM treatments. CAM should not be ignored; however there is an urgent need to establish regulations for CAM usage. PMID:25560362

  18. Precipitation Patterns Observed over the Southwest Region of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Paul; Chapman, Michael

    2010-05-01

    During 2008 and 2009, an intensive field program has been conducted in the southwest region of Saudi Arabia, which is adjacent to the Red Sea and is bounded by the Yemen border to the south and the region around Jeddah to the north. The period of study focused on analysis of observations for the months of June-August. This period coincides with a climatological peak in precipitation over the region. This region is mountainous with terrain ranging from sea level to a maximum height of about 2800 m. During the field program, convection was observed almost daily during mid-afternoon was focused along the mountain peaks. This peak in convection coincided with the sea breeze reaching the top of the tallest terrain features. The intensity of convection was modulated by the strength of the sea breeze (predominate wind direction, amount of moisture in the boundary layer, etc.) and strength of a persistent mid-level inversion. The main objective of this study focuses on characterizing the spatial and temporal features of convection and related it to the atmospheric conditions that were observed during the months of June-August. The study examines precipitation and atmospheric conditions using a network of C-Band radars (Abha, Baha, Jeddah, Jizan, and Taif) and surface and upper data collected from the site located in Abha. The presentation will provide an overview of the field program and give a summary of the precipitation and atmospheric characteristics for the two years used in the study.

  19. The syphilis problem in Asir province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El Ghoroury, A. A.

    1954-01-01

    A combined national and international venereal disease team began activities in Saudi Arabia in November 1952, moving from Mecca to Asir province in May 1953, where it remained for two months examining and treating various groups of the population. A total of 309 cases of syphilis among a population of approximately 3,000 at Abha was given complete clinical and serological examination and treatment with PAM, in doses varying from 2.4 to 6.0 million units. Serological tests were made on 2,359 blood samples. Only one primary lesion was found; but secondary lesions were quite common, amounting to 5.8% of all cases treated, while tertiary lesions represented 12.6% of all cases treated and 67.2% of all clinical cases. Considerable variations in the prevalence of syphilis were noted among the different quarters of the town of Abha and among different tribes and villages. All the age-groups were more or less equally affected, but the females generally showed a higher positivity-rate than the males. All these features—together with the low social, economic, and sanitary standards of the population and many prevalent social habits, such as the use of common eating and drinking implements — would seem to indicate that the syphilis met in Asir, and locally known as “shadjar”, “balash”, “fringi”, “mabrouk”, or “wardi”, should be included with the endemic treponematoses met with elsewhere in the world. PMID:13182591

  20. Indoor air quality levels in a University Hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El-Sharkawy, Mahmoud F.; Noweir, Mohamed E. H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the Study: The complex hospital environment requires special attention to ensure a healthy indoor air quality (IAQ) to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections and occupational diseases. Poor hospital IAQ may cause outbreaks of building-related illness such as headaches, fatigue, eye, and skin irritations, and other symptoms. The general objective for this study was to assess IAQ inside a large University hospital at Al-Khobar City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Different locations representing areas where most activities and tasks are performed were selected as sampling points for air pollutants in the selected hospital. In addition, several factors were studied to determine those that were most likely to affect the IAQ levels. The temperature and relative percent humidity of different air pollutants were measured simultaneously at each location. Results: The outdoor levels of all air pollutant levels, except volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were higher than the indoor levels which meant that the IAQ inside healthcare facilities (HCFs) were greatly affected by outdoor sources, particularly traffic. The highest levels of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and those less than 10 microns (PM10) inside the selected hospital were found at locations that are characterized with m4ore human activity. Conclusions: Levels of particulate matter (both PM10 and TSP) were higher than the Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs). The highest concentrations of the fungal species recorded were Cladosporium and Penicillium. Education of occupants of HCF on IAQ is critical. They must be informed about the sources and effects of contaminants and the proper operation of the ventilation system. PMID:24696632

  1. Heterogeneity and diversity of ABO and Rh blood group genes in select Saudi Arabian populations.

    PubMed

    AlSuhaibani, E S; Kizilbash, N A; Malik, S

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of ABO and Rh blood group genes in the Saudi Arabian population, we assembled the phenotypic data of approximately 66,000 subjects from ten representative Saudi populations: Al-Khobar, Riyadh, Tabuk/Madina Al-Munawaara, Jeddah, Abha, South region, Sakaka, Domah, Al-Qurayat, and Sweer. The frequencies of p[A], q[B], and r[O] alleles at the ABO locus were observed to be 0.1688, 0.1242, and 0.7070, respectively, and the frequency of the D allele at the Rh locus was 0.7138. The heterozygosities at the ABO and Rh loci were 0.4563 and 0.4086, respectively, while the combined heterozygosity was 0.4324. Homogeneity tests revealed the population of Abha to be the most heterogeneous while that of Tabuk/Madina was found to be the least heterogeneous. Homogeneity was higher among the Northern populations while Southern populations demonstrated subdivisions and stratification. Gene diversity analyses yielded a total heterozygosity value of 0.4449. The coefficient of gene differentiation was 0.0090. Nei's genetic distance analyses showed that there was close affinity between the populations of Al-Khobar and Riyadh. The largest differences were observed between the populations of Sakaka and Domah. Furthermore, negative correlations were found between p[A] and r[O] alleles, and between q[B] and r[O] alleles at the ABO locus. Clinal analyses revealed that the r[O] allele showed an increasing trend from North-East to South-West, and conversely the q[B] allele exhibited a decreasing trend at these coordinates. These analyses present interesting aspects of the blood group allele distribution across the geography of Saudi Arabia. PMID:26214466

  2. Prevalence of Sleep Deprivation and Relation with Depressive Symptoms among Medical Residents in King Fahd University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maddah, Esraa M.; Al-Dabal, Badria K.; Khalil, Mohammad S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep deprivation is common among medical residents of all specialties. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms among medical residents in King Fahd University Hospital (KFUH) in Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the association between sleep deprivation, sleepiness and depressive symptoms was examined. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between February and April 2012 and involved 171 KFUH medical residents of different specialties. Data were collected using a specifically designed questionnaire eliciting demographic information, working hours and number of hours of sleep. In addition, validated Arabic versions of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-2 (BDI-2) were used. Results: The prevalence of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep deprivation among residents in KFUH was 85.9% and 63.2%, respectively. The prevalence of overall sleepiness was 52%; 43.3% reported being excessively sleepy in certain situations while 8.8% reported being excessively sleepy regardless of the situation. Based on the BDI-2, the prevalence of mild, moderate and severe depressive symptoms was 43.3%, 15.2% and 4.7%, respectively. Significant associations were found between sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms; depressive symptoms and sleepiness, and depressive symptoms and being a female resident. Conclusion: The vast majority of medical residents had acute sleep deprivation, with more than half suffering from chronic sleep deprivation. The number of hours and quality of sleep among the residents were strongly associated with depressive symptoms. New regulations are recommended regarding the number of working hours and night duties for medical residents. Further studies should assess these new regulations on a regular basis. PMID:25685390

  3. Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    1986-12-01

    In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development. PMID:12178138

  4. Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image shows deposits in a crater located in Arabia Terra. Arabia is generally dust covered and dark streaks or dust avalanches are present in the crater walls. The dominant geologic process acting in this crater interior is wind erosion. The central crater deposits are eroded to form yardangs, or linear wind-sculpted hills that resemble an inverted boat hull. Deflation and abrasion are capable of eroding rock structures that are aligned parallel to wind direction. In the lower right hand side of the crater, a dark deposit has formed barchan dunes. These crescent shaped dunes have 'horns' that point downwind indicating general northwest to southeast wind direction. These dark sands probably played a role in the erosion and formation of the yardangs.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Site response assessment at the city of Alkhobar, Eastern Saudi Arabia from microtremor and boring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fnais, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The AlKhobar City affected by distant earthquakes from Zagros fold-fault belt of subduction zone. These earthquakes produced great site effects on the sedimentary layers that in turn significantly influenced earthquake ground motions in the area. Mapping of site response using microtremor measurements compared with geological and borehole data of Alkhobar city is the main target of this work. The resonance frequency and their H/V values have been calculated using Nakamura technique through deployed of seismograph instruments at 113 sites in AlKhobar city for different time periods. The recording length was about one hour with sampling frequency of 100 Hz. Most of the measured sites present three peaks for the resonance frequency; the first peak ranges from 0.33 to 1.03 Hz, the second peak ranges from 1.03 to 1.23 Hz, while the third peak ranges from 1.23-1.73. Tests have been conducted to ensure that these peaks are natural in origin. The northern zones of AlKhobar City have lower values of resonance frequency indicating great thickness of sediments. In contrast, the southern parts of the city have higher values of resonance frequency illustrating shallow depths of the bedrock. Furthermore, twenty of boreholes have been conducted through AlKhobar City to different depth. Standard penetration test (SPT) data has been corrected and used to calculate the resonance frequency at their locations. Borehole results clarified that the resonance frequency values range from 0.27 to 1.95 Hz. These results are correlated well with that of the microtremor measurements. Accordingly, the first peak have been interpreted due to the impedance contrast between the limestone and the overlying sediments, while the third peak is originated from a boundary between the upper most surface layer and the underlying sediments. These results must be applied for earthquake risk mitigation in AlKhobar City.

  6. Five-year experience with the peri-operative goal directed management for surgical repair of traumatic aortic injury in the eastern province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gameel, Haytham Z.; El-Tahan, Mohamed R.; Shafi, Mohammed A.; Mowafi, Hany A.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdulmohsin A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Traumatic aortic injury (TAI) accounts for 1/3 of all trauma victims. Aim: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of the adopted standardized immediate pre-operative and intra-operative hemodynamic goal directed control, anesthetic technique and organs protection on the morbidity and mortality in patients presented with TAI. Settings and Design: An observational retrospective study at a single university teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Following ethical approval, we recruited the data of 44 patients admitted to the King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia, with formal confirmation of diagnosis of blunt TAI during a 5-year period from February 2008 to April 2013 from the hospital medical records. Statistical Analysis: descriptive analysis. Results: A total of 44 victims (41 men, median (range) age 29 (22-34) years) with TAI who underwent surgical repair were recruited. Median (range) post-operative chest tube output was 700 (200-1100) ml necessitated transfusion in 5 (11.4%) of cases. Post-operative complications included transient renal failure (13.6%), pneumonia (6.8%), acute lung injury/distress syndrome (20.5%), sepsis (4.5%), wound infection (47.7%) and air leak (6.8%). No patient developed end stage renal failure or spinal cord injury. Median intensive care unit stay was 6 (4-30) days and in-hospital mortality was 9.1%. Conclusion: We found that the implementation of a standardized early goal directed hemodynamic control for the peri-operative management of patients with TAI reduces the post-operative morbidity and mortality after surgical repair. PMID:25538521

  7. Upper limb vascular trauma in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Wali, Mahmoud A

    2002-10-01

    Upper limb vascular trauma is associated with major morbidity and mortality, but little is known about its incidence or nature in the Asir region of southern Saudi Arabia. During the five and a half-year period from May 1996 to December 2001, 27 patients were admitted to Asir Central Hospital (ACH), Abha, Saudi Arabia with upper limb vascular injury. The patients were 21 males and 6 females with a mean age of 27+/-12.6 years. Although penetrating trauma was more frequent than blunt trauma (59%), road traffic accident (RTA) was the most common single mechanism of trauma (33%). The brachial artery was the most frequently affected artery and interposition vein grafting was the most commonly employed type of vascular repair. Fifty-two percent of the patients had associated orthopedic injury and 60% had associated nerve injury. One patient underwent delayed above-elbow amputation and two patients died from other associated injuries. Vascular repair was successful in 24 out of the 26 patients in whom it was attempted (92%). However, the functional outcome of the limbs depended on the presence of associated nerve injury. PMID:12472413

  8. Update: Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Joy; Nydell, Margaret

    A guide for persons planning on living in or relocating to Saudi Arabia for extended periods of time, this book features information on such topics as entry requirements, transportation, money matters, housing, schools, and insurance. The guide's contents include the following sections: (1) an overview; (2) before leaving; (3) on arrival; (4)…

  9. Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, southern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Mohamed E.; Assiry, Mohammed M.; Joseph, Martin R.; Haimour, Waleed O.; Abdelrahim, Ihab M.; Al-Abed, Fatin; Fadul, Abdalla N.; Al-Hakami, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To isolate, identify, and determine the prevalence of Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving retrospective analysis of 6100 samples submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory, Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia between 2011 and 2012, and prospective isolation and identification of 84 isolates recovered from various clinical specimens presented to the Microbiology Laboratory between 2012 and 2013 using the classic morphological schemes and the Vitek 2 automated system. Results: The results of the retrospective analysis (2011-2012) indicated that of the 6100 various clinical specimens submitted to the routine microbiology analysis, 143 (2.35%) revealed the presence of Candida spp. The distribution of the 143 Candida spp. according to specimens was as follows: urine 72%, sputum 10.5%, endotracheal tube 7%, blood 4.2%, catheter tip 2.1%, throat swab 2.1%, eye swab 0.7%, wound exudates 0.7%, and cerebrospinal fluid 0.7%. The results of the prospective study (2012-2013), which involved the identification of yeast recovered from 84 specimens indicated that Candida albicans 28.6% was the predominant species, followed by Candida parapsilosis 21.4%, Candida tropicalis 14.3%, and Candida lusitaniae 9.5%. Conclusions: Along with the commonly encountered Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida lusitaniae were detected with significant rates. Many other Candida species and some other pathogenic yeasts have been detected for the first time in the region. Urinary tract samples were the main source of Candida species. PMID:25316465

  10. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  11. East Arabia Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows two small mesas, a hill, and other landforms in the highly-eroded landscape of eastern Arabia Terra.

    Location near: 30.0oN, 295.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  12. Health Education in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hashem, Anwar

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of the evolution of health education in Saudi Arabia. It outlines milestones in the development of the health education profession and traces the roles of various health sectors and their achievements in the health education field. Additionally, this review seeks to describe the status of health education professionals in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27606106

  13. West Arabia Barchans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows small barchan dunes on the floor of a crater in western Arabia Terra. Similar dunes are found in most of the larger craters of the region. The steepest slopes on these dunes, their slipfaces, point toward the west-southwest, indicating that dominant winds blow from the east-northeast (upper right).

    Location near: 10.9oN, 2.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  14. Arabia Bridal Veils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the stair-stepped, north wall of a crater in Arabia Terra. Light-toned slope streaks have formed as a result of avalanches in the dry, dark dust that mantles both the crater and its adjacent terrain in this scene.

    Location near: 20.0oN, 324.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  15. Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Evaluation of the orthopedic residency training program in Saudi Arabia and comparison with a selected Canadian residency program

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Alrabai, Hamza M; Alrehaili, Osama A; Aljurayyan, Abdulaziz N; Alsaif, Ranyah M; Algarni, Nizar; Al-Khawashki, Hazem M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of the present study was to assess the quality of the Saudi Orthopedic Residency Program. Methodology As a comparator, a cross-sectional survey involving 76 Saudi residents from different training centers in Saudi Arabia namely; Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Abha, and Dammam and 15 Canadian. Results The results showed that Canadian residents read more peer-reviewed, scholarly articles compared with Saudi residents (P=0.002). The primary surgical role for residents was to hold retractors during surgery. The survey respondents strongly supported the ability to recommend removal of incompetent trainers. Saudi trainees were more apprehensive of examinations than Canadian trainees (P<0.0001). Most residents preferred studying multiple-choice questions before examinations. Saudi and Canadian participants considered their programs to be overcrowded. Unlike Canadian participants, Saudi trainees reported an inadequate level of training (P<0.0001). Conclusion Educational resources should be readily accessible and a mentorship system monitoring residents’ progress should be developed. The role of the resident must be clearly defined and resident feedback should not be ignored. Given the importance of mastering basic orthopedic operative skills for residents, meaningful remedial action should be taken with incompetent trainers. PMID:25278788

  17. Sediments of Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows martian sediment in two basic forms: (1) light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops and (2) dark, windblown sand dunes. The dark sand of the dunes is most likely composed of grains rich in iron-, magnesium-, aluminum-, and silicon-bearing minerals. The hills and mounds of layered sedimentary rock were once more extensive, covering the entire scene shown here, which occurs on the floor of a crater in western Arabia Terra.

    Location near: 8.9oN, 1.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  18. Exploring Fog Water Harvesting Potential and Quality in the Asir Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhidasan, P.; Abualhamayel, H. I.

    2012-05-01

    During the last decade, the exploitation of the existing water resources in the Asir region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has considerably increased due to both the decrease in annual precipitation and the added population pressures from the growing tourist industry. To face the conventional water shortage, attention has been mainly focused on desalination of water. To save the region from severe water shortage, additional new water sources that are low-cost and renewable must be identified. There exists an alternative source of water such as fog water harvesting. Fog forms in the Asir Region more frequently between December and February compared to the other months of the year. This paper presents the study of the climatic conditions in the Asir region of the Kingdom to identify the most suitable location for fog water collection as well as design and testing of two large fog collectors (LFCs) of size 40 m2 along with standard fog collectors (SFCs) of 1 m2 in that region. During the period from 27 December 2009 to 9 March 2010, a total of 3,128.4 and 2,562.4 L of fog water were collected by the LFC at two sites in the Al-Sooda area of the Asir region, near Abha. Experimental results indicate that fog water collection can be combined with rain water harvesting systems to increase water yield during the rainy season. The quality of the collected fog water was analyzed and compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards and found to be potable. An economic analysis was carried out for the proposed method of obtaining fresh water from the fog. The study suggests a clear tendency that in terms of both quality and magnitude of yield, fog is a viable source of water and can be successfully used to supplement water supplies in the Asir region of the Kingdom.

  19. Knowledge and Practice of Pulp Therapy in Deciduous Teeth among General Dental Practitioners in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Togoo, RA; Nasim, VS; Zakirulla, M; Yaseen, SM

    2012-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that the general dentists and pedodontists differ in their treatment recommendations for pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Aim: To determine the knowledge and practice of pulp therapy in deciduous teeth by general dental practitioners (GDP) in two cities of southern Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: Fifty GDP selected at random from government and private dental clinics were questioned about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth in Abha and Najran cities using a 10-item questionnaire. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 11.0 and descriptive statistics were obtained. Results: All 50 participants responded to the survey. Pulpotomy was suggested as the first line of treatment for pulp-exposed primary tooth by 32 respondents with 44 using Buckley's formocresol and 32 applying it on the pulp for 5 minutes. 43 respondents squeeze dried the cotton pellet before application on the pulp. In pulpectomy procedure 44 respondents preferred zinc oxide eugenol as obturation material with 22 using handheld reamers and 15 using slow-speed lentilospirals for obturation. 12 respondents used obturation techniques which had no scientific relevance. In order of preference Glass ionomer cement (GIC), silver amalgam, and stainless steel crowns were the materials of choice for final restoration of endodontically treated deciduous teeth. All 50 answered in the affirmative when asked if they would like to have additional information about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Conclusion: The study concluded that general dentists were regularly performing pulp therapy in decidous teeth and therefore need to be frequently updated about these procedures. PMID:23440030

  20. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Kear, Benjamin P; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Ali, Mohammed A; Al-Mufarreh, Yahya A; Matari, Adel H; Al-Massari, Abdu M; Nasser, Abdulaziz H; Attia, Yousry; Halawani, Mohammed A

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods) with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region. PMID:24386326

  1. First Dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Kear, Benjamin P.; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Ali, Mohammed A.; Al-Mufarreh, Yahya A.; Matari, Adel H.; Al-Massari, Abdu M.; Nasser, Abdulaziz H.; Halawani, Mohammed A.

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (∼75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods) with derived abelisaurids – this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region. PMID:24386326

  2. Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

    Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

  3. Social Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jabr, Soliman M.

    1990-01-01

    Reveals some cultural aspects of Saudi Arabian Islamic society and the role social studies education plays in it. States that the National Council for the Social Studies in Saudia Arabia stipulates general social studies goals and allows teachers to make specific behavioral goals. Concludes that Saudi Arabian schools are becoming more modern. (GG)

  4. Assessment of impact of mass movements on the upper Tayyah valley's bridge along Shear escarpment highway, Asir region (Saudi Arabia) using remote sensing data and field investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, A. M.; Al-Kathery, M.; Pradhan, B.

    2015-01-01

    Escarpment highways, roads and mountainous areas in Saudi Arabia are facing landslide hazards that are frequently occurring from time to time causing considerable damage to these areas. Shear escarpment highway is located in the north of the Abha city. It is the most important escarpment highway in the area, where all the light and heavy trucks and vehicle used it as the only corridor that connects the coastal areas in the western part of the Saudi Arabia with the Asir and Najran Regions. More than 10 000 heavy trucks and vehicles use this highway every day. In the upper portion of Tayyah valley of Shear escarpment highway, there are several landslide and erosion potential zones that affect the bridges between tunnel 7 and 8 along the Shear escarpment Highway. In this study, different types of landslides and erosion problems were considered to access their impacts on the upper Tayyah valley's bridge along Shear escarpment highway using remote sensing data and field investigation. These landslides and erosion problems have a negative impact on this section of the highway. Results indicate that the areas above the highway and bridge level between bridge 7 and 8 have different landslides including planar, circular, rockfall failures and debris flows. In addition, running water through the gullies cause different erosional (scour) features between and surrounding the bridge piles and culverts. A detailed landslides and erosion features map was created based on intensive field investigation (geological, geomorphological, and structural analysis), and interpretation of Landsat image 15 m and high resolution satellite image (QuickBird 0.61 m), shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM 90 m), geological and topographic maps. The landslides and erosion problems could exhibit serious problems that affect the stability of the bridge. Different mitigation and remediation strategies have been suggested to these critical sites to minimize and/or avoid these problems in the future.

  5. Pattern of thyroid, celiac, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies coexistence with type 1 diabetes mellitus in patients from Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hakami, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the seroprevalence of coexisting autoantibodies among type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients, and to look for possible correlations with age at diagnosis, diabetes duration, and glycemic control. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from March 2013 to June 2014. A total of 202 T1DM patients were screened for serum anti-thyroglobulin (TG), anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO), anti-tissue transglutaminase (aTTG), anti-endomysial (EMA), and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies along with glycated hemoglobin, and biometric data. Results: From the 202 T1DM patients (96 males, and 106 females) (mean age: 11.3 years), 33 (16.3%) were positive for thyroid autoantibodies. Specifically, 19 (9.4%) were positive for TG and 25 (12.8%) were positive for TPO, and 11 were double positive. There were 21 (10.4%) patients that showed a double positive for both aTTG-IgA and EMA, and only one case of T1DM was positive for anti-CCP. No significant correlations were noticed between the presence of autoantibodies and the age at diagnosis, diabetes duration, body mass index, and glycemic control. Conclusion: The prevalence of thyroid and celiac disease autoantibodies is high among T1DM patients, while anti-CCP remains low and might be weakly associated with T1DM in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. No significant correlation between the age at T1DM diagnosis, duration, and glycemic control, and the presence of autoantibodies was found. PMID:27052281

  6. Health Education in Saudi Arabia: Historical overview.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashem, Anwar

    2016-08-01

    This article provides a historical overview of the evolution of health education in Saudi Arabia. It outlines milestones in the development of the health education profession and traces the roles of various health sectors and their achievements in the health education field. Additionally, this review seeks to describe the status of health education professionals in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27606106

  7. Development of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Mahmoud Abdullah

    1986-01-01

    The history of higher education in Saudi Arabia is outlined, especially as it relates to Islamic religion and educational philosophy, and its rapid growth is chronicled. These aspects are examined: Saudi students studying abroad, foreign students in Saudi Arabia, women's education, the Ministry of Higher Education's role, and financing. (MSE)

  8. Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

  9. Central Saudi Arabia, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This panoramic view of Central Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf (28.0N, 47.0E) dramatically illustrates the stark beauty of the deserts. Riyadh, the capital city, lies in the foreground, with the Persian Gulf in the middle and Iran in the background. The coastal oil terminals of Al Hufuf and Ad Dammam are also visible. Black smudges of soot from the oil fires set during the Gulf War can be seen on the sands to the north and south of Kuwait City.

  10. Future of energy demand in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Elshayal, I.M.; Al-Zakri, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    In this study, the most recent papers on this topic were reviewed to examine the future use of nuclear energy in seawater desalination and electric power generation, as well as its impact on the environment in Saudi Arabia. 14 refs.

  11. Organ Transplantation in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Faissal A M

    2016-07-01

    Organ transplantation started in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in 1979 with a kidney transplanted from a live donor. The Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation has been established in 1985 as a governmental agency that supervises all national transplant activities in the KSA. Organ transplantation in the KSA has made great strides since 1985. Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation is playing a central role in all aspects of transplantation including education on all levels, allocation, coordination and procurement. A new initiative has started an ambitious program in 2014 to improve the identification and reporting of organ donors aiming at an annual rate of 15 donors per million populations within 3 years in the KSA. PMID:27326805

  12. The relationship between school environment, preservice science teachers' science teaching self-efficacy, and their use of instructional strategies at teachers' colleges in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshalaan, Nasser A.

    Studies indicate that many teachers have negative beliefs about science, which translates into low teacher efficacy, resulting in avoidance of science teaching or in ineffective science teaching behaviors. Highly efficacious teachers have been found to be more likely to use inquiry and student-centered teaching strategies, while teachers with a low sense of science-teaching efficacy are more likely to use teacher-directed strategies, such as didactic lectures and reading from the textbook (Czemiak, 1990). The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice science teachers' science-teaching self-efficacy changes and their correlation to teaching environment factors during the student teaching semester. Moreover, it explains how teaching environment factors and preservice teachers' science-teaching self-efficacy beliefs may relate to their use of teaching strategies in the science classroom during their student teacher training at teachers' colleges in Saudi Arabia. The population of this study is consisted of 184 middle and elementary preservice science teachers who were doing their student teaching at nine teachers' colleges (i.e., teachers' colleges of Riyadh, Dammam, Alrras, Almadinah, Alihsa, Jeddah, Makah, Altaief, and Abha) in Saudi Arabia during the spring semester of 2005. Three instruments were used to collect data for this study: (1) to measure science teaching self-efficacy, the researcher adapted the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument form B designed specifically for preservice teachers (STEBI-B); (2) to measure the school environment, the researcher adapted the Organizational Health Inventory (OHI), developed by Hoy, Tarter & Kottkamp (1991); and (3) to measure the type and frequency of instructional strategies that preservice science teachers use in the classroom, the researcher adapted the teaching practice subscale from The Local Systemic Change through Teacher Enhancement Science K-8 Teacher Questionnaire (Horizon Research, Inc., 2000

  13. The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  14. Sedimentary Rocks and Methane - Southwest Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose to land the Mars Science Laboratory in southwest Arabia Terra to study two key aspects of martian history the extensive record of sedimentary rocks and the continuing release of methane. The results of this exploration will directly address the MSL Scientific Objectives regarding biological potential, geology and geochemistry, and past habitability.

  15. English Language Teaching Profile: Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English in Saudi Arabia are examined, with attention directed to: (1) English within the education system; (2) teachers of English; (3) English outside the education system; (4) materials support; (5) British support for the teaching of English; and (6) English syllabi at intermediate, secondary, and higher education levels.…

  16. Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

    2008-01-01

    Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…

  17. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The historical record of volcanic activity in Saudi Arabia suggests that volcanism is dormant. The harrats should be evaluated for their potential as volcanic hazards and as sources of geothermal energy. The volcanic rocks are natural traps for groundwater; thus water resources for agriculture may be significant and should be investigated.

  18. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  19. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first bachelor’s degree course of physical therapy was started in Saudi Arabia more than 30 years ago. In the last 10 years, the number of universities offering a bachelor’s degree in physical therapy has risen from 6 to 16, of which 14 are governmental and two are private. The 5- to 6 year bachelor’s degree program in physiotherapy includes an internship and preparatory prerequisite courses. Postgraduate study in physical therapy was introduced in 2000. Most universities offer segregated physical therapy courses for male and female students. [Conclusion] The enrollment of students in physical therapy programs in Saudi Arabia is gradually increasing. There are many opportunities to extend the scope of practice and contribute to the health needs of the Arab population and international communities. PMID:26157276

  20. NASA Remote Sensing Validation Data: Saudi Arabia

    DOE Data Explorer

    Myers, Daryl R. [NREL; Al-Abbadi, Naif [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Energy Research Institite; Wilcox, Steve [NREL

    Since 1995, the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have co-operated to establish a 12 station network of high quality solar radiation monitoring installations across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. NREL and KACST realized the value of accurate surface solar radiation flux measurements for validation of satellite derived surface and atmospheric solar radiation flux measurements, and is making this data available to support validation of satellite data products related to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth component of the Earth Science Enterprise Earth Observing System (EOS) project to evaluate long term climate trends based on measuements from EOS Terra Platforms. A CIMEL 8 channel sunphotometer for measuring aerosol optical depth at 6 wavelengths and total column water has been deployed at the Solar Village station since February 24, 1999. [Taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/new_data/Saudi_Arabia/

  1. Waters and desalination programs of Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, C.K.; Maadhah, A.G.

    1981-07-01

    Saudi Arabia is an arid desert country without rivers or sweet-water lakes. It does, however, have large amounts of ground water and seawater. These waters must be desalted by some means in order to make them potable. The most frequently used methods for that purpose are: multistage flash (MSF) evaporation, reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED). Because of rapid industrialization of the country, the demand for fresh water has been growing steadily. This, in turn, has resulted in a spectacular growth of the water-desalination industry. This paper discusses the availability and properties of the waters. It gives a detailed description of the major accomplishments and of the ongoing and future programs in the field of water desalination in Saudi Arabia. 14 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

  2. Aedes mosquito species in western Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Masroor; Al Ghamdi, Khalid; Mahyoub, Jazem Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The Aedes Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito species populations in the western region of Saudi Arabia, especially in and around Jeddah, are increasing, therefore increasing susceptibility of humans to the dengue virus. An extensive survey was carried out for one year, and four species were identified with the help of different pictorial keys available. The identification was based on morphological characteristics of adult female Aedes mosquitoes. PMID:25373216

  3. Dust Storm, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Outlined against the dark blue water of the Red Sea, a prominent dust storm is making its way across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia (22.0N, 39.0E) between the Islamic holy cities of Medinah and Mecca. Funneled through a gap in the coastal ranges of southern Sudan near the Ethiopian border, dust storms frequently will blow counter to the prevailing tropical easterly winds of the region.

  4. Demographic perspectives on Saudi Arabia's development.

    PubMed

    Looney, R E

    1985-06-01

    Demographic movements likely to be taking place in Saudi Arabia were hypothesized on the basis of general knowledge. The discussion reports on population size, general Arab demographic patterns, general determinants of fertility, Arab fertility patterns, Saudi fertility patterns, mortality in general, mortality in the Middle East, mortality in Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian population growth, immigration, the changing composition of the work force, and third plan targets. Some doubt exists as to the size of Saudi Arabia's population, but there is little question that the total is growing rapidly. This expansion is taking place through stepped up immigration and a relatively high natural growth of indigenous Saudis, but statistics on population size, structure, and on the number of births and deaths leaves the magnitude of a number of important demographic trends in doubt. Yet, considerable evidence exists that several of the Arab countries in the region with fairly good demographic data are likely to have similar demographic patterns. In depth analysis of the demographic dynamics of these countries, particularly Jordan and Kuwait, identified several common elements bearing on several key parameters. Using what Saudi data is available and making comparisons with these neighboring countries, one can, based on expected levels of birth and death rates, indirectly infer the natural growth of Saudi Arabia's population. With several notable exceptions, Saudi Arabia's demographic patterns show a marked similarity to those experienced in the region as a whole. The average rate of population growth in both Saudi Arabia and the Arab region is about 3% a year and in both instances fertility rates are high. The demographic structure of these countries is characterized by the youthfulness of the population. In most of the Arab countries, the population aged 15 years or under accounts for over 48% of the population. The rate of the economically active population is low, ranging from

  5. Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan, Amani

    2005-01-01

    The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

  6. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquraini, Turki

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

  7. A Sedimentary Platform in Margaritifer Sinus, Meridiani Terra, and Arabia?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.; Irwin, R. P., III; Craddock, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Margaritifer-Meridiani-Arabia highlands-lowlands (H-L) transition has long been recognized as the most fluvially dissected region of Mars. However, the geomorphic evolution of this region remains enigmatic, particularly the origin of the layered deposits of Meridiani Terra and Arabia. We suggest that a portion of this regional slope served as a fluvial depositional platform during the late Noachian.

  8. Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

    1985-06-01

    Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

  9. Assessing Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jan Marie; Rashad Moufti, Mohammed

    2014-08-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has numerous large monogenetic volcanic fields, known locally as "harrats." The largest of these, Harrat Rahat (Figure 1), produced a basaltic fissure eruption in 1256 C.E. with lava flows traveling within 20 kilometers of the city Al-Madinah, which currently has a population of 1.5 million plus an additional 3 million pilgrims annually. With more than 950 visible vents and periodic seismic swarms, an understanding of the risk of future eruptions in this volcanic field is vital.

  10. Domestic water conservation potential in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulrazzak, Mohammed J.; Khan, Muhammad Z. A.

    1990-03-01

    Domestic water conservation in arid climates can result in efficient utilization of existing water supplies. The impacts of conservation measures such as the installation of water-saving devices, water metering and pricing schemes, water rationing and public awareness programs, strict plumbing codes, penalties for wasting water, programs designed to reduce leakage from public water lines and within the home, water-efficient landscaping, economic and ethical incentives are addressed in detail. Cost savings in arid climates, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia, in relation to some conservation techniques, are presented. Water conservation technology and tentative demonstration and implementation of water conservation programs are discussed.

  11. Mantle flow beneath Arabia offset from the opening Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sung-Joon; Merino, Miguel; Van der Lee, Suzan; Stein, Seth; Stein, Carol A.

    2011-02-01

    Continental rifting involves a poorly understood sequence of lithospheric stretching, volcanism, and mantle flow that evolves to seafloor spreading. We present new insight from inversion of seismic traveltimes and waveforms beneath Arabia and surroundings. Low velocities occur beneath the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, consistent with active spreading. However, hot material extends not below the northern Red Sea, but is offset eastward beneath Arabia, showing mantle flow from the Afar hotspot. The location of this channel beneath volcanic rocks erupted since rifting began 30 million years ago indicates that flow moves with Arabia. We propose that the absence of seafloor spreading in the northern Red Sea reflects the offset flow. This geometry may evolve to spreading in the Northern Red Sea, rifting of Arabia, or both. This situation has aspects of both active and passive rifting, showing that both can occur before coalescing to seafloor spreading.

  12. The Arabia-India plate boundary unveiled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Rodriguez, M.; Petit, C.; Huchon, P.; Beslier, M.; Hazard, B.

    2009-12-01

    Since the advent of Plate Tectonics, tectonic plate boundaries were explored on land as at sea for search of active faults where the destructive energy of earthquakes is released. Yet, some plate boundaries, less active or considered as less dangerous to humankind, escaped general attention and remained unknown to a large extent. Among them, the boundary between two major tectonic plates: Arabia and India. The Arabia-India motion is currently accommodated along the Owen Fracture Zone (OFZ) in the NW Indian Ocean, which connects the spreading centers of the Sheba and Carlsberg ridge system to the Makran subduction zone. We recently surveyed this fracture zone onboard the R/V Beautemps-Beaupré (Owen Cruise, March 2009) using a high-resolution deep-water multibeam echo-sounder. Bathymetric data reveal a spectacular submarine fault system running over a distance of 800 km between the Arabia-India-Somalia triple junction to the south and the Dalrymple Trough to the north. The morphology of the active faults is well preserved on the seafloor where fault scarps can be followed over hundreds of kilometres. The surficial trace of the faults is not obscured by the sediments of the aggrading deep-sea fan of the Indus River. The fault system is segmented in five main segments connected by pull apart basins. The length of the individual, apparently uninterrupted, segments is between 100 km and 220 km. The largest pull-apart basin at the latitude 20°N (20°N-Basin) corresponds to a right step-over of about 12 km between two fault segments. The 20°N-Basin is bounded by a normal fault scarp with a throw of 450-500 m. Numerous minor normal faults cutting the floor of the basin attest to recent activity. The 20°N-Basin is directly supplied in turbidity-current deposits by an active channel of the Indus fan. The preservation of tectonic features indicates that the dip-slip motion has exceeded the rate of burial by sediments. Some compressional structures are also deduced from

  13. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Joseph B.; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Haseeb A.

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (Ta) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in Ta as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because Tas are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3–5 °C in Ta over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher Ta, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high Ta. This report examines how increases in Ta might affect body temperature (Tb) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which Ta often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When Ta exceeds Tb, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their Tb; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases Tb is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their Tb to increase as Ta increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in Ta. The data presented should serve as base-line information on Tb of animals in the Kingdom for

  14. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

    2012-04-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the

  15. The Paleozoic petroleum geology of central Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    McGillivray, J.G.; Husseini, M.I. )

    1991-08-01

    Recent exploratory drilling in central Saudi Arabia indicates that all the geological elements of a major petroleum basin are present in this province. Several Paleozoic siliciclastic sequences which were deposited along the stable Arabian margin of Gondwanaland constitute excellent reservoirs. The identified reservoir targets include the Cambrian-Ordovician Saq Formation, Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian glaciogenic clastics of the Sarah and Zarqa formations, and both fluvial and shallow marine sandstones of the Permian-Carboniferous Unayzah Formation. The source rock is a widespread organic-rich shale which was deposited during the regional deglaciation in the earliest Silurian. Migration occurred vertically along faults and/or updip from the regional Qusaiba shale subcrop through the reservoirs. Interbedded upper Permian shales and evaporites form the basal sequence of a major carbonate transgression and provide a capping seal. The traps are broad, low-relief, fault-generated structures which developed primarily during the Triassic.

  16. The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah

    2014-08-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field. PMID:24953076

  17. Self-medication in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Assiri, Ghada A.; Mahmoud, Mansour A.; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa; Murray, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of self-medication and assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perception of consumers toward self-medication. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted over 4 weeks in May 2011 in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacies within 5 areas of the city (North, South, West, East, and Middle) were randomly selected for the study. All consumers were approached to participate in the study, with the exception of those buying cosmetic and medicinal equipments. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: A total of 538 out of 707 consumers attending community pharmacies in Riyadh city, agreed to participate in the study. Most responders were male (73%), 23-33 years old (35%), and college graduates (42%). A total of 285 medications were bought without a prescription. Of these, 149 (49%) medications should be dispensed by prescription only, and 155 (51%) were over the counter medications. The most common prescription medications dispensed without prescriptions were antibiotics (22%) and analgesics/antipyretics (19%). The most common reasons for buying medications without a prescription were that the symptoms were too minor to visit a doctor (54%), time saving (40%), and minor illnesses for which the participants knew the required treatment (40%). Overall, most participants had poor knowledge, and negative perceptions regarding self-medication. More than 68% of participants did not know whether the medicine they bought is a prescription-only or over the counter medication. Conclusion: Irresponsible self-medication is common in Saudi Arabia. Future studies should focus on improving the consumers’ awareness of self-medication and the proper use of medications. PMID:25737176

  18. Firearm fatalities in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Madni, Osama; Kharosha, Magdy Abdel Azim; Shotar, Ali M

    2008-07-01

    This paper provides a database representing injury mortality in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, with the aim of establishing a system which will record information about the incidence of such deaths, identify new trends and give priority to violence prevention. The retrospective study was carried out on 64 fatalities from gunfire injuries at the Forensic Medicine Centre in Dammam, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2002 - December 2006. The deaths included 55 cases of homicide, seven cases of suicide and two accidental shootings. Twenty-six victims were aged between 16-30 years and 24 victims were between 31-45 years. Fifty-nine of the cases were male. A handgun was the weapon used in 49 cases. The most common sites for the firearm entrance wounds were the head (45 cases) and the chest (35 cases). In the majority of cases (56.3%) a single shot was fired while in 15.6% of cases there were two shots. In 51.5% of cases no bullet was recovered from the body while a single bullet was recovered in 31.5% and two bullets in 6.2% of the cases. Distant range fire was observed in 65.6% of cases. Exit wounds were found on the head in 36.7% and on the chest in 28.7% of cases. The majority of victims were young males living in urban areas. This result should help in forming a strategy to improve the livelihoods of this group. The low incidence of alcohol abuse (one case, 1.56%) and only three cases (4.68%) of amphetamine abuse is significant. PMID:18754211

  19. Tracking Arabia-India motion from Miocene to Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Fournier, M.

    2009-12-01

    Although small, the present-day Arabia-India motion has been captured by several global and regional geodetic surveys that consistently show dextral motion of a few mm/yr, either transpressive or transtensive (Fournier et al., 2008). This motion is accommodated along the Owen Fracture Zone, an active strike-slip boundary that runs for more than 700 km from the Somalia-India-Arabia triple junction in the south to the Dalrymple trough in the north. Two recent marine cruises conducted along this fault aboard the BHO Beautemps-Beaupré (AOC 2006 and OWEN 2009) using a high resolution multibeam sounder (Simrad EM120, 10 m vertical resolution) provided a complete map of the active fault and confirmed a present-day pure dextral motion. The surface breaks closely follow a small circle of the Arabia-India motion, with several pull-part basins at the junctions between the main segments of the fault. Geomorphologic offsets reach 10 km, suggesting that the mapped fault has been active with the same style for past several million years. When did this motion start? The difficulty in tracking the past Arabia-India motion is that there is no direct kinematic indicator available, since the boundary has been strike-slip and/or convergent during the Tertiary. Motion was most probably sinistral during the rapid northward travelling of India towards Eurasia in the early Tertiary, Arabia being rigidly attached to Africa until the opening of the Gulf of Aden. However, the nature and location of the Arabia-India boundary at that time remain speculative. Throughout the Miocene, the relative motion between India and Arabia has been indirectly recorded at the Sheba and Carslberg ridges, the former recording Arabia-Somalia motion (opening of the Gulf of Aden) and the latter India-Somalia motion (Indian Ocean opening). Both ridges have been studied with some details recently, using up to date magnetic lineations identification (Merkouriev and DeMets, 2006; Fournier et al., 2009). We combine

  20. Isotopic composition of Riyadh rainfall, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, Nils; Reshid, Mustefa; Siebert, Christian; Schulz, Stephan; Rausch, Randolf; Knöller, Kay; Weise, Stephan; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Schüth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Arid countries like Saudi Arabia often depend on fossil groundwater. Hence, thorough studies of the available resources are crucial. In the course of such investigations, analyses of δ18O and δD are frequently applied to constrain the provenance of the waters and to reconstruct the (paleo)climatic conditions during their recharge. Yet, to be able to evaluate the isotopic signature of the groundwater, one also has to know the isotopic composition of current precipitation. Although a few rain water analyses are available for Central Saudi Arabia in the literature - mostly in unpublished consultant reports - a Local Meteoric Water Line has never been established. To complement the available data, 28 rain events occurring in Riyadh between 2009 and 2013 were studied for their stable isotope composition. Samples were collected as integral samples, i.e., they represent the entire precipitation event. Moreover, one event was sampled several times, aiming at an evaluation of intra-storm variability. During selected storms, a grab sample was taken for 3H analysis. The event samples showed δ18O and δD values scattering between -6.5 and +9.5 and between -30 and +50 ‰ V-SMOW, respectively. In the course of the event that was sequentially sampled, a proceeding isotopic depletion was observed with respect to both isotopes. The relatively large ranges of δ-values for 18O and D of approximately 7 and 38 ‰ V-SMOW highlight the general need for integral sampling. The obtained grab samples are characterized by moderate 3H concentrations of a few Tritium Units. Further results will be presented and discussed in view of associated weather data (e.g. rain amount and temperature) and the probable moisture sources derived from back-trajectories, which were calculated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model; Draxler & Rolph, 2003). References Draxler, R.R. & Rolph, G.D. (2013): HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory

  1. Gulf Cooperation Council: Arabia's model of integration

    SciTech Connect

    Etaibi, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    This study is an analysis of the foundations and emergence in 1981 of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which consists of six traditional Arab Gulf states (the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait). It finds the GCC to be a unique case among twentieth-century integrative schemes. The study also identifies and analyzes relevant local, regional, and international forces. Among the local forces are traditional religio-political systems, economic dependence on a depletable resource, and the presence of a large number of foreign residents. On the regional level, this study takes into consideration such issues as the Arab League, Arab Nationalism, and the Islamic revolutionary movement in Iran. On the international level, the influence of the superpowers and the major industrialized nations on the emergence and future of the GCC Community are analyzed. Throughout the past decade there has been a growing scholarly interest in the Gulf region. In preparation for this study, the author relied heavily on the literature generated by this new research, as well as on documents and official publications, mostly in Arabic. A survey was conducted among a limited number of GCC graduate students during the summer of 1983. In addition, interviews with selected members of the GCC Secretariat-General and various member-state officials were conducted during a research trip in the region in the spring of 1984.

  2. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  3. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars. PMID:24091975

  4. The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bajammal, Sohail; Zaini, Rania; Abuznadah, Wesam; Al-Rukban, Mohammad; Aly, Syed Moyn; Boker, Abdulaziz; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Al-Omran, Mohammad; Al-Habib, Amro; Al-Sheikh, Mona; Al-Sultan, Mohammad; Fida, Nadia; Alzahrani, Khalid; Hamad, Bashir; Al Shehri, Mohammad; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; Al-Damegh, Saleh; Al-Nozha, Mansour M; Donnon, Tyrone

    2008-01-01

    Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written) which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate. PMID:19032779

  5. New Faults Map Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record micro- seismicty that is caused by local faults. Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plate, which is known as a relatively stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that was caused by local faults. Most of these events are not felt. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition and SAISAN software for analyses. The velocity model that I have used in this study is IASPEI model. Currently I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia.

  6. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  7. Evidence for explosive volcanism in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Joseph; Bleacher, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae exhibit a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. They were likely active in the Late Noachian or Early Hesperian and would have affected the climate, atmospheric composition, and regional surface geology at that time. Lavas extruded from these calderas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra, but these volcanoes do not exhibit shield-like topographic profiles related to the sustained, localized effusive eruption of basaltic lava. We suggest that the lack of a single edifice, the large volume of collapse within an associated with the calderas, and the association of the calderas with vast deposits friable clastic deposits all indicate that these volcanoes were dominated by explosive activity. Layered, friable deposits found throughout Arabia Terra have enigmatic origins, though these materials have been suggested to represent volcanic ash. Attempts to link the locations of various friable deposits in equatorial regions to known volcanic sources have demonstrated that this hypothesis is plausible, but a link between friable deposits and known volcanic sources in this particular region (Arabia Terra) has yet to emerge. We suggest that some of the layered, friable materials were sourced from calderas in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and water from these calderas would have contributed to the alteration of layered clastic materials in Arabia Terra, and perhaps throughout the equatorial region.

  8. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia

  9. The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

  10. Early primate evolution in Afro-Arabia.

    PubMed

    Seiffert, Erik R

    2012-11-01

    The peculiar mammalian fauna that inhabited Afro-Arabia during the Paleogene first came to the attention of the scientific community in the early part of the twentieth century, when Andrews1 and Schlosser2 published their landmark descriptions of fossil mammals from the Fayum Depression in northern Egypt. Their studies revealed a highly endemic assemblage of land mammals that included the first known Paleogene records of hyraxes, proboscideans, and anthropoid primates, but which lacked ancestors of many iconic mammalian lineages that are found in Africa today, such as rhinos, zebras, bovids, giraffes, and cats. Over the course of the last century, the Afro-Arabian Paleogene has yielded fossil remains of several other endemic mammalian lineages,3 as well as a diversity of prosimian primates,4 but we are only just beginning to understand how the continent's faunal composition came to be, through ancient processes such as the movement of tectonic plates, changes in climate and sea level, and early phylogenetic splits among the major groups of placental mammals. These processes, in turn, made possible chance dispersal events that were critical in determining the competitive landscape--and, indeed, the survival--of our earliest anthropoid ancestors. Newly discovered fossils indicate that the persistence and later diversification of Anthropoidea was not an inevitable result of the clade's competitive isolation or adaptive superiority, as has often been assumed, but rather was as much due to the combined influences of serendipitous geographic conditions, global cooling, and competition with a group of distantly related extinct strepsirrhines with anthropoid-like adaptations known as adapiforms. Many of the important details of this story would not be known, and could never have been predicted, without the fossil evidence that has recently been unearthed by field paleontologists. PMID:23280921

  11. Geological Time on Display in Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This scene from the dust covered plains of eastern Arabia Terra portrays a range of geological time. Three craters at the center of the image capture some of this range. Two have the classic bowl-shape of small, relatively recent craters while the one just to the north has seen much more history. Its rim has been scoured away by erosion and its floor has been filled in by material likely of a sedimentary nature. The channels that wind through the scene may be the oldest features present while the relatively dark streaks scattered about could have been produced in the past few years or even months as winds remove a layer of dust to reveal darker material below.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Widespread Layers in Arabia Terra: Implications for Martian Geologic History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venechuk, Elizabeth M.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Layered rocks in Arabia Terra have been the focus of several recent papers. Studies have focused on the layers found in crater basins located in the southwest portion of the region. However, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have identified layered deposits across the region. Terrestrial layered rocks are usually sedimentary, and often deposited in water. Thus extensive layered sequences in Arabia Terra may indicate locations of past, major depositional basins on Mars. Other mechanisms can also create layered rocks, or the appearance of layered rocks, including volcanism (both lava flows and ash falls), wind-blown deposits, and wave-cut terraces at shorelines. By identifying where in the region layers occur, and classifying the layers according to morphology and albedo, past depositional environments may be identified. Arabia Terra is characterized by heavily cratered Noachian plains, as well as a rise from -4000 m in the northwest to 4000 m in the southeast (Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter [MOLA] datum). This slope may have provided a constraint on sediment deposition and thus layer formation. While most of the region is Noachian in age, a significant percentage of the area is identified as Hesperian. Although the history of the Arabia Terra initially seems to be straightforward cratered plains with several younger units atop them analysis of high-resolution imagery may reveal a more complex history.

  13. University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

  14. Lactase persistence variants in Arabia and in the African Arabs.

    PubMed

    Priehodová, Edita; Abdelsawy, Abdelhay; Heyer, Evelyne; Cerný, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP), the state enabling the digestion of milk sugar in adulthood, occurs only in some human populations. The convergent and independent origin of this physiological ability in Europe and Africa is linked with animal domestication that either had started in both places independently or had spread from the Near East by acculturation. However, it has recently been shown that at least in its southern parts, the population of Arabia not only has a different LP-associated mutation profile than the rest of Africa and Europe but also had experienced an independent demographic expansion occurring before the Neolithic around the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. In Arabia, LP is associated with mutation -13,915*G and not, as in Europe, with -13,910*T or, as in Africa, with -13,907*G and -14,010*C. We show here that, in Arabia, -13,915*G frequency conforms to a partial clinal pattern and that this specific mutation has likely been spread from Arabia to Africa only recently from the sixth century AD onward by nomadic Arabs (Bedouins) looking for new pastures. Arabic populations in Africa that still maintain a nomadic way of life also have more -13,915*G variants and fewer sub-Saharan L-type mitochondrial DNA haplogroups; this observation matches archaeological and historical records suggesting that the migration of Arabic pastoralists was accompanied by gradual sedentarization that allowed for admixture with the local African population. PMID:25401983

  15. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

  16. Human Resource Development in Saudi Arabia: An International Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    Saudi Arabia has a modern nationwide school system that embraces institutions from kindergarten through the university level and encompasses special, adult, industrial, and commercial education. Education is not compulsory, and coeducation does not exist. Secondary vocational industrial schools have been established for young men who have…

  17. Coesite from Wabar crater, near Al Hadida, Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; Fahey, J.J.; Littler, J.

    1961-01-01

    The third natural occurrence of coesite, the high pressure polymorph of silica, is found at the Wabar meteorite crater, Arabia. The Wabar crater is about 300 feet in diameter and about 40 feet deep. It is the smallest of three craters where coesite has been found.

  18. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  19. Measuring the Climate of Training in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Richard G.

    1981-01-01

    One practitioner's experience in setting up on-the-job training in Saudi Arabia is described, including training materials, cultural environment, and the Saudi work ethic. In a related article, off-duty life for Americans is discussed, including dress for women and men, cultural aspects, and entertainment. (CT)

  20. Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hariri, Rafeda

    1987-01-01

    Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

  1. Libraries of Two Women's Colleges in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the current status of higher education for women in Saudi Arabia and discusses the special problems of access to library materials encountered by women in this society, focusing on the collections, services, and administration of two women's colleges' libraries. A proposed national educational development plan is briefly described. (CLB)

  2. Developing a Career Resource for College Students in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatkin, Laurence; Atiyeh, Naim

    With the development of Career Oasis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM ) has pioneered the use of computer-based career guidance in Saudi Arabia. KFUPM contracted with Verbal Media, LLC, an American consulting company, to create a resource that would be available in both Arabic and English, in both online and paper-and-pencil…

  3. Pharmacy Curriculum and Health Care Needs in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sowaygh, Ibrahim A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Based on recognized health care needs, a curriculum revision was undertaken at the College of Pharmacy at Saudi Arabia's University of Riyadh. The revised curriculum included a unified basic health sciences core program for Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Allied Medical Sciences. (Author/MLW)

  4. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bats, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Memish, Ziad A.; Mishra, Nischay; Olival, Kevin J.; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Kapoor, Vishal; Epstein, Jonathan H.; AlHakeem, Rafat; Durosinloun, Abdulkareem; Al Asmari, Mushabab; Islam, Ariful; Kapoor, Amit; Briese, Thomas; Daszak, Peter; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

    2013-01-01

    The source of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus remains unknown. Molecular investigation indicated that bats in Saudi Arabia are infected with several alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Virus from 1 bat showed 100% nucleotide identity to virus from the human index case-patient. Bats might play a role in human infection. PMID:24206838

  5. Individualized medicine enabled by genomics in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The biomedical research sector in Saudi Arabia has recently received special attention from the government, which is currently supporting research aimed at improving the understanding and treatment of common diseases afflicting Saudi Arabian society. To build capacity for research and training, a number of centres of excellence were established in different areas of the country. Among these, is the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, with its internationally ranked and highly productive team performing translational research in the area of individualized medicine. Here, we present a panorama of the recent trends in different areas of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia drawing from our vision of where genomics will have maximal impact in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe advances in a number of research areas including; congenital malformations, infertility, consanguinity and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer and genomic classifications in Saudi Arabia, epigenetic explanations of idiopathic disease, and pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. We conclude that CEGMR will continue to play a pivotal role in advances in the field of genomics and research in this area is facing a number of challenges including generating high quality control data from Saudi population and policies for using these data need to comply with the international set up. PMID:25951871

  6. Education and the Satellite: Possibilities for Saudi Arabia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharhan, Jamal

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of developments in satellite communications and educational applications focuses on the possibilities of adapting satellite technology for instruction in developing countries. Topics include satellite use in Australia and the United States; and recommendations for the adoption of satellite technology in Saudi Arabia. (Author/LRW)

  7. Pre-Vocational Preparation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with few exceptions, occupational specialization programs for male students first become available at the secondary level (grades 10-12). Education is not compulsory, and substantial numbers drop out at all levels. Adolescents who leave school at the primary (elementary) or intermediate (grades 7-9) level must wait…

  8. 75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United States Department of Commerce, International...

  9. 75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... mission will include appointments, briefings and a networking reception in Riyadh and Jeddah, Saudi Arabia... will reach $173 by 2014, as personal computer (PC) penetration rises to more than 30%. The number of... networking reception. U.S. participants will be counseled before and after the mission by the...

  10. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  11. The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Intakhab Alam

    2011-01-01

    The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as…

  12. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  13. Aetiology of Neonatal Septicaemia in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbashier, Ali M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Of the 1,797 babies admitted to a hospital in Saudi Arabia over a 3-year period, 8% were documented as having NNS. Identified several gram-positive bacteria, several gram-negative bacteria, and candida albicans as etiological agents in the cases of NNS. Determined the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria. (BC)

  14. Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-13

    Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

  15. Medical Colleges in Saudi Arabia: Can We Predict Graduate Numbers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althubaiti, Alaa; Alkhazim, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The shortage of Physicians is a major problem in many countries. Medical colleges are often encouraged to increase the graduate numbers. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Saudi physicians form only 37.89% of the physician manpower. The remainder of the physicians are expatriates. It was recently estimated that the Kingdom would need 29,128…

  16. Guidelines for Prospective EFL Teachers in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Constance Boerner

    Orientation materials for prospective teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries contains information about factors affecting EFL teaching in the classroom. Topics discussed include religion, family, politics, education, English-Arabic language differences, teaching approaches, and the…

  17. Genetic stratigraphy of key demographic events in Arabia.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Verónica; Triska, Petr; Pereira, Joana B; Alshamali, Farida; Rito, Teresa; Machado, Alison; Fajkošová, Zuzana; Cavadas, Bruno; Černý, Viktor; Soares, Pedro; Richards, Martin B; Pereira, Luísa

    2015-01-01

    At the crossroads between Africa and Eurasia, Arabia is necessarily a melting pot, its peoples enriched by successive gene flow over the generations. Estimating the timing and impact of these multiple migrations are important steps in reconstructing the key demographic events in the human history. However, current methods based on genome-wide information identify admixture events inefficiently, tending to estimate only the more recent ages, as here in the case of admixture events across the Red Sea (~8-37 generations for African input into Arabia, and 30-90 generations for "back-to-Africa" migrations). An mtDNA-based founder analysis, corroborated by detailed analysis of the whole-mtDNA genome, affords an alternative means by which to identify, date and quantify multiple migration events at greater time depths, across the full range of modern human history, albeit for the maternal line of descent only. In Arabia, this approach enables us to infer several major pulses of dispersal between the Near East and Arabia, most likely via the Gulf corridor. Although some relict lineages survive in Arabia from the time of the out-of-Africa dispersal, 60 ka, the major episodes in the peopling of the Peninsula took place from north to south in the Late Glacial and, to a lesser extent, the immediate post-glacial/Neolithic. Exchanges across the Red Sea were mainly due to the Arab slave trade and maritime dominance (from ~2.5 ka to very recent times), but had already begun by the early Holocene, fuelled by the establishment of maritime networks since ~8 ka. The main "back-to-Africa" migrations, again undetected by genome-wide dating analyses, occurred in the Late Glacial period for introductions into eastern Africa, whilst the Neolithic was more significant for migrations towards North Africa. PMID:25738654

  18. Genetic Stratigraphy of Key Demographic Events in Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Verónica; Triska, Petr; Pereira, Joana B.; Alshamali, Farida; Rito, Teresa; Machado, Alison; Fajkošová, Zuzana; Cavadas, Bruno; Černý, Viktor; Soares, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    At the crossroads between Africa and Eurasia, Arabia is necessarily a melting pot, its peoples enriched by successive gene flow over the generations. Estimating the timing and impact of these multiple migrations are important steps in reconstructing the key demographic events in the human history. However, current methods based on genome-wide information identify admixture events inefficiently, tending to estimate only the more recent ages, as here in the case of admixture events across the Red Sea (∼8–37 generations for African input into Arabia, and 30–90 generations for “back-to-Africa” migrations). An mtDNA-based founder analysis, corroborated by detailed analysis of the whole-mtDNA genome, affords an alternative means by which to identify, date and quantify multiple migration events at greater time depths, across the full range of modern human history, albeit for the maternal line of descent only. In Arabia, this approach enables us to infer several major pulses of dispersal between the Near East and Arabia, most likely via the Gulf corridor. Although some relict lineages survive in Arabia from the time of the out-of-Africa dispersal, 60 ka, the major episodes in the peopling of the Peninsula took place from north to south in the Late Glacial and, to a lesser extent, the immediate post-glacial/Neolithic. Exchanges across the Red Sea were mainly due to the Arab slave trade and maritime dominance (from ∼2.5 ka to very recent times), but had already begun by the early Holocene, fuelled by the establishment of maritime networks since ∼8 ka. The main “back-to-Africa” migrations, again undetected by genome-wide dating analyses, occurred in the Late Glacial period for introductions into eastern Africa, whilst the Neolithic was more significant for migrations towards North Africa. PMID:25738654

  19. Knobby terrain in Northern Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 25 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a region in northern Arabia Terra near 44o N, 322o W (38o E). Knobby or 'scabby' plains units that mantle and modify a pre-existing cratered surface dominate the unusual landscape in this region. Several large (5-8 km diameter) impact craters seen in the upper left of the image have been extensively modified since their initial formation. The rims of these craters can still be seen, but the ejecta deposits and the surrounding plains have been buried by a layer of material. This mantling layer has itself been modified to produce a pitted, knobby surface. Circular depressions of all sizes, presumably the remnants of impact craters, are filled with smooth deposits. In some places large regions have been covered by this smooth material; an example can be seen in the lower right portion of this image. In many cases the impact craters have been extensively modified prior to their being filled. This modification indicates an erosion process that has removed material from the walls to produce shapes that vary from circular with crisp rims, to circular with no rims, to oblong and elliptical forms, and finally to irregular shapes whose initial circular outline can barely be detected. The slope of the channel at the top of the image has an unusual deposit of material that occurs preferentially on the cold, north-facing slope. Similar deposits are seen frequently at mid-northern and southern latitudes on Mars, and have a characteristic, rounded boundary that typically occurs at approximately the same distance below the ridge crest. It has been suggested that these deposits once draped the entire surface and have since been removed from all but the cold north-facing slopes. The presence and removal of ground ice may play an important role in the formation of this layer, as well as the knobby terrain and unusual features seen in this image. The StoryThere's no way these impact craters are in their original

  20. Stigmatization of persons with HIV/AIDS in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Badahdah, Abdallah M

    2010-10-01

    Data about the stigmatization of persons living with HIV/AIDS in Saudi Arabia are scarce. Recent statistics from Saudi Ministry of Health showed that 77% of HIV-positive Saudis were males. The present study analyzed data from 162 Saudi male college students. The findings suggest that students who knew less about HIV/AIDS were more likely to stigmatize persons living with HIV/AIDS than those who knew more. Neither degree of religiosity nor worry about HIV infection was related to AIDS stigma. However, AIDS-related shame was the best predictor of AIDS stigma. The findings of this study point to important suggestions for AIDS prevention programs in Saudi Arabia. PMID:20592063

  1. Electronic Lab Information Exchange (ELIE) in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Saleem, Nouf; El Metwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the Saudi experience in implementing Electronic Lab Information Exchange (ELIE) within healthcare organizations in Saudi Arabia. This paper reviews the benefits, challenges and achievements that Saudi Arabia has gone through over the last five years in implementing ELIE. Data sources included academic literature, websites, and informant interviews. Results show that various Saudi healthcare organizations are participating in ELIE and improvements in laboratory department workflow and patient care have been reported. Future work includes projects to be implemented in different laboratories within the Kingdom to link the various laboratory information systems to Electronic Health Records. Various challenges stand in the way of implementing ELIE including weakness of the information infrastructure, staff resistance, recruiting qualified staff to develop and implement ELIE, producing clear policy and procedures to ensure staff compliance with the data entry, ensuring the privacy and integrity of patient data, and the lack of awareness on the importance of ELIE. PMID:25000034

  2. Factors that influence women's nutrition knowledge in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A A; Hassan, S A

    1994-01-01

    We studied knowledge of nutritional needs during pregnancy and lactation in 150 pregnant Saudi women at three primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used an interview schedule to collect data regarding the women's knowledge and to determine the effects of certain independent variables on the knowledge scores. Green et al.'s (1980) PRECEDE model provided the theoretical framework for the study. Descriptive statistics, t test, and chi-square methods were used to analyze the data. The majority of the women had poor nutrition knowledge scores, with no significant differences among the three centers. A positive relationship was found between knowledge score and educational level. Negative relationships were found between knowledge score and number of pregnancies, number of deliveries, and number of living children. The findings have several implications for efforts to improve the health status of women in Saudi Arabia. PMID:8002417

  3. Molecular epidemiology of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Nazri; Hammouda, Ehab; Akanuma, Masataka; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Ariga, Toshihide; Tagawa, Yoshitsugu; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Susumu; Aoki, Koki; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Ohno, Shigeaki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis is a major cause of ocular morbidity and may lead to visual loss. Adenovirus types 8, 19, and 37 may cause epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. The main objective of this study was to determine the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia. Methods We conducted a non-interventional observational clinical study. Seventy three eyes from 65 patients who presented to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with clinical features of acute adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis were included. Each patient underwent complete clinical examination and features such as membranous reaction, conjunctival hemorrhage, subepithelial corneal infiltrates, and preauricular lymph node enlargement were recorded. Conjunctival swabs were obtained from patients with presumed acute viral conjunctivitis. Immunochromatography (IC) and restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) were performed on the conjunctival swabs obtained from each eye. Serotype identification was performed using direct sequencing technique. Results Forty-nine (67.1%) were adenovirus type 8, 8 (11.0%) were adenovirus type 3, 6 (8.2%) type 37, 5 (6.8%) were adenovirus type 4, and 2 (2.3%) type 19. The remaining 5 were types 14, 19, and 22. The prevalence of membranous conjunctivitis was highest (83%) among eyes with adenovirus type 37 while subepithelial corneal opacities were most commonly seen among eyes with adenovirus type 8 (47%). Immunochromatography tests were positive for adenovirus in 48 (65.7%) out of 73 eyes. Conclusions This study determined the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis at one center in Saudi Arabia. Direct sequencing techniques is an efficient, accurate, and rapid means of diagnosing adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. The most common causes of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia were adenovirus types 8, 3, and 37. Membranous conjunctivitis and subepithelial opacities had the highest

  4. Geological mapping in northwestern Saudi Arabia using LANDSAT multispectral techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.; Moik, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    Various computer enhancement and data extraction systems using LANDSAT data were assessed and used to complement a continuing geologic mapping program. Interactive digital classification techniques using both the maximum-likelihood and thresholding statistical approaches achieve very limited success in areas of highly dissected terrain. Computer enhanced imagery developed by color compositing stretched MSS ratio data was constructed for a test site in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Initial results indicate that several igneous and sedimentary rock-types can be discriminated.

  5. Geological mapping in northwestern Saudi Arabia using LANDSAT multispectral techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.; Moik, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    Various computer enhancement and data extraction systems using LANDSAT data were assessed and used to complement a continuing geologic mapping program. Interactive digital classification techniques using both the parallel-piped and maximum-likelihood statistical approaches achieve very limited success in areas of highly dissected terrain. Computer enhanced imagery developed by color compositing stretched MSS ratio data was constructed for a test site in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Initial results indicate that several igneous and sedimentary rock types can be discriminated.

  6. Desert Wadis and Smoke from Kuwait Oil Fires, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Smoke from the Kuwait Oil Fires obscures the view of the desert wadis, Saudi Arabia (29.5N, 42.5E). During the brief Gulf war between Iraq and the Allied forces, many of the oil wells in Kuwait were destroyed and set afire. For several months, those fires burned out of control, spewing smoke and ash for hundreds of miles in many directions depending on the altitude, time of year and the prevailing winds.

  7. An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. Developmental oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Salem, G; Holm, S A; Fattah, R; Basset, S; Nasser, C

    1987-06-01

    The present report gives prevalence values for some developmental oral anomalies in 1932 schoolchildren aged 6-12 yr in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia. The developmental oral anomalies identified in this study were: torus palatinus (1.4%), fissured tongue (0.8%), geographic tongue (0.2%), and tongue tie (0.1%). None of the following developmental oral anomalies were observed: lip pits, cleft lip and/or palate, torus mandibularis, microglossia, macroglossia or median rhomboid glossitis. PMID:3474099

  9. Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M.S.

    2010-07-07

    Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9{+-}5 to 163{+-}32 Bqm{sup -3} and an average of 49{+-}2 Bqm{sup -3}. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm{sup -3} set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

  10. Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Mahyijari, Nawal Al; Shaik, Shaffi A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Results: Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones. Seventy-five percent used at least 4 applications per day, primarily for social networking and watching news. As a consequence of using the smartphones, at least 43% had decrease sleeping hours, and experienced a lack of energy the next day, 30% had a more unhealthy lifestyle (ate more fast food, gained weight, and exercised less), and 25% reported that their academic achievement been adversely affected. There are statistically significant positive relationships among the 4 study variables, consequences of smartphone use (negative lifestyle, poor academic achievement), number of hours per day spent using smartphones, years of study, and number of applications used, and the outcome variable score on the PUMP. The mean values of the PUMP scale were 60.8 with a median of 60. Conclusion: University students in Saudi Arabia are at risk of addiction to smartphones; a phenomenon that is associated with negative effects on sleep, levels of energy, eating habits, weight, exercise, and academic performance. PMID:27279515

  11. New Seismicity Map for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a relativity stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that were caused by local faults. In addition, we have been able to record some regional Earthquakes that cussed by tectonic movements. Most of these local events are not felt. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record local and micro- seismicty events. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition, and SAISAN, HYPOINVERSE software for analyses. Currently, I am using different types of velocity models, and I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia, and this study will not only yield additional information regarding the tectonic setting, but also revised hazard assessments for the region.

  12. Challenges in building health surveillance systems in saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Saleem, Nouf; Househ, Mowafa; El Metwally, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aiming to briefly discuss the role of health surveillance system in strengthening public health at both the local and global level and the use of health informatics in effectively creating a database of health status for the population of Saudi Arabia. This review will specifically focus on the challenges that face the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in order to effectively implement surveillance programs making use of advances in health information technology. Data collection was performed through a web-based retrieval of reports and articles and via an interview with an epidemiologist in the Saudi Ministry of Health Surveillance unit. Based on the results of this research, it was found that the use of technology has led to an improvement in communication between various stakeholders (e.g. clinicians, epidemiologists, and decision makers) by providing timely and accurate information needed for informed decision making. However, implementing an ideal model of surveillance systems in Saudi Arabia faces many challenges particularly in training healthcare providers to be qualified and competent enough to ensure the successful implementation of a disease surveillance system. PMID:25000066

  13. Mantle Flow beneath Arabia Offset from the Opening Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S. A.; Chang, S.; Merino, M.; van der Lee, S.; Stein, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    The rifting of continents involves a complex and poorly understood sequence of lithospheric stretching, volcanism, and mantle flow that eventually gives rise to seafloor spreading that forms a new ocean basin. The Red Sea, forming as the Arabian plate diverges from Africa, is a classic area for studying this process. Here, we present new insight from joint inversion of seismic wave travel times and waveforms to map velocity structure beneath Arabia and its surroundings. We find the low velocities expected for hot upwelling mantle material centered beneath the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, consistent with the active spreading there. However, this hot material extends not below the northern Red Sea, but is instead offset to the east beneath Arabia, showing northward upper mantle flow from the Afar hotspot. The location of this low velocity channel beneath volcanic rocks erupted since rifting began 30 million years ago indicates that although the flow originates from the hotspot that is essentially fixed in the upper mantle, the channel moves with the Arabian plate. We thus propose that the absence of seafloor spreading in the northern Red Sea reflects the offset mantle flow. Because this offset has existed for millions of years, it is unclear whether it will evolve into seafloor spreading, rifting of Arabia above the channel, or both. This situation has aspects of the end-member models of rifting initiated by either mantle flow or lithospheric extension, and thus shows that the two can occur somewhat independently in different places before coalescing to seafloor spreading.

  14. Heavy Thunderstorm Synoptic Climatology and Forcing Mechanisms in Saudi Arabia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulam, Ayman S.

    2010-05-01

    Meteorologists are required to provide accurate and comprehensive weather information for planning and operational aviation, agricultural, water projects and also for the public. In general, weather phenomena such as thunderstorms over the area between the tropics and the middle latitudes are not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area, for many reasons such as: 1) the complexity of the nature of the climate due to the wide-ranging diversity in the topography and landscape in the area; 2) the lack of meteorological data in the area; and 3) the lack of studies on local weather situations. In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, the spatial and temporal variation of thunderstorms and associated rainfall are essential in determining their effects on social and economic conditions. Thunderstorms form rapidly, due to the fact that the significant heating of the air from the surface and the ensuing rainfall usually occurs within a short period of time. Thus, understanding thunderstorms and rainfall distribution in time and space would be useful for hydrologists, meteorologists and for environmental studies. Research all over the world has shown, however, that consideration of local factors like Low Level Jets (LLJ), moisture flux, sea breezes, and the Red Sea Convergence Zone (RSCZ) would be valuable in thunderstorm prediction. The combined effects of enhanced low-level moisture convergence and layer destabilization due to upslope flow over mountainous terrain has been shown to be responsible for thunderstorm development in otherwise non-favourable conditions. However, there might be other synoptic features associated with heavy thunderstorms or cause them, but these features have not been investigated in any research in Saudi Arabia. Thus, relating the local weather and synoptic situations with those over the middle latitudes will provide a valuable background for the forecasters to issue the medium-range forecasts which are important for many projects

  15. 77 FR 53959 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Roads of Arabia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... History of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations...: Archaeology and the History of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition... or about June 30, 2014; and/or the San Francisco Asian Art Museum in San Francisco, California...

  16. 75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive...

  17. Vocational Education to Meet the Needs of a Changing Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    Faced with sizable oil revenues and the need and desire to expand and diversify its industrial potential, Saudi Arabia is improving its vocational training efforts and attempting to involve as many of its citizens in vocational training programs as possible. At present, Saudi Arabia is having to import skilled workers to keep up with necessary…

  18. Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality in Offsprings of Diabetic Mothers in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dabbous, Ibrahim A. Al-; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality of diabetic mothers and their offspring in Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Suggests diabetes mellitus in pregnancy may be a common problem in Saudi Arabia, as poor maternal diabetic control results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results suggest that health education and improved coverage of…

  19. National Culture-Management Practices: United States and Saudi Arabia Contrasted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashmi, Mahmud S.

    Successful conduct of business in Saudi Arabia requires attitudes and skills significantly different from those needed in the United States. Distinct societal differences can turn winning practices in one culture into failures in another. Despite Saudi Arabia's recent emergence as a wealthy marketplace, traditional values and a unique lifestyle…

  20. Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

  1. Public health education in Saudi Arabia: Needs and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Abdulrahman; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, public health (PH) has come to the frontlines in Saudi Arabia. The recent outbreak of a novel corona virus (MERS-CoV) highlighted the importance of PH services and the need for a competent PH workforce. The urgency and panic induced by infectious disease outbreaks explain the heightened interest. Decision makers' interest in public health was observed through a series of decisions, including creating a position for Deputy Minister for Public Health, changing the name of "Directorate of Primary Healthcare Centers" to "Directorate of Public Health" in all health regions and initiating a special scholarship program to prepare health administration professionals in collaboration with US-based universities. A distinguished group of PH leaders in Saudi Arabia was gathered in a structured workshop that was organized by the Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, college of medicine to discuss the current status and future needs of PH education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The workshop highlighted the need for PH education development and outlined the challenges ahead. The main challenges laid out by participants in the workshop were the development of an appropriate PH curriculum, appropriate training spots for practical placement, the development of research priorities for PH to satisfy the needs of PH programs and agencies, attracting the most qualified academic staff, the enrolment of highly motivated students and finally, the establishment of a quality assurance program to ensure the quality of PH education programs. The development of a framework for graduate competencies in PH was perceived to be a top priority. Moreover, setting a PH workforce surveillance system, building partnership between PH academic institutions and PH services providers, implementing national campaigns to explain what PH is about and illuminating the role of PH workers were also of utmost importance. PMID:26984034

  2. Pentalogy of Cantrell: first case reported in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bagabir, Hala Abubaker; Azhar, Ahmad Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Pentalogy of Cantrell (PC) is a rare congenital anomaly involving defects in the anterior diaphragm, supraumbilical abdominal wall, diaphragmatic pericardium, and lower sternum, and other congenital intracardiac abnormalities. Here, we report the case of a newborn infant who was born at 32 weeks of gestation and had all 5 features of PC, in addition to absent kidneys and a deformed left hand. Medical intervention would not be able to save the patient, so we allowed her to die in peace. We discuss here the etiology, prenatal diagnosis, and severity of and the mortality associated with this condition. To our knowledge, this was the first reported case of PC in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24658559

  3. Strategic directions for university hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Tawfik, Bassel

    2016-03-01

    The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently witnessing a massive support for its healthcare services. This year's fiscal budget for health care is by far the largest in the history of the kingdom. While pursuing the conventional goals of healthcare delivery systems, such as equity, affordability and availability of services, the ministry of education (MOE), formerly called ministry of higher education (MOHE), is also seeking to achieve certain excellence standards, which are expected to set the bar for other countries in the region to follow suit. Almost all, under construction, university hospitals were adopting a paradigm shift in the standard of health care and training provided. This report summarizes these standards. PMID:26984027

  4. Luminescence dating of the Wabar meteorite craters, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B.; Shoemaker, C.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Wynn, J.

    2004-01-01

    Luminescence dating has been used to find the age of meteorite impact craters at Wabar (Al Hadida) in Saudi Arabia. The luminescence characteristics of the shocked material were determined. Using a variety of luminescence dating techniques applied to impactite formed by the meteorite, and to the underlying sand, the age is found to be 290 ± 38 years. A comparison is made with two possible historically recorded ages. An impact as young as this has implications for the assessment of hazards from the impact on Earth of small meteorites.

  5. Metagenomic analysis of fungal taxa inhabiting Mecca region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Tarek A A; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S; Almaghrabi, Omar A; Sabry, Nevien M; Fuller, Michael P

    2016-09-01

    The data presented contains the sequences of fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) and 18S rRNA gene from a metagenome of the Mecca region, Saudi Arabia. Sequences were amplified using fungal specific primers, which amplified the amplicon aligned between the 18S and 28S rRNA genes. A total of 460 fungal species belonging to 133 genera, 58 families, 33 orders, 13 classes and 4 phyla were identified in four contrasting locations. The raw sequencing data used to perform this analysis along with FASTQ file are located in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) under accession numbers: SRR3150823, SRR3144873, SRR3150825 and SRR3150846. PMID:27508121

  6. Owen Fracture Zone: The Arabia-India plate boundary unveiled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Rodriguez, M.; Huchon, P.; Petit, C.; Beslier, M. O.; Zaragosi, S.

    2011-02-01

    We surveyed the Owen Fracture Zone at the boundary between the Arabia and India plates in the NW Indian Ocean using a high-resolution multibeam echo-sounder (Owen cruise, 2009) for search of active faults. Bathymetric data reveal a previously unrecognized submarine fault scarp system running for over 800 km between the Sheba Ridge in the Gulf of Aden and the Makran subduction zone. The primary plate boundary structure is not the bathymetrically high Owen Ridge, but is instead a series of clearly delineated strike-slip fault segments separated by several releasing and restraining bends. Despite an abundant sedimentary supply by the Indus River flowing from the Himalaya, fault scarps are not obscured by recent deposits and can be followed over hundreds of kilometres, pointing to very active tectonics. The total strike-slip displacement of the fault system is 10-12 km, indicating that it has been active for the past ~ 3 to 6 Ma if its current rate of motion of 3 ± 1 mm yr- 1 has remained stable. We describe the geometry of this recent fault system, including a major pull-apart basin at the latitude 20°N, and we show that it closely follows an arc of small circle centred on the Arabia-India pole of rotation, as expected for a transform plate boundary.

  7. Timing of uplift peripheral to the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, C.W.; Zimmermann, R.A.; Bohannon, R.G.; Schmidt, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A Prominent escarpment is found along the western margin of the Arabian Shield. Elevations along this escarpment are up to 3200 m above the Red Sea. Between the Red Sea and the crest of the escarpment is a relatively featureless coastal plane that is ??? 50 km across. The coastal plane abruptly gives way to the steep mountainous terrain, the elevation of which increases abruptly towards the high crest. The elevation slowly decreases to the east of the high crest. Forty-four apatite fission-track ages have been determined on rocks from the Proterozoic Arabian Shield in southwestern Saudi Arabia. These ages range from 13.8 to 568 Ma. In general, the youngest ages are found at low elevations along the base of the escarpment near the eastern edge of the coastal plane. The oldest ages are from along and to the east of the crest. The fission-track data from Saudi Arabia show that there was a period of minor uplift and cooling during the Cretaceous. This was followed by a relatively stable period which lasted until the Mid to Upper Miocene. The latest uplift and erosion began slightly younger than 13.8 Ma. This latest episode resulted in a minimum uplift of 3 km and is related to the Red Sea Rift. Samples totally annealed prior to this latest episode of uplift and cooling have not yet reached the surface.

  8. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra bulged craters (Mars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, R.; Massironi, M.; Rossi, A. P.; Sauro, F.; Carli, C.; Marinangeli, L.; Cremonese, G.

    2015-10-01

    Impact craters within Arabia Terra region,on Mars,display a large central bulge, sometimes showing a well-preserved stratification (light albedo layered deposits). In craters like Crommelin or an unnamed crater (that is numbered 12000088) located a few hundreds kilometers on the East some unusual landforms and structures among the layered deposits were observed. In particular, on Crommelin's bulge and its surroundings we found fold systems with axis parallel to the bulge perimeter. The fold sets are typical compressional structure often associated to diapiric rise on Earth[1]. In addition on top of 12000088 crater's bulge the evidence of sulfate signatures was detected as well as the presence of small bowl-shaped depressions. Several fluid-carved channels that depart radially from the bulge are cut by a ring of normal faults,thus suggesting a collapse of the bulge summit. Thus, on the basis of the previous observations it is possible to hypothesize that diapiric rise could have been responsible for central bulging both on Crommelin and 12000088 craters and likely on other bulged craters on Arabia Terra.

  9. Predictors of smoking among male college students in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S

    2013-11-01

    Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia. PMID:24673080

  10. Holocene and Pleistocene pluvial periods in Yemen, southern Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleitmann, Dominik; Burns, Stephen J.; Pekala, Marek; Mangini, Augusto; Al-Subbary, Abdulkarim; Al-Aowah, Mohammad; Kramers, Jan; Matter, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Arabia is an important potential pathway for the dispersal of Homo sapiens ("out of Africa"). Yet, because of its arid to hyper-arid climate humans could only migrate across southern Arabia during pluvial periods when environmental conditions were favorable. However, knowledge on the timing of Arabian pluvial periods prior to the Holocene is mainly based on a single and possibly incomplete speleothem record from Hoti Cave in Northern Oman. Additional terrestrial records from the Arabian Peninsula are needed to confirm the Hoti Cave record. Here we present a new speleothem record from Mukalla Cave in southern Yemen. The Mukalla Cave and Hoti Cave records clearly reveal that speleothems growth occurred solely during peak interglacial periods, corresponding to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1 (early to mid-Holocene), 5.1, 5.3, 5.5 (Eemian), 7.1, 7.5 and 9. Of these humid periods, highest precipitation occurred during MIS 5.5 and lowest during early to middle Holocene.

  11. Epidemiology of domestic chemical burns in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Pitkanen, J; Al-Qattan, M M

    2001-06-01

    The authors reviewed the domestic chemical injury experience in two major government hospitals in Saudi Arabia to determine the most common causative agents and the circumstances of the injury in order to give recommendations for their prevention and reduction of their morbidity. A total of 59 cases were included. The mean age was 25 years and the male to female ratio was 3:1. Alkali drain cleaners were the major cause of chemical burns in the series and this was seen in 75% of the total study population. The remaining 25% of cases resulted from concentrated sulfuric acid, car battery acid and topical application of medical herbs by non-professionals. Unfortunately, immediate water lavage was not done in the majority of alkali and acid burns and hence skin grafting was required in most patients. It was concluded that efforts for prevention of chemical burns in Saudi Arabia should be directed towards education of the population regarding the proper use of alkali cleaners for clogged drains. These cleaners and battery acid containers should also be kept in a safe place away from the reach of children. Furthermore, a warning to the public regarding the non-professional use of medical herbs should be given. Finally, increased awareness among the Saudi population as to the need for prompt water irrigation of chemical burns should help reduce the morbidity from these injuries. PMID:11348747

  12. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Koenig, Harold G

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. PMID:23966783

  13. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043

  14. Biodiversity characteristics of Teucrium polium species in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M

    2015-03-01

    Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world. PMID:25737650

  15. Water contamination and esophageal cancer at Gassim Region, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Amer, M.H.; El-Yazigi, A.; Hannan, M.A.; Mohamed, M.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Between January 1980 and December 1982, 183 patients with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the esophagus who were referred to a tertiary referral hospital were studied. Thirty-two (17%) patients were referred from Gassim Region at the north central part of Saudi Arabia. In contrast, only 5% of total cancer patient referrals were from this area. A case-control study showed a significant regional difference within Saudi Arabia and the most referrals from Gassim area. A prospective case-control study showed persistently high numbers of referrals from that region during 1983-1987. When patients from Gassim Region were compared with those referred from other locations, no statistical differences were noted between the two groups except for the source of drinking water. Water analysis from Gassim area showed a high solid content with elevated levels of calcium, magnesium, and to a lesser extent, chromium iron, cadmium, and cobalt. Traces of petroleum oil were found in five of six water samples from Gassim during 1983, compared with 3 of 49 samples from other areas. Mutagenicity tests on water specimens form Gassim Region indicated the presence of possible carcinogens. It is being suggested that the high prevalence of esophageal cancer in this region may be related to contamination of water by impurities such as petroleum oils. Malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency, as well as other factors may have promoted such malignancies.

  16. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043

  17. Nursing: Attitudes, perceptions and strategies for progress in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C L; Gary, R

    1991-07-01

    Western countries are experiencing a nursing shortage which will impact on future nurse manpower supply in Saudi Arabia because the Kingdom is dependent on expatriate nurses. The young people of Saudi Arabia are the Kingdom's most valuable resources but are reluctant to enter nursing. Therefore, a random survey was administered to 1,131 secondary and university students to determine attitudes and general knowledge of Saudi nationals toward the health care system, perceived role of the nurse and recommendations for improving Saudization of the nursing profession. The majority of those surveyed preferred hospitalization within the Kingdom with Saudi nationals delivering the nursing care rather than expatriates. The nurse was perceived as being a caring person who was responsible for giving more than custodial care. Moreover, the role of the nurse was perceived as an extension of the physician with little or no role in disease detection and prevention. The low image and status of nursing, traditional and social values were identified as major inhibiting factors that affect the Saudi nationals' reluctance to enter nursing. Increasing financial rewards, utilizing the media and segregation of hospitals into male and female were the most frequently cited recommendations to promote Saudization of nursing. Data from this study provided insight into the current perception of nursing as a potential career for Saudi nationals and could provide direction for future concerns in the development of nursing in the Kingdom. PMID:17590766

  18. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    PubMed

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended. PMID:20214168

  19. Saudi Arabia Today. A Teaching Program on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: (1) Grades 1-3, Our Visit to Saudi Arabia; (2) Grades 4-6, A Modern Kingdom; (3) Junior High School, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; (4) Senior High School, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Enrichment, Inc., Williamsburg, VA.

    This package includes materials for students and accompanying teaching guides and posters for teaching about life in contemporary Saudi Arabia for grades 1-8. The student folder for grades 1-3 presents information about the Middle Eastern nation in the form of a boy's letter to a friend back home. In the letter are descriptions of the cities of…

  20. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra craters, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, Riccardo; Pio Rossi, Angelo; Massironi, Matteo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Marinangeli, Lucia; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    Arabia Terra is a region of Mars located at the boundary between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands and classically dominated by heavily cratered terrain. Unlike the rest of the topographic dichotomy on the planet, in Arabia Terra the elevation transition is very gentle, falling of 4 km over a distance of 2500 km (average slope = 0.0016°). Most of the impact craters within the region display a central bulge, bearing a well preserved stratification and a wide range of smaller morphologies like pitted cones, mounds and knobs (Franchi et al. 2013). Images acquired by HiRISE and CTX cameras on board MRO provided a comprehensive dataset in which also these small features can be easily recognized. These are tens of meters of diameter and tens of meters high, and many of them show an apical orifice. They are interpreted to have worked as pathways for subsurface fluid flow (e.g. Pondrelli et al., 2011; Rossi et al., 2008). Indeed an active underground fluid flow activity in Arabia Terra It has been recently hypothesized (e.g. Andrews-Hanna et al, 2011) , being crater central bulges a place of sulfate precipitation, due to local water table emergence (e.g. Franchi et al., 2013). To date, there is no clear explanation for occurrence of central bulges surrounded by prominent depressions in Arabia craters. In addition, in Firsoff and Crommelin craters it is possible to recognize folds and outward dipping strata on the central bulges and their surroundings. Interestingly, a few craters with a prominent bulged floor elsewhere in Arabia Terra do not display stratification and are not explainable as impact related structures as their expected pristine central peak derived by hydrocode modelling is ~2km lower and one third the diameter than the actual topography (Pozzobon et al., 2013). All these evidences are not consistent with a typical lacustrine stratigraphic environment, whether interested by sulfate precipitation or not, and suggest active deformation after or

  1. 76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment...

  2. Phytophagous and predaceous mites associated with vegetable crops from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Atawi, Fahad J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate phytophagous and predatory mites associated with vegetable plants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eight phytophagous and 10 predacious mites were collected from 14 species of vegetable crops covering five major production localities. Out of these 18 mite species, 13 species are new to the mite fauna of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the two species, Tenuipalpus punicae and Agistemus exsertus, are reported for the first time on vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. For each mite species found, notes on host plant association and occurrence period are given. An illustrated key for the identification of the 18 mite species reported in this study is provided and this can be used to improve the IPM programs by applying the local natural predatory mites in controlling mite pests in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23961130

  3. Testing Formation Theories of NW Arabia Terra, Mars: New Clues from Old Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, S. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2008-03-01

    Northwest Arabia Terra has topography and crater populations indicating a unique history. We directly tested two proposed formation mechanisms. Crater size-frequency and d/D ratios suggest neither scenario is easily reconcilable with the new datasets.

  4. 75 FR 56506 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe...

  5. Establishing a National Medical Device Registry in Saudi Arabia: Lessons Learned and Future Work.

    PubMed

    Al-Surimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa; Almohandis, Essam; Alshagathrh, Fahd

    2015-01-01

    Medical device evaluation presents several unique challenges due to the great diversity and complexity of medical devices and their rapid technological evolution. There has been a variety of work conducted on the development of disease based registries and health surveillance systems in Saudi Arabia. However, the progress of medical device registry systems and post-market medical device surveillance systems remains in its infancy in Saudi Arabia and within the region. In 2007, a royal decree assigned the responsibility for regulating medical devices to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA). Soon afterwards, the SFDA established the Medical Devices National Registry (MDNR) to house medical device information relating to manufacturers, agents, suppliers and end-users. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the Medical Device National Registry (MDNR) in Saudi Arabia and describe the current experience and future work of establishing a comprehensive medical device registry and post-market surveillance system in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26152943

  6. Prospecting for Methane in Arabia Terra, Mars - First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dotoyhy Z.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Methane has been measured in the Martian atmosphere at concentrations of approx. 10 ppb. Since the photochemical lifetime of this gas is approx. 300 years, it is likely that methane is currently being released from the surface. Possible sources for the methane include 1) hydrothermal activity, 2) serpentinization of basalts and other water-rock interactions, 3) thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter, and 4) metabolism of living bacteria. Any such discovery would revolutionize our understanding of Mars. Longitudinal variations in methane concentration, as measured by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) on Mars Express, show the highest values over Arabia Terra, Elysium Planum, and Arcadia-Memnonia, suggesting localized areas of methane release. We are using orbital data and methodologies derived from petroleum exploration in an attempt to locate these release points.

  7. Measuring Students' Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhadlaq, H.; Alshaya, F.; Alabdulkareem, S.; Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Wieman, C. E.

    2009-11-01

    Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

  8. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharari, Salman

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional

  9. Obesity and public health in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    DeNicola, Erica; Aburizaiza, Omar S; Siddique, Azhar; Khwaja, Haider; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are now a global epidemic, with more than one in five people qualifying as obese worldwide. These conditions are accompanied by excessive rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) related to overweight, like type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Saudi Arabia, which has become increasingly westernized over the past few decades now has one of the highest prevalence rates of overweight and obesity, even in children. This puts the population at great risk for increased rates of NCD mortality. Competing cultures is partly to blame, as the combination of persisting traditional Saudi cultural practices, modern cultural changes, and economic prosperity has created an obesogenic environment that promotes unhealthy eating, sedentary lifestyles, and weight gain. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent in Saudi women than in Saudi men. Interventions targeting the environment are needed in order to promote greater health through healthy eating decisions and increased physical activity or exercise (especially for women). PMID:26351801

  10. A case for ancient springs in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Allen, Carlton C; Oehler, Dorothy Z

    2008-12-01

    Based on new image data from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), a case can be made that several structures in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra are ancient springs. This interpretation is based on comprehensive geomorphologic analysis coupled with assessment of multiple hypotheses. The structures identified extend across several kilometers and are exceptional in that nothing with their detail and scale has been reported from Mars. The deposits are associated with an extensive fracture system that may have facilitated upward flow of warm fluids. Several additional spring-like features occur in Vernal Crater, and it is possible that these are part of a major province of spring activity. Since springs are environments where life could have evolved on Mars, where that life could have found refuge as the climate became colder and drier, and where signatures of that life may be preserved, Vernal Crater may be a site of major astrobiological importance. PMID:19093802

  11. High intestinal lactase concentrations in adult Arbs in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Cook, G C; al-Torki, M T

    1975-07-19

    The maximum rise in blood glucose after 50 g lactose by mouth was determined in 40 adult Arabs. Out of 30 Bedouin, urban Saudi, and Yemeni and 9 of mixed ancestry (usually partly African), 25 (83%) and 2 (22%) respectively showed an increase of over 1-1 mmol/1 (20 mg/100 ml). In common with most northern Europeans and Hamitic people of northern Africa, Arabs in Saudi Arabia usually have high intestinal lactase concentrations in adult life. This persistence of high levels probably originated in the Arabian peninsula. Its selective advantage may have been associated with the fluid and calorie content of camels' milk, which is important for survival in desert nomads. PMID:1170003

  12. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Geospatial Information Infrastructure - AN Initial Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsultan, S. H.; Rahman, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al.) implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.

  13. Seismic anisotropy and mantle fabrics beneath eastern Africa and Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikh, A. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    In spite of numerous studies, the mechanisms for the rifting, uplifting, and volcanism on the African plate remain enigmatic. The most popular hypotheses proposed to explain these tectonic phenomena involve edge-driven small-scale mantle convection and the thermal or dynamic effects of one or more mantle plumes. In particular, several recent models suggested that the rise of the African plateaus and western Arabia was due to the dynamic upwelling of an active mantle plume located beneath southern Africa, despite of the fact that most studies revealed that the mantle transition zone beneath southern Africa has a normal temperature. In this study we use continental scale shear-wave splitting measurements to provide additional constraints on the various models of rifting and uplifting of the African plate. The splitting of P-to-S converted phases at the core-mantle boundary on the receiver side (XKS including PKS, SKKS, and SKS) is one of the most effective approaches to image mantle flow, and to constrain convective mantle flow patterns. Most of the previous shear-wave splitting (SWS) studies in eastern Africa and Arabia assumed a single anisotropic layer as the source of the observed shear-wave splitting. Some studies attributed the observed anisotropy to Precambrian lithospheric fabric developed during compressional orogenic events, while others emphasized the role of mantle flow. Almost all of these studies focused on restricted geographic regions or used a limited number of stations, which led to results applicable to localized areas rather than a continent-wide scale. In addition, the results were presented as station-averages, which prevent the identification of complex anisotropy. This presentation reports preliminary results from an ongoing study using all the broadband XKS data available at the IRIS Data Management Center. The data set was recorded by more than 200 stations in east Africa and Arabia. We are in the process to produce a uniform SWS database

  14. Crohn`s disease. Increasing trend in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Mofleh, Ibrahim A; Azzam, Nahlah A

    2013-11-01

    We attempted, through systematic review to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of Crohn's disease (CD) with special attention to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We selected articles that contained population-based, epidemiological, and clinical character studies of CD. We collected data concerned with the prevalence, demographic features, and the possible etiology of CD that might explain its emergence in KSA. The prevalence of CD in Western countries ranged between 11-43/100,000 with flawless evidence of CD prevalence emerging in previously low incidence areas like Asia. Prevalence in KSA has markedly increased over the last 3 decades. Combined ileal and colonic involvement was the most frequently affected site. Diet, smoking, drugs, and westernization of life are assumed to contribute to the pathogenesis. There is convincing evidence of CD emerging in Asia, including KSA. Westernization of lifestyle and smoking is probably the major contributing factors. Genetic studies are warranted. PMID:24252887

  15. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  16. Undergraduate teaching of forensic medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M

    2016-07-01

    Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing. PMID:27354384

  17. Molecular subtypes of breast carcinoma in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alnegheimish, Norah A.; Alshatwi, Razan A.; Alhefdhi, Reem M.; Arafah, Maha M.; AlRikabi, Ammar C.; Husain, Sufia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the distribution of various molecular subtypes of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia and to assess the association between these subtypes and age at diagnosis, tumor size, histopathological type, grade, presence of carcinoma in-situ, and lymph node status. Methods: This observational retrospective study, between January 2010 and December 2014, was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We classified 359 breast cancers into 4 molecular subtypes, using immunohistochemistry: luminal A (estrogen receptor [ER], or progesterone receptor [PR] positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2] negative), luminal B (ER and/or PR positive and HER2 positive), HER2-positive (ER and PR negative and HER2 positive), and triple negative (ER, PR, and HER2 negative). We evaluated the relationship between these subtypes and clinicopathological features using Chi square test. Results: The most prevalent subtype was luminal A (58.5%), followed in descending order of frequency by triple negative (14.8%), luminal B (14.5%), and HER2-positive (12.3%). The average age at diagnosis was 49.8 years, and average tumor size at diagnosis was 3.19 cm. Conclusion: Luminal A tumor was the most common molecular subtype and HER2-positive was the least common. Most lobular carcinomas were luminal A tumors. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and triple negative tumors had a higher histologic grade and a larger tumor size at diagnosis, and they were more common in women under 50 years. Carcinoma-in-situ was least common in triple negative tumors. We found no association between lymph node status and molecular subtypes. PMID:27146612

  18. Aerosols physical properties at Hada Al Sham, western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Aaltonen, V.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Almazroui, M.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Al Zawad, F. M.; Hakala, J.; Khoder, M.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Hämeri, K.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first time to clearly derive the comprehensive physical properties of aerosols at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia. Aerosol measurements station was established at a rural background area in the Western Saudi Arabia to study the aerosol properties. This study gives overview of the aerosol physical properties (PM10, PM2.5, black carbon and total number concentration) over the measurement period from November 2012 to February 2015. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 95 ± 78 μg m-3 (mean ± STD, at ambient conditions) and 33 ± 68 μg m-3 (at ambient conditions), respectively. As expected PM10 concentration was dominated by coarse mode particles (PM10-PM2.5), most probably desert dust. Especially from February to June the coarse mode concentrations were high because of dust storm season. Aerosol mass concentrations had clear diurnal cycle. Lower values were observed around noon. This behavior is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). During the day time the boundary layer is evolving, causing enhanced mixing and dilution leading to lower concentration. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were comparable to values measured at close by city of Jeddah. Black carbon concentration was about 2% and 6% of PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. Total number concentration was dominated by frequent new particle formation and particle growth events. The typical diurnal cycle in particle total number concentration was clearly different from PM10 and PM2.5.

  19. Smoking pattern among female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Koura, Manal R.; Al-Dossary, Ahlam F.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the most important avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the world. The estimated annual death rate of 4.9 million people in 1999 is expected to rise to 10 million by the 2020s and 2030s, 7 million of which will occur in developing countries. Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and assess its pattern among non-medical female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1020 female students selected from the literature and science colleges by multi-stage stratified random sampling technique with proportional allocation. Data were collected using a self-administered modified WHO Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire. Results: Results revealed that occurrence of smoking among female college students was 8.6%. It was significantly higher among literature college students (12.1%) than among Science College students (3.4%). The mean age at which smoking started was 16 ± 2.4 years, with a minimum of 11 years. More than half of the students who smoked were cigarette smokers, while 43.2% were shisha smokers. There was a strong relationship between parents who smoked and daughters who smoked. The main motive for smoking was curiosity (44.3%), followed by relief of tension (26.1%). Conclusions: It may be concluded that smoking is increasing among female college students in Saudi Arabia. Accordingly, it is recommended that a preventive comprehensive health education program on smoking be initiated for females in middle schools, that stricter tobacco control measures be adopted by the government, and that anti-smoking clinics be established in colleges. PMID:21897913

  20. A top to bottom lithospheric study of Africa and Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, Michael E.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2007-11-01

    We study the lithospheric structure of Africa, Arabia and adjacent oceanic regions with fundamental-mode surface waves over a broad period range. Including group velocities with periods shorter than 35 s allows us to examine shallower features than previous studies of the whole continent. In the process, we have developed a crustal thickness map of Africa. Main features include crustal thickness increases under the West African, Congo, and Kalahari cratons. We find crustal thinning under Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts, including the Benue Trough, Red Sea, and East, Central, and West African rift systems, along with less abrupt crustal thickness changes at passive continental margins. We also find crustal thickness differences in North Africa between the West African Craton and East Saharan Shield. Crustal shear wave velocities are generally faster in oceanic regions and cratons, and slower in more recent crust and in active and remnant orogenic regions. Deeper structure, related to the thickness of cratons and modern rifting, is generally consistent with previous work. Under cratons we find thick lithosphere and fast upper mantle velocities, while under rifts we find thinned lithosphere and slower upper mantle velocities. However, we also find the lack of a thick cratonic keel beneath the central portion of the Congo Craton. There are no consistent effects in areas classified as hotspots, indicating that there seem to be numerous origins for these features. Finally, it appears that the African Superswell, which is responsible for high elevation and uplift over large portions of Africa, has had a significantly different impact (as indicated by features such as temperature, time of influence, etc.) in the north and the south. This is consistent with episodic activity at shallow depths, which is well-expressed in northeastern Africa and Arabia today.

  1. Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Almadi, Majid A; Alhammad, Alwaleed; Al Faleh, Faleh Z

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1) Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2) Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3) Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL) was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA) by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females) from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%). There were 26 (2.2%) students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1%) and 9 males (1.5%). Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%). The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479), Madinah 1.8% (8/436), and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252). The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence. PMID:23613632

  2. Musculoskeletal Pain Disorders among Secondary School Saudi Female Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-Zuhair, Shatha Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to estimate prevalence and pattern of musculoskeletal pain disorders among secondary school Saudi female teachers in Al-Khobar area and the psychodemographic and psychosocial factors that may affect them. Material and Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using sample of secondary schools teachers (governmental and private school) in Al-Khobar area, Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Result. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain disorders was 79.17%. Main sites of pain were lower back (63.8%) followed by shoulder (45.4%), neck (42.1%), leg (40.0%), wrist (16.2%), and elbow joint (10.0%). Factors that showed significant relationship were type of school (p value 0.038), age (p value 0.002), weight (p value 0.007), number of children (p value 0.006), shoe type (p value 0.000), teaching years (p value 0.003), and working daily hours (p value 0.027). Conclusion. Secondary school female teachers showed high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain disorders in most anatomic sites, namely, the back, shoulder, neck, legs, wrist, and elbow joint. Risk factors associated with significant pain were type of school, age, weight, number of children, and number of teaching years. PMID:23970968

  3. Assessment of metals in cosmetics commonly used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ahmed K

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most important sources of releasing heavy metals. Different varieties of chemicals are used in cosmetic products as ingredients and some are used as preservatives. There are concerns regarding the presence of harmful chemicals in these products. Among the harmful chemicals, cosmetic products contain heavy metals. The present study was conducted to determine the content of certain heavy metals in the products made in different countries and marketed in Saudi Arabia. Thirty-one products of different brands or misbrands of commonly used cosmetic products (hair cream, beauty cream, skin cream, hair food formula, hair gel, whitening daily scrub, shampoo, shower gel, body care, body lotion, hand wash, daily fairness, shaving cream, toothpaste, germ and beauty soap, and cream soap) were purchased from local markets of Saudi Arabia. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of ten metals (lead, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, mercury, and arsenic) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Based on the maximum concentrations, the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > Co > As > Cd in cream products, Al > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni > Hg > As > Co > Cd in shampoo products, Al > Cu > Pb > Cr > Mn > Ni > As > Co > Hg > Cd in soap products, and Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Ni > Cd > As > Hg in toothpaste products. Since the metal concentrations may relate to specific brands, product type, color, or cost, industrialist would have to check the raw materials before they are gathered into the final products to track the source of these contaminants. PMID:27613289

  4. New Measurements of Shear-wave Splitting in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Mooney, W. D.; Suzuki, J.; Zahran, H. M.; El-Hadidy, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) operates a nationwide digital seismic network with more than 160 broadband seismometers that transmit to a central location at the SGS. These seismic data have been used to measure shear-wave splitting in infer anisotropy within and beneath the Arabian plate. We selected for analysis more than 300 teleseismic recordings between January, 2008 and February, 2015. Individual seismometers located on the crystalline rock of the Arabian shield provide 20 to 30 shear-wave splitting results, whereas seismometers located on volcanic rocks provide 2 to 14 reliable measurements. Here we summarize results obtained from the Tertiary volcanic fields ("harrats") of western Saudi Arabia, in particular Harrat Lunayyir and Harrat Rahat. Both of these volcanic fields have been active in historic times. Eighteen seismic stations with an average inter-station spacing of 10 km are located within Harrat Lunayyir. Seismic stations there have consistent shear-wave splitting directions ranging from N2°E to N20°W and delay times from 0.7 s to 1.6 s. This volcanic field is of particular interest because in 2009 it experienced abundant seismic activity and measureable crustal deformation that was associated with a dike intrusion into the upper crust (Pallister et al., 2010, Nature Geoscience). However, our analysis does not reveal any anomalous splitting results beneath this harrat. Fifteen seismic stations with an average inter-station spacing of 30 km are located in or adjacent to Harrat Rahat. These show very similar splitting directions to Harrat Lunayyir, ranging from N1°W to N16°W, with delay times of 1.0 s to 1.4 s. Following previous studies, we assume that these delay times are dominantly due to mantle anisotropy, with crustal anisotropy being secondary. Our results indicate a highly uniform fast-direction of anisotropy oriented approximately N10°W beneath these two volcanic fields. The measured orientation is inconsistent with the N40

  5. Fresh Shallow Valleys (FSVs) in Northern Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. A.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh Shallow Valleys (FSVs) on Mars are part of a growing inventory of post-Noachian landforms that may be related to late, widespread aqueous activity that occurred during a period once thought to be less favorable for precipitation and runoff. Constraining the source, magnitude, timing and duration of FSVs will provide insight into the mechanism and extent of fluvial activity on Mars and the geologic and climatic environments in which they formed. Unlike the older Noachian-Hesperian valleys that are characterized by integrated, dissected and degraded networks that cover large spatial extents, FSVs are typically narrow, short or discontinuous valleys with low drainage densities. They are generally incised no more than a few decameters, slightly degraded at multi-meter scales, and cluster in the mid-latitudes (35-50° in both hemispheres). A high concentration of FSVs occurs in Northern Arabia Terra (~33°N, 8°E), a Noachian-aged landscape characterized by broad, irregular depressions. Many of the FSVs in this region are 150+ km long and some appear to cross depressions that were likely filled with ice or water at the time of formation. Examples of broad, flat floored FSVs with incised channels could either indicate a complex history of a single flow event or multiple flow events. The occurrence of "pollywogs," fairly fresh, small (typically 2-10 km in diameter) craters with a single channel extending from the rim outward, implies overflow of the crater, the presence of a deep lake and the involvement of artesian groundwater flow. Roughly 25% of the FSVs in our northern Arabia Terra study region occur on relatively fresh crater ejecta, which may be related to formation age, topography, surface materials and (or) substrate. Ejecta with dense concentrations of FSVs average 25.5 km in diameter, have more degraded crater interiors, and well developed petal-like ejecta. Ejecta with sparse or no FSVs have radial ejecta with less distinct petals and are associated with

  6. Orogenic plateau magmatism of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. B.; Neill, I.; Kheirkhah, M.; van Hunen, J.; Davidson, J. P.; Meliksetian, Kh.; Emami, M. H.

    2012-04-01

    Magmatism is a common feature of high plateaux created during continental collision, but the causes remain enigmatic. Here we study Pliocene-Quaternary volcanics from the active Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, to determine the chemistry of these rocks and their relations to faulting and deeper lithospheric structure. The great majority of the centres lie within the overriding Eurasian plate in Iran, eastern Turkey and Armenia , implying that mantle fertilised by pre-collision subduction processes plays a significant role in magma generation. The composition of the Pliocene-Quaternary centres is extremely variable, ranging from OIB-like alkali basalts, to intermediate types resembling mature continental arc lavas, to potassic and even ultrapotassic lavas. These centres are erupted across a mosaic of pre-Cenozoic suture zones and heterogeneous lithospheric blocks. The chemical diversity implies a range of partial melting conditions operating on lithospheric and perhaps sub-lithospheric sources. Published data show a thick (>200 km) lithospheric keel beneath the Arabia-Eurasia suture, thinning to near normal thicknesses (~120 km) across much of central and northern Iran. Thin mantle lithosphere under eastern Turkey (max. ~30 km) may relate to the region's juvenile, accretionary lithosphere. These variable thicknesses are constraints on the cause of the melting in each area, and the degree of variation suggests that no one mechanism applies across the plateau. Various melting models have been suggested. Break-off of the subducted Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab is supported by tomographic data, which may have permitted melting related to adiabatic ascent of hot asthenosphere under areas where the lithosphere is thin. This seems a less plausible mechanism where the lithosphere is at normal or greater than normal thickness. The same problem applies to postulated lower lithosphere delamination. Isolated pull-aparts may account for the location of some centres, but are not

  7. Sedimentological, Mineralogical and Geochemical Characterization of Sand Dunes in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Abdullatif, Osman

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentological, mineralogical, morphological and geochemical studies of sand dunes from ten locations in Saudi Arabia were conducted in order to determine the differences between them and to find out the provenance and tectonic setting of these sand dunes. Sixty seven samples were collected from different sand dunes types ranging in morphology from linear, barchans, parabolic to stars dunes. In overall, the sand dunes are fine to coarse grained mean grain size, moderately sorted, near symmetrical skewness with mesokurtic distribution characterized sand dunes in most locations. The sand dunes grains are subrounded in all locations except in the Red sea, Qassim, central Arabia and the eastern province which showed sub-angular grains. The main mineral compositions of studied aeolian sand dunes are quartz, feldspar, calcite, and mica. Quartz is the dominant mineral in locations with significant amount of feldspars and mica in Najran, Red sea and Central Arabia locations. Moreover, calcite is present in Sakaka and NW Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Basement related sand dunes in Najran, Central Arabia and Red sea locations are sub-mature in terms of their mineralogical maturity. Whereas, sand dunes in other locations are texturally mature except those from the Red sea which showed sub-mature sand. The sands are classified as quartz arenite, except in the basement related sand dunes in Najran, central Arabia and the Red sea are ranging from sub-arkose, sub-litharenite and lithraenite. Morphologically, parallel to sub-parallel sand ridges with NE-SW orientation occurred in east and north parts of Empty Quarter (Najran and Jafurah) and NW-SE orientation in Dahna and Nafud deserts in central and north regions of Saudi Arabia. Parabolic sand dunes characterized the Nafud desert (Hail, Sakaka, Tayma locations). Barchans and star sand dunes characterize the Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Major, trace, and rare earth elements studies were carried out to determine the composition

  8. A GPS Network Densification in Saudi Arabia in Support of Geophysical Investigations in the Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuslmani, B.; Al-Motari, E.; Bingley, R. M.; Teferle, F. N.; Moore, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through a collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains in the south-western part of Saudi Arabia, have been established, with the GDMS GPS network now comprising a total of 59 stations. In this presentation we will introduce the new GPS network in Saudi Arabia established by GDMS and will present the initial results from campaigns in March 2003 and March 2005. We show preliminary estimates of absolute and relative Arabian plate motions inferred from the GPS network and a detailed comparison of the results based on the Bernese GPS software versions 4.2 and 5.0.

  9. Female Leadership Capacity and Effectiveness: A Critical Analysis of the Literature on Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alomair, Miznah O.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…

  10. Gender-Segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms and the Saudi Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baki, Roula

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of…

  11. Calculation of sky turbidity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mostafa, Z. A.

    The atmospheric turbidity has been calculated and averaged for 29 places around the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by using a nine years solar radiation data covering the period from 1971 to 1980. The turbidity values were found to range from 0.1 to 0.4, and the overall average of the turbidity was 0.281±0.056. The minimum value was in Sirr-Lasan (0.168±0.028) and the maximum value was 0.474±0.090 in Riyadh. The low value of the turbidity indicates that the sky of Sirr-Lasan (2100 meter above sea level) may be the clearest sky in the country if the turbidity is taken to be the main factor in preliminary site selection for astronomical observatory. Correlations between the turbidity and geographical coordinates have been investigated and have shown a weak relation between them. Also, seasonal variations studies have shown no significant distribution, which means that each station has its own trend. The low values of the turbidity indicate that the Saudi Arabian sky has relatively small disturbance in the atmosphere.

  12. Web-based Health Educational Program in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Alsaleh, Mahassen; Elmetwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to provide an overview of a web-based health educational site created by the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Sources of data included two interviews with Saudi IT personnel, three health educators, and two medical consultants working at KFSH&RC. The interviews ranged between 45 minutes and 120 minutes. The KFSH&RC website was also searched for the type of health information content posted. Results show that the KFSH&RC web-based health educational site provides health information through a medical encyclopedia, a social networking platform, health educational links, and targeted health information for children, which includes tools such as games and coloring books. Further research is needed on the effectiveness of the KFSH&RC web-based health education site in terms of improving knowledge and changing behavior of Saudi patients. The study recommends that targeted web-based health education strategies should be developed to reach large rural populations which have inadequate computer skills and limited access to the internet. PMID:25000016

  13. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aljaloud, Sulaiman O; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance. PMID:23762541

  14. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-01

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  15. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Adel A

    2003-03-01

    The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition. PMID:12656385

  16. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdou, Adel A.

    2003-03-01

    The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.

  17. Amazonian thermokarst in Danielson crater, Arabia Terra region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, Davide; Murana, Alessio; Tramontana, Mario

    2014-12-01

    This paper describe the possible ice-related landforms observed within Danielson crater which is centered at about 8°N and 353°E, in the region of southwestern Arabia Terra about 800 km south of Becquerel crater. A morphological survey of the study area through an analysis of the available Mars images was performed. The features of the landforms were investigated through an integrated analysis of Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) data. Landforms interpreted as due to thermokarst processes, resembling similarly ice-related landforms found both in the cold-climate non-glacial regions of Earth, and putatively in other areas of Mars, was observed. These landforms are attributed to the presence of ground ice/ice-melting processes reflect significant climatic changes and different climatic conditions than those existing now. Moreover, they appear to display young erosional age, suggesting that are probably young, probably of Amazonian age.

  18. Epidemiology of neural tube defects in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AlShail, Essam; De Vol, Edward; Yassen, Ahsan; Elgamal, Essam A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the distribution and pattern of neural tube defects in Saudi Arabia by creating a hospital based registry. Methods: All cases registered in the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC) neural tube defect (NTD) registry since it was established in October 2000 until December 2012 were studied through active surveillance comprising a registrar who collects NTD information by reviewing the patient’s medical records, and interviewing patient’s families. Results: The total number of patients registered from October 2000 to December 2012 was 718 patients. There were more females (417, 58%) than males (301, 42%). Of 620 mothers who underwent antenatal ultrasonography; 392 (63%) were diagnosed at birth, and 204 (33%) were diagnosed with antenatal hydrocephalus. In our registry sample, most mothers (95%) did not take folic acid 3 months prior to pregnancy, and 76% did not take folic acid during the 3 months after conception with the affected child. Only 5% received folic acid prior to conception. Conclusions: The KFSH&RC-NTD registry has met its objectives as a source of data that may significantly contribute to the prevention of NTDs, and improving quality of care for NTD patients through active publication of registry findings and management approaches. PMID:25551116

  19. HIV Transmission at a Saudi Arabia Hemodialysis Unit

    PubMed Central

    Mashragi, Faisal; Bernstein, Robert S.; Al-Mazroa, Mohammad; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A.; Filemban, Sanaa; Assiri, Abdullah; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Hazmi, Mohammad; Alzahrani, Abdullah; Stephens, Gwen; Memish, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hemodialysis is associated with increased risk of healthcare-associated infections but considered a low-risk setting for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. We investigated 3 hemodialysis unit (HDU) patients with new HIV infections to determine whether transmission was hemodialysis-associated and to correct factors that contributed to transmission. Methods. Each patient was evaluated for HIV risk factors. Blood samples were tested to determine relatedness of HIV strains. Clinical data (gathered over 18 months) was reviewed to identify seroconversions at 12 HDUs. Infection prevention and control practices were evaluated at 14 HDUs. Findings. No other HIV seroconversions were identified during the study. HIV gag, pol, and env gene sequences were consistent with a clonal relationship. HIV and hepatitis C virus prevalence rates at one HDU 1 (5.7% and 6.5%, respectively) were higher than for 11 other HDUs (0% and 0.15%, respectively). Conclusions. Sequencing supports either patient-to-patient or common-source transmission. Infections occurred despite Saudi Arabia's low HIV prevalence and national dialysis policies that emphasize stringent infection prevention and control practices. PMID:24846636

  20. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  1. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-30

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  2. A Top to Bottom Lithospheric Study of Africa and Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M

    2006-10-31

    We study the lithospheric structure of Africa, Arabia and adjacent oceanic regions with fundamental-mode surface waves over a wide period range. Including short period group velocities allows us to examine shallower features than previous studies of the whole continent. In the process, we have developed a crustal thickness map of Africa. Main features include crustal thickness increases under the West African, Congo, and Kalahari cratons. We find crustal thinning under Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts, including the Benue Trough, Red Sea, and East, Central, and West African rift systems. Crustal shear wave velocities are generally faster in oceanic regions and cratons, and slower in more recent crust and in active and formerly active orogenic regions. Deeper structure, related to the thickness of cratons and modern rifting, is generally consistent with previous work. Under cratons we find thick lithosphere and fast upper mantle velocities, while under rifts we find thinned lithosphere and slower upper mantle velocities. There are no consistent effects in areas classified as hotspots, indicating that there seem to be numerous origins for these features. Finally, it appears that the African Superswell has had a significantly different impact in the north and the south, indicating specifics of the feature (temperature, time of influence, etc.) to be dissimilar between the two regions. Factoring in other information, it is likely that the southern portion has been active in the past, but that shallow activity is currently limited to the northern portion of the superswell.

  3. Quality assessment of various bottled waters marketed in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul M; El-Maghraby, Salem E; Aly, Anwar A; Al-Wabel, Mohammed I; Al-Asmari, Zafer A; Nadeem, Mahmoud E

    2013-08-01

    This study focuses on the chemical analysis of the available brands of domestic bottled water in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (major, minor, and trace elements) is determined and compared with the chemical content labeled on the bottles and with drinking water standards of Saudi Arabian, World Health Organization, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The obtained results indicated that except for fluoride and bromate, the concentrations of dissolved salts, soluble cations and anions, nitrate, and trace elements of most bottled waters on sale were within the permissible limits set by standards used. On the other hand, the comparison between determined and reported label values recorded a substantial variation in some parameter values. Results indicated that more than 18 % of the sampled bottled waters exceeded the allowable limits for drinking water. Generated Piper diagrams revealed that the majority of investigated waters were sodium chloride-sulfate type; however, the hydrochemical modeling indicated that all water samples were undersaturated for anhydrite, gypsum, and halite. PMID:23232848

  4. Hydrocarbon habitat in main producing areas, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, M.G.; Bilal, M.; Jones, R.W.; Slentz, L.W.; Tartir, M.; Wilson, A.O.

    1982-01-01

    Current hydrocarbon production in Saudi Arabia is from reservoirs of Cretaceous and Jurassic age. Geochemical studies of the sediments and oils suggest that the hydrocarbons were derived from two separate source-rock provinces. Oil production from the large fields in the southern part of the area is from Jurassic carbonate reservoirs. Most of these oils were derived from thermally mature, thinly laminated, organic-rich carbonate rocks of Jurassic age (Callovian-Oxfordian). These source rocks were deposited in an intrashelf basin which is limited to the southern part of the main producing areas. Extensive vertical migration of oils originating in these sediments is prevented by superjacent evaporite seals deposited during the Late Jurassic. Fields in the northern producing areas appear to have derived their hydrocarbons from a source-rock province on the north. Production from Cretaceous clastic and carbonate reservoirs is limited to the northeastern part of the producing areas. This distribution may be explained by limitation of thermally mature Cretaceous source rocks to the northeastern areas or by the local lack of subjacent evaporite seals to separate these reservoirs from Jurassic source rocks. Thermal maturation studies indicate that the hydrocarbons in Mesozoic reservoirs migrated into the present traps during the early Tertiary.

  5. NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF) was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2) were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71), weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43), and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33), suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors. PMID:24192792

  6. Sinkhole detection using electrical resistivity tomography in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Ahmed M.; El-Kaliouby, Hesham; Zabramawi, Yasser A.

    2012-12-01

    Karst phenomena exist in different areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, causing serious environmental problems that affect urban development and infrastructure (buildings, roads and highways). One of the most important problems are sinkholes, which most of the time consist of unfilled voids. These sinkholes are formed as a result of the chemical leaching of carbonate and evaporite formations by percolating water. Field investigations show that there are many surface expressions of sinkholes in the area; some appear on the ground surface and others are hidden in the subsurface. Geophysical data were collected at the study area using two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) with different electrode spacings to delineate buried sinkholes and associated subsurface cavities. Our findings indicated that the dipole-dipole method using an electrode spacing of 1 m was successful in detecting a known subsurface sinkhole. According to the ERT method the detected sinkhole depth ranges from 2 to 4 m, its height ranges from 2 to 4 m, and its width ranges from 5 to 7 m. Field observation has verified the geophysical data, especially along the profile A-A\\. Finally, closely spaced ERT profiles were successful in determining the three-dimensional volume of the subsurface sinkhole.

  7. Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Jarallah, M

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series. PMID:11378931

  8. Uranium and trace elements in phosphate fertilizers--Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ashraf E M

    2012-01-01

    Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia. PMID:22134079

  9. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor. PMID:21264164

  10. Gastropods from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Aruma Formation, Central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameil, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.

    2015-03-01

    The gastropod fauna of the Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia comprises fifteen species belonging to fifteen genera, fourteen families, and five clades. The species are not abundant at any individual stratigraphic level but are equally and irregularly scattered in the formation. The studied species come mainly from the Hajajah Member of Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Calliomphalus orientalis (Douvillé, 1916); Coelobolma corbarica Cossmann, 1918; Turritella (Torquesia) figarii Quaas, 1902; Neoptyxis olisiponensis (Sharpe, 1850) and Otostoma (Otostoma) divaricatum (d'Orbigny, 1847) are recorded from the Upper Cretaceous of central Arabia for the first time. The identified species have a close affinity to the Tethyan fauna known from other parts in Asia, Africa and Europe. Herbivores and predators are the dominant trophic groups which may indicate shallow marine lagoonal and relatively open marine environment.

  11. Exports and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A VAR Model Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhajhoj, Hassan

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR), Impulse Response Function (IFR) and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

  12. The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: An African Middle Stone Age Industry in Southern Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jeffrey I.; Usik, Vitaly I.; Marks, Anthony E.; Hilbert, Yamandu H.; Galletti, Christopher S.; Parton, Ash; Geiling, Jean Marie; Černý, Viktor; Morley, Mike W.; Roberts, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry - the late Nubian Complex - known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ∼128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ∼106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5. PMID:22140561

  13. Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2011-07-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930

  14. A cyclone over Saudi Arabia on 5 January 2002: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Mujumdar, M.; Behera, S. K.; Ohba, R.; Yamagata, T.

    2006-06-01

    A shallow and short-lived subsynoptic cyclone is discussed as one of typical events causing natural disasters over Saudi Arabia on 5 January 2002 using the Japan Meteorological Agency global analysis dataset. The main cause for its formation was vorticity stretching. On the same day widespread rainfall over Saudi Arabia with enhanced precipitation over the mountainous Jeddah region was also observed using the Global Precipitation Climatology Project dataset. Owing to eastward-moving wintertime synoptic-scale Mediterranean disturbances, this rainfall was associated with frontal activity, modified by the local orography.

  15. New generic and species records for the flora of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M.; Al-Ansari, A.M.; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations. PMID:25313281

  16. New generic and species records for the flora of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M; Al-Ansari, A M; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A A

    2014-11-01

    Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations. PMID:25313281

  17. A study of hospital and medical libraries in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed Central

    al-Ogla, S

    1998-01-01

    The study reported examined the status of hospital libraries, their sponsoring organizations, their staff, the academic qualifications of the head of the library, collection size, available space, buildings, and services. The study was limited to the hospitals with libraries for staff in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. The data were collected through questionnaires sent to a sample of fifteen hospitals with medical libraries. Twelve libraries responded. This is the first study of its kind in Saudi Arabia, and it is hoped that similar surveys will be done covering the whole kingdom. PMID:9549013

  18. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in wadi Sayyah, Western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ahmadi, Masoud Eid

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is an essential and vital component of our life support system where it is used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Wadi Sayyah is one of the most important wadis in the western part of Saudi Arabia to the northeast of Jeddah city. A total of 42 groundwater samples are collected from hand dug wells in this area and they are analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. The sequence of the abundance of the major ion is in the following order: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl- > SO4 2- > HCO3 - > NO3 -. The dominated hydrochemical facieses of groundwater are: CaCl, and mixed CaMgCl, and the alkaline earths(Ca2+, Mg2+) and strong acids (SO4 2-, Cl-) are dominating over alkalis (Na+, K+) and weak acids (HCO3 -, CO{3/-}). Statistical analysis indicates positive correlation among most of the chemical parameters. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the study area is generally hard to very hard, fresh to brackish and alkaline in nature. The rock weathering and evaporation are among the most dominant processes in controlling water quality. The chloro-alkali indices illustrate that 80 % of the water samples have positive indicating exchange of Na+ and K+ from water with Mg2+ and Ca2+ from the rock. The suitability of water for drinking and irrigation is determined using WHO standards for drinking; some indices for irrigation purposes and it indicate that the groundwater in the study area can be used for drinking purposes in most of the locations (31 wells), while it is suitable for irrigation uses.

  19. Saqqar: A 34 km diameter impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Afifi, Abdulkader M.; Stewart, Simon A.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Cook, Douglas J.; Neville, Allen S.

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the first proof of an impact origin for the Saqqar circular structure in northwestern Saudi Arabia (Neville et al. ), with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35'N, 38°42'E. The structure is formed in Cambrian-Devonian siliciclastics and is unconformably overlain by undeformed Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments. The age of impact is not well constrained and lies somewhere between 410 and 70 Ma. The subsurface structure is constrained by 2-D reflection seismic profiles and six drilled wells. First-order structural features are a central uplift that rises approximately 2 km above regional datums, surrounded by a ring syncline. The crater rim is defined by circumferential normal faults. The central uplift and ring syncline correspond to a Bouguer gravity high and an annular ring-like low, respectively. The wells were drilled within the central uplift, the deepest among them exceed 2 km depth. Sandstone core samples from these wells show abundant indicators of a shock metamorphic overprint. Planar deformation features (PDFs) were measured with orientations along (0001), {101¯3}, and less frequently along {101¯1} and {101¯4}. Planar fractures (PFs) predominantly occur along (0001) and {101¯1}, and are locally associated with feather features (FFs). In addition, some shocked feldspar grains and strongly deformed mica flakes were found. The recorded shock pressure ranges between 5 and 15 GPa. The preserved level of shock and the absence of an allochthonous crater fill suggest that Saqqar was eroded by 1-2 km between the Devonian and Maastrichtian. The documentation of unequivocal shock features proves the formation of the Saqqar structure by a hypervelocity impact event.

  20. HIV-Care Outcome in Saudi Arabia; a Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mozaini, Maha A.; Mansour, Michael K.; Al-Hokail, Abdullah A.; Mohmed, Magid A.; Daham, Munirah A. Bin; Al-Abdely, Hail M.; Frayha, Husn H.; Al-Rabiah, Fahad A.; Alhajjar, Sami H.; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Adra, Chaker N.; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical characteristics of HIV-1 infection in people inhabiting Western, Sub-Saharan African, and South-East Asian countries are well recognized. However, very little information is available with regard to HIV-1 infection and treatment outcome in MENA countries including the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states. Methods Clinical, demographic and epidemiologic characteristics of 602 HIV-1 infected patients followed in the adult Infectious Diseases Clinic of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a tertiary referral center were longitudinally collected from 1989 to 2010. Results Of the 602 HIV-1 infected patients in this observation period, 70% were male. The major mode of HIV-1 transmission was heterosexual contact (55%). At diagnosis, opportunistic infections were found in 49% of patients, most commonly being pneumocysitis. AIDS associated neoplasia was also noted in 6% of patients. A hundred and forty-seven patients (24%) died from the cohort by the end of the observation period. The mortality rate peaked in 1992 at 90 deaths per 1000 person-year, whereas the mortality rate gradually decreased to <1% from 1993-2010. In 2010, 71% of the patients were receiving highly active retroviral therapy. Conclusions These data describe the clinical characteristic of HIV-1-infected patients at a major tertiary referral hospital in KSA over a 20-year period. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy resulted in a significant reduction in both morbidity and mortality. Future studies are needed in the design and implementation of targeted treatment and prevention strategies for HIV-1 infection in KSA. PMID:25750760

  1. Occurrence of fluoride in ground waters of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.

    2013-09-01

    The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.

  2. Cataract Surgery Audit at a Private Hospital in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alasbali, Tariq; Lofty, Nancy Maher; Al-Gehaban, Saeed; Alkuraya, Hisham S.; Alsharif, Abdulrahman M.; Khandekar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess the visual outcomes following cataract surgeries at a Private Eye Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a cohort study of cataract surgeries performed from January to June 2014. Preoperative data were collected on patient demographics presenting and best corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA) and ocular comorbidity. Data were also collected on the type of surgery, type of intraocular lens (IOLs) implanted, and complications. BCVA and refractive status at 6–8 weeks postoperatively were noted. The predictors of vision ≥6/18 were identified. Results: Four hundred eyes of 400 patients underwent cataract surgery. There were 235 (59%) males. Presenting preoperative vision was <6/60 in 52 (13%) eyes. There were 395 (99%) eyes that underwent IOL implantation following phacoemulsification and 4 eyes received a sulcus fixated IOL. A single piece aspheric IOL was implanted in 358 (90%) eyes and a toric IOL was implanted in 31 (8%) eyes. Postoperative BCVA was classified as a “good outcome” (≥6/18) in 320 (80%) and a “poor outcome” (<6/60) in 24 (6%) eyes. Young age (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.97, P = 0.01), male (adjusted OR = 2.4, P = 0.002), and ocular co-morbidities (adjusted OR = 0.2, P < 0.001) were predictors of vision ≥6/18. Complications included a dropped nucleus and a posterior capsular tear in 2 eyes each. Two hundred and fifty-two (63%) eyes were emmetropic or intentionally myopic for distance. Astigmatism <2 D was present in 264 (66%) eyes and astigmatism >2 D was present in 33 (8%) eyes. Conclusion: The recent trend of intentional overcorrection in one eye following modern cataract surgery in order to provide some functional near vision indicates that benchmark for success in getting “good visual outcomes” postoperatively (vision of ≥6/18) may need to be revised. PMID:26692725

  3. Clinical and genetic features of anoctaminopathy in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bohlega, Saeed; Monies, Dorothy M.; Abulaban, Ahmad A.; Murad, Hatem N.; Alhindi, Hindi N.; Meyer, Brian F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Characterization of the phenotypic, pathological, radiological, and genetic findings in 2 Saudi Arabian families with anoctaminopathies, and limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L (LGMD2L). Methods: Over a 2-year period from December 2010 to January 2013, the clinical presentations were analyzed and all genes responsible for limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) were screened in families seen at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Out of 66 families with LGMD, we identified 2 families (3.1%) with anoctaminopathy, ANO5 muscular dystrophy. Results: In the first case, a man presented with asymmetrical calves’ muscles weakness and atrophy, which was first noted at age 39. The creatinine kinase (CK) level was >20x normal, muscle biopsy showed necrotizing myopathic changes, and an MRI of the legs showed fatty-tissue replacement to muscle tissue with volume loss involving the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in an asymmetrical fashion. Minimal disease progression was noted over 18 years of follow up. Exercise induced recurrent rhabdomyolysis was noted over the last 2 years. A novel ANO5 gene mutation (Arg58Trp) was found. In the second family, a male presented at the age of 41 with asymptomatic hyperCkemia and intermittent dyspnea. Over 10 years follow up, he became disabled with muscle cramps, rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinurea, and difficulty ambulating. Muscle biopsy showed necrotizing myopathy and perivascular and interstitial amyloid deposit in skeletal muscle. A homozygous deletion of 11.9 Kb encompassing exon 13 to exon 17 was found in the ANO5 gene. Full cardiac investigations were normal in both patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of LGMD2L is approximately 3.1% in a Saudi Arabian native LGMD cohort. Slowly progressive, late onset, and asymmetrical weakness was the salient features in these 2 families. The genetic findings were novel and will add to the spectrum of ANO5 known mutations

  4. Ash Shutbah: A possible impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnos, Edwin; Hofmann, Beda A.; Schmieder, Martin; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.; Matter, Albert; Alwmark, Carl

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated the Ash Shutbah circular structure in central Saudi Arabia (21°37'N 45°39'E) using satellite imagery, field mapping, thin-section petrography, and X-ray diffraction of collected samples. The approximately 2.1 km sized structure located in flat-lying Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone has been nearly peneplained by erosional processes. Satellite and structural data show a central area consisting of Dhruma Formation sandstones with steep bedding and tight folds plunging radially outward. Open folding occurs in displaced, younger Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation blocks surrounding the central area, but is absent outside the circular structure. An approximately 60 cm thick, unique folded and disrupted orthoquartzitic sandstone marker bed occurring in the central area of the structure is found 140 m deeper in undisturbed escarpment outcrops located a few hundred meters west of the structure. With exception of a possible concave shatter cone found in the orthoquartzite of the central area, other diagnostic shock features are lacking. Some quartz-rich sandstones from the central area show pervasive fracturing of quartz grains with common concussion fractures. This deformation was followed by an event of quartz dissolution and calcite precipitation consistent with local sea- or groundwater heating. The combination of central stratigraphic uplift of 140 m, concussion features in discolored sandstone, outward-dipping concentric folds in the central area, deformation restricted to the rocks of the ring structure, a complex circular structure of 2.1 km diameter that appears broadly consistent with what one would expect from an impact structure in sedimentary targets, and a possible shatter cone all point to an impact origin of the Ash Shutbah structure. In fact, the Ash Shutbah structure appears to be a textbook example of an eroded, complex impact crater located in flat-lying sedimentary rocks, where the undisturbed stratigraphic section can be

  5. Dermatophyte and non dermatophyte fungi in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khaled, Jamal M.; Golah, Hammed A; Khalel, Abdulla S.; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Mothana, Ramzi A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatophytes are a scientific label for a group of three genera (Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton) of fungus that causes skin disease in animals and humans. Conventional methods for identification of these fungi are rapid and simple but are not accurate comparing to molecular methods. Objective This study aimed to isolate human pathogenic dermatophytes which cause dermatophytosis in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia and to identify these fungi by using conventional and molecular methods. Methods The study was conducted in Medical Complex, Riyadh and King Saud University. Samples of infected skin, hairs and nails were collected from 112 patients. Diagnosis of skin infections, direct microscopic test, isolation and identification of dermatophytes by conventional and molecular methods were carried out. Results The results indicated that the tinea capitis infection had the highest prevalence among the patients (22.3%) while Tinea barbae had the lowest. In this study the identified dermatophyte isolates belong to nine species as Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton concentricum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum which cause skin infections were isolated during this study. Non dermatophyte isolates included 5 isolates from Aspergillus spp. 4 isolates from Acremonium potronii and 15 isolates from Candida spp. M. canis were the most common species (25% of isolated dermatophytes). Out of the 52 dermatophyte isolates identified by conventional methods, there were 45 isolates identified by the molecular method. Conclusions The results concluded that approximately M. canis caused a quarter of dermatophyte cases, tinea capitis infection was prevalent and the molecular method was more accurate than conventional methods. PMID:26288566

  6. Visual and neurologic sequelae of methanol poisoning in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Elkhamary, Sahar M.; Asghar, Nasira; Bosley, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To present the visual sequelae of methanol poisoning and to emphasize the characteristics of methanol exposure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective case series was carried out on 50 sequential patients with methanol poisoning seen at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital and King Saud University Hospitals in Riyadh, KSA between 2008 and 2014. All patients were examined by a neuro-ophthalmologist at least one month after methanol intoxication. Results: All 50 patients were young or middle-aged males. All admitted to drinking unbranded alcohol within 2-3 days before profound or relatively profound, painless, bilateral visual loss. Mean visual acuity in this group was hand motions (logMAR 2.82; range 0.1 - 5.0) with some eye to eye variability within individuals. Worse visual acuity was correlated with advancing age (Pearson correlation: oculus dextrus [right eye] - 0.37, p=0.008; oculus sinister [left eye] - 0.36, p=0.011). All patients had optic atrophy bilaterally, and all tested patients had visual field defects. Tremors with or without rigidity were present in 12 patients, and 11 of 30 patients who had neuroimaging performed had evidence of putaminal necrosis. Conclusion: Methanol intoxication causes visual loss within 12-48 hours due to relatively severe, painless, bilateral optic nerve damage that may be somewhat variable between eyes, and is generally worse with advancing age. The coincidence of bilateral optic nerve damage and bilateral putaminal necrosis in a young or middle-aged male is very suspicious for methanol-induced damage. PMID:25935177

  7. Sepsis in Buraidah Central Hospital, Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gasim, Gasim I.; Musa, Imad R; Yassin, Taha; Al Shobaili, Hani A.; Adam, Ishag

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Severe sepsis is a major public health concern and a frequent cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission with a high fatality rate. Higher (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score) SOFA score and co-morbidity of acute renal failure (ARF) are risk factors contributing to fatal outcome. This work was meant to study the epidemiology of sepsis in Buraidah central hospital. Methods This is a descriptive study conducted in the period from January 1, 2012, to June 29, 2012 to determine the epidemiology (incidence, clinical characteristics) and the outcome of sepsis in Buraidah hospital, Saudi Arabia. Results Out of 387 patients admitted to ICU, 62 (16%) patients had sepsis, their mean (SD) age was 62.7 (21.3) years. Three quarters of them 47 (75.8%) presented with septic shock. The median APACHE II score was 26.5 (8 to 48) and SOFA score 11 (5 to 21). The mean of duration of hospital stay was 11.95 days. The most frequent infection site was the pulmonary (69.5%). There were 37 isolated organism, gram-negative organisms (13; 35.13%) were the predominant isolates. There were 25 (40.3%) deaths; the majority of the deaths were due to septic shock 20(80%). There was a significant difference between deaths and the survivors, in the APACHI II score, SOFA score), and whether ventilated or not. Conclusions There was a high incidence of septic shock (and higher mortality) among the patients admitted to the ICU of Buraidah central hospital, especially among the elderly patients with respiratory infections. PMID:27103899

  8. Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow beneath Africa and Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed Abdalla

    In spite of numerous studies, the mechanisms for the rifting, uplifting, and volcanism on the African plate remain enigmatic. The most popular hypotheses proposed for explaining these tectonic phenomena involve edge-driven small-scale mantle convection and the thermal or dynamic effects of one or more mantle plumes. In this study we use continental scale shear-wave splitting (SWS) measurements to provide additional constraints on the various models of rifting, uplifting, and volcanism of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) and the Arabian plate. The splitting of P-to-S converted phases at the core-mantle boundary on the receiver side (XKS including PKS, SKKS, and SKS) is one of the most effective approaches to constrain convective mantle flow patterns. A robust procedure involving automatic and manual batch processing to reliably assess and objectively rank shear-wave splitting parameters were used. The resulting 1532 pairs of splitting parameters show a NNE dominated fast direction. Spatial distribution of the splitting parameters in the CVL and Arabia is not consistent with the edge-driven small-scale mantle convection hypothesis, the mantle plume hypothesis, fossil fabrics formed by past tectonic events, or the fabric-forming process due to the absolute plate motion relative to the deep mantle. The research suggests that the progressive thinning of the lithosphere through basal erosion by the flow leads to decompression melting is responsible for the formation of the CVL, and olivine lattice preferred orientation in the upper asthenosphere associated with the northward motion of the African plate since 150 Ma, most likely causes the observed anisotropy across the Red Sea.

  9. Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action

    PubMed Central

    Al-Naami, Mohammed Y.; Arafah, Maria A.; Al-Ibrahim, Fatimah S.

    2010-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers who frequently violate traffic laws and tend to speed most of the time. This unplanned expansion in road traffic has resulted in more car accidents, injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Accompanying that is an increased socioeconomic burden, depletion of human resources, emotional and psychological stress on families, and a strain on healthcare facilities. If this continues without prompt intervention, it will lead to increased insurance premiums and may become unmanageable. To minimize this impact, a national or regional multidisciplinary trauma system has to be developed and implemented. A trauma system is a preplanned, comprehensive, and coordinated regional injury response network that includes all facilities with the capability to care for the injured. Essential components of the system include trauma prevention, prehospital care, hospital care, rehabilitation, system administration, trauma care education and training, trauma care evaluation and quality improvement, along with the participation of society. Research has documented a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality from trauma after the implementation of such systems, depending on their efficiency. The purpose of this review is to discuss the problem of road traffic accidents in this country and address the trauma care system as an effective solution. PMID:20103958

  10. From Arabia to Iberia: A Y chromosome perspective.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, María; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Álvarez, Joseph; Herrera, Rene J

    2015-06-15

    At different times during recent human evolution, northern Africa has served as a conduit for migrations from the Arabian Peninsula. Although previous researchers have investigated the possibility of the Strait of Gibraltar as a pathway of migration from North Africa to Iberia, we now revisit this issue and theorize that although the Strait of Gibraltar, at the west end of this corridor, has acted as a barrier for human dispersal into Southwest Europe, it has not provided an absolute seal to gene flow. To test this hypothesis, here we use the spatial frequency distributions, STR diversity and expansion time estimates of Y chromosome haplogroups J1-P58 and E-M81 to investigate the genetic imprints left by the Arabian and Berber expansions into the Iberian Peninsula, respectively. The data generated indicate that Arabian and Berber genetic markers are detected in Iberia. We present evidence that suggest that Iberia has received gene flow from Northwest Africa during and prior to the Islamic colonization of 711A.D. It is interesting that the highest frequencies of Arabia and Berber markers are not found in southern Spain, where Islam remained the longest and was culturally most influential, but in Northwest Iberia, specifically Galicia. We propose that Moriscos' relocations to the north during the Reconquista, the migration of cryptic Muslims seeking refuge in a more lenient society and/or more geographic extensive pre-Islamic incursions may explain the higher frequencies and older time estimates of mutations in the north of the Peninsula. These scenarios are congruent with the higher diversities of some diagnostic makers observed in Northwest Iberia. PMID:25701402

  11. Postural awareness among dental students in Jizan, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Kanaparthy, Aruna; Kanaparthy, Rosaiah; Boreak, Nezar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to assess the postural awareness of dental students in Jizan, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Close-ended, self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection in the survey. The questionnaire was prepared by observing the positions of students working in the clinics and the common mistakes they make with regard to their postures. The questionnaires were distributed among the dental students who were present and reported to work in the clinics. Levels of postural awareness and the relationship between postural awareness and the degree of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among the students was evaluated. This study was carried out in the College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Jizan. Statistical Analysis: The level of knowledge of postural awareness was evaluated and correlated with the presence or absence of the MSDs. Categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 162 dental students from the age group of 20–25 years were included in the survey, of which 134 dentists responded (83%). When their postural awareness was evaluated, results showed that 89% of the students had poor-to-medium levels of postural awareness. The relation between postural awareness and prevalence of MSDs indicated that 75% of the students with poor awareness, 49% of the students with average awareness, and 40% of the students with good awareness have MSDs. The results were statistically significant (0.002127, which is <0.005) stating that better awareness about proper postures while working helps to minimize the risk of MSDs. Conclusion: Evaluation of levels of postural awareness showed that 21% of the students had poor postural awareness, 67% had average awareness, and 11% had good postural awareness. The analysis of results showed that those students with low-to-average postural awareness had significantly greater prevalence of MSDs. PMID

  12. Harmonic analysis of precipitation climatology in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarawneh, Qassem

    2016-04-01

    Annual rainfall records of 20 stations for 30 years are used in order to detect rainfall regimes and climatic features of Saudi Arabia using harmonic analysis techniques. In this study, the percentages of variance, amplitudes, and phase angles are calculated in order to depict the spatial and temporal characteristics of the country's rainfall. The first harmonic explains 42 % of rainfall variation in the western (W) region. This percentage increases toward east (E) and north (N) with 69 and 67 %, respectively. In the southwest (SW) region, the percentages explain 43 % of rainfall variation. The percentages of variance in W and SW are lower than in the E, NW, and central (C) regions. This implies significant contributions of the second harmonic in W and SW regions with 26 and 16 %, respectively. The high percentages of the second and third harmonics in W and SW regions suggest that these two regions are affected by different weather systems at different times. The SW region has the highest amplitudes of the first, second, and third harmonics. The amplitude of the first harmonic reaches to 21 mm in SW and 9 mm in both C and E regions. The time of maximum rainfall is calculated using phase angle; the result reflects that maximum rainfall is shifted forward on the time axis toward the spring season in SW and C regions, January in E and NW regions, and October and November in the W region. This reveals that the SW region is a completely different climatic region, though some of what affects this region also affects the central region. Conditions in the E and NW regions are mainly affected by Mediterranean weather systems, while the W region is affected by unstable conditions caused by the active Red Sea Trough (RST) in October and November.

  13. Stratigraphy and sedimentation of the Unayzah reservoir, central Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Senalp, M.; Abdulaziz, A.

    1995-08-01

    Significant reserves of Arabian super light oil, condensate, and associated gas occur in the various genetically different sandstone bodies of the upper Permian Unayzah and Khuff Formations in Central Saudi Arabia. The Unayzah Formation which rests unconformably on the older formations is composed of red colored, poorly sorted conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, caliche and nodular anhydrite. Facies changes occur due to the presence of various subenvironments and possible faulting and structural growth in the basin during deposition. However, the entire Unayzah Formation shows an overall fining and thinning-upward sequence. It was deposited as coalescing alluvial fans dominated by braided streams which graded into meandering stream and playa lakes under and to semi-arid conditions. Eolian processes were also inferred. A marked unconformity which is indicated by the occurrence of thick caliche and soil horizons separate the Unayzah and the overlying Khuff Formation. The Khuff Formation consists primarily of marine shale, marl, and fine- to very coarse-grained sandstones in the lower parts; shale, limestone, dolomite, and amhydrite in the upper parts. The sandstones were deposited as incised channel fills and their associated low stand deltaic sediments as a result of fluctuating sea level during the deposition of the Khuff Formation. The base of the incised channels represent a sequence boundary. Red colored and rooted paleosols were formed on the underlying marine sediments. During relative sea level rise, good quality reservoir sands were deposited by aggradation within the incised channels. Sand deposition within the channels terminated at the same time, and the area was covered by shallow marine limestones, shales and marls during maximum sea level highstand. Although the Unayzah reservoir occurs in both the Unayzah and the Khuff Formations because of their different geometry, continuity, and reservoir quality, they have been studied separately.

  14. Evaluation of outpatient service quality in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Fraihi, Khalid J. Al; FAMCO, Dip; FAMCO, Fellow; Latif, Shahid A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate perceptions and expectations of patients regarding hospital outpatient services by using a service quality gap model and factors influencing such gaps. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between October and November 2014 in the outpatient waiting areas of a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, a sample of 306 patients was selected by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected through an Arabic version of the service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire consisting of 2 parts: patients’ demographic characteristics, and 22 items scales of patients’ expectations and perceptions of SERVQUAL. The data was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, independent, and paired t samples tests and one way analysis of variance test. Results: The results showed that the proposed model for service quality dimensions had a good fit by satisfying the recommended values. The patients’ expectations exceeded perceptions in all service quality dimensions indicating statistically significant service quality gaps (t=26.3, p<0.000). Findings revealed that the empathy dimension contributed most patients’ expectations (4.7 ± 0.5) and perceptions (3.7 ± 0.8) scores, and responsiveness contributed least to expectations (4.5 ± 0.6) and perceptions (3.2 ± 0.8) scores. Prompt services showed highest service quality gap, while observation of privacy showed the smallest service quality gap in the statements. The study showed a significant association between gender, age, education, multiple visits, and service quality dimensions. Conclusion: The proposed model is valid and reliable and significant service quality gaps of all 5 dimensions need to be prioritized and addressed by focused improvement efforts of hospital management. PMID:27052285

  15. Mineral exploration, Mahd adh Dhahab District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worl, Ronald G.

    1978-01-01

    Mahd adh Dhahab is the largest of numerous ancient gold mines scattered through the Precambrian shield of Saudi Arabia and the only one with recent production. During the period 1939-54, 765,768 fine ounces of gold and 1,002,029 ounces of silver were produced from the mines by the Saudi Arabian Mining Syndicate. Ore minerals at Mahd adh Dhahab include free gold and silver, tellurides, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite in and associated with a system of north-trending quartz veins and quartz veinlet stockworks. Pyrite is a common sulfide gangue mineral. Country rocks are a north dipping sequence of pyroclastic and transported pyroclastic rocks of the Hulayfah Group that are locally highly silicified and potassium-feldspathized. The prime target for this exploration program was a north-trending zone of quartz veins and breccias, faults, alteration, and metalization approximately 400 m wide and 1000 m long. The ancient and recent mine workings are located in the northern part of this zone. Although the quartz veins and alteration cut all lithologies, the major metalization is confined to the intersection of veins and agglomerate. Ten holes were diamond drilled to explore geochemical, geological, and geophysical targets in the area. A significant new zone of metalization was discovered 700 m south of the ancient and recent mine workings and within the same major zone of quartz veins, alteration, and faults. Metalization in this southern mineralized zone is at the intersection of the quartz veins and a distinctive and highly altered agglomerate. The total zone of vein and agglomerate intercept is potentially metalized and comprises a block of ground 40 m thick and 400 m wide along the strike of the agglomerate and projected downdip 250 m. Tonnage of this block is 17.2 million tons. The explored zone, approximately 25 percent of the potentially metalized rock, has a potential resource of 1.1 million tons containing 27 g/t gold and 73 g/t silver.

  16. Health Data Standards and Adoption Process: Preliminary Findings of a Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for,…

  17. Online Search Service at the King Abdulaziz University Library, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marghalani, Mohammad Amin; Hafez, Abdulrashid A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of the online search service at a university in Saudi Arabia which used personal interviews and questionnaires to evaluate the demand from faculty in different institutions and departments and to discover which subjects were requested the most. Guidelines for improvements to the service are proposed. (Contains seven references.)…

  18. Anxiety in Gifted Female Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi…

  19. Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

  20. Level of Job Creativity among Learning Disabilities Teachers from Their Perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamadneh, Burhan M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the level of job creativity among learning disabilities teachers from their perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and investigate the differences according to gender, scientific qualification and years of experience. The study sample consisted of (80) male and female teachers, who were randomly selected from…

  1. Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

  2. Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

  3. Forming an Institutional Culture with Multinational Administrators and Teachers at Effat College, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Treff, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the teaching and learning culture of a newly established women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The academic culture at Effat College in 2002 included administrators and teachers from many nations, which created unique challenges in cross-cultural communication. These challenges, in turn, affected the development and…

  4. A severe nervous disease in fancy pigeons caused by paramyxovirus-1 in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al Afaleq, A I; Abu Elzein, E M; Gameel, A A; Awaad, M; Hassanein, M M

    1993-01-01

    A severe nervous disease struck fancy pigeons for the first time in Saudi Arabia during February-March, 1992. The morbidity rate was 60% while the case fatality rate was 40%. An avian paramyxovirus-1 was isolated from affected pigeons. The disease was reproduced experimentally in pigeons and the virus was reisolated and identified. PMID:8073168

  5. Saqqar Impact Structure: A Buried 34 km Crater in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, T.; Afifi, A. M.; Stewart, S. A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Cook, D. J.; Neville, A. S.

    2015-09-01

    We present evidence for an impact origin of a circular structure with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35’N, 38°42’E, which is partially buried under ~400 m of Cretaceous-Paleogene strata in the Nafud basin in NW Saudi Arabia.

  6. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  7. 75 FR 67433 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Division F, Pub....

  8. Saudi Arabia, Cyprus, America and the World: September 11th from Another Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Niki

    This paper employs an autobiographical method using biographical elements from narrated experiences from Cyprus, Saudi Arabia, and the United States, where she has come to study. The paper offers perspectives on the September 11, 2001 tragedy and other acts of terrorism, violence, and mass destruction. It describes how the author's Cyprus…

  9. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer in Saudi Arabia: A Survey of 1070 Participants in Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    Zubaidi, Ahmad M.; AlSubaie, Noura M.; AlHumaid, Areej A.; Shaik, Shaffi A.; AlKhayal, Khayal A.; AlObeed, Omar A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate colorectal cancer (CRC) awareness in healthy individuals in Saudi Arabia in order to identify segments of the population that would most benefit from targeted education programs. Setting and Design: Survey/questionnaire. Patients and Methods: Random, healthy individuals from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were approached to participate in a 10-question multiple choice survey about CRC. Data were analyzed by demographic criteria, including age, gender, marital status, and level of education, to determine if members of these groups displayed differential knowledge. Statistical Analysis: Differences in responses by demographic data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In total, 1070 participants completed the survey. Most respondents believe that screening for colon cancer should begin at symptom onset (42.9%). Less than 20% of all respondents believe that polyps are a risk factor for CRC, which varied significantly according to level of education; however, even the most educated answered correctly less than 50% of the time. Similarly, only 34.8% of all respondents knew that a family history of CRC imparted a personal risk for CRC. Conclusions: Although older individuals and those with higher education tended to answer questions correctly more often, there were some misconceptions regarding universally accepted screening protocols, symptoms, and general understanding of CRC in Saudi Arabia. A national education/screening program in Saudi Arabia is recommended to improve CRC knowledge. PMID:25843193

  10. Primary health care in Saudi Arabia: applying global aspects of health for all, locally.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, J; Yousuf, S

    2000-09-01

    Primary health care in Saudi Arabia: applying global aspects of health for all, locally This paper describes the application of primary health care principles in the Islamic Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It arose from a doctoral supervisory experience on a joint programme for women students, operating between a British and Saudi Arabian University. The research looked at nutritional advice given by diploma-level nurses to pregnant women attending primary health care centres in Saudi Arabia. The supervisor supported research that drew on internationally recognized trends in nursing research (the reflexive learner) whilst attending to local requirements and conventions of the culture. The student was encouraged explicitly to site the research within the framework of Islamic teaching and Saudi culture. The Qur'an was used as an overarching framework within which the tenets of primary health care were explored. This was seen to be crucial in addressing World Health Organisation and the International Council of Nurses' views on contextualizing nursing for the greatest benefit of the population. This was of particular relevance in Saudi Arabia where research carried out in the community by women is novel, and as yet there are no nurse theorists from within Saudi culture. PMID:11012811

  11. Achieving Competitive Advantage in Human Resource Management in General School District of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…

  12. An International Perspective on Academic Advising: A Report from Students at a University in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Mahmoud A.

    1988-01-01

    The advising program at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, is examined. Students' responses to a 20-item questionnaire are discussed. The study sought to determine whether a difference in student responses to the survey existed between the colleges and between the academic levels of the students. (Author/MLW)

  13. The Institutional Context of School to Work Transition in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Alromi, Naif H.

    Using questionnaire data collected in 2000 from 524 senior general high school students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, researchers explored the gap between national development goals and student educational interests. They analyzed the relationship between available curriculum and student perceptions of the curriculum's ability to prepare them for the…

  14. Evaluation of Preparation Program for Teachers Specializing in Learning Disabilities in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Omer A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an evaluation of the undergraduate special education teacher preparation program at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A final sample of 160 LD teachers provided the data used for analysis. Data for the study were collected by a survey consisting of five subscales: coursework, internship quality,…

  15. Geophysical and geochemical investigations of aerial radiometric anomalies in the Tabuk formation, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitkin, James A.; Huffman, A. Curtis, Jr.; Saudi Arabia. Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources; U.S. Geological Survey Saudi Arabia Mission

    1986-01-01

    An interagency report prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey Saudi Arabian Mission for the Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The work on which this report was based was performed in accordance with a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources.

  16. Research Map of Research Priorities in HE Studies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSumih, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a research map for the key research priorities of higher education (HE) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study diagnoses and analyzes the research reality in HE studies in KSA in terms of strength points and improvement opportunities. It also explores the research map fields of current and prospective research priorities in…

  17. Erythraeid mites (Prostigmata, Erythraeidae) from Saudi Arabia, description of three new species and a new record

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Muhammad; Alatawi, Fahad J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three erythraeid genera Balaustium von Heyden, Charletonia Oudemans, and Erythraeus Latreille (Trombidiformes: Prostigmata) are reported for first time from Saudi Arabia based on three new larval species, Balaustium yousifi sp. n., Charletonia bahaensis sp. n., and Erythraeus (Erythraeus) uhadi sp. n. and one new record Erythraeus (Zaracarus) lancifer Southcott. All the three new species are described and illustrated from larvae. PMID:25349508

  18. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

  19. Making E-Learning Invisible: Experience at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwalidi, Abdullah; Lefrere, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe progress at King Khalid University (KKU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in developing and implementing a user-centered road map for teaching and learning, with pervasive e-learning as a core element. They named the approach "Invisible" e-learning. As part of it, they are investigating ways to capture and share expertise, as in…

  20. Teaching Arabic and the Preparation of Its Teachers before Service in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at discussing facts regarding teaching Arabic, and the curriculum for doing so in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to convey the attention that the Ministry of Education has paid to the teaching and learning of Arabic in public education. It also shows the different developments that have occurred in the contents of the…

  1. Special Education Teacher Transition-Related Competencies and Preparation in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2014-01-01

    Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…

  2. An Exploration of E-Learning Benefits for Saudi Arabia: Toward Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrashidi, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine policies and solutions addressing (a) improving education for citizens of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and (b) providing alternative instructional delivery methods, including e-learning for those living in remote areas. Theoretical Framework: The theoretical framework of this study was based on the…

  3. Barriers Encountered in the Transfer of Educational Training to Workplace Practice in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almannie, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a critical issue in the practicality of training programs, not only in Saudi Arabia, but also in other developing countries where billions of dollars are spent on training human resources without evaluation of these programs on workplace practice and organization development. This study investigates barriers encountered in…

  4. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems. PMID:26807884

  5. Salient Key Features of Actual English Instructional Practices in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Seghayer, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This is a comprehensive review of the salient key features of the actual English instructional practices in Saudi Arabia. The goal of this work is to gain insights into the practices and pedagogic approaches to English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching currently employed in this country. In particular, we identify the following central features…

  6. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  7. The Academic Profession in a Rentier State: The Professoriate in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazawi, Andre Elias

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the academic profession in Saudi Arabia, a state dependent upon oil exports, and explores how different social groups are accommodated within the higher education system. The discussion examines the relationship between political power and academic labour, and seeks to explain how local policies and practices are negotiating…

  8. A new dermochelyid turtle from the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Haiyan; Buffetaut, Eric; Thomas, Herbert; Roger, Jack; Halawani, Mohammed; Memesh, Abdallah; Lebret, Patrick

    1999-12-01

    A new dermochelyid sea turtle, Arabemys crassiscutata n. gen, n. sp., is described on the basis of epithecal shell mosaic ossicles from the Late Paleocene—Early Eocene of Saudi Arabia. This is the oldest and the most primitive known representative of the dermochelyids having an epithecal shell mosaic.

  9. Education Context and English Teaching and Learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrashidi, Oqab; Phan, Huy

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the education context and English teaching and learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The paper is organised into five main sections. The first section offers a brief glance at the social, religious, economic, and political context in KSA. The second section provides an overview of the education system in KSA, which…

  10. Saudi Arabia Puts Its Billions behind Western-Style Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Zvika

    2007-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has been developing at breakneck speed since the end of World War II, when oil production transformed this country of Bedouins into one of the richest polities in the world. Its higher-education system, however, has not kept pace. The Ministry of Higher Education was not established until 1975, and its task was to educate a population…

  11. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: A Synthesis of Literature Written in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altamimi, Ahmed A.; Lee, Lay Wah; Sayed-Ahmed, Al-sayed A.; Kassem, Mostafa M.

    2015-01-01

    Special education in Saudi Arabia was formally established in 1962. The earliest cited literature on special education written in English was a 1970 government report. This article presents results from the first synthesis of internationally published Saudi special education literature over a 44-year period. This synthesis yielded information…

  12. Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

  13. Where English, Neoliberalism, Desire and Internationalization Are Alive and Kicking: Higher Education in Saudi Arabia Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Phan Le; Barnawi, Osman Z.

    2015-01-01

    The internationalization of higher education globally continues to grow more and more towards commercialization and neoliberalism paths, despite growing concerns about the underlying consequences. Building further on our work and using Saudi Arabia as a national case, this article critically investigates how and in what ways the Saudi government's…

  14. The Barriers to the Use of ICT in Teaching in Saudi Arabia: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Mulhim, Ensaf

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports some of the reasons behind the low use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by teachers. The paper has reviewed a number or studies from different parts of the world and paid greater attention to Saudi Arabia. The literature reveals a number of factors that hinder teachers' use of ICT. This paper will focus on lack…

  15. Students' Struggle with First-Year University Mathematics Courses in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoshaim, Heba Bakr; Ali, Tasneem

    2015-01-01

    Universities and colleges at the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assess new applicants using academic indicators, such as high school grade point average (HSGPA) and the score of a national standardized test (the General Aptitude Test), to ensure that they are academically fit to join the institution. Such criteria have been suggested in previous research…

  16. Transition Services for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward transition services for students with mild intellectual disability in Saudi Arabia, and also examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes regarding transition services for students with mild intellectual disability and teachers' gender and educational…

  17. The Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Agili, Dania E.; Park, Hyoun-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adolescent tobacco use has been a serious public health issue, resulting in longer duration of tobacco use and higher nicotine dependence in adulthood. This study identified the current status of tobacco use among middle schools students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the factors leading to tobacco use, to provide information on how to…

  18. Tectonic configuration of the western Arabian continental margin, southern Red Sea, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    A tectonic reconstruction of pre-Red Sea Afro/Arabia suggests that the early rift was narrow with intense extension confined to an axial belt 20 to 40 km wide. Steep Moho slopes probably developed during rift formation as indicated by published gravity data, two published seismic interpretations and the surface geology.

  19. Scientific Research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Potential for Excellence and Indicators of Underdevelopment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshayea, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment…

  20. Characteristics of the Home Context for the Nurturing of Gifted Children in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates factors in the home environment and their influence on children's analytical, creative, and practical skills. A sample of 294 gifted children (195 male) was recruited from grades 4-7 in Saudi Arabia, where the family context is highly influenced by the principles of Islam. Results did not confirm the effect of birth…

  1. Climatology of the 500-hPa mediterranean storms associated with Saudi Arabia wet season precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Kamil, S.; Ammar, K.; Keay, Kevin; Alamoudi, A. O.

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between the Mediterranean 500-hPa storm tracks and wet season (November-April) rainfall over Saudi Arabia is investigated. The analysis is based on the application of an objective tracking scheme to the 6-hourly 500-hPa geopotential height ERA-Interim dataset (0.75° × 0.75°) for the period 1979-2012. The resulting tracks are then associated with the ERA-Interim rainfall events over Saudi Arabia. The association procedure showed that 34 % of the tracks are related to about 70 % of the rainfall. These associated tracks are used to construct climatology. A climatology of these storm tracks revealed that the eastern Mediterranean region is the preferred location for cyclogenesis with a maximum in the southwest parts of the Black Sea. The study also examined the mean radius, average intensity and average depth of the storms. The number of tracks in winter (December-February) is about 60 % of the total number which confirms the major contribution of the Mediterranean storms to rainfall over Saudi Arabia. A significant negative trend was found for storm cyclogenesis over the central Mediterranean, and the Black sea. A significant trend decrease in track density is observed over most of the northern parts of Saudi Arabia. The peaks of storm activities are observed in December and January in 1996, 1997 and 2009. Storm activity generally declines after 2000, especially in the second half of the wet season months (February-April).

  2. Barriers to Accountability Implementation in the Education Directorates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentab, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the barriers to accountability implementation in the education directorates and to know the suggestions for applying accountability in the education directorates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from the study members' point of view. For the purpose of achieving the objectives and procedures of the study, the descriptive…

  3. Kumaravadivelu's Framework as a Basis for Improving English Language Teaching in Saudi Arabia: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Afnan Masaoud

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues with EFL teaching in Saudi Arabia, including the reliance on traditional teaching methodologies and banning use of first languages in classrooms. As a result, these traditional teaching practices produce less proficient learners who have limited knowledge about proper linguistic use. In order to overcome these…

  4. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012 (Div. I, P.L.112-74) (``the Act''), and Department...

  5. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 10, 2013 (78 FR... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan..., and Vietnam of certain oil country tubular goods, provided for primarily in subheadings 7304.29,...

  6. Tirbyi in the Muslim World, with a Focus on Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangura, Abdul Karim

    2004-01-01

    The educational systems of Muslim societies, particularly that of Saudi Arabia, have been under scrutiny, especially after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. The Saudi educational system is mostly based on Islamic precepts. Nonetheless, the United States government and other…

  7. A qualitative exploration of the major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour A.; Alshammari, Thamir M.; Al-Dhaeefi, Mohammed; Louet, Hervé Le; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; Pitts, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and formulate recommendations to improve it from the perspective of healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a qualitative study of 4 focus group discussions with pharmacists, physicians, and academicians held under the auspices of the King Saud University School of Pharmacy and the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 29 eligible healthcare professionals were invited to participate in the discussion. The predefined themes of the study were the current practice and major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in regulatory bodies, hospitals, the community, and academia, as well as recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance practice. Result: Of the 29 participants invited, 27 attended the discussion. Challenges facing regulatory bodies included complicated adverse drug reactions (ADR) reporting forms, lack of feedback on ADRs submitted to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority, lack of decisions from the local authority to withdraw medications, and lack of data on pharmacovigilance. The challenges to pharmacovigilance in hospitals included the lack of knowledge of the significance of ADR reporting, workload, blaming culture, and lack of collaboration between regulatory bodies and hospitals. However, challenges facing pharmaceutical industries included the lack of drug manufacturers in Saudi Arabia and lack of interest in pharmacovigilance. Recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance included the need for communication, stronger regulatory requirements, the need for research, the need for unified ADRs reporting, and continuous education and training. Conclusion: The study has identified the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and made certain recommendations to overcome them. These recommendations might be helpful for regulatory bodies to enhance spontaneous reporting and promote pharmacovigilance. PMID:26318468

  8. On the relationship between climatic variables and pressure systems over Saudi Arabia in the winter season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanean, H. M.; Basset, H. Abdel; Hussein, M. A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The synoptic circulation over Saudi Arabia is complicated and frequently governed by the effect of large-scale pressure systems. In this work, we used NCEP-NCAR global data to illustrate the relationship between climatic variables and the main pressure systems that affect the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia, and also to investigate the influence of these pressure systems on surface air temperature (SAT) and rainfall over the region in the winter season. It was found that there are two primary patterns of pressure that influence the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia. The first occurs in cases of a strengthening Subtropical High (SubH), a weakening Siberian High (SibH), a deepening of the Icelandic Low (IceL), or a weakening of the Sudanese Low (SudL). During this pattern, the SubH combines with the SibH and an obvious increase of sea level pressure (SLP) occurs over southern European, the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East. This belt of high pressure prevents interaction between midlatitude and extratropical systems, which leads to a decrease in the SAT, relative humidity (RH) and rainfall over Saudi Arabia. The second pattern occurs in association with a weakening of the SubH, a strengthening of the SibH, a weakening of the IceL, or a deepening of the SudL. The pattern arising in this case leads to an interaction between two different air masses: the first (cold moist) air mass is associated with the Mediterranean depression travelling from west to east, while the second (warm moist) air mass is associated with the northward oscillation of the SudL and its inverted V-shape trough. The interaction between these two air masses increases the SAT, RH and the probability of rainfall over Saudi Arabia, especially over the northwest and northeast regions.

  9. Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

    Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

  10. Chemostratigraphy of the Silurian Qusaiba Member, Eastern Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craigie, Neil W.

    2016-01-01

    Given the unavailability of high resolution biostratigraphic data and difficulties in using lithostratigraphy for stratigraphic correlation, it was decided to employ chemostratigraphy to propose a scheme for the Silurian Qusaiba Member encountered in five wells in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Chemostratigraphy may be defined as a reservoir correlation technique involving the utilization of inorganic geochemical data. Although Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to acquire data for 50 elements, the scheme is based on changes in the following 'key' element ratios: Zr/Th, Cr/Ti, Th/Nb, Zr/P, Y/Yb, Zr/Yb and Y/P. Variations in these parameters are largely dependent on changes in source/provenance, reflecting increases or decreases in the abundances of particular detrital heavy minerals. The scheme comprises a hierarchical order of four zones, seven subzones and four divisions. The zones are labelled C1, C2, C3 and C4 is ascending stratigraphic order, with two, three and two subzones identified in C2, C3 and C4 respectively. In addition to this, chemostratigraphic divisions are noted in two of the subzones. The chemostratigraphic scheme is considered robust as chemozones (general term used to describe any zone, subzone or division) are clearly defined in each well using geochemical profiles and binary diagrams plotted for key element ratios. Furthermore, high levels of statistical confidence are associated with the chemozones and most are correlative between three or more wells. The nonexistence of chemozones in particular wells is mainly explained by the sampling strategy employed. For example, the absence of subzone C3-2 (occurring towards the center of zone C3) in wells 4 and 5 is most likely to be explained by the uppermost part of the Qusaiba Member not being sampled. In other instances, particular chemozones may be missing as a result of erosion/non-deposition on a

  11. Seroepidemiology of Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Jamjoom, Ghazi A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Kao, Moujahid A.; Radadi, Raja M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of Jeddah and to investigate demographic and environmental factors that may increase exposure to infection. METHODS Sera were collected from 1984 Saudi subjects attending primary health care centers in six districts of Jeddah. These included general patients of various ages seeking routine vaccinations, antenatal care or treatment of different illnesses excluding fever or suspected dengue. A number of blood donors were also tested. Serum samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgG antibodies to dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, 4. A questionnaire was completed for each patient recording various anthropometric data and factors that may indicate possible risk of exposure to mosquito bites and dengue infection. Patients with missing data and those who reported a history of dengue fever were excluded from analysis, resulting in a sample of 1939 patients to be analyzed. RESULTS The overall prevalence of dengue virus infection as measured by anti-dengue IgG antibodies from asymptomatic residents in Jeddah was 47.8% (927/1939) and 37% (68/184) in blood donors. Infection mostly did not result in recognizable disease, as only 19 of 1956 subjects with complete information (0.1%) reported having dengue fever in the past. Anti dengue seropositivity increased with age and was higher in males than females and in residents of communal housing and multistory buildings than in villas. One of the six districts showed significant increase in exposure rate as compared to the others. Availability of

  12. Seismic Anisotropy and Mantle Flow Beneath Northeastern Africa and Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikh, A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Abdelsalam, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    could be explained by a two layer model of anisotropy. The top layer is distinguished by a relatively small (0.65 s) splitting delay time and a WNW fast direction which could be associated with magmatic dikes in the lithosphere, while the lower layer is characterized by a larger (2.0 s) delay time and a NE fast direction which is parallel to the strike of MER and is most likely associated with NE-directed MER-parallel flow in the asthenosphere. We propose that the flow traverses the southern Red Sea and propagates northward beneath the Arabian plate, as suggests by the dominantly N-S fast directions observed under western Arabia. The flow might be responsible for the asymmetry in topography, and volcanic and seismic activities across the Red Sea.

  13. Final Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources In Saudi Arabia, 1998-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.

    2002-04-01

    The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).

  14. The Mafic Lower Crust of Neoproterozoic age beneath Western Arabia: Implications for Understanding African Lower Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Mooney, W. D.

    2011-12-01

    We review evidence that the lower crust of Arabia - and by implication, that beneath much of Africa was formed at the same time as the upper crust, rather than being a product of Cenozoic magmatic underplating. Arabia is a recent orphan of Africa, separated by opening of the Red Sea ~20 Ma, so our understanding of its lower crust provides insights into that of Africa. Arabian Shield (exposed in W. Arabia) is mostly Neoproterozoic (880-540 Ma) reflecting a 300-million year process of continental crustal growth due to amalgamated juvenile magmatic arcs welded together by granitoid intrusions that make up as much as 50% of the Shield's surface. Seismic refraction studies of SW Arabia (Mooney et al., 1985) reveal two layers, each ~20 km thick, separated by a well-defined Conrad discontinuity. The upper crust has average Vp ~6.3 km/sec whereas the lower crust has average Vp ~7.0 km/sec, corresponding to a granitic upper crust and gabbroic lower crust. Neogene (<30 ma) lava fields in Arabia (harrats) extend over 2500 km, from Yemen to Syria. Many of these lavas contain xenoliths, providing a remarkable glimpse of the lower-crustal and upper-mantle lithosphere beneath W. Arabia. Lower crustal xenoliths brought up in 8 harrats in Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria are mostly 2-pyroxene granulites of igneous (gabbroic, anorthositic, and dioritic) origin. They contain plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene, and a few contain garnet and rare amphibole and yield mineral-equilibrium temperatures of 700-900°C. Pyroxene-rich and plagioclase-rich suites have mean Al2O3 contents of 13% and 19%, respectively: otherwise the two groups have similar elemental compositions, with ~50% SiO2 and ~1% TiO2, with low K2O (<0.5%) and Na2O (1-3%). Both groups show tholeiitic affinities, unrelated to their alkali basalt hosts. Mean pyroxene-rich and plagioclase-rich suites show distinct mean MgO contents (11% vs. 7%), Mg# (67 vs. 55), and contents of compatible elements Ni (169 vs. 66 ppm

  15. Arabia-Somalia plate kinematics and the opening of the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Patriat, P.; Petit, C.; Huchon, P.

    2009-04-01

    New geophysical data collected at the Aden-Owen-Carlsberg triple junction (AOC survey) between the Arabia, India, and Somalia plates are combined with all available magnetic data across the Gulf of Aden and the NW Arabian Sea to determine the detailed Arabia-Somalia plate kinematics over the past 20 Myr. We reconstruct the history of opening of the Gulf of Aden, including the penetration of the Sheba Ridge into the African continent and the evolution of the triple junction since its formation. Ridge propagation occurred in three stages from east to west. Sea-floor spreading between the Arabia and Somalia plates initiated ca. 20 Myr ago, shortly before Chron 6 (19.7 Ma), along a 200 km long ridge portion located immediately west of the Owen fracture zone and southeast of the Socotra Island. A second 500 km long ridge portion developed westward up to the Alula-Fartak transform fault before Chron 5D (17.2 Ma). About 1 Myr later and before Chron 5C (16.0 Ma), a third 700 km long ridge portion was emplaced between the Alula-Fartak transform fault and the western end of the Gulf of Aden (45°E). Within a short time period bracketed between 20 and 16 Ma, the Sheba Ridge propagated into the Gulf of Aden over a distance of 1400 km at an extremely fast average rate of 35 cm yr 1. The ridge propagation resulted from the Arabia-Somalia rigid plate rotation about a relatively stationary pole located to the northwest of the Gulf of Aden. Since Chron 5C (16.0 Ma), the spreading rate of the Sheba Ridge decreased first rapidly until 10 Ma and then more slowly. Opening rate may still be slightly decreasing, although not as much as recently inferred from geodesy. The evolution of the Arabia-India-Somalia triple junction is marked by a major change of configuration around 10 Ma, with the formation of a new Arabia-India plate boundary including the newly discovered Beautemps-Beaupré Basin. Part of the Arabian plate was then transferred to the Indian plate. Reconstructions of the

  16. Tracking the India-Arabia Transform Plate Boundary during Paleogene Times.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Huchon, P.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R. A.; Fournier, M.; Delescluse, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Zagros and Himalaya mountain belts are the most prominent reliefs built by continental collision. They respectively result from Arabia and India collision with Eurasia. Convergence motions at mountain belts induced most of plate reorganization events in the Indian Ocean during the Cenozoic. Although critical for paleogeographic reconstructions, the way relative motion between Arabia and India was accommodated prior to the formation of the Sheba ridge in the Gulf of Aden remains poorly understood. The India-Arabia plate-boundary belongs to the category of long-lived (~90-Ma) oceanic transform faults, thus providing a good case study to investigate the role of major kinematic events over the structural evolution of a long-lived transform system. A seismic dataset crossing the Owen Fracture Zone, the Owen Basin, and the Oman Margin was acquired to track the past locations of the India-Arabia plate boundary. We highlight the composite age of the Owen Basin basement, made of Paleocene oceanic crust drilled on its eastern part, and composed of pre-Maastrichtian continental crust overlaid by Early Paleocene ophiolites on its western side. A major transform fault system crossing the Owen Basin juxtaposed these two slivers of lithosphere of different ages, and controlled the uplift of marginal ridges along the Oman Margin. This transform system deactivated ~40 Ma ago, coeval with the onset of ultra-slow spreading at the Carlsberg Ridge. The transform boundary then jumped to the edge of the present-day Owen Ridge during the Late Eocene-Oligocene period, before seafloor spreading began at the Sheba Ridge. This migration of the plate boundary involved the transfer of a part of the Indian oceanic lithosphere accreted at the Carlsberg Ridge to the Arabian plate. The episode of plate transfer at the India-Arabia plate boundary during the Late Eocene-Oligocene interval is synchronous with a global plate reorganization event corresponding to geological events at the Zagros and

  17. Stalled eruption or dike intrusion at Harrat Lunayyir, Saudi Arabia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahran, H. M.; McCausland, W. A.; Pallister, J. S.; Lu, Z.; El-Hadidy, S.; Aburukba, A.; Schawali, J.; Kadi, K.; Youssef, A.; Ewert, J. W.; White, R. A.; Lundgren, P.; Mufti, M.; Stewart, I. C.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2007 there have been periodic small earthquake swarms recorded at seismic stations located around Harrat Lunayyir in northwest Saudi Arabia. In response to a longer-lived and larger seismic swarm, in early May 2009 the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) installed a network of broadband seismometers surrounding the Harrat, with real-time data transmitted by VSAT back to its Earthquake and Volcano Center in Jeddah. The new network captured data from the swarm, which culminated with a M5.4 earthquake on 19 May that caused very minor structural damage in the town of Al Ays, 40 km to the southeast. Because of the strength of ground-shaking and resulting structural damage, the Saudi government evacuated more than 30,000 people from a 40 km radius surrounding Harrat Lunayyir, including the town of Al Ays. At the request of the SGS and the U.S. Consulate in Jeddah, the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (a partnership program of the USGS and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance) sent two advisers to work with the SGS to determine if the unrest was volcanic in origin and to assess hazards associated with the unrest. The SGS-USGS team collected geologic, geodetic and seismic data that confirmed the volcanic nature of the activity. 1) A 3-km-long NW-trending surface rupture appeared in the central part of the Harrat before 19 May, during a time when maximum earthquake magnitudes exceeded M4. 2) The length of this rupture extended to 8 km with the M5.4 earthquake on 19 May. 3) The rupture opened 0.5 m and had an absolute motion of 0.9 m to N35W with a 63 degree plunge to the NE- a tensional offset consistent with that expected from an M5.4 earthquake in a rift-shoulder setting. 4) InSAR data showed about a meter of extension and uplift (as of July 2009) with the majority of deformation associated with the 19 May M5.4 earthquake. The InSAR-derived deformation field is best modeled by intrusion of a narrow (~2 m wide), 8-km-long dike to shallow crustal levels. 5

  18. Geology of the Jabal Riah area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Jabal Riah area is in the southern part of the Jibal al Hamdah quadrangle (lat 19?00'00'' to 19?07'S0'' N., long 45?37'30'' to 43?45'00' E.) in the southeastern Precambrian Shield, Asir Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Jabal Mahanid group of ancient gold mines, which is part of the Jabal Ishmas-Wadi Tathlith gold belt, is in the west-central part of the area. Rocks in the Jabal Riah area consist of Precambrian layered metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks intruded by Precambrian igneous rocks. The metamorphic rocks are, from oldest to youngest, interlayered hornblende and biotite schist, quartz-biotite schist, hornblende schist, serpentinite, and chlorite schist. The igneous rocks are, from oldest to youngest, diorite-gabbro including dikes, granodiorite, monzogranite-granodiorite, leucocratic quartz porphyry, rhyolite, and aplite and pegmatite dikes. A large area of jasper replaces serpentinite. On the valley floors, recent alluvium and pediment deposits overlie the bedrock. The structure of the area is dominated by a dome centered over the eastern border of the area; leucocratic quartz porphyry forms the core of the dome. Minor folds and faults are present. The Jabal Mahanid group of ancient gold mines is on a northwest-trending vein system, and major ancient mine areas are found where the system splits or changes direction. The veins consist of zones of brecciated and crushed rock, which are generally less than 0.5 m wide but may be as wide as 1 m. These zones contain quartz and calcite stringers and commonly are along hornblende schist-serpentinite contacts; however, they also cut both units. Most aplite, pegmatite, and quartz dikes in the area are thin and discontinuous and are intruded along the vein trend. Similar veins, at the same stratigraphic interval, have been found beyond the northeastern part of the map area. The veins contain detectable gold and silver (median gold, approximately 0.14 ppm; median silver, approximately 1 ppm). Gold and

  19. Assessment of the environmental and genetic factors influencing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gosadi, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a combination of factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases including diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in the adult Saudi population where the increase in cardiovascular-related mortality is augmented by the rise in the prevalence of MS. Metabolic syndrome is a multi-factorial disorder influenced by interactions between genetic and environmental components. This review aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of studied environmental and genetic factors explaining the prevalence of MS in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Additionally, this review aims to illustrate factors related to the population genetics of Saudi Arabia, which might explain a proportion of the prevalence of MS. PMID:26739969

  20. Self-reported symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in a female university student population in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Zulqarnain, B J; Khan, N; Khattab, S

    1998-12-01

    The symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD), reported by 705 female university students of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, are analysed. The population is representative of the educated class of Saudi Arabia. The most frequently reported symptoms were jaw feeling tired (34.5%), awareness of uncomfortable bite (31.3%), pain in front of the ear (22.4%) and discomfort upon wide opening (22.4%). The frequency of subjective reactions was, pain interferes with activity (42%), disturbed sleep (40.6%), taking of medication (27.8%) and pain being frustrating or depressing (26.8%). Some interesting relationships were found between the reported symptoms and marital status, residence and college of education. These findings are similar to those reported in a Bedouin community in Egypt, but lower than that in a Saudi Arabian population attending dental clinics, Saudi male dental students and high school students. PMID:9888230

  1. STS-65 Earth observation of center-pivot irrigation in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of center-pivot irrigation in North Central Saudi Arabia. This 250mm color photograph shows a small section of desert land where center-pivot irrigation is used for crop production. This particular area is representative of a much larger area within Saudi Arabia where this agricultural practice is being applied. The water is being extracted from subsurface reserves that infiltrated deep aquifers over the Central Arabian Arch during previous geological periods, when the climate was much wetter than present. This view is an example of the use of abundant fossil water to achieve self sufficiency in food production. Note OV-102's vertical stabilizer and tail cap are visible in the view.

  2. Demonstration and development of control mechanism for radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kheliewi, A. S.

    2012-06-01

    Saudi Arabia have no nuclear industry. Nevertheless, many radioactive sources, for different purposes, have been used in the country. There is upswing in the number of companies that recruit nuclear technology in their daily work. The National Center for Radiation Protection (NCRP) takes the full commitment and responsibility for monitoring and regulating the movement of radioactive sources in the country. NCRP issues the licenses for import, export, and use of radioactive sources. It, also, protects the country from any trespassing radiation through a sizable net of early warning and radiation monitoring stations along the borders of Saudi Arabia. This paper talks about the procedures of licensing, importing, exporting of radioactive sources. It, also, sheds light on types of implementing radioactive sources in different practices encompass medicine, industry, research. The NCRP has established an electronic web site to ease the communication with all users in the country. This site is yet in the experimental stage.

  3. Natural and human-induced sinkhole hazards in Saudi Arabia: distribution, investigation, causes and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Ahmed M.; Al-Harbi, Hasan M.; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Zabramwi, Yasser A.; Bulkhi, Ali B.; Zahrani, Saeed A.; Bahamil, Alaa M.; Zahrani, Ahmed J.; Otaibi, Zaam A.; El-Haddad, Bosy A.

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 60 % of the 2,150,000 km2 area of Saudi Arabia is underlain by soluble sediments (carbonate and evaporite rock formations, salt diapirs, sabkha deposits). Despite its hyper-arid climate, a wide variety of recent sinkholes have been reported in numerous areas, involving significant property losses. Human activities, most notably groundwater extraction, have induced unstable conditions on pre-existing cavities. This work provides an overview of the sinkhole hazard in Saudi Arabia, a scarcely explored topic. It identifies the main karst formations and the distribution of the most problematic sinkhole areas, illustrated through several case studies covering the wide spectrum of subsidence mechanisms. Some of the main investigation methods are presented through selected examples, including remote sensing, trenching and geophysics. Based on the available data, the main causal factors are identified and further actions that should be undertaken to better assess and manage the risk are discussed.

  4. Serological and bacteriological study of brucellosis in camels in central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Radwan, A I; Bekairi, S I; Prasad, P V

    1992-09-01

    Sera from 2,630 apparently normal adult camels (Camelus dromedarius) raised in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Kharj cities) were examined serologically by the Rose Bengal and standard United States of America Brucella plate agglutination tests. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in the restricted populations of tested camels was 8%. The seroprevalence of brucellosis among camels raised in small numbers in the backyards of 24 houses in Riyadh and those intensively raised on one large camel farm near Al-Kharj were 4.3% and 8.6% respectively. Fresh milk samples from 100 brucellosis seropositive camels from Riyadh and Al-Kharj were cultured on Brucella-selective media. Brucella melitensis biovars 1 and 2 were isolated and identified from 26 camels. Epidemiologically, brucellosis in camels in central Saudi Arabia appeared to be connected with B. melitensis infection of sheep and goats, and also represents a serious public health risk. PMID:1472730

  5. Probabilistic estimates of the seismic ground-motion hazard in western Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Thenhaus, P.C.; Algermissen, S.T.; Perkins, D.M.; Hanson, S.L.; Diment, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of seismic horizontal ground acceleration and velocity having a 90 percent probability of nonexceedance in 100 yr in western Saudi Arabia indicate the highest relative levels of ground motion are expected in regions neighboring the Gulf of Aqaba and North Yemen. Estimated ground motions within the Arabia Shield are relatively low; whereas the central and northern coastal plan regions are characterized by intermediate-level ground-motion values that are governed by far-field effects of earthquakes in the central Red Sea Rift. The seismic hazard estimates were derived from regional seismic source zones that are based on interpretation relating potential seismic activity to the Precambrian through Tertiary structural framework of the region.

  6. Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Alaklabi, Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions. PMID:25737651

  7. Micro-seismic Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A.

    2005-05-01

    Having experience with monitoring Earthquakes plus the fact that Riyadh is yconstantly subjected to Micro-earthquakes through out the year. Riyadh city and ycentral part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a yrelativity stable platform. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at yKing Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed 9 earthquake portable ystations in central part of Saudi Arabia to record micro-seismicty that caused by local yfaults and natural artificial. We recorded many events in study area mostly theses yevents were not felt. We used digital digitizer recorders ( RefTek 72A) in collecting ythe data and SAISAN software for analyses. The main objective of this study is to ydefine the active faults in Riyadh city and surrounded area that can affect the city. y

  8. Natural and human-induced sinkhole hazards in Saudi Arabia: distribution, investigation, causes and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Ahmed M.; Al-Harbi, Hasan M.; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Zabramwi, Yasser A.; Bulkhi, Ali B.; Zahrani, Saeed A.; Bahamil, Alaa M.; Zahrani, Ahmed J.; Otaibi, Zaam A.; El-Haddad, Bosy A.

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 60 % of the 2,150,000 km2 area of Saudi Arabia is underlain by soluble sediments (carbonate and evaporite rock formations, salt diapirs, sabkha deposits). Despite its hyper-arid climate, a wide variety of recent sinkholes have been reported in numerous areas, involving significant property losses. Human activities, most notably groundwater extraction, have induced unstable conditions on pre-existing cavities. This work provides an overview of the sinkhole hazard in Saudi Arabia, a scarcely explored topic. It identifies the main karst formations and the distribution of the most problematic sinkhole areas, illustrated through several case studies covering the wide spectrum of subsidence mechanisms. Some of the main investigation methods are presented through selected examples, including remote sensing, trenching and geophysics. Based on the available data, the main causal factors are identified and further actions that should be undertaken to better assess and manage the risk are discussed.

  9. Pattern of Referral of Noncancer Patients to Palliative Care in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Hafez M; Shaikh, Rawabi M; Alia, Ahmad M Abou; Al-Zayir, Amani S; Alsirafy, Samy A

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The palliative care (PC) needs of patients with noncancer life-threatening illnesses are comparable to that of cancer patients. This report describes the contribution of noncancer patients to the population of PC patients in a tertiary care hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of the “palliative care inpatient database” of 21 months. Results: From 474 patients, 20 (4.2%) had a noncancer diagnosis. The main reason for the referral of noncancer patients was pain control. The most prevalent diagnoses were sickle cell disease (SCD) in 6 (30%) patients and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in 5 (25%). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the PC needs of noncancer patients are largely unmet in our region. Further efforts are necessary to advance noncancer PC in Saudi Arabia. The PC needs of patients with SCD and PAD need to be addressed in future research. PMID:22346049

  10. Development of GIS-based Wind Potential Map of Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.

  11. Layered Deposits of Arabia Terra and Meridiani Planum: Keys to the Habitability of Ancient Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Paris, Kristen N.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the habitability of ancient Mars is a key goal in the exploration of that planet. Evidence for conditions favorable to early life must be sought in ancient sedimentary rocks, such as those of Arabia Terra and Meridiani Planum. Arabia Terra, the northernmost extension of the ancient highlands, is dominated by cratered plains and minor ridged units. These plains extend south into the adjacent Meridiani Planum. The Opportunity rover landed in northern Meridiani, close to the border with Arabia. High resolution MOC images reveal extensive layered sequences across much of the Arabia and Meridiani region. These layers have been interpreted as eroded remnants of sedimentary rock deposits (Edgett, 2005). The layered sequences are concentrated in the SW quadrant of Arabia and in northern Meridiani. Preliminary mapping by Edgett (2005) distinguished four large scale layered sequences in the Arabia and Meridiani region. These have dimensions of hundreds to more than 1,000 km. MOLA altimetry shows that each of the sequences can attain a thickness of 200 to 400 m, with a total thickness greater than 1 km. The sequences are generally flat lying, with regional slopes of a few degrees. Much finer layering is evident within a number of craters. The plains and ridged units of the Arabia and Meridiani region were originally mapped as Noachian based on crater statistics, particularly the number of large craters (Scott and Carr, 1978). The layered sequences in the current study postdate many, but not all, of these large craters. The layered sequences have partially or totally filled a number of craters with diameters ranging from 20 to over 50 km. The topmost layered sequence, as well as the lower two sequences, have intermediate thermal inertia, as derived from THEMIS, indicative of moderate induration. The TES spectra from the lower sequences include features indicative of basalt. Some areas of the topmost sequence, which includes the Opportunity landing site, have TES

  12. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready?

    PubMed Central

    Almuneef, Maha; Al-Eissa, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed as a global healthcare priority with an emphasis on evidence-based interventions. In addition, this paper will assess Saudi Arabia's readiness to prevent CAN and the challenges that will be faced by the professionals in implementing evidence-based CAN prevention programs. PMID:22048511

  13. Demonstration and development of control mechanism for radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kheliewi, A. S.

    2012-06-06

    Saudi Arabia have no nuclear industry. Nevertheless, many radioactive sources, for different purposes, have been used in the country. There is upswing in the number of companies that recruit nuclear technology in their daily work. The National Center for Radiation Protection (NCRP) takes the full commitment and responsibility for monitoring and regulating the movement of radioactive sources in the country. NCRP issues the licenses for import, export, and use of radioactive sources. It, also, protects the country from any trespassing radiation through a sizable net of early warning and radiation monitoring stations along the borders of Saudi Arabia. This paper talks about the procedures of licensing, importing, exporting of radioactive sources. It, also, sheds light on types of implementing radioactive sources in different practices encompass medicine, industry, research. The NCRP has established an electronic web site to ease the communication with all users in the country. This site is yet in the experimental stage.

  14. MERS-CoV in a healthcare worker in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: an index case investigation.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub, S; Abdraboh, S; Palma, R; AlSharif, H; Assiri, N

    2016-07-01

    In September 2015, a confirmed case of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) was diagnosed in a healthcare worker in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Given the absence of confirmed MERS cases in Jeddah at the time, an epidemiological index case investigation took place. The investigation identified a probable source of an index case who had been in hospital in Jordan in August 2015 while there was an ongoing MERS outbreak and who then subsequently sought medical care in Jeddah. PMID:27210272

  15. Current Arabian Plate Motion From Campaign GPS Measurements in Saudi Arabia: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuslmani, B.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Moore, T.

    2007-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains, and the Farasan Islands, all in south-western Saudi Arabia, have been established, for which the past and future campaign GPS measurements will provide valuable data for investigations of crustal deformations close to the plate boundaries between the Nubia, Somalian and Arabian plates. In this presentation we will show results in the form of velocity field and plate motion estimates based on data from at least three campaigns occupying the initial 32 GDMS GPS network stations, but also from a number of IGS stations in the region. Our reference frame is aligned to ITRF2005 and uses approximately 40 IGS reference frame stations located on all major tectonic plates, e.g. Nubia and Somalia, surrounding the Arabian plate. Furthermore, we apply absolute satellite and receiver antenna phase center models together with newly available GPS products from a recent global re-processing effort.

  16. A new species of Leptadenia (Apocynaceae) and two other new records from southwestern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Masrahi, Yahya S.

    2015-01-01

    Leptadenia jazanica Y. Masrahi from the province of Jazan, southwestern Saudi Arabia is described as a new species and illustrated. The species differs from the other known nearest species of the genus, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, by decumbent to scrambling habit of stems and persistent leaves. In the same province also two new records belonging to the genera Canavalia (Fabaceae) and Craterostigma (Scrophulariaceae) were collected; they were identified as Canavalia virosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. and Craterostigma plantagineum Hochst. PMID:26288569

  17. Pharmaceutical research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A scientometric analysis during 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Alhaider, Ibrahim; Mueen Ahmed, K.K.; Gupta, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the performance of Saudi Arabia in the pharmaceutical science research using quantitative and qualitative measures. They analyze the productivity and global publication share and rank of the top 15 countries. The author studies Saudi Arabia’s publications output, growth and citation quality, international collaborative publication share and most important the collaborating partners, contribution and citation impact of its top 15 organizations and authors, productivity patterns of its top publishing journals and characteristics of its highly cited papers. PMID:26106268

  18. Barriers for setting up a pulmonary rehabilitation program in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alsubaiei, Mohammed E.; Cafarella, Paul A.; Frith, Peter A.; McEvoy, R. Doug; Effing, Tanja W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs proven to be one of the most effective treatment options for respiratory diseases; yet, they are not well-established in hospitals in Saudi Arabia. AIM: To determine the main barriers for setting up PR programs in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Health care providers involved in treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were recruited from 22 general government hospitals. Data were collected using questionnaires: Full version if they had heard about PR before the study, and a short version if they had not heard about PR before. RESULTS: A total of 123 health care providers were recruited (physicians [n = 44], nurses [n = 49], and respiratory therapists/technicians [n = 30]). Only 3.2% of the recruited health care providers had heard about PR programs before. According to the health care providers, the main barriers for setting up PR programs were a lack of (1) hospital capacity (75.6%), (2) trained health care providers (72.4%), and (3) funds (48.0%). There were significant differences in barriers reported by the health care providers. Compared to physicians, nurses were more likely to nominate the PR costs as a barrier (18.0% vs. 38.8%; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: There is a worrisome lack of knowledge regarding content and benefits of PR programs among Saudi health care providers treating COPD patients. These findings imply that improving awareness and increasing education of the health care providers regarding PR will be required before PR can be more widely implemented as an integral treatment modality for patients with COPD in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27168860

  19. Challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Alrasheedy, Alian; Alahmad, Amjad; Saleem, Fahad; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Michael; Bates, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication safety is a global concern among healthcare providers. However, the challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia have not been explored. Objectives We explored the perspectives of healthcare practitioners on current issues about medication safety in hospitals and community settings in Saudi Arabia in order to identify challenges to improving it and explore the future of medication safety practice. Methods A total of 65 physicians, pharmacists, academics and nurses attended a one-day meeting in March 2010, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into nine round-table discussion sessions. Three major themes were explored in these sessions, including: major factors contributing to medication safety problems, challenges to improving medication safety practice, and participants’ suggestions for improving medication safety. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results The round-table discussions revealed that major factors contributing to medication safety problems included unrestricted public access to medications from various hospitals and community pharmacies, communication gaps between healthcare institutions, limited use of important technologies such as computerized provider order entry, and the lack of medication safety programs in hospitals. Challenges to current medication safety practice identified by participants included underreporting of medication errors and adverse drug reactions, multilingualism and differing backgrounds of healthcare professionals, lack of communication between healthcare providers and patients, and high workloads. Suggestions for improving medication safety practices in Saudi Arabia included continuous education for healthcare professionals and competency assessment focusing on medication safety, development of a culture that encourages medication error and adverse

  20. Broadband Seismic Station Deployment at Hadabat Al-Marhi, Halban, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Lewis, J P; Al-Amri, A

    2002-02-11

    A broadband three-component seismic station was deployed on the Arabian Shield near the town of Halban in central Saudi Arabia. This site is near the proposed site of a primary seismic array (PS38) of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The purpose of this deployment was to collect calibration data for the primary array to be deployed in the future.

  1. A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.

    PubMed

    Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2012-07-15

    Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially

  2. Perspectives of interns and residents toward do-not-resuscitate policies in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Amoudi, Abdullah S; Albar, Mohammed H; Bokhari, Amjed M; Yahya, Sultan H; Merdad, Anas A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders in Saudi Arabia were first regulated by a fatwa on a national level in 1988, one that excludes the patient and their families from decision making. Although the core of this policy is taken up by all hospitals in Saudi Arabia, there is no homogeneity in implementation. Here, we appraise what interns and residents know of these policies and their attitudes toward DNR. Methods Interns and residents in four major hospitals in Jeddah, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, National Guard Hospital, King Fahad General Hospital, and King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, were given a questionnaire in English with four blocks of questions. Results A total of 140 questionnaires were included in our study. From these questionnaires, we conclude a lack of familiarity with DNR’s policies and the fatwa and also a lack of understanding when it comes to treating DNR-labeled patients. The majority opinion was to include the patient in the decision-making process who is excluded according to the fatwa. Participants considered patients’ dignity, religious concerns, and legal concerns to be important in considering resuscitation. Conclusion We conclude a need to emphasize the issue of DNR and treatment of DNR patients in medical ethics classes in Saudi Arabia and put more effort to enact national DNR laws that include the patient in the decision-making process. PMID:27051329

  3. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A.

    2016-01-01

    Mothers’ instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study’s infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early. PMID:27420081

  4. Knowledge and practice of implant-retained restorations among dental students in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Fahim; Shah, Altaf Hussain; Zafar, Mohammad Sohail; Kola, Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and practice of implant retained restorations (IRR) among senior dental students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Four hundred questionnaires were distributed among senior dental students of five dental schools in Saudi Arabia. Student’s knowledge was assessed regarding which implant restoration [cement retained restoration (CRR) or screw retained restoration (SRR)] better provides the desired clinical properties. Students’ practice of IRR, perception of their knowledge and need for further education related to IRR were also assessed. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were employed to assess collected data. Results: Three hundred and fifty four senior dental students responded at a response rate of 88.5%. Thirty three percent respondents did not have any practical experience of IRR. Students showed a clear preference for CRR with regards to aesthetics (71.4%), passive fit (55.3%), fabrication ease (57.3%) and fracture resistance (40%). SRR were considered to provide better retention (59.6%), soft tissue health (51.1%) and ease of retrievability (72%). Nearly 40% of students agreed that they did not get sufficient information related to IRR in undergraduate courses. Conclusions: Clinical training of IRR is compromised in the undergraduate curriculum in dental schools of Saudi Arabia. The knowledge of dental students regarding IRR was broadly in line with current evidence. PMID:26430416

  5. Perspectives on specialist nursing in Saudi Arabia: a national model for success.

    PubMed

    Hibbert, Denise; Al-Sanea, Nasser A; Balens, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    In many parts of the world, vulnerable patient populations may be cared for by a clinical nurse specialist (CNS). Nurses desiring to develop themselves professionally in the clinical arena, within the specialty of their choice, have the opportunity to obtain the knowledge, skills, experience and qualifications necessary to attain advanced practice positions such as CNS or nurse consultant (NC). Although studies have demonstrated the benefits of such roles and while the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends it, advanced nursing practice is not yet integrated into the health care culture in Saudi Arabia. The reasons for this are multiple, but the most important is the poor image of clinical nursing throughout the country. This article aims to share a perspective on CNS practice, while casting light on some of the obstacles encountered within Saudi Arabia. A model is proposed representing specialist nurse-physician collaborative practice for implementation nationally. The model has been implemented in the care of the colorectal and stoma patient populations while taking into consideration patient population needs and local health care culture. This model is based on the concepts of holistic "patient-centered care", specialist nurse-physician collaborative practice, and the four practice domains for NCs (expert practice, leadership, research and education) as indicated by the Department of Health in the United Kingdom. We suggest this model will enable the introduction of advanced specialist nursing and collaborative partnerships in Saudi Arabia with benefits for patients, physicians, health care organizations and the nursing profession as a whole. PMID:22156643

  6. Sale of US military aircraft to Saudi Arabia. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bents, E.R.

    1995-05-01

    The end of the Cold War in the late 1980s resulted in a gigantic downsizing and consolidation of America`s defense industries, as domestic demand plummeted and the volume of international arms trading fell. However, in total world arms exports the United States exports more arms than any other nation. The country of Saudi Arabia has been the destination of a disproportionate amount of these weapons. The following account is an examination of the US military aerospace industry, the world military aerospace market, US government policy concerning arms exports, and the Saudi aerospace market. Each of these entities profoundly impacts US-Saudi military aerospace commerce. By individually analyzing the above factors, it will be demonstrated that the supply relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia is dependent on the convergence of several long standing and deep seated aspirations on the part of the three major players: the US Aerospace Industry, the US Government, and the Saudi Government. The US military aerospace industry`s exports are critical to ensure its independent survival, help fund crucial RD programs, and maintain a viable defense high tech industrial base in the U.S. In addition, it wishes to exert a military presence in the Gulf area and nurture relations with Saudi Arabia in particular, as the world`s leading oil producer. The Saudi government requires a military defense anchored in high tech aerospace systems, as well as a dependable and capable military ally such as the US.

  7. Cultural acceptance of robotic telestroke medicine among patients and healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khathaami, Ali M.; Alshahrani, Saeed M.; Kojan, Suleiman M.; Al-Jumah, Mohammed A.; Alamry, Ahmed A.; El-Metwally, Ashraf A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the degree of satisfaction and acceptance of stroke patients, their relatives, and healthcare providers toward using telestroke technology in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2012 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Remote Presence Robot (RPR), the RP-7i® (FDA- cleared) provided by InTouch Health was used in the study. Patients and their relatives were informed that the physician would appear through a screen on top of a robotic device, as part of their clinical care. Stroke patients admitted through the emergency department, and their relatives, as well as healthcare providers completed a self-administered satisfaction questionnaire following the telestroke consultation sessions. Results: Fifty participants completed the questionnaire. Most subjects agreed that the remote consultant interview was useful and that the audiovisual component of the intervention was of high quality; 98% agreed that they did not feel shy or embarrassed during the remote interview, were able to understand the instruction of the consultant, and recommended its use in stroke management. Furthermore, 92% agreed or strongly agreed that the use of this technology can efficiently replace the physical presence of a neurologist. Conclusion: Results suggest that the use of telestroke medicine is culturally acceptable among stroke patients and their families in Saudi Arabia and favorably received by healthcare providers. PMID:25630777

  8. Prevalence of Celiac Disease among Symptom-free Children from The Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Hatlani, Maher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim: Epidemiological studies of celiac disease (CD) among Saudi children have been performed only within some groups who are at a high risk of developing CD. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CD among symptom-free children from the public schools of the military campus of National Guard in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: Between 2012 and 2014, serum samples were collected from 1141 students (age 6–18 years) attending nine public schools of the military campus of National Guard in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Participants were screened for CD by testing for anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA (IgA-tTG) and IgG antibodies (IgG-tTG). Small intestinal biopsy was offered to all participants who tested positive for IgA-tTG [IgA-tTG >20 relative units (RU)/ml]. Results: Of the 1141 participants, 32 were IgA-tTG positive. Thus, the estimated serology-positive prevalence was 3%. An intestinal biopsy was performed in 10 of the participants with antibody positivity. The biopsy findings of all 10 children were consistent with CD. Thus, the estimated biopsy-confirmed prevalence was about 1%. Conclusions: The prevalence of CD was estimated to be about 1% among symptom-free children from the public schools of the military campus of National Guard in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. PMID:26655131

  9. Historical, cultural, and contemporary influences on the status of women in nursing in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Miller-Rosser, Kolleen; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2006-09-01

    Global nursing shortages have necessitated closer scrutiny of recruitment and retention initiatives of nurses both locally and internationally. For many decades the nursing workforce of Saudi Arabia has relied on international expatriates to be the backbone of the industry. In recent years however, Saudi women have been recruited into nursing preparation courses conducted at degree level. The many twists and turns of providing a local Saudi Arabian nursing workforce has paralleled Saudi's own history and this paper follows that journey. Our research has enabled us to provide some insights into nursing pre and post the enlightenment that accompanied the Prophet Mohammed's influence. We emphasize the influences of women leaders who emerged in Mohammed's time and bring lasting authority to the development of nursing in Saudi Arabia. The cultural issues that bind women in this society are explicated and related to recruitment and retention issues in nursing. Education matters, both past and present, are highlighted emphasizing the gains that nursing as a distinct occupation has made. Finally the paper concludes with a summation of contemporary achievements in Saudi Arabia moving nursing towards the much needed professional status and parity with other careers in health care. PMID:17279862

  10. The epidemiology of Dengue fever in Saudi Arabia: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alhaeli, Alaa; Bahkali, Salwa; Ali, Anna; Househ, Mowafa S; El-Metwally, Ashraf A

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is the most serious mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. DF is an acute febrile illness caused by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are endemic in certain cities of Saudi Arabia, such as Jeddah and Makkah (Mecca). An online literature search was conducted using relevant keywords to retrieve DF studies conducted in Saudi Arabia. Forty-five articles were identified initially. After screening for exclusion and retrieving full texts, a total of 10 articles were used for this review. Four studies were cross-sectional, and three observed a seroprevalence ranging from 31.7% to 56.9%, either among clinically suspected cases or among patients visiting the hospital for other reasons. Evidence extracted from risk factors and distribution studies indicated that young males are commonly affected. Fever, vomiting, thrombocytopenia and leukopoenia were the common features of the three studies related to clinical presentation of DF. One cross-sectional study concerning an educational program for DF demonstrated that a positive family history of DF, literate mothers, and age over 17 years were the predictors of a high DF knowledge score. However, the paucity of large epidemiological studies limits the generalizability of such evidence. Future studies in Saudi Arabia should focus upon the expansion of DF to other cities in the Kingdom. Larger epidemiological studies are needed for estimating the true burden and incidence of DF in the Saudi population, as they are limited to seroprevalence among clinically suspected cases and hospital-based patients. PMID:26106040

  11. Prevalence of non-strongyle gastrointestinal parasites of horses in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Anazi, Abdullah D; Alyousif, Mohamed S

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to provide recent data on the occurrence of non-strongyle intestinal parasite infestation in horses in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia as a basis for developing parasite control strategies. We conducted necropsy for 45 horses from September 2006 to November 2007 in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. 39 out of 45 horses were infected with intestinal parasites with an infestation rate of 86.6%. Infestations with seven nematode species and two species of Gasterophilus larva were found. The most prevalent parasites were Strongyloides westeri (64.4%) and Parascaris equorum (28.8%) followed by Habronema muscae (22.2%). Trichostrongylus axei and Oxyuris equi were less common at (11.1%) and (8.8%), respectively. Habronema megastoma and Setaria equine were found in two horses only (4.4%). Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae were recovered from 39 horses (86.6%) and Gasterophilus nasalis larvae were found in 17 horses (37.7%). Season had a significant effect on the prevalence of P. equorum and G. nasalis, while age of horses had a significant effect only on the prevalence of P. equorum. The husbandry in Saudi Arabia appears to be conductive to parasites transmitted in stables or by insects rather than in pasture. PMID:23961139

  12. Prevalence of non-strongyle gastrointestinal parasites of horses in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AL Anazi, Abdullah D.; Alyousif, Mohamed S.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to provide recent data on the occurrence of non-strongyle intestinal parasite infestation in horses in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia as a basis for developing parasite control strategies. We conducted necropsy for 45 horses from September 2006 to November 2007 in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. 39 out of 45 horses were infected with intestinal parasites with an infestation rate of 86.6%. Infestations with seven nematode species and two species of Gasterophilus larva were found. The most prevalent parasites were Strongyloides westeri (64.4%) and Parascaris equorum (28.8%) followed by Habronema muscae (22.2%). Trichostrongylus axei and Oxyuris equi were less common at (11.1%) and (8.8%), respectively. Habronema megastoma and Setaria equine were found in two horses only (4.4%). Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae were recovered from 39 horses (86.6%) and Gasterophilus nasalis larvae were found in 17 horses (37.7%). Season had a significant effect on the prevalence of P. equorum and G. nasalis, while age of horses had a significant effect only on the prevalence of P. equorum. The husbandry in Saudi Arabia appears to be conductive to parasites transmitted in stables or by insects rather than in pasture. PMID:23961139

  13. Perception on the Relationship between Cancer and Usage of Tobacco and Alcohol in Hail, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Increasing alcohol consumption in many countries is an important cause of cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of tobacco use and alcohol consumption and its related perception among population of Hail, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey from March to April 2012 covering 451 participants, in the city of Hail, Northern Saudi Arabia. Results: Out of 451 respondents, 355(78.7%) were male and 96 (21.3%) were female giving a male to female ratio of 3.7:1. The age range of respondents was 11 – 77 years with a mean of 32 years. Prevalence of tobacco use and alcoholic beverages consumption were 30.3% and 7.5%, respectively. Most of the tobacco users and alcohol consumers showed positive knowledge concerning the relation between tobacco use and/or alcohol consumption and cancer. Conclusion: It is evident that the prevalence of tobacco consumption is rising in the Hail region. Female participation in tobacco and alcohol related studies in the Hail – Saudi Arabia represent a major obstacle since it is considered as social stigma due to complete prohibition by law. PMID:24298474

  14. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among visitors to faith healers in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Alshehri, Youssef; Alfraih, Ibrahim; Alghamdi, Ayedh; Aldahash, Saleh; Alkhuzayem, Haifa; Albeeeshi, Haneen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among visitors to Faith Healers (FHs) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We also studied the sociodemographic profiles for these visitors, in addition to their past psychiatric history, reason(s) for seeking FH help, and past and current treatment experience with FHs. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among the visitors (n=321) to a number of faith healing settings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using a specially designed questionnaire and validated Arabic version of The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: Most of the participants were young adults (35.1±10.8 years) and males with intermediate and secondary levels of education who had not sought medical help prior to their visits. A high proportion of the FH visitors have diagnosable mental illnesses. Depressive and anxiety disorders were the most prevalent among the study participants; few visitors were affected by psychotic or bipolar disorders. Conclusions: The present study provides insight for understanding the type of patients with psychiatric disorders who visit Faith Healers.(FHs). The study highlights the tendency of psychiatric patients in Saudi Arabia to visit FHs, which could reflect the importance of further studies to clarify the impact of FHs on the management of those patients. PMID:25225530

  15. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2016-01-01

    Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study's infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early. PMID:27420081

  16. Dual-degree MBBS-PhD programs in Saudi Arabia: A call for implementation.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alamodi, Abdulhadi A; Alkattan, Wael; Alkattan, Khaled; Obeidat, Akef S

    2016-01-01

    Engaging medical students in scholarly research activities and producing clinically competent and research-oriented medical workforces are essential demands, particularly in developing countries. Dual-degree MD-PhD programs offer simultaneous rigorous education in medicine and research, and train its graduates (physician-scientists) to successfully catalyze translational research evolutions. Literature fundamentally identifies dual-degree MD-PhD programs as the single most important, well-established, popular and influential programs toward commencing physician-scientist professions. While the physician-scientist population is alarmingly vanishing in the West with ongoing efforts to reverse this undesired trend, such population is largely nonexisting, unfortunately to start with, in Saudi Arabia. This is simply because no single dual-degree MBBS-PhD program is yet established in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we call on the Saudi Higher Education bodies to implement dual-degree MBBS-PhD programs with anticipated generation of competent physician-scientists in Saudi Arabia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever report to call for such innovative implementation. PMID:26984038

  17. Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender and social factors status were obtained by questionnaires that had been answered by parents. Results: About 69% of children had dental caries with dmft score of 3.4 (± 3.6) and dmfs of 6.9 (± 9.9). There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Less caries was observed among children whose parents worked and it was statistically significant as well as whose mothers had high or low educational level. Increased number of family members appeared to have a high incidence of dental caries which was also statistically significant. There was no significant difference in dental caries prevalence with birth order. Conclusions: Dental caries among preschool children in Saudi Arabia was still very common. Improvement of preventive measure at early age should be emphasized by parents and dental health professionals. More attention is required for Non-working parents telling them about the risk of dental caries affecting their children and the awareness of preventive care of dental health. PMID:27182260

  18. Saudi Arabia: A future regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2015-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country of the Arabian Peninsula, blessed with significant natural resources, including oil, gas and minerals. Saudi Arabia has recognised the importance of education in social and economic transformation, and has established a large number of universities, research and advanced technical institutes which have broken the metropolitan boundaries and have been extended to the far-flung areas of the country. There are 68 universities and degree-awarding institutes. The educational budget reached its highest-ever level of $56.56 billion for the year 2014. About 124,000 Saudi students are pursuing higher education in about 500 universities around the world. Saudi Arabia produced 177826 research papers in Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database and in the year 2014 alone, 26168 research papers were published in indexed science journals with a rising h-index of 144. The country is turning into a regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology while swiftly shifting from an oil-based to a knowledge-based economy. PMID:26440844

  19. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Mai, P. Martin

    2016-04-01

    We are utilizing receiver function and surface wave dispersion data to investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia. The Arabian plate consists of the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform. The Arabian shield is a complicated mélange of several Proterozoic terrains, separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (so-called harrats). The Arabian platform is covered by thick Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. To understand the geo-dynamics and present-day geology in western Saudi Arabia, the origin and activity of the harrats needs to be investigated: are they controlled primarily by a local mantle plume underneath western Saudi Arabia or by lateral mantle flow from the Afar and (perhaps) Jordan hotspots? In our study, we first estimate Vp/Vs ratios by applying the H-κ stacking technique and construct local shear-wave velocity-depth profiles by jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). Our results reveal significant lateral variations in crustal thickness, S-velocity, and bulk Vp/Vs ratio. The Arabian shield has, on average a ~34 km thick crust with Vs ~3.72 km/s and Vp/Vs ~1.73. Thinner crust (~25 - 32 km thick) with strong lateral variations is present along the Red Sea coast. In contrast, the Arabian platform reveals a ~41 km thick crust with Vs ~3.52 km/s and Vp/Vs ~1.77. We find anomalously high Vp/Vs ratios at Harrat Lunayyir, interpreted as solidified magma intrusions. Slow shear-velocities in the upper-mantle lid throughout the southernmost and northernmost Arabian shield suggest lateral heating from hot mantle upwellings centered beneath Afar and (perhaps) Jordan. Our findings on crustal S-velocity structures, Vp/Vs ratios, and upper-mantle lid velocities support the hypothesis of lateral mantle flow from the Afar and (perhaps

  20. The Social Validation of Behaviors Included in the Critical Events Index of the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders in Male Saudi Arabia Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwan, Emad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) identify which behaviors from the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) Critical Events Index occur in male Saudi Arabia primary schools and how often teachers perceive their occurrence; (b) determine the extent of concern male Saudi Arabia primary school teachers report regarding these behaviors;…

  1. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping

    PubMed Central

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies. PMID:22140343

  2. Survey of the reptilian fauna of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. V. The lizard fauna of Turaif region.

    PubMed

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Otaibi, Hamad S

    2016-09-01

    Turaif area located in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important regions of the Kingdom. This work was proposed to throw light on the diversity of lizard fauna investigated through the collection and subsequent identification of specimens from different localities of Turaif region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixteen species of lizards belonging to 5 families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae and Varanidae) were recorded. Lacertidae was the most common family. Three species of lizards namely Acanthodactylus orientalis, Acanthodactylus scutellatus and Acanthodactylus grandis were reported for the first time in the Turaif region of Saudi Arabia. The geographical distribution of the collected species within this province was mapped. PMID:27579015

  3. Progress Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Amoudi, Anmed; Alawaji, Saleh H.; Cornwall, Chris; Mahfoodh, Mohammed bin; Marion, Bill; Maxwell, Eugene L.; Wilcox, Stephen M.

    1999-08-20

    In 1987, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) signed a five-year Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development (R and D), which has been extended to 2000. Tasks include: (1) upgrade solar radiation measurements in Saudi Arabia; (2) assemble a database of concurrent solar radiation, satellite (METEOSAT), and meteorological data; (3) adapt NREL models and other software for Saudi Arabia; (4) develop procedures, algorithms, and software to estimate solar irradiance; and (5) prepare a grid of solar radiation data for preparing maps and atlases and estimating solar radiation resources and solar energy system performances at locations in Saudi Arabia.

  4. A need for One Health approach – lessons learned from outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Osama Ahmed; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging viral zoonosis that impacts human and animal health. It is transmitted from animals to humans directly through exposure to blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals or via mosquito bites. The disease is endemic to Africa but has recently spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Our aim was to compare two major outbreaks of RVF in Saudi Arabia (2000) and Sudan (2007) from a One Health perspective. Methods Using the terms ‘Saudi Arabia’, ‘Sudan’, and ‘RVF’, articles were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and web pages of international organizations as well as local sources in Saudi Arabia and Sudan. Results The outbreak in Saudi Arabia caused 883 human cases, with a case fatality rate of 14% and more than 40,000 dead sheep and goats. In Sudan, 698 human cases of RVF were recognized (case fatality, 31.5%), but no records of affected animals were available. The ecology and environment of the affected areas were similar with irrigation canals and excessive rains providing an attractive habitat for mosquito vectors to multiply. The outbreaks resulted in livestock trade bans leading to a vast economic impact on the animal market in the two countries. The surveillance system in Sudan showed a lack of data management and communication between the regional and federal health authorities, while in Saudi Arabia which is the stronger economy, better capacity and contingency plans resulted in efficient countermeasures. Studies of the epidemiology and vectors were also performed in Saudi Arabia, while in Sudan these issues were only partly studied. Conclusion We conclude that a One Health approach is the best option to mitigate outbreaks of RVF. Collaboration between veterinary, health, and environmental authorities both on national and regional levels is needed. PMID:24505511

  5. Audit of stool analysis results to ensure the prevalence of common types of intestinal parasites in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Eligail, A.M.; Masawi, A.M.; Al-Jaser, N.M.; Abdelrahman, K.A.; Shah, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the incidence of common types of parasites encountered in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia. The current study is a retrospective study which includes the results of 10427 stool sample and occult blood sample. The results obtained during last two years (2005–2007), were compared to the earlier reports on parasites in the Central as well as other regions of Saudi Arabia. Attempts were made to find out the cases of increasing and/or decreasing trend of parasite incidence and to locate any differences between the current study results and the earlier reports. PMID:23961051

  6. Outcome of patients with glioblastoma in Saudi Arabia: Single center experience

    PubMed Central

    ALTWAIRGI, ABDULLAH K.; ALGAREEB, WALEED; YAHYA, GAAEM; MAKLAD, AHMED M.; ALY, MOAMEN MOM; AL SHAKWEER, WAFA; BALBAID, ALI; ALSAEED, EYAD; ALHUSSAIN, HUSSAIN; ORZ, YASSIR; LARY, AHMED; ELYAMANY, ASHRAF

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is associated with one of the worst 5 year survival rates among all human cancer types. To date, no published data are available for the outcome of this disease in Saudi Arabia. The present study performed a single-center, retrospective cohort study to evaluate the outcome of patients with GBM in Saudi Arabia. The Comprehensive Cancer Center at King Fahad Medical city (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) was used in the present study. All adult patients (≥18 years) diagnosed with histologically proven GBM between January 2008 and December 2013 were included in the present study. A total of 90 patients were treated during the specified period. Of this, 73 (81%) patients underwent resection and 17 (19%) had biopsy only. The majority of patients (n=88; 98%) received radiotherapy (XRT): 67 (76%) with standard and 21 (24%) with hypo-fractionated dosage. Of the total patients, 65 (72%) received combined modality therapy [standard XRT concurrently with Temozolmide (TMZ)]. The 6 month progression-free survival rate was 43% for all patients and 55% for the combined modality subgroup. The median overall survival (OS) for all patients was 13.7 months. However, the median OS for patients treated with combined modality was 19.7 months. In this single-center retrospective study, the outcomes of patients with GBM were similar to those in previously reported studies. An improved outcome was associated with an improved performance status, absence of residual disease and use of adjuvant TMZ. PMID:27123275

  7. Emerging frontiers of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: The metamorphosis in the last fifty years

    PubMed Central

    Asiri, Yousif A.

    2010-01-01

    The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of “medical and pharmacy education” is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established only half a century ago. This period has seen major changes in the dimension of “pharmacy education” to keep pace with the education systems in the United States and Europe. As our knowledge and perceptions about pharmaceuticals change with time, this motivates educators to search for better teaching alternatives to the ever increasing number of enthusiastic and budding pharmacists. Recently, the academic system in Saudi Arabian Pharmacy has adopted a more clinically-oriented Pharm. D. curriculum. This paper deals with the major changes from the inception of a small pharmacy faculty in 1959, the College of Pharmacy at the King Saud University, Riyadh, to the model of progress and a prototype of pharmacy colleges in Saudi Arabia. The fifty year chronological array can be regarded as an epitome of progress in pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia from its traditional curriculum to the modern day Pharm. D. curriculum with a high population growth and expanding health care sector, the demand for qualified pharmacists is growing and is projected to grow considerably in the future. The number of pharmacy graduates is increasing each year by many folds and to meet the needs the system lays stress upon a constant revising and updating of the current curriculum from a global perspective. PMID:23960737

  8. Similarities in the Paleozoic successions of north Africa and Arabia and implications for petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Clark-Lowes, D.D. )

    1988-08-01

    From field studies in southwest Libya and northwest Saudi Arabia, the facies of the Paleozoic succession of the north African/Arabian stable cratonic margin of Gondwanaland are interpreted as fluvial, estuarine, deltaic, shallow marine, and glacial deposits. The facies of the Saq and Tabuk Formations of Saudi Arabia bear witness to a sedimentary history that is very similar to that of north Africa, the Saq Formation (Cambrian-Arenig) being equivalent to the Hassaouna Formation of Libya and the Tabuk Formation being subdivided and correlated using well-dated shale members to the following formations: Haouaz (Llanvirn-Llandeilo), Melez-Chograne (Caradoc), Memouniat (Ashgill), Tanezzuft/Acacus (Llandovery-Ludlow), and Tadrart (Gedinnian -Emsian). The Cambrian-Ordovician succession comprises Nubian-type fluvial and estuarine sandstones which pass up to regressive deltaic/shallow marine sequences overlain by Upper Ordovician glacial deposits that lie in deeply incised paleovalleys recorded from Saudi Arabia and north Africa. The Silurian succession comprises the deposits of a postglacial marine transgression of vast lateral extent and a subsequent regression, the sandstones of which are markedly diachronous. The Lower Devonian succession comprises fining-upward retrogradational deltaic (transgressive) sequences of Nubian-type sandstones (fluvial to shallow marine) which form widespread blanket sandstone bodies. The prospectivity of these strata is well known from Algeria in the west to Jordan in the east, the Llandoverian oil-prone source rocks providing the key to Cambrian-Ordovician and Lower Devonian plays. The significance of underlying paleovalley-fill fluvioglacial sandstones as linear reservoir targets has yet to be fully appreciated.

  9. Mars Eolian Geology at Airphoto Scales: The Large Wind Streaks of Western Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01

    More than 27,000 pictures at aerial photograph scales (1.5-12 m/pixel) have been acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) since September 1997. The pictures are valuable for testing hypotheses about geologic history and processes of Mars. Of particular interest are eolian features connected to surface albedo patterns. This work is focused on low-albedo wind streaks, some over 100 km long, in western Arabia Terra. Each streak is widest where it originates at an impact crater (typically 25-150 km diameter). The streaks taper downwind. Within the associated craters there is a lower-albedo surface that, in nearly all observed cases, includes barchan dunes indicative of transport in the same direction as the wind streaks. Upwind of the dunes there is usually an outcrop of layered material that might have served as a source for dune sand. MOC images show that the west Arabia streaks consist of a smooth-surfaced, multiple-meters-thick, mantle (smooth at 1.5 m/pixel) that appears to be superposed on local surfaces. No dunes are present, indicating that down-streak transport of sediment via saltation and traction have not occurred. Two models might explain the observed properties: (1) the streaks consist of dark silt- and clay-sized grains deflated from the adjacent crater interiors and deposited from suspension or (2) they are remnants (protected in the lee of impact crater rims) of a formerly much larger, regional covering of low albedo, smooth-surfaced mantle. The latter hypothesis is based on observation of low albedo mantled surfaces occurring south of west Arabia in Terra Meridiani. For reasons yet unknown, a large fraction of the martian equatorial regions are covered by low albedo, mesa-forming material that lies unconformably atop eroded layered and cratered terrain. Both hypotheses are being explored via continued selective targeting of new MOC images as well as analyses of the new data.

  10. Prevalence and Pattern of Refractive Errors among Primary School Children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Wadaani, Fahd Abdullah Al; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Ayub; Khan, Ataur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Some 12.8 million in the age group 5–15 years are visually impaired from uncorrected or inadequately corrected refractive errors. In Saudi Arabia, the size of this public health problem is not well defined especially among primary schoolchildren. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A total of 2246 Saudi primary school children aged 6 to 14 years of both genders were selected using multistage sampling method form 30 primary schools located in the three different areas of Al Hassa. School children were interviewed to collect demographics and vision data using a special data collection form followed by screening for refractive errors by trained optometrists within the school premises using a standardized protocol. Assessment of visual acuity and ocular motility evaluation were carried out and cover-uncover test was performed. Children detected with defective vision were referred for further examination employing subjective refraction with auto refractometer and objective refraction using streak retinoscopy after 1% cyclopentolate. Of the screened school children (N=2002), the overall prevalence of refractive errors was 13.7% (n=274), higher among females (Odds ratio, OR=1.39, P=0.012) and significantly more among students of rural residence (OR=2.40, P=0.001). The prevalence of refractive errors was disproportionately more among those aged 12-14 years (OR=9.02, P=0.001). Only 9.4% of students with poor vision were wore spectacles for correction. Myopia was the most commonly encountered refractive error among both genders (65.7% of the total errors encountered). Uncorrected refractive errors affected a sizable portion of primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Primary schoolchildren especially females, rural and older children represents high risk group for refractive errors for which the included children were unaware. PMID:23283044

  11. Trauma patterns in patients attending the Emergency Department of Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hokkam, Emad; Gonna, Abdelaziz; Zakaria, Ossama; El-shemally, Amany

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Modern civilization and the sharp rise in living standards have led to dramatic changes in trauma pattern in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to describe the different patterns of injuries of patients attending the Emergency Department of Jazan General Hospital (JGH) in the southwest corner of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A total number of 1 050 patients were enrolled in the study. A pre-organized data sheet was prepared for each patient attended the Emergency Department of JGH from February 2012 to January 2013. It contains data about socio-demographics, trauma data, clinical evaluation results, investigations as well as treatment strategies. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 25.3±16.8 years. Most (45.1%) of the patients were at age of 18–30 years. Males (64.3%) were affected by trauma more common than females. More than half (60.6%) of the patients were from urban areas. The commonest kind of injury was minor injury (60%), followed by blunt trauma (30.9%) and then penetrating trauma (9.1%). The mean time from the incident to arrival at hospital was 41.3±79.8 minutes. The majority (48.2%) of the patients were discharged after management of trivial trauma, whereas 2.3% were admitted to ICU, 7.7% transferred to inpatient wards, and 17.7% observed and subsequently discharged. The mortality rate of the patients was 2.6%. CONCLUSION: Trauma is a major health problem, especially in the young population in Saudi Arabia. Blunt trauma is more frequent than penetrating trauma, with road traffic accidents accounting for the majority. PMID:25802567

  12. Anisotropy Orientation from SKS Shear Wave Splitting, along the Southeastern Margin of Arabia, Dhofar Region, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Lazki, A.; Ebinger, C.; Kendall, M.; Helffrich, G.; Leroy, S.; Tiberi, C.; Stuart, G.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the Dhofar-Socotra Broadband Seismic Experiment, eighteen broadband stations were temporarily deployed on the southeast margin of Arabia in Dhofar region, Sultanate of Oman. The Dhofar-Socotra seismic experiment stations were deployed for the period September-2005 to August-2006 and covered an area of about 250km along and 100km across the margin. The spacing between stations is about 20 kilometers. The objective of this deployment is to map the structure and rheology of the crust and upper mantle of the young Gulf of Aden passive margins. This deployment is aimed at studying the transition zone across the passive margin. In this study we use shear wave splitting methodology to map upper mantle lateral anisotropy variation beneath the study area. We have categorically selected events that were at epicenter distances larger than 85 degrees. The SKS and few PKS splitting results show roughly N-S orientations for stations located on the eastern parts of the study area. This agrees with observation on stations located on the exposed Arabian shield region, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Since most of the events were coming from east, this made the analyses more difficult (i.e., only one shear-wave is excited). However, a more NW-SE orientation is consistently observed on the three most westerly stations. Generally the splitting magnitudes are small (~0.6sec). Anisotropy variations were observed to occur along the margin (not across). Such variations require careful analysis of the pre-Tertiary rocks and basement that are masked by the Tertiary deposits. Keywords: Arabia, SKS, Shear Wave Splitting, anisotropy, passive continental margin

  13. HPV Infection in Cervical and Other Cancers in Saudi Arabia: Implication for Prevention and Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Alsbeih, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes' distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap smear) and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and -18). Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and -18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women), a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers, and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program. PMID:24744990

  14. Prevalence and causes of blindness and diabetic retinopathy in Southern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hajar, Saad; Hazmi, Ali Al; Wasli, Mustafa; Mousa, Ahmed; Rabiu, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Jazan district, Southern Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using the standardized Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) and DR cross-sectional methodology, 3800 subjects were randomly selected from the population of ≥50 years of age in Jazan, Saudi Arabia between November 2011 and January 2012. Participants underwent screening comprised of interview, random blood glucose test, and ophthalmic assessment including visual acuity (VA) and fundus examination. Among participants with VA <6/18 in either eye, the cause(s) of visual impairment was determined. Participants were classified as diabetic if they had previous diagnoses of diabetes, or random blood glucose >200 mg/dl. Diabetic participants were assessed for DR using dilated fundus examination. All data were recorded using the RAAB + DR standardized forms. Results: The prevalence of bilateral blindness <3/60 was 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.74 - 3.90). Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (58.6%); followed by posterior segment diseases (20%), which included DR (7; 3.3%). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 22.4%, (95% CI: 21.09 - 23.79), among them; 27.8% had DR. The prevalence of sight-threatening DR was 5.7%. Conclusion: The prevalence of DM and the corresponding proportion of DR in this region is lower than that reported in other regions of Saudi Arabia. However, the prevalence of blindness not related to DR is relatively higher than the other studies. PMID:25828282

  15. Prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa , Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Wadaani, Fahd Abdullah; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Ayub; Khan, Atuar Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Some 12.8 million in the age group 5-15 years are visually impaired from uncorrected or inadequately corrected refractive errors. In Saudi Arabia, the size of this public health problem is not well defined especially among primary schoolchildren. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia.  A total of 2246 Saudi primary school children aged 6 to 14 years of both genders were selected using multistage sampling method form 30 primary schools located in the three different areas of Al Hassa. School children were interviewed to collect demographics and vision data using a special data collection form followed by screening for refractive errors by trained optometrists within the school premises using a standardized protocol. Assessment of visual acuity and ocular motility evaluation were carried out and cover-uncover test was performed. Children detected with defective vision were referred for further examination employing subjective refraction with auto refractometer and objective refraction using streak retinoscopy after 1% cyclopentolate. Of the screened school children (N=2002), the overall prevalence of refractive errors was 13.7% (n=274), higher among females (Odds ratio, OR=1.39, P=0.012) and significantly more among students of rural residence (OR=2.40, P=0.001). The prevalence of refractive errors was disproportionately more among those aged 12-14 years (OR=9.02, P=0.001). Only 9.4% of students with poor vision were wore spectacles for correction. Myopia was the most commonly encountered refractive error among both genders (65.7% of the total errors encountered). Uncorrected refractive errors affected a sizable portion of primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Primary schoolchildren especially females, rural and older children represents high risk group for refractive errors for which the included children were unaware. PMID:23283044

  16. HPV Infection in Cervical and Other Cancers in Saudi Arabia: Implication for Prevention and Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Alsbeih, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap smear) and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and -18). Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and -18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women), a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers, and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program. PMID:24744990

  17. Possible ancient giant basin and related water enrichment in the Arabia Terra province, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Barlow, N.G.; Anderson, R.C.; Williams, J.-P.; Miyamoto, H.; Ferris, J.C.; Strom, R.G.; Taylor, G.J.; Fairen, A.G.; Baker, V.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Keller, J.M.; Kerry, K.; Janes, D.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Hare, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    A circular albedo feature in the Arabia Terra province was first hypothesized as an ancient impact basin using Viking-era information. To test this unpublished hypothesis, we have analyzed the Viking era-information together with layers of new data derived from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey (MO) missions. Our analysis indicates that Arabia Terra is an ancient geologic province of Mars with many distinct characteristics, including predominantly Noachian materials, a unique part of the highland-lowland boundary, a prominent paleotectonic history, the largest region of fretted terrain on the planet, outflow channels with no obvious origins, extensive exposures of eroded layered sedimentary deposits, and notable structural, albedo, thermal inertia, gravity, magnetic, and elemental signatures. The province also is marked by special impact crater morphologies, which suggest a persistent volatile-rich substrate. No one characteristic provides definitive answers to the dominant event(s) that shaped this unique province. Collectively the characteristics reported here support the following hypothesized sequence of events in Arabia Terra: (1) an enormous basin, possibly of impact origin, formed early in martian history when the magnetic dynamo was active and the lithosphere was relatively thin, (2) sediments and other materials were deposited in the basin during high erosion rates while maintaining isostatic equilibrium, (3) sediments became water enriched during the Noachian Period, and (4) basin materials were uplifted in response to the growth of the Tharsis Bulge, resulting in differential erosion exposing ancient stratigraphic sequences. Parts of the ancient basin remain water-enriched to the present day. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pleistocene-Holocene boundary in Southern Arabia from the perspective of human mtDNA variation.

    PubMed

    Al-Abri, Abdulrahim; Podgorná, Eliška; Rose, Jeffrey I; Pereira, Luísa; Mulligan, Connie J; Silva, Nuno M; Bayoumi, Riad; Soares, Pedro; Cerný, Viktor

    2012-10-01

    It is now known that several population movements have taken place at different times throughout southern Arabian prehistory. One of the principal questions under debate is if the Early Holocene peopling of southern Arabia was mainly due to input from the Levant during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, to the expansion of an autochthonous population, or some combination of these demographic processes. Since previous genetic studies have not been able to include all parts of southern Arabia, we have helped fill this lacuna by collecting new population datasets from Oman (Dhofar) and Yemen (Al-Mahra and Bab el-Mandab). We identified several new haplotypes belonging to haplogroup R2 and generated its whole genome mtDNA tree with age estimates undertaken by different methods. R2, together with other considerably frequent southern Arabian mtDNA haplogroups (R0a, HV1, summing up more than 20% of the South Arabian gene pool) were used to infer the past effective population size through Bayesian skyline plots. These data indicate that the southern Arabian population underwent a large expansion already some 12 ka. A founder analysis of these haplogroups shows that this expansion is largely attributed to demographic input from the Near East. These results support thus the spread of a population coming from the north, but at a significantly earlier date than presently considered by archaeologists. Our data suggest that some of the mtDNA lineages found in southern Arabia have persisted in the region since the end of the Last Ice Age. PMID:22927010

  19. Dissemination and fractionation of projectile materials in the impact melts from Wabar Crater, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; See, Thomas H.; Hoerz, Friedrich

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from the analyses of small ballistically dispersed melt samples (occurring in the form of aerodynamically shaped spheres, dumbbells, and teardrops) from the Wabar Crater (Saudi Arabia) and of melts from the Wabar and Nejed meteorites. On the basis of the data obtained and of models for crater forming processes it is concluded that the ballistically-dispersed glasses were formed from material at shallow levels in the target zone where temperatures were higher and where intimate physical contact with the disrupting impactor was achieved. Siderophile element fractionation was completed early, while the impactor was undergoing decompression and prior to mixing with the target glasses.

  20. The occurrence of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater effluents in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Yoon, Min; Hamadeh, Ahmed F; Li, Dong; Drewes, Jörg E

    2014-04-15

    Emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) released into the environment via discharge of wastewater effluents have been detected in rivers and lakes worldwide, raising concerns due to their potential persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. This study provides the first reconnaissance of TOrC occurrence in wastewater effluents within Saudi Arabia. Four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs 1-4) located in Western Saudi Arabia were sampled hourly over twelve-hour periods, for a total of six sampling events. All samples were analyzed for a wide range of TOrC encompassing pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. Treatment and capacities of the plants varied from non-nitrifying to full biological nutrient removal providing a representative cross section of different types of plants operational within the country. A comparison of TOrC occurrence in effluents in Saudi Arabia with respective effluent qualities in the United States revealed similar levels for most TOrC. Overall, the occurrence of TOrC was higher at two of the plants. The higher TOrC concentrations at WWTP 1 are likely due to the non-nitrifying biological treatment process. The unique TOrC occurrence observed in the WWTP 3 effluent was unlike any other plant and was attributed to the influence of a large number of international visitors in its sewershed. The occurrence of TOrC in this plant was not expected to be representative of the occurrence elsewhere in the country. Bimodal diurnal variation expected for a range of TOrC was not observed, though some hourly variation in TOrC loading was noted for WWTP 3. Since water reclamation and reuse have received increasing interest in Saudi Arabia within the last few years, results from this study provide a good foundation in deciding whether advanced treatment is necessary to attenuate TOrC deemed to be of concern in effluents, or if natural treatment such as managed aquifer recharge provides sufficient protection to public health. PMID

  1. Imported cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in a Chinese laborer who worked in Saudi Arabia*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Liu, Fang; Liu, Haibo; Hu, Wenxing; Sang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We report an imported case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 37-year-old man from Saudi Arabia caused by Leishmania major. He presented with non-healing nodulo-ulcerative lesions with a "volcanic crater" on the lower limbs. It was clearly cutaneous leishmaniasis - a rare disease in China - as reflected by the patient's clinical history, the lesions' morphology, histopathological examination, culture and PCR analysis of the lesions. The patient was completely cured after two cycles of sodium stibogluconate treatment. This case report demonstrates that dermatologists should be aware of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in non-endemic areas. PMID:27438208

  2. Imported cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in a Chinese laborer who worked in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Liu, Fang; Liu, Haibo; Hu, Wenxing; Sang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We report an imported case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 37-year-old man from Saudi Arabia caused by Leishmania major. He presented with non-healing nodulo-ulcerative lesions with a "volcanic crater" on the lower limbs. It was clearly cutaneous leishmaniasis - a rare disease in China - as reflected by the patient's clinical history, the lesions' morphology, histopathological examination, culture and PCR analysis of the lesions. The patient was completely cured after two cycles of sodium stibogluconate treatment. This case report demonstrates that dermatologists should be aware of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in non-endemic areas. PMID:27438208

  3. New evidence for land plants from the lower Middle Ordovician of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strother, Paul K.; Al-Hajri, Said; Traverse, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Macerations of Middle Ordovician (Llanvirnian) shales from Saudi Arabia yield an assemblage of spores of probable land plants (cryptospores), acritarchs, and chitinozoa. The production of sporopollenin-containing, sporelike tetrads is considered a fundamental character of the embryophytes, because no extant algae produce spores of this type. No trilete spores were found at this horizon, reinforcing previous assertions that obligate meiotic tetrads predate the earliest trilete spores. Sporomorph tetrads and dyads, in conjunction with cuticlelike fragments, were probably derived from terrestrial plants at a bryophyte grade. Although there are reports of possibly older cryptospores, the Hanadir assemblage described herein clearly establishes their presence by Llanvirnian time.

  4. Creating and Mapping Flash Flood Social and Physical Vulnerability Index of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauhidur Rahman, Muhammad; Aldosary, Adel S.; Nahiduzzaman, Khondokar Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Over the past couple of years, the frequency and magnitude of flash floods are increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For effective planning and mitigation purposes, it is necessary to identify and visualize areas that are vulnerable to the flooding. In this paper, we will first create a flash flood social and physical vulnerability index for the city of Riyadh based on physical and social-economic data. Building upon the index, the areas of Riyadh that are highly vulnerable to flash floods will be identified and mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Finally, possible mitigation measures that can be used to reduce the impacts of flooding will be discussed in details.

  5. Ultra-high CPV system development and deployment in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khonkar, Hussam; Wacaser, Brent; Martin, Yves; Kirchner, Peter; Alyahya, Abdulaziz; Aljouad, Mazen; Halawani, Mohamed; van Kessel, Theodor

    2013-09-01

    This paper discusses the development and deployment of an ultra-high concentrating PV module that utilizes concentration above 1400X on multijunction solar cells. The development process included the selection of cell assemblies, primary and secondary optics, and focal distance. The systems were deployed in Saudi Arabia inside the Solar Village near Riyadh and in Khafji near the border of Saudi and Kuwait, following the deployment of first prototype in Yorktown, NY. Data from operation in those areas are shown here, and next steps of optimizing the module performance are discussed.

  6. Promoting health education and public awareness about dengue and its mosquito vector in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Al Thabiani; Al-Shami, Salman A; Mahyoub, Jazem A; Hatabbi, Mesed; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Md Rawi, Che Salmah

    2014-01-01

    Currently, dengue fever is considered as the main health problem in several parts (Mekkah, Jeddah, Jazan and Najran) of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with dramatically increase in the number of cases reported every year. This is associated with obvious ineffectiveness in the recent control and management programs for the mosquito vector (Aedes aegypti). Here, we suggested promoting the health education and public awareness among Saudi people to improve the control of dengue mosquito vector. Several suggestions and recommendations were highlighted here to ensure effectiveness in the future control and management programs of dengue mosquito vector in KSA. PMID:25403705

  7. Early Carboniferous (˜357 Ma) crust beneath northern Arabia: Tales from Tell Thannoun (southern Syria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Robert J.; Ren, Minghua; Ali, Kamal; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Al Safarjalani, Abdulrahman; Nasir, Sobhi; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Leybourne, Matthew I.; Romer, Rolf L.

    2014-05-01

    Continental crust beneath northern Arabia is deeply buried and poorly known. To advance our knowledge of this crust, we studied 8 xenoliths brought to the surface by Neogene eruptions of Tell Thannoun, S. Syria. The xenolith suite consists of two peridotites, one pyroxenite, four mafic granulites, and one charnockite. The four mafic granulites and charnockite are probably samples of the lower crust, and two mafic granulites gave 2-pyroxene equilibration temperatures of 780-800 °C, which we take to reflect temperatures at the time of formation. Peridotite and pyroxenite gave significantly higher temperatures of ∼900 °C, consistent with derivation from the underlying lithospheric mantle. Fe-rich peridotite yielded T∼800 °C, perhaps representing a cumulate layer in the crust. Three samples spanning the lithologic range of the suite (pyroxenite, mafic granulite, and charnockite) yielded indistinguishable concordant U-Pb zircon ages of ∼357 Ma, interpreted to approximate when these magmas crystallized. These igneous rocks are mostly juvenile additions from the mantle, as indicated by low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.70312 to 0.70510) and strongly positive initial εNd(357 Ma) (+4 to +9.5). Nd model ages range from 0.55 to 0.71 Ga. We were unable to unequivocally infer a tectonic setting where these melts formed: convergent margin, rift, or hotspot. These xenoliths differ from those of Jordan and Saudi Arabia to the south in four principal ways: 1) age, being least 200 Ma younger than the presumed Neoproterozoic (533-1000 Ma) crust beneath Jordan and Saudi Arabia; 2) the presence of charnockite; 3) abundance of Fe-rich mafic and ultramafic lithologies; and 4) the presence of sapphirine. Our studies indicate that northern Arabian plate lithosphere contains a significant proportion of juvenile Late Paleozoic crust, the extent of which remains to be elucidated. This discovery helps explain fission track resetting documented for rocks from Israel and provides insights into

  8. Mental and Social Health Atlas I in Saudi Arabia: 2007-08.

    PubMed

    Al-Habeeb, A A; Qureshi, N A

    2010-05-01

    Based on the World Health Organization's Mental Health Atlas, the first Mental and Social Health Atlas in Saudi Arabia describes the historical background of mental health and social services in the country and identifies several deficiencies in the system including infrastructure and logistics and lack of epidemiological data. There is now great progress in strategic planning for developing and improving mental health care services across the nation, with suggestions to develop psychiatric services for identified special populations, to establish community mental health care services, to improve research and training in mental health, and to update mental health annual information systems using advanced information technology. PMID:20799560

  9. Active aeolian processes on Mars: A regional study in Arabia and Meridiani Terrae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D.A.; Fenton, L.K.; Geissler, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence of widespread aeolian activity in the Arabia Terra/Meridiani region (Mars), where different kinds of aeolian modifications have been detected and classified. Passing from the regional to the local scale, we describe one particular dune field in Meridiani Planum, where two ripple populations are distinguished by means of different migration rates. Moreover, a consistent change in the ripple pattern is accompanied by significant dune advancement (between 0.4-1 meter in one Martian year) that is locally triggered by large avalanche features. This suggests that dune advancement may be common throughout the Martian tropics. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Techno-economic evaluation of waste lube oil re-refining in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M.F.; Hamdan, A.J.; Rahman, F.

    1995-12-31

    About 80 million gallons of automotive lubricating oils are sold in Saudi Arabia. Much of this oil, after use, is actually contributing to the increased pollution of land because of indiscriminate dumping. Any scheme of secondary use of the waste lube oils would be of interest both for conservation of energy resources and for protection of environment. This paper discusses the secondary use for the used automotive lubricating oils. Process technology of Meinken, Mohawk and KTI were selected for the techno-economic feasibility study for refining used oil. Profitability analysis of each process is worked out and the results are compared.

  11. Asthma knowledge and behaviours among mothers of asthmatic children in Aseer, south-west Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Binali, A M; Mahfouz, A A; Al-Fifi, S; Naser, S M; Al-Gelban, K S

    2010-11-01

    Mothers of children with bronchial asthma consecutively admitted to Aseer central hospital, Saudi Arabia (n = 171), were interviewed using a questionnaire based on the Chicago Community Asthma Survey to study their knowledge and behaviours concerning bronchial asthma. The least known information among mothers was the complications of bronchial asthma. Breathing exercises during asthma attacks were the least practised behaviour. In a multivariate analysis, significant risk factors for poor knowledge and behaviours among mothers were female sex of the child, illiterate mother and young age of mother (< 30 years). More education is needed to help the mothers of asthmatic children to acquire the necessary knowledge and practices to care for their children. PMID:21218739

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aboudi, Ibrahim Suliman; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and attitude with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Center at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The EuroQoL-five-dimensional (EQ-5D) scale was used to assess HRQoL. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. The brief diabetic knowledge test in questionnaire format developed by the University of Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center and the attitude toward self-care questionnaire based on the diabetic care profile were used. Results: Fifty-eight (77.35%) respondents were male with a mean 12.6 ± 8.4 years of a history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3%) were in the age group of 45–55 years with a mean age of 54 ± 9.2 years. A moderate level of HRQoL (0.71 ± 0.22) was recorded in the study cohort. The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 ± 0.23 vs. 0.74 ± 0.20). The mean score of Michigan Diabetic Knowledge Test was 8.96 ± 2.1 and the median score was 9.00. Of 75 diabetic patients, 14.7% had poor knowledge; 72% had moderate knowledge, and only 13.3% had good knowledge. The average attitude score of all respondents was 6.38 ± 2.11. There was a significant positive association between attitude and EQ-5D score. Conclusion: HRQoL and knowledge scores were moderate in type 2 diabetic patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patient attitude toward the disease was positive, and this was positively associated with HRQoL; most respondents believed they are responsible for their care. It is likely that a high quality of diabetes self-management education program will provide benefits and affect significantly on type 2 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27413347

  13. Right-lateral shear across Iran and kinematic change in the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Mark B.; Kheirkhah, Monireh; Emami, Mohammad H.; Jones, Stuart J.

    2011-02-01

    New offset determinations for right-lateral strike-slip faults in Iran revise the kinematics of the Arabia-Eurasia collision, by indicating along-strike lengthening of the collision zone before a change to the present kinematic regime at ˜5 Ma. A series of right-lateral strike-slip faults is present across the Turkish-Iranian plateau between 48°E and 57°E. Fault strikes vary between NW-SE and NNW-SSE. Several of the faults are seismically active and/or have geomorphic evidence for Holocene slip. None of the faults affects the GPS-derived regional velocity field, indicating active slip rates are ≤2 mm yr-1. We estimate total offsets for these faults from displaced geological and geomorphic markers, based on observations from satellite imagery, digital topography, geology maps and our own fieldwork observations, and combine these results with published estimates for fault displacement. Total right-lateral offset of the Dehu, Anar, Deh Shir, Kashan, Ab-Shirin-Shurab, Kousht Nousrat, Qom, Bid Hand, Indes, Soltanieh and Takab faults is ˜250 km. Other faults (North Zanjan, Saveh, Jorjafk, Rafsanjan, Kuh Banan and Behabad) have unknown or highly uncertain amounts of slip. Collectively, these faults are inferred to have accommodated part of the Arabia-Eurasia convergence. Three roles are possible, which are not mutually exclusive: (1) shortening via anticlockwise, vertical axis rotations; (2) northward movement of Iranian crust with respect to stable Afghanistan to the east; (3) combination with coeval NW-SE thrusts in the Turkish-Iranian plateau, to produce north-south plate convergence (`strain partitioning'). This strike-slip faulting across Iran requires along-strike lengthening of the collision zone. This was possible until the Pliocene (≤ 5 Ma), when the Afghan crust collided with the western margin of the Indian plate, thereby sealing off a free face at the eastern side of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. Continuing Arabia-Eurasia plate convergence had to

  14. Age discrimination among basalt flows using digitally enhanced LANDSAT imagery. [Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    Digitally enhanced LANDSAT MSS data were used to discriminate among basalt flows of historical to Tertiary age, at a test site in Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Spectral signatures compared favorably with a field-defined classification that permits discrimination among five groups of basalt flows on the basis of geomorphic criteria. Characteristics that contributed to age definition include: surface texture, weathering, color, drainage evolution, and khabrah development. The inherent gradation in the evolution of geomorphic parameters, however, makes visual extrapolation between areas subjective. Therefore, incorporation of spectrally-derived volcanic units into the mapping process should produce more quantitatively consistent age groupings.

  15. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: Single-Center Series of 12 Cases from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Alzahrani, Azzah; Elfaraidi, Huda; Alsuhaibani, Omar; Othman, Nada; Al Mussaed, Eman; Alabbas, Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare but potentially fatal disease that commonly appears in infancy, although it has been reported in adults. Chemoimmunotherapy-based treatments have improved the survival of patients with HLH; however, overall survival is still poor. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 12 HLH patients who were admitted between 2005 and 2014. All patients were Saudi Arabia in origin with a female predominance (75%) and a median age of onset of 9.5 months. The consanguinity rates were significantly high (75%) with a positive family history in 41% of cases. Of the 12 patients, nine were defined as primary HLH patients and three were confirmed to be secondary HLH patients. All patients fulfilled the 2004 diagnostic criteria for HLH and received HLH-2004 treatment. Six of these patients showed a good response to chemotherapy, while the remainder of the patients showed partial or no response to chemotherapy. Five patients in this cohort received stem cell transplant, and these patients are currently in remission. The mortality rate of this cohort is currently 50%. Genetic mutational analysis showed a positive STX11 mutation in five patients and a PRF1 (perforin) mutation in two patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case series of HLH from Saudi Arabia. PMID:27081327

  16. Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aqeel, Sinaa AbdulMohsen; Al-Sabhan, Jawza Fahad; Sultan, Noha Yahia

    Background Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia. Methods Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO) ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51%) were for over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and 71 (38%) were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8%) advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7%) of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%), 58 (31%), and 33 (16.5%) advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64%) provided references for information presented. Conclusions Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists. PMID:24223078

  17. Current situation and the development of the dairy industry in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.

    PubMed

    Alqaisi, Othman; Ndambi, O Assah; Uddin, Mohammad Mohi; Hemme, Torsten

    2010-08-01

    The development of the dairy industry plays an important role in the economy of Middle Eastern countries. Judged by its growth rate, the dairy industry is viewed as one of the most progressive food industries in the Middle East. During the early 1970s, countries established executive programs to promote dairy farming; the major objective was to attain self-sufficiency in milk production. A massive investment was set up for importing top class cattle, complying with top industry operating standards, and a simultaneous introduction of the latest technology in processing, packaging, and distributing. Milk production has grown tremendously at rates of 6.6% and 4.9% in Syria and Saudi Arabia, respectively, between 2002 and 2007, which resulted in these nations being almost self-sufficient. Regarding Jordan, milk production has not yet met this target. An excessive growth in the dairy industry is quite noticeable in this region with an expanding capacity for exports. The aim of this study is to show the most recent trends and future prospects of the dairy industries in Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan. It also attempts to investigate the drivers for the development of milk production, consumption, and trade in the region. PMID:20352329

  18. Perceptions of medical students towards antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Harakeh, Steve; Almatrafi, Musab; Ungapen, Haifa; Hammad, Rotana; Olayan, Feras; Hakim, Reema; Ayoub, Mohammed; Bakhsh, Noura; Almasaudi, Saad B; Barbour, Elie; Bahijri, Suhad; Azhar, Esam; Damanhouri, Ghazi; Qari, Yousef; Kumosani, Taha; Harakeh, Zeena; Ahmad, Muhammad S; Cals, JochenW L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This survey evaluates knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical students towards use of antibiotics for upper respiratory infections (URTIs). Methodology Cross-sectional questionnaire study among 1042 randomly selected medical students in Saudi Arabia. Results Respondents were mostly Saudis (97.5%), had previous knowledge of antibiotics (99.7%) and their usage (98.3%) against bacterial infections (93.7%). 18.1% thought that they could be used for viral infections. Nearly all students (97.2%) used antibiotics themselves during the previous year and self-medication without a prescription was high at 49% of cases. Most antibiotics were taken for URTI symptoms (61.8%). Female medical students had better knowledge on antibiotic effectiveness against bacteria and viruses, and overall knowledge increased with study year. Health seeking behaviour rates for symptoms of RTI and associated estimated necessity for antibiotics varied but were highest for cough with yellow/green phlegm. Conclusions The depth of knowledge that healthcare professionals have in relation to the proper use of antibiotics is essential in spreading the right message within communities. This is the first large study among medical students in Saudi Arabia, shedding important light on areas for improvement in the medical curriculum as well as antibiotic practices of medical students themselves. PMID:26175907

  19. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices toward Energy Drinks among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001). Advertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to ‘try them’ (51.9%) and ‘to get energy’ (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (P<0.001). About half of the adolescents did not know the ingredients of these drinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values <0.006 and <0.001 between genders, respectively). The greater majority (67%) considered energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks. PMID:24576364

  20. Recharge Regimes of the Saq Aquifer System, Saudi Arabia: Inferences from Geochemical and Isotopic Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouelmagd, A.; McCabe, M. F.; Castro, M. C.; Sultan, M.; Jana, R. B.; Al-Mashharawi, S.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most valuable groundwater reserves in Saudi Arabia is the Saq aquifer system (SAS), a thick (400-1200 meters) sandstone unit that extends across 300,000 km2 in Saudi Arabia and neighboring Jordan. Due to its high productivity and high water quality, current pumping and overexploitation of the aquifer has significantly lowered the groundwater level over the years. Understanding the recharge regimes of the SAS is critical for the development of sustainable exploitation of water resources in the region and for the establishment of appropriate management practices. In this study, we investigate the hydrologic setting of the SAS and seek to differentiate the degree of paleo versus modern contributions using a range of geochemical approaches. Multiple groundwater samples were collected from deep production wells tapping the SAS at depths between 375-1800 m and across a range of locations. Samples were analyzed for their chemical concentrations, stable isotopic compositions (δ18O and δ2H), and dissolved noble gas concentrations and isotopic ratios. Examining these data identifies unmixed pools of fossil groundwater at deeper depths as well as mixed shallower systems that indicate contributions from modern precipitation. Through isotopic and noble gas analyses, the relative age and timing of these recharge events was examined and show contributions from both glacial and inter-glacial periods, with some modest contributions from modern meteoric sources.

  1. Lower Silurian-Upper Ordovician subsurface glacial outwash deposits, northern Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.B. )

    1991-08-01

    Recently acquired seismic data reinterpreted well information in northwest Saudi Arabia extends outcropping Lower Silurian to Upper Ordovician Zarqa/Sarah glacial and periglacial deposits into the subsurface. These deposits range from northeast-trending outwash-filled channels deeply incised into the underlying Ordovician Qasim and the Cambrian-Ordovician Saq Formation in the east. A southwest source for these sediments is implied by this new data. This supports previously interpreted source directions mapped from outcrop. It also correlates with the position of the Arabian plate relative to known Gonwanaland ice caps during the Early Silurian-Late Ordovician. The recognition of glacial outwash sediments in the subsurface provides new insight into the continuity and environments of deposition of the Qasim Formation members in northwest Saudi Arabia. The hydrocarbon-prone Lower Silurian Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation overlies the Zarqa/Sarah Formations. The Qusaiba represents a rapid transgression of the Paleo-Tethys Sea during the final melting of the Gondwanaland ice caps. The seal-source characteristics of the Qusaiba Member, combined with the good porosity and permeability of the underlying outwash deposits, suggest a prospective hydrocarbon exploration play. Gas is produced from this reservoir in the Risha field of eastern Jordan.

  2. Water exploration using Magnetotelluric and gravity data analysis; Wadi Nisah, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboud, Essam; Saud, Ramzi; Asch, Theodore; Aldamegh, Khaled; Mogren, Saad

    2014-12-01

    Saudi Arabia is a desert country with no permanent rivers or lakes and very little rainfall. Ground water aquifers are the major source of water in Saudi Arabia. In the Riyadh region, several Wadies including Wadi Nisah store about 14 × 106 m3 of water, which is extracted for local irrigation purposes. In such areas, the water wells are as shallow as 200-300 m in depth. The importance of Wadi Nisah is because the subsurface water aquifers that are present there could support the region for many years as a water resource. Accordingly, in this study, we performed a Magnetotelluric survey using a portable broadband sounding system (MT24/LF) to evaluate the ground water aquifer at great depths. We collected 10 broadband Magnetotelluric sounding stations (1 station/day) with an interval of about 2-3 km reaching a profile length of about 25-30 km along Wadi Nisah. Additionally, we used available gravity data to image the subsurface structure containing the aquifer. MT results indicated a low resistivity layer, associated with alluvium deposits, which was defined at a depth of about 1-2 km and extended horizontally about 15 km. Gravity data analysis was used to model this resistivity layer indicating a basement surface at 3-4 km depth.

  3. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Zahran, Hani; Mai, P. Martin

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.

  4. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: Single-Center Series of 12 Cases from Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Alzahrani, Azzah; Elfaraidi, Huda; Alsuhaibani, Omar; Othman, Nada; Al Mussaed, Eman; Alabbas, Fahad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare but potentially fatal disease that commonly appears in infancy, although it has been reported in adults. Chemoimmunotherapy-based treatments have improved the survival of patients with HLH; however, overall survival is still poor. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 12 HLH patients who were admitted between 2005 and 2014. All patients were Saudi Arabia in origin with a female predominance (75%) and a median age of onset of 9.5 months. The consanguinity rates were significantly high (75%) with a positive family history in 41% of cases. Of the 12 patients, nine were defined as primary HLH patients and three were confirmed to be secondary HLH patients. All patients fulfilled the 2004 diagnostic criteria for HLH and received HLH-2004 treatment. Six of these patients showed a good response to chemotherapy, while the remainder of the patients showed partial or no response to chemotherapy. Five patients in this cohort received stem cell transplant, and these patients are currently in remission. The mortality rate of this cohort is currently 50%. Genetic mutational analysis showed a positive STX11 mutation in five patients and a PRF1 (perforin) mutation in two patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case series of HLH from Saudi Arabia. PMID:27081327

  5. Unexpected technological heterogeneity in northern Arabia indicates complex Late Pleistocene demography at the gateway to Asia.

    PubMed

    Scerri, Eleanor M L; Groucutt, Huw S; Jennings, Richard P; Petraglia, Michael D

    2014-10-01

    The role and significance of the Arabian Peninsula in modern human dispersals out of Africa is currently contentious. While qualitative observations of similarities between Arabian Middle Palaeolithic and African Middle Stone Age (MSA) assemblages have been made, these inferences remain untested and often situated within overly broad dichotomies (e.g., 'Africa' versus the 'Levant'), which distort concepts of geographic scale and subsume local variability. Here, we quantitatively test the hypothesis that assemblages from Jubbah, in the Nefud Desert of northern Saudi Arabia are similar to MSA industries from northeast Africa. Based on the quantitative analysis of a suite of metric and morphological data describing lithic reduction sequences, our results show that early and late core reduction at Jubbah is distinct from equivalent northeast African strategies, perhaps as a result of raw material factors. However, specific techniques of core shaping, preparation and preferential flake production at Jubbah draw from a number of methods also present in the northeast African MSA. While two Jubbah lithic assemblages (JKF-1 and JKF-12) display both similarities and differences with the northeast African assemblages, a third locality (JSM-1) was significantly different to both the other Arabian and African assemblages, indicating an unexpected diversity of assemblages in the Jubbah basin during Marine Isotope Stage 5 (MIS 5, ∼125-70,000 years ago, or ka). Along with evidence from southern Arabia and the Levant, our results add quantitative support to arguments that MIS 5 hominin demography at the interface between Africa and Asia was complex. PMID:25110207

  6. Dust modeling over Saudi Arabia using WRF-Chem: March 2009 severe dust case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongxin; Liu, Yubao; Kucera, Paul A.; Alharbi, Badr H.; Pan, Linlin; Ghulam, Ayman

    2015-10-01

    This paper documents the performance of the fully coupled WRF-Chem model at 21.6 km and 7.2 km resolution over Saudi Arabia in simulating a severe dust storm event that occurred in March 2009. The comparisons between the model simulations and the observed AOD at the Solar Village AERONET site and the MODIS measurements show that WRF-Chem satisfactorily resolves the arrival, evolution and spatial distributions of the dust storm over Saudi Arabia especially for the fine domain at 7.2 km resolution. The model simulated surface meteorological variables at Riyadh Airport, Hafr Al-Batin Airport, Dammam Airport and Gassim Airport follow the observations in terms of magnitude and temporal evolution although model biases such as deficiencies in simulating the amplitude of diurnal cycles are noted. Higher resolution and shorter initialization time improve the model performance in aerosol optical depth but for surface variables shorter initialization time improves correlation while higher horizontal resolution improves mean biases to some extent. The simulated dust plume is mainly confined between the surface and the 5-km height, with the peak concentrations located in the lowest 500 m. The vertical extent of the dust plume shows gradual decreases during the simulation period when averaged over the entire fine domain and an area centered around Solar Village, and also varies in accordance with the development and decay of the boundary layer.

  7. Assessment of fluoride concentrations in commercially available mouthrinses in central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aldrees, Abdullah M.; AlBeshri, Sultan S.; AlSanie, Ibrahim S.; Alsarra, Ibrahim A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the fluoride concentration of different commercially available mouthrinses in central Saudi Arabia, and compare the obtained measurements with label values. Methods: This cross-sectional study identified 25 brands of mouthrinses in the markets of Riyadh city between August and September 2013. Nineteen brands of mouthrinses whose labels indicate the percentage of sodium fluoride (NaF) and 6 brands not indicating the fluoride percentage were included in the study. Three bottles of 2 manufacturing batches of each brand were acquired, coded, and analyzed after dilution using specific electrodes for fluoride and an ion analyzer at the College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: The average fluoride concentrations in the tested mouthrinses ranged from 8.4 ppm (Voza) to 448.7 ppm (Sensodyne “Pronamel”). Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in the fluoride concentration between the studied 25 brands. Almost 60% of the brands’ fluoride concentrations were significantly different (mainly lower) from the label value. However, only 5 brands contain fluoride at a concentration not significantly different from the recommended fluoride concentration in daily mouthrinses 0.05% (225 ppm). Conclusion: Most of the studied commercially available mouthrinses contain topical fluoride at concentrations below the manufacturers’ label value, but above the recommended 0.05%. PMID:25316478

  8. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alsibiani, Sharifa A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study) was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM), rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6%) were immune (IgG positive); the remaining 866 (8.4%) were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15–19 years) and the oldest age group (40–49 years) (P = 0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–4.7). Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6%) but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection. PMID:25045356

  9. Parents’ perception of children's obesity, in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohaimeed, Abdulrahman A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Although the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased significantly in Saudi Arabia, parents are unable to appreciate obesity in their child. The objective of the study was to identify the percentage of parents who misclassify the status of child's weight, and determine whether there is a difference between those parents whose children are overweight and obese and those with children of normal weight. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 601 children aged 6-10 years. The children were recruited from the primary schools located in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia. The body mass index of the children was assessed in the school, and their parents responded to a self-administered questionnaire which contained questions on parental perception of the children's weight/obesity status. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Parents with overweight/obese children had significantly more misclassification than those with normal weight children. Ninety percent of parents of the 81 overweight children misclassified and reported that their child had normal weight, while 65% of parents of the 61 obese children, misclassified the child's weight status. Conclusions: The level of misclassification of children's weight status by parents is high. Saudi parents with overweight and obese children do not recognize their child's weight status. Parents’ awareness of childhood obesity and its negative health impact needs to be improved. PMID:27625586

  10. Imaging of magma intrusions beneath Harrat Al-Madinah in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.; El-Masry, Nabil; Moufti, Mohamed Rashad; Kenedi, Catherine Lewis; Zhao, Dapeng; Zahran, Hani; Shawali, Jamal

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle beneath Harrat Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia, are obtained by inverting high-quality arrival-time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events recorded by newly installed borehole seismic stations to investigate the AD 1256 volcanic eruption and the 1999 seismic swarm in the study region. Our tomographic images show the existence of strong heterogeneities marked with low-velocity zones extending beneath the AD 1256 volcanic center and the 1999 seismic swarm area. The low-velocity zone coinciding with the hypocenters of the 1999 seismic swarm suggests the presence of a shallow magma reservoir that is apparently originated from a deeper source (60-100 km depths) and is possibly connected with another reservoir located further north underneath the NNW-aligned scoria cones of the AD 1256 eruption. We suggest that the 1999 seismic swarm may represent an aborted volcanic eruption and that the magmatism along the western margin of Arabia is largely attributed to the uplifting and thinning of its lithosphere by the Red Sea rifting.

  11. THE INTERNET AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB: APPLICATIONS FOR FAMILY PHYSICIANS IN SAUDI ARABIA

    PubMed Central

    Sebiany, Abdulaziz M.

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of the World Wide Web has revolutionized the applications of the computer and the Internet in the medical field. The Web provides an easy and cost-effective way of retrieving medical information and a more flexible way of communicating with patients and colleagues. Family practice is a specialty in which care is given to persons as individuals and members of families regardless of their age, gender or specific problems. To provide quality family practice, a family physician should be a good communicator, a critical thinker, a resource and information manager, a life-long learner, a care giver and a community advocate. Providing such high quality care requires that family practice be an information-sensitive specialty. However, the expansion of the new electronic resources on the Internet and the Web poses a real challenge to the family physician. Family physician in Saudi Arabia need to have basic skills and knowledge for easily retrieving and finding reliable Internet information for his professional development and the care of his patients. This article addresses the Web applications for family physicians in Saudi Arabia, giving examples of the most important Websites. PMID:23008644

  12. First morphogenetic identification of the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum musae (Phyllachoraceae) from imported bananas in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elsalam, K A; Roshdy, S; Amin, O E; Rabani, M

    2010-01-01

    Colletotrichum musae is the causal agent of anthracnose in banana fruits; infection by this fungal pathogen results in severe post-harvest losses. Eleven C. musae isolates were obtained from infected imported banana fruit samples with anthracnose lesions collected from different markets in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The pathogenic, morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics of these C. musae isolates were evaluated. The cultures had characteristic fast-growing sparse aerial mycelia that were white, with copious cinnamon conidial masses, conidia usually elliptical, and setae absent. An inoculation test was used to determine whether isolates could cause anthracnose symptoms on banana fruits. Necrotic lesions developed and orange-colored spore structures were later observed on these lesions. Microsatellite-primed PCR (MP-PCR) was used to identify genetic variation among the C. musae isolates. The dendrogram obtained from cluster analysis of the MP-PCR fingerprints revealed a great deal of homogeneity among the isolates, shown by the formation of two clusters. Intraspecific similarity among the C. musae isolates ranged from 83 to 100%. This is the first report demonstrating morphological and genetic variation within a population of C. musae in Saudi Arabia. PMID:21128214

  13. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary may provide constraints on: 1) origin of the dichotomy boundary, 2) paleo-environments and climate conditions, and 3) various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The results of this work will include two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  14. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale will be used to characterize geologic processes that have shaped the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary will provide the ability to: 1) further test original dichotomy formation hypotheses, 2) constrain ancient paleoenvironments and climate conditions, and 3) evaluate various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The result will be two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  15. Stress, shift duty, and eating behavior among nurses in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almajwal, Ali M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between stress, shift work, and eating behavior among non-Saudi female nurses working in Central Saudi Arabia. Methods: A sample of 395 non-Saudi female nurses from 2 major hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia participated in this cross-sectional study. The nurses completed a questionnaire from November 2013 to January 2014 that included items relating to stress and eating behavior using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ). The questionnaire also contained items pertaining to socio-demographic data, body mass index, shift work, and hours worked per week. Results: For all eating styles, stress, and shift duty influenced the amount of food nurses consumed, but was more significant under a restrained eating style. Under this eating style, a significantly higher percentage of nurses reported eating more fast food, snacks, and binging, while fruits and vegetables were the least likely to be eaten under stress. High stressed nurses were more likely to present with abnormal restrained eating (odds ratio [OR]=1.52, p=0.004), emotional (OR=1.24; p=0.001), and external (OR=1.21; p=0.001) DEBQ scores. Working nighttime shift duty was positively associated with restrained eating (OR=1.53; p=0.029) and emotional eating (OR=1.24; p=0.001), but negatively associated with external eating (OR=0.45; p=0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that stress and shift duty were associated with eating habits. PMID:26837403

  16. Nosocomial infections in ambulances and effectiveness of ambulance fumigation techniques in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alrazeeni, Daifallah; Al Sufi, Mohammed S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate infection control and the incidence of bacterial pathogens in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) ambulances in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The effectiveness of fumigation techniques used for these ambulances to minimize the spread of infection to transported patients and pre-hospital care providers was also assessed. Methods: Based on previous literature review indicating a higher propensity of microbial load, 3 areas within the ambulance, such as, stretcher handle, oxygen flow meter knob, and interior handle of the rear door were selected for specimen collection. Swab samples were collected both in the day and night shift, after the intended disinfection and cleaning (before and after fumigation). Micro-organisms were identified using standard procedures. This phase-I study was conducted at the Emergency Medical Services Department, Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz College of Emergency Medical Services, Al Malaz, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between October and November 2013, wherein a total of 10 ambulances from the Saudi Red Crescent Authority in Riyadh were selected for inclusion in the study. Results: The specimens from all 10 ambulances showed similar results. In post disinfection and before fumigation, swab samples showed positive cultures that grew moderate to large quantities of environmental and skin flora. However, almost all organisms were susceptible to the fumigation technique. Conclusion: This study confirms the importance of evaluating the frequency and efficiency of various fumigation techniques as an ambulance is a potential reservoir for microbial transmission to patients and staff. PMID:25399212

  17. End-of-life practices in a tertiary intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aldawood, Abdulaziz S; Alsultan, Mohammad; Arabi, Yaseen M; Baharoon, Salim A; Al-Qahtani, S; Al-Qahtani, M; Haddad, Samir H; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Jahdali, Hamdan A; Alatassi, Abdulaleem; Rishu, Asgar H

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate end-of-life practices in a tertiary intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia. A prospective observational study was conducted in the medical-surgical intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Over the course of the one-year study period, 176 patients died and 77% of these deaths were preceded by end-of-life decisions. Of these, 66% made do-not-resuscitate decisions, 30% decided to withhold life support and 4% withdrew life support. These decisions were made after a median time of four days (Q1 to Q3: 1 to 9) and at least one day before death (Q1 to Q3: 1 to 4). The patients' families or surrogates were informed for 88% of the decisions and all decisions were documented in the patients' medical records. Despite religious and cultural values, more than three-quarters of the patients whose deaths were preceded by end-of-life decisions gave do-not-resuscitate decisions before death. These decisions should be made early in the patients' stay in the intensive care unit. PMID:22313074

  18. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among patients with coronary artery disease in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Siraj O.; Alsharif, Muath A.; Albanji, Mohammed H.; Baabbad, Murad S.; Almotary, Haneen M.; Alama, Nabil; Mimish, Layth; Alsulami, Adil; Abdelaziz, Muntasir M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and coronary artery disease (CAD), few studies have investigated this issue in Saudi Arabia. Objectives This study aimed to identify the prevalence of OSA among CAD patients. Subjects and methods This was a cross-sectional (descriptive) study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from April 2012 to December 2013. All consecutive patients referred to the cardiac catheterization lab for coronary angiography who exhibited evidence of CAD were included in this study. This study was conducted in two stages. During the first stage, each participant was interviewed individually. The administered interview collected data pertaining to demographics, comorbidities, and the STOP-BANG questionnaire score. The second stage of this study consisted of a diagnostic overnight polysomnography (PSG) of 50% of the subjects at high risk for OSA according to the STOP-BANG questionnaire. Results Among the patients with CAD (N = 156), 128 (82%) were categorized as high risk for developing OSA. PSG was conducted on 48 patients. The estimated prevalence of OSA in the study sample was 56.4%. Approximately 61% of the documented sleep apnea patients suffered from moderate to severe OSA. Conclusion This local study concurs with reports in the literature indicating that OSA is very common among CAD patients. PMID:26557740

  19. Quantitative estimation of pulegone in Mentha longifolia growing in Saudi Arabia. Is it safe to use?

    PubMed

    Alam, Prawez; Saleh, Mahmoud Fayez; Abdel-Kader, Maged Saad

    2016-03-01

    Our TLC study of the volatile oil isolated from Mentha longifolia showed a major UV active spot with higher Rf value than menthol. Based on the fact that the components of the oil from same plant differ quantitatively due to environmental conditions, the major spot was isolated using different chromatographic techniques and identified by spectroscopic means as pulegone. The presence of pulegone in M. longifolia, a plant widely used in Saudi Arabia, raised a hot debate due to its known toxicity. The Scientific Committee on Food, Health & Consumer Protection Directorate General, European Commission set a limit for the presence of pulegone in foodstuffs and beverages. In this paper we attempted to determine the exact amount of pulegone in different extracts, volatile oil as well as tea flavoured with M. longifolia (Habak) by densitometric HPTLC validated methods using normal phase (Method I) and reverse phase (Method II) TLC plates. The study indicated that the style of use of Habak in Saudi Arabia resulted in much less amount of pulegone than the allowed limit. PMID:27087088

  20. Susceptibility of influenza viruses circulating in Western Saudi Arabia to neuraminidase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tolah, Ahmed M.; Azhar, Esam I.; Hashem, Anwar M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the sensitivity of circulating influenza viruses in Western Saudi Arabia to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs); mainly, zanamivir and oseltamivir. Methods: Respiratory samples were collected from patients presenting with respiratory symptoms to King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) between September 2013 and October 2014. All samples were tested prospectively by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for influenza A and B viruses. Positive samples were then inoculated on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells and isolated viruses were examined for their sensitivity to NAIs using fluorescent neuraminidase inhibition assay. Results: Out of 406 tested samples, 25 samples (6.2%) were positive for influenza A/pdmH1N1 virus, one sample (0.25%) was positive for influenza A/H3N2 virus, and 7 samples (1.7%) were positive for influenza B Yamagata-like virus. Screening of isolated influenza A and B viruses (9 out of 33) for their sensitivity to NAIs showed no significant resistance to available NAIs. Conclusion: Our results show that circulating influenza viruses in Jeddah are still sensitive to NAIs. PMID:27052292

  1. Ancient Giant Basin/Aquifer System in the Arabia Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, James M.; Barlow, Nadine; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Baker, Victor R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Boynton, William V.; Fairen, Alberto G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2004-01-01

    Ancient geologic/hydrologic phenomena on Mars observed through the magnetic data [1,2] provide windows to the ancient past through the younger Argyre and Hellas impacts [e.g., 3,4], the northern plains basement [5], and the Tharsis and Elysium magmatic complexes (recently referred to as superplumes [6,7]). These signatures, coupled with highly degraded macrostructures (tectonic features that are tens to thousands of km-long [8]), reflect an energetic planet during its embryonic development (.5 Ga or so of activity) with an active dynamo and magnetosphere [1,2,6]. One such window into the ancient past occurs northwest of the Hellas impact basin in Arabia Terra. Arabia Terra is one of the few water-rich equatorial regions of Mars, as indicated through impact crater [9] and elemental [10,11] information. This region records many unique traits, including stratigraphy, topography, cratering record, structural character, geomorphology, and geophysical, elemental, albedo, and thermal inertia signatures. We interpret these to collectively indicate a possible ancient giant impact basin that later became an important aquifer, as it provided yet another source of water for the formation of putative water bodies that occupied the northern plains [12,13] and addresses possible water-related characteristics that may be observed at the Opportunity landing site. This basin is antipodal to Tharsis and estimated to be at least 3,000 km in diameter.

  2. Medical and biomedical research productivity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (2008-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biomedical publications from a country mirror the standard of Medical Education and practice in that country. It is important that the performance of the health profession is occasionally documented. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of biomedical publications from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in international journals indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2012. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications associated with KSA from 2008 to 2012. The search was limited to medical and biomedical subjects. Results were saved in a text file and later checked carefully to exclude false positive errors. The quality of the publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report 2012. Results: Biomedical research production in KSA in those 5 years showed a clear linear progression. Riyadh was the main hub of medical and biomedical research activity. Most of the publications (40.9%) originated from King Saud University (KSU). About half of the articles were published in journals with an Impact Factor (IF) of < 1, one-fourth in journals with no IF, and the remaining one-fourth in journals with a high IF (≥1). Conclusion: This study revealed that research activity in KSA is increasing. However, there is an increasing trend of publishing in local journals with a low IF. More effort is required to promote medical research in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25657608

  3. The Khida terrane - Geology of Paleoproterozoic rocks in the Muhayil area, eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, D.B.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The bulk of the Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia is underlain by Neoproterozoic terranes of oceanic affinity that were accreted during Pan-African time (about 680- 640Ma). Geologicalmappingandisotopicinvestigations during the 1980’s,however, provided the first evidence for Paleoproterozoic continental crust within the east- central part of the shield in Saudi Arabia. These studies delineated an older basement domain, herein referred to as the Khida terrane (Fig. l), which is defined as that part of the southern Afif composite terrane underlain by Paleoproterozoicto Archean continental crust (Stoeser and Stacey, 1988). The isotopic and geochronologic work to support our current studies within the Khida terrane are discussed in a companion abstract (Whitehouse et al., this volume). The regional geology and geochronology of the region has been summarized in detail by Johnson (1996). The current study is based on the continued use of samples previously collected in the Khida area by the authors and others as well as new field work conducted by us in 1999. This work further defines the occurrence of late Paleoproterozoic rocks at Jabal Muhayil, which is located at the eastern margin of the exposed terrane (Fig. 1). Our isotopic work is at an early stage and this abstract partly relates geologic problems that remain to be resolved. 

  4. Ecological significance of wood anatomy in two lianas from arid southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Masrahi, Yahya S

    2014-09-01

    The hot and arid lowlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia are home to two common lianas, Cocculus pendulus and Leptadenia arborea. This paper attempts to relate the adaptation of these two climbing woody perennials to such a harsh environment to the anatomy and hydraulic characteristics of their wood. The stems of these lianas have wood with wide xylem vessels and high hydraulic conductivity which should enhance water flow to the upper canopy despite their severe twisting. Hydraulic conductivity is further helped by the simple perforation plates of xylem vessels. The circular thickening of xylem walls gives them strength and reduces the risk of their collapse and the ensuing embolism in the advent of high tension created by severe water deficit and high evapo-transpiration demand. Wide vessels, on the other hand, are more susceptible to embolism. This problem may be overcome by reducing the solute potential of xylem sap by hydrolysis of starch grains which were found to be abundant in the vicinity of the vessels. This should help absorb water by the deep roots from the capillary fringes of the typically shallow water table in this particular habitat. Furthermore, the abundance of ray parenchyma cells between xylem groups of both lianas provides great flexibility with minimum damage to water conduits in the stem during climbing and twisted growth. It was concluded that these wood features in both lianas are crucial for survival under the harsh conditions of arid Tihama plains of southwestern Saudi Arabia. PMID:25183944

  5. Strategic initiatives to maintain pharmaceutical care and clinical pharmacists sufficiency in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khalidi, Nabil; Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M; Althiab, Khalifa; Alharbi, Shmeylan; Aldekhael, Saleh; Qandil, Amjad M; Alknawy, Bandar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The shortage of clinical pharmacists in Saudi Arabia has limited the full implementation of pharmaceutical care in most of its hospitals. The National Guard Health Affairs hospitals. This work discussed the Department of Pharmaceutical Care, and the King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences College of Pharmacy four initiatives that were planned in 2009–2010 to develop and recruit clinical pharmacists, practitioners, or faculty. Methods: The combined initiatives were aimed at (1) instituting a 4-year clinical skills development career ladder, (2) expanding the National Guard Health Affairs postgraduate residency program, (3) offering scholarships to qualified pharmacy graduates to pursue the PharmD degree and a PGY-1 residency training in the United States, and (4) recruiting non-Saudi clinical pharmacists educated and trained in the United States to ameliorate the current shortage of practitioner. Results: The current number of clinical pharmacists practicing at the National Guard Health Affairs at central region is 24, most of whom are Board Certified by the American Pharmacists Association Board of Pharmacy Specialties. Conclusions: The four initiatives, based on current trends, suggest that 60–65 positions will be added by 2017–2018, barring attrition. Saudi Arabia and many developing countries will continue to experience a shortage in clinical pharmacists due to the high demand for clinical pharmacy services. A multifaceted approach is recommended to address the problem. PMID:26770792

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of dentists regarding child physical abuse in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa

    2016-04-01

    A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected. PMID:26990176

  7. Soil Ciliates from Saudi Arabia, Including Descriptions of Two New Genera and Six New Species

    PubMed Central

    FOISSNER, Wilhelm; QUINTELA-ALONSO, Pablo; AL-RASHEID, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Summary Six soil samples from natural and cultivated sites of Saudi Arabia were investigated for ciliate diversity, using the non-flooded Petri dish culture method, live observation, and silver impregnation. We identified 135 species, all new for the fauna of Saudi Arabia, of which seven were undescribed: Spathidium alqasabi nov. spec.; Enchelyodon alqasabi nov. spec.; Metauroleptus arabicus nov. gen., nov. spec.; Pseudohemisincirra arabica nov. gen., nov. spec.; Saudithrix terricola​ Berger, Al-Rasheid and Foissner, 2006; Oxytricha arabica nov. spec.; and Erimophrya monostyla nov. spec. Based on Spathidium alqasabi, S. seppelti foissneri​ Vd’ačný et al., 2006 and S. seppelti etoschense​ Foissner et al., 2002 are raised to species rank; for the latter, a new name is required to avoid homonymy: Spathidium fraterculum nov. nom. The new genus Metauroleptus, which possesses two long and two to three short ventral cirral rows, generates all dorsal kineties intrakinetally and produces caudal cirri exclusively in dorsal kinety 1. Metauroleptus belongs to the hypotrichs, while family classification remains doubtful. The same applies to the new hypotrich genus Pseudohemisincirra, which has frontoventral and transverse cirri, while buccal cirri and caudal cirri are absent. The number of species contained in Saudi Arabian soils, including sand dunes, is in the range reported from other regions of the earth, suggesting that ciliates are well adapted to dry habitats, possibly mainly by their ability to produce very resistant resting cysts, most surviving for a long time due to reduced metazoan predation. PMID:20890459

  8. Oil and diplomacy: the evolution of American foreign policy in Saudi Arabia, 1933-1945

    SciTech Connect

    Casillas, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    This study examines the transformation of American foreign policy in Saudi Arabia between the years 1933 and 1945. At the beginning of this period American-Saudi relations were negligible. However, by the end of World War II in 1945, American policy-makers had concluded that the Saudi Kingdom was a nation vital to America's long-term economic and strategic interests. This remarkable official about face was the result of several factors including the potential of Saudi Arabian oilfields, the shifting priorities of Washington policy-makers and the lobbying efforts of a Saudi-based American commercial concern, the Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO). ARAMCO entered Saudi Arabia in 1933. As the only all-American oil concession in the Middle East they feared European, especially British, interference in their operations. To forestall this possibility, real or imagined, the oilmen turned to Washington for help. Although official assistance was not immediately forthcoming, ARAMCO did find support in the Near Eastern Affairs Division (NEA) of the Department of State.

  9. Oligocene mammals from Ethiopia and faunal exchange between Afro-Arabia and Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Kappelman, John; Rasmussen, D Tab; Sanders, William J; Feseha, Mulugeta; Bown, Thomas; Copeland, Peter; Crabaugh, Jeff; Fleagle, John; Glantz, Michelle; Gordon, Adam; Jacobs, Bonnie; Maga, Murat; Muldoon, Kathleen; Pan, Aaron; Pyne, Lydia; Richmond, Brian; Ryan, Timothy; Seiffert, Erik R; Sen, Sevket; Todd, Lawrence; Wiemann, Michael C; Winkler, Alisa

    2003-12-01

    Afro-Arabian mammalian communities underwent a marked transition near the Oligocene/Miocene boundary at approximately 24 million years (Myr) ago. Although it is well documented that the endemic paenungulate taxa were replaced by migrants from the Northern Hemisphere, the timing and evolutionary dynamics of this transition have long been a mystery because faunas from about 32 to 24 Myr ago are largely unknown. Here we report a late Oligocene fossil assemblage from Ethiopia, which constrains the migration to postdate 27 Myr ago, and yields new insight into the indigenous faunal dynamics that preceded this event. The fauna is composed of large paenungulate herbivores and reveals not only which earlier taxa persisted into the late Oligocene epoch but also demonstrates that one group, the Proboscidea, underwent a marked diversification. When Eurasian immigrants entered Afro-Arabia, a pattern of winners and losers among the endemics emerged: less diverse taxa such as arsinoitheres became extinct, moderately species-rich groups such as hyracoids continued into the Miocene with reduced diversity, whereas the proboscideans successfully carried their adaptive radiation out of Afro-Arabia and across the world. PMID:14654838

  10. The education and contribution of women health care professionals in Saudi Arabia: the case of nursing.

    PubMed

    el-Sanabary, N

    1993-12-01

    "Women constitute the key resource for attaining the goal of health for all by the year 2000," maintains a report by The World Health Organization. Achieving this goal requires massive efforts including (1) the training of women health care professionals; and (2) the nonformal health education of women, the primary health care providers to their families and communities. This paper focuses on the first area, specifically on the education of women nurses in a Third World country, Saudi Arabia, where traditional attitudes persist against intermingling of the genders and the treatment of women by men. It examines the progress and problems encountered in recruiting Saudi women for nursing education and practice; describes the evolution of nursing education programs; and analyzes the obstacles to women's participation in these programs and in the nursing profession. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the problem, increase women's participation, and contribute to that country's health development. The paper is based upon primary and secondary data, including official statistics; personal interviews with Saudi women health professionals and students; the memoirs of a leading Saudi woman nurse and educator, the author's personal observations and experiences with the health care system during four years of residence in Saudi Arabia, and available literature on the subject. PMID:8284700

  11. Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.; McCausland, W.A.; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Lu, Zhiming; Zahran, H.M.; El, Hadidy S.; Aburukbah, A.; Stewart, I.C.F.; Lundgren, P.R.; White, R.A.; Moufti, M.R.H.

    2010-01-01

    The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees.

  12. Communication skills in pediatric training program: National-based survey of residents’ perspectives in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alofisan, Tariq; Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Al-Abdulsalam, Moath; Siddiqui, Khawar; Hussain, Ibrahim Bin; Al-Qahtani, Mohammad H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Good communication skills and rapport building are considered the cardinal tools for developing a patient-doctor relationship. A positive, healthy competition among different health care organizations in Saudi Arabia underlines an ever increasing emphasis on effective patient-doctor relationship. Despite the numerous guidelines provided and programs available, there is a significant variation in the acceptance and approach to the use of this important tool among pediatric residents in this part of the world. Objective: To determine pediatric residents' attitude toward communication skills, their perception of important communication skills, and their confidence in the use of their communication skills in the performance of their primary duties. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among all pediatrics trainee residents working in 13 different hospitals in Saudi Arabia. A standardized self-administered questionnaire developed by the Harvard Medical School was used. Results: A total of 297 residents out of all trainees in these centers participated in the data collection. The 283 (95%) residents considered learning communication skills a priority in establishing a good patient-doctor relationship. Thirty four percent reported being very confident with regard to their communication skills. Few residents had the skills, and the confidence to communicate with children with serious diseases, discuss end-of-life issues, and deal with difficult patients and parents. Conclusion: Pediatric residents perceive the importance of communication skills and competencies as crucial components in their training. A proper comprehensive communication skills training should be incorporated into the pediatric resident training curriculum. PMID:26929729

  13. Examination of Turkish Students' Opinions Related to Values in the Example of Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasdemir, Adem

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting effective and psychomotor skills to teaching environment are as important as cognitive skills in learning process. In this context, values are important to develop skills in affective domain. In this study, the opinions of the students who have been studying in three different countries (Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Turkey) were aimed to be…

  14. The ICT Proficiencies of University Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Case Study to Identify Challenges and Encouragements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageel, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays the use of information communications technology (ICT) is prevalent in higher education across all countries. This study focuses on the level of use of ICT among teachers at a leading university in Saudi Arabia. 16 in-depth interviews reveal that the majority of teachers do not make use of ICT in their teaching. A number of attitudes were…

  15. Attitude of Saudi Female Math Teachers toward Integrating E-Learning in Teaching Math at High Schools in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albalawi, Aishah M.

    2013-01-01

    Leaders in government and education have launched an extensive program to reform general education in Saudi Arabia. This initiative was designed to achieve many goals with a major emphasis being the enhancement of the Saudi curriculum to take advantage of the use of technology to improve education. A goal of this project was for e-learning to be a…

  16. Aptitude Tests and Successful College Students: The Predictive Validity of the General Aptitude Test (GAT) in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Aptitude tests should predict student success at the university level. This study examined the predictive validity of the General Aptitude Test (GAT) in Saudi Arabia. Data for 27420 students enrolled at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University were analyzed. Of these students, 17565 were male students, and 9855 were female students. Multiple…

  17. The Bi-Annual Report of the Ministry of Education, 1975 and 1976. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia).

    The educational system of Saudi Arabia underwent significant changes from 1974-76 in areas of teacher education, modernization of curriculum and instruction on elementary and secondary levels, and in expansion of higher education facilities. Reasons advanced by the Ministry of Education for these changes include an increase of funds for…

  18. iPads Enhance Social Interaction Skills among Hearing-Impaired Children of Low Income Families in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahatheg, Raja Omar

    2015-01-01

    This research tries to investigate the technical contribution on improving the social interaction of hearing-impaired children from low income families in Saudi Arabia. It compares the social interaction skills of hearing-impaired children who do and do not have access to iPads. To achieve the goals of the study; seventeen children aged five years…

  19. 75 FR 43919 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia: Third City Stop Added to the Trade Mission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Dhahran, Saudi Arabia's primary energy and infrastructure industry hubs. Trade mission participants will..., press releases to general and trade media, direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and publicity at industry meetings, symposia, conferences, and trade shows....

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain Isolated from King Abdullah Medical City, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Algowaihi, Rayd; Ashgar, Sami; Sirag, Bashir; Shalam, Sheerin; Nassir, Anmar

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infections represent a growing problem and a serious global threat. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is perhaps cause the most difficult infection to treat and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of an MDR K. pneumoniae strain isolated from Makkah, Saudi Arabia. PMID:27198017

  1. A Reciprocal Model of Psychographic Attributes Related to Their Learning among Preparatory Year of Undergraduate Students in West Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talafha, Feras

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the level of psychographic attributes among the preparatory year students enrolled at the University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The study sample consists of 209 students chosen with the help of random sampling and questionnaire survey was employed for data collection. Based on the findings, the entire study variables, which are…

  2. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  3. The Effects of Age Factor on Learning English: A Case Study of Learning English in Saudi Schools, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawi, Elsadig Mohamed Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on learning English in Saudi Arabia. It aims at encouraging the learning of English as a foreign language at an early age in KSA. The populations of the study are English language teachers and Saudi students in elementary schools compared with intermediate school students in Dawadmi…

  4. The Political, Socio-Economic and Sociocultural Impacts of the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP) on Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilal, Kholoud T.; Scott, Safiyyah; Maadad, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Since 2006, Saudi Arabian politicians, economists and sociologists have had to consider the implications of their country's King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP). Because Saudi Arabia has certain religious traditions and economic practices that are sensitive, international scholars are examining from different perspectives the outcomes and…

  5. Assessment of the Summer Program at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) in Saudi Arabia: Directions for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dosary, Adel S.; Raziuddin, Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed students and faculty at Saudi Arabia's King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals about the school's summer program. Found that the program should not offer courses that require a long time to develop skills, but rather should function as a supplementary semester for students needing more help with regular course work. (EV)

  6. Dismantling the Perceived Barriers to the Implementation of National Higher Education Accreditation Guidelines in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onsman, Andrys

    2010-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has invested heavily in its social sector, especially in setting up new schools and universities. The aim of the development is to prepare the Kingdom for a future that is not dependent on its oil resources which are predicted to run out in less than a hundred years. Driven by the country's monarch, King Abdullah, many…

  7. Self-Efficacy and ICT Integration into Initial Teacher Education in Saudi Arabia: Matching Policy with Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Margaret; Al-Zahrani, Abdulrahman

    2012-01-01

    Success factors for integration of ICTs in higher education teaching and learning reveal a complex mixture of old and new paradigms. A review of the relevant literature and findings from research conducted in Saudi Arabia highlights the importance of actual and perceived self-efficacy within the new paradigms. The research reported reflects these…

  8. Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

  9. Assessment of Training Programs for Elementary Mathematics Teachers on Developed Curricula and Attitudes towards Teaching in Najran-Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aly, Hassan Shawky; Abdulhakeem, Hassan Daker

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the training programs for Mathematics teachers at elementary stage on developed Curricula and attitudes toward teaching at Najran educational administration in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this objective, two instruments were developed, one of them measures the opinions of Mathematics teachers about the training programs…

  10. New records for the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Saudi Arabia with remarks on ecology and zoogeography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently, 25 Tabanidae species were described from Saudi Arabia. During the 20-year project “the ecology and zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East,” USDA-CMAVE and Israeli scientists regularly collected horse flies, which resulted in 4 additional records for the local fauna. The new...

  11. The Compatibility of Developed Mathematics Textbooks' Content in Saudi Arabia (Grades 6-8) with NCTM Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshehri, Mohammed Ali; Ali, Hassan Shawki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the compatibility of developed mathematics textbooks' content (grades 6-8) in Saudi Arabia with NCTM standards in the areas of: number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability. To achieve that goal, a list of (NCTM) standards for grades (6-8) were translated to Arabic language,…

  12. An Assessment of the Readiness of King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia, in Adopting Effective Online Staff Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2011-01-01

    Internet access has grown in Saudi Arabia between 2000 and 2005 by more than 1000% and many governmental organizations are starting to provide part of their services using the internet. In addition, the Ministry of Higher Education has provided funding to all governmental universities to start developing strategies and guidelines for online…

  13. English Language Instructors' Perceptions about Technology-Based Language Learning at Northern Border University in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saqlain, Nadeem; Mahmood, Zahir

    2013-01-01

    This study used qualitative research methods to explore English language teachers' perceptions about the use of technology for language learning at Northern Border University (NBU) in Saudi Arabia. Data collection relied on interviews. Stream of behaviour chronicles was also used as a strategy of non interactive data collection.14 non native…

  14. Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.…

  15. Intercultural Conflicts between Close Friends: A Case Study of Power Relations in Continuing Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Usman, Irianti; Treff, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the breakdown of professional and personal communication and relationship through the lens of cultural differences. The case is based on the experience of two female adult educators--an American and a Saudi--working within continuing education at a private women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Graduates of the same U.S.…

  16. Vocational and Technical Preparation in Saudi Arabia (Manpower Development Programs Conducted by the Public and Private Sectors).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    A serious constraint to the development of a modern and diversified industrial base in Saudi Arabia is the critical shortage of skilled manpower. To remedy this deficit, vocational and technical education programs in the country are being revised and expanded. Five secondary-level Vocational Industrial Schools have been established by the Ministry…

  17. The perception of physical therapy leaders in Saudi Arabia regarding physical therapy scope of practice in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abbad, Hani Mohammed; Al-Haidary, Hisham Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To explore the views of the physical therapy service leaders in Saudi Arabia regarding the integration of physical therapy service in primary health care settings. [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered questionnaire consisting of both open and closed ended questions was distributed during May–July 2013 via email to physical therapy leaders representing different regions and health care providers in Saudi Arabia. [Results] Twenty-six participants answered the questionnaire. Eighty five percent of the sample had ≥ 10 years of experience with 57.6% of them holding a post-graduate degree. Participants were from different health care providers and represented different geographical regions of Saudi Arabia. Eighty one percent of the sample reported that the adoption of physical therapy services in primary health care would be advantageous, as it would offer earlier access to health care and would be more cost-effective. The respondents also stated that such a service would contribute towards the prevention of common non-communicable health diseases. [Conclusion] The results of this survey provide generally positive recommendations for the provision of physical therapy service in Saudi Arabia primary health care centers. However, challenges and barriers identified by this study require consideration during the development of the service. PMID:26957740

  18. Teacher Knowledge That Supports Student Processes in Learning Mathematics: A Study at All-Female Middle Schools in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaeed, Maha Saad

    2012-01-01

    Teachers in Saudi Arabia are attempting to advance their teaching in mathematics to address specific reforms by the Ministry of Education. Saudi teachers must improve their students' thinking through engagement in problem solving. This qualitative study investigated how teachers use knowledge of student mathematical learning and how they…

  19. The Quality Assurance System for Post-Secondary Education in Saudi Arabia: A Comprehensive, Developmental and Unified Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darandari, Eqbal Z.; Al-Qahtani, Saleh A.; Allen, Ian D.; Al-Yafi, Wafaa A.; Al-Sudairi, Abdulsalam A.; Catapang, Joey

    2009-01-01

    The rapid growth in the number of post-secondary institutions in Saudi Arabia over the last few years necessitated the creation of a government agency for accreditation and quality assurance. The National Commission for Academic Accreditation and Assessment was established in 2004 for this purpose. Between 2005 and 2008, it developed a new…

  20. Layered Sediments, Rampart Craters, and Potential Fluvio-Lacustrine Activity in S.W. Arabia Terra, Mars: Support for a History of Aqueous Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Allen, C. C.; Venechuk, E. M.; Paris, K. N.

    2007-01-01

    Arabia Terra is a unique area on Mars in that it is the only major, equatorial region characterized by high abundances of near-surface water (as measured by gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy). Vernal Crater is a 55 km-diameter structure in southwest Arabia Terra, centered at 6 N, 355.5 E. The crater includes layered sediments, potential remnants of fluvio-lacustrine activity, and indications of aeolian processes. Regional considerations, along with new THEMIS and MOC data, are being assessed to gain insight into the significance of the geomorphic units within Vernal Crater and the geologic history of SW Arabia Terra.

  1. Propagation of rifting along the Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary: The Gulfs of Aden and Tadjoura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manighetti, Isabelle; Tapponnier, Paul; Courtillot, Vincent; Gruszow, Sylvie; Gillot, Pierre-Yves

    1997-02-01

    The localization and propagation of rifting between Arabia and Somalia are investigated by assessing the deformation geometry and kinematics at different scales between the eastern Gulf of Aden and the Gulf of Tadjoura, using bathymetric, magnetic, seismological, and structural evidence. Large-scale, southwestward propagation of the Aden ridge, markedly oblique to the Arabia-Somalia relative motion vector, began about 30 Myr ago between the Error and Sharbithat ridges. It was an episodic process, with stages of rapid propagation, mostly at rates >10 cm/yr, interrupted by million year pauses on transverse discontinuities coinciding with rheological boundaries between different crustal provinces of the Arabia-Somalia plate. The longest pause was at the Shukra-El Sheik discontinuity (≈45°E), where the ridge tip stalled for ≈13 Myr, between ≈17 and ≈4 Ma. West of that discontinuity, rifting and spreading took place at an azimuth (≈N25°±10°E) and rate (1.2±0.3 cm/yr) different from those of the global Arabia-Somalia motion vector (≈N39°, ≈1.73 cm/yr), implying an additional component of movement (N65°±10°E, 0.7±0.2 cm/yr) due to rotation of the Danakil microplate. At Shukra-El Sheik, the typical oceanic ridge gives way to a narrow, WSW trending axial trough, resembling a large fissure across a shallow shelf. This trough is composed of about eight rift segments, which result from normal faulting and fissuring along N110°-N130°E trends. All the segments step to the left southwestward, mostly through oblique transfer zones with en échelon normal faults. Only two segments show clear, significant overlap. There is one clear transform, the Maskali fault, between the Obock and Tadjoura segments. The latter segment, which encroaches onland, is composed of two parallel subrifts (Iboli, Ambabbo) that propagated northwestward and formed in succession. The most recent, southwestern subrift (Ambabbo) represents the current tip of the Aden ridge. We propose

  2. Current care services provided for patients with COPD in the Eastern province in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Alsubaiei, Mohammed E; Cafarella, Paul A; Frith, Peter A; McEvoy, R Doug; Effing, Tanja W

    2015-01-01

    Background COPD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence rate of COPD in the general Saudi population is estimated to be 2.4% and 14.2% among smokers. Not much is known about current health care services for patients with COPD in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to determine the current care services for patients with COPD provided by government hospitals in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Directors of the Department of Internal Medicine from all 22 general government hospitals that are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Health or the Ministry of Higher Education in this region were asked to participate. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The study results indicated that there are limited hospital facilities for patients with COPD: no respiratory departments in any of the included hospitals, no spirometry in 77.3% of the hospitals, no intensive care units in 63.7% of the hospitals, and no pulmonary rehabilitation program in any of the hospitals. Among the included 22 hospitals, 24 respiratory physicians, 29 respiratory therapists, and three physiotherapists were involved in COPD care. Conclusion In conclusion, current care services provided by government hospitals in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia for patients with COPD do not meet international recommendations for COPD management. Increased awareness, knowledge, and implementation of COPD guidelines by health care providers will most probably improve COPD management in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the government could improve dissemination of information about COPD management through national programs and by offering specific education regarding respiratory diseases. PMID:26604736

  3. Fluvial Interpretation of Ridged Units, Northern Sinus Meridiani/Southwest Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, J.; Allen, C. C.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2007-12-01

    THEMIS, MOC, and HiRISE imagery shows features at various scales that suggest fluvial emplacement of the ridge-forming rock units exposed in northern Sinus Meridiani and southwestern Arabia Terra. The study area -- 10 N to 2 S latitude and 10 W to 8 E longitude -- spans the interface from the southern highlands to the northern plains. Numerous, linear ridges of varying width, orientation and sinuosity (mainly lower sinuosity) are suggestive of fluvial channels. Sets of features can be interpreted as braided channel reaches. Cross-cutting relationships, a common feature of channels on terrestrial fluvial plains, are ubiquitous. Many sinuous features appear as twinned parallel lines, suggesting preferential cementing of coarser channel-bank sediments. A few examples exist of features that can be interpreted as scroll bars and channel augmentation in locally narrow reaches. Layering and internal discontinuities of the Meridiani rocks are consistent with a fluvial interpretation. The regional setting of study-area units accords closely with many terrestrial basins which are occupied by fluvially emplaced sediment bodies known as megafans. Contiguous megafan surfaces (characterized by numerous channel traces, of varied orientation) cover large areas -- 1.25 million sq. km. in S. America -- with radii of hundreds of km. Megafans characteristically lie at the foot of a backing highland, from which rivers supply sediment. The ridged units on Mars lie at the foot of the southern highlands from which numerous river valleys have drained towards Meridiani Planum/southwest Arabia Terra. Further, the present regional slope is apparently away from the highlands, with downslope dimensions of hundreds of km. The low slopes of the northern Meridiani units mirror the typically low regional slopes of terrestrial megafans. Low slopes are conducive to the development of water bodies, which are numerous on some terrestrial megafans. The lacustrine model for the formation of the hematite

  4. The Use of Ground Penetrating Radar to Exploring Sedimentary Ore In North-Central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almutairi, Yasir; Almutair, Muteb

    2015-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a non-destructive geophysical method that provides a continuous subsurface profile, without drilling. This geophysical technique has great potential in delineating the extension of bauxites ore in north-central Saudi Arabia. Bauxite is from types sedimentary ores. This study aim to evaluate the effectiveness of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to illustrate the subsurface feature of the Bauxite deposits at some selected mining areas north-central Saudi Arabia. Bauxite is a heterogeneous material that consists of complex metals such as alumina and aluminum. An efficient and cost-effect exploration method for bauxite mine in Saudi Arabia is required. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements have been carrying out along outcrop in order to assess the potential of GPR data for imaging and characterising different lithological facies. To do so, we have tested different antenna frequencies to acquire the electromagnetic signals along a 90 m profile using the IDS system. This system equipped with a 25 MHz antenna that allows investigating the Bauxite layer at shallow depths where the clay layers may existed. Therefore, the 25 MHz frequency antenna has been used in this study insure better resolution of the subsurface and to get more penetration to image the Bauxite layer. After the GPR data acquisition, this data must be processed in order to be more easily visualized and interpreted. Data processing was done using Reflex 6.0 software. A series of tests were carried out in frequency filtering on a sample of radar sections, which was considered to better represent the entire set of data. Our results indicated that the GPR profiling has a very good agreement for mapping the bauxite layer depth at range of 7 m to 11 m. This study has emphasized that the high-resolution GPR method is the robust and cost-effect technique to map the Bauxite layer. The exploration of Bauxite resource using the GPR technique could reduce the number of holes to

  5. The utilization of Arabic online drug information among adults in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abanmy, Norah O; Al-Quait, Nouf A; Alami, Amani H; Al-Juhani, Meshaal H; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa

    2012-10-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of the world wide web has become increasingly popular. However, the exact figure of such use is unknown. This study aimed to determine the percentage of, and experience with, online Arabic drug information by Arabic-speaking adults in Saudi Arabia. A web based questionnaire was used. The questionnaire language was Arabic. Public were invited to participate in the survey through e-mails, Twitter, WhatsApp and Facebook in March 2012. The survey included 17 items examining the types of accessed Arabic drug information, the respondent's demographics, their ability to easily find and understand Arabic drug-related information, and their trustfulness and dependency on such information websites. Of the 422 Arabic speaking adults who answered the questionnaire, 88% stated that they used Arabic websites to answer drug-related questions. Of the respondents, 50% had a bachelor's degree, 44% were young adults, over half were female (60%), and 72% of them have a chronic disease. The ease of retrieving online information was the most common reason (69%) for consulting such websites. Google as a search engine was the most frequently (86%) accessible website. Although respondents reported different drug-related topics in their online searching, the search for adverse effects was the most common (68%). Respondents claimed that they could easily find (65%) and understand (49%) the drug-related information. Although a good number of respondents qualified this type of information as good, double-checking of information on other websites was highly recommended. Trustfulness was one of the important parameters to measure and 205 respondents (55%) claimed that they only trusted half of the information cited. Moreover, around 48% of respondents considered that finding the same information on more than one website increased its trustfulness. Surprisingly, 54% of respondents did not depend on Arabic information websites when making decisions on drug use

  6. Outcome of corneal transplantation in a private institution in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Nazri; Chacra, Charbel T Bou; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to describe the indications, complications, and outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in Saudi Arabia. Methods In a retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series, the medical records of patients who underwent PKP from January 2000 to December 2008 and had a minimum follow-up of 6 months were reviewed. All corneas were obtained from eye banks in the US. Indications, complications, and outcomes of surgery were recorded. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Results Eighty-five consecutive eyes were included in this study. There were 52 (61.2%) males and 33 (38.8%) females. The median age was 35.0 years (range 3–85 years), and the median follow-up period was 24 months (range 6–108 months). The indications for PKP were keratoconus, bullous keratopathy, corneal scars, corneal dystrophy, and corneal regraft. The overall graft survival time was 88.9 months ± 4.9 months (mean ± standard error of mean, 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.4 months –98.4 months) while the 3-year and 5-year cumulative survival rates were 90.7% and 84.3%, respectively. Surgical indication (P = 0.038), immune rejection (P < 0.001), preoperative corneal vascularization (P = 0.022), and perioperative high intraocular pressure (P = 0.032) were associated significantly with corneal graft failure in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis reduced these significant associations to rejection (P < 0.001) and vascularization (P = 0.009). Relative risk for failure in rejected cornea was 16.22 (95% CI 4.99–52.69) and in vascularized cornea was 3.89 (95% CI 1.36–11.09). At last visit following PKP, 34 (40%) eyes had best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 51 (60.0%) eyes had 20/80 or better. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was worse than 20/400 in 15 (17.6%) eyes. Conclusion The overall corneal graft survival in a private setting in Saudi Arabia can be excellent. Thorough preoperative evaluation

  7. Pharmacist, the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: A questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bin Saleh, Ghada; Rezk, Naser L.; Laika, Laila; Ali, Anna; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Saudi Arabia there is an estimated need of more than 100,000 pharmacy graduates to cover all present sectors. The shortage of pharmacists has affected many of these sectors especially the pharmaceutical industry. The contribution of Saudi pharmacists to local pharmaceuticals industry would be extremely beneficial and important for shaping the future of the drug industry within the Kingdom. It is not clear whether future Saudi pharmacists are willing to contribute to local pharmaco-industrial fields. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted on all final-year pharmacy students in King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Results: Out of a total of 130 students registered in the final-year of the pharmacy program in KSU, 122 (93.8%) were able to complete the questionnaire. The results showed that the majority (83%) of Saudi pharmacy students indicated that they had not received practical training in the pharmaceutical companies, while only 17.2% of the students felt that they had the knowledge and the skills to work in the pharmaceutical industry after graduation. The majority of the students (66.7%) chose clinical pharmacy as their future career field while only 10.9% indicated willingness to work in a pharmaceutical industry career. Only 8.2% selected working in the pharmaceutical industry. The significant predictor of possibly choosing a career in the local drug industry is a student with a bachelor’s degree (compared to Pharm D degree) in pharmacy (OR = 2.7 [95% CI 1.1–6.3]). Conclusion: Pharmacy students who are enrolled in the capital city of Riyadh are not properly trained to play an influential role in local drug companies. As a result, their level of willingness to have a career in such important business is not promising (more among Pharm D program). Future research in other pharmacy colleges within Saudi Arabia is needed to confirm such results. PMID:26594125

  8. Microfacies and diagenesis of the reefal limestone, Callovian Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation, central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EL-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Almadani, Sattam A.; Al-Dabbagh, Mohammad E.

    2016-03-01

    In order to document the microfacies and diagenesis of the reefal limestone in the uppermost part of the Callovian Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation at Khashm Al-Qaddiyah area, central Saudi Arabia, scleractinian corals and rock samples were collected and thin sections were prepared. Coral framestone, coral floatstone, pelloidal packstone, bioclastic packstone, bioclastic wacke/packstone, algal wackestone and bioclastic foraminiferal wacke/packstone were the recorded microfacies types. Cementation, recrystallization, silicification and dolomitization are the main diagenetic alterations affected the aragonitic skeletons of scleractinian corals. All coral skeletons were recrystallized, while some ones were dolomitized and silicified. Microfacies types, as well as the fossil content of sclearctinian corals, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods and foraminifera indicated a deposition in environments ranging from shelf lagoon with open circulation in quiet water below wave base to shallow reef flank and organic build up for the uppermost reefal part of the Tuwaiq Formation in the study area.

  9. Community pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes and practices towards herbal remedies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alkharfy, K M

    2010-09-01

    There is an increasing trend towards consumption of complementary and alternative herbal products in many parts of the world. A cross-sectional sample of 115 community pharmacists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was visited and information on knowledge, attitudes and practices towards herbal remedies was collected using a structured questionnaire. All pharmacists acknowledged dispensing herbal products through their pharmacies. Ginseng was the most widely used product (47%), followed by ginkgo (23%), valerian (17%) and S.t John's wort (3.5%). In general, pharmacists had poor awareness about potential herb-drug interactions. While 56% of participating pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of herbal remedies, 30% considered them to be harmless. Community pharmacists need to be better informed about herbal products. PMID:21218728

  10. Evaluation of Land Cover Features over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Using ALOS AVNIR-2 Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, M. R.; Lim, H. S.; Hassan, Faez M.; Jafri, M. Z. Mat

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to classify the land cover mapping over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia using ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite image and to determine which classifier is suitable for that area which surrounded by desert terrain. The image was captured on 27 June 2008. Standard supervised classification method which is Maximum Likelihood Classifier was applied to the imageries to extract the spectral information from acquired scene. Besides, the advance classification method which is Neural Network Classification also conducted in this study. Then, the results from both classifiers will be compared and the discussion about it will be done. Training sites were selected using polygon and land cover classes were assigned to each classifier. Accuracy assessment was carried out to compute the probability of error for the classified map. A total of 250 random samples were chosen for accuracy assessment. Finally, land cover map over Jeddah was generated and the best classifier was determined.

  11. Ecology of the Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari in Riyadh Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K.; Al-Otaibi, Fahed S.

    2014-01-01

    The ecology, feeding habits and sexual dimorphism in Arabian Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari from the Central region of Saudi Arabia, were studied. In this study the E. jayakari was recorded for the first time from several sites. Significant differences were noted in total length of body and tail, and body diameter of male and female. The females were of larger size. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventrals and subcaudal for both sexes were not significantly different. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventral body scales and subcaudal scales for the females was 43, 169 and 18 scales which were not significantly different from respectively ones in males 42, 168 and 18 scales. Frequent prey consumed were lizards (50%), rodents (25%) and arthropods (12.5%). PMID:25313272

  12. A new perspective on ancient martian volcanism: evidence for supervolcanoes in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Bleacher, J. E.; Wright, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    While many Hesperian and Amazonian volcanic constructs on Mars are easily recognizable from their shield morphologies, significantly less is known about ancient (Noachian and earliest Hesperian) martian volcanism. Yet, heat flow in the martian crust was higher in the Noachian and therefore the planet was likely more magmatically active [1]. It is possible that Noachian volcanic constructs have largely escaped detection because higher erosion rates on ancient Mars destroyed geomorphological evidence for their existence. However, another possibility exists: some ancient volcanoes on Mars might have been of a fundamentally different character compared to well known, younger shield volcanoes because of an explosive nature of the more ancient ones. We present evidence for ancient supervolcanoes within the Arabia Terra region of Mars. Several large (~20-70 km-diameter) craters within Arabia Terra display little or no evidence for impact origins and exhibit various degrees of evidence for volcanism. These structures, which we term 'plains style caldera complexes,' show no evidence for preserved ejecta, raised rims, inverted stratigraphy, or central peaks that could be attributed to meteor impact-related processes. While it is possible that any evidence for impact origins was removed by erosion, we consider this unlikely because crater degradation generally leads to lower depth-diameter ratios [2] and these structures have high depth-diameter ratios, comparable to values for unmodified craters [3]. In fact, erosion has been low enough to preserve various pieces of evidence for volcanism associated with the structures, such as association with ridged plains lavas, possible vent structures, evidence for lava lakes in some cases, and association with sagging crust possibly related to magma migration or withdrawal. Taken together, these structures represent a newly recognized type of volcanism on Mars dominated by explosive volcanism and structural collapse. They occur within

  13. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks.

    PubMed

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Dhafer, Hathal M Al

    2015-01-01

    Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyiadiscoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylumcandidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopalinearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopaminos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopalinearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylumcandidum and Bombomyiadiscoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  14. A mineral reconnaissance of the Jabal Sahah quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlow, Jesse William

    1970-01-01

    A mineral reconnaissance of the Jabal Sahah quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, showed the presence of the anomalous elements silver, beryllium, molybdenum, niobium, tin, and tungsten and of anomalous amounts of chromium, nickel, lead, titanium, and vanadium. All anomalies are low except one for tin and one for tungsten in the granitic plug west of Jabal Sahah. Debris from this small plug contains as much as 1,000 ppm (parts per million) tin in wadi sand, and a concentrate from the sand contains as much as 40 ppm molybdenum and 1,000 ppm tungsten. The area of this small plug and the metamorphic rock around the plug should be studied in detail to learn distribution and value of tin, tungsten, niobium, and molybdenum in the rocks. Alkalic granite at Jabal Sahah contains beryllium,-molybdenum, tin, niobium, tungsten, and a low anomaly of lead.

  15. Samsum ant, Brachyponera sennaarensis (Formicidae: Ponerinae): Distribution and abundance in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khalifa, Mohammed Saleh; Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali; Siddiqui, Mohammed Iqbal; Al-Mekhlafi, Fahd Abdu

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species are capable of causing considerable damage to natural ecosystems, agriculture and economies throughout the World. Samsum ant, Brachyponera (Pachycondyla) sennaarensis has been a reason for medical implication and social nuisance through its poisonous and severely painful sting causing anaphylactic shock in many cases. We surveyed for the presence of the samsum ant in various provinces of Saudi Arabia. B. sennaarensis was the abundant Ponerinae species in human settlements. In the Eastern provinces, however, few samples were collected, and none were found in the Northern and Western provinces. Infestations of B. sennaarensis were particularly severe in the spring and summer seasons, when the ants make nests in moist areas and in cracks in cemented structures, whereas the extent of infestation reduced in winter seasons. PMID:26288561

  16. Biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons by mangrove fungi from Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ameen, Fuad; Moslem, Mohamed; Hadi, Sarfaraz; Al-Sabri, Ahmed E.

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove sediments were collected from major mangrove stands on the Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia. Forty five isolates belonging to 12 genera were purified and five isolates as well as their consortium were found to be able to grow in association with petroleum oil as sole carbon source under in vitro conditions. The isolated strains were identified based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence analysis. The fungal strains with the greatest potentiality to degrade diesel oil, without developing antagonistic activity, were identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus terreus, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Eupenicillium hirayamae and Paecilomyces variotii. As compared to the controls, these fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced extracellular enzymes and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations with GC–MS data confirm that these isolates displayed rapid diesel oil bioremoval and when used together as a consortium, there was no antagonistic activity. PMID:26981002

  17. Age dates of valley network drainage basins and subbasins within Sabae and Arabia Terrae, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, Sylvain; Craddock, Robert A.

    2014-06-01

    The precise timing of valley network drainage basin formation is critical to understanding the history of water and climate on Mars. To determine whether there are any variations in ages within separate drainage basins and subbasins that may reflect local or regional variations in climate or resetting from resurfacing (e.g., impact ejecta or lava flows), we dated 27 basins and subbasins in Sabaea and Arabia Terrae. The age-dating basin technique we employed allowed sufficient precision to give accurate ages and shows that fluvial activity within the basins and subbasins ceased at approximately the same time around the Early Hesperian/Late Hesperian transition. Our results support the hypothesis that valley networks formed during a unique "fluvial optimum" that may have shut off gradually because of a global climate change that affected all areas simultaneously on Mars.

  18. Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liddicoat, W.K.; Ramsay, C.R.; Hedge, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al2O3, Na2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U{single bond}Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ?? 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region. ?? 1986.

  19. Indoor-outdoor carbon monoxide concentrations at four sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D.R.; Al-Dhowalia, K.H.; Mansour, M.E. )

    1989-08-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the major outdoor anthropogenic source of carbon monoxide (CO) is the 4,280,986 cars registered in the Kingdom last year. Of these vehicles, approximately 1,300,000 are registered in the Riyadh area. The major sources of indoor CO in Riyadh are gas cooking facilities, kerosene heaters, charcoal burners, hubble bubble pipes (water pipes), and tobacco smoking. The current Saudi Arabian Ambient Air Quality Standards (SAAQS) for CO are 10 mg/m{sup 3} (9 ppm) maximum for 8-hour average exposure, and 40 mg/m{sup 3} (35 ppm) for 1-hour average exposure. The allowable exceedance is twice per month. These standards are the same for the United States except no exceedance is allowed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CO levels indoors and outdoors at four sites in Riyadh. Continuous sampling was conducted at four sites with Ecolyzer Series 200 Monitors, together with Rustrak Recorders Model 288.

  20. Indoor-outdoor nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations at three sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D.R. ); Al-Dhowalia, K.H.; Mansour, M.E. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nitric oxide and nitrogen oxide concentrations indoors and outdoors at three sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results show that the outdoor and indoor concentrations for NO were at least 270 and 16 times the reported average worldwide NO concentrations, respectively. The NO(sub 2) concentrations were about 14 times reported outdoor worldwide levels; however, NO(sub 2) concentrations indoors were generally below those reported in the literature. The data presented, in combination with information presented in previous articles, will provide a valuable background database for use in dispersion models to determine the effect of the Kuwaiti oil well fires on the air quality of Riyadh.

  1. A retrospective study of factors affecting breast feeding practices in a rural community of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Nasser, A N; Bamgboye, E A; Alburno, M K

    1991-03-01

    This study was conducted during 1987-1988 academic year in the rural areas of Tihama Saudi Arabia to assess the average duration of breast feeding and the effect of some factors. A multi-way analysis of variance approach was used to examine the effect of mother's age, parity and education on the duration of breast feeding. The mean duration of breast feeding was 11.2 months +/- and the results of the regression analysis shows all the three maternal variables, age, parity and education to have statistically significant independent effect on the duration of breast feeding. The results showed that 98.3% support breast feeding and 78.9% of the sample were illiterates. These findings are discussed in relation to previous work. PMID:2070752

  2. Risk Factors for Primary Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Illness in Humans, Saudi Arabia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Alraddadi, Basem M.; Watson, John T.; Almarashi, Abdulatif; Abedi, Glen R.; Turkistani, Amal; Sadran, Musallam; Housa, Abeer; Almazroa, Mohammad A.; Alraihan, Naif; Banjar, Ayman; Albalawi, Eman; Alhindi, Hanan; Choudhry, Abdul Jamil; Meiman, Jonathan G.; Paczkowski, Magdalena; Curns, Aaron; Mounts, Anthony; Feikin, Daniel R.; Marano, Nina; Swerdlow, David L.; Gerber, Susan I.; Hajjeh, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for primary Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) illness in humans are incompletely understood. We identified all primary MERS-CoV cases reported in Saudi Arabia during March–November 2014 by excluding those with history of exposure to other cases of MERS-CoV or acute respiratory illness of unknown cause or exposure to healthcare settings within 14 days before illness onset. Using a case–control design, we assessed differences in underlying medical conditions and environmental exposures among primary case-patients and 2–4 controls matched by age, sex, and neighborhood. Using multivariable analysis, we found that direct exposure to dromedary camels during the 2 weeks before illness onset, as well as diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and smoking, were each independently associated with MERS-CoV illness. Further investigation is needed to better understand animal-to-human transmission of MERS-CoV. PMID:26692185

  3. Geology and genesis of the Baid al Jimalah tungsten deposit, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kamilli, R.J.; Cole, J.C.; Elliott, J.E.; Criss, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Baid ad Jimalah tungsten deposit in Saudi Arabia consists predominantly of swarms of steeply dipping, subparallel, tungsten-bearing quartz veins and of less abundant, smaller stockwork veins. It is spatially, temporally, and genetically associated with a 569 Ma, highly differentiated, porphyritic, two-feldspar granite that intrudes Late Proterozoic immature sandstones. Baid al Jimalah is similar in character and origin to Phanerozoic tungsten-tin greisen deposits throughout the world, especially the Hemerdon deposit in Devon, England. It is also analogous to Climax-type molybdenum deposits, which contain virtually identical mineral assemblages, but with the relative proportions of molybdenum and tungsten mineralization reversed, primarily owing to differences in oxygen fugacity. This similarity in mineralization styles and fluid histories indicates that metallogenic processes in granite-related deposits in the late Precambrian were similar to those seen in the Phanerozoic. -from Authors

  4. Biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons by mangrove fungi from Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ameen, Fuad; Moslem, Mohamed; Hadi, Sarfaraz; Al-Sabri, Ahmed E

    2016-03-01

    Mangrove sediments were collected from major mangrove stands on the Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia. Forty five isolates belonging to 12 genera were purified and five isolates as well as their consortium were found to be able to grow in association with petroleum oil as sole carbon source under in vitro conditions. The isolated strains were identified based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence analysis. The fungal strains with the greatest potentiality to degrade diesel oil, without developing antagonistic activity, were identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus terreus, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Eupenicillium hirayamae and Paecilomyces variotii. As compared to the controls, these fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced extracellular enzymes and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations with GC-MS data confirm that these isolates displayed rapid diesel oil bioremoval and when used together as a consortium, there was no antagonistic activity. PMID:26981002

  5. A serologic survey of wild felids from central west Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Stéphane; Van Vuuren, Moritz; Lenain, Daniel M; Durand, Alma

    2003-07-01

    Forty-five wildcats (Felis silvestris), 17 sand cats (Felis margarita), and 17 feral domestic cats were captured in central west Saudi Arabia, between May 1998 and April 2000, with the aim to assess their exposure to feline immunodeficiency virus/puma lentivirus (FIV/PLV), feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), feline herpesvirus (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), feline coronavirus (FCoV), and feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV). Serologic prevalence in wildcats, sand cats, and feral domestic cats were respectively: 6%, 0%, 8% for FIV/PLV; 3%, 8%, 0% for FeLV; 5%, 0%, 15% for FHV-1; 25%, 0%, 39% for FCV; 10%, 0%, 0% for FCoV; and 5%, 0%, 8% for FPLV. We recorded the first case of FeLV antigenemia in a wild sand cat. Positive results to FIV/PLV in wildcats and feral cats confirmed the occurrence of a feline lentivirus in the sampled population. PMID:14567233

  6. Analysis of rocks around capital of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, W. A.; Al-Mutairi, F. N.; Alahmed, Z. A.

    2013-08-01

    We present laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic studies of variety of rock samples around capital of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The samples were collected from East, West, North, and South about 20 km from city centre. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) in conjunction with MS257 Spectrograph (Oriel instrument) equipped with ICCD camera is used to record the LIBS data. The emission spectra of these samples have been recorded as functions of laser irradiance. The elemental composition and the relative abundance in each sample are found to be quite different. Quantities of Iron, Calcium, Carbon, Silicon, Aluminum, and Oxygen are detected in these samples. In samples from East, West and South, Iron and Silicon dominates. Dominant elements from North are Calcium and Silicon. Presence of Oxygen proves the existence of oxides in all samples. The color of the samples indicates the presence of Goethite and Hematite, oxides of Iron.

  7. Status of breeding seabirds on the Northern Islands of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Aloufi, Abdulhadi A

    2014-07-01

    We undertook breeding surveys between 2010 and 2011 to assess the status of breeding birds on 16 islands in the northern Saudi Arabia. Sixteen bird species were found breeding at three different seasons; i.e. winter (Osprey), spring (Caspian and Saunder's Terns), and summer (Lesser Crested, White-cheeked, Bridled Terns). It is postulated that food availability is an important factor influencing the breeding of seabirds in the northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Several species laid eggs earlier in northern parts of the Red Sea than in southern parts. The predicted increases in temperatures (Ta ) could have a negative effect on species survival in the future, especially on those whose nests that are in the open. Finally, disturbance, predation and egg collection were probably the main immediate threats affecting the breeding seabird species in the northern Red Sea. PMID:24955009

  8. Prevalence and socioeconomic determinants of dental sealant use among schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Agili, D E; Niazy, H A; Pass, M A

    2012-12-01

    There are no published research reports on the prevalence of dental sealant use in children in Saudi Arabia. This study determined the prevalence and socioeconomic indicators of dental sealant use on the permanent molars of a stratified random sample of schoolchildren in Jeddah. A basic oral screening survey of students was conducted by dentists and a self-administered questionnaire was completed by parents. The prevalence of dental sealant use among 1668 3rd and 8th grade students was 9.0%. Students who attended public schools and those who had fathers with lowerthan high-school education were less likely to have sealants. A stepwise logistic regression model showed that socioeconomic status of school district, family's monthly income, family's type of home, having medical insurance and receiving government financial support were significantly associated with sealant use. Efforts to increase sealant use and to reduce socioeconomic disparities appear warranted in the light of high rates of dental disease. PMID:23301395

  9. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. from Pipistrellus kuhlii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dakhil, Mohamed; Al-Shawa, Yaser

    1999-01-01

    Fecal samples from 12 Pipistrellus kuhlii captured at Shagrah, Saudi Arabia, were examined for coccidia and three (25%) found to harbor a undescribed eimerian, herein described as Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. Sporulated oocysts were subspherical, 24.8×23.2 (22-27×20-25) µm, with a bilayered and smooth wall. The micropyle was absent, but a large oocyst residuum and a single polar granule were present. Sporocysts were ovoid, 11.6×8.3 (10.5-13×7.5-9) µm, with a prominent Stieda body, but without a substiedal body; sporozoites lay head to tail in sporocysts and contained one large posterior refractile body. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. is the 3rd species of the genus Eimeria found from bats of the genus Pipistrellus. PMID:10188376

  10. Parabolic trough collector power plant performance simulation for an interactive solar energy Atlas of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Mercedes; Frasquet, Miguel; Al Rished, Abdulaziz; Tuomiranta, Arttu; Gasim, Sami; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-05-01

    The collaboration between the Research Center for Renewable Energy Mapping and Assessment (ReCREMA) at Masdar Institute of Science and Technology and the King Abdullah City for Atomic & Renewable Energy (KACARE) aims to create an interactive web tool integrated in the Renewable Resource Atlas where different solar thermal electricity (STE) utility-scale technologies will be simulated. In this paper, a methodology is presented for sizing and performance simulation of the solar field of parabolic trough collector (PTC) plants. The model is used for a case study analysis of the potential of STE in three sites located in the central, western, and eastern parts of Saudi Arabia. The plant located in the north (Tayma) has the lowest number of collectors with the best production along the year.

  11. ERTS surveys a 500 km squared locust breeding site in Saudi Arabia. [Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedgley, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    From September 1972 to January 1973, ERTS-1 precisely located a 500 sq km area on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia within which the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forsk.) bred successfully and produced many small swarms. Growth of vegetation shown by satellite imagery was confirmed from ground surveys and raingauge data. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of detecting potential locust breeding sites by satellite, and shows that an operational satellite would be a powerful tool for routine survey of the 3 x 10 to the 7th power sq km invasion area of the Desert Locust in Africa and Asia, as well as of other locust species in the arid and semi-arid tropics.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in Saudi Arabia. An urgent call for an immediate action.

    PubMed

    Zowawi, Hosam M

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasingly being highlighted as an urgent public and animal health issue worldwide. This issue is well demonstrated in bacteria that are resistant to last-line antibiotics, suggesting a future with untreatable infections. International agencies have suggested combating strategies against AMR. Saudi Arabia has several challenges that can stimulate the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Tackling these challenges need efforts from multiple sectors to successfully control the spread and emergence of AMR in the country. Actions should include active surveillance to monitor the emergence and spread of AMR. Infection prevention and control precautions should also be optimized to limit further spread. Raising awareness is essential to limit inappropriate antibiotics use, and the antibiotic stewardship programs in hospital settings, outpatients, and community pharmacies, should regulate the ongoing use of antimicrobials. PMID:27570847

  13. Paleocene pycnodont fishes from Jabal Umm Himar, Harrat Hadan area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madden, Gary T.

    1983-01-01

    Three species of Pycnodus, a genus of extinct holostean fishes, have been identified from the Paleocene of Jabal Umm Himar, Harrat Hadan area, south-central Saudi Arabia, an area that was contiguous with Africa during the Early Tertiary. One of the species is larger than any species identified from the Early Tertiary of Africa. Its lower teeth are from 60 to 100 percent wider and 50 percent longer than those in P. mokattamensis, hitherto the largest species known from Africa. The second species, the most poorly represented of the three, is in dental size roughly 40 percent as large as the first species or about the same size as P. variabilis of Africa. The third species is small and, although the position of its teeth cannot be determined, this species clearly is distinct from the two other pycnodonts from Jabal Umm Himar.

  14. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  15. Caryospora biarmicusis sp.n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting falcons from the genus Falco in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alyousif, M S; Alfaleh, F A; Al-Shawa, Y R

    2011-04-01

    The oocysts of Caryospora biarmicusis sp.n. is described from the feces of the lanner falcon, Falco biarmicus, from the falcon market in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Sporulated oocysts are ovoid in shape, measuring 40.2 x 34.7 (37.5-42.4 x 32.9-35.7) microm; shape index (L/W) is 1.16 (1.08-1.31) microm. The oocyst wall is smooth and bi-layered. Micropyle and polar granule are absent, but an oocyst residuum is present. Sporocysts are spheroid, 20.1 (18.6-21.3) microm; with a smooth single-layered wall, lacking Stieda body. Sporocyst residuum is present as numerous small granules. Sporozoites are stout with a large single refractile body. PMID:21634236

  16. Role of solar energy research in transferring of technology to Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Alawaji, S.H.; Hasnain, S.M.

    1999-12-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is blessed with abundant solar energy, which is renewable, clean, and freely available. This paper describes the status of the major research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities and achievements at the Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, in the field of solar energy. RD and D activities in the Kingdom have confirmed that solar energy has a multitude of practical uses. These include lighting, cooling, cooking, water heating, crop/fruit drying, water desalination, operating irrigation pumps, and meteorological stations, and providing road and tunnel lighting. Furthermore, these solar energy RD and D activities and achievements played a significant role in transferring technology and manpower development in the Kingdom.

  17. Identification of potential artificial groundwater recharge zones in Northwestern Saudi Arabia using GIS and Boolean logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Faisal K.; Nazzal, Yousef; Ahmed, Izrar; Naeem, Muhammad; Jafri, Muhammad Kamran

    2015-11-01

    Identifying potential groundwater recharge zones is a pre-requisite for any artificial recharge project. The present study focuses on identifying the potential zones of Artificial Groundwater Recharge (AGR) in Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Parameters including slope, soil texture, vadose zone thickness, groundwater quality (TDS) and type of water bearing formation were integrated in a GIS environment using Boolean logic. The results showed that 17.90% of the total studied area is suitable for AGR. The identified zones were integrated with the land use/land cover map to avoid agricultural and inhabited lands which reduced the total potential area to 14.24%. Geomorphologically the wadi beds are the most suitable sites for recharge. On the basis of the potential AGR zones closeness to the available recharge water supply (rain water, desalinated sea water and treated waste water) the potential zones were classified as Category A (high priority) and Category B (low priority).

  18. Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome at Tertiary Care Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Deborah L.; Tokars, Jerome I.; Abdel Aziz, Inas Zakaria A.M.; Alkhaldi, Khulud Z.; Bensadek, Areej T.; Alraddadi, Basem M.; Jokhdar, Hani; Jernigan, John A.; Garout, Mohammed A.; Tomczyk, Sara M.; Oboho, Ikwo K.; Geller, Andrew I.; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Swerdlow, David L.

    2016-01-01

    During March–May 2014, a Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak occurred in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, that included many persons who worked or received medical treatment at King Fahd General Hospital. We investigated 78 persons who had laboratory-confirmed MERS during March 2–May 10 and documented contact at this hospital. The 78 persons with MERS comprised 53 patients, 16 healthcare workers, and 9 visitors. Among the 53 patients, the most probable sites of acquisition were the emergency department (22 patients), inpatient areas (17), dialysis unit (11), and outpatient areas (3). Infection control deficiencies included limited separation of suspected MERS patients, patient crowding, and inconsistent use of infection control precautions; aggressive improvements in these deficiencies preceded a decline in cases. MERS coronavirus transmission probably was multifocal, occurring in multiple hospital settings. Continued vigilance and strict application of infection control precautions are necessary to prevent future MERS outbreaks. PMID:27089550

  19. Status of breeding seabirds on the Northern Islands of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Aloufi, Abdulhadi A.

    2013-01-01

    We undertook breeding surveys between 2010 and 2011 to assess the status of breeding birds on 16 islands in the northern Saudi Arabia. Sixteen bird species were found breeding at three different seasons; i.e. winter (Osprey), spring (Caspian and Saunder’s Terns), and summer (Lesser Crested, White-cheeked, Bridled Terns). It is postulated that food availability is an important factor influencing the breeding of seabirds in the northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Several species laid eggs earlier in northern parts of the Red Sea than in southern parts. The predicted increases in temperatures (Ta) could have a negative effect on species survival in the future, especially on those whose nests that are in the open. Finally, disturbance, predation and egg collection were probably the main immediate threats affecting the breeding seabird species in the northern Red Sea. PMID:24955009

  20. In vitro cytotoxicity screening of wild plant extracts from Saudi Arabia on human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ali, M A; Abul Farah, M; Al-Hemaid, F M; Abou-Tarboush, F M

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the in vitro anticancer activities of a total of 14 wild angiosperms collected in Saudi Arabia. The cytotoxic activity of each extract was assessed against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines by using the MTT assay. Among the plants screened, the potential cytotoxic activity exhibited by the extract of Lavandula dentata (Lamiaceae) was identified, and we analyzed its anticancer potential by testing antiproliferative and apoptotic activity. Our results clearly show that ethanolic extract of L. dentata exhibits promising cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 39 μg/mL. Analysis of cell morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis (using an Annexin V assay) also confirmed the apoptotic effect of L. dentata extract, and thus, our data call for further investigations to determine the active chemical constituent(s) and their mechanisms of inducing apoptosis. PMID:24938609

  1. Correlation between Resistin, Tuberculosis and Khat Addiction: A Study from South Western Province of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alvi, Ayesha; Fatima, Nuzhath; Jerah, Ahmed Ali; Rizwan, Mohammed; Hobani, Yahya Hasan; Sunosi, Rashad Al; Taha, Manal Mohamed El Hassan; Habiballah, Eldaw Mohamed; Agarwal, Pradeep Kumar; Abdulwahab, Siddig Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis(TB) is a disease of global significance, which accounts for a death in every 15 seconds. Recent studies shows TB is rising in certain parts of the world, and Saudi Arabia is one of them. Several factor contribute in predisposing the subjects for infection including but not limited to addiction to various compounds which have immune modulation properties, such as amphetamines and Heroin etc. Khat a plant whose leaves are chewed for its euphoric effect in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula including Saudi Arabia, is considered as mildly addictive, and its principle compound, Cathinone shares structural and functional similarity with amphetamine a known immunomodulator. Tuberculosis being a disease of immune modulation has a varied spectrum of complex interplay of proinflammatory molecules, resistin is one of them. In the present study, we try to explore the trinity of khat addiction, serum resistin level and tuberculosis by correlating the serum resistin level in non khat addicted healthy subjects, khat addicted healthy subjects, and in patients, both khat addicted and non khat addicted, with active tuberculosis. We observed significantly higher resistin level among the apparently healthy khat addicted subjects as compared to non addicted healthy controls. Thereafter, when we compare the resistin levels between khat addicted and non khat addicted TB patients we did not found significant difference between the two groups. However bacillary load was observe to be significantly higher among the khat addicted TB patient as compare to non addicted one. Validation of above results in animal model revealed dose dependant increase in bacillary growth in the Wistar rats treated with khat. Taken together these results suggest the role of khat in immune modulation albeit in the limited frame of resistin level. PMID:26448186

  2. Molecular and serotyping characterization of shiga toxogenic Escherichia coli associated with food collected from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Zogibi, Onizan G; Mohamed, Moussa I; Hessain, Ashgan M; El-Jakee, Jakeen K; Kabli, Saleh A

    2015-07-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are considered as one of the major food-borne disease agents in humans worldwide. STEC strains, also called verotoxin-producing E. coli strains. The objectives of the present study were serotyping and molecular characterization of shiga toxigenic E. coli associated with raw meat and milk samples collected from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 540 milk samples were collected from 5 dairy farms and 150 raw meat samples were collected from different abattoirs located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. E. coli were recovered from 86 milk samples (15.93%), serotyping of E. coli isolates revealed, 26 (4.81%) strains O157: H7, 23 (4.26%) strains O111, 20 (3.70%) strains O113: H21, 10 (1.85%) strains O22: H8 and 7 (1.3%) strains O172: H21. Meanwhile, 17 (11.33%) strains of E. coli were recovered from raw meat samples, serotyping of E. coli isolates revealed, 6 (4%) strains O157: H7, 5 (3.33%) strains O111 and 4 (2.67%) strains O174: H2 and only two (1.33%) strains were identified as O22: H8. Shiga toxin2 was detected in 58 (67.44%) serotypes of E. coli recovered from milk samples and 16 (94.12%) serotypes of E. coli recovered from meat samples, while intimin gene was detected in 38 (44.186%) serotypes of E. coli recovered from milk samples and in 10 (58.82%) serotypes of E. coli recovered from meat samples. The results of this study revealed the efficiency of combination between serotyping and molecular typing of E. coli isolates recovered from food of animal origin for rapid detection and characterization of STEC. PMID:26150750

  3. Prevalence of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions among tobacco users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Attas, Safia Ali; Ibrahim, Suzan Seif; Amer, Hala Abbas; Darwish, Zeinab El-Said; Hassan, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. The most common form of tobacco used was cigarette smoking (65.6 %) followed by Shisha or Moasel (38.1%), while chewing tobacco, betel nuts and gat accounted for 21-2%, 7.7%, and 5% respectively. A high prevalence (88.8%) of soft tissue lesions was found among the tobacco users examined, and a wide range of lesions were detected, about 50% having hairy tongue, 36% smoker's melanosis, 28.9% stomatitis nicotina, 27% frictional keratosis, 26.7% fissured tongue, 26% gingival or periodontal inflammation and finally 20% leukodema. Suspicious potentially malignant lesions affected 10.5% of the subjects, most prevalent being keratosis (6.3%), leukoplakia (2.3%), erythroplakia (0.7%), oral submucous fibrosis (0.5%) and lichenoid lesions (0.4%), these being associated with male gender, lower level of education, presence of diabetes and a chewing tobacco habit. It is concluded that smoking was associated with a wide range of oral mucosal lesions , those suspicious for malignancy being linked with chewable forms, indicating serious effects. PMID:24568491

  4. Spectrum of β-thalassemia mutations in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Sultan, Ali; Phanasgaonkar, Supriya; Suliman, Ahmed; Al-Baqushi, Muneer; Nasrullah, Zaki; Al-Ali, Amein

    2011-01-01

    β-Thalassemias comprise a group of heterogeneous hemoglobin (Hb) disorders characterized by the absence or reduced synthesis of the β-globin chain with a variable clinical presentation. The Al-Qatif and Al-Ahsa oases in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia are regions known for the high prevalence of these disorders. This study was conducted to provide a more precise picture of the β-thalassemia (β-thal) mutations prevalent in these regions and to estimate their frequencies. One hundred and 96 subjects with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia (β-thal) disease were included in this study. A total of 14 β-thal mutations were identified with five mutations accounting for more than 80% of the total β-thal mutations identified. Of the 196 patients, 164 were homozygous for a β-thal mutation, while 32 were compound heterozygotes. We report here the novel identification of two mutations, namely, the Tunisian splice site IVS-I-130 (G→C) and the Mediterranean cryptic splice site IVS-I-110 (G→A), which have not been previously reported in the population of the Eastern Province. However, 15 patients (46.9%) with compound heterozygosities carried one of the β-thal mutations and the sickle cell mutation [Hb S or β6(A3)Glu→Val]. These patients were less frequently transfused than the patients who were homozygous for the β-thal mutations and presented with fewer complications. A more comprehensive overview of the genetic heterogeneity of the β-thal mutations in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia is presented in this article. This study will contribute to the establishment of an effective prevention program, including premarital screening. PMID:21417569

  5. Groundwater quality and hydrochemical properties of Al-Ula Region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Naji; Hussein, Belal H M; Rafrafi, Sarra; El Kassas, Neama

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater quality monitoring is one of the most important aspects in groundwater studies in arid environments particularly in developing countries, like Saudi Arabia, due to the fast population growth and the expansion of irrigated agriculture and industrial uses. Groundwater samples have been collected from eight locations in Al-Ula in Saudi Arabia during June 2012 and January 2013 in order to investigate the hydrochemical characteristics and the groundwater quality and to understand the sources of dissolved ions. Physicochemical parameters of groundwater such as electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solid, and major cations and anions were determined. Chloride was found to be the dominant anion followed by HCO(-) 3 and SO4 (2-). Groundwater of the study area is characterized by the dominance of alkaline earths (Ca(2+) + Mg(2+)) over alkali metals (Na(+) + K(+)). The analytical results show that the groundwater is generally moderately hard and slightly alkaline in nature. The binary relationships of the major ions reveal that water quality of the Al-Ula region is mainly controlled by rock weathering, evaporation, and ion exchange reactions. Piper diagram was constructed to identify hydrochemical facies, and it was found that majority of the samples belong to Ca-Cl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl facies. Chemical indices like chloro-alkali indices, sodium adsorption ratio, percentage of sodium, residual sodium carbonate, and permeability index were calculated. Also, the results show that the chemical composition of groundwater sources of Al-Ula is strongly influenced by lithology of country rocks rather than anthropogenic activities. PMID:25655124

  6. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AlQuaiz, AlJohara M.; Gad Mohamed, Ashry; Khoja, Tawfik A. M.; AlSharif, Abdullah; Shaikh, Shaffi Ahamed; Al Mane, Hamad; Aldiris, Abdallah; Hammad, Durdana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68%) women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80) g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) was present in 40% (390) women. Mean (±SD) for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17) fL, 26.37 (±6.21) pg, 32.36 (±4.91) g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76) and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05) were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97) was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24205435

  7. The Pattern of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in a Single Tertiary Center in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hemairi, Mohammad H.; Albokhari, Shatha M.; Muzaffer, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic arthritis in children. Our aim is to describe demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and treatment of JIA patients followed up in Pediatric Rheumatology clinic in a tertiary center in Saudi Arabia. Methods. Medical records of all patients who are followed up between January 2007 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected about demographic, clinical, and laboratory features and treatment. Results. Total patients were 82, males were 31 (37.8%), and mean age of JIA onset was 7.1 ± 3.6 yr. Mean follow-up duration was 2.67±1.6 yr. Systemic onset JIA (SoJIA) was the commonest (36.5%), followed by polyarticular in 29.2% and oligoarticular in 28%. Large and small joints are involved in 76 (92%) and 30 (36.6%), respectively. Main extra-articular feature was fever in 34 (41.4%). Uveitis was diagnosed in 7 (8.5%) and in 5 (21.7%) of oligoarticular JIA. Anemia was found in 49 (59.7%), high ESR in 45 (54.8%), and leukocytosis and thrombocytosis in 33 (40.2%). Positive ANA was found in 30 (36.5%) mainly in oligoarticular subtype as 12 (52%) patients (out of 23) had this positive test. 9 patients (10.9%) required NSAIDs only, 6 patients (7.3%) required NSAIDs and intra-articular steroids only, and 19 (23%) required NSAIDs, methotrexate, steroids, and biologics. Conclusion. SoJIA is the most common JIA subtype in our study. A population based rather than a single center study will give more details about JIA characteristics in Saudi Arabia PMID:26966610

  8. Diversity of Molecular Mechanisms Conferring Carbapenem Resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Jeannot, Katy; El-Mahdy, Taghrid S.; Samaha, Hassan A.; Shibl, Atef M.; Plésiat, Patrick; Courvalin, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study described various molecular and epidemiological characters determining antibiotic resistance patterns in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Methods. A total of 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were isolated from samples collected at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2011. Susceptibility testing, serotyping, molecular characterization of carbapenem resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Results. All isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, and more than half were highly resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 256 mg/L). Fifteen isolates had MIC values ≥64 mg/L for any of the carbapenems examined. Vietnamese extended-spectrum β-lactamase (VEB-1) (n = 16/34) and oxacillinase (OXA-10) (n = 14/34) were the most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase and penicillinase, respectively. Verona imipenemase (VIM-1, VIM-2, VIM-4, VIM-11, and VIM-28) and imipenemase (IMP-7) variants were found in metallo-β-lactamase producers. A decrease in outer membrane porin gene (oprD) expression was seen in nine isolates, and an increase in efflux pump gene (MexAB) expression was detected in five isolates. Six serotypes (O:1, O:4, O:7, O:10, O:11, and O:15) were found among the 34 isolates. The predominant serotype was O:11 (16 isolates), followed by O:15 (nine isolates). PFGE analysis of the 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates revealed 14 different pulsotypes. Conclusions. These results revealed diverse mechanisms conferring carbapenem resistance to P. aeruginosa isolates from Saudi Arabia. PMID:27597874

  9. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Musculoskeletal disorders are common causes of work-related disability in different professions involving the frequent practice of lifting, stooping, twisting, prolonged sitting, or standing. The dental profession is one such profession. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia, the factors associated with them, and their consequences and to propose preventive measures for them. [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered online questionnaire was sent to 225 members of the Saudi Dental Association. It included questions on demographic and professional characteristics, general medical history, and history of work-related musculoskeletal disorders before and after joining the dental profession. [Results] The questionnaire was completed by 65% of the respondents. Among them 85% reported that they had developed some pain due to work after joining the dental profession, and 42% reported that they were suffering pain at the time of the survey. Besides lower back, shoulder, and neck regions, the hands, upper back, and other regions like the elbows, buttocks, thighs, leg, and feet were areas in which they pain. [Conclusion] The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia is high, affecting their daily activities, sometimes even forcing them to change their work setting. Age, gender, specialty of work, work setting, number of contact hours with patients, etc., were all found to be related to their work-related pain. We need to emphasize the role of ergonomics, counseling, proper techniques of patient handling, etc., during the training of dental professionals so that they can work efficiently. PMID:25995567

  10. Quantitative trace analysis of fullerenes in river sediment from Spain and soils from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, Josep; Božović, Dalibor; Al-Harbi, Naif A; Silva, Luis F; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2013-07-01

    A quantitative method based on ultrasound-assisted toluene extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of C60 and C70 fullerenes, N-methylfulleropyrrolidine, [6, 6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester and [6, 6]-thienyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester has been developed. The method was validated using fortified blank river sediments according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method limits of detection ranged from 14 to 290 pg/g, making it suitable for its application in environmental analysis. The method has been applied to investigate fullerene content in 58 soil samples collected from different urban and industrial areas in Saudi Arabia and in river sediment from six different sites in the Llobregat River Basin. In addition, in the case of the Llobregat River, superficial water samples from the same sites of the sediments were collected and analysed using a previous method. In soils from Saudi Arabia, C60-fullerene was the only compound that was detected and quantified in 19% of samples. In the sediments of the Llobregat River, C60-fullerene was also the only one detected (33% of the samples), while in river water, C70-fullerene was the most frequent compound, and it was quantified in 67% of the samples. However, C60-fullerene was present in two of the six samples, but at higher concentrations than C70-fullerene, ranging from 0.9 to 7.8 ng/L. PMID:23545859

  11. Respiratory and general health complaints in subjects exposed to sandstorm at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub Meo, Sultan; Fahad A Al-Kheraiji, Mohammad; Fahad AlFaraj, Ziyad; abdulaziz Alwehaibi, Nasser; Adnan Aldereihim, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Sandstorms are metrological events and frequently occur in many regions throughout the world. Sandstorms are a main source of long-distance transport of dust, air pollution and cause various health problems. This study aimed to investigate the acute respiratory and general health complaints in subjects exposed to sandstorm at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: The present descriptive study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period March 2011- June 2012. We selected 517 (308 males, 59.58%) and (209 females, 40.42%), apparently healthy volunteers with mean age 28.6± 3.14 years, who had single outside exposure to sandstorm for the period of 24±2.68 minutes. The acute respiratory and general health complaints were recorded through a comprehensive questionnaire. Results: A large proportion of the subjects who were exposed to sandstorm had complaints of cough 247 (47.77%), runny nose 264(51.06%), wheeze 173(33.46%), acute asthmatic attack 108 (20.88%), eye irritation / redness 252(48.74%), headache 179 (34.62%), body ache 199 (38.5%), sleep disturbance 157(30.36%) and psychological disturbances 194 (37.52%). Conclusion: Exposure to sandstorm causes cough, runny nose, wheeze, acute asthmatic attack, eye irritation / redness, headache, body ache, sleep and psychological disturbances. These results indicate that sandstorm is a prolific source of respiratory and general ailments. It is therefore, suggested that an unnecessary exposure to sandstorm must be avoided. PMID:24353595

  12. Community pharmacists’ knowledge, behaviors and experiences about adverse drug reaction reporting in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Alswaida, Yazeed; Alshammari, Thamir; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Alrasheedy, Alian; Hassali, Mohamad Azmi; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess community pharmacists’ knowledge, behaviors and experiences relating to Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting in Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated self-administered questionnaire. A convenience sample of 147 community pharmacists working in community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results The questionnaire was distributed to 147 pharmacists, of whom 104 responded to the survey, a 70.7% response rate. The mean age of participants was 29 years. The majority (n = 101, 98.1%) had graduated with a bachelorette degree and worked in chain pharmacies (n = 68, 66.7%). Only 23 (22.1%) said they were familiar with the ADR reporting process, and only 21 (20.2%) knew that pharmacists can submit ADR reports online. The majority of the participants (n = 90, 86.5%) had never reported ADRs. Reasons for not reporting ADRs most importantly included lack of awareness about the method of reporting (n = 22, 45.9%), misconception that reporting ADRs is the duty of physician and hospital pharmacist (n = 8, 16.6%) and ADRs in community pharmacies are simple and should not be reported (n = 8, 16.6%). The most common approach perceived by community pharmacists for managing patients suffering from ADRs was to refer him/her to a physician (n = 80, 76.9%). Conclusion The majority of community pharmacists in Riyadh have poor knowledge of the ADR reporting process. Pharmacovigilance authorities should take necessary steps to urgently design interventional programs in order to increase the knowledge and awareness of pharmacists regarding the ADR reporting process. PMID:25473329

  13. Epizootics of bovine ephemeral fever on dairy farms in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Farag, M A; al-Sukayran, A; Mazloum, K S; al-Bukomy, A M

    1998-12-01

    In 1990 and 1996, field veterinarians suspected the clinical occurrence of bovine ephemeral fever among dairy and conventional cattle in different regions of Saudi Arabia. The disease has a seasonal occurrence; it begins in early summer (May) and ends in late autumn (November). The mortality rate is low: 0.3% to 0.6%. The morbidity rate ranged from 5% to 61% within the different age groups of one affected herd in the 1996 outbreaks and from 3.4% to 19% among four affected herds in the 1990 outbreaks. A sudden sharp drop in milk production occurred in lactating animals, some of which had become dry by the end of the outbreaks. Trials to isolate the causative virus in cell culture and in baby mice were unsuccessful. Serum neutralisation tests, which used a cell culture-adapted vaccine strain of bovine ephemeral fever virus as an antigen, revealed the presence of specific antibodies with significantly increased titres in the convalescent sera of affected animals. In addition, the testing of paired sera from non-affected heifers and from both dry and milking cows, performed twice, with an interval of 21 days, revealed the presence of neutralising antibodies. In the 1990 outbreaks, comparative serological studies indicated a high percentage (67.5%; 27/40) of seropositive animals in herds in which bovine ephemeral fever had been previously suspected. No antibodies were detected in animals of herds which had no recorded clinical history of bovine ephemeral fever. Following serological confirmation of the prevalence of bovine ephemeral fever in Saudi Arabia, some dairy farms started using a live imported vaccine to control the disease. This study discusses the epizootiological findings in regard to bovine ephemeral fever, as well as its economic impact on four affected dairy farms in 1990. In addition, the authors evaluate the efficacy of immunoprophylaxis in another dairy herd during the same outbreaks. PMID:9850542

  14. Analysis of the Impact of Major Dust Events on the Aerosols Characteristics over Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, Ashraf; El-Askary, Hesham; Al-Shaibani, Abdulaziz; Hariri, Mustafa M.

    2015-04-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust storms blow up and significantly affect human activities, airports and citizens' health. Aerosols optical and physical characteristics are influenced by major dust storms outbreaks. In this, paper, ground based AERONET measurements are integrated with space-borne sensors, namely MODIS and CALIPSO to analyze aerosols' characteristics during March - May of 2009 where a massive dust storm blew up and caused a widespread heavy atmospheric dust load over Saudi Arabia and the same period during 2010, where less dust activities were reported. The MODIS Deep Blue AOD analysis showed similar aerosols pattern over the land, however a substantial variance in aerosol loading during March - May 2009 compared with the same period in 2010 was observed. The angstrom exponent analysis showed that the majority of aerosol measurements in 2009 and 2010 are dominated by coarse-mode particles with angstrom exponent < 0.5. Detailed analysis of aerosol optical properties shows significant influence of coarse mode particles in the enhanced aerosol loading in 2009. The volume depolarization rations (VDR) derived from CALIPSO backscattering measurements is used to find latitudinal profile of mean aerosol optical depth to indicate the type of particles and to discriminate spherical aerosols with non-spherical particles. Acknowledgement The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by the King Abdel Aziz City for Science & Technology (KACST) for funding this work under grant No. (MT-32-76). The support provided by the Deanship of Research at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. The Uptake of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Files in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AlShwaimi, Emad

    2012-01-01

    Aim. We surveyed the uptake of nickel-titanium rotary files (NTRFs) among all dentists in Saudi Arabia. Methodology. A questionnaire encompassing endodontic performance and NTRF uptake was e-mailed to all members of the Saudi Dental Society. Data were collected from participants during a three-month period and were analyzed using χ2 tests and correlation coefficients. Level of significance was set at P = 0.05. Results. The overall response rate was 30.6% (n = 490), and 82.9% were found to perform root canal treatment (RCT). Among the 406 RCT performers, general dentists formed the bulk (45%). Among endodontists, 91.5% were using NTRF (P < 0.001). Those who graduated between 1991 and 2000 used NTRF more than any other group did (78.4%, P = 0.05). Graduates from Europe and Australia used NTRF most frequently (100%, P = 0.001), followed by those from North America (87%, P = 0.001), and finally by Saudi Arabian graduates (68.7%). Male respondents performed more endodontic procedures and used NTRF significantly more often than female respondents did (males: 73%; females: 56.2%) (P = 0.001). The most significant reasons for not using NTRF were “unavailability” (64.7%, P ≤ 0.05) and “lack of experience” (54.1%, P ≤ 0.001). Conclusions. We found that NTRF usage was not as widespread in Saudi Arabia as in other developing countries. Therefore, we suggest an improved implementation of NTRF in undergraduate and postgraduate curriculums and the provision of educational courses with a greater focus on this development. PMID:22567009

  16. A needs assessment survey of dental public health graduate education in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Agili, Dania Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Faculty of Dentistry at King Abdulaziz University (KAU) is planning to develop a master’s program in dental public health (DPH). To develop a curriculum for this program, a needs assessment was conducted in order to identify the level of DPH expertise that currently exists in Saudi Arabia, to identify gaps in knowledge, and to explore current perceptions regarding this type of program. Methods A competency-based survey instrument was administered to private and government affiliated dental practitioners in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Participants’ knowledge, attitudes, and competencies in DPH were assessed. In addition, questions were submitted that addressed preferred strategies of teaching, curriculum delivery methods, course content, and prerequisites for DPH. These data were combined with data previously collected from dentists holding academic positions at KAU (n = 146) and were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System version 9.3 software. Mean values and frequencies were calculated for the study variables. Proportional odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated to assess differences in educational preferences and DPH competencies according to age, gender, and qualification. Results Most of the participants (95%) reported a need for a DPH graduate program. The respondents had a basic knowledge of DPH and moderate experience in DPH competencies. A variety of preferred educational strategies and methods were identified and differences in educational preferences according to age, gender, and qualification of the respondents were identified. The responses obtained also acknowledged skills and competencies that the participants considered most important for a DPH practice and that would be important for students accepted into a DPH graduate program. Conclusions This needs assessment survey represents a preliminary step in establishing a DPH graduate program that addresses current gaps in knowledge and in the practice of public health

  17. Intraplate Harrat Volcanism and Neogene Evolution of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary beneath Western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, A. J.; Duncan, R. A.; Graham, D. W.; Al-Amri, A. M.; Alshalntoni, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Continental extension is a fundamental plate tectonic process, and extensional environments are associated with significant production of basaltic magmas. Although tholeiitic magmatism produced by mantle decompression is common, dispersed, less voluminous and compositionally variable basaltic and related magmas also occur in association with continental extension. One of the most voluminous, best-preserved and least studied examples of the latter is the volcanic harrats of western Saudi Arabia. Uplift, crustal erosion and harrat volcanism occurred from ~15 Ma to recent over a considerable region of western Arabia. Volcanism trends north from the Red Sea along the Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) line as a number of discrete harrats, and geophysical evidence suggests this region is underlain by hot upwelling asthenosphere. Larger harrats occur along the central axis of the MMN line, with smaller fields on the periphery. We present initial results of an ongoing study of harrat volcanism, including more than 50 new 40Ar-39Ar ages together with geochemical and isotopic data. Magma storage and fractionation appears to have occurred at a range of crustal levels, including deep storage and transport sufficiently rapid to preserve a range of lithospheric and crustal xenoliths. Melting commenced within the garnet peridotite field, however modeling of REE element abundances suggest that considerable differences exist in the thickness of the overlying lithospheric lid. Thinner lithosphere (<40 km) and higher degrees of melting occurs along the MMN line, whereas harrats peripheral to the MMN line have thicker lithosphere (>60-80 km) and magmas result from lower degree melts. The observed variability can be explained by a process of progressively thinning lithosphere along the main axis of the MMN line, as a result of regional lithospheric extension and mantle decompression melting, coupled with northward asthenospheric flow from the Red Sea and/or Afar hot spot.

  18. Factors affecting tobacco use among middle school students in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Park, H K; Al Agili, D E; Bartolucci, A

    2012-12-01

    A rapid rise in the number of tobacco users in Saudi Arabia has occurred in the past decade, particularly among the youth. This study identified socio-cultural determinants of tobacco use and explored possible approaches to prevent adolescents' tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was administered using a self-administered questionnaire for collecting information on risk and protective factors for tobacco use among middle school students. School selection was stratified by region, gender, and type (public or private). Of 1,186 7-9th grade students, 1,019 questionnaires were analyzed. Risk factors affecting tobacco use included all important others' perceptions; mother, sister, friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; pressure to use tobacco from brother, sister, friend and important persons; easy access to tobacco and frequent skipping of classes. Protective factors for tobacco use included family's perception; friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; parents' help; support from family, friends, and teachers; accessibility to tobacco; school performance and family income, father's education, and district of residence. The findings of this study show clear gender differences in social influences and attitudes towards tobacco use. Religious beliefs and access to tobacco products were significantly associated with attitudes towards tobacco use and future intention of use. Developing and implementing effective gender specific school-based tobacco prevention programs, strict reinforcement of tobacco control policies, and a focus on the overall social context of tobacco use are crucial for developing successful long-term tobacco prevention programs for adolescents. PMID:22210554

  19. Diversity of Molecular Mechanisms Conferring Carbapenem Resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Agamy, Mohamed H; Jeannot, Katy; El-Mahdy, Taghrid S; Samaha, Hassan A; Shibl, Atef M; Plésiat, Patrick; Courvalin, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study described various molecular and epidemiological characters determining antibiotic resistance patterns in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Methods. A total of 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were isolated from samples collected at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2011. Susceptibility testing, serotyping, molecular characterization of carbapenem resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Results. All isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, and more than half were highly resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 256 mg/L). Fifteen isolates had MIC values ≥64 mg/L for any of the carbapenems examined. Vietnamese extended-spectrum β-lactamase (VEB-1) (n = 16/34) and oxacillinase (OXA-10) (n = 14/34) were the most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase and penicillinase, respectively. Verona imipenemase (VIM-1, VIM-2, VIM-4, VIM-11, and VIM-28) and imipenemase (IMP-7) variants were found in metallo-β-lactamase producers. A decrease in outer membrane porin gene (oprD) expression was seen in nine isolates, and an increase in efflux pump gene (MexAB) expression was detected in five isolates. Six serotypes (O:1, O:4, O:7, O:10, O:11, and O:15) were found among the 34 isolates. The predominant serotype was O:11 (16 isolates), followed by O:15 (nine isolates). PFGE analysis of the 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates revealed 14 different pulsotypes. Conclusions. These results revealed diverse mechanisms conferring carbapenem resistance to P. aeruginosa isolates from Saudi Arabia. PMID:27597874

  20. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns of recurrent urinary stones prevention in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Binsaleh, Saleh; Habous, Mohamad; Madbouly, Khaled

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns of urologists in Saudi Arabia regarding prevention of recurrent stone formation and how much they follow preventive stone disease management guidelines. A questionnaire about knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns of urologists in Saudi Arabia regarding prevention of recurrent stone formation was used. The survey comprised three domains: knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns. Data about gender, duration of experience and health care sector were also collected. Individual responses were recorded, tabulated and compared using descriptive statistics. The overall response rate was 38.8 %. All respondents were male urologists. Most of them (62, 71.3 %) had an experience of 5-20 years in management of stone disease patients and the majority (74, 85.1 %) belonged to the governmental health care sector. A total of 51 % of the respondents answered in concordance with the best practice guidelines in at least half of the questions and 40 % in all of the questions. Overall, practice patterns of 58 % of the respondents were in concordance with the best practice guidelines in all the questions except for the question of practices regarding stone analysis. As regards to attitude domain, a total of 58.7 % respondents expressed their agreement or strong agreement with the questions. Urologists' knowledge of stone recurrence preventive programs is suboptimal. They do not apply effectively the best stone prevention practice guidelines in their daily practice as well. Efforts to increase knowledge and enforce its application in daily practice are strongly warranted. PMID:26296383