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Sample records for arabian incense bakhour

  1. A health risk assessment of Arabian incense (Bakhour) smoke in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Dalibalta, Sarah; Elsayed, Yehya; Alqtaishat, Fareedah; Gomes, Ioline; Fernandes, Nagelle

    2015-04-01

    Burning Arabian incense (Bakhour) is a common practice in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. Although the incense generates large amounts of chemicals and air pollutants, little is known with regard to the nature of these chemicals and their potential health risks. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the chemical constituents emitted in Bakhour smoke, and subsequently to examine the associated health implications of these components. Thermo-gravimetric analysis was used to investigate the presence and the thermal profile of volatile organic compounds in three different samples of Bakhour smoke. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was then applied to isolate all the volatile and semi-volatile compounds present in the Bakhour smoke samples. Using a spectral library and an extensive literature search, all organic compounds detected were analyzed for potential health risks. A total of 859 compounds were emitted from burning the different Bakhour samples. The novel finding of this research shows that 42 detected compounds are suspected/known carcinogens, 20 are known to have toxic effects, and at least 200 compounds are known irritants to the eyes, skin, respiratory and digestive tracts, as reported in human and/or animal studies. Our study suggests that inhaled Bakhour smoke contains a substantial number of adverse compounds, which are known to be detrimental to human health. Moreover, the evidence presented shows that incense burning is a significant source of environmental pollution; with the potential of significant health concerns particularly with long term exposure. As the majority of the compounds detected have no reported clinical data, there is an urgent need for significant research in this field. PMID:25602595

  2. Home exposure to Arabian incense (bakhour) and asthma symptoms in children: a community survey in two regions in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rawas, Omar A; Al-Maniri, Abdullah A; Al-Riyami, Bazdawi M

    2009-01-01

    Background Incense burning has been reported to adversely affect respiratory health. The aim of this study was to explore whether exposure to bakhour contributes to the prevalence of asthma and/or triggers its symptoms in Omani children by comparing two Omani regions with different prevalence of asthma. Methods A randomly selected sample of 10 years old schoolchildren were surveyed using an Arabic version of ISAAC Phase II questionnaires with the addition of questions concerning the use and effect of Arabian incense on asthma symptoms. Current asthma was defined as positive response to wheeze in the past 12 months or positive response to "ever had asthma" together with a positive response to exercise wheeze or night cough in the past 12 months. Simple and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of bakhour exposure and other variables on current asthma diagnosis and parents' response to the question: "Does exposure to bakhour affect your child breathing?" Results Of the 2441 surveyed children, 15.4% had current asthma. Bakhour use more than twice a week was three times more likely to affect child breathing compared to no bakhour use (adjusted OR 3.01; 95% CI 2.23–4.08) and this effect was 2.55 times higher in asthmatics (adjusted OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.97–3.31) compared to non-asthmatics. In addition, bakhour caused worsening of wheeze in 38% of the asthmatics, making it the fourth most common trigger factor after dust (49.2%), weather (47.6%) and respiratory tract infections (42.2%). However, there was no significant association between bakhour use and the prevalence of current asthma (adjusted OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.63–1.20). Conclusion Arabian incense burning is a common trigger of wheezing among asthmatic children in Oman. However, it is not associated with the prevalence asthma. PMID:19450289

  3. Strange fires, weird smokes and psychoactive combustibles: entheogens and incense in ancient traditions.

    PubMed

    Dannaway, Frederick R

    2010-12-01

    This paper seeks to emphasize what may be the most primary mode of altering consciousness in the ancient world: namely, the burning of substances for inhalation in enclosed areas. While there is abundant literature on archaic uses of entheogenic plants, the literature on psychoactive incenses is quite deficient. From the tents of nomadic tribes to the small meditation rooms of Taoist adepts, the smoldering fumes of plants and resins have been used to invoke and banish and for shamanic travels since humanity mastered fire. The text provides details of primary "incense cults" while highlighting some commonalities and shared influences when possible. Further speculation suggests that selective burning of certain substances, such as mercury and sulphur, may have contributed to their lasting use and veneration in alchemy from India and China to the Arabian and European protochemists. This article would have a companion online database for images and further examples of ingredients in various incenses from China to ancient Greece. PMID:21305913

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM BURNING INCENSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the characterization of particulate matter emissions from burning incense. Emissions of particulate matter were measured for 23 different types of incense using a cyclone/filter method. Emission rates for PM2.5 (particulate matte...

  5. Incense

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rapid breathing NERVOUS SYSTEM Coma (decreased level of consciousness and lack of responsiveness) Convulsions Euphoria, a feeling ... being drunk (intoxicated) Seizures Stupor (decreased level of consciousness) SKIN Blue skin or fingers Rash

  6. Incense smoke: clinical, structural and molecular effects on airway disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ta-Chang; Krishnaswamy, Guha; Chi, David S

    2008-01-01

    In Asian countries where the Buddhism and Taoism are mainstream religions, incense burning is a daily practice. A typical composition of stick incense consists of 21% (by weight) of herbal and wood powder, 35% of fragrance material, 11% of adhesive powder, and 33% of bamboo stick. Incense smoke (fumes) contains particulate matter (PM), gas products and many organic compounds. On average, incense burning produces particulates greater than 45 mg/g burned as compared to 10 mg/g burned for cigarettes. The gas products from burning incense include CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and others. Incense burning also produces volatile organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, as well as aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The air pollution in and around various temples has been documented to have harmful effects on health. When incense smoke pollutants are inhaled, they cause respiratory system dysfunction. Incense smoke is a risk factor for elevated cord blood IgE levels and has been indicated to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Incense smoke also has been associated with neoplasm and extracts of particulate matter from incense smoke are found to be mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella test with TA98 and activation. In order to prevent airway disease and other health problem, it is advisable that people should reduce the exposure time when they worship at the temple with heavy incense smokes, and ventilate their house when they burn incense at home. PMID:18439280

  7. The health risks of incense use in the home: an underestimated source of indoor air pollution?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Debbie; Pontin, David

    2016-03-01

    The health impact of indoor air pollution is a growing area of interest for public health professionals. People typically spend up to 90 per cent of their time indoors, particularly women, young children and elders. Although the adverse health effects of second-hand tobacco smoke are well recognised, the impact of burning incense in the home has received little attention in Western literature. Incense burning in the home is common in a number of cultures (particularly Asian, North African or Arabic). Many health visitors (HVs) work with communities who use incense regularly for religious/cultural reasons and it is a neglected area of study and research.The literature suggests that home incense use can have significant adverse health effects, particularly on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Further research is needed to identify which individuals are most susceptible, which types of incense are most harmful, and whether any actions can be taken to minimise exposure. PMID:27111977

  8. Characterisation of airborne particles and associated organic components produced from incense burning.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Jones, Tim; Chen, Yang; Bell, Jennifer; Wenger, John; BéruBé, Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Airborne particles generated from the burning of incense have been characterized in order to gain an insight into the possible implications for human respiratory health. Physical characterization performed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed incense particulate smoke mainly consisted of soot particles with fine and ultrafine fractions in various aggregated forms. A range of organic compounds present in incense smoke have been identified using derivatisation reactions coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 19 polar organic compounds were positively identified in the samples, including the biomass burning markers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan, as well as a number of aromatic acids and phenols. Formaldehyde was among 12 carbonyl compounds detected and predominantly associated with the gas phase, whereas six different quinones were also identified in the incense particulate smoke. The nano-structured incense soot particles intermixed with organics (e.g. formaldehyde and quinones) could increase the oxidative capacity. When considering the worldwide prevalence of incense burning and resulting high respiratory exposures, the oxygenated organics identified in this study have significant human health implications, especially for susceptible populations. PMID:21769554

  9. Anhydrosugar and sugar alcohol organic markers associated with carboxylic acids in particulate matter from incense burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Wu, Pei-Ling; Hsu, Yu-Ting; Yang, Chi-Ru

    2010-09-01

    Aerosol from the burning two types of sandalwood-based incense, Hsing Shan and Lao Shan, was analyzed to characterize the chemical profile of total particulate matter emitted. The total particulate matter (PM) mass emission factors were 46.3 ± 2.68 mg g -1 of Hsing Shan incense and 43.7 ± 1.08 mg g -1 of Lao Shan incense. Chemical analysis of emissions from the two types of incense revealed that of the 25 components in four groups characterized, anhydrosugars formed the major group, at 46.7-52.2% w/w of the identified particulate and 1078.3-1169.8 μg g -1 of incense, followed by inorganic salts at 30.4-31.8% w/w of identified particulate and 681.6-734.0 μg g -1 of incense, carboxylic acids at 12.0-17.1% w/w of the identified particulate and 268.6-392.8 μg g -1 of incense, and sugar alcohols at 4.44-5.38% w/w of the identified particulate and 102.3-120.6 μg g -1 of incense. More anhydrosugars and sugar alcohols were emitted from Lao Shan incense than from Hsing Shan incense whereas more carboxylic acids and organic salts were emitted from Hsing Shan than from Lao Shan. These differences were due to structural and functional differences in the young sandalwood used to make Hsing Shan and the aged sandalwood used to make Lao Shan. The anhydrosugar levoglucosan, used as a marker of biomass burning, was always the most abundant species in emitted PM for both incenses ( Lao Shan 21.7 mg g -1 of PM and Hsing Shan 18.7 mg g -1). K + and Cl - were the second most abundant components (K + and Cl - were summed), accounting for 10.6 mg g -1 of Hsing Shan PM and 9.85 mg g -1 of Lao Shan PM. The most abundant carboxylic acids in the emissions were formic, acetic, succinic, glutaric and phthalic acid. The latter is a fragrance ingredient and a potential health hazard and was twice as prevalent in Lao Shan emissions. Xylitol was the most prevalent of the sugar alcohols at 35.7-36.6% w/w of total identified sugar alcohols. These abundant species are potential markers for

  10. Incense and ritual plant use in Southwest China: A case study among the Bai in Shaxi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ritual and religious uses of plant-derived smoke are widespread throughout the world. Our research focuses on Southwest China, where the use of incense is very common. This study aims to document and analyze contemporary ritual plant uses by the Bai people of Shaxi Township (Jianchuan County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province), including their related ethnobotanical knowledge, practices, and beliefs. Methods The present study builds on previous ethnobotanical research in Shaxi, which started in 2005. Interviews focusing on ritual plant use and associated beliefs were carried out with a total of 44 Bai informants in September 2009 and May and June 2010. The results are supplemented with information on the local religion collected from June to December 2010. All documented species were vouchered, and are deposited at the herbaria of Kunming Institute of Botany (KUN) and the University of Zurich (Z/ZT). Results A total of 17 species have been documented for use in incense. They are always used in mixtures and are either burned in the form of powders in a censer or as joss sticks. The smell of the smoke is the main criterion for the selection of the incense plants. Incense is burned for communication with spiritual entities at graves, temples, and cooking stoves, as well as for personal well-being. Cupressus funebris Endl., Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall., and Ligustrum sempervirens (Franch.) Lingelsh. are the most important incense species. Others serve as substitutes or are used to stretch incense powders. Conclusions In Shaxi the use of incense mixtures at the household and community level is regularly practiced for communication with ancestors, ghosts, and deities and in some cases to strengthen self-awareness. Some of the documented species are widely used in central Asia and Europe, hinting at the well documented knowledge exchange that occurred in Shaxi, which was a major hub along the influential Southern Silk Road. PMID:22165897

  11. A Case–Referent Study of Lung Cancer and Incense Smoke, Smoking, and Residential Radon in Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Lap Ah; Qiu, Hong; Au, Joseph Siu Kai; Wang, Xiao-rong

    2011-01-01

    Background: Burning incense generates large amounts of air pollutants, many of which are confirmed or suspected human lung carcinogens. Objectives: We conducted a population-based case–referent study to examine the effect of incense smoke exposure on lung cancer risk among Chinese males and explored the joint effect of cigarette smoking and exposure to residential radon. Methods: We recruited 1,208 male lung cancer incident cases and 1,069 community referents from 2004 to 2006 and estimated their lifetime exposures to incense smoke and other residential indoor air pollutants based on self-reported information collected during interviews. We performed unconditional multivariable logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for lung cancer associated with exposure to incense smoke after adjusting for possible confounders. We conducted stratified analyses by smoking status and exposures to incense burning and residential radon and explored the potential additive-scale interactions. Results: We observed an association between incense exposure and lung cancer that was limited primarily to smokers. Cigarette smoking and high cumulative incense exposure at home appeared to have a synergistic effect on lung cancer (compared with never-smokers who never used incense, the OR for lung cancer for smokers who used incense ≥ 60 day-years = 5.00; 95% confidence interval: 3.34, 7.51). Power was limited, but we also found preliminary evidence suggesting that radon exposure may increase risk among smokers using incense. Conclusion: Our study suggests that exposure to incense smoke in the home may increase the risk of lung cancer among smokers and that exposure to radon may further increase risk. PMID:22067552

  12. Incense Use and Cardiovascular Mortality among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Maggie L.; Ang, Li-Wei; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background: Incense burning is common in many parts of the world. Although it is perceived that particulate matter from incense smoke is deleterious to health, there is no epidemiologic evidence linking domestic exposure to cardiovascular mortality. Objective: We examined the association between exposure to incense burning and cardiovascular mortality in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Methods: We enrolled a total of 63,257 Singapore Chinese 45–74 years of age during 1993–1998. All participants were interviewed in person to collect information about lifestyle behaviors, including the practice of burning incense at home. We identified cardiovascular deaths via record linkage with the nationwide death registry through 31 December 2011. Results: In this cohort, 76.9% were current incense users, and most of the current users (89.9%) had burned incense daily for ≥ 20 years. Relative to noncurrent users, current users had a 12% higher risk of cardiovascular mortality [multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.20]. The HR was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.37) for mortality due to stroke and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.21) for mortality due to coronary heart disease. The association between current incense use and cardiovascular mortality appeared to be limited to participants without a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.26) but not linked to those with a history (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.17). In addition, the association was stronger in never-smokers (HR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23) and former smokers (HR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.42) than in current smokers (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.22). Conclusions: Long-term exposure to incense burning in the home environment was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in the study population. Citation: Pan A, Clark ML, Ang LW, Yu MC, Yuan JM, Koh WP. 2014. Incense use and cardiovascular mortality among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health

  13. Generation rates and emission factors of particulate matter and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of incense sticks.

    PubMed

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Hu, Shu-Chuan

    2003-02-01

    The generation rates and emission factors of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from incense burning were assessed in a laboratory setting. The differences among different segments of the same stick, among different sticks of the same kind of incense, and between two kinds of manually made Chih-Chen incense sticks (A and B) were evaluated. Joss sticks were burned inside a 44 cm long elutriator; personal environmental monitors fitted into the top of the elutriator were used to take PM2.5 and PM10 samples of incense smoke. Samples were analyzed for PAHs by gas chromatography-flame ionization Detector. It was found that particle and associated PAHs were generated approximately at 561 microg/min (geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.1) and 0.56 microg/min (GSD = 1.1) from Incense A, and at 661 microg/min (GSD = 1.7) and 0.46 microg/min (GSD = 1.3) from Incense B, respectively. One gram of Incense A emitted about 19.8 mg (GSD = 1.1) particulate matter and 17.1 microg (GSD = 1.2) particulate-phase PAHs, while one gram of Incense B produced around 43.6 mg (GSD = 1.1) of particles and 25.2 microg (GSD = 1.2) of particle-bound PAHs. There were significant differences in emissions between Incenses A and B, although they belong to the same class of incense. A 10-20% variability in emissions was observed in the main part of the manually produced stick, and a larger variation was found at both tips of the combustible part. PMID:12685744

  14. Emission characteristics of carboxylates in PM2.5 from incense burning with the effect of light on acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Su-Ching; Tsai, Ying I.; Sopajaree, Khajornsak

    2016-08-01

    Incense burning produces potentially harmful particulate matter. In this study we investigated the emissions of PM2.5 and gaseous acetic acid from four brands of traditional incense; Liao and Shang Lao Shan (SLS), sold in Taiwan, and Thai Yellow (Thai Y) and Thai Black (Thai B), sold in Thailand. Additionally, photochemical reactions of PM2.5 carboxylates emitted from incense burning were studied via a simulated light experiment. The average PM2.5 mass emission factor of each incense type was inversely correlated with the ash production of that incense. The Thailand incense carboxylate emissions were markedly higher than the Taiwan incense. Acetate accounted for 87.46% of total carboxylate emissions, with acetate emitted from the Thailand incense 1.26 times higher than from the Taiwan incense. Phthalate was detected in the PM2.5, indicating the presence of plasticizer. Concentrations of PM2.5 acetate, formate, pyruvate, glutarate, succinate, fumarate and tartarate were reduced in simulated light (51.5%-97.1% of those under dark), indicating that these seven types of carboxylate are easily photodegradable. In contrast, malonate, maleate, oxalate and phthalate concentrations in light were 1.17-1.84 times higher than in darkness, indicating photochemical reactions contribute to the formation of these species. The formation of the low-molecular weight dicarboxylates oxalate and malonate was most noticeable. Acetic acid, highly irritating to the respiratory system and skin, was present at high levels for all four incense types, as shown by the gaseous acetic acid/PM2.5 acetate ratios of 1.03-3.61. Burning incense indoors can generate high concentrations of PM2.5 acetate that increases the risks of respiratory and contact irritation, particularly when burning the Thailand incense. Moreover, burning incense in poorly ventilated, dimly lit indoor areas (e.g., temples and homes) can markedly increase the risk of irritation because the gaseous acetic acid is not degraded as

  15. Characterization of incense smoke by solid phase microextraction—Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tin C.; Marriott, Philip J.

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in tandem with flame ionization detection (GC×GC-FID) was used for the qualitative fingerprint characterisation of four different types of powdered incense headspace (H/S), and incense smoke. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the incense powder and smoke were extracted by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) 65 μm fiber. Low-polarity/polar, and polar/non-polar phase combinations were tested to contrast the GC×GC separation of components in these two column sets. A total of 324 compounds were tentatively identified, with more than 100 compounds in incense powders and more than 200 compounds in the incense smoke, by using GC coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Identification required at least 90% match with the NIST library; otherwise they were considered as unidentified. The smoke stream comprised compounds originating from the incense powder, and combustion products such as PAH, N-heterocyclics, and furans. However, GC×GC was able to separate many more volatile compounds (possibly hundreds more) present in the complex smoke samples, many of which cannot be separated by conventional 1D-GC; this is a direct consequence of the high-resolution power of GC×GC. GC×GC fingerprint comparison of powder H/S with smoke allows facile subtraction of the former from the latter to assist identification of compounds generated from burning incense.

  16. New canker disease of Incense-cedar in Oregon caused by Phaeobotryon cupressi.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incense-cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) is a native tree occurring in Oregon and California. Since the early 2000’s, a new canker disease has been observed with increasing frequency on ornamental and windbreak trees planted in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Symptoms appear as dead, flagging, small-di...

  17. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  18. Characterization of chemical components and bioreactivity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during incense burning.

    PubMed

    Lui, K H; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cao, Jun-Ji; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Lee, S C; Hu, Di; Ho, K F

    2016-06-01

    The chemical and bioreactivity properties of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted during controlled burning of different brands of incense were characterized. Incenses marketed as being environmentally friendly emitted lower mass of PM2.5 particulates than did traditional incenses. However, the environmentally friendly incenses produced higher total concentrations of non-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs). Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were exposed to the collected PM2.5, followed by determining oxidative stress and inflammation. There was moderate to strong positive correlation (R > 0.60, p < 0.05) between selected PAHs and OPAHs against oxidative-inflammatory responses. Strong positive correlation was observed between interleukin 6 (IL-6) and summation of total Group B2 PAHs/OPAHs (∑7PAHs/ΣOPAHs). The experimental data indicate that emissions from the environmentally friendly incenses contained higher concentrations of several PAH and OPAH compounds than did traditional incense. Moreover, these PAHs and OPAHs were strongly correlated with inflammatory responses. The findings suggest a need to revise existing regulation of such products. PMID:26994327

  19. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p < 0.0001). Study subjects with more siblings also tended to have higher blood lead levels (p < 0.0001). Incense burning in the home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p < 0.0003) and demonstrated a dose-dependent relationship with frequency of incense burning at home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity. PMID:25015713

  20. Qualitative analysis of the smoke-stream of different kinds of incense by SPME/GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Lombardozzi, Antonietta; Strano, Morela; Cortese, Manuela; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2010-08-01

    Seventeen different kinds of incenses were analyzed for the volatile components emitted during burning using a HS-SPME method coupled with GC-MS, in order to check their conformity to IFRA (International Fragrance Association) guidelines and 67/548/CEE Directive rules. A total of 51 volatiles were identified in the smoke of the incenses. They were represented mainly by aromatic compounds (17) and oxygenated monoterpenes (10), with esters (5) and aldehydes (4) being the most widespread volatiles in the former, and alcohols (4) and esters (4) in the latter. The aromatic ester benzyl benzoate and the oxygenated sesquiterpene patchouli alcohol were the most frequent volatile compounds, occurring in the smokes emitted from 10 and 8 kinds of incenses, respectively. PMID:20839644

  1. Transrectal impalement of an incense stick in a child presenting as foreign body in the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Singha Mahapatra, Rajkumar; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Sarma Madduri, Vijay kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of objects that can be found in the urinary bladder often surpasses the urologist's imagination and mostly they are introduced per urethrally. Impalement injuries of the rectum with bladder perforation have been rarely reported. A high index of clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis of bladder perforation while assessing patients presenting with rectal impalement. In this interesting case, a young male child presented with haematuria and dysuria. He had a history of accidentally sitting on an agarbatti (Indian incense stick) stand while playing, followed by perianal pain which subsided spontaneously. Next day he presented with haematuria and dysuria. Clinical examination was inconclusive. On thorough investigation, a linear echogenic foreign body was found in the urinary bladder. The child was operated and the foreign body (incense stick) was removed. This is the first reported case of rectal impalement injury with incense stick, migrated to the urinary bladder in a 2-year-old child. PMID:24925539

  2. Incense Burning during Pregnancy and Birth Weight and Head Circumference among Term Births: The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Le-Yu; Ho, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Incense burning for rituals or religious purposes is an important tradition in many countries. However, incense smoke contains particulate matter and gas products such as carbon monoxide, sulfur, and nitrogen dioxide, which are potentially harmful to health. Objectives: We analyzed the relationship between prenatal incense burning and birth weight and head circumference at birth using the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study. We also analyzed whether the associations varied by sex and along the distribution of birth outcomes. Methods: We performed ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regressions analysis on a sample of 15,773 term births (> 37 gestational weeks; 8,216 boys and 7,557 girls) in Taiwan in 2005. The associations were estimated separately for boys and girls as well as for the population as a whole. We controlled extensively for factors that may be correlated with incense burning and birth weight and head circumference, such as parental religion, demographics, and health characteristics, as well as pregnancy-related variables. Results: Findings from fully adjusted OLS regressions indicated that exposure to incense was associated with lower birth weight in boys (–18 g; 95% CI: –36, –0.94) but not girls (1 g; 95% CI: –17, 19; interaction p-value = 0.31). Associations with head circumference were negative for boys (–0.95 mm; 95% CI: –1.8, –0.16) and girls (–0.71 mm; 95% CI: –1.5, 0.11; interaction p-values = 0.73). Quantile regression results suggested that the negative associations were larger among the lower quantiles of birth outcomes. Conclusions: OLS regressions showed that prenatal incense burning was associated with lower birth weight for boys and smaller head circumference for boys and girls. The associations were more pronounced among the lower quantiles of birth outcomes. Further research is necessary to confirm whether incense burning has differential effects by sex. Citation: Chen LY, Ho C. 2016. Incense burning during

  3. Petroleum geology of Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleum activities in the Arabian Peninsula show new trends in the 1980s. Petroleum exploration is intensified and huge discoveries are anticipated. A giant Jurassic gas field along the coast of the Arabian Gulf discovered recently tops 150 tcf, the largest single reserve ever. Other giant oil fields in the area are undergoing expansion in development and productivity. Today, the Peninsula, with a total area that surpasses one million square miles, produces and exports more oil and gas and has greater reserves than any other area in the world. The excellent reservoir rocks are located in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations between the Arabian Shield and the Tethyan Seaway. They represent porous and permeable marine cyclical beds sealed by impervious shales and anhydrites. Reservoir sedimentology was affected by 2 orogenies during late Cretaceous and Pliocene time portrayed by the Cratonic area to the southwest and the orthogeosynclinal area to the northeast. The eastern part was little deformed by these movements.

  4. Holy smoke in medieval funerary rites: chemical fingerprints of frankincense in southern Belgian incense burners.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Challe, Sophie; De Vos, Dirk; Degryse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Frankincense, the oleogum resin from Boswellia sp., has been an early luxury good in both Western and Eastern societies and is particularly used in Christian funerary and liturgical rites. The scant grave goods in late medieval burials comprise laterally perforated pottery vessels which are usually filled with charcoal. They occur in most regions of western Europe and are interpreted as incense burners but have never been investigated with advanced analytical techniques. We herein present chemical and anthracological results on perforated funerary pots from 4 Wallonian sites dating to the 12-14th century AD. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of lipid extracts of the ancient residues and comparison with extracts from four Boswellia species clearly evidence the presence of degraded frankincense in the former, based on characteristic triterpenoids, viz. boswellic and tirucallic acids, and their myriad dehydrated and oxygenated derivatives. Cembrane-type diterpenoids indicate B. sacra (southern Arabia) and B. serrata (India) as possible botanical origins. Furthermore, traces of juniper and possibly pine tar demonstrate that small amounts of locally available fragrances were mixed with frankincense, most likely to reduce its cost. Additionally, markers of ruminant fats in one sample from a domestic context indicate that this vessel was used for food preparation. Anthracological analysis demonstrates that the charcoal was used as fuel only and that no fragrant wood species were burned. The chars derived from local woody plants and were most likely recovered from domestic fires. Furthermore, vessel recycling is indicated by both contextual and biomarker evidence. The results shed a new light on funerary practices in the Middle Ages and at the same time reveal useful insights into the chemistry of burned frankincense. The discovery of novel biomarkers, namely Δ2-boswellic acids and a series of polyunsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, demonstrates the high

  5. Holy Smoke in Medieval Funerary Rites: Chemical Fingerprints of Frankincense in Southern Belgian Incense Burners

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Challe, Sophie; De Vos, Dirk; Degryse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Frankincense, the oleogum resin from Boswellia sp., has been an early luxury good in both Western and Eastern societies and is particularly used in Christian funerary and liturgical rites. The scant grave goods in late medieval burials comprise laterally perforated pottery vessels which are usually filled with charcoal. They occur in most regions of western Europe and are interpreted as incense burners but have never been investigated with advanced analytical techniques. We herein present chemical and anthracological results on perforated funerary pots from 4 Wallonian sites dating to the 12–14th century AD. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of lipid extracts of the ancient residues and comparison with extracts from four Boswellia species clearly evidence the presence of degraded frankincense in the former, based on characteristic triterpenoids, viz. boswellic and tirucallic acids, and their myriad dehydrated and oxygenated derivatives. Cembrane-type diterpenoids indicate B. sacra (southern Arabia) and B. serrata (India) as possible botanical origins. Furthermore, traces of juniper and possibly pine tar demonstrate that small amounts of locally available fragrances were mixed with frankincense, most likely to reduce its cost. Additionally, markers of ruminant fats in one sample from a domestic context indicate that this vessel was used for food preparation. Anthracological analysis demonstrates that the charcoal was used as fuel only and that no fragrant wood species were burned. The chars derived from local woody plants and were most likely recovered from domestic fires. Furthermore, vessel recycling is indicated by both contextual and biomarker evidence. The results shed a new light on funerary practices in the Middle Ages and at the same time reveal useful insights into the chemistry of burned frankincense. The discovery of novel biomarkers, namely Δ2-boswellic acids and a series of polyunsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, demonstrates the

  6. The K2/Spice Phenomenon: emergence, identification, legislation and metabolic characterization of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal incense products

    PubMed Central

    Brents, Lisa K.; Prather, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) detected unregulated, psychoactive synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) in purportedly all-natural herbal incense products (often known as K2 or Spice) that were being covertly abused as marijuana substitutes. These drugs, which include JWH-018, JWH-073 and CP-47,497, bind and activate the cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R with remarkable potency and efficacy. Serious adverse effects that often require medical attention, including severe cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and psychiatric sequelae, are highly prevalent with SCB abuse. Consequently, progressively restrictive legislation in the US and Europe has banned the distribution, sale and use of prevalent SCBs, initiating cycles in which herbal incense manufacturers replace banned SCBs with newer unregulated SCBs. The contents of the numerous, diverse herbal incense products was unknown when SCB abuse first emerged. Furthermore, the pharmacology of the active components was largely uncharacterized, and confirmation of SCB use was hindered by a lack of known biomarkers. These knowledge gaps prompted scientists across multiple disciplines to rapidly (1) monitor, identify and quantify with chromatography/mass spectrometry the ever-changing contents of herbal incense products, (2) determine the metabolic pathways and major urinary metabolites of several commonly abused SCBs and (3) identify active metabolites that possibly contribute to the severe adverse effect profile of SCBs. This review comprehensively describes the emergence of SCB abuse and provides a historical account of the major case reports, legal decisions and scientific discoveries of the ″K2/Spice Phenomenon″. Hypotheses concerning potential mechanisms SCB adverse effects are proposed in this review. PMID:24063277

  7. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry and simultaneous electron capture detection/nitrogen phosphorous detection for incense analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tin C.; Marriott, Philip J.

    This study reports comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography hyphenated to time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (GC × GC/TOFMS) for characterisation and identification of components generated by four different types of powdered incense headspace (H/S) and incense smoke. GC × GC/TOFMS allowed simultaneous separation and identification of compounds emitted into the atmosphere as a result of combustion of incense powder. The smoke stream comprised compounds originating from the incense powder, and combustion products such as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, essential oil type compounds, nitromusks, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, which possibly include oxygenated and nitrated PAH), N-heterocyclics, pyrans and furans, which were detected and tentatively identified by GC × GC/TOFMS. GC × GC-electron capture detector/nitrogen phosphorous detector (ECD/NPD) potentially offers the prospect of providing selective chemical compositional information of incense powder and smoke, such as nitrogen-containing (N-containing) and halogenated compounds. Results of GC×GC-ECD/NPD showed that both incense powder and smoke generated emission of N-containing and halogenated compounds. A significant number of halogenated and N-containing compounds were emitted during the incomplete combustion of incense. However, one further objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capacity of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to specific and/or selective detectors such as those used in this study (GC × GC-ECD/NPD) for the detection of particular classes of compounds such as N-containing and halogenated compounds at trace level concentrations in complex smoke samples.

  8. Measurements of VOC/SVOC emission factors from burning incenses in an environmental test chamber: influence of temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    PubMed

    Manoukian, A; Buiron, D; Temime-Roussel, B; Wortham, H; Quivet, E

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of three environmental indoor parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate) on the emission of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) during incense burning. Experiments have been carried out using an environmental test chamber. Statistical results from a classical two-level full factorial design highlight the predominant effect of ventilation on emission factors. The higher the ventilation, the higher the emission factor. Moreover, thanks to these results, an estimation of the concentration range for the compounds under study can be calculated and allows a quick look of indoor pollution induced by incense combustion. Carcinogenic substances (i.e., benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and formaldehyde) produced from the incense combustion would be predicted in typical living indoors conditions to reach instantaneous concentration levels close to or higher than air quality exposure threshold values. PMID:26614451

  9. Perspective View, Landsat Overlay, Salalah, Oman, Southern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view includes the city of Salalah, the second largest city in Oman. The city is located on the broad, generally bright coastal plain and includes areas of green irrigated crops. This view was generated from a Landsat image draped over a preliminary elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The edges of the dataset are to the upper right, left, and lower left. The Arabian Sea (lower right) is represented by the blue false-colored area. Vertical exaggeration of topography is 3X.

    This scene illustrates how topography determines local climate and, in turn, where people live. The Arabian Peninsula is very arid. However, the steep escarpment of the Qara Mountains wrings moisture from the summer monsoons allowing for growth of natural vegetation (green along the mountain fronts and in the canyons), and soil development (dark brown areas), as well as cultural development of the coastal plain. The monsoons also provide moisture for Frankincense trees growing on the desert (north) side of the mountains. In ancient times, incense derived from the sap of the Frankincense tree was the basis for an extremely lucrative trade.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot)spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  10. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH (EPA/600/R-01/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  11. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE REVIEW (EPA/600/R-01/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S...

  12. PROJECT SUMMARY -CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE REVIEW (EPA/600/SR-01/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources ofindoor air pollution. It covers (1) market information and (2) a scientific literature review. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the US,...

  13. Arabian peninsula: zone of ferment

    SciTech Connect

    Stookey, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is an area which must be approached in terms of its own values and traditions. The different states, however, present difficulties for even the most well-informed policymaker because the region is not homogeneous. Some of the states are tenuous congeries of tribal and sectarian communities that do not necessarily share the aims of the ruling group. The authors of these six essays consider (1) the economic position of the states, (2) how oil exports affect the economies of the exporting states, (3) how traditional tribal and religious societies react to change, (4) whether their social values are conducive to modernization, and (5) what factors lead to the development of dissent, and how they affect the expression of dissent. Separate abstracts were prepared for two of the essays selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). 23 tables.

  14. First archeointensity determinations on Maya incense burners from Palenque temples, Mexico: New data to constrain the Mesoamerica secular variation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjat, G.; Camps, P.; Alva Valdivia, L. M.; Sougrati, M. T.; Cuevas-Garcia, M.; Perrin, M.

    2013-02-01

    We present archeointensity data carried out on pieces of incense burners from the ancient Maya city of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico, covering much of the Mesoamerican Classic period, from A.D. 400 to A.D. 850. We worked on pieces from 24 incense burners encompassing the five Classic ceramic phases of Palenque: Motiepa (A.D. 400-500), Cascadas (A.D. 500-600), Otulum (A.D. 600-700), Murcielagos (A.D. 700-770), and Balunté (A.D. 770-850). All the samples come from highly elaborate, flanged pedestal of incense burners that are undoubtedly assigned to a ceramic phase by means of their iconographic, morphological and stylistic analyses. Archeointensity measurements were performed with the Thellier-Thellier's method on pre-selected samples by means of their magnetic properties. We obtained archeointensities of very good technical quality from 19 of 24 pieces, allowing the determination of a precise mean value for each ceramic phase, between 29.1±0.9 μT and 32.5±1.2 μT. The firing temperatures of ceramics were estimated with Mössbauer spectroscopy between 700 °C and 1000 °C. These values ensure that a full thermo-remanent magnetization was acquired during the original heating. Our results suggest a relative stability of the field intensity during more than 400 years in this area. The abundance of archeological material in Mesoamerica contrasts with the small amount of archeomagnetic data available that are, in addition, of uneven quality. Thus, it is not possible to establish a trend of intensity variations in Mesoamerica, even using the global databases and secular variation predictions from global models. In this context, our high technical quality data represent a strong constraint for the Mesoamerican secular variation curve during the first millennium AD. The corresponding Virtual Axial Dipole Moments (VADM) are substantially smaller than the ones predicted by the last global geomagnetic models CALS3k.4, suggesting the need for additional data to develop a

  15. Metal concentrations in pearl oyster, Pinctada radiata, collected from Saudi Arabian coast of the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Sadig, M.; Alam, I.

    1989-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf is a shallow semi-closed water body. Several industrial complexes have been established along its coast line during the past decade. The effluent from these facilities is being discharged into the Gulf. These discharges pose potential hazards to the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf. The Saudi Arabian government is striving to protect the marine environment of the Gulf and has commissioned several studies to assess the damage from the industrial and municipal discharges. In these studies, marine organisms, for example, fish, clams, sea urchins, oysters, and plankton, along with sediments and seawater, have been analyzed for various pollutants. This study reports metal concentrations in pearl oysters collected from the Saudi Arabian coastal areas of the Arabian Gulf.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Two potential migratory routes followed by modern humans to colonize Eurasia from Africa have been proposed. These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait. Recent archaeological and genetic evidence have favored a unique southern coastal route. Under this scenario, the study of the population genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula, the first step out of Africa, to search for primary genetic links between Africa and Eurasia, is crucial. The haploid and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has been the most used genetic marker to identify and to relate lineages with clear geographic origins, as the African Ls and the Eurasian M and N that have a common root with the Africans L3. Results To assess the role of the Arabian Peninsula in the southern route, we genetically analyzed 553 Saudi Arabs using partial (546) and complete mtDNA (7) sequencing, and compared the lineages obtained with those present in Africa, the Near East, central, east and southeast Asia and Australasia. The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%), detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62%) of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. Conclusion Although there is evidence of Neolithic and more recent expansions in the Arabian Peninsula, mainly detected by (preHV)1 and J1b lineages, the lack of primitive autochthonous M and N sequences, suggests that this area has been more a receptor of human migrations, including historic ones, from Africa, India, Indonesia and even Australia, than a demographic expansion center along the proposed southern coastal

  17. Conservation in the Arabian Gulf countries

    SciTech Connect

    Akkad, A.A.

    1990-05-01

    In the Arabian Gulf region in general, and in Saudi Arabia in particular, demand for water in the agricultural, domestic, and industrial sectors has increased dramatically as a result of rapid development, and improved standard of living, and diversification of economic activity in agriculture and industry. This article presents an overview of supply and demand situations prevailing in the Arabian Gulf region and discusses various conventional and unconventional alternatives for meeting the growing demand for water. It also describes conservation measures and their socioeconomic effects.

  18. Tectonic synthesis of the northern Arabian platform

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Stasxkowski, R.J.; Loyd, S.P.; Tabbutt, V.M. ); Dolan, P.; Stein, A. ); Scott, J. )

    1990-05-01

    The creation and destruction of Tethys oceans from the early Mesozoic to the present has created a complex suture zone along the Zagros/Bitlus trend. The fundamental interactions are between the Arabian and Euasian plates, but several microplates trapped between the major plates further complicate the tectonic fabric of the region. On the west, the Arabian plate slides past the African plate and the Sinai microplate along the Levant fault. The Palmyrides are related to a bend in this plate boundary and are not an offset extension of the Syrian arc. As Arabia penetrates Eurasia the Anatolian block is escaping to the west along the northern (right-lateral) and eastern (left-lateral) faults. Convergence of the Eurasian and Arabian plates resulted in ophiolite abduction (Late Cretaceous), followed by continent-continent collision (Miocene to present). The zone of collision is marked by the Bitlis-Zagrosa suture. Structural features associated with the collision include overthrusting, impactogens, and complexly folded and faulted mountain systems. Intensity and complexity of structuring decreases southward into open long-wavelength folds on the Arabian Platform. The fortuitous combination of rich source rocks, abundant reservoir rocks with primary and fracture porosity, and numerous trapping structures make this an extraordinary prolific hydrocarbon province. A structural and lithologic interpretation of 53 contiguous Landsat Multispectral Scanner scenes covering all of Syria, Iraq, and Kuwait, and portions of Turkey, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia has provided insights into the tectonic history of this area and its hydrocarbon accumulation.

  19. Mandibular degloving injury in an Arabian filly.

    PubMed

    Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Tatz, Amos; Kelmer, Gal

    2013-06-01

    A 6-month-old Arabian filly escaped its handler while being led and slipped on pavement. The referring veterinarian recognized severe, soft tissue damage to the filly's lower jaw and referred the filly to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for surgical management. PMID:24155453

  20. The climatology of dust aerosol over the arabian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, A.; Rappenglueck, B.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms are considered to be a natural hazard over the Arabian Peninsula, since they occur all year round with maximum intensity and frequency in Spring and Summer. The Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) has been used to study the climatology of atmospheric dust over the Arabian Peninsula from 1999 to 2012. This relatively long simulation period samples the meteorological conditions that determine the climatology of mineral dust aerosols over the Arabian Peninsula. The modeled Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) has been compared against ground-based observations of three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations that are distributed over the Arabian Peninsula and daily space based observations from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Moderate resolution Imaging SpectroRadimeter (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The large scale atmospheric circulation and the land surface response that lead to dust uplifting have been analyzed. While the modeled AOD shows that the dust season extends from March to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in March with AOD equal to 0.4 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.7, the observations show that the dust season extends from April to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in April with AOD equal to 0.5 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.5. In spring a high pressure dominates the Arabian Peninsula and is responsible for advecting dust from southern and western part of the Arabian Peninsula to northern and eastern part of the Peninsula. Also, fast developed cyclones in northern Arabian Peninsula are responsible for producing strong dust storms over Iraq and Kuwait. However, in summer the main driver of the surface dust emission is the strong northerly wind ("Shamal") that transport dust from the northern Arabian Peninsula toward south parallel to the

  1. Probiotics in the Arabian Gulf Region

    PubMed Central

    Senok, Abiola C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Available reports on adherence to recommended guidelines for labeling of probiotic products are based on assessment of these products in developed countries. In the Arabian Gulf region, there is a paucity of data on the characterization of probiotic products and an absence of local guidelines for their labeling. This study, carried out in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), represents the first evaluation of probiotic products available in the Arabian Peninsula. Methods Probiotic products were purchased over the counter from a variety of sources, including pharmacies, healthfood stores, and supermarkets across the UAE. All identified products were listed and information regarding type of product preparation and labeling information were recorded. Results A total of 37 probiotic products, 15 dairy-based and 22 non-dairy-based were identified. The dairy products comprised of 12 yogurts, two fermented milk products and one powdered baby formula. The majority of non-dairy products were in capsule form (n = 16). While all the non-dairy products gave information about the strain of probiotic microorganism and number present at time of manufacture, this information was provided for only one dairy-based product. Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were the most common probiotic organisms identified. However, one probiotic product listed Enterococcus faecalis (750 million viable bacteria per capsule) as a component. With the exception of one non-dairy-based product, all health-related claims were structure/function statements, according to the US Food and Drug Administration nomenclature. Conclusion These findings indicate that a wide variety of probiotic products are available in the Arabian Gulf. Development of guidelines for labeling of these probiotic products and use of structure/function statements and health claims should be addressed. PMID:19266044

  2. Sediment sound velocities from sonobuoys: Arabian Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachman, Richard T.; Hamilton, Edwin L.

    1980-02-01

    Eight variable-angle seismic reflection stations in the Arabian Fan, Northwestern Indian Ocean, provided 40 determinations of sound velocity in sediment and sedimentary rock. Sound velocity in the homogeneous, largely terrigenous fan increases smoothly with depth. Regression analysis yielded the velocity-time relationship V (km/s) = 1.510 + 1.863t, where V is instantaneous velocity and t is one-way travel time below the sea floor to 1 s. The velocity-depth function is V (km/s) = 1.510 + 1.200h; - 0.253h2 + 0.034h3, where h is subbottom depth in km.

  3. Arabian plate hydrocarbon geology and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Beydoun, Z.R.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides a thought-provoking, succinct presentation of the geologic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the world's most prolific petroleum province. The fascinating subjects discussed and documented include: What are the unique geologic factors that make the Middle East such a prolific province Where are the future Mesozoic and Tertiary plays What is the virtually untapped potential of the Paleozoic section What are the play potentials for underexplored areas such as Jordan, Syria, Yemen How are deeper drilling results shaping and modifying concepts of the Arabian plate history and pointing the way to future hydrocarbon targets

  4. Sediment sound velocities from sonobuoys: Arabian fan

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, R.T.; Hamilton, E.L.

    1980-02-10

    Eight variable-angle seismic reflection stations in the Arabian Fan, Northwestern Indian Ocean, provided 40 determinations of sound velocity in sediment and sedimentary rock. Sound velocity in the homogeneous, largely terrigenous fan increases smoothly with depth. Regression analysis yielded the velocity-time relationship V (km/s)=1.510+1.863t, where V is instantaneous velocity and t is one-way travel time below the sea floor to 1 s. The velocity-depth function is V (km/s)=1.510+1.200h-0.253h/sup 2/+ 0.034h/sup 3/, where h is subbottom depth in km.

  5. Geochronologic data for the Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldrich, Lyman Thomas; Brown, G.F.; Hedge, Carl; Marvin, Richard

    1978-01-01

    The radiometric ages reported below were completed during the period 1957-1936. the rock samples were provided and examined petrographically by Glen F. Brown and his associates at the U.S. Geological Survey. The 25 Rb-Sr ages of biotites and feldspars and the 25 K-Ar ages of biotites, hornblendes, and total rock samples constituted the initial suite of ages for the Arabian Shield. Zircons in the quantity required for analysis were not found in any of the rocks examined.

  6. Wave Clouds over the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Like a massive, ethereal bird gliding into the Persian Gulf, a large cluster of wave clouds spans the Arabian Sea from Oman to India. This cloud formation is likely an undular bore, which is created in the interaction between the cool, dry air in a low-pressure system with a stable layer of warm, moist air. In this case, a low-pressure system probably sits over the Arabian Peninsula, the Gulf of Oman, and Iran and Pakistan. The strong winds generated by the low-pressure system are kicking up clouds of dust from Iran and Pakistan, and, to a lesser degree, Oman. The low-pressure system is also pushing air south-southeast, and this south-moving wave of displaced air pushes ahead of the low-pressure system like a mound of water moving ahead of a boat in calm water. The wave of cool, dry air pushes forward until it meets the wall of warm, moist air that blankets the Arabian Sea. When the two air masses clash, the cool air pushes the warm air up. The warm air rises, cools at the peak of the wave, falls again, and then rises to a slightly lower peak, and so forth, until the wave dissipates. Clouds form at the high-altitude peaks of the waves, with the most defined cloud at the front of the group, where the initial wave formed, followed by increasingly less-defined lines of cloud. The air that moves in front of the low-pressure system does not push forward in a uniform wall; instead it pushes forward in a ragged band, with one part racing ahead of another, like a line of crew racers on a river. Because the air is not uniform, there are small, interacting arcs of waves within the larger band of clouds. Undular bores are rare and hard to predict. This particular undular bore formed over the Arabian Sea on May 8, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this photo-like image. Typical undular bore patterns might display one or two rows of clouds. With more than thirty waves of clouds, this cloud pattern is unusually

  7. Environmental protection in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Minhali, A.A.N.

    1996-12-31

    The Arabian Gulf had been subjected to tremendous development activities in the past 40 years, this, in addition to two fierce wars which must have had some impact on the marine environment. This paper will investigate and summarize through review of numerous scientific studies, the recommended applied and or implemented strategies for conservation and how these may have an impact on the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry. The conclusions and recommendations made (in both, global terms and for oil and gas industry) primarily represent the author`s own views and in some parts acknowledged views of a number of professionals who were asked to contribute their vision on the future of protection of the Gulf marine environment. Whilst this paper is directed towards the Marine Environment, similar conclusions can be drawn for land and atmospheric issues.

  8. Continental margin evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1993-02-01

    Synthesis of available geological and geophysical data in the Syrian Arab Republic permits a descriptive account of the pre-Cenozoic geologic history of the northern Arabian platform. The northern Arabian platform appears to be a composite plate similar up to that interpreted in the rocks of the Arabian shield. The structural and stratigraphic relationships of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary sections in Syria record the transformation of an eastward-facing Gondwana passive margin in the early Paleozoic into a westward-facing Levantine margin in the Mesozoic, at which time the northern platform was closely associated with the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin. Timing of the margin transformation is inferred from the orientation and thickness variations of Lower Triassic rocks, but the transformation may have initiated as early as the Permian. The diversity and timing of geological features in Syria suggest that the northern Arabian platform did not behave as a rigid plate throughout its geological history. The present-day Palmyride mountain belt, located within the northern Arabian platform in Syria and initiated in the early Mesozoic as a northeast-trending rift nearly perpendicular to the Levantine margin, subsequently was inverted in the Cenozoic by transpression. The location of the rift may be associated with the reactivation of a zone of crustal weakness, i.e., a Proterozoic suture zone previously proposed from modeling of Bouguer gravity data. Thus, the northern and southern parts of the Arabian platform are similar in their respective geologic histories during the Proterozoic and Paleozoic; however, the northern Arabian platform was greatly affected by Mesozoic rifting and the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin during the Mesozoic. 13 figs.

  9. Salinity pathways between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    2016-07-01

    Surface as well as subsurface salinity are highly heterogeneous in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Due to the strong seasonal reversal of currents in the two seas tremendous salt exchange occurred. The present study focuses on the exchange of salt between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal by using remote sensing observations like SMOS and Aquarius. Inflow of high salinity water from the central Arabians Sea into the south Bay of Bengal is significant and occurs during August-September. Freshwater transport out of the Bay of Bengal is southward throughout the year along the along the east coast of the Indian sub-continent. Only a small fraction of low salinity water is advected into the eastern Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal. The pathways of salinity between the two seas are also examined using SODA data. It shows that relatively low salinity Bay of Bengal water is transported southward across the equator throughout the year. A considerable southward cross-equatorial exchange of Arabian Sea water occurs during the southwest monsoon season.

  10. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  11. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  12. Shear wave velocity structures of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Talal A.; Al-Saeed, Mohammed M.

    1994-02-01

    The shear velocity structures of the different tectonic provinces of the Arabian Peninsula has been studied using surface wave data recorded by the RYD (Riyadh) station. The inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities indicates that the Arabian shield can be modeled by two layers, each of which is 20 km thick with a shear velocity of 3.61 km/s in the upper crust and 3.88 km/s in the lower crust. The underlying upper mantle velocity is 4.61 km/s. Inversion of both Love and Rayleigh waves group velocities shows that the Arabian platform upper and lower crusts are comparable in their thicknesses to those of the shield, but with shear velocities of 3.4 and 4 km/s, respectively. The upper mantle velocity beneath the platform is 4.4 km/s and the average total thickness of the crust is 45 km.

  13. Crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Best, J.A.; Muawia, B.; Chaimov, T.A. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1991-03-01

    Analysis of available geological and geophysical data within Syria has allowed for further understanding of the geologic history of the northern Arabian platform from Proterozoic to present. Elements of the history involve: Proterozoic convergence and suturing of at least two distinct microplates, minor Cambrian extension and associated magmatism, development of a failed intracratonic rift in the early Mesozoic, and inversion of that sedimentary trough that began in the Late Cretaceous. The diverse Phanerozoic tectonic features in Syria may be due to reactivation along older zones of weaknesses in the northern Arabian plate; the proposed Proterozoic suture zone lies along strike of the present day Palmyride intracratonic mountain belt. The construction of isopach maps of the Ordovician through Quaternary sections in Syria based on regional well control and seismic reflection data demonstrates regional structural-stratigraphic relationships. Basement deformation maps, derived from superposition of the formation isopachs, indicate the transformation of an east-directed Paleozoic margin into a well-directed Mesozoic margin (Levantine margin). Contemporaneous with this margin transformation was the development of an east-northeast-trending rift (Palmyride trough) toward the craton interior. Finally, Cenozoic eastward tilting of the Arabian plate, associated with loading of the plate along the Mesopotamian foredeep and uplift of the plate along the Red Sea margin is observed across the southern Arabian platform. Eastward tilting is also observed across the southern Arabian platform. Eastward tilting is also observed on the northern platform with respect to the top of the crystalline basement, indicating a similarity in response of the entire Arabian plate to loading and uplift along its margins.

  14. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  15. Demersal Fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeek, M. S. M.; Fouda, M. M.; Hermosa, G. V.

    1999-08-01

    The demersal fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf are reviewed. The region comprises eight countries: Oman, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran. Over 350 commercial fish species, eight shrimp species, two spiny lobster species, one shovel nose lobster species, one cuttlefish species, one crab species, and one abalone species support the demersal fisheries in the continental shelves of the three regions. Artisanal and industrial vessels with over 120 000 fishermen were involved in demersal fisheries. Fishing boats include fish and shrimp trawlers (wooden and steel hulled), large wooden boats (dhow) with inboard engines, small dhows with outboard engines, and fibreglass boats. Fishing gear consists of trawls, bottom gill nets, traps (wire mesh and plastic types), barrier traps, hand lines, and bare hands and knives (to dislodge abalone). Demersal fish (primarily Lethrinidae, Sparidae, Serranidae, Siganidae, Sciaenidae, Stromateidae, Lutjanidae, Trichiuridae, and Nemipteridae) and shrimp (primarily Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, and Penaeus merguiensis) were the two commercial demersal resources. Approximately 198 000-214 000 tonnes (t) of demersals were landed annually during 1988-1993, accounting for nearly 40% of the total marine landings (475 000-552 000 t). This percentage, however varied among countries: 25% in Oman, 32% in U.A.E., 71% in Qatar, 52% in Saudi Arabia, 56% in Bahrain, 55% in Kuwait, close to 100% in Iraq, and 41% in Iran. Fishing effort on certain stocks may have been below the optimum level (e.g. certain Omani demersal fish), near the optimum level (e.g. Omani shrimp), or above the optimum level (e.g. Arabian Gulf shrimp and demersal fish). Overexploitation led to restriction of fishing effort by limiting fishing licences, regulating fishing gear (mesh size) and capture size, closing fishing areas, restricting fishing season, and

  16. Skin lipids from Saudi Arabian birds.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb A; Arif, Ibrahim A; Williams, Joseph B; Champagne, Alex M; Shobrak, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    Skin lipids play an important role in the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL). Earlier studies have shown that Saudi desert birds exhibit a tendency of reduced CWL than birds from temperate environment due to adaptive changes in composition of their skin lipids. In this study, we used thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and detection of non-polar and polar lipids from the skin of six bird species including sooty gull, brown booby, house sparrow, Arabian waxbill, sand partridge, and laughing dove. The lipids were separated and detected on Silica gel G coated TLC plates and quantified by using densitometric image analysis. Rf values of the non-polar lipids were as follows: cholesterol (0.29), free fatty acids (0.58), triacylglycerol (0.69), fatty acids methyl esters (0.84) and cholesterol ester (0.97). Rf values for the polar lipids were: cerebroside (0.42), ceramide (0.55) and cholesterol (0.73). The results showed the abundance of fatty acids methyl esters (47.75-60.46%) followed by triacylglycerol (12.69-24.14%). The remaining lipid compositions were as follows: cholesterol (4.09-13.18%), ceramide (2.18-13.27%), and cerebroside (2.53-12.81%). In conclusion, our findings showed that TLC is a simple and sensitive method for the separation and quantification of skin lipids. We also reported a new protocol for lipid extraction using the zirconia beads for efficient disruption of skin tissues. This study will help us better understand the role of skin lipids in adaptive physiology towards adverse climatic conditions. PMID:24600311

  17. Skin lipids from Saudi Arabian birds

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Haseeb A.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Williams, Joseph B.; Champagne, Alex M.; Shobrak, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Skin lipids play an important role in the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL). Earlier studies have shown that Saudi desert birds exhibit a tendency of reduced CWL than birds from temperate environment due to adaptive changes in composition of their skin lipids. In this study, we used thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and detection of non-polar and polar lipids from the skin of six bird species including sooty gull, brown booby, house sparrow, Arabian waxbill, sand partridge, and laughing dove. The lipids were separated and detected on Silica gel G coated TLC plates and quantified by using densitometric image analysis. Rf values of the non-polar lipids were as follows: cholesterol (0.29), free fatty acids (0.58), triacylglycerol (0.69), fatty acids methyl esters (0.84) and cholesterol ester (0.97). Rf values for the polar lipids were: cerebroside (0.42), ceramide (0.55) and cholesterol (0.73). The results showed the abundance of fatty acids methyl esters (47.75–60.46%) followed by triacylglycerol (12.69–24.14%). The remaining lipid compositions were as follows: cholesterol (4.09–13.18%), ceramide (2.18–13.27%), and cerebroside (2.53–12.81%). In conclusion, our findings showed that TLC is a simple and sensitive method for the separation and quantification of skin lipids. We also reported a new protocol for lipid extraction using the zirconia beads for efficient disruption of skin tissues. This study will help us better understand the role of skin lipids in adaptive physiology towards adverse climatic conditions. PMID:24600311

  18. The Tetramorium squaminode species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula, with a new record from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and keys to Arabian species

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Al Dhafer, Hathal M.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Arabian species of the Tetramorium squaminode-group are treated. Tetramorium squaminode Santschi, 1911 is recorded for the first time from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Peninsula. Keys to the two Arabian species of the Tetramorium squaminode-group, Tetramorium latinode Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 and Tetramorium squaminode, based on worker and queen castes, are given and a regional distribution map is provided. Notes on habitats of Tetramorium squaminode are presented. PMID:26019665

  19. On Selected Morphemes in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carla; Schneider, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Following a year of study of Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL), we are documenting our findings to provide a grammatical sketch of the language. This paper represents one part of that endeavor and focuses on a description of selected morphemes, both manual and non-manual, that have appeared in the course of data collection. While some of the…

  20. "Going Mobile" in Business Communication at an Arabian Gulf University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapanta, Chrysi; Nickerson, Catherine; Goby, Valerie Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a project in which undergraduate business seniors at a university in the Arabian Gulf created or evaluated the chapters of an iBook as part of their final course in business communication. Students were surveyed throughout the project, and they also participated in a focus group discussion at the end. The aim was to…

  1. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  2. Academic Integrity and Oral Examination: An Arabian Gulf Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Justin; Raynor, Monique; McKinnon, Merryn

    2014-01-01

    Academic dishonesty is a major challenge facing educational institutions worldwide. Within the context of undergraduate education in the Arabian Gulf, oral assessment can help validate the originality of student work, whilst simultaneously facilitating assessment in a mode highly resonant with the region's own educational traditions and…

  3. Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

  4. On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

  5. Using multiple continuous fine particle monitors to characterize tobacco, incense, candle, cooking, wood burning, and vehicular sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Wayne R.; Siegmann, Hans C.

    This study employed two continuous particle monitors operating on different measurement principles to measure concentrations simultaneously from common combustion sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings. The pair of instruments use (a) photo-charging (PC) operating on the principle ionization of fine particles that responds to surface particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs), and (b) diffusion charging (DC) calibrated to measure the active surface area of fine particles. The sources studied included: (1) secondhand smoke (cigarettes, cigars, and pipes), (2) incense (stick and cone), (3) candles used as food warmers, (4) cooking (toasting bread and frying meat), (5) fireplaces and ambient wood smoke, and (6) in-vehicle exposures traveling on California arterials and interstate highways. The ratio of the PC to the DC readings, or the PC/DC ratio, was found to be different for major categories of sources. Cooking, burning toast, and using a "canned heat" food warmer gave PC/DC ratios close to zero. Controlled experiments with 10 cigarettes averaged 0.15 ng mm -2 (ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 ng mm -2), which was similar to the PC/DC ratio for a cigar, although a pipe was slightly lower (0.09 ng mm -2). Large incense sticks had PC/DC ratios similar to those of cigarettes and cigars. The PC/DC ratios for ambient wood smoke averaged 0.29 ng mm -2 on 6 dates, or about twice those of cigarettes and cigars, reflecting a higher ratio of PAH to active surface area. The smoke from two artificial logs in a residential fireplace had a PC/DC ratio of 0.33-0.35 ng mm -2. The emissions from candles were found to vary, depending on how the candles were burned. If the candle flickered and generated soot, a higher PC/DC ratio resulted than if the candle burned uniformly in still air. Inserting piece of metal into the candle's flame caused high PPAH emissions with a record PC/DC reading of 1.8 ng mm -2. In-vehicle exposures measured on 43- and 50-min drives on a

  6. Remotely Searching for Noctiluca Miliaris in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Roesler, Collin S.; Goes, Joaquim I.

    2014-01-01

    Reversing monsoonal winds in the Arabian Sea result in two seasons with elevated biological activity, namely the annual summer Southwest Monsoon (SWM; June to September) and winter Northeast Monsoon (NEM; November to March) [Wiggert et al., 2005]. Generally speaking, the SWM and NEM create two geographically distinct blooms [Banse and English, 2000; Levy et al., 2007]. In the summer, winds from the southwest drive offshore Ekman transport and coastal upwelling along the northwestern coast of Africa, which brings nutrient-rich water to the surface from below the permanent thermocline [Bauer et al., 1991]. In the winter, cooling of the northern Arabian Sea causes surface waters to sink, which generates convective mixing that injects nutrients throughout the upper mixed layer [Madhupratap et al., 1996]. This fertilization of otherwise nutrient-deplete surface waters produces one of the most substantial seasonal extremes of phytoplankton biomass and carbon flux anywhere in the world [Smith, 2005].

  7. Low Arabian dust extinction-to-backscatter ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamouri, R. E.; Ansmann, A.; Nisantzi, A.; Kokkalis, P.; Schwarz, A.; Hadjimitsis, D.

    2013-09-01

    Compared to typical values of 50-60 sr of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) at 532 nm of western Saharan mineral dust, low dust lidar ratios from 33.7±6.7 to 39.1±5.1 sr were derived from polarization lidar observations at Limassol, Cyprus (34°N, 33°E) during an outbreak of Arabian dust mainly from Syria in September 2011, indicated by particle linear depolarization ratios up to 28%-35%. The applied new polarization-lidar/photometer method for the extraction of the dust-related lidar-ratio information from the lidar data is outlined, and the results of the dust outbreak which lasted over several days are discussed. The results confirm an Aerosol Robotic Network photometer study on Arabian dust lidar ratios.

  8. Biodeterioration of concrete piling in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Jadkowski, T.K.; Wiltsie, E.A.

    1985-03-01

    Concrete is one of the most widely used materials in marine construction because of its characteristic durability in sea environments. Recent inspection of concrete piles installed in the Arabian Gulf has revealed that concrete with high content of calcareous aggregate is susceptible to biodeterioration. Marine rock borers and sponges, which are common in areas where the seabed is composed of limestone rock, have been identified as the marine species responsible for the biodeterioration. Boring organisms pose a significant threat to concrete pile structural integrity. Boreholes deteriorate concrete and expose outer pile reinforcement to seawater. This paper describes the causes and magnitude of biodeterioration of piles installed in the Arabian Gulf and presents design parameters and material specifications for the selected preventive repair system.

  9. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    DouAbdul, A.A.Z.; Abaychi, J.K.; Al-Edanee, T.E.; Ghani, A.A.; Al-Saad, H.T.

    1987-03-01

    Emphasis has been placed upon the identification and qualification of compounds with potential adverse health effects on humans. Prominent among this group are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), several of which are known or suspected carcinogens. PAHs enter the marine environment from a variety of sources including petroleum pollution, industrial and domestic effluents, atmospheric particles, and biosynthesis by plants and microorganisms. Although one-third of the world's oil is produced around the Arabian Gulf, no detailed analysis have been conducted to determine PAHs in this region. Nevertheless, numerous investigations have shown the ability of marine organisms including fish to accumulation PAHs from solution or dispersion in seawater. When fish are harvested, a human health hazard may result. In the present communication, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and measure sixteen PAHs priority pollutants issued by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in fourteen species of commercially significant fish from the NW Arabian Gulf.

  10. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Arabian horse populations.

    PubMed

    Khanshour, Anas; Conant, Eleanore; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Ernest Gus

    2013-01-01

    The Arabian horse ignites imagination throughout the world. Populations of this breed exist in many countries, and recent genetic work has examined the diversity and ancestry of a few of these populations in isolation. Here, we explore 7 different populations of Arabians represented by 682 horses. Three of these are Middle Eastern populations from near the historical origin of the breed, including Syrian, Persian, and Saudi Arabian. The remaining Western populations are found in Europe (the Shagya Arabian and Polish Arabian) and in America (American Arabian). Analysis of genetic structure was carried out using 15 microsatellite loci. Genetic distances, analysis of molecular variance, factorial correspondence analysis, and a Bayesian method were applied. The results consistently show higher level of diversity within the Middle Eastern populations than the Western populations. The Western Arabian populations were the main source among population variation. Genetic differentiation was not strong among all Middle Eastern populations, but all American Arabians showed differentiation from Middle Eastern populations and were somewhat uniform among themselves. Here, we explore the diversities of many different populations of Arabian horses and find that populations not from the Middle East have noticeably lower levels of diversity, which may adversely affect the health of these populations. PMID:23450090

  11. Increasing Arabian dust activity and the Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solmon, F.; Nair, V. S.; Mallet, M.

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decade, aerosol optical depth (AOD) observations based on satellite and ground measurements have shown a significant increase over Arabia and the Arabian Sea, attributed to an intensification of regional dust activity. Recent studies have also suggested that west Asian dust forcing could induce a positive response of Indian monsoon precipitations on a weekly timescale. Using observations and a regional climate model including interactive slab-ocean and dust aerosol schemes, the present study investigates possible climatic links between the increasing June-July-August-September (JJAS) Arabian dust activity and precipitation trends over southern India during the 2000-2009 decade. Meteorological reanalysis and AOD observations suggest that the observed decadal increase of dust activity and a simultaneous intensification of summer precipitation trend over southern India are both linked to a deepening of JJAS surface pressure conditions over the Arabian Sea. In the first part of the study, we analyze the mean climate response to dust radiative forcing over the domain, discussing notably the relative role of Arabian vs. Indo-Pakistani dust regions. In the second part of the study, we show that the model skills in reproducing regional dynamical patterns and southern Indian precipitation trends are significantly improved only when an increasing dust emission trend is imposed on the basis of observations. We conclude that although interannual climate variability might primarily determine the observed regional pattern of increasing dust activity and precipitation during the 2000-2009 decade, the associated dust radiative forcing might in return induce a critical dynamical feedback contributing to enhancing regional moisture convergence and JJAS precipitations over southern India.

  12. Severe dust storms over the Arabian Peninsula: Observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    shalaby, ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Dust aerosols and dust storms have tremendous effects on human health and all development activities. Also atmospheric dust plays a major role in the Earth climate system by its interaction with radiation and clouds. Severe dust storms are considered the severest phenomena in the Arabian Peninsula, since they are occurring all the year round with maximum activity and frequency in Summer. The Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) has been used to simulate severe dust storms events in the Arabian Peninsula from 1998 up to 2011. This long period simulation shows a typical pattern and dynamical features of the large-scale severe dust storm in winter seasons and summer seasons. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the model outputs have been compared against ground--base observations of three AERONET stations (i.e., Kuwait, Mazeria and Solar-Village) and daily space--based observations of MISR, Deepblue and OMI. The dynamical analysis of the large—scale severe dust storms reveal the difference between winter time storms and summer time storm. Winter time storm occurs when the cold air front in the north is coupled with the extension of the Red Sea trough from the south. However, the summer time storm is associated with strong Shamal wind that extend from northern Kuwait to the southern Arabian Peninsula.

  13. Guidelines to classification and nomenclature of Arabian felsic plutonic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, C.R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Drysdall, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Well-defined procedures for classifying the felsic plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield on the basis of petrographic, chemical and lithostratigraphic criteria and mineral-resource potential have been adopted and developed in the Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources over the past decade. A number of problems with conventional classification schemes have been identified and resolved; others, notably those arising from difficulties in identifying precise mineral compositions, continue to present difficulties. The petrographic nomenclature used is essentially that recommended by the International Union of Geological Sciences. Problems that have arisen include the definition of: (1) rocks with sodic, zoned or perthitic feldspar, (2) trondhjemites, and (3) alkali granites. Chemical classification has been largely based on relative molar amounts of alumina, lime and alkalis, and the use of conventional variation diagrams, but pilot studies utilizing univariate and multivariate statistical techniques have been made. The classification used in Saudi Arabia for stratigraphic purposes is a hierarchy of formation-rank units, suites and super-suites as defined in the Saudi Arabian stratigraphic code. For genetic and petrological studies, a grouping as 'associations' of similar and genetically related lithologies is commonly used. In order to indicate mineral-resource potential, the felsic plutons are classed as common, precursor, specialized or mineralized, in order of increasing exploration significance. ?? 1986.

  14. Increasing Arabian dust activity and the Indian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solmon, F.; Nair, V. S.; Mallet, M.

    2015-02-01

    Over the past decade, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) observations based on satellite and ground measurements have shown a significant increase over Arabia and the Arabian Sea, attributed to an intensification of regional dust activity. Recent studies have also suggested that west Asian dust forcing could induce a positive response of Indian monsoon precipitations on a weekly time scale. Using observations and a regional climate model including interactive slab ocean and dust aerosol schemes, the present study investigates possible climatic links between the increasing June-July-August-September (JJAS) Arabian dust activity and precipitation trends over southern India during the 2000-2009 decade. Meteorological reanalysis and AOD observations suggest that the observed decadal increase of dust activity and a simultaneous intensification of summer precipitation trend over southern India are both linked to a deepening of JJAS surface pressure conditions over the Arabian Sea. We show that the model skills in reproducing this trends and patterns are significantly improved only when an increasing dust emission trend is imposed on the basis of observations. We conclude that although climate variability might primarily determine the observed regional pattern of increasing dust activity and precipitation during the 2000-2009 decade, the associated dust radiative forcing might however induce a critical dynamical feedback contributing to enhanced regional moisture convergence and JJAS precipitation over Southern India.

  15. Active NE-SW Compressional Strain Within the Arabian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, M. A.; ArRajehi, A.; King, R. W.; McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R. E.; Douad, M.; Sholan, J.; Bou-Rabee, F.

    2012-12-01

    Motion of the Arabian plate with respect to Eurasia has been remarkably steady over more than 25 Myr as revealed by comparison of geodetic and plate tectonic reconstructions (e.g., McQuarrie et al., 2003, GRL; ArRajehi et al., 2010, Tectonics). While internal plate deformation is small in comparison to the rate of Arabia-Eurasia convergence, the improved resolution of GPS observations indicate ~ NE-SW compressional strain that appears to affect much of the plate south of latitude ~ 30°N. Seven ~ NE-SW oriented inter-station baselines all indicated shortening at rates in the range of 0.5-2 mm/yr, for the most part with 1-sigma velocity uncertainties < 0.4 mm/yr. Plate-scale strain rates exceed 2×10-9/yr. The spatial distribution of strain can not be resolved from the sparse available data, but strain appears to extend at least to Riyadh, KSA, ~ 600 km west of the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt that forms the eastern, collisional boundary of the Arabian plate with Eurasia (Iran). Geodetic velocities in the plate tectonic reference frame for Arabia, derived from magnetic anomalies in the Red Sea (Chu and Gordon, 1998, GJI), show no significant E-W motion for GPS stations located along the Red Sea coast (i.e., geodetic and plate tectonic spreading rates across the Red Sea agree within their resolution), in contrast to sites in the plate interior and along the east side of the plate that indicate east-directed motions. In addition, NE-SW contraction is roughly normal to ~ N-S striking major structural folds in the sedimentary rocks within the Arabian Platform. These relationships suggest that geodetically observed contraction has characterized the plate for at least the past ~ 3 Myr. Broad-scale contraction of the Arabian plate seems intuitively reasonable given that the east and north sides of the plate are dominated by active continental collision (Zagros, E Turkey/Caucasus) while the west and south sides are bordered by mid-ocean ridge spreading (Red Sea and Gulf of

  16. Three new species of Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovsky (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) from Central Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Juan M; Azevedo, Celso O

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Pararhabdepyris are described and illustrated: P. arabo sp. nov. (United Arabian Emirates and Yemen), P. wafrika sp. nov. (Central African Republic), P. ngangu sp. nov. (Central African Republic). The genus is recorded for the first time from the Saharo-Arabian region. A key for all species of the genus is presented. PMID:27395185

  17. Examining the Experiences and Adjustment Challenges of Saudi Arabian Students in the California State University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jeremy Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences and adjustment challenges of Saudi Arabian students in the California State University (CSU) system. Specifically, the study was conducted to better understand and serve the Saudi Arabian students studying in the system. The design for this mixed method study integrated both quantitative and…

  18. Regional joint sets in the Arabian platform as indicators of intraplate processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, P.L.; Sha'At, N.A.; Al Kadhi, A.

    1984-02-01

    The eastern part of the Saudi Arabian craton is a platform underlain by gently tilted and horizontal Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. The platform contains several laterally extensive, but subdued, structures and lineaments. New microtectonic observations of dominant sets of extension and conjugate hybrid joints permit regionally significant extension directions to be inferred and the origin of the macrostructures to be assessed. The central Arabian arch developed during the Late Cretaceous to Eocene when the basin inverted as a consequence of the emplacement of ophiolite-bearing nappes on the Zagros and Oman margins. During arching, there was strike-parallel elongation of beds. At the same time as the arch amplified, the central Arabian graben system evolved as a result of the northward displacement of an East Arabian block. An important Neogene response in the Arabian platform to northeast-southwest shortening in the Zagros ranges was the formation of a swarm of northeast-striking master joints and lineaments. 41 references.

  19. Regional variation in the structure and function of parrotfishes on Arabian reefs.

    PubMed

    Hoey, Andrew S; Feary, David A; Burt, John A; Vaughan, Grace; Pratchett, Morgan S; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Parrotfishes (f. Labridae) are a unique and ubiquitous group of herbivorous reef fishes. We compared the distribution and ecosystem function (grazing and erosion) of parrotfishes across 75 reefs in Arabia. Our results revealed marked regional differences in the abundance, and taxonomic and functional composition of parrotfishes between the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Arabian Gulf. High densities and diversity of parrotfishes, and high rates of grazing (210% year(-1)) and erosion (1.57 kgm(-2)year(-1)) characterised Red Sea reefs. Despite Arabian Sea and Red Sea reefs having broadly comparable abundances of parrotfishes, estimates of grazing (150% year(-1)) and erosion (0.43 kgm(-2)year(-1)) were markedly lower in the Arabian Sea. Parrotfishes were extremely rare within the southern Arabian Gulf, and as such rates of grazing and erosion were negligible. This regional variation in abundance and functional composition of parrotfishes appears to be related to local environmental conditions. PMID:26608505

  20. New heat flow measurements in Oman in the Arabian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandone, F.; Lucazeau, F.; Jaupart, C.; Leroy, S.; Bache, F.; Amerjeed, M.; Lally, J.

    2009-04-01

    Precambrian shields are viewed as low heat flow provinces but detailed studies in Canada, South Africa and India shields demonstrate that large heat flow differences exist between them and within a single province, related to differences of crustal structures. Very few heat flow measurements are available on the Arabian shield and its thermal structure is poorly constrained. Heat flow reported for the Arabian Shield and its immediate platform (36-88 mWm-2) is broad. Thermal regime has a control on rheology and on deformation and the Arabian shield is of particular interest because it was affected by geodynamic processes such as the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden riftings starting around 30 Ma ago and the formation of the Dead Sea Transform fault starting at about 20 Ma. In December 2006, a marine heat-flow survey in the Gulf of Aden provided 169 new heat-flow measurements along multi-channel seismic profiles. One of the main results is that the high heat-flow (~120 mWm-2), characteristic of oceanic domains, extends into the deep continental margin and switches abruptly in the proximal margin to a low value (~40 mWm-2) typical of stable Precambrian domain. These low values have been confirmed by estimates derived from oil exploration data in few locations south of Oman. These data indicate a strong contrast of thermal regimes within the continental margin. Recent tomography studies on Arabia in Oman show that the lithosphere is significantly affected within Arabia in the vicinity of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. This pattern is apparently different from the observed heat-flow pattern, which needs to be confirmed and extended into the Arabian platform. The survey we conducted in October 2008 was to evaluate the thermal regime in the onshore domains of Oman. We measured the temperature gradient in 9 water wells in Dhofar south of Oman and in 8 mining wells in northern Oman in the ophiolite belt. The goal is to investigate the thermal structure of the Arabian plate and

  1. Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Saudi Arabian Dermatology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Anwar E.; Al-Dahmash, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Boqami, Qamra T.; Al-Tebainawi, Yazeed F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among Saudi Arabian dermatology patients and to assess associations with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 consecutive dermatology patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in August 2015. The Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale was used to screen for symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Results: A total of 254 dermatology patients participated in the study (response rate: 84.7%). The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress was 12.6%, 22.1% and 7.5%, respectively. The presence of at least one of these negative emotional states was noted among 24.4% of the cohort (95% confidence interval: 19.3–30.2%). Depression was significantly higher among subjects who lacked family support (26.5% versus 10.7%; P = 0.006) while anxiety was less common among patients who engaged in physical exercise (14.5% versus 29.4%; P = 0.005). According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, poor QOL and a lack of family support were significant predictors of a negative emotional state. Conclusion: Almost a quarter of the studied Saudi Arabian dermatology patients were found to suffer from at least one negative emotional state. A lack of family support and poor QOL were the primary factors associated with a negative emotional state. Interventional studies are needed to examine the effects of social and family support on psychological conditions among Saudi Arabian dermatology patients. PMID:27226914

  2. Hydrogeological influences on petroleum accumulations in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Vizgirda, J.; Burke, L.

    1995-08-01

    The stratigraphic and topographic conditions in the Arabian Gulf are appropriate for the instigation and maintenance of an active hydrodynamic regime. The setting is that of a gentle basin surrounded by topographic highs. The central Arabian highlands to the west-southwest, the Tarus-Zagros mountains to the north, and the Oman mountains to the east rim the structural low occupied by the Gulf. Elevations in these areas reach maximum values of approximately 1000 meters. Paleozoic through Cenozoic strata stretch continuously across the basin, are relatively unfaulted, and outcrop in the topographic highs. Such a setting is propitious for a regional hydrodynamic system with meteoric recharge in the topographic highs and discharge in the middle of the Gulf. The prolific oil and gas accumulations of this region would be subject to influence by these hydrodynamic processes. The existence of such a hydrodynamic regime is documented by a variety of evidence, including potentiometric data, water salinity measurements, and observed tilts in oil-water contacts. Potentiometric data for several Tertiary and Cretaceous units on the Arabian platform, in the Gulf, and in Iraq show a pattern of consistently decreasing potential from topographic highs to lows. Water salinities show a consistent, but inverse, variation with the potentiometric data. Tilted oil-water contacts in Cretaceous and Jurassic reservoirs are observed in several fields of the Gulf region. The direction and magnitude of the observed tilts are consistent with the water potential and salinity data, and suggest that petroleum accumulations are being influenced by a regional hydrodynamic drive. Basin modelling is used to simulate petroleum generation and migration scenarios, and to integrate these histories with the structural evolution of the Gulf. The integrated modelling study illustrates the influence of hydrodynamic processes on the distribution of petroleum accumulations.

  3. Cenozoic epeirogeny of the Arabian Peninsula from drainage modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. W. P.; Roberts, G. G.; Hoggard, M. J.; White, N. J.

    2014-10-01

    is generally accepted that the Arabian Peninsula has been uplifted by subcrustal processes. Positive residual depth anomalies from oceanic crust in the Red Sea and in the Gulf of Aden suggest that a region surrounding this peninsula is dynamically supported. Admittance calculations, surface wave tomography studies, and receiver function analyses all imply that regional topography is generated and maintained by some combination of mantle convective circulation and lithospheric thickness changes. Despite these significant advances, the spatial and temporal uplift rate history of the Arabian Peninsula is not well known. Here we show that a regional uplift rate history can be obtained by jointly inverting 225 longitudinal river profiles that drain this peninsula. Our strategy assumes that shapes of individual river profiles are controlled by uplift rate history and moderated by erosional processes. We used local measurements of incision rate to calibrate the relevant erosional parameters. In our inverse algorithm, uplift rate is permitted to vary smoothly as a function of space and time but upstream drainage area remains invariant. We also assume that knickzone migration is not lithologically controlled. Implications of these important assumptions have been investigated. Our results suggest that the Arabian Peninsula underwent two phases of asymmetric uplift during the last 20-30 Ma at rates of 0.05-0.1 mm a-1. The southwestern flank of the peninsula has been uplifted by 1.5-2.5 km. Regional stratigraphic constraints, the age and composition of volcanism, paleosol formation, incised peneplains, emergent marine terraces, and thermochronometric measurements corroborate our calculated patterns of uplift. Progressive development of three domal swells along the western margin of the peninsula is consistent with localized upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle.

  4. XY male pseudohermaphroditism in a captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Padilla, Luis R; Dutton, Christopher J; Bauman, Joan; Duncan, Mary

    2005-09-01

    A 2-yr-old Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) was presented for evaluation of abnormal genitalia and infantile behavior. The oryx had a penis and a scrotum, but testes were not palpable within the scrotum or inguinal canal. The total serum testosterone for the individual was lower than in age-matched males of the same species. Surgical exploration showed markedly hypoplastic intra-abdominal gonads, which demonstrated both testicular and uterine tissue on histologic examination. After karyotype analysis, the individual was classified as an XY male pseudohermaphrodite. This condition resembles two human intersex syndromes: embryonic testicular regression syndrome and partial gonadal dysgenesis syndrome, which occur in familial lines. PMID:17312771

  5. Purkinje cell apoptosis in arabian horses with cerebellar abiotrophy.

    PubMed

    Blanco, A; Moyano, R; Vivo, J; Flores-Acuña, R; Molina, A; Blanco, C; Monterde, J G

    2006-08-01

    Purkinje cerebellar cells were studied in three Arabian horses aged between 6 and 8 months with clinical disorders in their movements, tremors and ataxia; the occurrence of apoptosis in this cell population was investigated by the (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) method. Both optical and electron microscopical images showed a scant number of Purkinje cells, most of them with morphological features of apoptosis such as condensation of the nucleus and cytoplasm as well as segregation and fragmentation of the nucleus into apoptotic bodies. The TUNEL technique revealed a substantial number (65%) of positive immunoreactive Purkinje cells. PMID:16901270

  6. Biological control of surface temperature in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sathyendranath, Shubha; Gouveia, Albert D.; Shetye, Satish R.; Ravindran, P.; Platt, Trevor

    1991-01-01

    In the Arabian Sea, the southwest monsoon promotes seasonal upwelling of deep water, which supplies nutrients to the surface layer and leads to a marked increase in phytoplankton growth. Remotely sensed data on ocean color are used here to show that the resulting distribution of phytoplankton exerts a controlling influence on the seasonal evolution of sea surface temperature. This results in a corresponding modification of ocean-atmosphere heat exchange on regional and seasonal scales. It is shown that this biological mechanism may provide an important regulating influence on ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  7. Arabian killifish (Aphanius dispar) embryos: A model organism for the risk assessment of the Arabian Gulf coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Suhur; Al-Naema, Nayla; Butler, Josh D; Febbo, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Fish embryos are excellent models for studies aimed at understanding toxic mechanisms and indications of possible acute and chronic effects. For the past 3 yr, an Arabian killifish (Aphanius dispar) fish embryo test has been developed in the authors' laboratory as a routine ecotoxicological test that can be used to support risk assessment of potential contaminants in Arabian Gulf coastal waters. Tests were conducted with 3 reference toxicants (3,4-dichloroaniline [DCA], sodium dodecyl sulfate, and zinc sulfate [Zn]) and chlorine, a disinfectant used widely in industrial cooling systems around the Arabian Gulf region. The 50% effect concentration (EC50) for DCA was 0.47 mg/L and 1.89 mg/L for embryos exposed before 6 hpf and after 168 hpf, respectively. Sublethal effects were mainly observed at concentrations above 2.5 mg/L, the effects included severe pericardial edema and tail shortage. The sodium dodecyl sulfate ionic surfactant caused mortality at both early and late stages of embryo development; it caused coagulation, severe deformity, and hemolysis. Both the EC50 and the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) for sodium dodecyl sulfate were 9.37 mg/L. Salinity influenced the toxicity of Zn to killifish embryos: at 40 psu Zn was found not to be toxic, whereas at 20 psu toxicity had increased significantly (p < 0.05). Values of EC50 and LC50 were 2.5 mg/L and 4 mg/L, respectively. Concentrations above 15 mg/L in embryos were often accompanied by upper abdominal edema and inhibition of growth, especially evident in the tail. Chlorine caused mortality at a lower concentration; for example, at 0.05 mg/L 33% of embryos were found dead at the end of the experiment. The LC50 for chlorine was determined to be 0.08 mg/L. Examination of the existing literature showed similar results to the present study's findings. The results suggest a more comparable sensitivity of killifish embryos to that of other fish embryo test recommended species. The present study

  8. Cabled ocean observatories in Sea of Oman and Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMarco, Steven F.; Wang, Zhankun; Jochens, Ann; Stoessel, Marion; Howard, Matthew K.; Belabbassi, Leila; Ingle, Stephanie; du Vall, Ken

    2012-07-01

    An ocean observatory—consisting of a real-time, cabled array in the Sea of Oman and an internally recording, autonomous mooring array recently upgraded to a cabled array in the northern Arabian Sea—celebrated more than 2500 days of continuous operation in July 2012. The observatory, which measures a range of properties, such as water current velocities, temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity, is part of the Lighthouse Ocean Research Initiative (LORI) project [du Vall et al., 2011], which was designed as a pilot project and installed in 2005 in the region off Abu Bakara (Figures 1a and 1b). The initial goal of the project was to prove that an in situ, cabled ocean observatory can return high-quality scientific data on a real-time basis over longer time periods than conventional moored systems. That same year, an autonomous array was deployed off Ras al Hadd and on Murray Ridge in the Arabian Sea (Figure 1a).

  9. Carbon fluxes in the Arabian Sea: Export versus recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixen, Tim; Gaye, Birgit; Ramaswamy, Venkitasubramani

    2016-04-01

    The organic carbon pump strongly influences the exchange of carbon between the ocean and the atmosphere. It is known that it responds to global change but the magnitude and the direction of change are still unpredictable. Sediment trap experiments carried out at various sites in the Arabian Sea between 1986 and 1998 have shown differences in the functioning of the organic carbon pump (OCP). An OCP driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton operated in the upwelling region off Oman and during the spring bloom in the northern Arabian Sea. Cyanobacteria capable of fixing nitrogen seem to dominate the phytoplankton community during all other seasons. The export driven by cyanobacteria was much lower than the export driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton. Productivity and nutrient availability seems to be a main factor controlling fluxes during blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankton. The ballast effect caused by inputs of dust into the ocean and its incorporation into sinking particles seems to be the main factor controlling the export during times when cyanobacteria dominate the phytoplankton community. C/N ratios of organic matter exported from blooms dominated by nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria are enhanced and, furthermore, indicate a more efficient recycling of nutrients at shallower water depth. This implies that the bacterial-driven OCP operates more in a recycling mode that keeps nutrients closer to the euphotic zone whereas the OCP driven by eukaryotic phytoplankton reduces the recycling of nutrients by exporting them into greater water-depth.

  10. Trace metals in gills of fish from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Yakoob, S.; Bahloul, M. ); Bou-Olayan, A.H.

    1994-11-01

    Complexation of metals by coordinate linkages with appropriate organic molecules in biological tissues is an important process involved in metal accumulation by aquatic organisms. Fish respiratory systems differ from all other systems because damage to gills has immediate impacts on the rest of the fish's body. Veer et al. observed significant correlation between gill-metal concentration and whole-body weight. More nickel is accumulated in gill tissue of the catfish (Clarias batrachus) than in the liver or intestine. More cadmium is accumulated in gill tissue of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Channa punctatus (Bloch) than in the liver or kidney. When exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper, gills of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) showed the highest degree of copper accumulation. Petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes contribute significantly to metal enrichment of the Arabian Gulf marine environment. Because accumulation of metal ions is significant in gills, levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were investigated in gills of fish from potentially impacted areas along the western side of the Arabian Gulf after the 1991 oil-spill. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosence, Dan

    2004-08-01

    This multi-authored volume provides a sampling of current research into the geology of the Arabian Sea region. The editors emphasize the importance of this area as the Earth's best natural laboratory for studying relations between climate and the growth and erosion of an orogenic belt. Uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau is now believed to have altered global climate during the Cenozoic, and also to have affected the development of the region's monsoonal climate. The geological features of the region that make it a good area to study such processes include the excellent rock outcrops in the surrounding arid Arabian and Asian landmasses, the locally high rates of sedimentation which provide high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical information, and the monsoon itself, that imparts an annual time beat in some sedimentary successions. However, the region is very large and access is not always easy. Also, many areas are still poorly known geologically, such that this volume contains some papers on basic survey geology.

  12. The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosence, Dan

    2004-08-01

    This multi-authored volume provides a sampling of current research into the geology of the Arabian Sea region. The editors emphasize the importance of this area as the Earth's best natural laboratory for studying relations between climate and the growth and erosion of an orogenic belt.Uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau is now believed to have altered global climate during the Cenozoic, and also to have affected the development of the region's monsoonal climate. The geological features of the region that make it a good area to study such processes include the excellent rock outcrops in the surrounding arid Arabian and Asian landmasses, the locally high rates of sedimentation which provide high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical information, and the monsoon itself, that imparts an annual time beat in some sedimentary successions. However, the region is very large and access is not always easy. Also, many areas are still poorly known geologically such that this volume contains some papers on basic survey geology.

  13. Origin of cold bias over the Arabian Sea in Climate Models.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, S; Ajayamohan, R S

    2014-01-01

    Almost all climate models in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase five (CMIP5) were found to have a cold bias in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) over the northern Arabian Sea, which is linked to the biases in the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). This cold SST bias was attributed to the anomalous cold winds from the north-western part of south Asian landmass during boreal winter. However, the origin of the anomalously strong cold winds over the Arabian Sea and its association with the large-scale circulation is obscure. Here we show that an equatorward bias in subtropical Jetstream during boreal spring season anomalously cools down the northern Arabian Sea and adjoining land regions in CMIP5 models. The models with stronger equatorward bias in subtropical jet are also the ones with stronger cold SST bias over the Arabian Sea. The equatorward shift coupled with enhanced strength of the subtropical jet produce a stronger upper tropospheric convergence, leading to a subsidence and divergence at lower levels over the Arabian deserts. The low entropy air flowing from the Arabian land mass cools the northern Arabian Sea. The weaker meridional temperature gradients in the colder models substantially weaken ISM precipitation. PMID:25228235

  14. Analysis of Shuttle Multispecral Infrared Radiometer measurements of the western Saudi Arabian shield.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Abbott, E.

    1987-01-01

    During the November 12-14, 1981 mission of the space shuttle Columbia, the Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) recorded radiances in 10 channels along a 100m wide groundtrack across the western Saudi Arabian shield.-from Authors

  15. Application of Space Technology to Discovery of Ancient Desert Trade Routes in the Southern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blom, Ronald; Crippen, Robert; Hedges, George; Zarins, Juris

    1997-01-01

    Over the last decade, an unusual combination of historical research, traditional archaeology, and application of space technolgy has demonstrated the existence of trans-desert trade routes in the sourthern Arabian peninsula.

  16. Structure of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle Across the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Amri, A; Rodgers, A

    2007-01-05

    Analysis of modern broadband (BB) waveform data allows for the inference of seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle using a variety of techniques. This presentation will report inferences of seismic structure of the Arabian Plate using BB data from various networks. Most data were recorded by the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) which consists of 38 (26 BB, 11 SP) stations, mostly located on the Arabian Shield. Additional data were taken from the 1995-7 Saudi Arabian IRIS-PASSCAL Deployment (9 BB stations) and other stations across the Peninsula. Crustal structure, inferred from teleseismic P-wave receiver functions, reveals thicker crust in the Arabian Platform (40-45 km) and the interior of the Arabian Shield (35-40 km) and thinner crust along the Red Sea coast. Lithospheric thickness inferred from teleseismic S-wave receiver functions reveals very thin lithosphere (40-80 km) along the Red Sea coast which thickens rapidly toward the interior of the Arabian Shield (100-120 km). We also observe a step of 20-40 km in lithospheric thickness across the Shield-Platform boundary. Seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle inferred from teleseismic P- and S-wave travel time tomography reveals large differences between the Shield and Platform, with the Shield being underlain by slower velocities, {+-}3% for P-waves and {+-}6% for S-waves. Seismic anisotropy was inferred from shear-wave splitting, using teleseismic SKS waveforms. Results reveal a splitting time of approximately 1.4 seconds, with the fast axis slightly east of north. The shear-wave splitting results are consistent across the Peninsula, with a slight clockwise rotation parallel for stations near the Gulf of Aqaba. In summary, these results allow us to make several conclusions about the tectonic evolution and current state of the Arabian Plate. Lithospheric thickness implies that thinning near the Red Sea has accompanied the rupturing of the Arabian

  17. Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction profiles; final project report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Mooney, W.D.; Blank, H.R.; Gettings, M.E.; Kohler, W.M.; Lamson, R.J.; Leone, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat-Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used: five on land, with most charges placed below the water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and detonated from a ship. Slightly more than 61 metric tons of explosives were used in 19 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by 100 newly-developed portable seismic stations deployed in approximately 200 km-long arrays for each firing. Each station consisted of a standard 2-Hz vertical component geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. In this final report, we fully document the field and data-processing procedures and present the final seismogram data set as both a digital magnetic tape and as record sections for each shot point. Record sections include a normalized set of seismograms, reduced at 6 km/s, and a true-amplitude set, reduced at 8 km/s, which have been adjusted for amplifier gain, individual shot size, and distance from the shot point. Appendices give recorder station and shot information, digital data set descriptions, computer program listings, arrival times used in the interpretation, and a bibliography of reports published as a result of this project. We used two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques in the data analysis, and our interpretation is based primarily on horizontally layered models. The Arabian Shield is composed, to first-order, of two layers, each about 20 km

  18. The prehistory of the Arabian peninsula: deserts, dispersals, and demography.

    PubMed

    Groucutt, Huw S; Petraglia, Michael D

    2012-05-01

    As a geographic connection between Africa and the rest of Eurasia, the Arabian Peninsula occupies a central position in elucidating hominin evolution and dispersals. Arabia has been characterized by extreme environmental fluctuation in the Quaternary, with profound evolutionary and demographic consequences. Despite the importance of the region, Arabia remains understudied. Recent years, however, have seen major developments in environmental studies and archeology, revealing that the region contains important records that should play a significant role in future paleoanthropological narratives.(1-3) The emerging picture of Arabia suggests that numerous dispersals of hominin populations into the region occurred. Populations subsequently followed autochthonous trajectories, creating a distinctive regional archeological record. Debates continue on the respective roles of regional hominin extinctions and population continuity, with the latter suggesting adaptation to arid conditions. PMID:22718479

  19. SEISMIC DATA FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING IN THE ARABIAN PENINSULA

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2004-07-08

    We report results from the third and final year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We are working with King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology to collect data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consists of 38 digital three-component stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period). We have an ongoing collaboration with the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, which runs the eight station Kuwait National Seismic Network. We installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). In this paper we present a summary of data collected under these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of souce parameters and earth structure.

  20. Performance modeling of Arabian asphalt using HP-GPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asi, I. M.; Wahhab, H. I. Al-Abdul; Al-Dubabi, I. A.; Ali, M. F.

    1997-08-01

    In this study, Arabian neat asphalt samples were collected from different asphalt producing refineries in the Gulf countries. Another set of polymer modified samples was also included in this study. In the polymer modification process, 5,10, and 15% crumb rubber (CRT) and 3,6, and 9% styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) were used. All asphalt samples were subjected to two aging processes to simulate heating, mixing, compaction, and in-service aging. The asphalt samples at the different aging stages were subjected to performance-based tests that were adapted and/or modified by the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) team. High pressure gel permeation chromatography (HP-GPC) was used to chemically analyze the test samples by generating profiles of their molecular size distribution. Models were built to predict the performance-based properties from the produced HP-GPC profiles.

  1. Indian Ocean Dipole modulated wave climate of eastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoop, T. R.; Sanil Kumar, V.; Shanas, P. R.; Johnson, G.; Amrutha, M. M.

    2015-10-01

    Intrinsic modes of variability have a significant role in driving climatic oscillations in the ocean. In this paper, we investigate the influence of inter-annual variability, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), on the wave climate of the eastern Arabian Sea (AS). Using measured, modeled and reanalysis wave data and reanalysis wind data, we show that the IOD plays a major role in the variability of wave climate of the study region due to the IOD induced changes in equatorial sea surface temperature and sea level pressure. Inter-annual variability in the wave climate over the eastern AS during the IOD is due to the modification of winds from the northern AS. The change in wind field over the AS due to IOD influences the generation or dissipation of wave field and hence causes the decrease in northwest short period waves during positive IOD and increase during negative IOD.

  2. Indian Ocean Dipole modulated wave climate of eastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoop, T. R.; Sanil Kumar, V.; Shanas, P. R.; Glejin, J.; Amrutha, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    Intrinsic modes of variability have a significant role in driving the climatic oscillations in the oceanic processes. In this paper, we investigate the influence of an inter-annual mode of variability, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), on the wave climate of the eastern Arabian Sea (AS). Using measured, modeled and reanalysis wave data and reanalysis wind data, we show that the IOD plays a major role in the variability of wave climate of the study region. Due to the IOD-induced changes in equatorial sea surface temperature and sea level pressure, the winds from the northern AS gets modified and cause inter-annual variability in the wave climate over the eastern AS. The changes in wind field over the AS due to the IOD influence the generation or dissipation of the wave field and hence cause a decrease in northwest short-period waves during positive IOD and an increase during negative IOD.

  3. The ant genus Carebara Westwood in the Arabian Peninsula (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The ant genus Carebara of the Arabian Peninsula is revised. Carebara abuhurayri Sharaf & Aldawood, 2011 is synonymized under Carebara arabica Collingwood & van Harten, 2001. Carebara arabica is redescribed and a Neotype is fixed based on a specimen collected from southwestern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A new species, C. fayrouzae sp. n. is described from Saudi Arabia based on queens, major and minor workers. Keys to major and minor workers of the two Arabian Carebara species are given. PMID:24363580

  4. Interannual variability and predictability over the Arabian Penuinsula Winter monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan Abid, Muhammad; Kucharski, Fred; Almazroui, Mansour; Kang, In-Sik

    2016-04-01

    Interannual winter rainfall variability and its predictability are analysed over the Arabian Peninsula region by using observed and hindcast datasets from the state-of-the-art European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) seasonal prediction System 4 for the period 1981-2010. An Arabian winter monsoon index (AWMI) is defined to highlight the Arabian Peninsula as the most representative region for the Northern Hemispheric winter dominating the summer rainfall. The observations show that the rainfall variability is relatively large over the northeast of the Arabian Peninsula. The correlation coefficient between the Nino3.4 index and rainfall in this region is 0.33, suggesting potentially some modest predictability, and indicating that El Nino increases and La Nina decreases the rainfall. Regression analysis shows that upper-level cyclonic circulation anomalies that are forced by El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are responsible for the winter rainfall anomalies over the Arabian region. The stronger (weaker) mean transient-eddy activity related to the upper-level trough induced by the warm (cold) sea-surface temperatures during El Nino (La Nina) tends to increase (decrease) the rainfall in the region. The model hindcast dataset reproduces the ENSO-rainfall connection. The seasonal mean predictability of the northeast Arabian rainfall index is 0.35. It is shown that the noise variance is larger than the signal over the Arabian Peninsula region, which tends to limit the prediction skill. The potential predictability is generally increased in ENSO years and is, in particular, larger during La Nina compared to El Nino years in the region. Furthermore, central Pacific ENSO events and ENSO events with weak signals in the Indian Ocean tend to increase predictability over the Arabian region.

  5. The relationship between Arabian Sea upwelling and Indian Monsoon revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xing; Zorita, Eduardo; Hünicke, Birgit

    2015-04-01

    Coastal upwelling is important to marine ecosystems and human activities. It transports nutrient-rich deep water mass that supports marine biological productivity. In this study, we aim to characterize the large-scale climate forcings that drive upwelling along the western Arabian Sea coast. Studies based on ocean sediments suggest that there is a link between this coastal upwelling system and the Indian summer monsoon. However, a more direct method is needed to examine the influence of various forcings on upwelling. For this purpose, we analyse a high-resolution (about 10 km) global ocean simulation (denoted STORM), which is based on the MPI-OM model developed by the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg driven by the global meteorological reanalysis NCEP over the period 1950-2010. This very high spatial resolution allows us to identify characteristics of the coastal upwelling system. We compare the simulated upwelling velocity of STORM with two traditional upwelling indices: along-shore wind speed and sea surface temperature. The analysis reveals good consistency between these variables, with high correlations between coastal upwelling and along-shore wind speed (r=0.85) as well as coastal sea surface temperature (r=-0.77). To study the impact of the monsoon on the upwelling we analyse both temporal and spatial co-variability between upwelling velocity and the Indian summer monsoon index. The spatial analysis shows that the impact of the monsoon on the upwelling is concentrated along the coast, as expected. However, somewhat unexpectedly, the temporal correlation between the coastal upwelling and the monsoon index is rather weak (r=0.26). Also, the spatial structure of upwelling in the Arabian Sea as revealed by a Principal Component Analysis is rather rich, indicating that factors other than the Monsoon are also important drivers of upwelling. In addition, no detectable trend in our coastal upwelling is found in the simulation that would match the

  6. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hilali, Sara M.; Al-Kahtani, Eman; Zaman, Babar; Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Shahri, Abdullah; Edward, Deepak P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%). Of these, 278 (69.3%) were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively). Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007). Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%), lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%), lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4%) and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%). Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study. PMID:26909216

  7. Climate oscillations reflected in the Arabian Sea subseafloor microbiome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, William; Coolen, Marco; He, Lijun; Wuchter, Cornelia; Irigoien, Xabier; Chust, Guillem; Johnson, Carl; Hemingway, Jordon; Lee, Mitchell; Galy, Valier; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    Marine sediment contains a vast microbial biosphere that influences global biogeochemical cycles over geological timescales. However, the environmental factors controlling the stratigraphy of subseafloor microbial communities are poorly understood. We studied a sediment core directly underlying the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which exhibits organic carbon rich sapropelic laminae deposited under low oxygen conditions. Consistent with several other cores from the same location, age dating revealed the sapropelic layers coincide with warm North Atlantic millennial-scale Dansgaard-Oeschger events, indicating a direct link between the strength of the OMZ and paleoclimate. A total of 214 samples spanning 13 m and 52 Kyr of deposition were selected for geochemical analyses and paleoclimate proxy measurements, as well as high-throughput metagenomic DNA sequencing of bacteria and archaea. A novel DNA extraction protocol was developed that allowed for direct (unamplified) metagenomic sequencing of DNA from each sample. This dataset represents the highest resolved sedimentary metagenomic sampling profile to date. Analysis of these data together with multiple paleoceanographic proxies show that millennial-scale paleoenvironmental conditions correlate with the metabolism and diversity of bacteria and archaea over the last glacial-interglacial cycle in the Arabian Sea. The metabolic potential for bacterial denitrification correlates with climate-driven OMZ strength and concomitant nitrogen stable isotope fractionation, whereas catabolic potential reflects changing marine organic matter sources across the Last Glacial Maximum. These results indicate that the subsisting microbial communities had been stratified to a large extent by paleoceanographic conditions at the time of deposition. Paleoenvironmental conditions should thus be considered as a mechanism that can help explain microbiome stratigraphy in marine sediment.

  8. Tectonic and deposition model of late Precambrian-Cambrian Arabian and adjoining plates

    SciTech Connect

    Husseini, M.I. )

    1989-09-01

    During the late Precambrian, the terranes of the Arabian and adjoining plates were fused along the northeastern flank of the African plate in Gondwanaland. This phase, which ended approximately 640 to 620 Ma, was followed by continental failure (620 to 580 Ma) and intracontinental extension (600 to approximately 550 Ma). During the Infracambrian extensional phase, a triple junction may have evolved near the Sinai Peninsula and may have consisted of the (1) Jordan Valley and Dead Sea rift branch, (2) Sinai and North Egypt rift branch, and (3) the Najd wrench-rift branch. The Najd, Hawasina, and Zagros fault systems may have been transverse faults that accompanied rifting in the Arabian Gulf and Zagros Mountains, southern Oman, Pakistan, and Kerman in central Iran. While the area was extending and subsiding, the Tethys Ocean flooded the eastern side of the Arabian plate and Iran and deposited calcareous clastics, carbonates, and evaporites (including the Hormuz and Ara halites). This transgression extended into the western part of the Arabian plate via the Najd rift system. The termination of the extensional phase during the late Early Cambrian was accompanied by a major regression and terrestrial conditions on the Arabian Peninsula. However, by the Early Ordovician, as sea level peaked to a highstand, the Arabian plate was blanketed with marginal marine sediments. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Primary productivity and nitrogen fixation by Trichodesmium spp. in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parab, Sushma G.; Matondkar, S. G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Trichodesmium was studied with the purpose of understanding its distribution, organic production and nitrogen fixation in the Arabian Sea. Out of the 143 stations sampled, a total of 93 stations showed the presence of Trichodesmium filaments. Two species of Trichodesmium namely, T. thiebautii and T. erythraeum were found. These were distributed on the basis of the physico-chemical conditions of the Arabian Sea. This was the first time that we managed to detect and record the presence of Trichodesmium thiebautii bloom in the Arabian Sea at depths as deep as 60-70 m. Total counts of Trichodesmium varied between 0 and 400737 filamentsL- 1. T. thiebautii developed in offshore waters during the fall intermonsoon, when the water temperature was around 28 °C and nitrate content was as low as 0.34 μM. After the northeast monsoon, Trichodesmium erythraeum developed in the offshore area and then spread to coastal waters. Both species of Trichodesmium together produced a total of 0.263 TgCyear- 1 and fixed a total of 0.2976 TgNyear- 1 in the Arabian Sea. The study revealed that Trichodesmium was a major contributor to the organic matter productivity of the Arabian Sea during the period from November to April. The seasonality of the blooms of Trichodesmium is discussed with the help of Ocean Color Monitoring (OCM) data and biogeochemical implication of these findings in the Arabian Sea.

  10. Tomographic Imaging of Upper Mantle P- and S-wave Velocity Heterogeneity Beneath the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2005-08-30

    We report the estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure beneath the Arabian Peninsula estimated from travel time delay tomography. We have completed travel time measurements and inversion of a partial data set provided by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). This study builds on previous work by Benoit et al. (2003) following the methods of VanDecar and Crosson (1990) and VanDecar (1991). Data were collected from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network (SANDSN) operated by KACST. The network consists of 38 stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period). We augmented the KACST data with delay times measured from permanent Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations in the region (RAYN, EIL and MRNI) and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL Experiment. This study shows the inverted P- and S-wave models computed with the combined data with all three different seismic networks (KASCST, IRIS, and the 1996 Saudi Arabian PASSCAL experiment) with best coverage beneath the Arabian Shield. Tomographic images reveal low velocity features in the upper mantle along a north-south line from the southern Asir region to the northeastern portion of the Arabian Shield.

  11. Carbonate and carbon fluctuations in the Eastern Arabian Sea over 140 ka: Implications on productivity changes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guptha, M. V. S.; Naidu, P. Divakar; Haake, Birgit Gaye; Schiebel, Ralf

    2005-07-01

    Biological productivity in the western Arabian Sea was higher during interglacial than glacial times. In the eastern Arabian Sea productivity was higher during the glacials compared to interglacials, which is in sharp contrast to the southwest monsoon intensity variations. To examine temporal changes in productivity in the eastern Arabian Sea over the last 140 ka, oxygen isotopes, calcium carbonate and organic carbon on three cores (SL-1 & 4 and SK 129-CR05) were analyzed. Oxygen isotope records display distinct glacial and interglacial transitions. In the northeastern (Core SL-1) and eastern Arabian Sea (Core SL-4) both calcium carbonate and organic carbon variations show no significant systematic relationship with glacial and interglacials periods. In the southeastern Arabian Sea (Core SK-129-CR05) calcium carbonate shows high and low values during interglacial and glacials, respectively, and temporal changes in organic carbon concentration are significant only during MIS 5. Differential variation of calcium carbonate and organic carbon concentration at the northeastern and southeastern Arabian Sea, and between glacials and interglacials, are attributed to regional differences in sedimentation rates, dilution and preservation, which modify the signal of carbonate and carbon production.

  12. Diet as a confounder of the association between air pollution and female lung cancer: Hong Kong studies on exposures to environmental tobacco smoke, incense, and cooking fumes as examples.

    PubMed

    Koo, L C; Ho, J H

    1996-03-01

    Chinese females in Hong Kong, where only about a third of the lung cancer cases can be attributed to a history of active smoking, have a world age-standardized lung cancer incidence rate of 32.6 per 100 000, which is among the highest in the world. Trends in Hong Kong's female lung cancer mortality also indicate a tripling in mortality rates from 1961 to 1990. The characteristically high Chinese female lung cancer incidence among nonsmokers is also found among overseas Chinese communities in Singapore and Hawaii. To help elucidate the role of ingested and inhaled substances in the etiology of lung cancer, four epidemiological studies have been conducted in Hong Kong over the last 15 years: (1) a retrospective study of 200 cases and 200 neighbourhood controls, (2) a cross-sectional study measuring personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide among 362 children and their mothers, (3) a site monitoring study of 33 homes measuring airborne carcinogens, and (4) a telephone survey of 500 women on their dietary habits and exposure to air pollutants. Selected data from each study were drawn to evaluate exposures to three major air pollutants (environmental tobacco smoke, incense, and cooking fumes), their relationship with lung cancer risk, and their association with dietary habits. Generally in this population, nutritionally poorer diets were characterized by higher consumption of alcohol and preserved/cured foods, whereas better diets were characterized by higher intakes of fresh fruits, vegetables, and fish. For environmental tobacco smoke, exposure was only moderately high in Hong Kong (36% have current smokers at home), lung cancer risk was equivocal with exposure, and it was associated with poorer diets among wives with smoking husbands. Incense was identified as a major source of exposure to nitrogen dioxide and airborne carcinogens, but it had no effect on lung cancer risk among nonsmokers and significantly reduced risk (trend, P-value = 0.01) among smokers, even after

  13. Modelling the seasonality of subsurface light and primary production in the Arabian Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Platt, Trevor

    1993-01-01

    Seasonal changes in mixed-layer depth and phytoplankton biomass in the Arabian Sea are assessed with climatologies of ship-based hydrographic measurements and ocean-color observations from satellite.  At the close of the intermonsoons in November and especially May, the open Arabian Sea resembles the stereotypic, unperturbed tropical ocean, with a thin oligotrophic mixed layer and a pronounced subsurface chlorophyll maximum.  Both the northeast and southwest monsoons disrupt this typical tropical hydrography through mixed-layer deepening and eutrophication in the central and northern Arabian Sea.  Computations using a spectral model of light penetration suggest that seasonal changes in mixed-layer thickness and phytoplankton concentration result in pronounced fluctuations through the annual cycle in the radiant flux reaching the base of the mixed layer.  At the close of the fall and spring intermonsoons the base of the model euphotic zone is in the thermocline across all of the open Arabian Sea.  The euphotic zone appears to rise into the mixed layer of the northern Arabian Sea during both the winter and summer monsoons.  Strong seasonality in total primary production and its partitioning between the mixed layer and thermocline is predicted byb a photo-synthesis-irradiance model for a site in the western Arabian Sea (14.36° N, 57.38° E).  Modeled mixed-layer primary production depicts an intense peak for the southwest monsoon and a secondary northeast monsoon peak separated by intermonsoon period of low production.  During the fall and spring intermonsoons, in the presence of a subsurface clorophyll maximum, the model estimate of primary production in the thermocline exceeds that in the mixed layer.  Our model calculations suggest that the subsurface clorophyll maximum present in the Arabian Sea during the spring intermonsoon is a precursor of the regional, summer, phytoplankton bloom.

  14. 75 FR 2920 - In the Matter of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Also Known as al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... al-Qa'ida Organization in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Also Known as al-Qa'ida in Yemen (AQY), Also... Organization in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), also known as al-Qa'ida in Yemen (AQY), also known as...

  15. Chromatographic metasomatism of the Arabian-Nubian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, R.; Navon, O.; Stein, M.

    1997-11-01

    Trace elements and isotopic ratios of calc-alkaline and tholeiitic dikes from the very last stage of the late Proterozoic, Pan-African orogeny in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), and alkali basalts from the overlying Phanerozoic section are used to constrain the composition and model the evolution of the lithospheric mantle in this region. The dikes and basalts are interpreted as lithospheric melts formed during the post-orogenic (and post-subduction) history of the shield. While the mafic member of all suites share a primitive La/Th ratio, the Nb/Th and Ce/Pb are distinct for each suite. The (Nb/Th)PM (primitive mantle normalized) is ~0.2 in the calc-alkaline dikes and 1.4 in the tholeiitic dikes and the Phanerozoic alkali basalts. The (Ce/Pb)PM ratios are low in the dikes (0.4 in the calc-alkaline and 0.3 in the tholeiitic) and high in the Phanerozoic basalts (2.8). We suggest that the variations in the trace element ratios reflect sampling of different zones in the lithospheric mantle, which were formed by subduction related metasomatism of the mantle wedge. We constructed a chromatographic model to explain this zonation. In this model a plume-derived oceanic lithosphere is subducted and dehydrates at depth. Fluids released from the dehydrating slab metasomatize the overlying wedge and form amphibole-rich channels. Nb is preferentially taken by the amphibole and is enriched only in the lower zones of the column. The other elements (U, Th, REE and especially Pb and Rb) behave incompatibly. They are enriched in the fluid and transported efficiently to the melting zone in the centre of the wedge. Dehydration of the base of the wedge as it descends below the amphibole stability field depletes this region in Pb and Rb. After the end of subduction, the wedge is fossilized and forms the lithospheric mantle. The zone above the Nb concentration front is sampled by the calc-alkaline magmas. The tholeiitic magmas sample the zone below the Nb front. The Phanerozoic

  16. Tectonic development of the SW Arabian Plate margin within the central Arabian flank of the Red Sea rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, E.; Stockli, D. F.; Johnson, P. R.; Kattan, F. H.; Cosca, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Red Sea rift system is a prime example of continental rifting and has contributed significantly to our understanding of the geologic processes that manage the rupture of continental lithosphere. Using a combined geo- and thermochronometric approach, we explore the modes and mechanisms of rift margin development by studying Red Sea rift-related geologic products along the central Saudi Arabian flank of the rift system, north of Jeddah. We use apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry and whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalt to define the spatiotemporal relationship between rift flank extensional structures and rift-related harrat volcanism. This technical approach permits the reconstruction of the tectonic margin from early rift architecture, to strain distribution during progressive rifting, and through subsequent whole-scale modifications of the rift flank due to thermal and isostatic factors. Constraints on the dynamics of rift flank deformation are achieved through the collection of geologic samples along long-baseline thermochronometric transects that traverse the entire Arabian shield from the coastal escarpment to the inland Paleozoic sedimentary cover sequences. Long-baseline transects resolve the timing of rift flank uplift and reveal the pattern of lithospheric modification during the rupturing of continental lithosphere. Locally, short-baseline elevation transects map the footwall exhumation of major normal faults that delineate both the modern rift margin and inland extensional basins such as the NW-trending Hamd-Jizil basin, a prominent syn-extensional basin comprised of two distinct half-grabens (Jizil and Hamd) located NW of Medina. Diffuse lithospheric extension during the Oligo-Miocene affected a widespread area well inboard from the modern rift margin; samples from footwall blocks that bound the inland Jizil and Hamd half-grabens yield apatite (U-Th)/He cooling ages of 14.7 ± 0.9 Ma and 24.5 ± 1.5 Ma, respectively. The mid-Miocene age

  17. Diversity and distribution of winter phytoplankton in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polikarpov, Igor; Saburova, Maria; Al-Yamani, Faiza

    2016-05-01

    The spatial distribution of the phytoplankton (diversity, composition, and cell abundance) was described in relation to local environmental conditions across the Arabian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Sea of Oman based on data of ROPME cruise of winter 2006. The 376 phytoplankton taxa identified in these waters represented a diverse composition of species with a prevalence of dinoflagellates and diatoms. Three peaks in the phytoplankton abundance were recorded throughout the studied area associated with diatom-dominated phytoplankton blooms in the central and northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf and in the Sea of Oman and the adjacent waters. The studied area was divided into three main regions by cluster analysis based on differences in the phytoplankton composition and concentration. The Sea of Oman and the Strait of Hormuz were occupied by highly abundant, strongly diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage. The Arabian Gulf was divided into two main regions along a diagonal northwest-southeast axis, with rather diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage off the south and along the Iranian coast but with flagellate-dominated phytoplankton of the north and along the Arabian coast. The distance-based linear modeling revealed a significant relationship between the phytoplankton composition and water masses as indexed by salinity. Our results demonstrated that abundance and composition of winter phytoplankton were related to water circulation pattern in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman.

  18. A pedigree-based study of mitochondrial D-loop DNA sequence variation among Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Bowling, A T; Del Valle, A; Bowling, M

    2000-02-01

    Through DNA sequence comparisons of a mitochondrial D-loop hypervariable region, we investigated matrilineal diversity for Arabian horses in the United States. Sixty-two horses were tested. From published pedigrees they traced in the maternal line to 34 mares acquired primarily in the mid to late 19th century from nomadic Bedouin tribes. Compared with the reference sequence (GenBank X79547), these samples showed 27 haplotypes with altogether 31 base substitution sites within 397 bp of sequence. Based on examination of pedigrees from a random sampling of 200 horses in current studbooks of the Arabian Horse Registry of America, we estimated that this study defined the expected mtDNA haplotypes for at least 89% of Arabian horses registered in the US. The reliability of the studbook recorded maternal lineages of Arabian pedigrees was demonstrated by haplotype concordance among multiple samplings in 14 lines. Single base differences observed within two maternal lines were interpreted as representing alternative fixations of past heteroplasmy. The study also demonstrated the utility of mtDNA sequence studies to resolve historical maternity questions without access to biological material from the horses whose relationship was in question, provided that representatives of the relevant female lines were available for comparison. The data call into question the traditional assumption that Arabian horses of the same strain necessarily share a common maternal ancestry. PMID:10690354

  19. The relationship between Arabian Sea upwelling and Indian monsoon revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, X.; Hünicke, B.; Tim, N.; Zorita, E.

    2015-11-01

    Studies based on upwelling indices (sediment records, sea-surface temperature and wind) suggest that upwelling along the western coast of Arabian Sea is strongly affected by the Indian summer monsoon (ISM). In order to examine this relationship directly, we employ the vertical water mass transport produced by the eddy-resolving global ocean simulation STORM driven by meteorological reanalysis over the last 61 years. With its very high spatial resolution (10 km), STORM allows us to identify characteristics of the upwelling system. We analyze the co-variability between upwelling and meteorological and oceanic variables from 1950 to 2010. The analyses reveal high interannual correlations between coastal upwelling and along-shore wind-stress (r=0.73) as well as with sea-surface temperature (r0.83). However, the correlation between the upwelling and the ISM is small and other factors might contribute to the upwelling variability. In addition, no long-term trend is detected in our modeled upwelling time series.

  20. Secondary pores in carbonate reservoirs on Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, R.; Waterhouse, M.; Watfa, M.

    1987-05-01

    Nearly all of the giant carbonate reservoirs on the Arabian Peninsula have both primary and secondary pore systems. There are, however, significant stratigraphic and geographic variations of origin, volume, and reservoir importance of secondary pores. The Permian Khuff reservoir zones generally has more secondary porosity than any younger, or shallower, reservoir formations. Highly permeable idiotopic (sucrosic) dolomites are commonly developed in zones which originally contained primary pores. The zones with the highest porosity often contain secondary pores, with calcite-free oomoldic dolomites having higher permeability than oomoldic limestones. Fractures resulting from halokinetics and/or salt dissolution are generally the most important secondary pores in Khuff reservoirs. The prolific Jurassic Arab reservoir zones, generally have lesser amounts of secondary pores than Khuff reservoirs, but a variety of secondary pores are present. Commonly the Arab C zone contains the greatest volume of secondary pores, generally of a moldic (grain and/or skeletal) nature. Secondary porosity associated with dolomitization is regionally more common in the eastern Gulf. Cretaceous (rudist) reefal and chalk reservoirs often contain zones of secondary porosity with enhanced permeability resulting from the leaching of aragonitic and high-magnesium calcite skeletal material. Secondary porosity is present in the western gulf in both the Minagish grainstones and dolomitized Shuaiba Formation, whereas the grainstones of the eastern gulf have little secondary porosity. Large fracture systems are present everywhere in low-permeability chalks and wackestones. An unusually high degree of porosity heterogeneity appears to be ubiquitous in Cretaceous sequences.

  1. Stratigraphy and paleogeography of the Cretaceous in Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S.; Nairn, A.E.M.

    1986-05-01

    The Cretaceous of the Arabian Peninsula is divided into three major units by regional unconformities: Lower Cretaceous Thamama Group (Berriasian-middle Aptian), middle Cretaceous Wasia Group (Albian-Turonian), and Upper Cretaceous Aruma Group (Coniacian-Maestrichtian). The profusion of named stratigraphic units in the area reflects not only the lithologic variation resulting from facies changes, but also terminologies adopted by different companies. The authors provide a stratigraphic nomenclature defining standard type sections and indicate synonymies, which follow the recommendation of 10th Geological Liaison Meeting and hence are acceptable to operators in the area. The sedimentologic history of the area was presented in a series of paleogeographic maps, which they relate to the regional tectonic framework. The maps show a predominantly carbonate shelf ramp bordering a land area to the north and west. The principal change in depositional environment occurs during the Upper Cretaceous, as a result of tectonic activity. Less significant changes are attributed to eustatic sea level fluctuations, on which tilting caused by tectonic movement may be superposed during the Lower and middle Cretaceous. The major producing horizons lie below the regional unconformities; secondary porosity in the shelf reefal buildups was developed during subaerial exposure in the Shuaiba Formation (early-middle Aptian), in the Mishrif Formation (late Cenomanian), and in the Simsima Formation (Maestrichtian).

  2. Tropospheric ozone pool over Arabian sea during pre-monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Hou, Xuewei; Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the remarkable and stable phenomenon-enhancement of the tropospheric ozone over Arabian Sea (AS) during the pre-monsoon season. Satellite data (SCIAMACHY LNM, OMI/MLS and TES) showed a strong and clear ozone seasonality over AS with ~42 DU maxima in pre-monsoon season. With the help of MACC reanalysis data, our results showed that 3/4 of the enhanced ozone during this season is contributed at 0-8 km height. The main source of the ozone enhancement is believed to be a long range transport, together with a suitable meteorological condition for pollution accumulation. Local chemistry plays different roles over different altitudes. However we believe the contribution to the tropospheric ozone enhancement from the chemistry is low. The contribution of the STE is unclear. In addition, the interannual variation of the pre-monsoon tropospheric ozone enhancement over AS is discussed. The anomalies in 2005 and 2010 could be due to the dynamical variation of ozone caused by the El Niño events.

  3. Data Collection in the Arabian Peninsula for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; Al-Amri, A M S

    2003-07-11

    We report results from the second year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We have a temporary broadband seismic station operating near the IMS primary array site (PS38) in central Saudi Arabia. We recently installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). We are working with King Abdulaziz city for Science and Technology to collect and analyze data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consist of 37 digital three-component stations (26 broadband and 11 short-period). We are collaborating with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) to analyze data from their 8 station national seismic network. We participated in the Workshop on Reference Events odnear the Dead Sea Rift held in Paris, France in October 2002. In this paper we present results of these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of event locations and source parameters and inference of earth structure.

  4. Allelic polymorphism in arabian camel ribonuclease and the amino acid sequence of bactrian camel ribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Welling, G W; Mulder, H; Beintema, J J

    1976-04-01

    Pancreatic ribonucleases from several species (whitetail deer, roe deer, guinea pig, and arabian camel) exhibit more than one amino acid at particular positions in their amino acid sequences. Since these enzymes were isolated from pooled pancreas, the origin of this heterogeneity is not clear. The pancreatic ribonucleases from 11 individual arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius) have been investigated with respect to the lysine-glutamine heterogeneity at position 103 (Welling et al., 1975). Six ribonucleases showed only one basic band and five showed two bands after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, suggesting a gene frequency of about 0.75 for the Lys gene and about 0.25 for the Gln gene. The amino acid sequence of bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) ribonuclease isolated from individual pancreatic tissue was determined and compared with that of arabian camel ribonuclease. The only difference was observed at position 103. In the ribonucleases from two unrelated bactrian camels, only glutamine was observed at that position. PMID:962846

  5. Response of the Arabian Sea to global warming and associated regional climate shift.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Prasanna; Roshin, Raj P; Narvekar, Jayu; Kumar, P K Dinesh; Vivekanandan, E

    2009-12-01

    The response of the Arabian Sea to global warming is the disruption in the natural decadal cycle in the sea surface temperature (SST) after 1995, followed by a secular warming. The Arabian Sea is experiencing a regional climate-shift after 1995, which is accompanied by a five fold increase in the occurrence of "most intense cyclones". Signatures of this climate-shift are also perceptible over the adjacent landmass of India as: (1) progressively warmer winters, and (2) decreased decadal monsoon rainfall. The warmer winters are associated with a 16-fold decrease in the decadal wheat production after 1995, while the decreased decadal rainfall was accompanied by a decline of vegetation cover and increased occurrence of heat spells. We propose that in addition to the oceanic thermal inertia, the upwelling-driven cooling provided a mechanism that offset the CO(2)-driven SST increase in the Arabian Sea until 1995. PMID:19592084

  6. Current Arabian Plate Motion From Campaign GPS Measurements in Saudi Arabia: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuslmani, B.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Moore, T.

    2007-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains, and the Farasan Islands, all in south-western Saudi Arabia, have been established, for which the past and future campaign GPS measurements will provide valuable data for investigations of crustal deformations close to the plate boundaries between the Nubia, Somalian and Arabian plates. In this presentation we will show results in the form of velocity field and plate motion estimates based on data from at least three campaigns occupying the initial 32 GDMS GPS network stations, but also from a number of IGS stations in the region. Our reference frame is aligned to ITRF2005 and uses approximately 40 IGS reference frame stations located on all major tectonic plates, e.g. Nubia and Somalia, surrounding the Arabian plate. Furthermore, we apply absolute satellite and receiver antenna phase center models together with newly available GPS products from a recent global re-processing effort.

  7. Denitrification as the dominant nitrogen loss process in the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Ward, B B; Devol, A H; Rich, J J; Chang, B X; Bulow, S E; Naik, Hema; Pratihary, Anil; Jayakumar, A

    2009-09-01

    Primary production in over half of the world's oceans is limited by fixed nitrogen availability. The main loss term from the fixed nitrogen inventory is the production of dinitrogen gas (N(2)) by heterotrophic denitrification or the more recently discovered autotrophic process, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are responsible for about 35% of oceanic N(2) production and up to half of that occurs in the Arabian Sea. Although denitrification was long thought to be the only loss term, it has recently been argued that anammox alone is responsible for fixed nitrogen loss in the OMZs. Here we measure denitrification and anammox rates and quantify the abundance of denitrifying and anammox bacteria in the OMZ regions of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific and the Arabian Sea. We find that denitrification rather than anammox dominates the N(2) loss term in the Arabian Sea, the largest and most intense OMZ in the world ocean. In seven of eight experiments in the Arabian Sea denitrification is responsible for 87-99% of the total N(2) production. The dominance of denitrification is reproducible using two independent isotope incubation methods. In contrast, anammox is dominant in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific OMZ, as detected using one of the isotope incubation methods, as previously reported. The abundance of denitrifying bacteria always exceeded that of anammox bacteria by up to 7- and 19-fold in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific and Arabian Sea, respectively. Geographic and temporal variability in carbon supply may be responsible for the different contributions of denitrification and anammox in these two OMZs. The large contribution of denitrification to N(2) loss in the Arabian Sea indicates the global significance of denitrification to the oceanic nitrogen budget. PMID:19727197

  8. Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Stoeser, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    New common lead data for feldspar, whole-rock, and galena samples from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, together with data from previous work, can be divided into two main groups. Group I leads have oceanic (mantle) characteristics, whereas group II leads have incorporated a continental-crustal component of at least early Proterozoic age. The group I leads are found in rocks from the Red Sea Hills of Egypt and the western and southern parts of the Arabian Shield. Group II leads are found in rocks from the northeastern and eastern parts of the Arabian Shield, as well as from the southeastern Shield near Najran. They are also found in rocks to the south in Yemen, to the east in Oman, and to the west at Aswan, Egypt. This distribution of data suggests that the Arabian-Nubian Shield has an oceanic core flanked by rocks that have developed, at least in part, from older continental material. Two mechanisms are suggested by which this older lead component could have been incorporated into the late Proterozoic rocks, and each may have operated in different parts of the Shield. The older lead component either was derived directly from an underlying early Proterozoic basement or was incorporated from subducted pelagic sediments or sediments derived from an adjacent continent. New U-Pb zircon data indicate the presence of an early Proterozoic basement southeast of Jabal Dahul in the eastern Arabian Shield. These data, together with 2,000-Ma-old zircons from the Al Amar fault zone, verify the implication of the common lead data that at least a part of the eastern Arabian Shield has an older continental basement. Because continental margins are particularly favorable locations for development of ore deposits, these findings may have important economic implications, particularly for tin, tungsten, and molybdenum exploration. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2016-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  10. Nematode abundance at the oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Adam A.; Lambshead, P. John D.; Hawkins, Lawrence E.; Mitchell, Nicola; Levin, Lisa A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper supports the hypothesis that low oxygen does not influence deep-sea nematode abundance by investigating an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on the Oman slope in the Arabian Sea. Correlation with a number of environmental variables indicated that food quality (measured as the hydrogen index) rather than oxygen was the major predictor of nematode abundance. Nematode abundance was also positively correlated with abundance of total macrofauna, annelids, spionid polychaetes and macrofaunal tube builders. Comparison with published data showed Arabian Sea nematode abundance to be similar to that of the Porcupine Seabight and Bay of Biscay regions of the northeast Atlantic, which also receive significant quantities of phytodetritus but have no OMZ.

  11. Past, present, and future changes in marine biogeochemistry in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six, Katharina; Segschneider, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The work presented here aims at a better understanding of the Asian Monsoon system including the marine biogeochemistry in the Arabian Sea. Changes in the past as recorded in marine sediments, as simulated over the past 1000 years, and under forcing by anthropogenic CO2 emissions by numerical model simulations are investigated. The investigation is based on three columns: a sediment core taken in the Arabian Sea (core SO130-275KL taken off Pakistan), a pre-industrial model run from 850 - 1850 with the Max Planck Institute's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) including the marine and terrestrial carbon cycle and forced by solar variations and volcanic eruptions, and a continuation of this simulation to 2005 under the historical anthropogenic CO2 forcing which allows a comparison with present day climatology. In a first step we compare model results for a set of biogeochemical tracers within the water column and the sediment mixed with observations in the Arabian Sea. We further analyse correlations between Monsoon forcing (represented by zonal wind speed at 850 hPA, short wave radiation, Indian summer precipitation) and biogeochemical parameters, with particular focus on denitrification rates and fluxes to the sediment. This analysis is focused on three regions: off Somalia and off Oman for the summer monsoon, and the central Arabian Sea for the winter monsoon. For the summer monsoon, the highest correlation is found between zonal wind speed and calcite flux to the sediment off Somalia, for the winter monsoon the correlation is highest for short wave radiation in the central Arabian Sea. Time series of mixed layer depth and integrated primary production within the upper 100 m of the ocean from a CMIP5 historical experiment (1850-2005) show, at the location of the sediment core SO130-275KL, little correlation during the summer monsoon, but good correlation during the winter monsoon. As a result, the sediment core is more likely to document winter monsoon conditions

  12. Ammonia oxidation rates and nitrification in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Silvia E.; Babbin, Andrew R.; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrification rates, as well as the relationships between rates and ammonia oxidizer abundance (both archaeal and bacterial), were investigated in the Arabian Sea. Ammonia oxidation rates were measured directly using 15N-NH4+stable isotope additions in gas-impermeable, trace metal clean trilaminate bags (500 mL) at in situ temperature. Tracer incubations were performed at three stations at depths above, below, and within the oxycline of the open-ocean oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Ammonia oxidation rates were similar to previous open-ocean measurements, ranging from undetectable to 21.6 ± 0.1 nmol L-1 d-1. The highest rates at each station occurred at the primary nitrite maximum (above the OMZ), and rates were very low at depths greater than 900 m. The abundances of both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were estimated using theamoA gene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Both AOA and AOB amoA were detected above, within, and below the OMZ, although the AOA were always more abundant than the AOB, by a factor of 35-216. Nitrification rates were not directly correlated to AOA or AOB amoA abundance. These rates offer new insight into the role of nitrification in the mesopelagic zone. The abundance of AOA amoA genes at 1000 m suggests that ˜50% of the microbial biomass could be autotrophic. Additionally, the integrated nitrification rate at depth implies that nitrification could consume most of the ammonium produced by the flux of organic carbon in the mesopelagic zone.

  13. Deposition Rates and Characterization of Arabian Mineral Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthan Purakkal, J.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Engelbrecht, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne mineral dust directly and indirectly impacts on global climate, continental and marine biochemistry, human and animal health, agriculture, equipment, and visibility. Annual global dust emissions are poorly known with estimates differing by a factor of at least two. Local dust emission and deposition rates are even less quantified. Dust deposition rate is a key parameter, which helps to constrain the modeled dust budget of the atmosphere. However, dust deposition remains poorly known, due to the limited number of reliable measurements. Simulations and satellite observations suggest that coastal dusts contribute substantially to the total deposition flux into the Red Sea. Starting December 2014, deposition samplers, both the "frisbee" type, and passive samplers for individual particle scanning electron microscopy were deployed at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), along the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. Sampling periods of one month were adopted. The deposition rates range from 3 g m-2 month-1 for fair weather conditions to 23 g m-2 month-1 for high dust events. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of deposited dust samples show mineralogical compositions different from any of the parent soils, the former consisting mainly of gypsum, calcite, and smaller amounts of albite, montmorillonite, chlorite, quartz and biotite. The deposited dust samples on the other hand contain more gypsum and less quartz than the previously collected soil samples. This presentation discusses the results from XRD, chemical analysis and SEM-based individual particle analysis of the soils and the deposited dust samples. The monthly dust accumulation rates and their seasonal and spatial variability are compared with the regional model predictions. Data from this study provide an observational basis for validating the regional dust mass balance along the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain.

  14. Earliest Phanerozoic or latest Proterozoic fossils from the Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, P.; Awramik, S.M.; Morrison, K.; Hadley, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    We report here the first biologically definable fossils from pre-Saq (pre-Middle Cambrian) rocks of the Arabian Shield. They include the distinctive helically coiled tubular filaments of the oscillatorialean blue-green alga Obruchevella parva as well as two size classes of spheroidal unicells of uncertain affinity. Also present is the conical stromatolite Conophyton and unidentified stromatolites. All occur in cherty limestones of the Jubaylah Group, northern Saudi Arabia, a nonmarine to locally marine taphrogeosynclinal sequence that fills depressions along the northwest-trending Najd faults. Conophyton has heretofore been found only in strata older than about 680 Ma (except for puzzling records in modern hot springs) while Obruchevella is so far known only from rocks between about 680 and 470 Ma old. Thus it appears that the Jubaylah Group is close to the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition. The simple spheroidal nanno-fossils are not diagnostic as to age. Their relationships within what appears to be early diagenetic chert suggest a classical algal-mat association. The brecciated and microchanneled appearance of much of the fossiliferous rock, its locally dolomitic nature, and the prevalence of cryptalgalaminate favors a very shallow, locally turbulent, and perhaps episodically exposed marine or marginal marine setting. The Jubaylah Group lies unconformably beneath the Siq Sandstone (basal member of the Saq Sandstone) of medial Cambrian age, rests nonconformably on crystalline basement, and has yielded a K-Ar whole-rock age (on andesitic basalt) of ???540 Ma. To judge from the fossils, however, that age may be as much as 100 Ma or more too young. ?? 1979.

  15. Characteristics of convective boundary layer over the Arabian sea region

    SciTech Connect

    Parasnis, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) over the oceanic regions plays an important role in regulating the transport of energy and moisture upward into the atmosphere from the surface. CBL structure over the Arabian sea region has been explored using the aerological soundings at two ships viz. SHIRSHOV (12.5{degrees}N, 68{degrees}E ) and OKEAN (14.5{degrees} N, 66{degrees} E) during MONSOON-77. Conserved variable analysis of the mean data sets obtained during the period of 29 June - 16 July, 1977 revealed salient features of the CBL over these regions. The vertical gradients of saturation point parameters viz. virtual potential temperature ({Theta}{sub v}), equivalent potential temperature ({Theta}{sub e}), saturated equivalent potential temperature ({Theta}{sub es}), saturation pressure deficit (P*) and the mixing ratio (q) were used to characterize the different sublayers such as subcloud layer, cloud layer and inversion/stable layer. The mean cloud base was around 950 hPa and the subcloud layer has nearly constant {Theta}{sub v}. The moist layer was associated with unstable {Theta}{sub es} with nearly constant value of P* ({approximately} -40 hPa). This cloud layer was capped by the stable (over OKEAN). The {Theta}{sub e} minimum over OKEAN was observed at 650 hPa (50 hPa above the CBL top) indicating that at some time the convection had reached deeper levels. The {Theta}{sub e} -q diagrams showed a characteristic mixing line up through the cloud and stable layer to the top of CBL. The low level stability analysis using the {Theta}{sub e} and {Theta}{sub es} profiles indicated conditions favorable for shallow convection over OKEAN and for deep convection over SHIRSHOV. The above characteristic features could be attributed to the prevailing weather conditions at OKEAN and SHIRSHOV. The results are discussed.

  16. External rhinoplasty for the Arabian nose: a columellar scar analysis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate columellar scar problems after external rhinoplasty in the Arabian population, and to analyze the technical factors that help prevent such problems and maximize the scar cosmesis. The investigation was conducted in university and private practice settings of the author in Alexandria, Egypt. A total of 600 Arab patients who underwent external rhinoplasty were included in the study. All the patients underwent surgery using the external rhinoplasty approach, in which bilateral alar marginal incisions were connected by an inverted V-shaped transcolumellar incision. At completion of the procedure, a two-layer closure of the columellar incision was performed. At a minimum of 1 year postoperatively, the columellar scar was evaluated subjectively by means of a patient questionnaire, and objectively by clinical examination and comparison of the close-up pre- and postoperative basal view photographs. Objectively, anything less than a barely visible, leveled, thin, linear scar was considered unsatisfactory. Subjectively, 95.5% of the patients rated the scar as unnoticeable, 3% as noticeable but acceptable, and 1.5% as unacceptable. Objectively, the scar was unsatisfactory in 7% of the cases. This was because of scar widening with or without depression (5%), hyperpigmentation (1.5%), and columellar rim notching (0.5%). The use of a deep 6/0 polydioxanon (PDS) suture significantly decreased the incidence of scar widening (p < 0.005).The columellar incision can be used safely in the Arab population regardless of their thick, dark, and oily skin. Technical factors that contributed to the favorable outcome of the columellar scar included proper planning of location and design of the incision used, precise execution, meticulous multilayered closure, and good postoperative care. PMID:15666046

  17. From Traditional to Formal Education in the Lower Arabian Gulf, 1820-1971

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    This article charts the development of education in the lower Arabian Gulf from its traditional beginnings in the nineteenth century to the provision of more formal schooling and eventually a ministry of education following Britain's withdrawal from the region in 1971. In order to provide a better understanding of the complexities and relative…

  18. Selective brain cooling in Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx): a physiological mechanism for coping with aridity?

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Strauss, W Maartin; Fick, Linda G; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea; Shobrak, Mohammed; Mitchell, Duncan

    2012-11-15

    Selective brain cooling is a thermoregulatory effector proposed to conserve body water and, as such, may help artiodactyls cope with aridity. We measured brain and carotid blood temperature, using implanted data loggers, in five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in the desert of Saudi Arabia. On average, brain temperature was 0.24±0.05°C lower than carotid blood temperature for four oryx in April. Selective brain cooling was enhanced in our Arabian oryx compared with another species from the same genus (gemsbok Oryx gazella gazella) exposed to similar ambient temperatures but less aridity. Arabian oryx displayed a lower threshold (37.8±0.1°C vs 39.8±0.4°C), a higher frequency (87±6% vs 15±15%) and a higher maximum magnitude (1.2±0.2°C vs 0.5±0.3°C) of selective brain cooling than did gemsbok. The dominant male oryx displayed less selective brain cooling than did any of the other oryx, but selective brain cooling was enhanced in this oryx as conditions became hotter and drier. Enhanced selective brain cooling in Arabian oryx supports the hypothesis that selective brain cooling would bestow survival advantages for artiodactyl species inhabiting hot hyper-arid environments. PMID:22899527

  19. Tectonic controls on the stratigraphic architecture and hydrocarbons systems of the Arabian Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Grabowski, G.J. Jr.; Norton, I.O.

    1995-12-31

    Arabian Platform sediments consist of major sequences separated by tectonically controlled unconformities. These tectonic events, at the plate margins, controlled the orientation and distribution of sedimentary facies on the stable platform. Eustacy and subsidence were the principle controls on the actual facies that formed.

  20. Detection and monitoring of super sandstorm and its impacts on Arabian Sea-Remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunte, Pravin D.; M. A., Aswini

    2015-06-01

    The present study addresses an intense sandstorm event over the Persian Gulf and its transport over the Arabian Sea region and the Indian sub-continent using satellite observations and measurements. MODIS data are used to analyze the temporal variation of the dust events that occurred from 17 to 24 March 2012 with the strongest intensity on 20 March over the Arabian Sea. MODIS images are examined to provide an independent assessment of dust presence and plume location and its migration over the Arabian Sea to the Indian sub-continent. Dust enhancement and dust detection procedure is attempted to demarcate the dust event. Dust source, formation, transportation path, and dissipation is studied using source-back-tracking, surface wind, and surface pressure, wind speed and direction, geo-potential height for different pressure level, and remote sensing methods. Finally, an attempt is made to investigate the impact of super sandstorm on the Arabian Sea by studying sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a variability during the events. It is noted that sea surface temperature is decreased and chlorophyll a concentration increased during the post-event period. The present study demonstrates the use of remote sensing data and geospatial techniques in detecting and mapping of dust events and monitoring dust transport along specific regional transport pathways over land and ocean.

  1. Saharan and Arabian Dust Aerosols: A Comparative Case Study of Lidar Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Sabbah, Ismail; Sorribas, Mar; Adame, José Antonio; Cuevas, Emilio; Sharifi, Faisal Al; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a first comparative study of the Lidar Ratio (LR) values obtained for dust particles in two singular dust-influenced regions: the Canary Islands (Spain, close to the African coast in the North Atlantic Ocean), frequently affected by Saharan dust intrusions, and the Kuwait area (Arabian Peninsula) as usually influenced by Arabian dust storms. Synergetic lidar and sun-photometry measurements are carried out in two stations located in these particular regions for that purpose. Several dusty cases were observed during 2014 in both stations and, just for illustration, two specific dusty case studies have been selected and analyzed to be shown in this work. In general, mean LR values of 54 sr and 40 sr were obtained in these studies cases for Saharan and Arabian dust particles, respectively. Indeed, these results are in agreement with other studies performed for dust particles arriving from similar desert areas. In particular, the disparity found in Saharan and Arabian dust LR values can be based on the singular composition of the suspended dust aerosols over each station. These results can be useful for CALIPSO extinction retrievals, where a single LR value (40 sr) is assumed for pure dust particles independently on the dust source region.

  2. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tee, S Y; Horadagoda, N; Mogg, T D

    2012-08-01

    Flaviviruses, including Kunjin virus, are arboviruses that cause encephalomyelitis in humans and horses. This case report describes an Arabian gelding exhibiting neurological signs of flavivirus encephalomyelitis, the diagnostic investigation and confirmation of an unreported case of Kunjin virus equine encephalomyelitis in Australia. PMID:22827627

  3. Ileal impaction and jejunal enterotomy in a 4-month-old Arabian filly.

    PubMed

    Davis, Heather A; Munsterman, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    A 4-month-old Arabian filly was treated by surgical correction of an ileal impaction. The impaction was resolved through a distal jejunal enterotomy. One-year follow-up showed no post-operative complications secondary to the enterotomy. Jejunal enterotomy may be a surgical option for resolution of an ileal impaction. PMID:22753967

  4. Bioinformatics in Middle East Program Curricula--A Focus on the Arabian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucif, Samia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inclusion of bioinformatics in program curricula in the Middle East, focusing on educational institutions in the Arabian Gulf. Bioinformatics is a multidisciplinary field which has emerged in response to the need for efficient data storage and retrieval, and accurate and fast computational and…

  5. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  6. Aerosol optical depth, physical properties and radiative forcing over the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh, S. K.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Takemura, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Arabian Sea region (4° N 20° N to 50° E 78° E) has a unique weather pattern on account of the Indian monsoon and the associated winds that reverse direction seasonally. The aerosol data, collected using ship-borne and island platforms (for 8 years from 1995 to 2002) along with MODIS (onboard TERRA satellite) data (from 2000 to 2003) have been used to evolve a comprehensive characterisation of the spatial and temporal variation in the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of aerosols over the Arabian Sea. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) was found to increase with latitude between the equator and 12° N. Over the northern Arabian Sea (regions lying north of 12° N), AODs do not show significant latitudinal variations; the average aerosol optical depth for this region was 0.29±0.12 during winter monsoon season (WMS; November to March) and 0.47±0.14 during summer monsoon season (SMS; April/May to September). The corresponding Angstrom exponents were 0.7±0.12 and 0.3±0.08, respectively. The low values of the exponent during SMS indicate the dominance of large aerosols (mainly dust particles >1 µm). The latitudinal gradient in AOD in the southern Arabian Sea is larger during SMS compared to WMS.

  7. Reproductive Performance of Arabian and Thoroughbred Mares under Subtropical Conditions of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Warriach, H. M.; Memon, M. A.; Ahmad, N.; Norman, S. T.; Ghafar, A.; Arif, M.

    2014-01-01

    Breeding records of 57 Arabian and 66 Thoroughbred mares were analysed to assess their reproductive performance under the subtropical conditions of Pakistan. The Arabian mares showed significantly higher conception rates (p<0.05) in second mated oestrus and foal heat mated oestrus compared to Thoroughbred mares. However, conception rates for first lifetime mated oestrus were similar in both breeds of mares. Age at first mating (1,301±40 vs 1,500±32 days) was significantly (p<0.05) less in Arabian compared to Thoroughbred mares. Both breeds of mares showed significantly (p<0.05) higher frequencies of oestrous cycles and conception rates during the winter (October to March) compared to summer (June to August) months. Age of mares affected the conception rates, as mares at ages 3 to 7 and 8 to 12 years of ages had significantly higher conception rates (p<0.05) than those ≥18 years old in both breeds. This study demonstrates that i) reproductive performance in Arabians is better than Thoroughbred mares under the subtropical conditions of Pakistan, ii) mares remain cyclic throughout the year and iii) conception rates were higher in mares bred during winter compared to summer months. PMID:25050033

  8. Evidence for anomalous mantle upwelling beneath the Arabian Platform from travel time tomography inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Burov, Evgeniy; Cloetingh, Sierd; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir; Bushenkova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model of P-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle beneath the Arabian Peninsula, Red Sea, and surrounding regions. This model was computed with the use of travel time data from the global catalogue of the International Seismological Center (ISC) for the years of 1980-2011. The reliability of the model was tested with several synthetic tests. In the resulting seismic model, the Red Sea is clearly associated with a higher P-velocity anomaly in the upper mantle at least down to 300 km depth. This anomaly might be caused by upward deviation of the main mantle interfaces caused by extension and thinning of the lithosphere due to passive rifting. Thick lithosphere of the Arabian Platform is imaged as a high-velocity anomaly down to 200-250 km depth. Below this plate, we observe a low-velocity structure that is interpreted as a hot mantle upwelling. Based on the tomography results, we propose that this upper mantle anomaly may represent hot material that migrates westward and play a major role in the formation of Cenozoic basaltic lava fields in western Arabia. On the northeastern side of the Arabian Plate, we clearly observe a dipping high-velocity zone beneath Zagros and Makran, which is interpreted as a trace of subduction or delamination of the Arabian Plate lithosphere.

  9. Biological data from a data-deficient shark: the Arabian smoothhound Mustelus mosis (Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae).

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M; Henderson, A C; Farrell, E D; Weekes, L B

    2016-06-01

    The present study provides information on length distribution, reproductive biology and diet of Mustelus mosis based on individuals caught in waters off the eastern Arabian Peninsula. Although ageing of vertebral centra was attempted, band pairs were of low clarity and counts could not be confidently assigned. PMID:27245625

  10. Factors Influencing the Use of Learning Management System in Saudi Arabian Higher Education: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiri, Mohammed J. Sherbib; Mahmud, Rosnaini bt; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi bin Mohd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the theoretical framework underlying a research on factors that influence utilization of the Jusur Learning Management System (Jusur LMS) in Saudi Arabian public universities. Development of the theoretical framework was done based on library research approach. Initially, the existing literature relevant to…

  11. Molecular Assay and Genotyping of Hepatitis C Virus among Infected Egyptian and Saudi Arabian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Mohamed MS; Sofy, Ahmed R; Mousa, Adel A; Ahmed, Mohamed A; Alganzory, Mohamed R

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem recognized globally. HCV is a common cause of liver fibrosis that may lead to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection and genotyping among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients using different molecular techniques. HCV RNA viral load was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology. For HCV genotyping, RT-PCR hybridization fluorescence-based method and reverse hybridization line probe assay (INNO-LiPA) were used. A total of 40 anti-HCV-positive patients with chronic hepatitis C were examined for HCV RNA, genotyping, and different laboratory investigations. In the present study, HCV genotypes 4, mixed 4.1b, and 1 were detected in patients of both countries, while genotype 2 was only detected in Saudi Arabian patients. Genotyping methods for HCV showed no difference in the classification at the genotype level. With regard to HCV subtypes, INNO-LiPA assay was a reliable test in HCV genotyping for the detection of major genotypes and subtypes, while RT-PCR-based assay was a good test at the genotype level only. HCV genotype 4 was found to be the predominant genotype among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients. In conclusion, data analysis for detecting and genotyping HCV was an important factor for understanding the epidemiology and treatment strategies of HCV among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients. PMID:26512201

  12. Ileal impaction and jejunal enterotomy in a 4-month-old Arabian filly

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Heather A.; Munsterman, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    A 4-month-old Arabian filly was treated by surgical correction of an ileal impaction. The impaction was resolved through a distal jejunal enterotomy. One-year follow-up showed no post-operative complications secondary to the enterotomy. Jejunal enterotomy may be a surgical option for resolution of an ileal impaction. PMID:22753967

  13. Assessment of the Climate Vulnerabilities of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, T.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Chouinard, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula (AP), like many places around the world, is apparently witnessing the impacts (amount, patterns, and frequency of precipitation) of global warming. Precipitation over the AP is largely controlled by two main wind regimes, the winter (October to March) northerlies or northwesterlies, hereafter referred to as westerlies, and the summer (April to September) monsoonal wind regimes. The global monthly Climate Prediction Centers (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data (spatial resolution: 2.5° × 2.5°; temporal resolution: monthly; operational period: January 1979 to November 2011) was used to investigate the nature and magnitude of precipitation variations over the AP throughout 1979 - 2010. Trends in CMAP-derived precipitation patterns were examined over the winter and summer seasons throughout Periods I (1979-1995) and II (1996-2010). Reversals in precipitation patterns were observed in Periods I and II, where areas witnessing an increase in precipitation in Period I showed a decrease in precipitation throughout Period II, and vice versa for the remaining areas. Our findings suggest: (1) an increase in precipitation during Period I over the southeastern and southwestern coastal areas of AP (e.g., Muscat, Sanaa, and Jeddah) that is probably related to the intensification of the monsoons at the expense of the westerlies, (2) an increase in precipitation during Period II over the northwestern and southeastern of AP (e.g., northwestern Saudi Arabia, Empty Quarter, western and southwestern Oman, and eastern Yemen) is here attributed to intensification of the westerlies, and 3) the general similarity of annual trend patterns to the summer trend (Period I) and to winter trend (Period II) suggest that the annual trends are largely controlled by monsoonal wind regimes in Period I and by the westerlies in Period II. Outputs (i.e., precipitation) of climatic models (CCSM4.0) over the AP are being extracted (for upcoming 100 years) , downscaled

  14. Recent observed climate change over the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsarmi, Said; Washington, Richard

    2011-06-01

    We have examined trends in temperature and precipitation parameters for the Arabian Peninsula (AP) during the last 2 to 3 decades. The data set has been carefully quality controlled and checked for homogeneity. Although of low density (21 stations) and relatively short time period, a clear picture of climate change in the region has emerged. The general pattern of the AP mean annual temperature trend is one of warming, with 14 of 21 stations show statistically significant warming at 0.05 level and most at 0.001 level and only one (Seeb) showing statistically significant cooling. The highest statistically significant mean annual warming trends are found in Oman (Sur = 1.03°C decade-1) and Emirates (Dubai = 0.81°C decade-1). The season of maximum warming in mean temperature is March to April. The highest monthly mean temperature trend in the AP occurs in Sur in May (1.47°C decade-1). There is a broad statistically significant increase in mean annual maximum temperature in AP in 12 out of 21 stations, with the highest trends in central and eastern/southeastern AP. Only SW AP and the Gulf of Oman do not show warming. The highest monthly maximum temperature trend in the AP occurs in Bahrain in March (2.27°C decade-1). The second highest significant warming trends are reported in Doha in February (1.54°C decade-1). For minimum temperature, 16 out of 21 stations show statistically significant warming trends, with the highest annual trends observed in the Emirates (Dubai = 1.24°C decade-1), northwest Oman (Sohar = 1.17°C decade-1) and Qatar (Doha = 1.13°C decade-1). The highest monthly minimum temperature warming rate occurred in October. Both Dubai and Kuwait reported the highest significant rate of 2.00°C decade-1. The general mean annual diurnal temperature range trend is negative in the AP, with six out of 21 stations show statistically significant negative trends while three stations show statistically significant positive trends. Trends in mean annual

  15. The thermal state of the Arabian plate derived from heat flow measurements in Oman and Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandone, Frederique; Lucazeau, Francis; Leroy, Sylvie; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jorand, Rachel; Goutorbe, Bruno; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of the Afar plume and the rifting of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden affect the present-day thermal regime of the Arabian plate. However, the Arabian plate is a Precambrian shield covered on its eastern part by a Phanerozoic platform and its thermal regime, before the plume and rifting activities, should be similar to that of other Precambrian shields with a thick and stable lithosphere. The first heat flow measurements in the shield, in Saudi Arabia, yielded low values (35-44 mW/m2), similar to the typical shields values. Recent heat flow measurements in Jordan indicate higher values (56-66 mW/m2). As part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory), we have conducted heat flow measurements in southern and northern Oman to obtain 10 new heat flux values in the eastern Arabian plate. We also derived 20 heat flux values in Yemen and Oman by processing thermal data from oil exploration wells. The surface heat flux in these different locations is uniformly low (45 mW/m2). The heat production in samples from the Dhofar and Socotra Precambrian basement is also low (0.7 µW/m3). Differences in heat flow between the eastern (60 mW/m2) and the western (45 mW/m2) parts of Arabia reflect differences in crustal heat production as well as a higher mantle heat flux in the west. We have calculated a steady state geotherm for the Arabian platform that intersects the isentropic temperature profile at a depth of about 150 km, consistent with the seismic observations. Seismic tomography studies of the mantle beneath Arabia also show this east-west contrast. Seismic studies have shown that the lithosphere is rather thin, 100 km or less below the shield and 150 km below the platform. The lithospheric thickness for the Arabian plate is 150 km, and the progressive thinning near the Red Sea, caused by the thermal erosion of the plume material, is too recent to be detected at the surface. The Afar plume mostly affects the base of the Arabian lithosphere along

  16. Hypoxia in the central Arabian Gulf Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar during summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ansari, Ebrahim M. A. S.; Rowe, G.; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.; Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Maslamani, I.; Al-Yafei, M. A.; Al-Shaikh, I.; Upstill-Goddard, R.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most fascinating and unexpected discoveries during the Qatar University Marine Expeditions to the marine Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar in 2000-2001, was the detection of a hypoxic water layer in the central region of the Arabian Gulf in waters deeper than 50 m. Hypoxia was defined as the region where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 mg L-1. This article presents the discovery of hypoxia in the Arabian Gulf, based on samples collected (mainly during evening or night time) from vertical profiles along transects of the EEZ of Qatar and analyzed for physico-chemical properties, nutrients and chlorophyll-a. Hypoxia occurred in the summer months caused by an interaction between physical stratification of the water column that prevents oxygen replenishment, and biological respiration that consumes oxygen. Strong south-westerly winds (the SW monsoon) from June to September drive the relatively low-salinity nutrient-rich surface water from the Arabian Sea/Arabian Gulf (Sea of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz into the central-Arabian Gulf, and this surface current penetration fertilizes the deep central-Arabian Gulf during the summer period. A strong seasonal pycnocline is formed between deeper waters at an ambient temperature of 20.9 °C and surface waters at 31.9 °C. This prevents the mixing of supersaturated O2 (>100-130%) water from the upper layer that would otherwise raise concentrations of dissolved oxygen below the thermocline, thus resulting in deep water hypoxia, i.e. dissolved oxygen levels of less than 0.86 ml L-1 at 17.3% saturation. These are the lowest values ever recorded for the Arabian Gulf. The calculated area of hypoxia is around 7220 square kilometers, and occurs in a layer about ≥15 m thick above the sea floor which extends toward the deep part of the Qatar Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The biological consequences of this hypoxia on the sea floor are yet to be investigated.

  17. Comparison of Arabian plate motion using satellite laser ranging and GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, A. O.; Fernandes, R. M.; Schillak, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Two different space based observations have been used to estimate the velocity of the Arabian plate motion. The first set of observations is using the Saudi Arabia Laser Ranging Observatory (SALRO - 7832), which is situated in the middle of Arabian tectonic plate. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) observations of about 20 global SLR stations to LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites collected for 14 years (1996-2009) have been used to determine Riyadh SLR station positions. The NASA Godard's GEODYN-II orbital software has been used to perform orbit determination of these two satellites. The velocities of SALRO were computed in reference to the ITRF2008 terrestrial reference frame. The second set of observations consists of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations of 15 GPS stations acquired in campaign and continuous mode for the period 2003 to 2009 (having at least 3 years' data span). Multi-year processing of stations having at least 3 years' time span and excluding stations within the deformation zone of Red Sea Ridge, such that they are distributed evenly within the rigid (interior) part of the Arabian plate. The Bernese 5.0/ADNEQ2 and GIPSY/OASIS 6.1 software packages were used to compute the daily solutions of coordinate time series applying the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) strategy. The velocities were estimated with respect to ITRF2008 and four estimates of the angular velocities for the Arabian plate have been computed using different datasets: independent Bernese and GIPSY solutions, combination of the GPS solutions only, and including the SLR solution. We present direct comparison between all different solutions showing that the Arabian tectonic plate motion determined from Riyadh SLR data and GPS data are in a good agreement with recent estimates, in particular with the global geodetic model GEODVEL and the geophysical MORVEL model.

  18. Isostatic Model and Isostatic Gravity Anomalies of the Arabian Plate and Surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2016-04-01

    The isostatic modeling represents one of the most useful "geological" reduction methods of the gravity field. With the isostatic correction, it is possible to remove a significant part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Although there exist several isostatic compensation schemes, it is usually supposed that a choice of the model is not an important factor to first order, since the total weight of compensating masses remains the same. We compare two alternative models for the Arabian plate and surrounding area. The Airy model gives very significant regional isostatic anomalies, which cannot be explained by the upper crust structure or disturbances of the isostatic equilibrium. Also, the predicted "isostatic" Moho is very different from existing seismic observations. The second isostatic model includes the Moho, which is based on seismic determinations. Additional compensation is provided by density variations within the lithosphere (chiefly in the upper mantle). According to this model, the upper mantle under the Arabian Shield is less dense than under the Platform. In the Arabian platform, the maximum density coincides with the Rub' al Khali, one of the richest oil basin in the world. This finding agrees with previous studies, showing that such basins are often underlain by dense mantle, possibly related to an eclogite layer that has caused their subsidence. The mantle density variations might be also a result of variations of the lithosphere thickness. With the combined isostatic model, it is possible to minimize regional anomalies over the Arabian plate. The residual local anomalies correspond well to tectonic structure of the plate. Still very significant anomalies, showing isostatic disturbances of the lithosphere, are associated with the Zagros fold belt, the collision zone of the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

  19. Denitrification in the Arabian Sea: A 3D ecosystem modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Thomas R.; Ryabchenko, Vladimir A.; Fasham, Michael J. R.; Gorchakov, Victor A.

    2007-12-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecosystem model was used to examine the factors determining the spatio-temporal distribution of denitrification in the Arabian Sea. The ecosystem model includes carbon and nitrogen as currencies, cycling of organic matter via detritus and dissolved organic matter, and both remineralization and denitrification as sinks for material exported below the euphotic zone. Model results captured the marked seasonality in plankton dynamics of the region, with characteristic blooms of chlorophyll in the coastal upwelling regions and central Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon, and also in the northern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon as the mixed layer shoals. Predicted denitrification was 26.2 Tg N yr -1,the greatest seasonal contribution being during the northeast monsoon when primary production is co-located with the zone of anoxia. Detritus was the primary organic substrate consumed in denitrification (97%), with a small (3%) contribution by dissolved organic matter. Denitrification in the oxygen minimum zone was predicted to be fuelled almost entirely by organic matter supplied by particles sinking vertically from the euphotic zone above (0.73 mmol N m -2 d -1) rather than from lateral transport of organic matter from elsewhere in the Arabian Sea (less than 0.01 mmol N m -2 d -1). Analysis of the carbon budget in the zone of denitrification (north of 10°N and east of 55°E) indicates that the modelled vertical export flux of detritus, which is similar in magnitude to estimates from field data based on the 234Th method, is sufficient to account for measured bacterial production below the euphotic zone in the Arabian Sea.

  20. Nd, Pb, Sr, and O isotopic characterization of Saudi Arabian Shield terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, D.B.; Frost, C.D.

    2006-01-01

    New Nd, Sr and O isotopic data for granitoid rocks of the Saudi Arabian Shield are presented together with published Nd, Pb, Sr and O isotopic data and all available geologic and geochronologic information to re-evaluate the terranes defined for the Saudi Arabian part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Three groups of terranes are identified: 1) the western arc terranes, 2) the eastern arc terranes, and 3) the Khida terrane. The Khida terrane is the only terrane composed of pre-Neoproterozoic continental crust. The western arc terranes are of oceanic arc affinity, and have the least radiogenic Pb and Sr and most radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions and some of the lowest ??18O values of any rocks of the Saudi Arabian Shield. Although some previous studies have characterized the eastern arc terranes as of continental affinity, this study shows that they too are composed of Neoproterozoic oceanic arcs, although their sources have slightly elevated 208Pb/204Pb, Nd, Sri, and ??18O values compared to the western arc terranes. These data suggest that either the isotopic composition of the mantle source for the western arc terranes is more depleted than that of the eastern arc terranes or the eastern arc terranes have been mixed with a small amount of cratonic source material, or both. We further elaborate on the Hulayfah-Ad Dafinah fault zone as a major boundary within the Saudi Arabian portion of the East African Orogen. With further study, its northern extension may be shown to pass through what has been defined as the Hail terrane, and its southern extension appears to lie under cover east of the Tathlith-Malahah terrane and extend into Yemen. It may represent the collision zone between East and West Gondwana, and at the very least it is an important suture between groups of arc terranes of contrasting isotopic composition caught between two converging continents.

  1. Vanadium and nickel content of Nowruz spill tar flakes on the Saudi Arabian coastline and their probable environmental impact

    SciTech Connect

    Sadiq, M.; Zaidi, T.H.

    1984-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf is experiencing the worst oil spill in its history. The spill originates from two war damaged Iranian oil wells in the Nowruz oil field. Much of the oil is entering Saudi Arabian waters and washes ashore in the form of tar like flakes. In late March and early April 1983, fish, snake, turtle, and bird kills of different magnitude were noted along the Saudi Arabian coastline. In the early days of the spill Saudi Arabian authorities suspected sources other than the Nowruz spill to be causing the kills. Research was initiated to identify the origin of tar like flakes, their environmental impact and the cause of fish, snake, turtle and bird kills. This paper discusses some of the results of this research.

  2. Maternal phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation among Arabian horse populations using whole mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal inheritance is an essential point in Arabian horse population genetics and strains classification. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing is a highly informative tool to investigate maternal lineages. We sequenced the whole mtDNA D-loop of 251 Arabian horses to study the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Arabian populations and to examine the traditional strain classification system that depends on maternal family lines using native Arabian horses from the Middle East. Results The variability in the upstream region of the D-loop revealed additional differences among the haplotypes that had identical sequences in the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). While the American-Arabians showed relatively low diversity, the Syrian population was the most variable and contained a very rare and old haplogroup. The Middle Eastern horses had major genetic contributions to the Western horses and there was no clear pattern of differentiation among all tested populations. Our results also showed that several individuals from different strains shared a single haplotype, and individuals from a single strain were represented in clearly separated haplogroups. Conclusions The whole mtDNA D-loop sequence was more powerful for analysis of the maternal genetic diversity in the Arabian horses than using just the HVR1. Native populations from the Middle East, such as Syrians, could be suggested as a hot spot of genetic diversity and may help in understanding the evolution history of the Arabian horse breed. Most importantly, there was no evidence that the Arabian horse breed has clear subdivisions depending on the traditional maternal based strain classification system. PMID:24034565

  3. Suspected myofibrillar myopathy in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    VALBERG, S. J.; McKENZIE, E. C.; EYRICH, L. V.; SHIVERS, J.; BARNES, N. E.; FINNO, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Reasons for performing study Although exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in Arabian horses, there are no dedicated studies describing histopathological characteristics of muscle from Arabian horses with ER. Objectives To prospectively identify distinctive histopathological features of muscle from Arabian endurance horses with a history of ER (pro-ER) and to retrospectively determine their prevalence in archived samples from Arabian horses with exertional myopathies (retro-ER). Study design Prospective and retrospective histopathological description. Methods Middle gluteal muscle biopsies obtained from Arabian controls (n = 14), pro-ER (n = 13) as well as archived retro-ER (n = 25) muscle samples previously classified with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy (15/25), recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (7/25) and no pathology (3/25) were scored for histopathology and immunohistochemical staining of cytoskeletal proteins. Glutaraldehyde-fixed samples (2 pro-ER, one control) were processed for electron microscopy. Pro-ER and retro-ER groups were compared with controls using Mann–Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Results Centrally located myonuclei in mature myofibres were found in significantly more (P<0.05) pro-ER (12/13) and retro-ER (21/25) horses than controls (4/14). Degenerating myofibres were not evident in any biopsies. Retro-ER horses had amylase-resistant polysaccharide (6/25, P<0.05) and higher scores for cytoplasmic glycogen, rimmed vacuoles and rod-like bodies. A few control horses (3/14) and significantly (P<0.05) more pro-ER (12/13) and retro-ER (18/25) horses had disrupted myofibrillar alignment and large desmin and αβ-crystallin positive cytoplasmic aggregates. Prominent Z-disc degeneration and focal myofibrillar disruption with regional accumulation of β-glycogen particles were identified on electron microscopy of the 2 pro-ER samples. Conclusions In a subset of Arabian horses with intermittent episodes of exertional

  4. Origin and fate of the secondary nitrite maximum in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, P.; Jensen, M. M.; Kock, A.; Lettmann, K. A.; Plancherel, Y.; Lavik, G.; Bange, H. W.; Kuypers, M. M. M.

    2011-06-01

    The Arabian Sea harbours one of the three major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world's oceans, and it alone is estimated to account for ~10-20 % of global oceanic nitrogen (N) loss. While actual rate measurements have been few, the consistently high accumulation of nitrite (NO2-) coinciding with suboxic conditions in the central-northeastern part of the Arabian Sea has led to the general belief that this is the region where active N-loss takes place. Most subsequent field studies on N-loss have thus been drawn almost exclusively to the central-NE. However, a recent study measured only low to undetectable N-loss activities in this region, compared to orders of magnitude higher rates measured towards the Omani Shelf where little NO2- accumulated (Jensen et al., 2011). In this paper, we further explore this discrepancy by comparing the NO2--producing and consuming processes, and examining the relationship between the overall NO2- balance and active N-loss in the Arabian Sea. Based on a combination of 15N-incubation experiments, functional gene expression analyses, nutrient profiling and flux modeling, our results showed that NO2- accumulated in the central-NE Arabian Sea due to a net production via primarily active nitrate (NO3-) reduction and to a certain extent ammonia oxidation. Meanwhile, NO2- consumption via anammox, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction to ammonium (NH4+) were hardly detectable in this region, though some loss to NO2- oxidation was predicted from modeled NO3- changes. No significant correlation was found between NO2- and N-loss rates (p>0.05). This discrepancy between NO2- accumulation and lack of active N-loss in the central-NE Arabian Sea is best explained by the deficiency of labile organic matter that is directly needed for further NO2- reduction to N2O, N2 and NH4+, and indirectly for the remineralized NH4+ required by anammox. Altogether, our data do not support the long-held view that NO2- accumulation is a

  5. Origin and fate of the secondary nitrite maximum in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, P.; Jensen, M. M.; Kock, A.; Lettmann, K. A.; Plancherel, Y.; Lavik, G.; Bange, H. W.; Kuypers, M. M. M.

    2011-03-01

    The Arabian Sea harbours one of the three major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world's oceans, and it alone is estimated to account for ~10-20% of global oceanic nitrogen (N) loss. While actual rate measurements have been few, the consistently high accumulation of nitrite (NO2-) coinciding with suboxic conditions in the central-northeastern part of the Arabian Sea has led to the general belief that this is the region where active N-loss takes place. Most subsequent field studies on N-loss have thus been drawn almost exclusively to the central-NE. However, a recent study measured only low to undetectable N-loss activities in this region, compared to orders of magnitude higher rates measured towards the Omani shelf where little NO2- accumulated (Jensen et al., 2011). In this paper, we further explore this discrepancy by comparing the NO2- producing and consuming processes, and examining the relationship between the overall NO2- balance and active N-loss in the Arabian Sea. Based on a combination of 15N-incubation experiments, functional gene expression analyses, nutrient profiling and flux modeling, our results showed that NO2- accumulated in the Central-NE Arabian Sea due to a net production via primarily active nitrate (NO3-) reduction and to a certain extent ammonia oxidation. Meanwhile, NO2- consumption via anammox, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction to ammonium (NH4+) were hardly detectable in this region, though some loss to NO2- oxidation was predicted from modeled NO3- changes. No significant correlation was found between NO2- and N-loss rates (p>0.05). This discrepancy between NO2- accumulation and lack of active N-loss in the Central-NE Arabian Sea is best explained by the deficiency of organic matter that is directly needed for further NO2- reduction to N2O, N2 and NH4+, and indirectly for the remineralized NH4+ required by anammox. Altogether, our data do not support the long-held view that NO2- accumulation is a direct

  6. Late quaternary time series of Arabian Sea productivity: Global and regional signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens, Steven C.; Prell, W. L.; Murray, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Modern annual floral and faunal production in the northwest Arabian Sea derives primarily from upwelling induced by strong southwest winds during June, July, and August. Indian Ocean summer monsoon winds are, in turn, driven by differential heating between the Asian continent and the Indian ocean to the south. This differential heating produces a strong pressure gradient resulting in southwest monsoon winds and both coastal and divergent upwelling off the Arabian Peninsula. Over geologic time scales (10(exp 4) to 10(exp 6) years), monsoon wind strength is sensitive to changes in boundary conditions which influence this pressure gradient. Important boundary conditions include the seasonal distribution of solar radiation, global ice volume, Indian Ocean sea surface temperature, and the elevation and albedo of the Asian continent. To the extent that these factors influence monsoon wind strength, they also influence upwelling and productivity. In addition, however, productivity associated with upwelling can be decoupled from the strength of the summer monsoon winds via ocean mechanisms which serve to inhibit or enhance the nutrient supply in the intermediate waters of the Indian Ocean, the source for upwelled waters in the Arabian Sea. To differentiate productivity associated with wind-induced upwelling from that associated with other components of the system such as nutrient sequestering in glacial-age deep waters, we employ a strategy which monitors independent components of the oceanic and atmospheric subsystems. Using sediment records from the Owen Ridge, northwest Arabian Sea, we monitor the strength of upwelling and productivity using two independent indicators, percent G. bulloides and opal accumulation. We monitor the strength of southwest monsoon winds by measuring the grain-size of lithogenic dust particles blown into the Arabian Sea from the surrounding deserts of the Somali and Arabian Peninsulas. Our current hypothesis is that the variability associated

  7. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity. PMID:23664016

  8. Depositional history of polychlorinated biphenyls in a dated sediment core from the northwestern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Gevao, Bondi; Aba, Abdul Aziz; Al-Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Uddin, Saif

    2012-05-01

    The vertical distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in a dated sediment core from the northwestern Arabian Gulf to reconstruct their depositional history. The downcore profile showed an increase in concentrations from depth to a subsurface maximum of approximately 1,500 pg g(-1) in approximately 1991, followed by an exponential decrease to the sediment-water interface. Current concentrations of ΣPCBs are similar to levels predating the episodic input of PCBs in sediments dated coincident with the 1991 Arabian Gulf war. The spike in ΣPCB concentrations during the war may be related to the destruction of PCB-laden transformers during the conflict. The 15-fold decrease in ΣPCB concentrations from the period of maximum flux to prewar levels suggests that the factors delivering PCBs to sediments at present are similar to those that that existed before the war-related inputs. PMID:22218707

  9. Sequential stratigraphy of Jurassic and Cretaceous in the central Saudi Arabian platform

    SciTech Connect

    Le Nindre, Y.M.; Manivit, J.; Vaslet, D. ); Manivit, H. Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris )

    1991-08-01

    Depositional sequences and system tracts in the Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Central Saudi Arabian platform have been established on the basis of precise lithofacies analysis, detailed sedimentologic interpretation, and accurate age determination by ammonites, nautoli, brachipods, echinoids, and nannoflora. A eustatic depositional model integrated with accepted worldwide sequential stratigraphic data is proposed, and appears to correlate fairly well with the 1988 global sea level chart by Haq and others, particularly for the Lower and Middle Jurassic and the Middle and Upper Cretaceous. Ages determined by accurate biostratigraphic data enable time correlations to be made with third-order eustatic cycles from Vail's 1988 global chart. Eustatic changes therefore appear to be the main factors of sedimentary control during the Jurassic and Cretaceous on the Arabian platform.

  10. Localized hyper saline waters in Arabian Gulf from desalination activity--an example from South Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Saif; Al Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Khabbaz, Ahmed

    2011-10-01

    Desalination is the only means of reliable water supply in most of the Arabian Gulf States including Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates. Huge desalination capacities are installed on the western margin of the Arabian Gulf contributing to increased salinity off the coast. This paper presents long term salinity observation made near outfall of Az Zour Power and Desalination Plant in South Kuwait. The salinity values peak at around 50 ppt at observation station located in open gulf around 5 km from the outfall of the power and desalination plant. The observation highlights the stress on the local marine environment continued incremental salinity can impair the marine biodiversity in the area. The study suggests that a stringent post construction and operational offshore water quality assessment can help in early detection of potentially complex environmental issues. PMID:21213041

  11. Geochemical evidence for anoxic deep water in the Arabian Sea during the last glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, A.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Sarin, M.M. )

    1993-03-01

    Various paleoceanographic studies have indicated that the deep ocean was probably depleted in dissolved oxygen during the last glacial period ([approximately]18 kyr B.P.; [delta][sup 18]O, stage 2) compared to present time. However, direct evidence of low oxygen content in the deep waters has been lacking. Here, the authors report geochemical evidence of near anoxic conditions in the deep Arabian Sea during the entire last glacial cycle ([delta][sup 18]O; stages 2, 3, and 4). Anoxia is inferred from the concomitant enrichment of organic carbon and authigenic uranium in the glacial sections of a core from the deep eastern Arabian Sea. The anoxic conditions during the last glacial period, probably caused by a change in deep water circulation, evidently enhanced preservation of organic matter and simultaneous removal of uranium from seawater. 57 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Observational study of upper ocean cooling due to Phet super cyclone in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muni Krishna, K.

    2016-05-01

    Phet super cyclone (31 May-7 June 2010) was the most intense and also the rarest of the rare track in Arabian Sea as per the recorded history during 1877-2009. The present study focuses on the ocean physical responses to Phet cyclone using satellite and Argo observations. The sea surface temperature is decreased to 6 °C with an approximately 350 km long and 100 km width area in the Arabian Sea after the cyclone passage. The translation speed of cyclone is 3.86 m/s, the mixed layer is 79 m, and thermocline displacement is 13 m at the cooling area. With the relationship of wind stress curl and Ekman pumping velocity (EPV), the author found that the speed of EPV was increased after the passage of cyclone. So the extent of the SST drop was probably due to the moving speed of cyclone and the depth of the mixed layer.

  13. Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

    2014-09-17

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles. PMID:25069622

  14. The phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon of 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, John C.; Mcclain, Charles R.; Luther, Mark E.; Hay, William W.

    1991-01-01

    The present study investigates the biological variability of the northwestern Arabian Sea during the 1979 southwest monsoon by the synthesis of satellite ocean color remote sensing with an analysis of in situ hydrographic and meteorological data sets and the results of wind-driven modeling of upper-ocean circulation. The phytoplankton bloom peaked during August-September, extended from the Oman coast to about 65 deg E, and lagged behind the development of open-sea upwelling by at least 1 mo. The pigment distributions, hydrographic data, and model results all suggest that the boom was driven by spatially distinct upward nutrient fluxes to the euphotic zone forced by the physical processes of coastal upwelling and offshore Ekman pumping. Coastal upwelling was evident from May through September, yielded the most extreme concentrations of phytoplankton biomass, and, along the Arabian coast, was limited to the continental shelf in the promotion of high concentrations of phytoplankton.

  15. An overview of historical harmful algae blooms outbreaks in the Arabian Seas.

    PubMed

    Al Shehhi, Maryam R; Gherboudj, Imen; Ghedira, Hosni

    2014-09-15

    Harmful algae blooms (HABs), often composed of oceanic plants called phytoplankton, are potentially harmful to the marine life, water quality, human health, and desalination plants, a chief source of potable water in the Arabian Gulf. The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the frequency of HAB outbreaks in the Arabian Seas. This increase is mainly caused by the unprecedented economic growth in the region. The increased human activities in the region have added more stress to the marine environment and contributed to the changes observed in the properties of the marine ecosystem: high temperature and salinity, high evaporation rates, limited freshwater inflow, shallow nature, pollution. However, very few studies that cover the HAB outbreaks, causes, impacts and biological characteristics over the region have been published. This work presents a comprehensive overview of historical HAB outbreaks recorded in the region, and investigate their causes and impact, and seasonal variability. PMID:25038981

  16. Pathogenic micro-organisms and helminths in sewage products, Arabian Gulf, country of Bahrain.

    PubMed Central

    Amin, O M

    1988-01-01

    Fecal and sludge samples from the Arabian Gulf country of Bahrain contained poliomyelitis and coxackie viruses, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella sonni, fecal streptococci, Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana eggs, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Sludge produced in the central sewage treatment plant is used for agricultural purposes and poses a threat to public health. Recommendations to reduce the potential health hazards are made. PMID:3341504

  17. Deglacial temperature patterns in the Arabian Sea and mechanisms for Indian monsoon failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, J. E.; Pausata, F. S. R.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Both paleoclimate data and climate model simulations demonstrate that the Indian monsoon system responds to remote coolings in the North Atlantic. The textbook examples are the stadial events associated with the last deglaciation — the Younger Dryas and Heinrich Stadial 1 — when the monsoon weakened dramatically and caused drying throughout the Indian Ocean rim. The mechanism by which the North Atlantic influences the monsoon system is not completely clear: locally cool SSTs, increases in continental albedo, and southward migration of the intertropical convergence zone have all been raised as possibilities. Here we synthesize biomarker and foraminiferal estimates of temperature to study the evolution of the Arabian Sea water column during the deglaciation and test hypotheses of monsoon failure during stadials. Alkenone and Mg/Ca data clearly indicate that the Arabian Sea cools during the YD and H1, although H1 cooling is partly obscured by the overall warming trend associated with orbital forcing and rising greenhouse gases. In contrast, TEX86 data record warmings during the YD and H1. The stark difference between the TEX86 response and the alkenone and foraminiferal data, as well as comparison with climate model simulations, indicates that TEX86 is most likely acting as a subsurface temperature proxy in the Arabian Sea over these timescales. Taken together, the paleoclimate data describe a pattern of surface cooling and subsurface warming in response to North Atlantic cooling. This oceanographic response is in excellent agreement with both timeslice and transient model simulations spanning the last deglaciation, and strongly supports the hypothesis that locally cool SSTs are a requisite for monsoon failure. Furthermore, subsurface warming causes a destratification of the Arabian Sea water column and provides a mechanism for previously observed reductions in productivity during stadial events.

  18. Moisture transport over the Arabian Sea associated with summer rainfall over Pakistan in 1994 and 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Kalim; Gao, Shouting

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to elucidate the critical role of moisture transport affecting monsoon activity in two contrasting summers over the Arabian Sea during the years 1994, a relatively wet year, and 2002, a relatively dry year. A comprehensive diagnostic evaluation and comparisons of the moisture fields were conducted; we focused on the precipitation and evaporation as well as the moisture transport and its divergence or convergence in the atmosphere. Monthly mean reanalysis data were obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP-I and -II). A detailed evaluation of the moisture budgets over Pakistan during these two years was made by calculating the latent energy flux at the surface ( E-P) from the divergence of the total moisture transport. Our results confirm the moisture supply over the Arabian Sea to be the major source of rainfall in Pakistan and neighboring regions. In 1994, Pakistan received more rainfall compared to 2002 during the summer monsoon. Moisture flow deepens and strengthens over Arabian Sea during the peak summer monsoon months of July and August. Our analysis shows that vertically integrated moisture transport flux have a significant role in supplying moisture to the convective centers over Pakistan and neighboring regions from the divergent regions of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Moreover, in 1994, a deeper vertically integrated moisture convergence progression occurred over Pakistan compared to that in 2002. Perhaps that deeper convergence resulted in a more intense moisture depression over Pakistan and also caused more rainfall in 1994 during the summer monsoon. Finally, from the water budget analysis, it has been surmised that the water budget was larger in 1994 than in 2002 during the summer monsoon.

  19. Westward movement of eddies into the Gulf of Aden from the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Saafani, M. A.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Shankar, D.; Aparna, M.; Kurian, J.; Durand, F.; Vinayachandran, P. N.

    2007-11-01

    Sea level anomalies (SLA) from satellite altimetry (1993-2003) reveal the westward movement of mesoscale eddies in the Gulf of Aden. Inside the gulf the eddies move at a speed of ˜6.0-8.5 cm s-1, comparable to the first-mode baroclinic Rossby wave speed of 7.2 cm s-1. We show that the eddies, which enter the gulf from the Arabian Sea, owe their existence to more than one mechanism. Local Ekman pumping in the western Arabian Sea is important during the summer monsoon (June-September). In May and during the latter half of the summer monsoon (late July to September) and the fall intermonsoon (October), the dominant mechanism is the generation of eddies by the instabilities in the Somali Current and the large eddies associated with it (Great Whirl and Socotra eddy). During the winter monsoon (November-April) the dominant mechanism involves the westward propagating Rossby waves generated either in the Arabian Sea by Ekman pumping or along the west coast of India by poleward propagating Kelvin waves. These Rossby waves from the Arabian Sea propagate slower on entering the gulf because of a shallower thermocline in the gulf. Analysis shows that the SLA signal consists of low (annual and subannual) and high (˜100-180 d) frequencies. The low-frequency signal (mainly annual) shows a discontinuity between 52°E and 60°E. Though the high-frequency signal is seen at all longitudes, a wavelet analysis shows that it was significant only west of 60°E. An energy analysis, based on model simulations, suggests that barotropic instabilities are important during the entire year and that baroclinic instabilities are also important during the summer monsoon.

  20. The history of the Arabian platform evolution in the Late Permian and Triassic

    SciTech Connect

    Bebeshev, I.I.

    1995-03-01

    On the basis of comprehensive investigations of the Upper Permian and Triassic sequences of the Arabian platform, three stages were recognized, corresponding to distinct time intervals. The first stage corresponds to the Latest Permian-Early Triassic, the second - to the Early-Middle Triassic, the third - to the Late Triassic. Special maps were plotted for the second and third stages, reflecting major paleogeographic and paleotectonic events. An effort was made to test the oil potential of the sequences.

  1. Role of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes in juvenile idiopathic epilepsy in Arabian foals.

    PubMed

    Lichter-Peled, Anat; Polani, Sagi; Stanyon, Roscoe; Rocchi, Mariano; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila

    2013-04-01

    Juvenile idiopathic epilepsy (JIE) in Arabian foals resembles benign-familial neonatal convulsion (BFNC) syndrome, a rare idiopathic epilepsy of new-born humans. BFNC syndrome exhibits genetic heterogeneity, as has been hypothesised to occur in Arabian foals, and is known to be caused by mutations in the voltage-gated potassium channel subunit KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes. The close phenotypic characteristics of both Arabian foals and children suggest these epileptic syndromes are caused by the same genetic disorder. In horses, the KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes are located on the terminal region of chromosomes 22 and 9, respectively, essentially homologous to their location on chromosomes 20q13.3 and 8q24 in humans. Gene trees for the KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes between horses and other mammals, particularly humans and mice, were constructed and compared to widely accepted mammalian phylogenetic trees. The KCNQ2 gene tree exhibited close clustering between horses and humans, relative to horses and mice, in contrast to the evolutionary trees of other mammals. Distance values between the horse and human groups were lower as opposed to those found between the horse and mouse groups. The similarity between the horse and the human, especially for the KCNQ2 gene, where the majority of mutations causing BFNC have been found, supports the hypothesis of similar heritable and genetic patterns of the disease in both species and suggests that contrary to the classic mouse-model concept, humans may be a more suitable model for the study of JIE in Arabian foals. PMID:23182620

  2. Physical processes affecting availability of dissolved silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, David K.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    A passive tracer to represent dissolved silicate concentrations, with biologically realistic uptake kinetics, is successfully incorporated into a three-dimensional, eddy-resolving, ocean circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Hypotheses are tested to evaluate physical processes which potentially affect the availability of silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea. An alternative mechanism is offered to the idea that open ocean upwelling is primarily responsible for the high, vertical nutrient flux and consequent large-scale phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. Model results show that dissolved silicate in surface waters available for uptake by diatoms is primarily influenced by the intensity of nearshore upwelling from soutwest monsoonal wind forcing and by the offshore advective transport of surface waters. The upwelling, which in the model occurs within 200 +/- 50 km of the coast, appears to be a result of a combination of coastal upwelling, Elkman pumping, and divergence of the coastal flow as it turns offshore. Localized intensifications of silicate concentrations appear to be hydrodynamically driven and geographically correlated to coastal topographic features. The absence of diatoms in sediments of the eastern Arabian Basin is consistent with modeled distributional patterns of dissolved silicate resulting from limited westward advection of upwelled coastal waters from the western continental margin of India and rapid uptake of available silicate by diatoms. Concentrations of modeled silicate become sufficiently low to become unavailable for diatom production in the eastern Arabian Sea, a region between 61 deg E and 70 deg E at 8 deg N on the south, with the east and west boundaries converging on the north at approximately 67 deg E, 20 deg N.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of Arabian-Iranian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Klemme, H.D.; Coury, A.B.; Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Undiscovered, conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin are estimated at probability levels of 95%, 5%, and statistical mean. Estimates for oil are 72, 337, and 174 billion bbl; for gas, they are 299, 1, 792, and 849 tcf. Petroleum occurrences can be accounted for in five definitive geologic settings of plays. Undiscovered resource potential is assessed, assuming that new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays. The five plays listed in sequence are: (1) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (2) Lower and middle Cretaceous sandstone, (3) Lower and middle Cretaceous limestone, (4) Jurassic, and (5) Permian. The Permian play is located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extends northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub'al Khali in Saudi Arabia. It accounts for more than four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil. The Lower and middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the heat of the Arabian Gulf, with significant potential extending northwest into Iraq. This play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil. The Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros foldbelt of Iran and Iraq, and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Klemme, H.D.; Coury, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels); 72,337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub'al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil. 5 references, 16 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Sea level rise within the west of Arabian Gulf using tide gauge and continuous GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhan, M. E.; Alothman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Arabian Gulf is connected to Indian Ocean and located in the south-west of the Zagros Trust Belt. To investigate sea level variations within the west of Arabian Gulf, monthly means of sea level at 13 tide gauges along the coast of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, available in the database of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), are studied. We analyzed individually the monthly means at each station, and estimated secular sea level rate by a robust linear trend fitting. We computed the average relative sea level rise rate of 1.96 ± 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf based on 4 stations spanning longer than 19 years. Vertical land motions are included into the relative sea level measurements at the tide gauges. Therefore sea level rates at the stations are corrected for vertical land motions using the ICE-5G v1.2 VM4 Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model then we found the average sea level rise rate of 2.27 mm/yr. Bahrain International GPS Service (IGS) GPS station, which is close to the Mina Sulman tide gauge station in Bahrain, is the only continuous GPS station accessible in the region. The weekly GPS time series of vertical component at Bahrain IGS-GPS station referring to the ITRF97 from 1999.2 to 2008.6 are downloaded from http://www-gps.mit.edu/~tah/. We fitted a linear trend with an annual signal and one break to the GPS vertical time series and found a vertical land motion rate of 0.48 ± 0.11 mm/yr. Assuming the vertical rate at Bahrain IGS-GPS station represents the vertical rate at each of the other tide gauge stations studied here in the region, we computed average sea level rise rate of 2.44 ± 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf.

  6. Southwest Monsoon Circulation and Environments of Recent Planktonic Foraminifera in the Northwestern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, John C.; McClain, Charles R.; Anderson, David M.; Prell, Warren L.; Hay, William W.

    1992-12-01

    Digital hydrographic data combined with satellite thermal infrared and visible band remote sensing provide a synoptic climatological view of the shallow planktonic environment. This paper uses wind, hydrographic, and ocean remote sensing data to examine southwest monsoon controls on the foraminiferal faunal composition of Recent seafloor sediments of the northwestern Arabian Sea. Ekman pumping resulting in open-ocean upwelling and coastal upwelling create two distinctly different mixed layer plankton environments in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon. Open-sea upwelling to the northwest of the mean July position of the Findlater Jet axis yields a mixed layer environment with temperatures of less than 25°C to about 26.5°C, phytoplankton pigment concentrations between 1.5 and 5.0 mg/m³, and mixed layer depths less than 50 m. Convergence in the Ekman layer in the central Arabian Sea drives the formation of a mixed layer that is greater than 50 m thick, warmer than about 26.5°C, and has phytoplankton pigment concentrations generally below 2.0 mg/m³. Coastal upwelling creates an extremely eutrophic plankton environment that persists over and immediately adjacent to the Omani shelf and undergoes significant offshore transport only within topographically induced coastal squirts. The foraminiferal faunal composition of upper Pleistocene deep-sea sediments of the northwestern Arabian Sea are mainly controlled by vertical nutrient fluxes caused by Ekman pumping, not coastal upwelling. Transfer functions for late Pleistocene mixed layer depth, temperature, and chlorophyll have been obtained through factor analysis and nonlinear multiple regression between late summer mixed layer environment and Recent sediment faunal observations.

  7. Arabian Peninsula and northeast Africa as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Arabian Peninsula (on left) and northeast Africa (on right) as seen from the Gemini 11 spacecraft at an altitude of 340 nautical miles during its 27th revolution of the earth, looking southeast. Saudia Arabia, South Arabia, Yemen and Aden Protectorate are at left. At bottom right is Ethiopia. French Somaliland is in center on right shore. Somali is at upper right. Body of water at bottom is Red Sea. Gulf of Aden is in center; and at top left is Indian Ocean.

  8. Regime shift in Arabian dust activity, triggered by persistent Fertile Crescent drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, Michael; Yu, Yan; Kalashnikova, Olga V.

    2015-10-01

    The Arabian Peninsula has experienced pronounced interannual to decadal variability in dust activity, including an abrupt regime shift around 2006 from an inactive dust period during 1998-2005 to an active period during 2007-2013. Corresponding in time to the onset of this regime shift, the climate state transitioned into a combined La Niña and negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, which incited a hiatus in global warming in the 2000s. Superimposed upon a long-term regional drying trend, synergistic interactions between these teleconnection modes triggered the establishment of a devastating and prolonged drought, which engulfed the Fertile Crescent, namely, Iraq and Syria, and led to crop failure and civil unrest. Dried soils and diminished vegetation cover in the Fertile Crescent, as evident through remotely sensed enhanced vegetation indices, supported greater dust generation and transport to the Arabian Peninsula in 2007-2013, as identified both in increased dust days observed at weather stations and enhanced remotely sensed aerosol optical depth. According to backward trajectory analysis of dust days on the Arabian Peninsula, increased dust lifting and atmospheric dust concentration in the Fertile Crescent during this recent, prolonged drought episode supported a greater frequency of dust events across the peninsula with associated northerly trajectories and led to the dust regime shift. These findings are particularly concerning, considering projections of warming and drying for the eastern Mediterranean region and potential collapse of the Fertile Crescent during this century.

  9. The world's most isolated and distinct whale population? Humpback whales of the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Pomilla, Cristina; Amaral, Ana R; Collins, Tim; Minton, Gianna; Findlay, Ken; Leslie, Matthew S; Ponnampalam, Louisa; Baldwin, Robert; Rosenbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of population structure is essential for assessing conservation status and implementing management strategies. A small, non-migratory population of humpback whales in the Arabian Sea is classified as "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, an assessment constrained by a lack of data, including limited understanding of its relationship to other populations. We analysed 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences extracted from 67 Arabian Sea humpback whale tissue samples and compared them to equivalent datasets from the Southern Hemisphere and North Pacific. Results show that the Arabian Sea population is highly distinct; estimates of gene flow and divergence times suggest a Southern Indian Ocean origin but indicate that it has been isolated for approximately 70,000 years, remarkable for a species that is typically highly migratory. Genetic diversity values are significantly lower than those obtained for Southern Hemisphere populations and signatures of ancient and recent genetic bottlenecks were identified. Our findings suggest this is the world's most isolated humpback whale population, which, when combined with low population abundance estimates and anthropogenic threats, raises concern for its survival. We recommend an amendment of the status of the population to "Critically Endangered" on the IUCN Red List. PMID:25470144

  10. Metagenomic analysis of nitrogen and methane cycling in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    PubMed Central

    Kox, Martine A.R.; Villanueva, Laura; Jetten, Mike S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are areas in the global ocean where oxygen concentrations drop to below one percent. Low oxygen concentrations allow alternative respiration with nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor to become prevalent in these areas, making them main contributors to oceanic nitrogen loss. The contribution of anammox and denitrification to nitrogen loss seems to vary in different OMZs. In the Arabian Sea, both processes were reported. Here, we performed a metagenomics study of the upper and core zone of the Arabian Sea OMZ, to provide a comprehensive overview of the genetic potential for nitrogen and methane cycling. We propose that aerobic ammonium oxidation is carried out by a diverse community of Thaumarchaeota in the upper zone of the OMZ, whereas a low diversity of Scalindua-like anammox bacteria contribute significantly to nitrogen loss in the core zone. Aerobic nitrite oxidation in the OMZ seems to be performed by Nitrospina spp. and a novel lineage of nitrite oxidizing organisms that is present in roughly equal abundance as Nitrospina. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) can be carried out by yet unknown microorganisms harbouring a divergent nrfA gene. The metagenomes do not provide conclusive evidence for active methane cycling; however, a low abundance of novel alkane monooxygenase diversity was detected. Taken together, our approach confirmed the genomic potential for an active nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea and allowed detection of hitherto overlooked lineages of carbon and nitrogen cycle bacteria. PMID:27077014

  11. A new view on dam lines in Polish Arabian horses based on mtDNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Głażewska, Iwona; Wysocka, Anna; Gralak, Barbara; Prus, Renata; Sell, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Polish Arabian horses are one of the oldest and the most important Arab populations in the world. The Polish Arabian Stud Book and the Genealogical Charts by Skorkowski are the main sources of information on the ancestors of Polish Arabs. Both publications were viewed as credible sources of information until the 1990s when the data regarding one of the dam lines was questioned. The aim of the current study was to check the accuracy of the pedigree data of Polish dam lines using mtDNA analysis. The analyses of a 458 bp mtDNA D-loop fragment from representatives of 15 Polish Arabian dam lines revealed 14 distinct haplotypes. The results were inconsistent with pedigree data in the case of two lines. A detailed analysis of the historical sources was performed to explain these discrepancies. Our study revealed that representatives of different lines shared the same haplotypes. We also noted a genetic identity between some lines founded by Polish mares of unknown origin and lines established by desert-bred mares. PMID:17897600

  12. Metagenomic analysis of nitrogen and methane cycling in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone.

    PubMed

    Lüke, Claudia; Speth, Daan R; Kox, Martine A R; Villanueva, Laura; Jetten, Mike S M

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are areas in the global ocean where oxygen concentrations drop to below one percent. Low oxygen concentrations allow alternative respiration with nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor to become prevalent in these areas, making them main contributors to oceanic nitrogen loss. The contribution of anammox and denitrification to nitrogen loss seems to vary in different OMZs. In the Arabian Sea, both processes were reported. Here, we performed a metagenomics study of the upper and core zone of the Arabian Sea OMZ, to provide a comprehensive overview of the genetic potential for nitrogen and methane cycling. We propose that aerobic ammonium oxidation is carried out by a diverse community of Thaumarchaeota in the upper zone of the OMZ, whereas a low diversity of Scalindua-like anammox bacteria contribute significantly to nitrogen loss in the core zone. Aerobic nitrite oxidation in the OMZ seems to be performed by Nitrospina spp. and a novel lineage of nitrite oxidizing organisms that is present in roughly equal abundance as Nitrospina. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) can be carried out by yet unknown microorganisms harbouring a divergent nrfA gene. The metagenomes do not provide conclusive evidence for active methane cycling; however, a low abundance of novel alkane monooxygenase diversity was detected. Taken together, our approach confirmed the genomic potential for an active nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea and allowed detection of hitherto overlooked lineages of carbon and nitrogen cycle bacteria. PMID:27077014

  13. Application of mitochondrial genes sequences for measuring the genetic diversity of Arabian oryx.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb A; Arif, Ibrahim A; Shobrak, Mohammad; Homaidan, Ali A Al; Farhan, Ahmad H Al; Sadoon, Mohammad Al

    2011-01-01

    Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) had faced extinction in the wild more than three decades ago and was saved by the prudent efforts of captive breeding programs. A clear understanding of the molecular diversity of contemporary Arabian oryx population is important for the long term success of captive breeding and reintroduction of this potentially endangered species. We have sequenced the segments of mitochondrial DNA including12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome b (Cyt-b) and control region (CR) genes of 24 captive-bred and reintroduced animals. Although the sequences of 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and Cyt-b were found to be identical for all the samples, typical sequence variations in the CR gene were observed in the form of 7 haplotypes. One of these haplotypes has been reported earlier while the remaining 6 haplotypes are novel and represent different lineages from the founders. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities were found to be 0.789 and 0.009 respectively. The genetic distances among the 7 mtDNA haplotypes varied from 0.001 to 0.017. These findings are of potential relevance to the management of captive breeding programs for the conservation of Arabian oryx. PMID:21498924

  14. Measuring the genetic diversity of Arabian Oryx using microsatellite markers: implication for captive breeding.

    PubMed

    Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A; Shobrak, Mohammad; Homaidan, Ali A Al; Sadoon, Mohammad Al; Farhan, Ahmad H Al

    2010-04-01

    Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) is an endangered antelope that is being protected by captive breeding programs. However, the long term success of these programs mainly depends on the prudent use of molecular information for conservation management. We have used an array of seven microsatellite loci to examine the molecular diversity in a representative population of 24 captive-bred and reintroduced Arabian oryx. The locus-wise mean observed heterozygosity (0.601) was found to be comparatively higher than the mean expected heterozygosity (0.565). The specimen-wise observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.143 to 1.00 with an average of 0.60 whereas the mean d(2) varied from 0.57 to 1023.428 with an average value of 223.357. The results of Shannon information index (I = 0.898) also indicated a high level of within population genetic diversity. The average gene flow was 0.298, ranging between 0.204 and 0.424 for different loci. In conclusion, the information about the extent of heterozygosity, allelic diversity and inbreeding/outbreeding depression using microsatellite markers could be of potential relevance for the management of captive breeding programs for the conservation of Arabian oryx. PMID:20558900

  15. Red cell parameters in infant and children from the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Mekaini, Lolowa A Al; Denic, Srdjan; Jabri, Omar N Al; Narchi, Hassib; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Al-Hammadi, Suleiman

    2015-01-01

    α+-Thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia are frequent causes of microcytosis and a common diagnostic challenge in Arabian children. In this study, their prevalences and effects on the red cell parameters were evaluated in 28,457 children aged one day to 6 years. α+-Thalassemia trait was considered to be present when mean cell volume (MCV) was <94 fL at birth and iron deficiency anemia when red cell distribution width (RDW) was >14.5%. The prevalence of α+-thalassemia trait was 15.7% (502/3,191), which was similar to previously reported values for adults (9-14%). Iron deficiency anemia peaked at 7 months (53%) and then declined at a rate of 8% per year. The nadirs of red blood cell count (RBC) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) occurred at two months of age (physiological anemia). Subsequently, Hb increased at a rate similar to that of MCV, demonstrating the two processes are coupled. The third percentile MCV in children older than 3 months was ≤64 fL, which was significantly lower than that in European children. The third percentile Hb, on the other hand, was similar to that in European children. Thus, α+-thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia are exceptionally frequent in Arabian children and their red cell indices are considerably different from European-based norms. Careful interpretation of red cell parameters is required for the evaluation of microcytic anemia in Arabian children. PMID:27069759

  16. Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Spaet, Julia L Y; Jabado, Rima W; Henderson, Aaron C; Moore, Alec B M; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior, and morphology. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of four commercially exploited shark species with different biological characteristics (Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Sphyrna lewini) between the Red Sea and all other water bodies surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. To assess intraspecific patterns of connectivity, we constructed statistical parsimony networks among haplotypes and estimated (1) population structure; and (2) time of most recent population expansion, based on mitochondrial control region DNA and a total of 20 microsatellites. Our analysis indicates that, even in smaller, less vagile shark species, there are no contemporary barriers to gene flow across the study region, while historical events, for example, Pleistocene glacial cycles, may have affected connectivity in C. sorrah and R. acutus. A parsimony network analysis provided evidence that Arabian S. lewini may represent a population segment that is distinct from other known stocks in the Indian Ocean, raising a new layer of conservation concern. Our results call for urgent regional cooperation to ensure the sustainable exploitation of sharks in the Arabian region. PMID:26120422

  17. Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Spaet, Julia L Y; Jabado, Rima W; Henderson, Aaron C; Moore, Alec B M; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-06-01

    The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior, and morphology. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of four commercially exploited shark species with different biological characteristics (Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Sphyrna lewini) between the Red Sea and all other water bodies surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. To assess intraspecific patterns of connectivity, we constructed statistical parsimony networks among haplotypes and estimated (1) population structure; and (2) time of most recent population expansion, based on mitochondrial control region DNA and a total of 20 microsatellites. Our analysis indicates that, even in smaller, less vagile shark species, there are no contemporary barriers to gene flow across the study region, while historical events, for example, Pleistocene glacial cycles, may have affected connectivity in C. sorrah and R. acutus. A parsimony network analysis provided evidence that Arabian S. lewini may represent a population segment that is distinct from other known stocks in the Indian Ocean, raising a new layer of conservation concern. Our results call for urgent regional cooperation to ensure the sustainable exploitation of sharks in the Arabian region. PMID:26120422

  18. A Numerical Study of Circulation and Water Exchange in the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Muchamad Al; Temimi, Marouane; Zhao, Jun; Ghedira, Hosni

    2015-04-01

    Ocean circulation and water mass variability in semi-enclosed and marginal sea of the Arabian Gulf are numerically simulated using a three-dimensional model of Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The model is forced by relatively high-frequency of atmospheric forcing and tides. The numerical simulations are compared with a set data of moored and spatially distributed measurements of temperature, salinity, current velocity, and sea-surface height. The model results generally agree well with temporal variation of the observed current velocity during spring and neap tide, as well as seasonal variation of temperature and salinity in surface and sub-surface depths. Seasonal variability of water mass and circulation in the Arabian Gulf affected by the propagation of Indian Ocean Surface Water to the Arabian Gulf, air-sea heat fluxes, and mesoscale eddy activities are discussed. Sensitivity study using different source of atmospheric data for forcing of the model, as well as climatology data and global ocean model for specifying values in open boundaries of the model are conducted towards implementation of the model operationally. Further development of the model by coupling it with atmospheric model most likely will increase the skill of the model and provide better understanding on how the complex air-sea interaction affecting circulation and water mass exchange in this region.

  19. Biomass of zooplankton estimated by acoustical sensors in the Arabian sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, D.V.

    1996-11-22

    The long term goal of our overall research program is the development of data-based models to predict ecological relationships of zooplankton, phytoplankton and the physical environment in the sea. The overall objective of the work carried out within the scope of this particular contract was to acoustically measure the dynamics of zooplankton and micronekton in the northern Arabian Sea during several seasons. The scientific focus was to examine the impact, if any, of the two annual monsoons that are thought to drive the ecosystem response in the area. This particular project involved the design and construction of two sensors which were then deployed in the Arabian Sea by several of our co-PIVs in the ONR ARI on Forced Upper Ocean Dynamics during the time period in which the JGOFS program also focused their efforts on the northern Arabian Sea. This contract involved only the development, calibration and maintenance of the instrumentation. The data processing, other than that which has been necessary for the purposes of quality assurance, was not induded in our original proposal.

  20. Isostatic models and isostatic gravity anomalies of the Arabian plate and surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2015-04-01

    Isostaic anomalies represent one of the most useful "geological" reduction of the gravity field. With the isostatic correction it is possible to remove a significant part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomalies. This correction is based on the fact that a major part of the near-surface load is compensated by variations of the lithosphere boundaries (chiefly the Moho and LAB) and by density variations within the crust and upper mantle. It is usually supposed that it is less important to a first order, what is the actual compensation model when reducing the effect of compensating masses, since their total weight is exactly opposite to the near-surface load. We compare several compensating models for the Arabian plate and surrounding area. The Airy model gives very significant regional isostatic anomalies, which can not be explained by the upper crust structure or disturbances of the isostatic equilibrium. Also the predicted "isostatic" Moho is very different from the existing observations. The second group of the isostatic models includes the Moho, which is based on existing seismic determinations. Additional compensation is provided by density variations within the lithosphere (chiefly in the upper mantle). In this way we minimize regional anomalies over the Arabian plate. The residual local anomalies well correspond to tectonic structure of the plate. Still very significant anomalies are associated with the Zagros fold belt, the collision zone of the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

  1. Sedimentation in the western Arabian Sea the role of coastal and open-ocean upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixen, Tim; Haake, Birgit; Ittekkot, Venugopalan

    Monsoon-induced coastal and open-ocean upwelling explain 84% of the variations of the organic carbon fluxes measured in the deep western Arabian Sea. In this paper, sea-level measurements, satellite-derived wind speeds, sea surface temperatures, and nutrient profiles are used to discern the relative importance of these factors on fluxes measured during nine years of continuous sediment trap deployments. This exercise shows: (i) the increase in fluxes observed during the initial stages of the SW monsoons are caused by open-ocean upwelling, which develops faster than the coastal upwelling; (ii) coastal upwelling triggers diatom blooms from nutrients from subsurface water and sediment resuspension and, more importantly, by injecting resting stages of diatoms back into the euphotic zone; (iii) silica depletion resulting from diatom blooms in laterally advecting water masses leads to a replacement of diatoms by other nitrate-limited organisms; (iv) organic carbon fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea increase in response to an intensification of both coastal and open-ocean upwelling; weak coastal upwelling and strong open-ocean upwelling also increase organic carbon fluxes. The varying dominance of their influence is reflected in the timing and the composition of the peak fluxes; (v) the link between organic carbon flux and monsoon strength is non-linear probably due to changes in the surface currents and to vigorous turbulence in the surface water during strong SW monsoons. These processes could reduce the organic carbon flux in the western Arabian Sea by about 65%.

  2. Recent changes in the Arabian Sea ecosystem linked to large-scale climatic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, Joaquim; do Rosario Gomes, Helga; Prabhu Matondkar, Shivprasad; de Rada, Sergio; Chai, Fei; Dwivedi, Rashmin; Thoppil, Prasad; Al-Azri, Adnan; Basu, Subhajit

    2014-05-01

    Between 1994 and 1996, the Arabian Sea became the focus of a multinational effort directed at studying ocean biological and physical processes and their links to the global carbon cycle. The results of this comprehensive, multi-disciplinary effort known as the Joint Global Flux Study (JGOFS) program provided important indications of the role of the reversal of the monsoons and the extremes in wind forcing, in causing the greatest seasonal variability of primary production and vertical flux of carbon observed in any of the world's oceans. Since the end of the JGOFS program, most contemporary shipboard investigations of primary productivity and biogeochemical processes have come mostly from small programmatically focused shipboard cruises that have been regional in scope. On the other hand, most recent large basin-scale studies have relied mainly on coupled physical-biological models and on satellite data. Here we present a synthesis of recent observations from shipboard cruises and satellites, together with modeling studies which highlight the extreme sensitivity of the Arabian Sea ecosystem to climatic events. We posit that the Arabian Sea ecosystem is undergoing rapid change as a result of changes in physical processes tied to climate change.

  3. Fate of oil hydrocarbons in fish and shrimp after major oil spills in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Fayad, N.M.; El-Mubarak, A.H.; Edora, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    Pollution of the marine environment with crude oil represents one of the most serious environmental problems that confront Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. Oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf environment may affect the inhabitants through (1) human health hazard resulting from the consumption of contaminated sea food, (2) loss of food due to alteration of species productivity or elimination of some species, and (3) deterioration of recreation areas. Moreover, the problem of oil spill may be more severe in this part of the world. This is mainly because the source of drinking water in various Gulf states depends largely on sea water from which desalinated water is produced. Contamination of sea water with crude oil may adversely affect the quality of desalinated water and may badly damage desalination plants. During the last twelve years, the Arabian Gulf has been affected by two major oil spills. The first spill occurred on February 4, 1983 during the Iraq-Iran War, and the second major oil spill occured during the 1991 Gulf War. There is limited information about the level of oil hydrocarbons in edible fish, but two studies were carried out after both spills. This paper summarized the results of both studies carried out to assess the extent of contamination of various fish species of commercial value from the Arabian Gulf with oil hydrocarbons.

  4. Assessing the potential of Landsat 8 OLI for retrieving salinity in the hypersaline Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Temimi, Marouane

    2016-04-01

    The Arabian Gulf, located in an arid region in the Middle East, has high salinity that can exceed 43 practical salinity units (psu) due to its special conditions, such as high evaporation, low precipitation, and desalination discharge. In this study, a regional algorithm was developed to retrieve salinity using in situ measurements conducted between June 2013 and November 2014 along the western coast of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A multivariate linear regression model using the visible bands of Operational Land Imager (OLI) was proposed and indicated good performance with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.7. The algorithm was then applied to an OLI scene, which revealed the spatial distribution of salinity over the study area. The findings are favorable for better interpretation of the complex water mass exchange between the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman through the Strait of Hormuz, validating salinity from numerical models, studying the effects of anthropogenic activities and climate change on ecosystem in the hypersaline Arabian Gulf, etc.

  5. Oil and development in the Arabian Gulf: A selected annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, W.I.

    1985-01-01

    This past decade has witnessed a vast proliferation of literature on the Arabian Gulf region. In this book the author provides a systematic guide to the literature in order to assist those conducting research on the area. The author is primarily concerned with the national, regional and international role of Arabian Gulf oil between 1973 and 1983. He includes more general sources, however, if they are partly devoted to the subject or if they provide information essential to the understanding of the particular economic systems or the place of Arabian Gulf oil within the world energy situation. Sources of a technical nature have been excluded, such as those dealing with the science and technology of Arab oil. The main languages of the material selected for inclusion are English and Arabic, with French, German, Italian, and Spanish sources in smaller number. The Arabic sources are appended separately after the Western language sections in each chapter. The sources of information cited include books, monographs, articles, journals, theses, annual reports, directories, government documents, and various unpublished papers and documents.

  6. Tectonic and depositional model of the Arabian and adjoining plates during the Silurian-Devonian

    SciTech Connect

    Husseini, M.I. )

    1991-01-01

    During the Late Ordovician and Early Silurian, the western part of the Arabian Peninsula was covered by polar glaciers that advanced from the south pole in African Gondwana. During this period, nondeposition, erosion, or marginal marine conditions prevailed in eastern and northern Arabia. When the glaciers melted in the Early Silurian, sea level rose sharply and the paleo-Tethys Ocean transgressed the Arabian and adjoining plates depositing a thick, organic-rich shale directly over the glaciogenic and periglacial rocks and related unconformities. The post-glacial sequence coarsens upward reflecting the passage of a coastline prograding northward from African and Arabian Gondwana to northern Arabia. A sea level drop in the Late Silurian placed the study area in a terrestrial environment; however, as sea level recovered in the Early Devonian, a carbonate sequence blanketed most of the area. The transgression, however, was interrupted by regional uplift and local orogenic movements in the Middle and Late Devonian. These movements constitute the onset of Hercynian tectonism, which resulted in erosion of the older sequences, depositional hiatuses, and regional facies changes.

  7. Trace elements in fish from the Arabian Gulf and the Shatt al-Arab river, Iraq

    SciTech Connect

    Abaychi, J.; Al-Saad, H.T.

    1988-02-01

    In the Arabian Gulf region, recently, vast industrial, agricultural, economic and social developments have taken place, in addition to an increase in population. This may enhance the magnitude of environmental pollution year by year. No detailed study has been undertaken to assess the concentrations of trace elements in commercial species of fish from the Arabian Gulf and the Shatt al-Arab River, despite the fact that fish are considered an essential part of the diet in the region. Therefore, an investigation was carried out on the concentration of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in the following fish species from the Arabian Gulf: Tylosurus strongylurus, Eleutheoronema tetradactum, Pomadasys arel, Platycephalus indicus, Ilisha elongata, Thryssa hamiltonii, Arius thalassinus, Acanthophagrus luteus, Johnieops sina, Liza dussumeiri, Hilsa ilisha, Nematolosa nasus and Otoliths argenteus, and on species from the Shatt al-Arab River: Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi, Barbus xanthopterus, Barbus scheich, Aspius vorax, Cyprinus carpio, and Barbus grypus. Trace element levels in sediment samples from the area were also determined since sediments can accumulate different elements and may reflect the extent of pollution by these elements.

  8. Carbonate-evaporite sequences of the late Jurassic, southern and southwestern Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S.; Whittle, G.L.

    1995-11-01

    The carbonate-evaporite sequences of the Upper Jurassic Arab and overlying Hith formations in the southern and southwestern Arabian Gulf form many supergiant and giant fields that produce from the Arab Formation and are excellent examples of a classic reservoir/seal relationship. The present-day sabkha depositional setting that extends along most of the southern and southwestern coasts of the Arabian Gulf provides an analog to these Upper Jurassic sedimentary rocks. In fact, sabkha-related diagenesis of original grain-supported sediments in the Arab and Hith formations has resulted in five distinct lithofacies that characterize the reservoir/seal relationship: (1) oolitic/peloidal grainstone, (2) dolomitic grainstone, (3) dolomitic mudstone, (4) dolomitized grainstone, and (5) massive anhydrite. Interparticle porosity in grainstones and dolomitic grainstones and intercrystalline porosity in dolomitized rocks provide the highest porosity in the study area. These sediments accumulated in four types of depositional settings: (1) supratidal sabkhas, (2) intertidal mud flats and stromatolitic flats, (3) shallow subtidal lagoons, and (4) shallow open-marine shelves. The diagenetic history of the Arab and Hith formations in the southern and southwestern Arabian Gulf suggests that the anhydrite and much of the dolomitization are a result of penecontemporaneous sabkha diagenesis. The character and timing of the paragenetic events are responsible for the excellent porosity of the Arab Formation and the lack of porosity in the massive anhydrites of the Hith, which together result in the prolific hydrocarbon sequences of these formations.

  9. The World's Most Isolated and Distinct Whale Population? Humpback Whales of the Arabian Sea

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Tim; Minton, Gianna; Findlay, Ken; Leslie, Matthew S.; Ponnampalam, Louisa; Baldwin, Robert; Rosenbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of population structure is essential for assessing conservation status and implementing management strategies. A small, non-migratory population of humpback whales in the Arabian Sea is classified as “Endangered” on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, an assessment constrained by a lack of data, including limited understanding of its relationship to other populations. We analysed 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences extracted from 67 Arabian Sea humpback whale tissue samples and compared them to equivalent datasets from the Southern Hemisphere and North Pacific. Results show that the Arabian Sea population is highly distinct; estimates of gene flow and divergence times suggest a Southern Indian Ocean origin but indicate that it has been isolated for approximately 70,000 years, remarkable for a species that is typically highly migratory. Genetic diversity values are significantly lower than those obtained for Southern Hemisphere populations and signatures of ancient and recent genetic bottlenecks were identified. Our findings suggest this is the world's most isolated humpback whale population, which, when combined with low population abundance estimates and anthropogenic threats, raises concern for its survival. We recommend an amendment of the status of the population to “Critically Endangered” on the IUCN Red List. PMID:25470144

  10. Continental lithosphere of the Arabian Plate: A geologic, petrologic, and geophysical synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Robert J.; Johnson, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The Arabian Plate originated ˜ 25 Ma ago by rifting of NE Africa to form the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is one of the smaller and younger of the Earth's lithospheric plates. The upper part of its crust consists of crystalline Precambrian basement, Phanerozoic sedimentary cover as much as 10 km thick, and Cenozoic flood basalt (harrat). The distribution of these rocks and variations in elevation across the Plate cause a pronounced geologic and topographic asymmetry, with extensive basement exposures (the Arabian Shield) and elevations of as much as 3000 m in the west, and a Phanerozoic succession (Arabian Platform) that thickens, and a surface that descends to sea level, eastward between the Shield and the northeastern margin of the Plate. This tilt in the Plate is partly the result of marginal uplift during rifting in the south and west, and loading during collision with, and subduction beneath, the Eurasian Plate in the northeast. But a variety of evidence suggests that the asymmetry also reflects a fundamental crustal and mantle heterogeneity in the Plate that dates from Neoproterozoic time when the crust formed. The bulk of the Plate's upper crystalline crust is Neoproterozoic in age (1000-540 Ma) reflecting, in the west, a 300-million year process of continental crustal growth between ˜ 850 and 550 Ma represented by amalgamated juvenile magmatic arcs, post-amalgamation sedimentary and volcanic basins, and granitoid intrusions that make up as much as 50% of the Shield's surface. Locally, Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks are structurally intercalated with the juvenile Neoproterozoic rocks in the southern and eastern parts of the Shield. The geologic dataset for the age, composition, and origin of the upper crust of the Plate in the east is smaller than the database for the Shield, and conclusions made about the crust in the east are correspondingly less definitive. In the absence of exposures, furthermore, nothing is known by direct observation about the

  11. Influence of continental outflow on aerosol chemical characteristics over the Arabian Sea during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashwini; Sudheer, A. K.; Goswami, Vineet; Bhushan, Ravi

    2012-04-01

    The chemical composition of aerosol over the Arabian Sea was investigated during December 2007. Elemental Carbon (EC), Organic Carbon (OC), water soluble organic and inorganic constituents and crustal elements (Al, Fe, Ca, and Mg) were measured in total suspended particulate samples (TSP) collected from marine boundary layer of the Arabian Sea when the oceanic region is influenced by continental outflow. Anthropogenic and natural mineral aerosol originating from continental regions dominates the aerosol composition contributing ∼88% of total aerosol mass. The sea-salt aerosol comprises only ∼12% of TSP. The carbonaceous aerosol exhibits spatial trend similar to that of K+ suggesting major source could be biomass burning. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) contribution estimated by EC-tracer method suggests that up to 67% of OC can be of secondary origin. Average water soluble organic carbon to OC ratio is ∼0.9, indicates significant formation of SOA during transport of continental air masses. These results demonstrate the dominance of continental aerosol over the Arabian Sea during wintertime where deposition may have major impact on surface ocean biogeochemistry.

  12. Benthic foraminifera from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: towards a paleo-oxygenation proxy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemence, Caulle; Meryem, Mojtahid; Karoliina, Koho; Andy, Gooday; Gert-Jan, Reichart; Gerhard, Schmiedl; Frans, Jorissen

    2014-05-01

    Benthic foraminifera from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: towards a paleo-oxygenation proxy. C. Caulle1, M. Mojtahid1, K. Koho2,3, A. Gooday4, G. J. Reichart2,3, G. Schmiedl5, F. Jorissen1 1UMR CNRS 6112 LPG-BIAF, University of Angers, 2 bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex 2Utrecht University, Faculty of Geosciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Budapestlaan 4, 3584 CD Utrecht, The Netherlands 3Royal Netherland Institute for Sea Research (Royal NIOZ), Landsdiep 4, 1797 SZ 't Horntje (Texel) 4Southampton Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK 5Department of Geosciences, University of Hamburg, Bundesstraße 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany The thermohaline circulation oxygenates the deep ocean sediment and therefore enables aerobic life on the sea-floor. In the past, interruption of this deep water formation occurred several times causing hypoxic to anoxic conditions on the sea-floor leading to major ecological turnover. A better understanding of the interaction between climate and bottom water oxygenation is therefore essential in order to predict future oceanic responses. Presently, permanent (stable over decadal timescale) low-oxygen conditions occur naturally at mid-water depths in the northern Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea). Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ) are key areas to understand the hypoxic-anoxic events and their impact on the benthic ecosystem. In this context, a good knowledge of the ecology and life cycle adaptations of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages living in these low oxygen areas is essential. A series of multicores were recovered from three transects showing an oxygen gradient across the OMZ: the Murray Ridge, the Oman margin and the Indian margin. The stations located at the same depths showed slightly different oxygen concentrations and large differences in organic matter content. These differences are mainly related to the geographic location in the Arabian Sea. We investigated at these stations live and dead benthic

  13. Controlling factors of the oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea's OMZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resplandy, L.; Lévy, M.; Bopp, L.; Echevin, V.; Pous, S.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Kumar, D.

    2012-12-01

    The expansion of OMZs (oxygen minimum zones) due to climate change and their possible evolution and impacts on the ecosystems and the atmosphere are still debated, mostly because of the unability of global climate models to adequatly reproduce the processes governing OMZs. In this study, we examine the factors controlling the oxygen budget, i.e. the equilibrium between oxygen sources and sinks in the northern Arabian Sea OMZ using an eddy-resolving biophysical model. Our model confirms that the biological consumption of oxygen is most intense below the region of highest productivity in the western Arabian Sea. The oxygen drawdown in this region is counterbalanced by the large supply of oxygenated waters originated from the south and advected horizontally by the western boundary current. Although the biological sink and the dynamical sources of oxygen compensate on annual average, we find that the seasonality of the dynamical transport of oxygen is 3 to 5 times larger than the seasonality of the biological sink. In agreement with previous findings, the resulting seasonality of oxygen concentration in the OMZ is relatively weak, with a variability of the order of 15% of the annual mean oxygen concentration in the oxycline and 5% elsewhere. This seasonality primarily arises from the vertical displacement of the OMZ forced by the monsoonal reversal of Ekman pumping across the basin. In coastal areas, the oxygen concentration is also modulated seasonally by lateral advection. Along the western coast of the Arabian Sea, the Somali Current transports oxygen-rich waters originated from the south during summer and oxygen-poor waters from the northeast during winter. Along the eastern coast of the Arabian Sea, we find that the main contributor to lateral advection in the OMZ is the Indian coastal undercurrent that advects southern oxygenated waters during summer and northern low-oxygen waters during winter. In this region, our model indicates that oxygen concentrations are

  14. Upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath the Kenya Rift and the Arabian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yongcheol

    Upper mantle structure beneath the Kenya Rift and Arabian Shield has been investigated to advance our understanding of the origin of the Cenozoic hotspot tectonism found there. A new seismic tomographic model of the upper mantle beneath the Kenya Rift has been obtained by inverting teleseismic P-wave travel time residuals. The model shows a 0.5--1.5% low velocity anomaly below the Kenya Rift extending to about 150 km depth. Below ˜150 km depth, the anomaly broadens to the west toward the Tanzania Craton, suggesting a westward dip to the structure. The P- and S-wave velocity structure beneath the Arabian Shield has been investigated using travel-time tomography. Models for the seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle between 150 and 400 depths reveal a low velocity region (˜1.5% in the P model and ˜3% in the S model) trending NW-SE along the western side of the Arabian Shield and broadening to the northeast beneath the MMN volcanic line. The models have limited resolution above 150 km depth everywhere under the Shield, and in the middle part of the Shield the resolution is limited at all depths. Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements have been inverted to image regions of the upper mantle under the Arabian Shield not well resolved by the body wave tomography. The shear wave velocity model obtained shows upper mantle structure above 200 km depth. A broad low velocity region in the lithospheric mantle (depths of ≤ ˜100 km) across the Shield is observed, and below ˜150 km depth a region of low shear velocity is imaged along the Red Sea coast and MMN volcanic line. A westward dipping low velocity zone beneath the Kenya Rift is consistent with an interpretation by Nyblade et al. [2000] suggesting that a plume head is located under the eastern margin of the Tanzania Craton, or alternatively a superplume rising from the lower mantle from the west and reaching the surface under Kenya [e.g., Debayle et al., 2001; Grand et al., 1997; Ritsema et al., 1999]. For

  15. Variability of the Arabian Sea upwelling and intensity of the oxygen minimum zone over the late Pleistocene and Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaye, Birgit; Böll, Anna; Rixen, Tim; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Ramaswamy, Venkitasubramani

    2016-04-01

    The northern Arabian Sea is one of the main oceanic regions with a permanent low oxygen layer at intermediate water depth that results in water column denitrification. While glacial/interglacial variations in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) are relatively well studied, little is known about the spatial and temporal extent of mid-water oxygen throughout the Holocene. We compared alkenone derived sea surface temperatures of the last 25 kyrs from a core in the northern Arabian Sea with a core from the monsoonal upwelling area off Oman. The difference between the two temperature reconstructions indicates that monsoonal upwelling occurred during warm interstadials and during the entire Holocene. δ15N curves show that denitrification also matched with monsoonal upwelling. Comparison of δ15N records from different locations in the Arabian Sea reveal a Holocene shift in the location of the core OMZ from the northwestern (early Holocene) to the northeastern Arabian Sea (late Holocene). This shift was caused by (i) spatial differences in oxygen demand, caused by changes in SW- and NE-monsoon intensities and associated productivity changes, as well as (ii) changes in mid-water ventilation facilitated by sea level rise and inflow of Persian Gulf and Red Sea Water leading and changes of ventilation by Indian Ocean Central Water .

  16. The Road to Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Expatriate Teachers' Pedagogical Practices in the Cultural Context of Saudi Arabian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan, Amani K.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored the need for culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) in Saudi Arabian higher education, especially when students have a cultural background that differs from that of their instructor. The study documented how expatriate teachers structured their pedagogical practices in the Saudi Arabian context. It examined how these…

  17. 77 FR 61046 - The Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE The Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al-Arab, aka Al- Qa'ida in Yemen, aka...

  18. 77 FR 61046 - The Review and Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE The Review and Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al-Arab, aka Al- Qa'ida in...

  19. A Model Study on Understanding the Influence of Arabian Sea Mini Warm Pool on Monsoon Onset Vortex Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepa, R.; Gnanaseelan, C.; Deshpande, M.; Salvekar, P. S.

    2012-09-01

    The Arabian Sea Mini Warm Pool (MWP) is a zone of anomalously high Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the Arabian Sea over which the monsoon onset vortex (OV) is believed to form. In the present study it is shown that this MWP is a key parameter in the development of the onset vortex. Atmospheric model experiments are carried out with and without MWP to understand the mechanisms for the formation of the OV. The model failed to simulate the OV with the cold SST advocating the importance of the MWP for the formation of the OV. The MWP is found to favor the formation of the onset vortex in the east central Arabian Sea by increasing the horizontal shear and decreasing the vertical wind shear.

  20. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE. PMID:26506023

  1. Crustal Deformation at the Arabian Plate-Boundary observed by InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, S.; Cavalié, O.; Akoglu, A. M.; Wang, T.; Xu, W.; Feng, G.; Dutta, R.; Abdullin, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Arabian plate is bounded by a variety of active plate boundaries, with extension in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden to the south, compression in Turkey and Iran to the north, and transform faults to the west and to the east. Internally, however, the Arabian plate has been shown to be tectonically rather stable, despite evidence of recent volcanism and earthquake faulting. We use InSAR observations to study recent tectonic and volcanic activity at several locations at the Arabian plate boundary as well within the plate itself. The region near the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian, and Anatolian plates has often been the focus of studies on continental deformation behavior and interseismic deformation. Here we use large-scale InSAR data processing to map the deformation near the triple junction and find the deformation to be focused on major faults with little intra-plate deformation. The eastern part of the East Anatolian Fault appears to have a very shallow locking depth with limited fault-normal deformation. Several major earthquakes that have occurred in recent years on the Arabian plate boundary, including the 2011 magnitude 7.1 Van earthquake in eastern Turkey. It occurred as a result of convergence of the Arabian plate towards Eurasia and caused significant surface deformation that we have analyzed with multiple coseismic InSAR, GPS, and coastal uplift observations. We use high-resolution Cosmo-Skymed and TerraSAR-X data to derive 3D coseismic displacements from offsets alone, as some of the interferograms are almost completely incoherent. By identifying point-like targets within the images, we were able to derive accurate pixel offsets between SAR sub-images containing such targets, which we used to estimate the 3D coseismic displacements. The derived 3D displacement field helped in constraining the causative northward dipping thrust-fault. The Qadimah fault is a recently discovered fault located on the Red Sea coast north of Jeddah and under the

  2. Seasonal Variations in the Number of the Summer Shamal Days in the Southern Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh Almehrezi, Ali Saif Ali; Shapiro, Georgy; Thain, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study into seasonal variations in the number of Summer Shamal days in the southern Arabian Gulf. The Shamal wind is a north-westerly wind, which has acquired the local name of Shamal. It is the primary ambient wind in the Arabian Gulf and persists most of the year over the area, but with varying characteristics ( Godvina et al, 2001). The study is focused on the parameters of the wind cycles. The wind data are collected over a thirty year period (1981 to 2010) from Bahrain airport data set (Al Aali, 2011) as it is less affected by surrounding topography and the meteorological charts were obtained from NCEP Reanalysis -II data set (NCEP, 2013). The wind data is analyzed to show variations in the number of summer Shamal days over the southern Arabian Gulf. The synoptic conditions which help to understand the wind cycles are analyzed using NCEP Charts. A Shamal Day is defined when the prevailing wind over the Arabian Gulf is from the North-West sector and the strength of the daily mean Shamal wind is 11 knots and more. The condition for the existence of Summer Shamal days is the deepening of the thermal Monsoon Low or the ridging from the Mediterranean High or both (Govinda et al, 2003). A key finding is that the Summer Shamal days start in May and end in October of each year and the number of the Summer Shamal days is decreasing over the study period. During the months of May, June and July the number of Shamal days is the highest. Out of these three months, June has the highest number of Shamal day's. The analysis shows that the reduction in the number of Summer Shamal days over the thirty year period is potentially related to the variations in the parameters of the summer monsoon and the longitudinal location of the Azores High. Furthermore, in the summer there are two global systems: (i) El Nino, which effects the Summer Monsoon (Nazemosadat et al, 2003) and (ii) the Azores High, which have an indirect

  3. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, G.; Kalenderski, S.; Osipov, S.; Bangalath, H.

    2015-01-01

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred from 18 to 20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF-Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, northeastern Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front, and the associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq; the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates; the Rub al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna deserts; and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. We estimate the total amount of dust generated by the storm to have reached 94 Mt. Approximately 78% of this dust was deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt of dust. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligotrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea, associated with major dust storms, to be 6 Mt.

  4. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, X.; L'Hegaret, P.

    2011-06-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, some aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described. The Red Sea Water outflow is strong in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found there between 600 and 1000 m depths. The Red Sea Water is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, and fragments of this water mass can be advected offshore across the gulf or towards its northern coast by the regional gyres. The Red Sea Water outflow is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the SSH measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are more often related to the anomalous water masses that they encounter. The Persian Gulf Water (PGW) is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N), again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18-19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW are found in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, in particular during summer.

  5. Current and thermohaline characteristics of the Arabian Sea during January 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Meixiang; Zuo, Juncheng; Li, Peiliang; Du, Ling; Li, Lei

    2007-04-01

    Based on a ship survey during January 1998, the characteristics of the flow, the thermohaline properties and the volume transport of the Arabian Sea are discussed. A strong westward flow exists between 10.5°N and 11°N, part of which turns to the south as the Somali current near the coast at about 10°N and the rest turns north. At the passage between the African continent and the Socotra Island, the northern branch separates into two flows: the left one enters the passage and the right one flows eastward along the southern slope of the island. Off the island the flow separates once more, most of it meandering northeast and a small fraction flowing southeast. Volume transport calculation suggests that the tidal transport is one or two orders of magnitude smaller than the total transport in this region and it becomes more important near the coast. The average velocity of the flow in the upper layer (0 150 m) is about 20 cm s-1, with a maximum of 53 cm s-1 appearing east of the Socotra Island, and the subsurface layer (200 800 m) has an average velocity of 8.6 cm s-1; the velocity becomes smaller at greater depths. The depth of the seasonal thermocline is about 100 m, above which there is a layer with well mixed temperature and dissolved oxygen. High-salinity and oxygen-rich water appears near the surface of the northern Arabian Sea; a salinity maximum and oxygen minimum at 100 m depth along 8°N testifies the subduction of surface water from the northern Arabian Sea. Waters from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf also influence the salinity of the area.

  6. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, G.; Kalenderski, S.; Osipov, S.; Bangalath, H.

    2014-07-01

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred on 18-20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF-Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, North-Eastern Africa, Afghanistan and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front and associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq, the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates, Rub al Khali, An Nafud and Ad Dahna deserts, and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. The total amount of dust generated by the storm reached 93.76 Mt. About 80% of this amount deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt, and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligothrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we roughly estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea to be 6 Mt.

  7. Female reproductive tract anatomy of the endangered Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Eljarah, Abdulhakeem H; Al-Zghoul, Mohd B; Jawasreh, Khaleel; Ismail, Zuhair A Bani; Ababneh, Mustafa M; Elhalah, Ashraf N; Alsumadi, Maen M

    2012-01-01

    Female reproductive anatomy of the Arabian oryx is unknown. In this study, reproductive tracts of seven female Arabian oryx (aged 2 to 7 years) were examined to characterize their reproductive anatomy. Observations and measurements were obtained in situ from dead animals during necropsy. Animals were allocated into two groups: cycling (n = 3; follicles or corpora lutea present) and not-cycling (n = 4; follicles or corpora lutea absent). Different reproductive tract segments for each animal in both groups were measured using a digital caliper. The mean, SD and range for each reproductive tract segment were generated and compared between groups. Female oryx reproductive anatomy share some anatomical characteristics with that of domestic ruminants except that the oryx uterus has no distinct uterine body and the cervix has two internal openings for each respective uterine horn. In addition, there were more than 8 rows of caruncles within each uterine horn. There were significant differences in the length and width (P < 0.05), but not in height, of both the right and left ovaries between cycling and not-cycling animals (P > 0.05). Posterior and anterior vaginal lengths varied between cycling and not-cycling groups (P < 0.05). Length of right and left oviducts, left and right uterine horns, cervix and vulva did not vary between cycling and not-cycling groups (P > 0.05). Defining this unique morphology of female Arabian oryx reproductive anatomy will help in the development of appropriate reproductive techniques in order to propagate this endangered species and control its reproduction. PMID:23420946

  8. Implementation of field cardio-respiratory measurements to assess energy expenditure in Arabian endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Goachet, A G; Julliand, V

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of respiratory exchanges in genuine exercise conditions are undoubtedly of interest to further define the energy needs of endurance horses. However, the equine K4b2, the gas exchanges portable device validated for equines, has not been used in Arabian endurance horses yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to implement field cardio-respiratory measurements in such horses using the equine K4b2 in order to assess energy expenditure (EE). Measurements of heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (VT) and minute expired volume (VE) were carried out at rest and during a 20-min submaximal incremental field exercise in five trained Arabian endurance horses equipped with the K4b2 system. The relationship between HR and VO2 was determined for each horse. EE of the exercise session was calculated from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression. Out of the five horses, four tolerated the equipment. Respiratory and metabolic variables at rest and during exercise, as well as EE measured at the different gaits, were consistent with reported values in exercising horses: VO2 ranged from 4.8 to 54.1 ml/min per kg from rest to canter, respectively, and EE from 82 to 1095 J/min per kg BW. The 20-min exercise session EE accounted for 6258 and 6332 J from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression, respectively, which did not differ significantly. Providing an adaptation period and several technical adjustments, the present equine K4b2 could be used to assess EE in Arabian endurance horses in a controlled environment. The prediction of EE from the individual VO2-HR relationship might be an alternative method to evaluate EE when VO2 measurements are not possible. PMID:25496768

  9. Morphometric magnetic resonance imaging and genetic testing in cerebellar abiotrophy in Arabian horses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cerebellar abiotrophy (CA) is a rare but significant disease in Arabian horses caused by progressive death of the Purkinje cells resulting in cerebellar ataxia characterized by a typical head tremor, jerky head movements and lack of menace response. The specific role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to support clinical diagnosis has been discussed. However, as yet MR imaging has only been described in one equine CA case. The role of MR morphometry in this regard is currently unknown. Due to the hereditary nature of the disease, genetic testing can support the diagnosis of CA. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform MR morphometric analysis and genetic testing in four CA-affected Arabian horses and one German Riding Pony with purebred Arabian bloodlines in the third generation. Results CA was diagnosed pathohistologically in the five affected horses (2 months - 3 years) supported by clinical signs, necropsy, and genetic testing which confirmed the TOE1:g.2171G>A SNP genotype A/A in all CA-affected horses. On MR images morphometric analysis of the relative cerebellar size and relative cerebellar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space were compared to control images of 15 unaffected horses. It was demonstrated that in MR morphometric analyses, CA affected horses displayed a relatively smaller cerebellum compared to the entire brain mass than control animals (P = 0.0088). The relative cerebellar CSF space was larger in affected horses (P = 0.0017). Using a cut off value of 11.0% for relative cerebellar CSF space, the parameter differentiated between CA-affected horses and controls with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 93.3%. Conclusions In conclusion, morphometric MRI and genetic analysis could be helpful to support the diagnosis of CA in vivo. PMID:23702154

  10. The Northeast Monsoon's Impact on Mixing, Phytoplankton Biomass and Nutrient Cycling in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggert, J. D.; Jones, B. H.; Dickey, T. D.; Brink, K. H.; Weller, R. A.; Marra, J.; Codispoti, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    In the northern Arabian Sea, atmospheric conditions during the Northeast (winter) Monsoon lead to deep convective mixing. Due to the proximity of the permanent pyncnocline to the sea surface, this mixing does not penetrate below 125 m. However, a strong nitracline is also present and the deep convection results in significant nitrate flux into the surface waters. This leads to nitrate concentrations over the upper 100 m that exceed 4 micrometers toward the end of the Monsoon. During the 1994/1995 US JGOFS/Arabian Sea expedition, the mean areal gross primary production over two successive Northeast Monsoons was determined to be 1.35gC/sq m/d. Thus, despite the deep penetrative convection, high rates of primary productivity were maintained. An interdisciplinary model was developed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes involved in supporting the elevated productivity. This model consists of a 1-D mixed-layer model coupled to a set of equations that tracked phytoplankton growth and the concentration of the two major nutrients (nitrate and ammonium). Zooplankton grazing was parameterized by rate constant determined by shipboard experiments. Model boundary conditions consist of meteorological time-series measured from the surface buoy that was part of the ONR Arabian Sea Experiment's central mooring. Our numerical experiments show that elevated surface evaporation, and the associated salinization of the mixed layer, strongly contributes to the frequency and penetration depth of the observed convective mixing. Cooler surface temperatures, increased nitrate entrainment, reduced water column stratification, and lower near-surface chlorophyll a concentrations all result from this enhanced mixing. The model also captured a dependence on regenerated nitrogen observed in nutrient uptake experiments performed during the Northeast Monsoon. Our numerical experiments also indicate that variability in mean pycnocline depth causes up to a 25% reduction in areal chlorophyll a

  11. New Interpretations of the Rayn Anticlines in the Arabian Basin Inferred from Gravity Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlMogren, S. M.; Mukhopadhyay, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Ryan Anticlines comprise of a regularly-spaced set of super-giant anticlines oriented NNW, developed due to E-W compression in the Arabian Basin. Most prominent of these being: the Ghawar Anticline, followed by the Summan, Khurais Anticlines and Qatar Arch. Gravity anomaly is largely characteristic for both Ryan Anticlines and its smaller size version the Jinadriah Anticline in the Riyadh Salt Basin. It displays a bipolar gravity field - a zone of gravity high running along the fold axis that is flanked by asymmetric gravity lows. Available structural models commonly infer structural uplift for the median gravity high but ignore the flanking lows. Here we interpret the bipolar gravity anomaly due primarily to such anticline structures, while, the flanking gravity lows are due to greater sediment thickness largely compacted and deformed over the basement depressions. Further complexities are created due to the salt layer and its migration at the lower horizons of sediment strata. Such diagnostic gravity anomaly pattern is taken here as an evidence for basement tectonics due to prevailing crustal dynamics in the Arabian Basin. Density inversion provides details on the subsurface density variation due to the folding and structural configuration for the sediment layers, including the salt layer, affected by basement deformation. This interpretation is largely supported by gravity forward and inversion models given in the present study what is partly constrained by the available seismic, MT and deep resistivity lines and surface geologic mapping. Most of the oil-gas fields in this part of the Arabian Basin are further known for salt diapirism. In this study the gravity interpretation help in identification of salt diapirism directly overlying the basement is firstly given here for Jinadriah Anticline; that is next extended to a regional geologic cross-section traversing the Ryan Anticlines to infer probable subsurface continuation of salt diapirs directly overlying

  12. Interactions between Eurasian/African and Arabian plates: Eskişehir Fault, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özden, Süha; Gündoğdu, Erdem; Bekler, Tolga

    2015-11-01

    The Eskişehir Fault is an active right-lateral widespread intra-continental deformation zone which separates central western Anatolia from the Aegean domain. The inversion of fault slip vectors along the Eskişehir Fault yields a strike-slip stress state with NW-trending σHmax (σ1) and NE-trending σHmin (σ3) axes since the Early Pliocene. A change in strike-slip faulting under a compressional stress regime: from old transpression to young transtension, probably occurred in the Quaternary. The inversion of the earthquake source mechanism indicates that the transtensional stress regime continues up to the present. The İnönü and Eskişehir Basins developed under the transtensional stress regime producing consistent and local normal faulting with a continuing NE-trending σHmin (σ3). The stress regime change resulted in a decrease in σHmax (σ1) and/or an increase in σHmin (σ3) stress magnitudes due to coeval influence of the superimposed plate forces and the interaction of three plates (Eurasian/African/Arabian): (1) continental collision of Eurasian/Arabian plates with Anatolian block in the east, (2) westward escape of the Anatolian block by anticlockwise rotation at the west-southwest border of the Eurasian and Arabian/African plates and (3) a complex subduction process between African and Eurasian plates along the Aegean (Hellenic) and the Cyprus arcs which favors western extrusion of the Anatolian block in the eastern Mediterranean region.

  13. Venous Thromboembolism Risk and Adequacy of Prophylaxis in High Risk Pregnancy in the Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Alsayegh, Faisal; Al-Jassar, Waleed; Wani, Salima; Tahlak, Muna; Al-Bahar, Awatef; Al-Kharusi, Lamya; Al-Tamimi, Halima; El-Taher, Faten; Mahmood, Naeema; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors in pregnancy and the proportion of pregnancies at risk of VTE that received the recommended prophylaxis according to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2012 published guidelines in antenatal clinics in the Arabian Gulf. Methods: The evaluation of venous thromboembolism (EVE)-Risk project was a non-interventional, cross-sectional, multi-centre, multi-national study of all eligible pregnant women (≥17 years) screened during antenatal clinics from 7 centres in the Arabian Gulf countries (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman). Pregnant women were recruited during a 3-month period between September and December 2012. Results: Of 4,131 screened pregnant women, 32% (n=1,337) had ≥1 risk factors for VTE. Common VTE risk factors included obesity (76%), multiparity (33%), recurrent miscarriages (9.1%), varicose veins (6.9%), thrombophilia (2.6%), immobilization (2.0%), sickle cell disease (2.8%) and previous VTE (1.6%). Only 8.3% (n=111) of the high risk patients were on the recommended VTE prophylaxis. Enoxaparin was used in 80% (n=89) of the cases followed by tinzaparin (4%; n=4). Antiplatelet agents were prescribed in 11% (n=149) of pregnant women. Of those on anticoagulants (n=111), 59% (n=66) were also co-prescribed antiplatelet agents. Side effects (mainly local bruising at the injection site) were reported in 12% (n=13) of the cases. Conclusion: A large proportion of pregnant women in the Arabian Gulf countries have ≥1 VTE risk factor with even a smaller fraction on prophylaxis. VTE risk assessment must be adopted to identify those at risk who would need VTE prophylaxis.

  14. The uplift history of the Arabian Plateau as inferred from geomorphologic analysis of its northwestern edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar, Oded; Zilberman, Ezra; Feinstein, Shimon; Calvo, Ran; Gvirtzman, Zohar

    2016-03-01

    The Arabian Plateau (AP) is an Oligocene sub-horizontal regional planation surface, extending throughout the western half of the Arabian Peninsula. Its present elevation of about 1 km required a prominent uplift since the Late Eocene. In order to reconstruct the uplift history, we documented abundant abrasive and fluvial terraces that were left along and across the raised Judea Mountains (JM), which comprised the NW edge of the AP. Using the ages of those terraces and the differences in height between them, we found that the JM was uplifted in three major phases: a few hundred meters during the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene, ~ 500 m during the Early Miocene-early Middle Miocene, and ~ 350 m during the Late Pliocene. The two earliest uplift phases predate the formation of the Dead-Sea Transform (DST), which today separates the JM from the AP, meaning that these two phases affected the continuous rigid lithosphere extending southeastwards to the AP interiors. Moreover, restoration of the paleogeography predating the lateral offset along the DST eliminates the main height differences across it and suggests that the DST does not play a major role in the vertical position of its bordering plates, but rather forms a relatively narrow deformation strip within the AP. Those two early phases of uplift can be corroborated by previous thermochronology studies, which exhibit similar ages around the Red Sea but may reflect the uplift age of the entire region. The present sub-horizontal morphology of the AP is in contrast to the presumed original northeastward drainage and may suggest a subsequent long-wave moderate tilting to the SW. Three possible mechanisms were suggested for the uplift of the AP: a long wavelength flexure of the Arabian plate during early stages of the uplift, and lithospheric thinning or dynamic topography during later stages of the uplift.

  15. Seasonal and interannual variations in the nitrogen cycle in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixen, T.; Baum, A.; Gaye, B.; Nagel, B.

    2014-10-01

    The Arabian Sea plays an important role in the marine nitrogen cycle because of its pronounced mid-water oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in which bio-available nitrate (NO3-) is reduced to dinitrogen gas (N2). As the nitrogen cycle can respond fast to climate-induced changes in productivity and circulation, the Arabian Sea sediments are an important palaeoclimatic archive. In order to understand seasonal and interannual variations in the nitrogen cycle, nutrient data were obtained from the literature published prior to 1993, evaluated, and compared with data measured during five expeditions carried out in the framework of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) in the Arabian Sea in 1995 and during a research cruise of RV Meteor in 2007. The data comparison showed that the area characterized by a pronounced secondary nitrite maximum (SNM) was by 63% larger in 1995 than a similarly determined estimate based on pre-JGOFS data. This area, referred to as the core of the denitrifying zone, showed strong seasonal and interannual variations driven by the monsoon. During the SW monsoon, the SNM retreated eastward due to the inflow of oxygen-enriched Indian Ocean Central Water (ICW). During the NE monsoon, the SNM expanded westward because of the reversal of the current regime. On an interannual timescale, a weaker SW monsoon decreased the inflow of ICW from the equatorial Indian Ocean and increased the accumulation of denitrification tracers by extending the residence time of water in the SNM. This is supported by palaeoclimatic studies showing an enhanced preservation of accumulative denitrification tracers in marine sediments in conjunction with a weakening of the SW monsoon during the late Holocene.

  16. Lithospheric and Upper-Mantle Structure of the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. E.; Schwartz, S. Y.; Rodgers, A. J.; Gaherty, J. B.; Al-Amri, A. M.

    2007-12-01

    Using broadband seismic data recorded by various networks, a variety of techniques have been employed to investigate the lithospheric and upper-mantle structure of the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula. This presentation will summarize our findings and conclusions about the tectonic evolution and current state of the Arabian Plate. S-wave receiver functions provide constraints on the lithospheric thickness and reveal very thin lithosphere (40-80 km) along the Red Sea coast, which thickens rapidly toward the interior of the Arabian Shield (100-120 km). A step of 20-40 km in lithospheric thickness is also observed at the Shield-Platform boundary. Mantle anisotropy has been analyzed using shear-wave splitting of teleseismic SKS waveforms. The consistent north-south oriented fast directions are not adequately explained by end-member models of fossilized anisotropy and present-day plate motion and have instead been explained by a combination of plate- and density-driven flow in the asthenosphere. Further constraints on the upper mantle velocity and anisotropy have been obtained by jointly inverting the receiver function constraints with frequency dependent surface wave phase delays. The results demonstrate that the thin lithospheric lid is underlain by a pronounced low-velocity zone and that anisotropy is required in both the lithosphere and asthenosphere. Attenuation and thermal estimates are also being explored and preliminary results will be presented. The combined results of these studies support a two-stage rifting history for the Red Sea, where extension and erosion by asthenospheric flow are responsible for variations in the lithospheric thickness. These lithospheric variations guide asthenospheric flow beneath western Arabia and the Red Sea, leading to a large-scale thermal anomaly that is associated with Cenozoic uplift and volcanism. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National

  17. Interannual variability in phytoplankton blooms observed in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, John C.; Mcclain, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Interannual changes in the strength and seasonal evolution of the 1979 through 1982 surface-level southwest monsoon winds are related to variations in the summer phytoplankton bloom of the northwestern Arabian Sea by synthesis of satellite ocean-color remote sensing with analysis of in-situ hydrographic and meteorological data sets. The 1979-1981 southwest monsoon phytoplankton blooms in the northwest Arabian Sea peaked during August-September, extended from the Omani coast to about 6 E, and appeared to lag the development of open-sea upwelling by at least 1 month. In all 3 years the bloom was driven by spatially distinct upward nutrient fluxes to the euphotic zone forced by the physical processes of coastal upwelling and offshore Ekman pumping. Coastal upwelling was evident from May through September, yielded the most extreme concentrations of phytoplankton biomass, and along the Omani coast was limited in its impact on upper ocean biological variability to the continental shelf. Ekman pumping stimulated the development of a broad open-ocean component of the southwest monsoon phytoplankton bloom oceanward of the Omani shelf. Phytoplankton biomass on the Omani continental shelf was increased during both the early and late phases of the 1980 southwest monsoon due to stronger coastal upwelling under the most intense southwesterly winds of the four summers investigated. Diminished coastal upwelling during the early phase of the weak 1982 southwest monsoon resulted in a coastal bloom that reached a mean phytoplankton-pigment concentration that was 28 percent of that seen in 1980. The lack of a strong regional northwestern Arabian Sea bloom in late summer 1982 is attributed to the development of persistent, shallow temperature stratification that rendered Ekman pumping less effective in driving upward nutrient fluxes.

  18. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 86 billion barrels of oil and 336 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations within the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt as part of the USGS World Petroleum Resources Project. Twenty-three assessment units within seven petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed in this study, which represents a reassessment of this area last published in 2000.

  19. New synonyms of two Arabian ants of the genus Monomorium Mayr, 1855 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Collingwood, Cedric A.; Al Dhafer, Hathal M.; Al mutairi, Mohammed S.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Synonymy of two Arabian Monomorium Mayr, 1855 species is proposed: Monomorium exiguum Forel, 1894 = Monomorium desertorum Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, syn. n.; Monomorium subopacum Smith, 1858 = Monomorium mintiribe Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, syn. n. A lectotype for Monomorium venustum Smith, 1858 is designated. Information on nesting habits of Monomorium exiguum and Monomorium venustum in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are provided for the first time. Recently collected records for Monomorium exiguum, Monomorium subopacum, and Monomorium venustum from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates are listed. PMID:26052238

  20. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, X.; L'Hegaret, P.; Baraille, R.

    2012-03-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described. The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, where intense and relatively barotropic gyres mix it with Indian ocean Central Water. RSOW is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSOW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the sea-level anomaly measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are not sampled by altimetry and are often related to the anomalous water masses that the floats encounter. The Persian Gulf Water (PGW) is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N), again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18-19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW were also observed in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E in summer, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, during that season. Kinetic energy distributions of floats with respect to distance or angle share common features between the two regions (Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea), in particular peaks at 30, 50 and 150 km scales and along the axis of monsoon currents. Hydrological measurements by floats are also influenced by the seasonal variations of PGW and RSOW in these regions.

  1. Geochronologic and isotopic evidence for early Proterozoic crust in the eastern Arabian Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, J.S.; Hedge, C.E.

    1984-05-01

    The authors report zircon U-Pb, feldspar common Pb, whole-rock Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr data from sample Z-103, a fine-grained granodiorite from the Jabal Khida region of the Saudi Arabian Shield (lat 21/sup 0/19'N; long 44/sup 0/50'W). The measurements yield conclusive evidence for continental crust of early Proterozoic age (approx.1630 Ma) at that locality. Furthermore, lead-isotope data indicate an even earlier, perhaps Archean, crustal history for the source of the lower Proterozoic rocks. 17 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas; Coury, Anny B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels): 72, 337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The assessment of undiscovered resource potential assumes that the new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays; no additional plays with significant petroleum potential were recognized. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub' al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for

  3. Monitoring of oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf based on medium resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of inland and offshore oil fields are located in the Arabian Gulf where about 25% of the world's oil is produced by the countries surrounding the Arabian Gulf region. Almost all of this oil production is shipped by sea worldwide through the Strait of Hormuz making the region vulnerable to environmental and ecological threats that might arise from accidental or intentional oil spills. Remote sensing technologies have the unique capability to detect and monitor oil pollutions over large temporal and spatial scales. Synoptic satellite imaging can date back to 1972 when Landsat-1 was launched. Landsat satellite missions provide long time series of imagery with a spatial resolution of 30 m. MODIS sensors onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites provide a wide and frequent coverage at medium spatial resolution, i.e. 250 m and 500, twice a day. In this study, the capability of medium resolution MODIS and Landsat data in detecting and monitoring oil pollutions in the Arabian Gulf was tested. Oil spills and slicks show negative or positive contrasts in satellite derived RGB images compared with surrounding clean waters depending on the solar/viewing geometry, oil thickness and evolution, etc. Oil-contaminated areas show different spectral characteristics compared with surrounding waters. Rayleigh-corrected reflectance at the seven medium resolution bands of MODIS is lower in oil affected areas. This is caused by high light absorption of oil slicks. 30-m Landsat image indicated the occurrence of oil spill on May 26 2000 in the Arabian Gulf. The oil spill showed positive contrast and lower temperature than surrounding areas. Floating algae index (FAI) images are also used to detect oil pollution. Oil-contaminated areas were found to have lower FAI values. To track the movement of oil slicks found on October 21 2007, ocean circulations from a HYCOM model were examined and demonstrated that the oil slicks were advected toward the coastal areas of United Arab

  4. Diurnal changes in the hematological indices in the blood of racing Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Gill, J; Rastawicka, M

    1986-01-01

    In 8 stallions and 6 mares of pure Arabian horses the diurnal changes in the number and certain parameters of red and white blood cells were studied. All of them showed distinct diurnal changes but they did not fulfill the conditions of circadian rhythm according to Halberg. It was found that most of peaks occurred during the dark phase of 24 hr period except the percentage of eosinophils, erythrocyte diameters and cell rate sedimentation. The majority of indices studied showed the higher mean diurnal levels in the mares than in the stallions. PMID:3606980

  5. Diurnal changes in the metabolic indices in the blood of racing Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Gill, J; Cedro, H; Piróg, B

    1984-01-01

    In 8 stallions and 6 mares of pure Arabian breed the diurnal changes in the levels of lactic and pyruvic acid, glucose, and alkaline reserve were studied. All of them showed distinct diurnal changes but they failed to fulfil the criteria of circadian rhythm according to Halberg. It was found that all peaks occurred during the dark phase of the 24 h period except the glucose level in the stallions. Three of the indices studied showed higher mean diurnal levels in the mares than in the stallions. Only in the glucose level the mean values were reversed. PMID:6543601

  6. Characterization of male reproductive anatomy of the endangered Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Eljarah, A; Al-Zghoul, M B; Jawasreh, K; Ababneh, M; Alsumadi, M; Alhalah, A; Ismail, Z Bani

    2012-07-01

    Reproductive tracts of four male Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Shaumari Nature Reserve in Jordan were examined to characterize their reproductive anatomy. Animals were allocated into two groups based on their age: Group 1 (n = 2, males were 12 and 14 mo old) and Group 2 (n = 2, males were 7 and 9 yrs old). Observations regarding the morphology, position and orientation of different reproductive organs were made. The external and internal genital organs of male oryx were similar to other domestic ruminant species with minor differences. PMID:22444562

  7. Orogen-parallel Variation in Flexure of the Arabian Plate Beneath the Zagros Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirouz, M.; Avouac, J. P.; Simpson, G.; Hassanzadeh, J.; Herman, F.; Sternai, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Zagros Mountains are the part of the Alpine-Himalayan chain that forms the northern margin of the Arabian plate and comprises a Neogene-Recent sedimentary basin that is forming in response to ongoing Arabia-Eurasia collision. Flexure of the Arabian lithosphere beneath the Zagros forms one of largest and most active basins in the world at which a backstripped deflection of a competent layer just below the foreland deposits represents its total amount of tectonic subsidence. As such, the Asmari Fm. can be used to analyze flexural bending and subsequently the amount of loading and elastic thickness of the Arabian lithosphere since the continent-continent collision started. In this study, flexure of the Arabian lithosphere is investigated using more than 100 boreholes and 60 interpreted seismic lines which show that the flexure is shallower (~ 1 km) and wider in the east and deeper (~6 km) and narrower towards the west (Figure 1). The shallow and wide eastern foredeep has little accommodation space due to small tectonic loads and the thick lithosphere in this region. In addition, viscous strength in the eastern sector leads to a wide deformation belt with low topography and low surface slopes. These factors, combined with arid climatic conditions, produce low sediment supply to the foreland basin so that it remains under-filled even though the foreland basin is shallow. In contrast, the western part of the Zagros region shows much larger accommodation space due to the combination of large loads and a relatively thin elastic plate. In the western sector, frictional basal strength and steeper topography along with more humid climatic conditions leading to a large supply of sediment to the foreland which is completely filled even though the foreland basin is deep. Our results also show that the Zagros foreland basin migrated towards south through the Neogene; however, the way of propagation is not fully understood yet. The eastern depocenter of the Zagros foreland

  8. Problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Hassab, M.A.; Tag, I.A.; Kamal, W.A. ); Al-Noaimi, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper highlights the main problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region, characterized by hot, windy, and dusty environment. These problems are excessive erosion of the gradient zone, the formation of sizeable localized convective zones, the deterioration of pond water clarity and the high rates of surface evaporation. These weather-related problems severely impair the pond operation, as they lead to a serious drop in its collection and storage efficiency, and an excessive increase in salt consumption. Experience gained from operating a 1,600 m{sup 2} pond and a small-scale experimental pond is presented.

  9. Multiple regression approach to optimize drilling operations in the Arabian Gulf area

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Betairi, E.A.; Moussa, M.M.; Al-Otaibi, S.

    1988-03-01

    This paper reports a successful application of multiple regression analysis, supported by a detailed statistical study to verify the Bourgoyne and Young model. The model estimates the optimum penetration rate (ROP), weight on bit (WOB), and rotary speed under the effect of controllable and uncontrollable factors. Field data from three wells in the Arabian Gulf were used and emphasized the validity of this model. The model coefficients are sensitive to the number of points included. The correlation coefficients and multicollinearity sensitivity of each drilling parameter on the ROP are studied.

  10. Saudi Arabian seismic-refraction profile: A traveltime interpretation of crustal and upper mantle structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, W.D.; Gettings, M.E.; Blank, H.R.; Healy, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The crustal and upper mantle compressional-wave velocity structure across the southwestern Arabian Shield has been investigated by a 1000-km-long seismic refraction profile. The profile begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, trends southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan, and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, and six shot points were used, including one in the Red Sea. Two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques, used to analyze amplitude-normalized record sections indicate that the Arabian Shield is composed, to first order, of two layers, each about 20 km thick, with average velocities of about 6.3 km/s and 7.0 km/s, respectively. West of the Shield-Red Sea margin, the crust thins to a total thickness of less than 20 km, beyond which the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain are interpreted to be underlain by oceanic crust. A major crustal inhomogeneity at the northeast end of the profile probably represents the suture zone between two crustal blocks of different composition. Elsewhere along the profile, several high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust correlate with mapped gneiss domes, the most prominent of which is the Khamis Mushayt gneiss. Based on their velocities, these domes may constitute areas where lower crustal rocks have been raised some 20 km. Two intracrustal reflectors in the center of the Shield at 13 km depth probably represent the tops of mafic intrusives. The Mohorovic??ic?? discontinuity beneath the Shield varies from a depth of 43 km and mantle velocity of 8.2 km/s in the northeast to a depth of 38 km and mantle velocity of 8.0 km/s depth in the southwest near the Shield-Red Sea transition. Two velocity discontinuities occur in the upper mantle, at 59 and 70 km depth. The crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the Arabian Shield is

  11. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and hypoplastic right ventricle in an Arabian foal.

    PubMed

    Krüger, M U; Wünschmann, A; Ward, C; Stauthammer, C D

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, rudimentary tricuspid valve, hypoplastic right ventricle, and right-to-left atrial shunting were identified in a four-day-old, male Arabian foal with clinical signs of cyanotic heart disease. Pulmonary blood flow was apparently derived from a ductus arteriosus. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed the majority of cardiac abnormalities and also findings compatible with right-sided congestive heart failure. Congenital cardiac defects have a high incidence in this breed, and this is the first description of this combination of congenital cardiac defects. PMID:27283083

  12. Peralkaline and peraluminous granites and related mineral deposits of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.

    1983-01-01

    Existing geochemical and geologic data for many parts of the Arabian Shield were compiled as a basis for evaluating the resource potential of the granites of the Shield. Commodities associated with granites that have potential for economic mineral deposits include tin, tungsten, molybdenum, beryllium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, uranium, thorium, rare-earth elements, and fluorite. Prospecting methods useful in discriminating those granites having significant economic potential include reconnaissance geologic mapping, petrographic and mineralogic studies, geochemical sampling of rock and wadi sediment, and radiometric surveying.

  13. Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Saudi Arabian children younger than 5years of age.

    PubMed

    Almazrou, Yagob; Shibl, Atef M; Alkhlaif, Riyadh; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Anis, Sameh; Kandeil, Walid; Hausdorff, William P

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the incidence, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Saudi Arabian children. This multicenter, prospective, clinical surveillance study included children under 5years of age, residents of one of the seven study health areas, who were brought to a study hospital with suspicion of IPD. Bacterial isolates from sterile site samples, collected less than 24h after hospital visit/admission, were identified, serotyped, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Between June 2007 and January 2009, 631 episodes of suspected IPD were recorded, and 623 were included in the analysis. One child (0.2%) had previously received one dose of a pneumococcal vaccine. Forty-seven episodes were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae and three for Haemophilus influenzae. The incidence of confirmed IPD cases was estimated to be 2.5-21.6 per 100,000 children (<5years). Among the 46 S. pneumoniae isolates serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility, the most common serotypes were 5 and 23F (20% each), 6B (17%), and 1 and 14 (11% each). Sixty-three percent of isolates were multidrug-resistant. Vaccination of Saudi Arabian children with expanded-coverage conjugate pneumococcal vaccines containing serotypes 1 and 5 could have a substantial impact to prevent IPD in this population. PMID:26368823

  14. Lower Carboniferous rugose corals from the Arabian Plate: An insight from the Hakkari area (SE Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denayer, Julien; Hoşgör, Izzet

    2014-01-01

    The Köprülü Formation of the Hakkari area (SE Turkey) is composed of a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic succession of Early Carboniferous age. The lower part of the formation yielded an abundant but poorly diversified coral fauna composed of small non-dissepimented solitary rugose corals, namely Rotiphyllum cf. simulatumFedorowski 2009, Zaphrentites parallela (Carruthers, 1910), cf. Gorizdronia, gen. et sp. indet., Amplexizaphrentis sp. and Amplexizaphrentis zapense sp. nov. and specimens of Caninia cf. cornucopiaeMichelin in Gervais 1840, a dissepimented solitary coral showing a counter septum-related columella. The lower part of the Köprülü Formation is of supposed late Tournaisian age based on micropaleontological data. However, the coral assemblage indicates rather an early Viséan age. The Hakkari corals form a strongly facies-related association ("Cyathaxonia fauna") and are compared to other areas with some difficulties. The most similar, time-equivalent faunal associations is that of the Sinai Peninsula (NE Egypt). Both localities belonged, during Early Carboniferous times, to the Arabian Platform situated along the northern margin of Gondwana. The Gondwana-related Taurides units (Aladağ), North Iran Block and Afghanistan, characterized by a dominant carbonate facies and more diversified coral faunas, formed during these times, the distal parts of the Arabian Platform.

  15. Simulating aerosols over Arabian Peninsula with CHIMERE: Sensitivity to soil, surface parameters and anthropogenic emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegum, S. Naseema; Gherboudj, Imen; Chaouch, Naira; Couvidat, Florian; Menut, Laurent; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-03-01

    A three dimensional chemistry transport model, CHIMERE, was used to simulate the aerosol optical depths (AOD) over the Arabian Peninsula desert with an offline coupling of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The simulations were undertaken with: (i) different horizontal and vertical configurations, (ii) new datasets derived for soil/surface properties, and (iii) EDGAR-HTAP anthropogenic emissions inventories. The model performance evaluations were assessed: (i) qualitatively using MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) deep blue (DB) AOD data for the two local dust events of August 6th and 23rd (2013), and (ii) quantitatively using AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) AOD observations, CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) aerosol extinction profiles, and AOD simulations from various forecast models. The model results were observed to be highly sensitive to erodibility and aerodynamic surface roughness length. The use of new datasets on soil erodibility, derived from the MODIS reflectance, and aerodynamic surface roughness length (z0), derived from the ERA-Interim datasets, significantly improved the simulation results. Simulations with the global EDGAR-HTAP anthropogenic emission inventories brought the simulated AOD values closer to the observations. Performance testing of the adapted model for the Arabian Peninsula domain with improved datasets showed good agreement between AERONET AOD measurements and CHIMERE simulations, where the correlation coefficient (R) is 0.6. Higher values of the correlation coefficients and slopes were observed for the dusty periods compared to the non-dusty periods.

  16. Distribution and Phase Association of Some Major and Trace Elements in the Arabian Gulf Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basaham, A. S.; El-Sayed, M. A.

    1998-02-01

    Twenty-four sediment samples were collected from the Arabian Gulf (ROPME Sea) and analysed for their grain size distribution and carbonate contents as well as the major elements Ca, Mg, Fe and Al and macro and trace elements Mn, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cu, Cr, V, Ni and Hg. Concentration of trace elements are found comparable to previous data published for samples taken before and after the Gulf War, and reflect the natural background level. Grain size analyses, aluminium and carbonate measurements support the presence of two major sediment types: (1) a terrigenous, fine-grained and Al rich type predominating along the Iranian side; and (2) a coarse-grained and carbonate rich type predominating along the Arabian side of the Gulf. Investigation of the correlation of the elements analysed with the sediment type indicates that they could be grouped under two distinct associations: (1) carbonate association including Ca and Sr; and (2) terrigenous association comprising Al, Fe, Mg, Ba, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V, Ni and Hg. Element/Al ratios calculated for the mud non-carbonate fraction indicate that the Euphrates and Tigris rivers have minor importance as sediment sources to the Gulf. Most of the elements have exceptionally high aluminium ratios in sediments containing more than 85-90% carbonate. These sediments are restricted to the southern and south-eastern part of the area where depth is shallow and temperature and salinity are high. Both biological accumulation and chemical and biochemical coprecipitation could be responsible for this anomaly.

  17. Dust Optical Properties Over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula Derived from the AERONET Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, D.; Chin, M.; Yu, H.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2011-01-01

    Dust optical properties over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula are extracted from the quality assured multi-year datasets obtained at 14 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). We select the data with (a) large aerosol optical depth (AOD >= 0.4 at 440 nm) and (b) small Angstrom exponent (A(sub ext)<= 0.2) for retaining high accuracy and reducing interference of non-dust aerosols. The result indicates that the major fraction of high aerosol optical depth days are dominated by dust over these sites even though it varies depending on location and time. We have found that the annual mean and standard deviation of single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, real refractive index, and imaginary refractive index for Saharan and Arabian desert dust is 0.944 +/- 0.005, 0.752 +/- 0.014, 1.498 +/- 0.032, and 0.0024 +/- 0.0034 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively. Dust aerosol selected by this method is less absorbing than the previously reported values over these sites. The weaker absorption of dust from this study is consistent with the studies using remote sensing techniques from satellite. These results can help to constrain uncertainties in estimating global dust shortwave radiative forcing.

  18. Garnet compositions and their use as indicators of peraluminous granitoid petrogenesis - southeastern Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Garnet, an uncommon accessory mineral in igneous rocks, occurs in seven small peraluminous granitoid plutons in the southeastern Arabian Shield; textural equilibrium between garnet and other host granitoid minerals indicates that the garnets crystallized from their host magmas. Compositions of the garnets form three groups that reflect host-granitoid compositions, which in turn reflect source compositions and tectonic regimes in which the host magmas were generated. Garnets from the seven plutons have almandine-rich cores and spessartine-rich rims. This reverse zoning depicts host magma compositional evolution; i.e. rimward spessartine enrichment resulted from progressive, host-magma manganese enrichment. The garnets are heavy rare-earth element enriched; (Lu/La)N ranges from 13 to 355 and one of the garnets contains spectacularly elevated abundances of Y, Ta, Th, U, Zn, Zr, Hf, Sn, and Nb. Involvement of garnets with these trace element characteristics in magma genesis or evolution can have dramatic effects on trace element signatures of the resulting magmas. Other researchers suggest that Mn-enriched magmas are most conducive to garnet nucleation. Although the garnetiferous granitoids discussed here are slightly Mn enriched, other genetically similar peraluminous Arabian granitoids lack garnet; Mn enrichment alone does not guarantee garnet nucleation. The presence of excess alumina in the magma may be a prerequisite for garnet nucleation. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  19. An evaluation of the zircon method of isotopic dating in the Southern Arabian Craton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, J.A.; Stacey, J.S.; Stoeser, D.G.; Fleck, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A zircon study has been made on eleven samples of igneous rocks from the Saudi Arabian Craton. Ages of sized and magnetic fractions of zircon concentrates show variable degrees of discordance which seem to result from a very young disturbance that produces linear arrays in the Concordia plot. Model age calculations based on a statistically and geologically reasonable lower intercept produce very consistent internal relationships. The Pan African Orogeny, considered to be responsible for loss of radiogenic argon and strontium from minerals of many rocks, does not appear to have affected the zircon data, even though uplift had exposed the rocks of the Arabian Shield at that time. Tonalite, granodiorite, and crosscutting leucoadamellite bodies in the southern part of the An Nimas Bathylith yield ages in the time range 820-760 Ma. A narrow time range of 660 to 665 million years was indicated for ages of widely separated and compositionally different intrusive bodies all to the east of the An Nimas Bathylith. This work suggests that the younger end of the age spectrum established from regional K-Ar and Rb-Sr measurements may be underestimated, and that magmatic activity could be more episodic than previously assumed.

  20. Parameters influencing prevalence and outcome of tendonitis in Thoroughbred and Arabian racehorses.

    PubMed

    Kalisiak, O

    2012-01-01

    Flexor tendonitis and suspensory desmitis are among most prevalent musculoskeletal injuries observed in racehorses. The aim of this study was to determine which horse and race-related parameters can help to diminish the possibility of injury or--when injury has occurred--to evaluate the potential for the horse to continue a successful career after convalescence. Special attention was given to the comparison of Arabian and Thoroughbred racehorses. 187 horses with ultrasonographically visible lesions were included in the study. Following parameters were analyzed: structure (Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon [SDFT], Deep Digital Flexor Tendon [DDFT], Suspensory Ligament [SL]); percentage of cross sectional area increase; hypoechogenic lesion character; in horses with SDF tendonitis - tendonitis grade according to Genovese. This study showed that Thoroughbreds are more at risk of musculoskeletal problems than Arabian racehorses. In both breeds, the most frequent injuries concern SDFT, then SL. Over 95% of tendonitis concern forelimbs. In Thoroughbreds, the prevalence of tendonitis is higher in bigger horses, in males when compared to females and in fence/steeple racehorses when compared to flat track racehorses. The inside limb is more at risk of SDF tendonitis, when the external limb - of SL desmitis. Tendonitis severity increases with age and is greater in steeplechasers when compared to flat track racehorses. The outcome of tendonitis without hypoechogenic lesion is much better than that with hypoechogenic lesion. Evaluation of hypoechogenic lesion length is an easy and accurate prognosis tool, as the chances of returning to racing drop dramatically with lesions longer than 12 cm. PMID:22708365

  1. Estimation of genetic parameters for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in pure blood Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Sallé, Guillaume; Skalska, Marta; David, Ingrid; Ricard, Anne; Cabaret, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Equine internal parasites, mostly cyathostomins, affect both horse welfare and performance. The appearance of anthelmintic-resistant parasites creates a pressing need for optimising drenching schemes. This optimization may be achieved by identifying genetic markers associated with host susceptibility to infection and then to drench carriers of these markers. The aim of our study was to characterise the genetics of horse resistance to strongyle infection by estimating heritability of this trait in an Arabian pure blood population. A population of 789 Arabian pure blood horses from the Michałów stud farm, Poland were measured for strongyle egg excretion twice a year, over 8 years. Low repeatability values were found for faecal egg counts. Our analyses showed that less than 10% of the observed variation for strongyle faecal egg counts in this population had a genetic origin. However, additional analyses highlighted an age-dependent increase in heritability which was 0.04 (±0.02) in young horses (up to 3 years of age) but 0.21 (±0.04) in older ones. These results suggest that a significant part of the inter-individual variation has a genetic origin. This paves the way to a genomic dissection of horse-nematode interactions which might provide predictive markers of susceptibility, allowing individualised drenching schemes. PMID:25592965

  2. Monsoon-driven vertical fluxes of organic pollutants in the western Arabian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Dachs, J.; Bayona, J.M.; Ittekkot, V.; Albaiges, J.

    1999-11-15

    A time series of sinking particles from the western Arabian Sea was analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4{prime}-DDT and 4,4{prime}-DDE, to assess the role of monsoons on their vertical flux in the Indian Ocean. Concurrently, molecular markers such as sterols and linear and branched alkanes were analyzed enabling the characterization of the biogenic sources and biogeochemical processes occurring during the sampling period. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data set of concentrations and fluxes of these compounds confirmed a seasonal variability driven by the SW and NE monsoons. Moreover, the influence of different air masses is evidenced by the occurrence of higher concentrations of DDT, PCBs, and pyrolytic PAHs during the NE monsoon and of fossil hydrocarbons during the SW monsoon. Total annual fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea represent an important removal contribution of persistent organic pollutants, thus not being available for the global distillation process (volatilization and atmospheric transport from low or mid latitudes to cold areas). Therefore, monsoons may play a significant role on the global cycle of organic pollutants.

  3. Rapid late Pleistocene/Holocene uplift and coastal evolution of the southern Arabian (Persian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren W.; Bailey, Richard M.; Hampton, Brian A.; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Lu, Zhong; Clark, David W.; James, Rhodri H. R.; Al Ramadan, Khalid

    2012-03-01

    The coastline along the southern Arabian Gulf between Al Jubail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Dubai, UAE, appears to have risen at least 125 m in the last 18,000 years. Dating and topographic surveying of paleo-dunes (43-53 ka), paleo-marine terraces (17-30 ka), and paleo-marine shorelines (3.3-5.5 ka) document a rapid, > 1 mm/a subsidence, followed by a 6 mm/a uplift that is decreasing with time. The mechanism causing this movement remains elusive but may be related to the translation of the coastal area through the backbasin to forebulge hinge line movement of the Arabian plate or, alternatively, by movement of the underlying Infracambrian-age Hormuz salt in response to sea-level changes associated with continental glaciation. Independent of the mechanism, rapid and episodic uplift may impact the design of engineering projects such as nuclear power plants, airports, and artificial islands as well as the interpretation of sedimentation and archeology of the area.

  4. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected. PMID:26895593

  5. Variations in productivity and eolian fluxes in the northeastern Arabian Sea during the past 110 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmand, Ali; Marcantonio, Franco; Schulz, Hartmut

    2004-04-01

    High-resolution (one to two samples/ka) radionuclide proxy records from core 93KL in the northeastern Arabian Sea provide evidence for millennial climate variability over the past 110 ka. We interpret 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes as a proxy for eolian input, and authigenic uranium concentrations as a proxy for past productivity. We attribute orbital and suborbital variations in both proxies to changes in the intensity of the southwest Indian Ocean monsoon. The highest 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes occur at times that are consistent with the timing of the Younger Dryas, Heinrich events 1-7 and cold Dansgaard-Oeschger stadial events recorded in the GISP2 ice core. Such high dust fluxes may be due to a weakened southwest monsoon in conjunction with strengthened northwesterlies from the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia. Authigenic uranium concentrations, on the other hand, are highest during warm Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials when the southwest monsoon is intensified relative to the northwesterly winds. Our results also indicate that on orbital timescales maximum average eolian fluxes coincide with the timing of marine isotopic stage (MIS) 2 and 4, while minimum fluxes occur during MIS 1, 3 and 5. Although the forcing mechanism(s) controlling suborbital variabilities in monsoonal intensity is still debated, our findings suggest an atmospheric teleconnection between the low-latitude southwest monsoon and North Atlantic climate.

  6. Locomotor, cardiocirculatory and metabolic adaptations to training in Andalusian and Anglo-Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, A; Santisteban, R; Rubio, M D; Agüera, E I; Escribano, B M; Castejón, F M

    1999-02-01

    The effects of two training programmes in 20 Andalusian and 12 Anglo-Arabian horses were evaluated by an increasing intensity work test at velocities of 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 m sec(-1). Heart rate was monitored and blood samples were drawn at rest and after each velocity to analyse packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, plasma lactate and potassium levels. Furthermore, the programmes were video-taped and stride length, duration and frequency, stance (restraint and propulsion), swing phase durations and stride vertical component were measured. The training protocol of the Andalusian horses produced significant decreases in the cardiovascular, haematological and metabolic responses to exercise. Locomotory training adaptation consisted of an increased stride frequency and a reduced stride length and vertical stride component. The last variable was the limiting factor of stride length both before and after training in the Andalusian horses. A different training protocol for show-jumping competition in Anglo-Arabian horses failed to show significant differences in the studied parameters to the work test, although an increase in stride length at velocities of over 6 m sec(-1) was observed. Stride vertical component did not have an effect on the physiological response to exercise, either before or after training. PMID:10088708

  7. Simulation of impact of oil spill in the ocean--a case study of Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Verma, Parikshit; Wate, Satish R; Devotta, Sukumar

    2008-11-01

    To meet the growing energy demand worldwide, oil and gas exploration and production activities have increased rapidly both in onshore and offshore areas. The produced oil from the ocean bed is transported onshore either by ship or pipeline. This has increased the risk of oil spill in the coastal area. In order to prepare an emergency preparedness plan and to assess the magnitude of risk involved in transporting and offloading oil, oil spill simulation studies play an important role. This paper describes a simulation of oil spill in coastal bay of Arabian Gulf where new developments are taking place using MIKE 21 model. The developments include a diesel based thermal power plant near Sir Baniyas Island, which is an ecological fragile area. Based on the project activity, two probable scenarios, one for diesel leak (250 m3/h) for 1 h and the other for instantaneous spill (500 m3) are considered. The MIKE 21 model was calibrated for hydrodynamics using measured field data followed by diesel-spill simulation to track its movement in the Arabian Gulf. The results for both leak and instantaneous spill indicate that spilled diesel will not move towards the Sir Banyas Island and more than 45% of the diesel will be evaporated within 48 h of oil spill. Based on the results, a clean up and contingency plan is proposed to mitigate the adverse impacts arising due to diesel spill in the study area. PMID:18095178

  8. Oblique sinistral transpression in the Arabian shield: The timing and kinematics of a Neoproterozoic suture zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, P.R.; Kattan, F.

    2001-01-01

    The Hulayfah-Ad Dafinah-Ruwah fault zone is a belt of highly strained rocks that extends in a broad curve across the northeastern Arabian shield. It is a subvertical shear zone, 5-30 km wide and over 600 km long, and is interpreted as a zone of oblique sinistral transpression that forms the suture between the Afif terrane and the Asir-Jiddah-Hijaz-Hulayfah superterrane. Available data suggest that the terranes began to converge sometime after 720 Ma, were in active contact at about 680 Ma, and were in place, with suturing complete, by 630 Ma, The fault zone was affected by sinistral horizontal and local vertical shear, and simultaneous flattening and fault-zone-parallel extension. Structures include sinistral sense-of-shear indicators, L-S tectonite, and coaxial stretching lineations and fold axes. The stretching lineations switch from subhorizontal to subvertical along the fault zone indicating significant variation in finite strain consistent with an origin by oblique transpression. The sense of shear on the fault zone suggests sinistral trajectories for the converging terranes, although extrapolating the shear sense of the suture zone to infer far-field motion must be done with caution. The amalgamation model derived from the chronologic and structural data for the fault zone modifies an existing model of terrane amalgamation and clarifies the definitions of two deformational events (the Nabitah orogeny and the Najd fault system) that are widely represented in the Arabian shield. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Seasonal characteristics of the large-scale moisture flux transport over the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, H.; Ammar, K.

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between the lower tropospheric (1000 to 850 hPa) large-scale moisture flux transport and the precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula (AP), on a seasonal basis, using the NCEP-NCAR gridded dataset for the 53-year period (1958-2010), is investigated. The lower tropospheric moisture flux divergence occurs due to the Hadley cell-based descending air over the AP, as well as due to the presence of Somali jet in dry season (June to September) for the southern (≤22° N) AP domain, leading to significantly reduced precipitation in the AP. The AP thus acts more as a net transporter of moisture flux from adjacent Sea areas to nearby regions. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Artic Oscillation (AO) climatic indices are found to modulate significantly the net seasonal moisture flux into the AP region animating from the Mediterranean Sea, and the Arabian Sea, both for the northern (≥22° N) and southern AP domains.

  10. Regional caprock-destroying dolomite on the middle jurassic to early cretaceous Arabian shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Broomhall, R.W.; Allan, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    Massive, stratigraphically-discordant dolomite occurs on the late Mesozoic Arabian Shelf in the northern portion of Aramco's main producing area. This dolomite is associated with solution-collapse of Hith-Arab anhydrite seals and with enhancement of porosity and permeability in tight limestone seals within the region. By destroying regional caprocks, dolomitization has had an adverse effect on oil accumulation. The spatial extent of this dolomite was determined by the examination of Formation Density/Compensated Neutron wireline logs and sample description logs from 50 onshore and offshore wells. Fluid inclusion geothermometry reveals that baroque dolomite precipitated from brine with salinities of 223,000 to 249,000 ppm TDS at temperatures of 102 to 134/sup 0/C onshore and 131 to 155/sup 0/C offshore. Petroleum fluid inclusions within the baroque dolomite indicate hydrocarbon migration contemporaneous with dolomitization. Carbon and oxygen isotope data suggest that that brine which precipitated baroque dolomite was also responsible for the massive recrystallization of shelf limestone to form host dolomite. Chemical analyses of formation waters suggest that brine which migrated out of halite deposits during burial was the dolomitizing fluid. The geological and geochemical attributes of Arabian Shelf dolomites strongly resemble those reported for dolomite associated with Alpine and Mississippi Valley-type carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits in Europe and North America.

  11. Paleogeography and depositional environments of the Lower Cretaceous Thamama Group, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Nairn, A.E.M.; Alsharhan, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    In the Arabian Gulf it is possible to trace the lithological variations in the Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian to Aptian) Thamama Group outward from the type area in Abu Dhabi-Qatar using the wealth of available sub-surface data. It is apparent that the stratigraphic complexities found in correlations of the Lower Cretaceous are only in small part related to depositional problems; rather, to a considerable extent, they reflect the history of geological exploration. The basic paleogeographic situation from littoral conditions against the Precambrian Shield into carbonate ramp sediments to the east, and their relative migration across the Arabian Platform, can be summarized in a number of cartoons. Two principal cycles can be defined, the younger beginning in the Barremian with an extensive clastic wedge. The principal source of sediment lay to the west and northwest. Sandstones are only common in the littoral zone; over much of the shelf, even argillaceous material is relatively uncommon. Of great economic importance was the development of biohermal algae and rudists which accumulated along the margins of an intracratonic basin late in the second cycle. Following deep weathering and resubmergence, these became important hydrocarbon reservoirs (e.g., Bu Hasa field). Arguments can be derived for smaller biohermal accumulations within the intracratonic basin being due to halokinetic activity.

  12. A field experiment to assess impact of chemically dispersed oil on Arabian Gulf corals

    SciTech Connect

    Le Gore, R.S.; Cuddeback, J.E.; Hofmann, J.E.; Marszalek, D.S.

    1983-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted on a coral reef at Jurayd Island (Saudi Arabia) in the Arabian Gulf to study the effects of chemically dispersed oil on local corals. Portions of the reef were exposed to predetermined concentrations of oil alone, dispersant alone, and oil-plus-dispersant mixtures. Areas of the reef not exposed to any of the toxicants were used as controls. Arabian Light Crude and Corexit 9527 dispersant were the test toxicants. Two series of experiments were conducted beginning in September 1981, one with a 24-hour exposure period and the other with a 5-day (120-hour) exposure period. Corals were stained for growth rate studies and extensively photographed to document any observed effects. Corals were examined for biological impacts immediately after the exposures, and then at 3-month intervals for 1 year. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and hydrocarbon content were recorded during the exposure periods. Coral growth appeared unaffected by exposure to the toxicants. Some Acropora species corals exposed to dispersed oil for 5 days exhibited delayed effects, which became apparent during the relatively cold winter season.

  13. Mapping of Coral Reef Environment in the Arabian Gulf Using Multispectral Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Romdhane, H.; Marpu, P. R.; Ghedira, H.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2016-06-01

    Coral reefs of the Arabian Gulf are subject to several pressures, thus requiring conservation actions. Well-designed conservation plans involve efficient mapping and monitoring systems. Satellite remote sensing is a cost-effective tool for seafloor mapping at large scales. Multispectral remote sensing of coastal habitats, like those of the Arabian Gulf, presents a special challenge due to their complexity and heterogeneity. The present study evaluates the potential of multispectral sensor DubaiSat-2 in mapping benthic communities of United Arab Emirates. We propose to use a spectral-spatial method that includes multilevel segmentation, nonlinear feature analysis and ensemble learning methods. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used for comparison of classification performances. Comparative data were derived from the habitat maps published by the Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi. The spectral-spatial method produced 96.41% mapping accuracy. SVM classification is assessed to be 94.17% accurate. The adaptation of these methods can help achieving well-designed coastal management plans in the region.

  14. Deformation history of the Neoproterozoic basement complex, Ain Shams area, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; Hamimi, Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Ain Shams area, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia, is occupied by four main rock units; gneisses, metavolcanics, metasediments and syn- to post-tectonic granitoids. Field and structural studies reveal that the area was subjected to at least three phases of deformation (D1, D2 and D3). The structural features of the D1 are represented by tight to isoclinal and intrafolial folds (F1), axial plane foliation (S1) and stretching lineations (L1). This phase is believed to be resulted from an early NW-SE contractional phase due to the amalgamation between Asir and Jeddah tectonic terranes. D2 deformation phase progressively overprinted D1 structures and was dominated by thrusts, minor and major F2 thrust-related overturned folds. These structures indicate a top-to-the-NW movement direction and compressional regime during the D2 phase. Emplacement of the syn-tectonic granitoids is likely to have occurred during this phase. D3 structures are manifested F3 folds, which are open with steep to subvertical axial planes and axes moderately to steeply plunging towards the E, ENE and ESE directions, L3 is represented by crenulation lineations and kink bands. These structures attest NE-SW contractional phase, concurrent with the accretion of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) to the Saharan Metacraton (SM) and the final assembly between the continental blocks of East and West Gondwana.

  15. Status of macrobenthic communities in the hypersaline waters of the Gulf of Salwa, Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joydas, T. V.; Qurban, Mohammad A.; Manikandan, K. P.; Ashraf, T. T. M.; Ali, S. M.; Al-Abdulkader, Khaled; Qasem, Ali; Krishnakumar, P. K.

    2015-05-01

    The spatial extent of hypersaline marine ecosystems is very limited and therefore they have received only little scientific study. Here, we present the status of macrobenthic communities in a hypersaline water body, the Gulf of Salwa (Saudi Arabia part), in the Arabian Gulf and assess the natural stress, if any, in the communities. The Gulf of Salwa is nearly isolated from the main water body of the Arabian Gulf and shows a progressive southward increases in salinity (up to 63 during summer) and temperature (up to 40 °C during summer) due to the southward decrease in tidal flushing. The study reveals that the benthic communities in the southern region (south of 25° 10‧ N) of the Gulf of Salwa are under natural stress, while the deeper, the northern, and the inner bay regions have healthier benthic communities than the south. In the southern region, there were 87 to 93% reduction in polychaete species, 49 to 57% reduction in species diversity of polychaetes and 70 to 71% in non-polychaete taxa compared to the northern region. The present study identified some opportunistic taxa such as Fabricia sp., Heteromastus filiformis, Platynereis insolita and Nereis sp. 1 and non-polychaetes such as chironomid larvae, podocops and cumaceans capable of adapting to the hypersaline environment in the Gulf of Salwa when salinity exceeded 60 and temperature exceeded 35 °C during summer.

  16. The secondary calcification of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma assemblages in Arabian Sea waters and surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolalipour, Samereh; Schulz, Hartmut; Darling, Kate F.

    2014-05-01

    The planktic foraminifer Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (N. pachyderma (sin); Darling et al., 2006) has been recently considered as a (paleo) climatic index in Arabian Sea waters, where increased abundance correlates to the South West monsoon upwelling. Genetic characterization of living specimens collected in multinets off the Oman margin and in the central Arabian Sea indicate the presence of an new genotype of N. pachyderma (Type VIII) (Darling et al., submitted) in the northwestern Indian Ocean. Ecological investigation on these samples reveals that this new genotype, which is the only one to date found in this region, can tolerate warm water temperatures of up to 28° C. It was also found alive below the photic zone within the prominent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea. To extend our knowledge and understanding of this N. pachyderma Type VIII genotype, we have focused on a morphological analysis of randomly picked specimens (live and dead) from the multinets collected from 200 m down to 700 m water column and from core top sediments distributed over a wide range of water depths (607-3951 m) off the Oman margin in the Arabian Sea. We here use Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine the size, shape variation and test wall structure of the penultimate chamber. High resolution measurements confirm the model of chamber growth in non-spinose bilamellar foraminifera of a three or four-layered test wall. As ontogenetic calcite, we were able to visualize the inner lining, the outer layer and the outermost layer formed during the growth of the ultimate chamber. Some of the specimens also showed a fourth layer, which can be attributed to encrustation, observed in higher-latitude specimens of both hemispheres to result from secondary calcification as a terminal step in ontogenetic maturation. To verify the test wall growth and secondary calcification the measurements of the layers were related to the maximum test diameter of the shell. The measurement

  17. Does size matter? Comparison of body temperature and activity of free-living Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and the smaller Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica) in the Saudi desert.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn Sheila; Strauss, Willem Maartin; Fick, Linda Gayle; Maloney, Shane Kevin; Meyer, Leith Carl Rodney; Shobrak, Mohammed; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan

    2012-04-01

    Heterothermy, a variability in body temperature beyond the normal limits of homeothermy, is widely viewed as a key adaptation of arid-adapted ungulates. However, desert ungulates with a small body mass, i.e. a relatively large surface area-to-volume ratio and a small thermal inertia, are theoretically less likely to employ adaptive heterothermy than are larger ungulates. We measured body temperature and activity patterns, using implanted data loggers, in free-ranging Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx, ±70 kg) and the smaller Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica, ±15 kg) inhabiting the same Arabian desert environment, at the same time. Compared to oryx, sand gazelle had higher mean daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 47.3, P = 0.0005), higher minimum daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 42.6, P = 0.0006) and higher maximum daily body temperatures (F(1,6) = 11.0, P = 0.02). Despite these differences, both species responded similarly to changes in environmental conditions. As predicted for adaptive heterothermy, maximum daily body temperature increased (F(1,6) = 84.0, P < 0.0001), minimum daily body temperature decreased (F(1,6) = 92.2, P < 0.0001), and daily body temperature amplitude increased (F(1,6) = 97.6, P < 0.0001) as conditions got progressively hotter and drier. There were no species differences in activity levels, however, both gazelle and oryx showed a biphasic or crepuscular rhythm during the warm wet season but shifted to a more nocturnal rhythm during the hot dry season. Activity was attenuated during the heat of the day at times when both species selected cool microclimates. These two species of Arabian ungulates employ heterothermy, cathemerality and shade seeking very similarly to survive the extreme, arid conditions of Arabian deserts, despite their size difference. PMID:22001971

  18. Ad Duwayhi, Saudi Arabia: Geology and geochronology of a neoproterozoic intrusion-related gold system in the Arabian shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Zahony, S.G.; Leavitt, J.D.; Portacio, J.S., Jr.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Fleck, Robert J.; Stein, Holly J.

    2004-01-01

    In light of our findings at Ad Duwayhi, a reassessment of similar intrusion-hosted deposits in the Arabian shield is warranted, and areas of late- to postorogenic plutonism, particularly in the Afif composite terrane, should be considered prospective for intrusion-related gold systems.

  19. Male Saudi Arabian Freshman Science Majors at Jazan University: Their Perceptions of Parental Educational Practices on Their Science Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    2012-01-01

    Examination of Saudi Arabian educational practices is scarce, but increasingly important, especially in light of the country's pace in worldwide mathematics and science rankings. The purpose of the study is to understand and evaluate parental influence on male children's science education achievements in Saudi Arabia. Parental level of…

  20. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare

    PubMed Central

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K.; Anthony, James

    2015-01-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described. PMID:26246633

  1. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K; Anthony, James

    2015-08-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described. PMID:26246633

  2. International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop, March 31-April 1, 2012, Arabian Gulf University, Kingdom of Bahrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subhan, M. M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2009, the Department of Physiology had planned an International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop at Arabian Gulf University. The date was set for March 5-6, 2011; however, due to civil unrest, the workshop was postponed to March 31-April 1, 2012. The workshop was a success, bringing together 92 speakers and…

  3. Sociocultural Influences on the Development of Verbal Mediation: Private Speech and Phonological Recoding in Saudi Arabian and British Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Namlah, Abdulrahman S.; Fernyhough, Charles; Meins, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Cross-national stability in private speech (PS) and short-term memory was investigated in Saudi Arabian (n=63) and British (n=58) 4- to 8-year-olds. Assumed differences in child-adult interaction between the 2 nationality groups led to predictions of Gender ? Nationality interactions in the development of verbal mediation. British boys used more…

  4. Source Credibility during the Gulf War: A Q-Study of Rural and Urban Saudi Arabian Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Makaty, Safran S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studies how male Saudi Arabians sought and placed credibility in information sources about the Gulf War. Finds two groups: global-oriented, who were international radio-oriented; and village-oriented, primarily rural, who placed more trust in domestic media. Shows that all relied more heavily on broadcast media than on print media. (SR)

  5. Exploring When and Why to Use Arabic in the Saudi Arabian EFL Classroom: Viewing L1 Use as Eclectic Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khresheh, Asim

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate when and why to use Arabic as L1 in the Saudi Arabian EFL classroom. For this purpose, 45 classroom observations were performed for beginning, intermediate, and advanced levels of students. 5 classes were chosen randomly for each level and each class was observed three times. Based on the classroom observations,…

  6. Processes controlling forms of phosphorus in surficial sediments from the eastern Arabian Sea impinged by varying bottom water oxygenation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, C. Prakash; Nath, B. Nagender

    2005-07-01

    The surficial sediments from the upper continental slope of the eastern Arabian Sea, impinged by the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ, 150-1200 m water depth), show varying concentrations of the biogenic element phosphorus (P, 0.1-0.2%) in the northern and southern areas even though total organic carbon concentrations are relatively constant (TOC, 2-5%; Prakash Babu et al., 1999). To understand this discordance, 17 surface sediment samples from shelf, slope and deep sea of the eastern Arabian Sea were investigated using a five-step sequential extraction scheme to delineate the process responsible for P enrichment in OMZ. High fractions of organic phosphorus (P org 10-26%), biogenic phosphorus (P bio 36-48%), relatively low molar C org/P org ratios (322-447), and C org/P reactive ratios close to Redfield Ratio in OMZ sediments of the SE Arabian Sea suggest accumulation under high surface production and low residence time of labile forms of P due to high sedimentation rates. Despite higher productivity in surface waters, low fractions of P org (8-13%; less than deep-sea sediments of the study area 12-13%), P bio (25-33%), relatively high molar C org/P org ratios (341-508), and C org/P reactive ratios less than Redfield Ratio in OMZ sediments from the NE Arabian Sea may indicate a higher degree of regeneration and diagenetic transformation of labile forms of P to other phases. Authigenic phosphorus (P aut) fraction varies by a factor of 2-8 in sediments from the OMZ when compared to well-oxygenated deep-sea sediments of the study area. While the P total remains constant, significant P transformation seems to occur in NE Arabian Sea, which is suggested by high P aut fraction (˜50%) compared to low P aut fraction (10-39%) in the SE Arabian Sea sediments. Supply rates of phosphorus, variable rates of P dissolution under varying dissolved oxygen contents in the bottom waters, and early diagenetic transformation of P within the sediments seem to influence P geochemistry in

  7. Modeling of circulation in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman: Skill assessment and seasonal thermohaline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azhar, Muchamad; Temimi, Marouane; Zhao, Jun; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-03-01

    Hindcast simulations of the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) are quantitatively evaluated with basin-wide hydrographic data and time series measurements. The model shows comparable skill in reproducing moored observations of current velocities structure in upper and bottom depths. The skill in simulating observed temperature is higher of 0.93 (scale 0-1) in upper depths compared to 0.52 in bottom depths. Model results are sensitive to parameterization of water clarity. A lower sensitivity was noticed to KPP, GLS, and MY2.5 turbulence closures. When coastal turbid water parameterization is used, accuracy of the model in reproducing seasonal and spatial variations of temperature and salinity increased by 25% compared to the clear water case whereas only 10% increase was noticed when applying KPP turbulent closure. The model reproduces well anticlockwise circulation in the Gulf. A stronger surface inflow of fresher water to the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz is simulated in summer compared to winter conditions, mainly due to upper layer horizontal gradient of density between the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. Less seasonal variability of outflow between 0.15 and 0.20 m s-1 at 50 m to bottom depth around the Strait of Hormuz was noticed in the model results. Modeled surface layer stratification is stronger in summer than winter and varies spatially in the Arabian Gulf with highest stratification near the Strait of Hormuz. Overall, the stratification in shallow water area of the Arabian Gulf remains low throughout the year.

  8. Precambrian to Jurassic rocks of Arabian Gulf and adjacent areas: their facies, depositional setting, and hydrocarbon habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S.; Kendal, C.G.S.C.

    1986-08-01

    The first sediments to onlap the metamorphosed Precambrian Arabian shield were Infracambrian (Proterozoic) to Middle Cambrian carbonates, clastics, and evaporites. The oldest Arabian reservoir rocks occur in the Precambrian to lower Paleozoic Era Salt of the Huqf Group, which forms the Birba field of Oman. The Middle Cambrian sequence was followed by Late Cambrian through Early Permian marine sandstones and continental to littoral siltstones and variegated shales. The first commercial oil discovered in the Arabian Gulf region occurs in fluvial sands of the Ordovician to Permian Haima and Haushi Groups of the Marmul field in south Oman. These strata are also productive in other fields and are sealed by unconformable contact with the Al Khlata Formation or beneath shale of the Albian Nahr Umr Formation. The deeply buried kerogen sediments of the Huqf Group to the southeast are believed to be the source rocks for these fields of south Oman. The Late Permian to Triassic deposits of the Arabian Peninsula are mainly widespread carbonates and evaporites that were deposited during a period of relative tectonic stability. Their deposition on an epeiric shelf was punctuated by a series of transgressions and regressions. Significant gas reserves have been proven in deep wells in the Arabian Gulf. These wells penetrate large deep structures in the Permian Khuff shelf carbonates. These carbonates have developed secondary porosity and lie beneath interbedded shale and dolomites of the Sudair or Suwei Formation. The source of gas in the Khuff is unknown but could lie in more deeply buried formations. The large deep structures of the Khuff are considered to be among the most attractive for gas potential in the region today. 14 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Change Detection Analysis of Costal Habitat Using Remote Sensing Technologies in the Western Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabian Coast) over a Thirty-Year Period.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Idris, N.; Johnson, S. H.; Qurban, M. A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Many factors can severely affect the growth and abundance of the marine ecosystems. For example, due to anthropogenic and natural forces, benthic habitats including but not limited to mangroves, sea grass, salt marshes, macro algae, and coral reefs have been experiencing high levels of declination. Furthermore, aerosols and their propellants are suspected contributors to marine habitat degradation. Although several studies reveal that the Arabian Gulf habitats have suffered deleterious impacts after the Gulf War and the following six month off-shore oil spill, limited research exists to track the changes in benthic habitats over the past three decades using remote sensing. Document changes in costal habitats over the past thirty years were better observed with the use of multispectral remote sensors such as Landsat-5, Landsat-7, and Landsat8 (OLI). Change detection analysis was performed on the three Landsat images (Landsat-5 for the 1987 image, Landsat-7 for the 2000, and Landsat-8 for the 2013 image). The images were then modified, masked off from open water and land. An unsupervised classification was performed which cluster similar classes together. The supervised classification displayed the seven following classes: coral reefs, macro algae, sea grass, salt marshes, mangroves, water, and land. Compared to 1987 image to 2000 scene, there was a noticeable increase in the extensiveness of salt marsh and macro algae habitats. However, a significant decrease in salt marsh habitats were apparent in the 2013 scene.

  10. Characterizing Mineral Dust from the Arabian Coast of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthan Purakkal, J.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Engelbrecht, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is one of the Earth's major sources of atmospheric dust. Along with profound negative effects on human activity and natural processes in this region, dust is an important nutrient source for the oligothrophic northern Red Sea. From preliminary observations it is estimated that some 18-20 major dust storms per year deposit about 6 Mt of mineral dust into the Red Sea. To better understand the optical properties, health, and ecological impacts of dust, we study the mineralogical, chemical and morphological properties of surface soil samples collected at prevbiously identified potential dust sources along the Arabian coast of the Red Sea. Many of these dust sources lie within a narrow coastal region and because of their proximity to the Red Sea, are important contributors to the dust/nutrient balance, during both dusty and fair weather conditions. Bulk samples were collected from the top 10 mm of soils from three sites along the Arabian coast of the Red Sea. The soil samples were sieved to separate the < 38μm particle fractions for chemical and mineralogical analysis. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was applied to measure the mineral content of the dust. The chemical composition of individual particles was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). From the XRD analysis of the sieved samples from An Masayat (23.3322 N, 38.9481 E), Buthna (23.2960 N, 38.9384 E) and Rabugh pipeline Road (23.292 N, 38.91 E), it was found that the dust was composed largely of hematite, goethite, calcite, dolomite, quartz, chlorite, muscovite, amphibole, epidote and plagioclase. Our results are being compared to, and show similarities to those of Engelbrecht et al. , collected at 15 Middle East sites. Both the mineralogical content and chemical composition of samples bear the signatures of the regional geology. Engelbrecht, J. P., McDonald, E. V., Gillies, J. A., Jayanty, R. K. M., Casuccio, G., and Gertler, A. W., 2009

  11. Evidence for eddy formation in the eastern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, John G.; Johnson, Donald R.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The seasonal formation of a large (500-800 km diameter) anticyclonic eddy in the upper 300-400 m of the eastern Arabian Sea during the northest monsoon period (December-April) is indicated fom hydrographic and satellite altimetry sea level observations, as well as from numerical model experiments. The center of the eddy circulation is approximately 10 deg N, 70 deg E, just to the west of the north-south Laccadive Island chain. In this paper the eddy is called the Laccadive High (LH). In some ways it is like a mirrorlike counterpart to the Great Whirl that develops during the southwest monsoon of the Somali coast (western Arabian Sea). The LH occurs at the same latitude but on the opposite side of the basin during the reversed monsoon. It is different from the Great Whirl, however, in its formation process, its intensity, and its decay. The hydrographic data obtained from surveys all during a single season give sufficiently close station spacing to allow reasonable contouring of the geopotential surfaces and of the properties within and around the LH region with minimum time aliasing. The Geostat altimeter record extends over 4 years, during which the seasonal variability of the LH indicates a dynamic relief of approximately 15-20 cm, which is in good agreement with the hydrographics observations. The altimetry time series also suggests a westward translation of the LH by January with a subsequent dissipation in midbasin. The model used is a wind-forced three-layer primitive equation model which depicts a LH agreement with the timing, position, and amplitude of both the hydrographic and altimetric measurements. The numerical simulation includes a passive tracer located in the Western Bay of Bengal; the western advection of the tracer around the south coasts of Sri Lanka and India in December and January is consistent with the appearance of low-salinity water observed to extend into the Arabian Sea during this period. The modeling studies suggest that both local and

  12. Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Hellani, Ali; González, Ana M; Larruga, Jose M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Underhill, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    Background Human origins and migration models proposing the Horn of Africa as a prehistoric exit route to Asia have stimulated molecular genetic studies in the region using uniparental loci. However, from a Y-chromosome perspective, Saudi Arabia, the largest country of the region, has not yet been surveyed. To address this gap, a sample of 157 Saudi males was analyzed at high resolution using 67 Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotypic diversity for its most prominent J1-M267 lineage was estimated using a set of 17 Y-specific STR loci. Results Saudi Arabia differentiates from other Arabian Peninsula countries by a higher presence of J2-M172 lineages. It is significantly different from Yemen mainly due to a comparative reduction of sub-Saharan Africa E1-M123 and Levantine J1-M267 male lineages. Around 14% of the Saudi Arabia Y-chromosome pool is typical of African biogeographic ancestry, 17% arrived to the area from the East across Iran, while the remainder 69% could be considered of direct or indirect Levantine ascription. Interestingly, basal E-M96* (n = 2) and J-M304* (n = 3) lineages have been detected, for the first time, in the Arabian Peninsula. Coalescence time for the most prominent J1-M267 haplogroup in Saudi Arabia (11.6 ± 1.9 ky) is similar to that obtained previously for Yemen (11.3 ± 2) but significantly older that those estimated for Qatar (7.3 ± 1.8) and UAE (6.8 ± 1.5). Conclusion The Y-chromosome genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula seems to be mainly modulated by geography. The data confirm that this area has mainly been a recipient of gene flow from its African and Asian surrounding areas, probably mainly since the last Glacial maximum onwards. Although rare deep rooting lineages for Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J have been detected, the presence of more basal clades supportive of the southern exit route of modern humans to Eurasian, were not found. PMID:19772609

  13. Investigating Transition Zone Thickness Variation under the Arabian Plate: Evidence Lacking for Deep Mantle Upwellings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliá, J.; Tang, Z.; Mai, P. M.; Zahran, H.

    2014-12-01

    Cenozoic volcanic outcrops in Arabia - locally known as harrats - span more than 2000 km along the western half of the Arabian plate, from eastern Yemen to southern Syria. The magmatism is bimodal in character, with older volcanics (30 to 20 My) being tholeiitic-to-transitional and paralleling the Red Sea margin, and younger volcanics (12 Ma to Recent) being transitional-to-strongly-alkalic and aligning in a more north-south direction. The bimodal character has been attributed to a two-stage rifting process along the Red Sea, where the old volcanics would have produced from shallow sources related to an initial passive rifting stage, and young volcanics would have originated from one or more deep-seated mantle plumes driving present active rifting. Early models suggested the harrats would have resulted from either lateral flow from the Afar plume in Ethiopia, or more locally from a separate mantle plume directly located under the shield. Most recently, tomographic images of the Arabian mantle have suggested the northern harrats could be resulting from flow originating at a deep plume under Jordan. In this work, we investigate the location of deep mantle plumes under the Arabian plate by mapping transition zone thickness with teleseismic receiver functions. The transition zone is bounded by seismic discontinuities, nominally at 410 and 660 km depth, originating from phase transitions in the olivine-normative component of the mantle. The precise depth of the discontinuities is strongly dependent on temperature and, due to the opposing signs of the corresponding Clapeyron slopes, positive temperature anomalies are expected to result in thinning of the transition zone. Our dataset consists of ~5000 low-frequency (fc < 0.25 Hz) receiver function waveforms obtained at ~110 broadband stations belonging to a number of permanent and temporary seismic networks in the region. The receiver functions were migrated to depth and stacked along a ~2000 km long record section

  14. Scavenger assemblages under differing trophic conditions: a case study in the deep Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janßen, Felix; Treude, Tina; Witte, Ursula

    Baited cameras and traps were deployed at four stations in the deep Arabian Sea to investigate the composition of the necrophagous fauna and to evaluate whether regional differences in trophic conditions are reflected by differing scavenger assemblages. The ophidiid fish Barathrites iris, the large lysianassoid amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, the aristeid prawn Plesiopenaeus armatus, and zoarcid fishes of the genus Pachycara were abundant at the bait at all stations. The ophidiid Holcomycteronus aequatorius, the liparid fish Paraliparis sp., and galatheid crabs of the genus Munidopsis occurred in considerable numbers at single sites. Trap catches further contained lysianassoid amphipods of the genera Paralicella, Abyssorchomene and Paracallisoma. In contrast to scavenger assemblages of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, macrourid fishes were virtually absent at the bait. E. gryllus and B. iris consumed the main proportion of the bait, while consumption was at most moderate in all other taxa. Feeding strategies of the respective taxa are inferred from their behavior at the bait and discussed with regard to the profit that can be drawn from food falls. Differences between stations were pronounced with respect to species dominating bait consumption. E. gryllus appeared in highest numbers at the bait in the productive northern and central Arabian Sea where a relatively high availability of food items is expected to sustain high population densities. High numbers of B. iris in the least productive southern part indicate their ability to persist under food-poor conditions and may correspond to a high dependency on food falls. E. gryllus and B. iris both occurred in smaller numbers in the particularly productive western Arabian Sea. This may reflect a reduced dependency on food falls, due to an access to alternative food sources, rather than small population densities. Smaller numbers of E. gryllus and B. iris resulted in slower bait consumption and gave Pachycara spp. the

  15. Response of benthic foraminifera to phytodetritus in the eastern Arabian Sea under low oxygen conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enge, Annekatrin; Wukovits, Julia; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Witte, Ursula; Hunter, William; Heinz, Petra

    2016-04-01

    At water depths between 100 and 1500 m a permanent Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) impinges on the sea floor in the eastern Arabian Sea, exposing benthic organisms to anoxic to suboxic conditions. The flux of organic matter to the sea floor is relatively high at these depths but displays seasonal variation. Deposition of relatively fresh phytodetrital material (phytoplankton remains) can occur within a short period of time after monsoon periods. Several organism groups including foraminifera are involved to different extent in the processing of phytodetritus in the OMZs of the northern Arabian Sea. A series of in situ feeding experiments were performed to study the short-term processing (< 11 days) of organic carbon, nitrogen and nutritional demands of foraminifera at different oxygen concentrations on the continental margin in the eastern Arabian Sea. For the experiments, a single pulse of isotopically labeled phytodetritus was added to the sediment along a depth transect (540-1100 m) on the Indian Margin, covering the OMZ core and the lower OMZ boundary region. Uptake of phytodetritus within 4 days shows the relevance of phytodetritus as food source for foraminifera. Lower content of phytodetrital carbon recorded in foraminifera from more oxygenated depths shows greater food uptake by foraminifera in the OMZ core than in the OMZ boundary region. The foraminiferal assemblage living under almost anoxic conditions in the OMZ core is dominated by species typically found in eutroph environments (such as Uvigerinids) that are adapted to high flux of organic matter. The elevated carbon uptake can also result from missing food competition by macrofauna or from greater energy demand in foraminifera to sustain metabolic processes under hypoxic stress. Variable levels and ratios of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen indicate specific nutritional demands and storage of food-derived nitrogen in some foraminifera species under near anoxia where the mean phytodetrital nitrogen content

  16. Cytotoxicity, mode of action and antibacterial activities of selected Saudi Arabian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The flora of Saudi Arabia is one of the richest biodiversity areas in the Arabian Peninsula and comprises very important genetic resources of crop and medicinal plants. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and the antibacterial activities of the organic extracts from twenty six Saudi Arabian medicinal plants. The study was also extended to the investigation of the effects of the extracts from the four best plants, Ononis serrata (SY160), Haplophyllum tuberculatum (SY177), Pulicaria crispa (SY179), and Achillea beiberstenii (SY-200) on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, caspases activities and mitochondrial function in leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line. Methods A resazurin assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the extracts on a panel of human cancer cell lines whilst the microbroth dilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the samples against twelve bacterial strains belonging to four species, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results The best activity on leukemia cell lines were recorded with SY177 (IC50 of 9.94 μg/mL) and SY179 (IC50 of 1.81 μg/mL) against CCRF-CEM as well as Ach-b (IC50 of 9.30 μg/mL) and SY160 (IC50 of 5.06 μg/mL) against HL60 cells. The extracts from SY177 and SY179 were also toxic against the seven solid cancer cell lines studied with the highest IC50 values of 31.64 μg/mL (SY177 against Hep-G2 cells). SY177 and Ach-b induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phases whilst SY160 and SY179 induced arrest in G0/G1 phase. All the four plant extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells with the alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In the antibacterial assays, only Ach-b displayed moderate antibacterial activities against E. coli and E. aerogenes ATCC strains (MIC of 256 μg/mL), AG100ATeT and K. pneumoniae ATCC strains (MIC of 128 μg/mL). Conclusions Finally, the results of the present

  17. Measurements of CO and CH4 in the troposphere over Saudi Arabia, India, and the Arabian Sea during the 1979 International Summer Monsoon Experiment /MONEX/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, R. E.; Condon, E. P.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    During the 1979 Summer MONEX, 150 air samples collected over Saudi Arabia, India, and the Arabian Sea were analyzed for CO and CH4. Near Dhahran and over the Ganges Valley there were high concentrations of CO, around 300 ppbv, in the boundary layer. Out over the Saudi Arabian desert there was no sharp increase in the boundary layer. It is suggested that these high concentrations originate from pollution sources. Low values of CO, down to 80 ppbv, are found over the Arabian Sea as the monsoon progresses, and these may originate from the Southern Hemisphere. Methane over Saudi Arabia (1.59 ppmv) is a little higher than that over the Arabian Sea (1.54 ppmv) probably because the latter region is influenced by air from the Southern Hemisphere.

  18. Orientation of late Precambrian sutures in the Arabian-Nubian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Robert J.; Nielsen, Kent C.; Best, Eric; Sultan, Mohamed; Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1990-11-01

    Recent tectonic models have resulted in conflicting descriptions of how the late Precambrian sutures of the Arabian-Nubian shield extend into northeast Africa. The Hamisana shear zone in northeastern Sudan is critical to this discussion because it truncates and disrupts two sutures, the Allaqi-Heiani and the Onib-Sol Hamed. Analysis of field structural data, Thematic Mapper imagery, and Rb-Sr and U-Pb geochronology suggests that the Allaqi-Heiani suture is the western extension of the Onib-Sol Hamed suture and that both make up the exposed parts of a far-traveled, polydeformed ophiolitic nappe complex. Subsequent deformation localized in the Hamisana shear zone disrupted this nappe and displaced the suture between 660 and 550 Ma during regional deformation associated with the Najd fault system. These results indicate that at least one suture extends westward into the interior of northern Africa.

  19. Purification of a toxic factor from Arabian Gulf catfish epidermal secretions.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M; Al-Hassan, J M; Fayad, S; Al-Saleh, J; Ali, M

    1998-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf catfish, Arius bilineatus (Valenciennes) secretes a proteinaceous epidermal secretion when threatened or injured. A toxic factor has been isolated and purified from the crude extract (crude skin toxin) of these secretions by a combination of gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300 and preparative discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified skin toxin has a molecular weight of 39,000 Da and an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.45. Injection of the purified skin toxin into rabbits i.v. and determination of the LD50 indicated that the protein had been purified approximately 30 fold by these procedures. Injection of the purified skin toxin into rabbits caused agitation, convulsions and death within 5 min. Analysis of plasma levels of lactate dehydrogenase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in injected rabbits indicated that the skin toxin caused cardiac and liver damage to the animals. PMID:9663692

  20. Effect of management changes on hatchability and bacterial infections on a Saudi Arabian poultry breeding farm.

    PubMed

    Barbour, E K; Nabbut, N H; Al-Nakhli, H M

    1984-11-01

    A new management programme for improvement of hatchability and reduction of transmission of bacterial potential pathogens from breeders to hatchery products was applied on a Saudi Arabian poultry farm. The technical changes included better nest engineering, improved cleaning of hatching eggs and better criteria for selecting eggs for incubation. The new nests led to a change in laying behaviour with 86.6% of eggs layed in nests which was significantly higher than was achieved previously. Bacterial penetration in dirty floor eggs was significantly higher than in clean nest eggs. The average hatchability was significantly higher for the flock under the new management than for the same age flock under the old management. The new management reduced transmission of paratyphoid organisms and Escherichia coli from infected breeders to their hatchery products. The old and new managements differed in the percentage of products infected with Salmonella. PMID:6523580

  1. Effective elastic thickness of the Arabian plate: Weak shield versus strong platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Kaban, Mikhail K.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2015-05-01

    The fan wavelet method has been employed to calculate high-resolution maps of variations of the effective elastic thickness (EET) for the Arabian plate and surroundings. As the initial data, we use high-resolution gravity field, topography, and recent models of sedimentary basins. The western part of the plate is generally characterized by low to midvalues of EET (10-30 km) while the eastern one by high values (50 km and more in the core). This finding confirms that the pronounced asymmetry of the plate is rather associated with fundamental structural differences of the lithosphere than with a forced tilt of the plate due to the rifting in the west-southwest and subduction in the northeast. Therefore, the high topography in the western part of the plate is likely supported by relatively hot mantle that is also responsible for the decrease of EET. These results are generally in agreement with recent seismic tomography models.

  2. Interpretation of electrophoretograms of seven microsatellite loci to determine the genetic diversity of the Arabian Oryx.

    PubMed

    Arif, I A; Khan, H A; Shobrak, M; Al Homaidan, A A; Al Sadoon, M; Al Farhan, A H; Bahkali, A H

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellite markers are commonly used for examining population structure, especially inbreeding, outbreeding and gene flow. An array of microsatellite loci, preferably with multiallelic presentation, is preferable for ensuring accurate results. However, artifact peaks or stutters in the electrophoretograms significantly hamper the reliable interpretation of genotypes. We interpreted electrophoretograms of seven microsatellite loci to determine the genetic diversity of the Arabian Oryx. All the alleles of different loci exhibited good peak resolutions and hence were clearly identified. Moreover, none of the stutter peaks impaired the recognition or differentiation between homozygote and heterozygote. Our findings suggest that correct identification of alleles in the presence of co-amplified nonspecific fragments is important for reliable interpretation of microsatellite data. PMID:20198581

  3. Monitoring red tide with satellite imagery and numerical models: a case study in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Ghedira, Hosni

    2014-02-15

    A red tide event that occurred in August 2008 in the Arabian Gulf was monitored and assessed using satellite observations and numerical models. Satellite observations revealed the bloom extent and evolution from August 2008 to August 2009. Flow patterns of the bloom patch were confirmed by results from a HYCOM model. HYCOM data and satellite-derived sea surface temperature data further suggested that the bloom could have been initiated offshore and advected onshore by bottom Ekman layer. Analysis indicated that nutrient sources supporting the bloom included upwelling, Trichodesmium, and dust deposition while other potential sources of nutrient supply should also be considered. In order to monitor and detect red tide effectively and provide insights into its initiation and maintenance mechanisms, the integration of multiple platforms is required. The case study presented here demonstrated the benefit of combing satellite observations and numerical models for studying red tide outbreaks and dynamics. PMID:24461701

  4. Massive outbreaks of Noctiluca scintillans blooms in the Arabian Sea due to spread of hypoxia.

    PubMed

    do Rosário Gomes, Helga; Goes, Joaquim I; Matondkar, S G P; Buskey, Edward J; Basu, Subhajit; Parab, Sushma; Thoppil, Prasad

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the northern Arabian Sea has witnessed a radical shift in the composition of winter phytoplankton blooms, which previously comprised mainly of diatoms, the unicellular, siliceous photosynthetic organisms favoured by nutrient-enriched waters from convective mixing. These trophically important diatom blooms have been replaced by widespread blooms of a large, green dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans, which combines carbon fixation from its chlorophyll-containing endosymbiont with ingestion of prey. Here, we report that these massive outbreaks of N. scintillans during winter are being facilitated by an unprecedented influx of oxygen deficient waters into the euphotic zone and by the extraordinary ability of its endosymbiont Pedinomonas noctilucae to fix carbon more efficiently than other phytoplankton under hypoxic conditions. We contend that N. scintillans blooms could disrupt the traditional diatom-sustained food chain to the detriment of regional fisheries and long-term health of an ecosystem supporting a coastal population of nearly 120 million people. PMID:25203785

  5. Nonaqueous potentiometric titration and elemental analysis of high-boiling distillates of Saudi Arabian crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M.F.; Ali, M.A. )

    1988-12-01

    Nonaqueous potentiometric titration and elemental analysis were used to study basic and nonbasic functionalities present in high-boiling distillates of four Saudi Arabian crude oils. Model nitrogen compounds were titrated under similar titration conditions to differentiate them into strong, weak and nonbasic species. The strong bses titrated were due to the presence of of pyridine and its benzologs like acridines, phenanthridines and quionolines. The weak bases titrated were due to phenazxines and amides whereas the pyrroles, indoles and carbazoles were found to be nonbasic in nature. The total nitrogen and the total basic nitrogen compounds were generally found to be in very low concentration in the four crude oil distillates. A gradual decrease in the basicity of the distillates was found from Arab Heavy to Arab Extra Light through Arab Medium and Arab Light crude oils.

  6. Weight dependence of arsenic concentration in the Arabian Sea tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, M.; Jaffar, M.

    1988-02-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to estimate the arsenic concentration in the edible muscle of Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus toggel (hereafter called tuna and longtail tune) as they have great commercial value. These fish are widely available along the coastal line of Pakistan and are consumed abundantly in large bulk. Thus, it was felt justifiable on the basis of safety of human health that data, in the first instance, be obtained on arsenic concentration in tuna as a function of weight to check whether the metal distribution was species-specific or it depended on individual mode of development. The data, the first of the kind so far presented on the Arabian Sea tuna, would thus provide the required baseline quantitative information needed in future studies on the physiological processes regulating the distribution and uptake of arsenic by these and other species of fish common to the region.

  7. Orientation of late Precambrian sutures in the Arabian-Nubian shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert J.; Nielsen, Kent C.; Best, Eric; Sultan, Mohamed; Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1990-01-01

    Recent tectonic models have resulted in conflicting descriptions of how the late Precambrian sutures of the Arabian-Nubian shield extend into northeast Africa. The Hamisana shear zone in northeastern Sudan is critical to this discussion because it truncates and disrupts two sutures, the Allaqi-Heiani and the Onib-Sol Hamed. Analysis of field structural data, Thematic Mapper imagery, and Rb-Sr and U-Pb geochronology suggests that the Allaqi-Heiani suture is the western extension of the Onib-Sol Hamed suture and that both make up the exposed parts of a far-traveled, polydeformed ophiolitic nappe complex. Subsequent deformation localized in the Hamisana shear zone disrupted this nappe and displaced the suture between 660 and 550 Ma during regional deformation associated with the Najd fault system. These results indicate that at least one suture extends westward into the interior of northern Africa.

  8. Homogeneity of coral reef communities across 8 degrees of latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Roberts, May B; Jones, Geoffrey P; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L; Neale, Stephen; Thorrold, Simon; Robitzch, Vanessa S N; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Coral reef communities between 26.8 °N and 18.6 °N latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were surveyed to provide baseline data and an assessment of fine-scale biogeography of communities in this region. Forty reefs along 1100 km of coastline were surveyed using depth-stratified visual transects of fish and benthic communities. Fish abundance and benthic cover data were analyzed using multivariate approaches to investigate whether coral reef communities differed with latitude. A total of 215 fish species and 90 benthic categories were recorded on the surveys. There were no significant differences among locations in fish abundance, species richness, or among several diversity indices. Despite known environmental gradients within the Red Sea, the communities remained surprisingly similar. The communities do, however, exhibit subtle changes across this span of reefs that likely reflect the constrained distributions of several species of reef fish and benthic fauna. PMID:26608504

  9. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-07-15

    Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area. PMID:25963571

  10. Magmatic history of Red Sea rifting: perspective from the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An early stage of magmatism related to Red Sea rifting is recorded by a Tertiary dyke complex and comagmatic volcanic rocks exposed on the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain. Field relations and new K/Ar dates indicate episodic magmatism from approx 30 m.y. to the present day and rift-related magmatism as early as 50 m.y. Localized volcanism and sheeted dyke injection ceased at approx 20 m.y. and were replaced by the intrusion of thick gabbro dykes, marking the onset of sea-floor spreading in the central Red Sea. Differences in the depths and dynamics of mantle-melt extraction and transport may account for the transition from mixed alkaline-subalkaline bimodal magmatism of the pre-20 m.y. rift basin to exclusively subalkaline (tholeiitic) magmatism of the Red Sea spreading axis and the alkali basalt volcanism inland.-L.C.H.

  11. Data revision of Babylonian and Arabian lunar and solar eclipse observations used in Newcomb's researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protitch-Benishek, V.; Protitch, M. B.

    On the basis of the original interpretation of the Greek text (Halma, M., 1813) - a translation of Ptolemy's Mathematike Syntaxis - concerning Babylonian-Hellenic observations of lunar eclipses and analysing some Arabian notes on solar and lunar eclipses - for which S. Newcomb found considerable deviations from the appropriate theory - a re-analysis of his results and conclusions has been undertaken. The results of the ancient-data revision are also based on Newcomb's alternative assumption that such discrepancies are caused by one or more unknown long-term inequalities in the motion of the Moon. A quantitative result of the analysis of the ancient eclipse observations unambiguously indicates that these observations should definitely not be rejected.

  12. Geochronological and isotopic evidence for early Proterozoic crust in the eastern Arabian Shield.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Hedge, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Zircon U/Pb, feldspar common Pb, whole-rock Sm/Nd, and Rb/Sr data indicate that the fine-grained granodiorite (Z103) has yielded conclusive evidence for rocks of early Proterozoic age in the eastern Arabian Shield (21o19' N, 44o50' W). Z103 may have been emplaced approx 1630 m.y. ago and subsequently was severely deformed or perhaps even remobilized at approx 660 m.y. Furthermore, lead isotope data, along with other evidence, show that the 1630 m.y. crustal rocks inherited material from an older, probably Archaean, source at the time of their formation. At that time addition of mantle material considerably modified the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems so that they now yield similar, or only slightly older apparent ages (1600-1800 m.y.).-L.diH.

  13. Observations of barrier layer in southeastern Arabian Sea using Argo observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rashmi; Agarwal, Neeraj; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2006-12-01

    We present in this work composite relationships among Barrier Layer (BL) depth, and various other parameters either directly responsible for its formation or the sequence of events which follow once it is formed. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the development of the BL depth, its sustenance and annihilation are examined in the southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) in the north Indian Ocean using primarily ARGO floats observations along with ancillary data from various satellites and surface currents from ocean model. All the available Argo floats observations of temperature and salinity as of December 2005 have been analyzed to evaluate the seasonal characteristics of barrier layer (BL) in this warm pool region of Arabian Sea. The annual average BL thickness in this region varies from 20 to 70 m, with larger values towards coast. The standard deviation is also high (15-30 m) in this region showing a strong seasonal variation. In a complete seasonal characteristic studied with the use of observations, BL thickness shows a primary peak (~ 50 m) in January and a secondary peak in September (~ 35 m). While the former is remotely forced, the later owes its generation to the local forcing via precipitation. TMI observations show a lag of 3 months in the SST warming with respect to the maximum BL thickness observed during January. Peak warming in SST during April immediately follows by rise in integrated water vapour. Interestingly, following the secondary maxima of BL, SST does not show any warming signature, possibly due to the overcast condition, preventing the surface from heating up.

  14. Winter monsoon circulation of the northern Arabian Sea and Somali Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, Friedrich A.; Fischer, Jürgen

    2000-03-01

    The winter monsoon circulation in the northern inflow region of the Somali Current is discussed on the basis of an array of moored acoustic Doppler current profiler and current meter stations deployed during 1995-1996 and a ship survey carried out in January 1998. It is found that the westward inflow into the Somali Current regime occurs essentially south of 11°N and that this inflow bifurcates at the Somali coast, with the southward branch supplying the equatorward Somali Current and the northward one returning into the northwestern Arabian Sea. This northward branch partially supplies a shallow outflow through the Socotra Passage between the African continent and the banks of Socotra and partially feeds into eastward recirculation directly along the southern slopes of Socotra. Underneath this shallow surface flow, southwestward undercurrent flows are observed. Undercurrent inflow from the Gulf of Aden through the Socotra Passage occurs between 100 and 1000 m, with its current core at 700-800 m, and is clearly marked by the Red Sea Water (RSW) salinity maximum. The observations suggest that the maximum RSW inflow out of the Gulf of Aden occurs during the winter monsoon season and uses the Socotra Passage as its main route into the Indian Ocean. Westward undercurrent inflow into the Somali Current regime is also observed south of Socotra, but this flow lacks the RSW salinity maximum. Off the Arabian peninsula, eastward boundary flow is observed in the upper 800 m with a compensating westward flow to the south. The observed circulation pattern is qualitatively compared with recent high-resolution numerical model studies and is found to be in basic agreement.

  15. Seasonal response of zooplankton to monsoonal reversals in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sharon; Roman, Michael; Prusova, Irina; Wishner, Karen; Gowing, Marcia; Codispoti, L. A.; Barber, Richard; Marra, John; Flagg, Charles

    The US JGOFS Arabian Sea Process Study was designed to provide a seasonally and spatially resolved carbon budget for a basin exhibiting some of the highest and lowest concentrations of plant biomass in the world's ocean. During the US JGOFS Process Study in the Arabian Sea (September 1994-January 1996), the absolute maximum in biomass of epipelagic zooplankton in the entire study was observed during the Southwest Monsoon season inshore of the Findlater Jet in the area of upwelling. The greatest contrast between high and low biomass in the study area also was observed during the Southwest Monsoon, as was the strongest onshore-offshore gradient in biomass. Lowest biomass throughout the study was observed at the most offshore station (S15), outside the direct influence of the monsoon forcing. The greatest day/night contrasts in biomass were observed nearshore in all seasons, with nighttime biomass exceeding daytime in the Northeast Monsoon season, but daytime exceeding nighttime in the Southwest Monsoon season. The diel vertical migration patterns in general reversed between the monsoons at all stations in the southern part of the study area. Virtually, no diel vertical migration of zooplankton took place in any season at the station with strong, persistent subsurface suboxic conditions (N7), suggesting that these conditions suppress migration. Based on the distribution of biomass, we hypothesize that inshore of the Findlater Jet, zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton is the dominant pathway of carbon transformation during both monsoon seasons, whereas offshore the zooplankton feed primarily on microplankton or are carnivorous, conditions that result in reduction of the carbon flux mediated by the zooplankton. Predation by mesopelagic fish, primarily myctophids, may equal daily growth of zooplankton inshore of the Findlater Jet during all seasons. This suggests that the food web inshore of the Findlater Jet is well integrated, may have evolved during past periods of

  16. Major events in the late Precambrian to early Triassic geohistory of the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, T.E.; Connally, T.C.; Van der Eem, J.G.L.A. )

    1993-09-01

    The late Precambrian to Early Triassic of the Arabian Peninsula occur in five supergroups. Their geohistory resulted from sedimentation along fluvial to midshelf facies tracts, eustatic oscillation and periodic uplift. The first supergroup, Plate Precambrian-Middle Cambrian, includes the Siq/Salib and Yatib formations. Deposited by north-eastward-flowing braided streams, they eroded and buried an Arabian shield topography. The Saq Formation lies in angular unconformity on the Siq which documents early Middle Cambrian uplift. Supergroup two, Middle Cambrian-middle Caradocian, the Burj and Saq formations, the Hanadir, Kahfah, and Ra'an members, Qasim Formation, were deposited on a stable continental margin in fluvio-deltaic to midshelf settings. Coastal onlap occurred in the Middle Cambrian, early Llanvirn, middle Llandeilo and early Caradoc. Middle Caradocian uplift deeply eroded parts of central and southern Arabia. Supergroup three of middle Caradocian-early Llandoverian are the Quwarah Member, Qasim Formation and the Zarqa/Sarah formations. They were deposited in a fluvio-deltaic shallow shelf. Late Ashgill uplift, combined with glacially induced sea level lowering, incised valleys up to 2000 ft (610 m) deep. Supergroup four, early Llandovery-Middle Carboniferous, includes the Qalibah, Tawil, Jauf, Jubah and Berwath formations. They were deposited in a fluvio-deltaic marine, river dominated system. The Quysaiba and Sharawra members, Qalibah Formation, were the offshore clays and prodelta sands, the Tawil-Jubah were the fluvial to delta front, and the Berwath the delta plain facies. Deep pre-Tawil erosion documents late Silurian-Early Devonian uplift. The fifth supergroup are the Juwayl, Unayzah, Khuff and Sudair formations. The first two units were deposited in a glacio-fluvial system which eroded and infilled a Hercynian topography. The Khuff transgression occurred during the Artinsklan-Tartarian and the Early Triassic regressive Sudair documents renewed uplift.

  17. Melengestrol acetate implant contraception in addax (Addax Nasomaculatus) and Arabian oryx (Oryx Leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Hall-Woods, Monica L; Bauman, Karen L; Bauman, Joan E; Fischer, Martha; Houston, E William; Asa, Cheryl S

    2007-07-01

    Melengestrol acetate (MGA) implants were used for contraception in three addax and three Arabian oryx females housed at the Saint Louis Zoo. Serum estradiol and progesterone or fecal estrogen and progestin analysis and ultrasonography of reproductive tracts were used for monitoring changes before, during, and after MGA treatment. Follicular development and irregular uterine fluid accumulation were detected in all females during MGA treatment. Although housed with an intact male for all or most of the contraceptive period, no pregnancies occurred.One female addax may have ovulated, based on sustained elevated progesterone levels, and another showed continued follicle development, as seen by fluctuating estradiol concentrations. Reversibility was documented in two of the three addax that resumed reproductive cycles post-MGA-implant removal, whereas the third, a peripubertal female, did not cycle before, during, or after treatment. Addax females were lost to further follow-up after transfer to another institution, so the possibility of subsequent pregnancies is not known.All three Arabian oryx ovulated during the initial MGA treatment, but two of the three females had implants past the typical 2-year efficacy period. They had regular ovulatory cycles after implant removal, with mean cycle length of 27.5+/-1.5 days and mean luteal phase duration of 15.2+/-0.7 days. Reversibility was further shown in all three oryx by pregnancies after placement with a male approximately 2 years after MGA implant removal. Two produced healthy calves, but the third died owing to an unrelated terminal illness in the mother. Zoo Biol 26:299-310, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360582

  18. Association between sleeping hours and cardiometabolic risk factors for metabolic syndrome in a Saudi Arabian population

    PubMed Central

    Brocato, Jason; Wu, Fen; Chen, Yu; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Alkhatim, Alser A; Abdou, Mamdouh H; Costa, Max

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological and molecular studies have shown that sleep duration is associated with metabolic syndrome (MtS), a disease that is on the rise in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We aim to investigate the association between sleep duration and selected cardiometabolic risk factors of MtS in a Saudi Arabian population. Setting Secondary care was given to the participants. There were 2 participating centres, shopping malls in North and South Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Participants We recruited 2686 participants over a 1-year study period. Participants were selected based on their willingness. The only criterion for exclusion was living in the area (North or South Jeddah) for less than 15 years. Planned and primary outcome measures Participants were measured for blood sugar levels, blood pressure and body mass index. All participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire. Results There was a positive association between longer sleep duration and obesity, hypertension and hyperglycaemia. The adjusted ORs for obesity, hypertension and hyperglycaemia were 1.54 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.98), 1.89 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.48) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.13), respectively, in participants sleeping >8 h/night, as compared with those sleeping 7 h. The positive associations between longer sleep duration, defined as sleeping >7 h, and the disease status, did not differ from other risk factors such as physical activity and nutrition. Conclusions This is the first epidemiological study reporting on the association between sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors of MtS in a Saudi Arabian population. Sleep durations of 8 h or greater were found to be associated with all 3 cardiometabolic risk factors: obesity, hypertension and hyperglycaemia, and this relationship was not confounded by quality of nutrition or physical activity levels. PMID:26621514

  19. Speciation of phosphorus in the continental shelf sediments in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka Kumar; Kurian, John; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Tripathy, Subhasish

    2016-03-01

    The distributions of various forms of phosphorus (P) and their relation with sediment geochemistry in two core sediments near Karwar and Mangalore offshore have been studied through the modified SEDEX procedure (Ruttenberg et al., 2009) and bulk chemical analysis. The present study provides the first quantitative analysis of complete phosphorus speciation in the core sediments of the Eastern Arabian shelf. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) and Al-Ti-Zr ternary diagram suggest low to moderate source area weathering of granodioritic to tonalitic source rock composition, despite the intense orographic rainfall in the source area. Due to the presence of same source rock and identical oxic depositional environment, the studied sediments show the same range of variation of total phosphorus (24 to 83 μmol/g) with a down-depth depleting trend. Organic bound P and detrital P are the two major chemical forms followed by iron-bound P, exchangeable/loosely bound P and authigenic P. The authigenic P content in the sediments near Mangalore coast varies linearly with calcium (r=0.88) unlike that of Karwar coast. The different reactive-phosphorus pools exhibit identical depleting trend with depth. This indicates that the phosphorus released from the organic matter and Fe bound fractions are prevented from precipitating as authigenic phosphates in the deeper parts of the sediment column. The low concentration of total P, dominance of detrital non-reactive fraction of P and inhibition of formation of authigenic phosphate result in the absence of active phosphatization in the Eastern Arabian Shelf in the studied region. High sedimentation rate (35-58 cm/kyr) and absence of winnowing effect appear to be the dominant factor controlling the P-speciation in the studied sediments.

  20. Interannual variability of the Arabian Sea Warm Pool: observations and governing mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R. R.; Jitendra, V.; GirishKumar, M. S.; Ravichandran, M.; Ramakrishna, S. S. V. S.

    2015-04-01

    The near-surface layers in the Arabian Sea progressively warm up from February to early May resulting in the formation of pool of warm waters popularly known as the Arabian Sea Warm Pool (ASWP). The availability of high quality TMI sea surface temperature (SST) data for the years 1998-2010 is exploited to describe the evolution of the ASWP on seasonal and interannual time scales and to explain the associated mechanisms. The multi-year (1998-2010) averaged TMI SSTs during April-May show peak values of the ASWP in excess of 30 °C with its core >30.5 °C extending offshore as a well-marked southwestward tongue stretching from the southwest coast of India. The ASWP shows both seasonal and interannual variability in the evolution of spatio-temporal characteristics such as amplitude, phase and spatial extent. Among these 13 years, the ASWP was most (least) pronounced during 1998, 2003 and 2010 (1999, 2000, 2001 and 2008). The mechanisms that govern the observed interannual variability of the ASWP are examined addressing the most relevant issues such as—(1) dynamic pre-conditioning: background pycnocline topography influenced by the westward propagating Rossby waves during October-May, (2) thermal pre-conditioning: background SST/heat content signal during October-January influenced by the strength of the preceding year's summer monsoon and the post-monsoon cyclones during October-December, (3) haline pre-conditioning: near-surface vertical salinity stratification during November-February influenced by the advection of low saline waters from the Bay of Bengal, (4) influence of surface net heat flux forcing during February-May, and (5) influence of El Nino/La Nina.

  1. Early cretaceous platform-margin configuration and evolution in the central Oman mountains, Arabian peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, B.R. ); Smewing, J.D. )

    1993-02-01

    The Hajar Supergroup (Middle Permian-Lower Cretaceous) of northeastern Oman records rifting and development of a passive margin along the edge of the Arabian platform facing Neo-Tethys. The Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous part, comprising the Sahtan, Kahmah, and Wasia groups, was deposited during the maximum extent of the broad epicontinental sea landward of this margin. These limestone units reach a total of 1500 m in thickness and correlate with the hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Arabian Peninsula. The trace of the Jurassic and Cretaceous margin in northeastern Oman followed a zigzag series of rift segments, resulting in promontories and reentrants that changed in position through time in response to the configuration and differential motion of underlying rift blocks. Synsedimentary normal faulting occurred locally in the Middle Jurassic, whereas in the Late Jurassic, the margin was eroded from variable uplift of up to 300 m before subsiding to below storm wave base. This uplift may have been caused by compression from oceanic crust that obducted along the southeastern side of the platform. The Lower Cretaceous succession in the central Oman Mountains and adjacent subsurface began with regional drowning around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. The succession in the east (Saih Hatat) records a single regressive sequence, ending in the progradation of the shallow-water carbonate platform by the Cenomanian. However, the succession in the west (Jebel Akhdar and interior) is dominated by shallow-water carbonate facies, but punctuated by a second regional drowning in the late Aptian. A third, Late Cretaceous drowning terminated deposition of the Wasia Group in the Turonian and was caused by convergence of oceanic crust and foreland basic formation. The record of tectonic behavior of carbonate platforms has important implications for the development of hydrocarbon source rocks and porosity. 68 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The maturation history of the Paleozoic hydrocarbon system of the Arabian platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    This poster defines the Paleozoic hydrocarbon system of the Arabian Platform, presents an interpretation of its thermal and burial history and uses those results to describe the maturation history of the Lower Silurian source rock. Geohistory analysts were used to delineate source rock kitchens and to guide searches for previously unrecognized sources. The Paleozoic hydrocarbon system is one of the areally largest hydrocarbon systems in the world and one of the least drilled. It contains one of the world`s largest gas fields, is one of the largest potential gas resources on earth, and contains one of the largest emerging oil plays. It is present in both the Zagros Foldbelt and the Arabian Platform. The Lower Silurian Qusaiba source and the Triassic Sudair regional seal define the boundaries of the system. The Paleozoic hc system evolved in basically five stages: (1) simultaneous sediment accumulation and structural formation during the Paleozoic; (2) major tectonism and erosion in Late Paleozoic (Hercynian); (3) Triassic deposition of a regional seal; (4) Mesozoic charging primarily from the Lower Silurian sources; and (5) re-initiation of maturation of Paleozoic sources and charging of the Zagros compressional traps during Neogene collision with Eurasia. We have also interpreted the filling history of North Dome to explain why it contains gas rather than oil. A combination of late trap growth and late gas generation apparently displaced the previously resident oils and left a trap with a gas rich in condensate. The Silurian may have been exhausted by this time, thus indicating that other sources may have contributed significantly to North Dome.

  3. Large organic-walled Protista ( Gromia) in the Arabian Sea: Density, diversity, distribution and ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda da Silva, A.; Gooday, A. J.

    2009-03-01

    The genus Gromia includes large marine protists ('gromiids') with filose pseudopodia and sack-like organic tests. The first deep-water species were discovered in the 1990s on the Oman Margin of the Arabian Sea and subsequently found on the Pakistan Margin. We present a survey of gromiids in samples collected off Oman in 2002 and off Pakistan in 2003. In addition to the two species ( Gromia sphaerica and Gromia pyriformis) already described from this area, at least eight undescribed gromiid species were present. Sausage shaped, grape shaped and spherical morphotypes were represented among this material. On the Oman Margin, gromiids occurred in densities up to several thousand individuals m -2 at 1400 and 1700 m but were much less common at 1100 and 2000 m. Apart from G. pyriformis, which was fairly common (several hundred individuals m -2) at 1000 m, gromiids were uncommon in core samples taken off Pakistan, with 11 indiv. m -2 at 1200 m and 19 indiv. m -2 at 1850 m. On both margins, these protists occurred at depths >1000 m where bottom-water oxygen concentrations exceeded ˜0.2 ml l -1 (=8.92 μM l -1) land sediments were fully bioturbated and oxidised. However, they were not observed at similar oxygen levels above the OMZ. Most gromiids lived on the sediment surface with their apertures facing down and their pseudopodia presumably deployed into the sediment to feed on surficial material and associated bacteria. We conclude that these large protists may play an important ecological role in the bathyal Arabian Sea, particularly in carbon cycling but also in structuring the surficial sediments. In addition, their tests, particularly those of G. sphaerica, provide substrates for attached Foraminifera.

  4. Challenges in modeling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have shown an increase in harmful algal blooms in the Northwest Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman, raising the question of whether climate change will accelerate this trend. This has led us to examine whether the Earth System Models used to simulate phytoplankton productivity accurately capture bloom dynamics in this region - both in terms of the annual cycle and interannual variability. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) show two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. Two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The models fail to capture both the magnitude of the wintertime bloom and its modulation by eddies in part because of their failure to capture the observed sharp thermocline and/or nutricline in this region. When CM2.6 is able to capture such features in the Southern part of the basin, eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). For the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf - something that is poorly done in global models.

  5. Challenges in modelling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2015-07-01

    We examine interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms in northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) shows two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. A pronounced anti-correlation between the AVISO sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and chlorophyll is found during the wintertime bloom. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is thus dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. These results were compared against the outputs from three different 3-D Earth System models. We show that two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The southern part of the domain is a region with a much sharper thermocline and nutricline relatively close to the surface, in which eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). We suggest that for the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf.

  6. The role of salinity on the dynamics of the Arabian Sea mini warm pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyadjro, Ebenezer S.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu; Murty, V. S. N.; Shriver, Jay F.

    2012-09-01

    Warmer (>28°C) sea surface temperature (SST) occurs in the South Eastern Arabian Sea (SEAS, 5°N-13°N, 65°E-76°E) during March-April, and is known as the Arabian Sea Mini Warm Pool (ASMWP). In this study, we address the role of salinity and the upper layer heat and salt budgets in the formation and collapse of this ASMWP. An assessment of Level 3 sea surface salinity (SSS) data from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission for the year 2010 shows that SMOS is able to capture the SSS variability in the SEAS. Analysis of temperature, salinity and currents from the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model during 2003-06, and, in situ temperature and salinity data from Argo floats during 2003-06 for the SEAS revealed that low salinity waters cap the top 60 m of the SEAS in January-February. This minimum salinity was concurrent with the formation of a barrier layer and with the time when the SEAS gained little net heat flux and the equatorward flowing East India Coastal Current (EICC) fed low saline waters into the SEAS. Subsequently, the net heat flux increased to a peak value under the increased salinity stratification, leading to the formation of the ASMWP in March-April. The ASMWP collapsed by May due to increase in SSS and the associated weakening of the salinity stratification. The monsoon onset vortex in May 2004 could be related to the minimum SSS that occurred in February 2004, followed by higher SST and heat content of the ASMWP in April 2004.

  7. MODIS-Aqua detects Noctiluca scintillans and hotspots in the central Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Priyaja, P; Rafeeq, M; Sudhakar, M

    2016-01-01

    Northern Arabian Sea is considered as an ecologically sensitive area as it experiences a massive upwelling and long-lasting algal bloom, Noctiluca scintillans (green tide) during summer and spring-winter, respectively. Diatom bloom is also found to be co-located with N. scintillans and both have an impact on ecology of the basin. In-house technique of detecting species of these blooms from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data was used to generate a time-series of images revealing their spatial distribution. A study of spatial-temporal variability of these blooms using satellite data expressed a cyclic pattern of their spread over a period of 13 years. An average distribution of the blooms for January-March period revealed a peak in 2015 and minimum in 2013. Subsequently, a time-series of phytoplankton species images were generated for these 2 years to study their inter-annual variability and the associated factors. Species images during active phase of the bloom (February) in 2015 indicated development of N. scintillans and diatom in the central Arabian Sea also, up to 12° N. This observation was substantiated with relevant oceanic parameters measured from the ship as well as satellite data and the same is highlight of the paper. While oxygen depletion and release of ammonia associated with N. scintillans are detrimental for waters on the western side; it is relatively less extreme and supports the entire food chain on the eastern side. In view of these contrasting eco-sensitive events, it is a matter of concern to identify biologically active persistent areas, hot spots, in order to study their ecology in detail. An ecological index, persistence of the bloom, was derived from the time-series of species images and it is another highlight of our study. PMID:26690080

  8. Living Behaviors and Molecular Characterization of Benthic Foraminifera in the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Muhammad; Kaminski, Michael; Khalil, Amjad; Holzmann, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The benthic foraminifera are among the major carbonate producers in modern Arabian Gulf waters and are found living in all marine habitats. They have been recognized as proxies to assess paleoenvironmental changes, however, their biological behaviors in modern environments needs to be further studied. The current study attempts to explain the biology of benthic foraminifera in terms of their living behaviors and molecular characterization, from different regions of the western side of the Arabian Gulf. Accordingly, two major groups of benthic foraminifera, namely rotaliids and miliolids, are examined under laboratory conditions. Results illustrate that the rotaliids are more resistant to environmental changes than miliolids, as their granular reticulopodial network is stronger than among the miliolids, with high cytoplasmic streaming. The pseudopodia extend out from both primary and secondary apertures, and aid the organism in locomotion by attaching to the wall of hard substrate. As a result they drag their whole bodies toward the direction of motion. In rotaliids, the movement rate is high and is attributed to the extension of pseudopodia through all apertures, compared with miliolids in which pseudopodia extend out from the primary aperture only. The innate behavior of both groups was observed as a function of external stimulus, i.e., light, nutrients, and availability of substrate. The observation on average life span reflected that the rotaliids was able to survive longer than miliolids. Molecular analysis reveals the presence of four groups, i.e., Ammonia, Murrayinella, Glabratellina, and Elphidium which support the morphological taxonomy at the genus level. However, BLAST analysis contradicts the species level taxonomy, which challenges the classification based upon hard-shell morphology. Nevertheless, monophyletic clustering is observed among all major groups. The study concludes that the morphological taxonomy needs to be augmented by molecular analysis

  9. Arabian Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of low-albedo (dark) barchan sand dunes in a crater located in western Arabia Terra. Small dunes like these are common in the craters of western Arabia Terra and they are often the source of finer, dark sediment that forms windstreaks further downwind. The steepest slopes on the dunes, their slipfaces, are pointed toward the southeast (lower right), indicating that the dominant winds in this location come from the opposite direction.

    Location near: 6.4oN, 346.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  10. Arabian Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... of the images. The image set is centered along the Tropic of Cancer, about 400 kilometers east of Muscat, Oman, and was acquired on October ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  11. Dtection of Sea Level Rise within the Arabian Gulf Using Space Based GNSS Measurements and Insitu Tide Gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, Abdulaziz; Ayhan, Mehmet

    In the 21st century, sea level rise is expected to be about 30 cm or even more (up to 60 cm). Saudi Arabia has very long coasts of about 3400 km and hundreds of islands. Therefore, sea level monitoring may be important in particular along coastal low lands on Red Sea and Arabian Gulf coasts. Arabian Gulf is connected to Indian Ocean and lying along a parallel course in the south-west of the Zagros Trust Belt. We expect vertical land motion within the area due to both tectonic structures of the Arabian Peninsula and oil production activities. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Continues observations were used to estimate the vertical crustal motion. Bahrain International GPS Service (IGS-GPS) station is the only continuous GPS station accessible in the region, and it is close to the Mina Sulman tide gauge station in Bahrain. The weekly GPS time series of vertical component at Bahrain IGS-GPS station referring to the ITRF97 from 1999.2 to 2008.6 are used in the computation. We fitted a linear trend with an annual signal and a break to the GPS vertical time series and found a vertical land motion rate of 0.46 0.11 mm/yr. To investigate sea level variation within the west of Arabian Gulf, monthly means of sea level at 13 tide gauges along the coast of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, available in the database of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), are studied. We analyzed separately the monthly mean sea level measurements at each station, and estimated secular sea level rate by a robust linear trend fitting. We computed the average relative sea level rise rate of 1.96 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf based on 4 stations spanning longer than 19 years. Sea level rates at the stations are first corrected for vertical land motion contamination using the ICE-5G v1.2 VM4 Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model, and the average sea level rate is found 2.27 0.21 mm/yr. Assuming the vertical rate at Bahrain IGS-GPS station represents the vertical rate

  12. Neotectonic map of Syria and some aspects of Late Cenozoic evolution of the northwestern boundary zone of the Arabian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukieh, M.; Trifonov, V. G.; Dodonov, A. E.; Minini, H.; Ammar, O.; Ivanova, T. P.; Zaza, T.; Yusef, A.; Al-Shara, M.; Jobaili, Y.

    2005-09-01

    The neotectonic map of Syria, 1:500,000, was compiled by the authors in 2003-2004. The map shows tectonic features formed or continued to develop during the Neogene and Quaternary in Syria and adjacent territories, including the Mediterranean realm. The neotectonic structure of the region was formed as a result of three phases of deformation. During the Early Miocene first phase, the Arabian plate moved along the Dead Sea-Jordan segments of the Levant (Dead Sea) transform fault zone, Roum fault and its continuation in the continental slope of the Mediterranean. The chain of the coastal anticlines in the "Arabian" side of the transform zone and the Lattaqie oblique (sinistral-thrust) boundary fault zone in the north were formed under the NNW-trending compression. The Lattaqie zone continued by the Cyprus arc in the west and by the Taurus (Bitlis) thrust in the east and further by the Main Thrust of the Zagros. After "quiet" (for Syria) epoch of the Middle Miocene when the Arabian plate moved to the NE, during the Late Miocene second phase of deformation, the Arabian plate moved again to the NNW along the same transform boundary. But a part of the Late Miocene plate motion (up to 20 km) resulted by shortening in the Anti-Leban-Palmyride fold-thrust belt that separated the Aleppo block from the main part of the Arabian plate. During the Pliocene-Quaternary third phase of deformation, the recent structural pattern of the Levant zone was formed in Lebanon and the northwestern Syria. At the same time, the Serghaya and smaller sinistral faults branched out the Levant zone and the system of the W-E-trending convex to the south dextral faults ruptured the Palmyrides and the stable part of the Arabian plate. The total Pliocene-Quaternary sinistral offset on the young Levant zone segments and the associated faults has reached 35-40 km, like on the Dead Sea-Jordan segments of the Levant fault zone. The faults, demonstrating the Pliocene-Quaternary activity are still active now

  13. Revision of Afro-Malagasy Otomops (Chiroptera: Molossidae) with the description of a new Afro-Arabian species.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Taryn M C; Richards, Leigh R; Taylor, Peter J; Napier, Melanie C; Lamb, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    The paucity of data for the molossid bat Otomops throughout its range has hindered our ability to resolve the number of Otomops species present within the Afro-Malagasy region (including the Arabian Peninsula). This paper employed an integrative approach by combining morphometric (cranial morphology) and molecular (mitochondrial cytochrome b and D-loop sequences, nuclear intron sequences and microsatellites) data to identify the number of Otomops taxa occurring in the Afro-Malagasy region. Three taxa were identified, two of which could be assigned to existing species, i.e. O. martiensseni and O. madagascariensis. The third taxon, previously recognised as O. martiensseni (Matschie 1897), is described herein as a new species, Otomops harrisoni sp. nov., and can be differentiated from O. martiensseni s.s. based on both molecular and morphometric data. Locality data of specimens belonging to O. harrisoni suggest that its distribution range extends from the Arabian Peninsula through to Eritrea and south to Ethiopia and Kenya. PMID:26701463

  14. The effect of seasonal changes on the selection of biocide inhibitors for Arabian Gulf seawater for water injection purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hashem, A.; Salman, M.; Al-Muhanna, K.; Al-Bazzaz, W.

    1997-08-01

    This investigation was carried out to determine the most effective biocide inhibitor for Northern Arabian Gulf Seawater. This seawater will be used for water injection purposes for some oil fields in Kuwait. Arabian Gulf Seawater is known to be very saline during the summer months and less saline during the rainy season of spring. The biocide inhibitors were tested in a rig with six side streams biofouling monitoring tubes (SBMT). Bacterial nutrients were added to the system and carbon steel studs were placed along the tubes of the biocide evaluation test rig (BETR). After a month, a thin, slimy, and black deposit was formed on the carbon steel studs. The deposit contained 107 general aerobic bacteria (GAB), 107 general anaerobic bacteria (GAnB) and 105 sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The most effective biocide inhibitor was found to be a fatty amine aryl quaternary inhibitor at 50% dosage.

  15. Two newly recognized species of Hemidactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Šmíd, Jiří; Moravec, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Gvoždík, Václav; Nasher, Abdul Karim; Busais, Salem M.; Wilms, Thomas; Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A recent molecular phylogeny of the Arid clade of the genus Hemidactylus revealed that the recently described H. saba and two unnamed Hemidactylus species from Sinai, Saudi Arabia and Yemen form a well-supported monophyletic group within the Arabian radiation of the genus. The name ‘Hemidactylus saba species group’ is suggested for this clade. According to the results of morphological comparisons and the molecular analyses using two mitochondrial (12S and cytb) and four nuclear (cmos, mc1r, rag1, rag2) genes, the name Hemidactylus granosus Heyden, 1827 is resurrected from the synonymy of H. turcicus for the Sinai and Saudi Arabian species. The third species of this group from Yemen is described formally as a new species H. ulii sp. n. The phylogenetic relationships of the members of ‘Hemidactylus saba species group’ are evaluated and the distribution and ecology of individual species are discussed. PMID:24363570

  16. Bio-Optical Properties of the Arabian Sea as Determined by In-Situ and SeaWifs Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trees, Charles C.

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of this work was to characterize optical and fluorescence properties in the euphotic zone during two British Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) Arabian Sea cruises. This was later expanded in 1995 to include three U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Arabian Sea Cruises. The region was to be divided into one or more "bio-optical provinces", within each of which a single set of regression models was to be developed to relate the vertical distribution of irradiance attenuation and normalized fluorescence (SF and NF) to remote sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficient [K(490)]. The working hypothesis was that over relatively large spatial and temporal scales, the vertical profiles of bio-optical properties were predictable.

  17. Assessment of arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Al-Otaiby, Naif

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess arsenic on the Tarut coast, Saudi Arabian Gulf, 38 sediment samples, 26 seawater samples and 40 gastropod and bivalve specimens were collected for analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that coastal sediments of Tarut Island are severely enriched, strongly polluted and very highly contaminated with arsenic as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of As. The suggested natural sources of arsenic in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources include the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents. These anthropogenic sources are the dominant sources of As in the study area and mostly came from Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  18. Long-Period Ground Motion in the Arabian Gulf from Earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains Thrust Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitarka, Arben; Al-Amri, Abdullah; Pasyanos, Michael E.; Rodgers, Arthur J.; Mellors, Robert J.

    2015-10-01

    The Arabian Gulf is adjacent to the Zagros Mountains, one of the most seismically active regions in the world. We observe that broadband seismic records of Zagros earthquakes recorded on the Arabian side of the Gulf display long-duration surface waves. While shorter periods (<1 s) are attenuated from crossing the deep sediments (>10 km) of the Gulf basin, the long-period energy is enhanced and transmitted efficiently. Consequently, large earthquakes in the Zagros could result in amplified ground motions at long periods (2-10 s) relative to average behavior. Such ground motions are of concern for large engineered structures, such as tall buildings and long bridges with resonant periods in the same period range. Here we present results of investigations of the characteristics of ground motions recorded on the western shore of the Gulf from selected earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains region. Exceptionally, long-duration seismic waves, as compared with standard models, are shown to occur with periods of 2-10 s. This may be due to waveguide effects in the deep sedimentary basin structure of the Arabian Platform. In addition to analyzing recorded ground motion we performed 3D wave propagation simulations using a finite difference method and experimental velocity models of the Gulf, with different shallow sedimentary layers structures. The simulation results confirm our hypothesis that long-period waves with extremely long duration and relatively large amplitudes are caused by the geometry of the basin sedimentary layers and, to some extent, by shallow earthquake depths. Combined effects of basin edge geometry with sharp velocity contrasts and shallow sources (<10 km) on the eastern side of the Arabian Gulf can cause large long-period ground motion on the western side of the Gulf. In contrast, the short-period content of ground motion (<2 s) at long distances is relatively weak. This is mainly due to wave propagation scattering and attenuation in the shallow sedimentary

  19. Late Holocene SST and primary productivity variations in the northeastern Arabian Sea as a recorder for winter monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böll, Anna; Gaye, Birgit; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Variability in the oceanic environment of the Arabian Sea region is strongly influenced by the seasonal monsoon cycle of alternating wind directions. Strong south-westerly winds during the summer monsoon induce upwelling of nutrient rich waters along the coast off Somalia, Oman and southwest India, which result in high rates of primary production. In the northeastern Arabian Sea off Pakistan on the other hand, primary production and sea surface temperatures are linked to northeast monsoonal winds that cool the sea surface and drive convective mixing and high surface ocean productivity during the winter season. In this study, we analyzed alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) variations and proxies of primary productivity (organic carbon and δ15N) in a well-laminated sediment core from the Pakistan continental margin to establish the first high-resolution record of winter monsoon variability for the late Holocene. Over the last 2400 years reconstructed SST in the northeastern Arabian Sea decreased whereas productivity increased, imaging a long-term trend of northeast monsoon strengthening in response to insolation-induced southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The comparison of our winter monsoon record with records of summer monsoon intensity suggests that summer and winter monsoon strength was essentially anti-correlated over the late Holocene throughout the Asian monsoon system. In addition, SST variations recorded off Pakistan match very well with Northern Hemisphere temperature records supporting the growing body of evidence that Asian climate is linked to Northern Hemisphere climate change. It reveals a consistent pattern of increased summer monsoon activity in the northeastern Arabian Sea during northern hemispheric warm periods (Medieval Warm Period, Roman Warm Period) and strengthened winter monsoon activity during hemispheric colder periods (Little Ice Age).

  20. Map showing distribution and classification of felsic plutonic rocks in the eastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du Bray, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    This 1:500,000-scale compilation shows the distribution of felsic plutonic rocks, lithologic types, and associated mineralization in an area between lat 21° and 24°30’ N., long 43°30’ and 46° E. It is part of a shieldwide compilation being done within the framework of Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources projects 2.04 and 3.12.

  1. Geochemistry and preliminary assessment of resource potential for postorogenic granites of the southwestern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; VanTrump, George, Jr.; Bush, C.A.; Vaughn, R.B.; Bartel, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Regional geochemical patterns are not consistent with the north-south trending microplate boundary that has been proposed by other workers. Correlation coefficients for trace-element data obtained during the current study also argue against sharp compositional breaks in the protolith for the postorogenic granites. Consideration of the data presented here and similar data for granitoids of the eastern Arabian Shield, suggest the existence of a compositionally gradational protolith of continental affinity to the east and oceanic affinity to the west.

  2. Infections in travellers returning to Turkey from the Arabian peninsula: a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Erdem, H; Ak, O; Elaldi, N; Demirdal, T; Hargreaves, S; Nemli, S A; Cag, Y; Ulug, M; Naz, H; Gunal, O; Sirmatel, F; Sipahi, O R; Alpat, S N; Ertem-Tuncer, G; Sozen, H; Evlice, O; Meric-Koc, M; Dogru, A; Koksaldi-Motor, V; Tekin, R; Ozdemir, D; Ozturk-Engin, D; Savasci, U; Karagoz, E; Cekli, Y; Inan, A

    2016-06-01

    Mass gatherings pooling people from different parts of the world-the largest of which is to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, for Hajj-may impose risks for acquisition and dissemination of infectious diseases. A substantial number of pilgrims to Hajj and Umrah are Turkish citizens (456,000 in 2014) but data are lacking on scale of the problem. We did a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study in Turkey to explore the range of infections among inpatients who had recently returned from the Arabian Peninsula. Our inclusion criteria were patients who had acquired an infection during their trip to an Arabian Peninsula country, or who became symptomatic within 1 week of their return. The data were collected retrospectively for January 1, 2013 and March 1, 2015. 185 Turkish patients were recruited to the study across 15 referral centers with travel associated infectious diseases after returning from Arabian Peninsula countries (predominantly Saudi Arabia 163 [88.1 %] for religious purposes 162 [87.5 %]). Seventy four (40.0 %) of them were ≥ 65 years old with numerous comorbidities including diabetes (24.3 %) and COPD (14.1 %). The most common clinical diagnosis was respiratory tract infections (169 [91.5 %]), followed by diarrheal diseases (13 [7 %]), and there was one case of MERS-CoV. Patients spent a median of 5 (3-7) days as hospital inpatients and overall mortality was 1.1 %. Returning travellers from the Arabian Peninsula present as inpatients with a broad range of infectious diseases similar to common community acquired infections frequently seen in daily medical practices in Turkey. PMID:26964538

  3. Effect on fertility of human chorionic gonadotrophin and uterine lavage with oxytocin performed after mating in Arabian barren mares.

    PubMed

    Azawi, O I

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of hCG injected immediately after mating in Arabian barren mares treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin. Arabian barren mares (n=36) with PMIE were subjected to detailed clinical examinations including palpation per rectum, vaginoscopy, and cytological examination. After mating the 36 mares were randomly divided into four groups. The mares in group 1 (n=10) were immediately after breeding injected with hCG 3,000 IU IM. Uterine lavage with 1L of N-saline containing 4 million IU of crystalline penicillin and 4 g of streptomycin sulphate was performed 4h after breeding. Then mares received two injections of oxytocin 40 IU IM 2h apart after 6h of mating. Mares in group 2 (n=10) treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin as group 1. While mares in group 3 (n=10) received uterine lavage only. A control group (n=6) as group 4 did not received any treatment. The results of clinical examination indicated that 69.4% of PMIE mares were harboring severe endometritis and 30.6% with a moderate form of endometritis. Significant (P<0.01) increase in lymphocytes were founded in barren mares included in this study. Higher pregnancy rate (P<0.01) was founded in Arabian barren mares 80% injected with hCG immediately after breeding and uterine lavage and oxytocin. No significant difference was found in mares received uterine lavage and oxytocin and uterine lavage only. In a conclusion, administration of hCG immediately after mating and intrauterine lavage containing antibiotics performed 4h and two injections of oxytocin 40 IU IM 2h apart after 6h of mating had improved fertility of Arabian barren mares. PMID:17681436

  4. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  5. Seismic anisotropy and subduction-induced mantle fabrics beneath the Arabian and Nubian Plates adjacent to the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed A.; Gao, Stephen S.; Liu, Kelly H.; Mohamed, Abdelnasser A.; Yu, Youqiang; Fat-Helbary, Raafat E.

    2014-04-01

    For most continental areas, the mechanisms leading to mantle fabrics responsible for the observed anisotropy remain ambiguous, partially due to the lack of sufficient spatial coverage of reliable seismological observations. Here we report the first joint analysis of shear-wave splitting measurements obtained at stations on the Arabian and Nubian Plates adjacent to the Red Sea. More than 1100 pairs of high-quality splitting parameters show dominantly N-S fast orientations at all 47 stations and larger-than-normal splitting times beneath the Afro-Arabian Dome (AAD). The uniformly N-S fast orientations and large splitting times up to 1.5 s are inconsistent with significant contributions from the lithosphere, which is about 50-80 km thick beneath the AAD and even thinner beneath the Red Sea. The results can best be explained by simple shear between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere associated with northward subduction of the African/Arabian Plates over the past 150 Ma.

  6. The Malaria Transition on the Arabian Peninsula: Progress toward a Malaria-Free Region between 1960–2010

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Robert W.; Amratia, Punam; Zamani, Ghasem; Mundia, Clara W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Memish, Ziad A.; Al Zahrani, Mohammad H.; Al Jasari, Adel; Fikri, Mahmoud; Atta, Hoda

    2014-01-01

    The transmission of malaria across the Arabian Peninsula is governed by the diversity of dominant vectors and extreme aridity. It is likely that where malaria transmission was historically possible it was intense and led to a high disease burden. Here, we review the speed of elimination, approaches taken, define the shrinking map of risk since 1960 and discuss the threats posed to a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula using the archive material, case data and published works. From as early as the 1940s, attempts were made to eliminate malaria on the peninsula but were met with varying degrees of success through to the 1970s; however, these did result in a shrinking of the margins of malaria transmission across the peninsula. Epidemics in the 1990s galvanised national malaria control programmes to reinvigorate control efforts. Before the launch of the recent global ambition for malaria eradication, countries on the Arabian Peninsula launched a collaborative malaria-free initiative in 2005. This initiative led a further shrinking of the malaria risk map and today locally acquired clinical cases of malaria are reported only in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, with the latter contributing to over 98% of the clinical burden. PMID:23548086

  7. Acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin in Arabian mares affected with pyometra.

    PubMed

    El-Bahr, S M; El-Deeb, W M

    2016-09-01

    New biomarkers are essential for diagnosis of pyometra in mares. In this context, 12 subfertile Arabian mares suffered from pyometra were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The basis for diagnosis of pyometra was positive findings of clinical examination and rectal palpation. Blood samples were collected from diseased animals and from five Arabian healthy mares, which were considered as control group. Acute-phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin I were estimated in the harvested sera of both groups. Clinical examination revealed purulent yellowish fluid discharged from vagina of affected animals and rectal palpation of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention. The biochemical analysis of the serum revealed significant increase in cardiac troponin I, creatin kinase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide (NO) of mares affected with pyometra compare to control. Cardiac troponin I was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, creatin kinase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and negatively correlated with glutathione, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide in serum of mares affected with pyometra. Moreover, there was high positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and APP in serum of mares affected with pyometra. The present study suggests cardiac troponin I together with APP, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress parameters as biomarkers for pyometra in Arabian mares. PMID:27177966

  8. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40{plus minus}4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  9. Interpretation of the data of USGS seismic refraction profile across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodehl, C.

    Based on the record sections distributed a preliminary traveltime interpretation assuming horizontally flat layering is presented in the form of velocity-depth functions and a corresponding cross section of the lithosphere to a depth of 60 to 80 km across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The crust thickens abruptly from 15 km beneath the Red Sea Rift to about 40 km beneath the Arabian Shield. The upper crust of the western Arabian Shield yields relatively high-velocity material at about 10 km depth underlain by velocity inversions, while the upper crust of the eastern Shield is relatively uniform. The lower crust with a velocity of about 7 km/s is underlain by a transitional crust-mantle boundary. For the lower lithosphere beneath 40 km depth a laterally discontinuous lamellar structure may exist where high-velocity zones are mixed with zones of lower velocities. Beneath the crust-mantle boundary of the Red Sea Rift strong velocity inversions with velocities as low as 6.0 km/s may be encountered between 25 and 44 km depth. This model was prepared before the CCSS workshop. The model was tested using ray-tracing and amplitude studies and agreed well with observed traveltimes, except between shotpoints 5 and 6.

  10. Pan-African shear zone-hosted gold mineralization in the Arabian-Nubian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alam, Tamer; Grosch, Eugene; Abd El Monsef, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    A new tectonic model of the exhumation mechanism of the Arabian-Nubian Shield will be presented at the EGU2013 by Abu-Alam and Stüwe (2013). According to this new tectonic model, the shear zones of the Arabian-Nubian Shield can be classified into two types; deep-seated and relatively shallow shear zones. The deep-seated shear zones are accompanied with deep sub-horizontal crustal channel flows which are response to the exhumation of the metamorphic complexes from the peak condition depth to a shallower crustal level (ductile-brittle transition). An example of these deep-seated shear zones is the Najd Fault System - the largest shear zone on the Earth. At the ductile-brittle transition crustal level, the deep-seated shear zones were overprinted by a greenschist facies condition or the ?2 and ?3 of the principle stresses may be flipped with each other. This flipping can produce other conjugate shallow shear zones in a greenschist facies conditions. The Egyptian gold deposits can be classified into three main types (Botros, 2004), These are stratabound deposits, non-stratabound deposits and placer gold deposits. The non-stratabound deposits are the most common (ex: Sukari, Wadi Allaqi, Abu Marawat, Atalla, El-Sid and Atud gold mines). They are found in form of vein type mineralization or as disseminated mineralization hosted in volcanics and volcaniclastic rocks (volcanogenic massive sulphides). Spatial and temporal relationships between gold veins and structures in the Arabian-Nubian Shield suggest a genetic relationship between mineralization and major tectonic events. At Sukari, Wadi Allaqi and Abu Marawat areas, the gold is hosted in quartz veins parallel to a deep-seated NW-SE to NNW-SSE shear zones. For Atud, El-Sid and Atalla area, the gold is hosted in NE-SW veins parallel to a shallow shear zone but at the conjugate point with a deep-seated NW-SE shear zone. According to the new tectonic model, we propose the following model for gold formation (non

  11. Geological evolution of the Iraqi Mesopotamia Foredeep, inner platform and near surroundings of the Arabian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissakian, Varoujan K.

    2013-08-01

    The Iraqi territory could be divided into four main tectonic zones; each one has its own characteristics concerning type of the rocks, their age, thickness and structural evolution. These four zones are: (1) Inner Platform (stable shelf), (2) Outer Platform (unstable shelf), (3) Shalair Zone (Terrain), and (4) Zagros Suture Zone. The first two zones of the Arabian Plate lack any kind of metamorphism and volcanism. The Iraqi territory is located in the extreme northeastern part of the Arabian Plate, which is colliding with the Eurasian (Iranian) Plate. This collision has developed a foreland basin that includes: (1) Imbricate Zone, (2) High Folded Zone, (3) Low Folded Zone and (4) Mesopotamia Foredeep. The Mesopotamia Foredeep, in Iraq includes the Mesopotamia Plain and the Jazira Plain; it is less tectonically disturbed as compared to the Imbricate, High Folded and Low Folded Zones. Quaternary alluvial sediments of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and their tributaries as well as distributaries cover the central and southeastern parts of the Foredeep totally; it is called the Mesopotamian Flood Plain. The extension of the Mesopotamia Plain towards northwest however, is called the Jazira Plain, which is covered by Miocene rocks. The Mesopotamia Foredeep is represented by thick sedimentary sequence, which thickens northwestwards including synrift sediments; especially of Late Cretaceous age, whereas on surface the Quaternary sediments thicken southeastwards. The depth of the basement also changes from 8 km, in the west to 14 km, in the Iraqi-Iranian boarders towards southeast. The anticlinal structures have N-S trend, in the extreme southern part of the Mesopotamia Foredeep and extends northwards until the Latitude 32°N, within the Jazira Plain, there they change their trends to NW-SE, and then to E-W trend. The Mesozoic sequence is almost without any significant break, with increase in thickness from the west to the east, attaining 5 km. The sequence forms the main

  12. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  13. Understanding the paleohydrological setting of the Arabian Peninsula: An integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emil, M. K.; Sultan, M.; Sturchio, N. C.; Ahmed, M.; Chouinard, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Rub Al Khali (RAK), encompasses one of the World's largest (area: 650,000 km2) aquifer systems, the Rub Al Khali Aquifer System (RAKAS) of the Arabian Peninsula. In this study, we develop and apply an integrated and cost-effective approach, involving geophysical, geochemical, isotopic, field, and remote sensing investigations to understand the origin, evolution, and the factors controlling the paleo and current distribution of the RAKAS groundwater. Paleohydrological setting of the RAK is investigated by exploring the spatial relations between plaeo-drainage, paleo-lakes, faults, and sapping features. The following investigations were accomplished: (1) groundwater samples were collected from wells in the western portion of the Rub Al Khali and analyzed for their solute chemistry, stable isotopic composition (O, H), and Cl-36 and C-14 ages; (2) paleo-topography (prior to dune encroachment) was extracted using elevations within inter-dunal areas; (3) drainage systems were extracted using standard stream delineation techniques; (4) a regional mosaic of dual polarized (HH,HV) ALOS PALSAR data (10 m resolution) was created covering entire Arabian Peninsula; (5) paleo-drainage systems across the RAK were mapped using PALSAR data and SRTM-derived networks; and (6) Landsat 8 imagery and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were used to map the distribution of paleo-lakes and to delineate sapping features. Findings include: (1) presence of relatively fresh (TDS ranging from 800 - 2,800 mg/L in deeper wells) suitable for drinking and/or irrigation; (2) major ions are Na, Ca, Cl, SO4 and HCO3; (3) radiocarbon model ages range from 1,400 to 30,600 years before present, but conservative Cl-36 model ages indicate much higher residence time (up to 750,000 years or more); (4) Cl-36 ages and stable isotopic compositions indicate that groundwater recharge in previous wet climatic periods; (5) features with stubby looking geometry, theater-like heads, U-shaped profile, flat floors and

  14. Association between HLA Variations and Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Saudi Arabian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A.; Al-Anazi, Mashael R.; Abdo, Ayman A.; Sanai, Faisal M.; Al-Hamoudi, Waleed; Alswat, Khalid A.; Al-Ashgar, Hamad I.; Khalaf, Nisreen Z.; Eldali, Abdelmoneim M.; Viswan, Nisha A.; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) play an important role in the regulation of immune response against infectious organisms, including HBV. Recently, several genome-wide association (GWAS) studies have shown that genetic variations in HLA genes influence disease progression in HBV infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HLA genetic polymorphisms and their possible role in HBV infection in Saudi Arabian patients. Variations in HLA genes were screened in 1672 subjects who were divided according to their clinical status into six categories as follows; clearance group, inactive carriers, active carriers, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and uninfected healthy controls. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) belonged to HLA-DQ region (rs2856718, rs7453920 and rs9275572) and two SNPs belonged to HLA-DP (rs3077 and rs9277535) were studied. The SNPs were genotyped by PCR-based DNA sequencing (rs2856718) and allele specific TaqMan genotyping assays (rs3077, rs7453920, rs9277535 and rs9275572). The results showed that rs2856718, rs3077, rs9277535 and rs9275572 were associated with HBV infection (p = 0.0003, OR = 1.351, CI = 1.147–1.591; p = 0.041, OR = 1.20, CI = 1.007–1.43; p = 0.045, OR = 1.198, CI = 1.004–1.43 and p = 0.0018, OR = 0.776, CI = 0.662–0.910, respectively). However, allele frequency of rs2856718, rs7453920 and rs9275572 were found more in chronically infected patients when compared to clearance group infection (p = 0.0001, OR = 1.462, CI = 1.204–1.776; p = 0.0178, OR = 1.267, CI = 1.042–1.540 and p = 0.010, OR = 0.776, CI = 0.639–0.942, respectively). No association was found when polymorphisms in HLA genes were compared in active carriers versus cirrhosis/HCC patients. In conclusion, these results

  15. Differential GPS measurements as a tool to quantify Late Cenozoic crustal deformation (Oman, Arabian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupprechter, M.; Roepert, A.; Hoffmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is situated in the north-eastern part of the Arabian Plate. It therefore represents the leading edge as the plate is drifting north relative to the Eurasian Plate. The movement results in continent-continent collision in the northwest (Zagros fold and thrust belt) and ocean-continent collision in the northeast (Makran subduction zone). We follow the hypothesis that this plate tectonic setting results in an internal deformation of the Arabian Plate. The study presented here is part of a larger project that aims at quantifying the forcing factors of coastal evolution (Hoffmann et al. 2012). The sea level development, climate - and associated rates of weathering and sediment supply - and differential land movement (neotectonics) are identified as key factors during the Late Cenozoic. Recent vertical land movement is obvious and expressed in differences of the coastal morphology. Parts of the coastline are subsiding: these areas show drowned wadi mouths. Other parts are characterised by a straightened coastline and raised wave-cut terraces are evident well above present mean sea-level. Despite these erosional terraces, depositional terraces on alluvial fans are also encountered in close vicinity to the mountain chain. Detailed topographic profile measurements are carried out using a LEICA Viva GNSS-GS15 differential GPS. The instrument yields data with an accuracy of 1-2 cm relatively to the base station. The profile measurements are orientated perpendicular to the coastline and therefore perpendicular to the raised wave-cut terraces. Up to 6 terraces are encountered in elevations up to 400 m above present sea level with the older ones being the highest. The data allow calculating the scarp height, tread length and tread angle of the terraces. The results indicate that the terraces show an increased seaward tilting with age. This observation is interpreted as reflecting ongoing uplift. A coast-parallel deformation pattern becomes obvious when

  16. Lithospheric mantle evolution in the Afro-Arabian domain: Insights from Bir Ali mantle xenoliths (Yemen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgualdo, P.; Aviado, K.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Bryce, J. G.; Graham, D. W.; Natali, C.; Siena, F.

    2015-05-01

    Detailed petrological and geochemical investigations of an extensive sampling of mantle xenoliths from the Neogene-Quaternary Bir Ali diatreme (southern Yemen) indicate that the underlying lithospheric mantle consists predominantly of medium- to fine-grained (often foliated) spinel-peridotites (85-90%) and spinel-pyroxenites (10-15%) showing thermobarometric estimates in the P-T range of 0.9-2.0 GPa and 900-1150 °C. Peridotites, including lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites delineate continuous chemical, modal and mineralogical variations compatible with large extractions of basic melts occurring since the late Proterozoic (~ 2 Ga, according to Lu-Hf model ages). Pyroxenites may represent intrusions of subalkaline basic melts interacting and equilibrated with the host peridotite. Subsequent metasomatism has led to modal changes, with evidence of reaction patches and clinopyroxene and spinel destabilization, as well as formation of new phases (glass, amphibole and feldspar). These changes are accompanied by enrichment of the most incompatible elements and isotopic compositions. 143Nd/144Nd ranges from 0.51419 to 0.51209 (εNd from + 30.3 to - 10.5), 176Hf/177Hf from 0.28459 to 0.28239 (εHf from + 64.4 to - 13.6), and 208Pb/204Pb from 36.85 to 41.56, thus extending from the depleted mantle (DM) towards the enriched OIB mantle (EM and HIMU) components. 3He/4He (R/RA) ratios vary from 7.2 to 7.9 with He concentrations co-varying with the most incompatible element enrichment, in parallel with metasomatic effects. These metasomatic events, particularly effective in harzburgites and dunites, are attributable to the variable interaction with alkaline basic melts related to the general extensional and rifting regime affecting the East Africa-Arabian domain during the Cenozoic. In this respect, Bir Ali mantle xenoliths resemble those occurring along the Arabian margins and the East Africa Rift system, similarly affected by alkaline metasomatism, whereas they are

  17. A lead isotope study of mineralization in the Saudi Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Doe, B.R.; Roberts, R.J.; Delevaux, M.H.; Gramlich, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    New lead isotope data are presented for some late Precambrian and early Paleozoic vein and massive sulfide deposits in the Arabian Shield. Using the Stacey Kramers (1975) model for lead isotope evolution, isochron model ages range between 720 m.y. and 420 m.y. Most of the massive sulfide deposits in the region formed before 680 m.y. ago, during evolution of the shield. Vein type mineralization of higher lead content occurred during the Pan African event about 550 m.y. ago and continued through the Najd period of extensive faulting in the shield that ended about 530 m.y. ago. Late post-tectonic metamorphism may have been responsible for vein deposits that have model ages less than 500 m.y. Alternatively some of these younger model ages may be too low due to the mineralizing fluids acquiring radiogenic lead from appreciably older local crustal rocks at the time of ore formation. The low207Pb/204Pb ratios found for the deposits in the main part of the shield and for those in north-eastern Egypt, indicate that the Arabian craton was formed in an oceanic crustal environment during the late Precambrian. Involvement of older, upper-crustal material in the formation of the ore deposits in this part of the shield is precluded by their low207Pb/204Pb and208Pb/204Pb characteristics. In the eastern part of the shield, east of longitude 44??20???E towards the Al Amar-Idsas fault region, lead data are quite different. They exhibit a linear207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb relationship together with distinctly higher208Pb/204Pb characteristics. These data imply the existence of lower crustal rocks of early Proterozoic age that apparently have underthrust the shield rocks from the east. If most of the samples we have analyzed from this easterly region were mineralized 530 m.y. ago, then the age of the older continental rocks is 2,100??300 m.y. (2??). The presence of upper crustal rocks, possibly also of early Proterozoic age, is indicated by galena data from Hailan in South Yemen and also

  18. Annual biomarker record for export production in the central Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl, Fredrick G.; Dymond, Jack; Sparrow, Margaret A.

    The record for plankton biomarkers in sediment trap samples from a one-year experiment in the central Arabian Sea (AS4: 15°59'N 61°30'E) shows variations that reflect changing biological conditions in surface waters. Particulate fluxes of C 37-39 alkenones, highly branched C 25 isoprenoids (HBI), dinosterol, nC 28 12-hydroxy fatty acid, 24-ethylcholesterol, and a C 30-34 series of pentacyclic triterpanols all displayed distinct maxima at the start and stop of the Northeast (NE) and Southwest (SW) Monsoons. Surface mixing conditions changed rapidly at these times, altering light and nutrient availability, thereby triggering these biomarker signals of export production. Temporal offsets noted in individual biomarker concentrations (per g total organic carbon) at the start of the SW Monsoon suggest succession occurs in the phytoplankton community contributing to organic matter export. Comparable offsets were neither apparent at the start of the less dynamic NE Monsoon nor at the end of the NE or SW Monsoons. Broad concentration maxima for HBI also were observed at the beginning and end of the time-series during the relatively quiescent Fall Intermonsoon period when such features were conspicuously absent for other biomarkers. HBI are reputed biomarkers of Rhizoselenia and Haslea spp., two recognized dominants of diatom biomass in the Arabian Sea. These peaks in biomarker concentration could reflect either changes in the relative proportion of specific organisms that contribute to the upper ocean productivity or enhanced preservation of the biomarkers during times of high export production. In either case, the biomarker record in sediment traps reflects important changes in the biological condition of the upper ocean. All biomarkers except HBI were measurable in surface sediments deposited beneath the trap site. Comparison with concentrations in average sediment trap particles showed each was sensitive to significant (˜99%) degradation, displaying depletion factors

  19. Interference of lithospheric folding in Central Asia by simultaneous Indian and Arabian plate indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, J. H. W.; Cloetingh, S. A. P. L.; Burov, E.; Sokoutis, D.; Kaban, M.; Tesauro, M.; Burg, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Although large-scale folding of the crust and the lithosphere in Central Asia as a result of the indentation of India has been extensively documented, the impact of continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia has been largely overlooked. The resulting Neogene shortening and uplift of the Zagros, Albors, Kopet Dagh and Kaukasus mountain belts in Iran and surrounding areas is characterised by a simultaneous onset of major topography growth at ca. 5 Ma. At the same time, the adjacent Caspian, Turan and Amu Darya basins underwent an acceleration in subsidence. It is common knowledge that waves with different orientations will interfere with each other. Folding, by its nature similar to a standing wave, is not likely to be an exception. We demonstrate that collision of the Eurasian plate with the Arabian and Indian plates generates folding of the Eurasian lithosphere in two different directions and that interaction between both generates characteristic interference patterns that can be recognised from the regional gravity signal. We present evidence for interference of lithospheric folding patterns induced by Arabian and Indian collision with Eurasia. Wavelengths (from 50 to 250 km) and spatial patterns are inferred from satellite-derived topography and gravity models and attest for rheologically stratified lithosphere with relatively strong mantle rheology (thickness of strong mechanical core on the order of 40-50 km) and less competent crust (thickness of the mechanical core on the order of 10-15 km). The observations are compared with inferences from numerical and analogue tectonic experiments for a quantitative assessment of factors such as lithosphere rheology and stratification, lateral variations in lithosphere strength, thermo-mechanical age and distance to the plate boundary on the activity of folding as a mechanism of intra-plate deformation in this area. The observed interference of the patterns of folding appears to be primarily the result of spatial

  20. Living (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera from the Pakistan continental margin (northern Arabian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannink, N. T.; Zachariasse, W. J.; Van der Zwaan, G. J.

    1998-09-01

    The Arabian Sea is characterized by one of the world's most pronounced oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) (<0.1 O 2 ml/l), which impinges on the seafloor at 200-1000 m depths. The OMZ in the Arabian Sea results from extremely high surface water productivity and moderate thermocline ventilation. Nine box cores were taken on two parallel down-slope transects covering depths from 500 to 2000 m. From these nine box cores living (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera were studied in detail. Within the upper part of the OMZ, Bolivina dilatata and Bulimina exilis are the most abundant species. In the lower part of the OMZ, Uvigerina peregrina and B. exilis are the most abundant. Just below the OMZ, at a water depth of about 1250 m, the assemblage is typically dominated by Rotaliatinopsis semiinvoluta and U. peregrina; in still deeper waters (1500-2000 m) Bulimina aculeata and Epistominella exigua are the most prominent species. Transect II was sampled three weeks after transect I; on the average, standing stocks were four times higher in transect II. However, down-slope species distributions are similar in the two transects, both in the 63 μm and the 150 μm size fractions. Also vertical (in-sediment) distributions are remarkably similar. This indicates that standing stock differences between the two transects can be ascribed either to the effect of patchiness or, more likely, to the nature and the amount of organic flux. We found unambiguous evidence that in and below the OMZ many benthic foraminifera persist in suboxic to anoxic microhabitats. This regards surface as well as subsurface habitats. Evidently, oxygen is not a limiting factor for a considerable number of species. The obvious relationship between species distribution and the OMZ might then be explained in terms of preferences for amount or type of organic flux. An alternative explanation involves favourable effects resulting from the absence of larger predators. The various models pertaining to the limiting

  1. SSMI Wind Speed Climatology of the Time of Monsoon Wind Offset in the Western Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David

    2000-01-01

    Forecasting the time of onset of monsoon wind in the western Arabian Sea, which is believed to precede the onset of rainfall along the west coast of India, is an important unsolved problem. Prior to measurements of the surface wind field by satellite, there was an absence of suitable surface wind observations. NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) surface wind vectors revealed that the time of the 1997 onset of 12 m/s southwest monsoon wind speeds in the western Arabian Sea preceded the onset of monsoon rainfall in Goa, India, by 3 - 4 days. Wind speed and direction data were necessary to establish a dynamical mechanism between times of onset of 12 m/s wind speed off Somalia and rainfall in Goa. Except for NSCAT, no satellite scatterometer wind product recorded adequately sampled 2-day 1deg x 1deg averaged wind vectors, which are the required space and time scales, to examine the wind-rain relationship in other years. However, the greater-than-95% steadiness of summer monsoon winds allows an opportunity to use satellite measurements of surface wind speed. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) recorded surface wind speed with adequate sampling to produce a 1-day, 1deg x 1deg data product during 1988 - 1998. SSMI data had been uniformly processed throughout the period. Times of onset of 12 m/s wind speed off Somalia determined with the SSMI data set were 21 May 1988, 24 May 1989, 17 May 1990, 28 May 1991, 8 June 1992, 28 May 1993, 30 May 1994, 7 June 1995, 29 May 1996, 12 June 1997, and 15 May 1998. Uncertainty of the 1992 and 1996 times of onset were increased because of the absence of SSMI data on 6 and 7 June 1992 and on 30 May 1996. Correlations of timing of monsoon wind onset with El Nino will be described. Variability of the time difference between times of onset of 12 m/s wind speed and Goa rainfall will be discussed. At the time of submission of the abstract, the Goa rainfall data have not arrived from the India Meteorological Department.

  2. Projected changes in climate extremes over Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundeti, K.; Kanikicharla, K. K.; Al sulaiti, M.; Khulaifi, M.; Alboinin, N.; Kito, A.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the State of Qatar and the adjacent region is dominated by subtropical dry, hot desert climate with low annual rainfall, very high temperatures in summer and a big difference between maximum and minimum temperatures, especially in the inland areas. The coastal areas are influenced by the Arabian Gulf, and have lower maximum, but higher minimum temperatures and a higher moisture percentage in the air. The global warming can have profound impact on the mean climate as well as extreme weather events over the Arabian Peninsula that may affect both natural and human systems significantly. Therefore, it is important to assess the future changes in the seasonal/annual mean of temperature and precipitation and also the extremes in temperature and wind events for a country like Qatar. This study assesses the performance of the Coupled Model Inter comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations in present and develops future climate scenarios. The changes in climate extremes are assessed for three future periods 2016-2035, 2046-2065 and 2080-2099 with respect to 1986-2005 (base line) under two RCPs (Representative Concentrate Pathways) - RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We analyzed the projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes using several indices including those that capture heat stress. The observations show an increase in warm extremes over many parts in this region that are generally well captured by the models. The results indicate a significant change in frequency and intensity of both temperature and precipitation extremes over many parts of this region which may have serious implications on human health, water resources and the onshore/offshore infrastructure in this region. Data from a high-resolution (20km) AGCM simulation from Meteorological Research Institute of Japan Meteorological Agency for the present (1979-2003) and a future time slice (2075-2099) corresponding to RCP8.5 have also been utilized to assess the impact of climate change on

  3. The trophic and metabolic pathways of foraminifera in the Arabian Sea: evidence from cellular stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, R. M.; Fisher, E. H.; Gooday, A. J.; Larkin, K. E.; Billett, D. S. M.; Wolff, G. A.

    2015-03-01

    The Arabian Sea is a region of elevated productivity with the highest globally recorded fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) to the deep ocean, providing an abundant food source for fauna at the seafloor. However, benthic communities are also strongly influenced by an intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which impinges on the continental slope from 100 to 1000 m water depth. We compared the trophic ecology of foraminifera on the Oman and Pakistan margins of the Arabian Sea (140-3185 m water depth). These two margins are contrasting both in terms of the abundance of sedimentary organic matter and the intensity of the OMZ. Organic carbon concentrations of surficial sediments were higher on the Oman margin (3.32 ± 1.4%) compared to the Pakistan margin (2.45 ± 1.1%) and sedimentary organic matter (SOM) quality estimated from the Hydrogen Index was also higher on the Oman margin (300-400 mg HC mg TOC-1) compared to the Pakistan margin (< 250 mg HC mg TOC-1). The δ13C and δ15N values of sediments were similar on both margins (-20 and 8‰, respectively). Stable isotope analysis (SIA) showed that foraminiferal cells had a wide range of δ13C values (-25.5 to -11.5‰), implying that they utilise multiple food sources; indeed δ13C values varied between depths, foraminiferal types and between the two margins. Foraminifera had broad ranges in δ15N values (-7.8 to 27.3‰). The enriched values suggest that some species may store nitrate to utilise in respiration; this was most notable on the Pakistan margin. Depleted foraminiferal δ15N values, particularly at the Oman margin, may reflect feeding on chemosynthetic bacteria. We suggest that differences in productivity regimes may be responsible for the differences observed in foraminiferal isotopic composition. In addition, at the time of sampling, whole jellyfish carcasses (Crambionella orsini) and a carpet of jelly detritus were observed across the Oman margin transect. Associated chemosynthetic bacteria may have

  4. The trophic and metabolic pathways of foraminifera in the Arabian Sea: evidence from cellular stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, R. M.; Fisher, E. H.; Gooday, A. J.; Larkin, K. E.; Wolff, G. A.; Billett, D. S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is a region of elevated productivity with the highest globally recorded fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) to the deep ocean, providing an abundant food source for fauna at the seafloor. However, benthic communities are also strongly influenced by an intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which impinges on the continental slope at bathyal depths. We compared the trophic ecology of foraminifera on the Oman and Pakistan margins of the Arabian Sea (140-3185 m water depth). Organic carbon concentrations of surficial sediments were higher on the Oman margin (3.32 ± 1.4%) compared to the Pakistan margin (2.45 ± 1.1%) and sedimentary organic matter (SOM) quality estimated from the Hydrogen Index was also higher on the Oman margin (300-400 mg HC (mg TOC)-1) compared to the Pakistan margin (<250 mg HC (mg TOC)-1). δ13C and δ15N values of sediments were similar on both margins (-20 and 8‰, respectively). Stable isotope analysis (SIA) showed that foraminiferal cells had a wide range of δ13C values (-25.5 to -11.5‰), implying that they utilise multiple food sources; indeed δ13C values varied between depths, foraminiferal types and between the two margins. Foraminifera had broad ranges in δ15N values (-7.8 to 27.3‰). The enriched values suggest that some species may store nitrate to utilise in respiration; this was most notable on the Pakistan margin. Depleted foraminiferal δ15N values were identified on both margins, particularly the Oman margin, and may reflect feeding on chemosynthetic bacteria. We suggest that differences in productivity regimes between the two margins may be responsible for the differences observed in foraminiferal isotopic composition. In addition, at the time of sampling, whole jellyfish carcasses (Crambionella orsini) and a carpet of jelly detritus were observed across the Oman margin transect. Associated chemosynthetic bacteria may have provided an organic-rich food source for foraminifera at these sites. Our data

  5. Monitoring Aquifer Depletion from Space: Case Studies from the Saharan and Arabian Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M.; Sultan, M.; Wahr, J. M.; Yan, E.

    2013-12-01

    Access to potable fresh water resources is a human right and a basic requirement for economic development in any society. In arid and semi-arid areas, the characterization and understanding of the geologic and hydrologic settings of, and the controlling factors affecting, these resources is gaining increasing importance due to the challenges posed by increasing population. In these areas, there is immense natural fossil fresh water resources stored in large extensive aquifers, the transboundary aquifers. Yet, natural phenomena (e.g., rainfall patterns and climate change) together with human-related factors (e.g., population growth, unsustainable over-exploitation, and pollution) are threatening the sustainability of these resources. In this study, we are developing and applying an integrated cost-effective approach to investigate the nature (i.e., natural and anthropogenic) and the controlling factors affecting the hydrologic settings of the Saharan (i.e., Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System [NSAS], Northwest Sahara Aquifer System [NWSA]) and Arabian (i.e., Arabian Peninsula Aquifer System [APAS]) aquifer systems. Analysis of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) inter-annual trends over the NSAS and the APAS revealed two areas of significant TWS depletions; the first correlated with the Dakhla Aquifer System (DAS) in the NSAS and second with the Saq Aquifer System (SAS) in the APAS. Annual depletion rates were estimated at 1.3 × 0.66 × 109 m3/yr and 6.95 × 0.68 × 109 m3/yr for DAS and SAS, respectively. Findings include (1) excessive groundwater extraction, not climatic changes, is responsible for the observed TWS depletions ;(2) the DAS could be consumed in 350 years if extraction rates continue to double every 50 years and the APAS available reserves could be consumed within 60-140 years at present extraction (7.08 × 109 m3/yr) and depletion rates; and (3) observed depletions over DAS and SAS and their

  6. Transpressional regime in southern Arabian Shield: Insights from Wadi Yiba Area, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamimi, Zakaria; El-Shafei, Mohamed; Kattu, Ghazi; Matsah, Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Detailed field-structural mapping of Neoproterozoic basement rocks exposed in the Wadi Yiba area, southern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia illustrates an important episode of late Neoproterozoic transpression in the southern part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). This area is dominated by five main basement lithologies: gneisses, metavolcanics, Ablah Group (meta-clastic and marble units) and syn- and post-tectonic granitoids. These rocks were affected by three phases of deformation (D1-D3). D1 formed tight to isoclinal and intrafolial folds (F1), penetrative foliation (S1), and mineral lineation (L1), which resulted from early E-W (to ENE-WSW) shortening. D2 deformation overprinted D1 structures and was dominated by transpression and top-to-the-W (-WSW) thrusting as shortening progressed. Stretching lineation trajectories, S-C foliations, asymmetric shear fabrics and related mylonitic foliation, and flat-ramp and duplex geometries further indicate the inferred transport direction. The N- to NNW-orientation of both “in-sequence piggy-back thrusts” and axial planes of minor and major F2 thrust-related overturned folds also indicates the same D2 compressional stress trajectories. The Wadi Yiba Shear Zone (WYSZ) formed during D2 deformation. It is one of several N-S trending brittle-ductile Late Neoproterozoic shear zones in the southern part of the ANS. Shear sense indicators reveal that shearing during D2 regional-scale transpression was dextral and is consistent with the mega-scale sigmoidal patterns recognized on Landsat images. The shearing led to the formation of the WYSZ and consequent F2 shear zone-related folds, as well as other unmappable shear zones in the deformed rocks. Emplacement of the syn-tectonic granitoids is likely to have occurred during D2 transpression and occupied space created during thrust propagation. D1 and D2 structures are locally overprinted by mesoscopic- to macroscopic-scale D3 structures (F3 folds, and L3 crenulation lineations and

  7. Winter and summer monsoon water mass, heat and freshwater transport changes in the Arabian Sea near 8°N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramma, Lothar; Brandt, Peter; Schott, Friedrich; Quadfasel, Detlef; Fischer, Jürgen

    The differences in the water mass distributions and transports in the Arabian Sea between the summer monsoon of August 1993 and the winter monsoon of January 1998 are investigated, based on two hydrographic sections along approximately 8°N. At the western end the sections were closed by a northward leg towards the African continent at about 55°E. In the central basin along 8°N the monsoon anomalies of the temperature and density below the surface-mixed layer were dominated by annual Rossby waves propagating westward across the Arabian Sea. In the northwestern part of the basin the annual Rossby waves have much smaller impact, and the density anomalies observed there were mostly associated with the Socotra Gyre. Salinity and oxygen differences along the section reflect local processes such as the spreading of water masses originating in the Bay of Bengal, northward transport of Indian Central Water, or slightly stronger southward spreading of Red Sea Water in August than in January. The anomalous wind conditions of 1997/98 influenced only the upper 50-100 m with warmer surface waters in January 1998, and Bay of Bengal Water covered the surface layer of the section in the eastern Arabian Sea. Estimates of the overturning circulation of the Arabian Sea were carried out despite the fact that many uncertainties are involved. For both cruises a vertical overturning cell of about 4-6 Sv was determined, with inflow below 2500 m and outflow between about 300 and 2500 m. In the upper 300-450 m a seasonally reversing shallow meridional overturning cell appears to exist in which the Ekman transport is balanced by a geostrophic transport. The heat flux across 8°N is dominated by the Ekman transport, yielding about -0.6 PW for August 1993, and 0.24 PW for January 1998. These values are comparable to climatological and model derived heat flux estimates. Freshwater fluxes across 8°N also were computed, yielding northward freshwater fluxes of 0.07 Sv in January 1998 and 0

  8. Thermal insulation and clothing area factors of typical Arabian Gulf clothing ensembles for males and females: measurements using thermal manikins.

    PubMed

    Al-ajmi, F F; Loveday, D L; Bedwell, K H; Havenith, G

    2008-05-01

    The thermal insulation of clothing is one of the most important parameters used in the thermal comfort model adopted by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) [BS EN ISO 7730, 2005. Ergonomics of the thermal environment. Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. International Standardisation Organisation, Geneva.] and by ASHRAE [ASHRAE Handbook, 2005. Fundamentals. Chapter 8. American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle N.E., Atlanta, GA.]. To date, thermal insulation values of mainly Western clothing have been published with only minimal data being available for non-Western clothing. Thus, the objective of the present study is to measure and present the thermal insulation (clo) values of a number of Arabian Gulf garments as worn by males and females. The clothing ensembles and garments of Arabian Gulf males and females presented in this study are representative of those typically worn in the region during both summer and winter seasons. Measurements of total thermal insulation values (clo) were obtained using a male and a female shape thermal manikin in accordance with the definition of insulation as given in ISO 9920. In addition, the clothing area factors (f cl) determined in two different ways were compared. The first method used a photographic technique and the second a regression equation as proposed in ISO 9920, based on the insulation values of Arabian Gulf male and female garments and ensembles as they were determined in this study. In addition, fibre content, descriptions and weights of Arabian Gulf clothing have been recorded and tabulated in this study. The findings of this study are presented as additions to the existing knowledge base of clothing insulation, and provide for the first time data for Arabian Gulf clothing. The analysis showed that for these non-Western clothing designs, the

  9. Rubidium-strontium geochronology and plate-tectonic evolution of the southern part of the Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, Robert J.; Greenwood, W.R.; Hadley, D.G.; Anderson, R.E.; Schmidt, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Rubidium-strontium studies of Precambrian volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield document an early development of the Arabian craton between 900 and 680 m.y. (million years) ago. Geologic studies indicate an island-arc environment characterized by andesitic (dioritic) magmas, volcaniclastic sedimentation, rapid deposition, and contemporaneous deformation along north or northwest-trending axes. Magmatic trends show consistent variation in both composition and geographic location as a function of age. The oldest units belong to an assemblage of basaltic strata exposed in western Saudi Arabia that yield an age of 1165:!:110 m.y. The oldest andesitic strata studied yield an age of 912:!:76 m.y. The earliest plutonic units are diorite to trondhjemite batholiths that range from 800 to 9,00 m.y. in age and ,occur along the western and southern parts of Saudi Arabia. Younger plutonic units, 680 to 750 m.y. in age, range from quartz diorite to granodiodte and become more abundant in the central and northeastern parts of the Arabian Shield. Initial 'Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for both dioritic groups range from 0.7023 to 0.7030 and average 0.7027. The absence of sialic detritus in sedimentary units and the evidence for an island-arc environment suggest the early development of the Arabian craton at a convergent plate margin between plates of oceanic lithosphere. Active subduction apparently extended from at least 900 m.y. to about 680 m.y. Subsequent to this subduction-related magmatism and tectonism, called the Hijaz tectonic cycle, the Arabian craton was sutured to the late Precambrian African plate in a collisional event. This period of orogeny, represented in Arabia and eastern Africa by the Mozambiquian or Pan-African event, extended from some time before 650 m.y. to at least 540 m.y. and perhaps 520 m.y. B.P. Although the tectonic processes of subduction and continental collision during the 900+ to 500-m.y. period require similar directions of plate convergence, the

  10. Genome-wide linkage and association analysis identifies major gene loci for guttural pouch tympany in Arabian and German warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Julia; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary condition affecting foals in their first months of life. Complex segregation analyses in Arabian and German warmblood horses showed the involvement of a major gene as very likely. Genome-wide linkage and association analyses including a high density marker set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were performed to map the genomic region harbouring the potential major gene for GPT. A total of 85 Arabian and 373 German warmblood horses were genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip. Non-parametric multipoint linkage analyses showed genome-wide significance on horse chromosomes (ECA) 3 for German warmblood at 16-26 Mb and 34-55 Mb and for Arabian on ECA15 at 64-65 Mb. Genome-wide association analyses confirmed the linked regions for both breeds. In Arabian, genome-wide association was detected at 64 Mb within the region with the highest linkage peak on ECA15. For German warmblood, signals for genome-wide association were close to the peak region of linkage at 52 Mb on ECA3. The odds ratio for the SNP with the highest genome-wide association was 0.12 for the Arabian. In conclusion, the refinement of the regions with the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip is an important step to unravel the responsible mutations for GPT. PMID:22848553

  11. Development of the Permanent Dentition and Validity of Demirjian and Goldstein Method for Dental Age Estimation in Sample of Saudi Arabian Children (Qassim Region)

    PubMed Central

    Nour El Deen, Ragia E. H.; Alduaiji, Hifaa M.; Alajlan, Ghadir M.; Aljabr, Abdalla A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine dental maturity (dental age) in cross-sectional sample of Saudi Arabian children by applying the standards established by Demirjian and Golstein and to examine the applicability of these standards in determination of dental maturity among Saudi Arabian children (Qassim region). Materials & Methods Dental maturity was assessed from panoramic radiographs of 400 Saudi Arabian children, 222 boys, and 198 girls ranging in age from 4 to 14 years by using these standards. The difference between the dental and chronological age in different age groups in both sexes was statistically compared using ANOVA testat 0.05 level of significance. Results The Saudi Arabian children were generally somewhat advanced in dental maturity compared with the French Canadian reference sample with an overall mean difference between the dental and chronological age of 0.279 years in boys and 0.385 years in girls. Conclusion The applied standards appear to be adequate for studying dental age in groups of children among Saudi Arabian population. PMID:27004054

  12. Predicting Relationship of Smoking Behavior Among Male Saudi Arabian College Students Related to Their Religious Practice.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the relationships of smoking behavior among a sample of male college students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to their religious practice, parents' smoking behaviors and attitudes, peers' smoking behaviors and attitudes, and knowledge about the dangers of smoking. A 49-item questionnaire was developed and pilot tested in KSA. This questionnaire was completed during the academic year 2013 by 715 undergraduate male students at the King Saud University in Riyadh. 29.8% of the students were smokers (13.8% cigarette smokers, 7.3% sheesha smokers, and 27% cigarette and sheesha smokers). Students in the College of Education were much more likely to be smokers than the students in the College of Science. The differences between the College of Education and the College of Science was statistically significant (χ (2) = 16.864. df = 1, p = .001). Logistic regression analysis suggested that students who were more faithful in their practice of Islam were 15% less likely to smoke. Students who were more knowledgeable about the dangers of smoking were 8% less likely to smoke. The logistic analysis identified peers (friends) as the most powerful factor in predicting smoking. The four-factor model had an overall classification accuracy of 78%. The need to understand more fully the dynamics of peer relations among Saudi Arabian males as a basis for developing tobacco education/prevention programs. Prevention programs will need to include education and changes in the college level or earlier in KSA. PMID:25613192

  13. Pollutants from the Gulf War serve as water mass tracer in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plähn, Olaf; Rhein, Monika; Fine, Rana A.; Sullivan, Kevin F.

    In 1995, concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbon compound CFC-12 in the outflow water from the Persian Gulf were 8-40 fold higher than normally caused by air-sea gas exchange. At that time, the anomaly was restricted to the Gulf of Oman north of 20°N, while in 1998 the signal had spread southwestward to 12°N. The sources of this CFC-12 input of about 6400 kg are most likely the fire extinguishers and solvents used during and after the Gulf War in 1991. This CFC-12 signal is a new feature of the Persian Gulf Water (PGW) which can be used to track and quantify the spreading and dilution of PGW in the northern Indian Ocean. The contaminated PGW spreads southward with a mean velocity of 0.02-0.025 m s-1. At 20°N, the anomaly is diluted by a factor of more than two, and east of the island Socotra by a factor of four. A mean transport of less than 0.5·106 m³ s-1 is calculated for PGW assuming a mean dilution rate of 30% from the source signal in the Gulf of Oman to the western Arabian Sea.

  14. Is the trend in chlorophyll-a in the Arabian Sea decreasing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Prince; Prakash, Satya; Rahaman, Hasibur; Ravichandran, M.; Nayak, Shailesh

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies of satellite-derived Chlorophyll concentrations (Chl-a) in the western Arabian Sea (AS) have suggested an increasing temporal trend, but the length of the records used have typically been too short to resolve longer-term trends, if any. Our analysis of a long term satellite ocean color data shows a change of trend in the summer chlorophyll for the western AS before and after 2003; Chl-a concentration was indeed increasing till 2003, but appears to be declining since then, indicating a secular multi-year trend in Chl-a variability. However, this trend is not uniform over the entire region. Analysis of wind, sea surface temperature (SST), Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) and thermocline depth, suggests that the declining summer monsoon chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration may be due to increasing SLA in this region. The earlier observed biological changes in the western AS could be an artifact of the change in local winds and ocean dynamics, which may be a part of the natural long-term variability.

  15. Seasonal changes in the red blood cell indices in Arabian brood mares and their foals.

    PubMed

    Gill, J; Kompanowska-Jezierska, E

    1986-01-01

    In 34 pure-bred Arabian horses, divided into four groups (Gr. I, 10 pregnant mares; Gr. II, seven barren mares; Gr. III, 10 foals born in 1981; Gr. IV, seven foals born in 1982), seasonal changes in haemoglobin level, haematocrit value, sedimentation rate, red blood cell number and diameter, percentage of erythroblasts and reticulocytes, and index F were studied. Seasonal cyclicity was found in all groups in the haemoglobin level, haematocrit value and RBC diameter. It was also found in the sedimentation rate (PCV) and in index F, but not for the youngest foals (Gr. IV). For the RBC number the cyclicity is given in both groups of foals, and the erythroblast and reticulocyte percentage only in the older foals (Gr. III). Out of eight indices studied cyclicity was found in all foals in Gr. III, in five of the mares in Groups I and II, and in four of the youngest foals in Gr. IV. There is no difference in the cyclicity of indices studied between pregnant and barren mares. PMID:2870857

  16. Seismic reflection structure of intracratonic palmyride fold-thrust belt and surrounding Arabian platform, Syria

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.H.; Barazangi, M.; Best, J. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Al-Otri, M.; Gebran, A. )

    1990-03-01

    Seismic reflection and drill-hole data from central Syria provide a detailed view of the subsurface structure (10-15 km depth) of the relatively little-studied intracratonic Palmyride fold and thrust belt. The data set, together with surface geologic mapping, constrains a structural/stratigraphic section spanning the northeast sector of the belt and the surrounding subprovinces of the Arabian platform. The seismic reflection and drill-hole data show Mesozoic stratigraphic sequences thickening abruptly into the Palmyrides from the adjacent, arched Paleozoic platforms Neogene (alpine) folding and thrusting of the Mesozoic basin, as documented on the seismic data, are sharply restricted to the narrow width of the belt ({approximately}100 km), in contrast to the relatively undeformed Phanerozoic strata of the platforms to the north and south. The seismic and drill-hole data support the hypothesis that the palmyrides began as a Permian-Triassic failed rift connected to the Levantine passive continental margin, which was inverted and complexly deformed by the interfering effects of Cenozoic movements along the Dead Sea transform fault system and the Turkish Bitlis convergent zone. The seismic data provide a first view into the extent and depth of the early basin formation and subsequent compressional deformation, and as such represent a necessary element for constraining reconstructions of northern Middle East plate motions. 20 figs.

  17. Geology and hydrocarbon potential in the state of Qatar, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S. ); Nairn, A.E.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The state of Qatar is situated in the southern Arabian Gulf and covers an area of 12,000 km{sup 2}. It is formed by a large, broad anticline, which is part of the regional south-southwest-north-northeast-trending Qatar-South Fars arch. The arch separates the two Infracambrian salt basins. The Dukhan field was the first discovery, made in 1939, in the Upper Jurassic limestones. Since then, a series of discoveries have been made so that Qatar has become one of the leading OPEC oil states. Hydrocarbon accumulations are widely dispersed throughout the stratigraphic column from upper Paleozoic to Cretaceous producing strata. The most prolific reservoirs are the Permian and Mesozoic shelf carbonate sequences. Minor clastic reservoirs occur in the Albian and Paleozoic sequences. Seals, mainly anhydrite and shale. occur both intraformationally and regionally. Several stratigraphic intervals contain source rocks or potential source rocks. The Silurian shales arc the most likely source of the hydrocarbon stored in the upper Paleozoic clastics and carbonates. The upper Oxfordian-middle Kimmeridgian rocks formed in the extensive starved basin during the Mesozoic period of sea level rise. Total organic carbon ranges between 1 and 6%, with the sulfur content approximately 9%. The source material consists of sapropelic liptodetrinite and algae. The geological background of the sedimentary facies through geologic time, stratigraphy, and structural evolution which control source, and the subsequent timing and migration of large-scale hydrocarbon generation are presented in detail.

  18. Weathering performance of industrial atmospheric coating systems in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, J.; Al-Hashem, A.; Riad, W.T.; Othman, M.; Islam, M.

    1994-12-31

    The performance and durability of a number of industrial coating systems have been studied for two and a half years at five weathering sites in the industrial belt of Shuaiba Area, Kuwait, in the Arabian Gulf. The outdoor weathering performance of eleven coating systems was related to the prevailing industrial atmospheric conditions, and comparison made to their behavior under laboratory accelerated conditions. The coating systems studied included acrylic enamel, micaceous iron oxide epoxy, alkyd enamel, alkyd gloss, chlorinated rubber, polyurethane, and water-based acrylic. Experience in Kuwait has shown that with the longer hours of strong sunshine and ambient temperatures, as well as the chemical content of the atmosphere (e.g. O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NH{sub 3}, Cl), dust retention and sandstorm, degrading of coatings has tended to be faster than in Western countries which most of these generic coating system were developed. Two accelerated test methods were used to evaluate the protective properties of the above mentioned coatings when applied to steel panels.

  19. Hydrodynamic evaluation of long term impacts of climate change and coastal effluents in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Elhakeem, Abubaker; Elshorbagy, Walid

    2015-12-30

    A comprehensive basin wide hydrodynamic evaluation has been carried out to assess the long term impacts of climate change and coastal effluents on the salinity and seawater temperature of the Arabian Gulf (AG) using Delft3D-Flow model. The long term impacts of climate change scenarios A2 and B1 of the IPCC-AR4 on the AG hydrodynamics were evaluated. Using the current capacity and production rates of coastal desalination, power, and refinery plants, two projection scenarios until the year 2080 with 30 year intervals were developed namely the realistic and the optimistic discharge scenarios. Simulations of the individual climate change scenarios ascertained overall increase of the AG salinity and temperature and decrease of precipitation. The changes varied spatially with different scenarios as per the depth, proximity to exchange with ocean water, flushing, vertical mixing, and flow restriction. The individual tested scenarios of coastal projected discharges showed significant effects but within 10-20 km from the outfalls. PMID:26522165

  20. Geology and tin-greisen mineralization of the Akash granite, northern Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.; Smith, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The western margin of the postorogenic Akash granite, 30 km E of Ha'il in the northern Arabian Shield, is greisenized and contains anomalous concentrations of Sn. The pluton intrudes metamorphic and intrusive rocks, and crops out as a 10 by 15 km elliptical body with its long axis oriented N. It consists predominantly of metaluminous alkali-feldspar granite or syenogranite, with accessory biotite and muscovite, and traces of fluorite. Greisenization extends discontinuously in a zone at least 3 km long parallel to the western contact, and along E-trending hematitic quartz veins for more than 2 km from the contact. The veins occupy fractures that were probably conduits for ascending mineralizing fluids. Within about 20 m of the contact, they are enclosed in quartz-white mica greisen containing hematite, fluorite, and locally, topaz and cassiterite. Composite chip samples from the greisenized zone have an average Sn content of 710 ppm, and a maximum of 1600 ppm. Anomalous values for Zn, Fe, Mn, Mo, Bi and Cu also occur, but none of the samples contain detectable W. Three samples of hematitic quartz averaged 126 ppm Sn, and one contained 200 ppm W. ?? 1986.

  1. Tracing the strength of the southwest monsoon using boron isotopes in the eastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Sushant S.; Divakar Naidu, P.; Foster, Gavin L.; Martínez-Botí, Miguel A.

    2015-03-01

    Here we present the first boron isotope-based pCO2sw (pCO2 of seawater) reconstruction from the eastern Arabian Sea using the planktic foraminifera species Globigerinoides ruber. Our results from sediment core AAS9/21 show that pCO2sw varied between ~160 and 300 µatm during the last 23 kyr. The ΔpCO2, the sea-air pCO2 difference, is relatively small during the last glacial maximum and becomes more negative toward the Holocene, with the exception of a significant excess during the last deglaciation centered on the Bølling-Ållerød. Throughout the record, ΔpCO2 is predominantly negative, probably as a result of enhanced biological productivity (and higher nutrient and carbon utilization) during the southwest monsoon. A reduction in ΔpCO2 during the last glacial maximum is therefore consistent with a reduction in the strength of this monsoon system.

  2. On the Analysis of the Climatology of Cloudiness of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, L. A.; Temimi, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to determine the climatology of cloudiness over the Arabian Peninsula. The determined climatology will assist solar energy resource assessment in the region. The seasonality of cloudiness and its spatial variability will also help guide several cloud seeding operational experiments in the region. Cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database covering the time period from 1983 through 2009 are analyzed. Time series of low, medium, high, and total cloud amounts are investigated, in addition to cloud optical depth and total column water vapor. Initial results show significant decreasing trends in the total and middle cloud amounts, both annually and seasonally, at a 95% confidence interval. The relationship between cloud amounts and climate oscillations known to affect the region is explored. Climate indices exhibiting significant correlations with the total cloud amounts include the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. The study also includes a focus on the United Arab Emirates (UAE), comparing the inferred cloudiness data to in situ rainfall measurements taken from rain gauges across the UAE. To assess the impact of cloudiness on solar power resources in the country, time series of cloud amounts and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), obtained from the UAE Solar Atlas, are compared.

  3. Upper mantle structure of the southern Arabian margin: insights from teleseismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostelev, Félicie; Leroy, Sylvie; Keir, Derek; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Boschi, Lapo; Rolandone, Frédérique; Stuart, Graham W.; Khanbari, Khaled; El Hussain, Issa

    2015-04-01

    We image the lithospheric and upper asthenospheric structure beneath the central and eastern parts of the northern Gulf of Aden rifted continental margin with 59 broadband stations to evaluate the role of transform fault zones on the evolution of magma-poor continental margins. We use teleseismic tomography to compute a relative P wave velocity model in eastern Yemen and southern Oman down to 400 km depth. Our model shows low velocity anomalies located in the vicinity of five major fracture zones and regions of recent volcanism. These low velocity anomalies are likely caused by localized asthenospheric upwelling and partial melting, caused by small-scale convection promoted by gradients in LAB (lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary) topography near the fracture zones. In addition, low velocities underlie regions of elevated topography in between major sedimentary basins. We suggest locally buoyant mantle creates uplift and dynamic topography on the rift mar- gin that impacts the course of seasonal rivers and the sedimentation at the mouth of those rivers. Our new P wave velocity model suggests that the dynamic topography and recent volcanism in the central and eastern Gulf of Aden could be due to small-scale convection at the edge of the Arabian plate and/or in the vicinity of fracture zones.

  4. The Arabian Cradle: Mitochondrial Relicts of the First Steps along the Southern Route out of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Alves, Marco; Costa, Marta D.; Pereira, Joana B.; Silva, Nuno M.; Cherni, Lotfi; Harich, Nourdin; Cerny, Viktor; Soares, Pedro; Richards, Martin B.; Pereira, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    A major unanswered question regarding the dispersal of modern humans around the world concerns the geographical site of the first human steps outside of Africa. The “southern coastal route” model predicts that the early stages of the dispersal took place when people crossed the Red Sea to southern Arabia, but genetic evidence has hitherto been tenuous. We have addressed this question by analyzing the three minor west-Eurasian haplogroups, N1, N2, and X. These lineages branch directly from the first non-African founder node, the root of haplogroup N, and coalesce to the time of the first successful movement of modern humans out of Africa, ∼60 thousand years (ka) ago. We sequenced complete mtDNA genomes from 85 Southwest Asian samples carrying these haplogroups and compared them with a database of 300 European examples. The results show that these minor haplogroups have a relict distribution that suggests an ancient ancestry within the Arabian Peninsula, and they most likely spread from the Gulf Oasis region toward the Near East and Europe during the pluvial period 55–24 ka ago. This pattern suggests that Arabia was indeed the first staging post in the spread of modern humans around the world. PMID:22284828

  5. IL10 Promoter Polymorphisms are Associated with Rheumatic Heart Disease in Saudi Arabian Patients.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Atiyeh M; Alnuzha, Aisha; Al-Mazroea, Abdulhadi H; Eldardear, Amr E; AlSamman, Ala Y; Almohammadi, Yousef; Al-Harbi, Khalid M

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is an inflammatory disease that develops following streptococcal infections. IL10 helps to balance immune responses to pathogens. IL10 polymorphisms have been associated with RHD, although results remain inconclusive. Our aim was to investigate the association between IL10 polymorphisms and RHD in Saudi Arabian patients. IL10 promoter polymorphisms (-1082A/G, -829C/T, and -592C/A) were genotyped in 118 RHD patients and 200 matched controls using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. There was a significant difference in IL10-1082 genotype frequency between patients and controls (p = 0.01). -1082G allele carriage (GG+GA vs AA) and the (-1082, -819, -592) GCC haplotype carriage were associated with an increased risk of RHD (p = 0.004, OR 2.1, 95% CIs 1.7-3.4 and p = 0.004, OR 2, 95% CIs 1.3-3.4, respectively). The ACC haplotype was associated with a decrease in RHD risk (p = 0.015, OR 0.6, 95% CIs 0.4-0.9). IL10 promoter polymorphisms may play an important role in the development of RHD and provide an opportunity for therapeutic stratification. PMID:26255050

  6. Groundwater evaporation from salt pans: Examples from the eastern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Stephan; Horovitz, Marcel; Rausch, Randolf; Michelsen, Nils; Mallast, Ulf; Köhne, Maximilian; Siebert, Christian; Schüth, Christoph; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Merz, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    The major groundwater resources of the Arabian Peninsula are stored in the large sedimentary basins in its eastern part. Evaporation from continental salt pans (playas) is an important process in water resources assessments of its upper principal aquifers - the Upper Mega Aquifer system - as it constitutes a significant sink. However, literature values on evaporation rates vary widely and usually report about coastal salt pans where seawater evaporation is assumed. The present study applies different methods to provide a comprehensive picture of groundwater evaporation from salt pans of the Upper Mega Aquifer system. A remote sensing approach provided the spatial distribution and total salt pan area of about 36,500 km2. Hydrochemical and isotopic investigations revealed that from about 10% (3600 km2 ± 1600 km2) of the mapped salt pan area seawater evaporates. To estimate the groundwater evaporation rate from continental salt pans a laboratory column experiment was set up, implying a mean annual evaporation rate of about 42 mm ± 13 mm. In-situ analysis of water table fluctuations in the field suggested about 3 mm a-1 originate from recently infiltrated rainwater leading to an annual net groundwater evaporation of 39 mm ± 13 mm. Relating this number to the mapped salt pan area, from which groundwater evaporates, provides a total annual groundwater loss of 1.3 km3 ± 0.5 km3 for the Upper Mega Aquifer system.

  7. Paleoclimatic changes and human cultural evolution in and around the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anma, Ryo

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies of paleoenvironmental changes in and around the Arabian Peninsula have suggested that extremely wet periods occurred during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene; these periods started around the termination of glacial periods and continued during the initial rapid warming that followed. During these periods, flood waters transported enormous amounts of sediments from mountains to plains. Once the thermal maximum was reached and temperature stabilized at a high level, the water environment also stabilized and the climate became dryer. Although gradual changes in atmospheric temperature may have had only a minor direct influence on human activities, drastic changes in the water environment in responses to changes in the average atmospheric and surface water temperatures of just a few degrees had a stronger influence on human culture, possibly leading to the development of agriculture and civilizations. Domestication of animals started at the beginning of a wet period in the early Holocene, whereas the first cities were constructed during its latest stage. The need to control flooding may have led humans to build cities and, thus, to the development of early civilizations.

  8. Competition over guarding in the Arabian babbler (Turdoides squamiceps), a cooperative breeder

    PubMed Central

    Dattner, Arnon; Zahavi, Amotz; Zahavi, Avishag

    2016-01-01

    Observations on 12 groups comprised of two adult males and one adult female (some included one or two fledglings), tame, individually marked, Arabian babblers ( Turdoides squamiceps) in the rift valley in Israel revealed that the babblers compete to guard. The pattern of guarding and the way by which one sentinel replaces another reflect the dominance relationships within the group. The dominant (alpha) male guarded more than any other individual. It interfered with and replaced the guarding by the adult beta male more than it did with the yearlings. About one-third of the replacements occurred less than one minute after the sentinel had assumed guarding. Whereas the dominant often replaced its subordinates directly; subordinates hardly ever replaced their dominants directly. The alpha male often allofed the beta male during the replacement. Replacements and allofeeding of the beta males by the alpha males increased significantly during courtship, when competition over breeding was maximal, and dropped back to their previous level at the start of incubation, highlighting the competitive basis underlying the act of guarding. Competition over altruistic acts, as shown here for guarding, is not compatible with explanations based on the assumption that altruistic acts reduce the fitness (reproductive success) of the altruist. We suggest, in contrast, that by investing in guarding and by intervening in the guarding of its competitors, a babbler demonstrates and signals its quality and its control over its competitors, thereby increasing its prestige and consequently its direct fitness. PMID:26834986

  9. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses. PMID:24261657

  10. Satellite detection of complex aerosols over the Arabian Peninsula/Gulf. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W.P.

    1992-03-01

    Satellite detection of complex aerosols, in particular, Oil smoke over water and dust over land, is generally difficult. On 1 March 1991, a smoke plume generated by burning Kuwaiti oil wells and a dust storm over the southwestern Arabian Peninsula, provide the opportunity to study both of these effects. Utilizing NOAA-11 AVHRR data, a two dimensional scatter plot analysis technique was employed to determine and classify the radiative signatures of the smoke and dust. A two dimensional mask routine was then used to assess the reliability of the scatter plot analyses and spatially display the results. A channel 1 to channel 2 radiance ratio and a channel 4 brightness temperature combination provided the best separation of the smoke signature from water. The dust plume was unambiguously represented by a channel 5 brightness temperature minus channel 4 brightness temperature image and a channel 4 brightness temperature combination. Together the 2D scatter plot technique and 2D mask form the groundwork for a possible detection algorithm. Aersol Detection, Scatter Plot, Mask.

  11. Integrating geological and geophysical data to improve probabilistic hazard forecasting of Arabian Shield volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge, Melody G.; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Moufti, Mohammed R.

    2016-02-01

    During probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis of volcanic fields, a greater variety of spatial data on crustal features should help improve forecasts of future vent locations. Without further examination, however, geophysical estimations of crustal or other features may be non-informative. Here, we present a new, robust, non-parametric method to quantitatively determine the existence of any relationship between natural phenomena (e.g., volcanic eruptions) and a variety of geophysical data. This provides a new validation tool for incorporating a range of potentially hazard-diagnostic observable data into recurrence rate estimates and hazard analyses. Through this study it is shown that the location of Cenozoic volcanic fields across the Arabian Shield appear to be related to locations of major and minor faults, at higher elevations, and regions where gravity anomaly values were between - 125 mGal and 0 mGal. These findings support earlier hypotheses that the western shield uplift was related to Cenozoic volcanism. At the harrat (volcanic field)-scale, higher vent density regions are related to both elevation and gravity anomaly values. A by-product of this work is the collection of existing data on the volcanism across Saudi Arabia, with all vent locations provided herein, as well as updated maps for Harrats Kura, Khaybar, Ithnayn, Kishb, and Rahat. This work also highlights the potential dangers of assuming relationships between observed data and the occurrence of a natural phenomenon without quantitative assessment or proper consideration of the effects of data resolution.

  12. Correlation between some selected trace metal concentrations in six species of fish from the Arabian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, M.; Jaffar, M.

    1988-07-01

    The role of trace metals in marine ecosystems has been keenly investigated during recent years. It is known that abundance of essential trace metals regulates the metal content in the organisms by homeostatic control mechanisms, which when cease to function cause essential trace metals to act in an either acutely or chronically toxic manner. Therefore, a correlation study based on essential and non-essential trace metal concentrations is imperative for extending the existing knowledge of bioaccumulation of trace metals in marine organisms. An attempt has been made in the present investigation to bring out quantitative correlations between the concentrations of iron, copper, lead and zinc in the edible muscle tissue of six species of marine fish: Salmon (salmon sole); tuna (thunnus thynnus); pomfret silver (pampus argenteus); Pomfret black (formioniger); long tail tuna (thynnus tonggel) and Indian oil sardine (sardinella longiceps). These fish are abundantly available in Pakistan along the coastal line of the Arabian Sea and have great commercial value. The computational analysis on the trace metal correlation was conducted using an MSTAT statistical package.

  13. Experience with flexible pipe in sour service environment: A case study (the Arabian Gulf)

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Maslamani, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    The suitability of a flexible pipe was evaluated on a trial basis for a lift gas line in a sour oil field in the State of Qatar, in the Arabian Gulf. Flexible pipes have been successfully used in the oil and gas industries for transportation of methanol, benzene and gas condensates in wet sweet environment at temperatures of up to 80 C. However, there is little or no information available as to its corrosion resistance in sour service wells containing 6% CO{sub 2} with 3% mole H{sub 2}S and at moderate temperatures. The present experience with a flexible pipe in the gas field of Qatar has shown that under sour service conditions, the layered, composite material can suffer severe degradation leading to failure. A detailed inspection and failure analysis of the flexible pipe forms the basis of this paper. The failure demonstrates the significant effects of stress level, environmental aggressiveness, and localized hard zones in promoting Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC). Permeability of this sour gas through the composite layer of the flexible pipe resulted in varying degree of sulfide attack and hydrogen embrittlement depending on the susceptibility of the multi layered material.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal stratification in Iran: relationship between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Terreros, Maria C; Rowold, Diane J; Mirabal, Sheyla; Herrera, Rene J

    2011-03-01

    Modern day Iran is strategically located in the tri-continental corridor uniting Africa, Europe and Asia. Several ethnic groups belonging to distinct religions, speaking different languages and claiming divergent ancestries inhabit the region, generating a potentially diverse genetic reservoir. In addition, past pre-historical and historical events such as the out-of-Africa migrations, the Neolithic expansion from the Fertile Crescent, the Indo-Aryan treks from the Central Asian steppes, the westward Mongol expansions and the Muslim invasions may have chiseled their genetic fingerprints within the genealogical substrata of the Persians. On the other hand, the Iranian perimeter is bounded by the Zagros and Albrez mountain ranges, and the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts, which may have restricted gene flow from neighboring regions. By utilizing high-resolution mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and reanalyzing our previously published Y-chromosomal data, we have found a previously unexplored, genetic connection between Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Furthermore, the regional distribution of mtDNA haplogroups J, I, U2 and U7 also provides evidence of barriers to gene flow posed by the two major Iranian deserts and the Zagros mountain range. PMID:21326310

  15. Fish-eaters and farmers: dental pathology in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Littleton, J; Frohlich, B

    1993-12-01

    Twelve skeletal samples, previously published, from the Arabian Gulf have been used to trace differences in diet and subsistence patterns through an analysis of dental pathology. The skeletons date from 3,000 BC to AD 1,500 and cover a variety of geographical locations: off-shore islands, Eastern Arabia, and Oman. The dental conditions analyzed are attrition, caries, calculus, abscessing, and antemortem tooth loss (AMTL). Results indicate four basic patterns of dental disease which, while not mutually exclusive, correspond to four basic subsistence patterns. Marine dependency, represented by the Ras el-Hamra population, is indicated by severe attrition, low caries rates, wear-caused abscessing, and a lack of AMTL. The second group of dental diseases--moderate attrition and calculus, low rates of caries, wear-caused abscessing, and low-moderate rates of AMTL--affects populations subsisting on a mixture of pastoralism or fishing and agriculture (Failaka, Umm an-Nar, Bronze Age Maysar, Bronze Age Shimal, and Iron Age Galilah). Mixed farming populations (Iron Age Maysar and Islamic Bahrain) experienced low-moderate attrition, high rates of caries and calculus, abscessing due to caries, and severe AMTL. The final group of dental diseases affects populations practicing intensive gardening (Bronze and Iron Age Bahrain, and Sites 3 and 5, Ras al-Khaimah). These groups experienced slight attrition, high rates of caries, low rates of calculus deposition, and severe AMTL. PMID:8296873

  16. How physician executives and clinicians perceive ethical issues in Saudi Arabian hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, K S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians regarding ethical issues in Saudi Arabian hospitals and the attributes that might lead to the existence of these ethical issues. DESIGN: Self-completion questionnaire administered from February to July 1997. SETTING: Different health regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 457 physicians (317 clinicians and 140 physician executives) from several hospitals in various regions across the kingdom. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians regarding the existence of various ethical issues in their hospitals. The vast majority of physician executives did not perceive that seven of the eight issues addressed by the study were ethical concerns in their hospitals. However, the majority of the clinicians perceived that six of the same eight issues were ethical considerations in their hospitals. Statistically significant differences in the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians were observed in only three out of eight attributes that might possibly lead to the existence of ethical issues. The most significant attribute that was perceived to result in ethical issues was that of hospitals having a multinational staff. CONCLUSION: The study calls for the formulation of a code of ethics that will address specifically the physicians who work in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. As a more immediate initiative, it is recommended that seminars and workshops be conducted to provide physicians with an opportunity to discuss the ethical dilemmas they face in their medical practice. PMID:10070640

  17. Trace metals health risk appraisal in fish species of Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, Kousar; Mirza, Muhammad Aslam; Khan, Namra A; Kausar, Nazish; Rehman, Atta-Ur; Hanif, Muddasir

    2016-01-01

    Fish is a vital food for humans and many animals. We report an environmental monitoring study to assess the trace metals in fish species caught from Arabian Sea and commercially available in the coastal city Karachi, Pakistan. Heavy metals such as copper, iron, lead and cadmium were determined in the skin, fillet and heart of the fish species Pampus argenteus, Epinephelus chlorostigma, Rachycentron canadum, Scomberomorus commerson, Johnius belangerii, Labeo rohita, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Trachinotus blochii, Pomadsys olivaceum and Acanthopagrus berda by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentration (mg kg(-1), dry weight) range was: Cd (0.00-0.041), Cu (0.006-0.189), Fe (0.413-4.952) and Pb (0.00-0.569). Cadmium, copper and iron levels were below the tolerable limits whereas concentration of lead in the skins of S. commerson, E. chlorostigma, J. belangerii, A. berda; L. argentimaculatus, fillets of J. belangerii, E. chlorostigma and in the heart of J. belangerii exceeded the recommended limits. Therefore fish skin should be discouraged as food for humans or animals. The results indicate that a number of fish species have higher concentration of heavy metals dangerous for human health. Since the fish P. olivaceum (Dhotar) has the lowest level of trace metals therefore we recommend it for breeding and human consumption. PMID:27386308

  18. Geological evolution of the Iraqi Mesopotamia Foredeep, inner platform and near surroundings of the Arabian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissakian, Varoujan K.

    2013-08-01

    The Iraqi territory could be divided into four main tectonic zones; each one has its own characteristics concerning type of the rocks, their age, thickness and structural evolution. These four zones are: (1) Inner Platform (stable shelf), (2) Outer Platform (unstable shelf), (3) Shalair Zone (Terrain), and (4) Zagros Suture Zone. The first two zones of the Arabian Plate lack any kind of metamorphism and volcanism. The Iraqi territory is located in the extreme northeastern part of the Arabian Plate, which is colliding with the Eurasian (Iranian) Plate. This collision has developed a foreland basin that includes: (1) Imbricate Zone, (2) High Folded Zone, (3) Low Folded Zone and (4) Mesopotamia Foredeep. The Mesopotamia Foredeep, in Iraq includes the Mesopotamia Plain and the Jazira Plain; it is less tectonically disturbed as compared to the Imbricate, High Folded and Low Folded Zones. Quaternary alluvial sediments of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and their tributaries as well as distributaries cover the central and southeastern parts of the Foredeep totally; it is called the Mesopotamian Flood Plain. The extension of the Mesopotamia Plain towards northwest however, is called the Jazira Plain, which is covered by Miocene rocks. The Mesopotamia Foredeep is represented by thick sedimentary sequence, which thickens northwestwards including synrift sediments; especially of Late Cretaceous age, whereas on surface the Quaternary sediments thicken southeastwards. The depth of the basement also changes from 8 km, in the west to 14 km, in the Iraqi-Iranian boarders towards southeast. The anticlinal structures have N-S trend, in the extreme southern part of the Mesopotamia Foredeep and extends northwards until the Latitude 32°N, within the Jazira Plain, there they change their trends to NW-SE, and then to E-W trend. The Mesozoic sequence is almost without any significant break, with increase in thickness from the west to the east, attaining 5 km. The sequence forms the main

  19. Evolution to decay of upwelling and associated biogeochemistry over the southeastern Arabian Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, G. V. M.; Sudheesh, V.; Sudharma, K. V.; Saravanane, N.; Dhanya, V.; Dhanya, K. R.; Lakshmi, G.; Sudhakar, M.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2016-01-01

    Observations along 10 shelf transects in 2012 near 10°N in the southeastern Arabian Sea revealed the usual warm oligotrophic conditions during the winter monsoon and upwelling of oxygen-deficient, nutrient-rich cool water during the summer monsoon (SM). By changing an oligotrophic to a nutrient-replete condition, the upwelling is the major process that regulates the biogeochemistry of this shelf. Its onset is perceptible at 100 m depth between January and March. The upwelling reaches the surface layer in May and intensifies during June-July but withdraws completely and abruptly by October. Despite the nutrient injection, the primary production during SM, integrated for euphotic zone, is comparable to that during the preceding spring intermonsoon (SIM). Again, as usual, the high oxygen demand coupled with low concentration in the upwelled subsurface waters causes severe oxygen depletion below the shallow pycnocline. The oxygen concentrations/saturations of 2012 on the midshelf are similar from those of mid-1958 to early 1960, except for marginally higher values during the peak upwelling period due to relatively weak upwelling in 2012. This implies little anthropogenic influence on coastal hypoxia unlike many other coastal regions. In 2012, the inner shelf system shifted from net autotrophy in SIM to net heterotrophy in SM but on an annual basis it was net autotrophic (gross primary production to community respiration ratio, GPP/R:1.11 ± 0.84) as organic production exceeded consumption.

  20. Analysis of the spatio-temporal variability of seawater quality in the southeastern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mezhoud, Nahla; Temimi, Marouane; Zhao, Jun; Al Shehhi, Maryam Rashed; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-05-15

    In this study, seawater quality measurements, including salinity, sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Secchi disk depth (SDD), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO), were made from June 2013 to November 2014 at 52 stations in the southeastern Arabian Gulf. Significant variability was noticed for all collected parameters. Salinity showed a decreasing trend, and Chl-a, DO, pH, and SDD demonstrated increasing trends from shallow onshore stations to deep offshore ones, which could be attributed to variations of ocean circulation and meteorological conditions from onshore to offshore waters, and the likely effects of desalination plants along the coast. Salinity and temperature were high in summer and low in winter while Chl-a, SDD, pH, and DO indicated an opposite trend. The CTD profiles showed vertically well-mixed structures. Qualitative analysis of phytoplankton showed a high diversity of species without anomalous species found except in Ras Al Khaimah stations where diatoms were the dominating ones. PMID:27012536

  1. Root zone of the late Proterozoic Salma caldera, northeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The eroded root of the late Proterozoic Salma caldera crops out in a striking, roughly elliptical feature, about 27 km long and 22 km wide, near the NE edge of the Arabian Shield, The caldera is genetically part of an elongate alkalic granitic massif (Jabal Salma) that extends 35 km from the caldera to the SW. Comenditic ash flow tuff and lava(?) of the caldera fill, probably more than 1 km thick, are the oldest recognized rocks of the caldera complex. These rocks were erupted during caldera collapse associated with the rapid evacuation of the upper, mildly peralkalic part of a zoned magma reservoir. Within the caldera fill, a massive, lithic-rich intracaldera rhyolite, probably a lava in excess of 1 km thick, is overlain by a layered ash flow sequence. Numerous megabreccia blocks, probably derived from the caldera wall, occur in the massive rhyolite. No apparent structural doming of the exposed volcanic rocks along the E side of the caldera took place; the layered ash flows commonly dip steeply toward the center of the caldera. Postemplacement deformation and metamorphism of the caldera are mimimal. Small-displacement strike-slip faults cut the complex, which is tilted to the NE by no more than about 2o.-from Author

  2. Species identification of mixed algal bloom in the Northern Arabian Sea using remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Rafeeq, M; Smitha, B R; Padmakumar, K B; Thomas, Lathika Cicily; Sanjeevan, V N; Prakash, Prince; Raman, Mini

    2015-02-01

    Oceanic waters of the Northern Arabian Sea experience massive algal blooms during winter-spring (mid Feb-end Mar), which prevail for at least for 3 months covering the entire northern half of the basin from east to west. Ship cruises were conducted during winter-spring of 2001-2012 covering different stages of the bloom to study the biogeochemistry of the region. Phytoplankton analysis indicated the presence of green tides of dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans (=N. miliaris), in the oceanic waters. Our observations indicated that diatoms are coupled and often co-exist with N. scintillans, making it a mixed-species ecosystem. In this paper, we describe an approach for detection of bloom-forming algae N. scintillans and its discrimination from diatoms using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data in a mixed-species environment. In situ remote sensing reflectance spectra were generated using Satlantic™ hyperspectral radiometer for the bloom and non-bloom waters. Spectral shapes of the reflectance spectra for different water types were distinct, and the same were used for species identification. Scatter of points representing different phytoplankton classes on a derivative plot revealed four diverse clusters, viz. N. scintillans, diatoms, non-bloom oceanic, and non-bloom coastal waters. The criteria developed for species discrimination were implemented on MODIS data and validated using inputs from a recent ship cruise conducted in March 2013. PMID:25638059

  3. The Khida terrane - Geology of Paleoproterozoic rocks in the Muhayil area, eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, D.B.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The bulk of the Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia is underlain by Neoproterozoic terranes of oceanic affinity that were accreted during Pan-African time (about 680- 640Ma). Geologicalmappingandisotopicinvestigations during the 1980’s,however, provided the first evidence for Paleoproterozoic continental crust within the east- central part of the shield in Saudi Arabia. These studies delineated an older basement domain, herein referred to as the Khida terrane (Fig. l), which is defined as that part of the southern Afif composite terrane underlain by Paleoproterozoicto Archean continental crust (Stoeser and Stacey, 1988). The isotopic and geochronologic work to support our current studies within the Khida terrane are discussed in a companion abstract (Whitehouse et al., this volume). The regional geology and geochronology of the region has been summarized in detail by Johnson (1996). The current study is based on the continued use of samples previously collected in the Khida area by the authors and others as well as new field work conducted by us in 1999. This work further defines the occurrence of late Paleoproterozoic rocks at Jabal Muhayil, which is located at the eastern margin of the exposed terrane (Fig. 1). Our isotopic work is at an early stage and this abstract partly relates geologic problems that remain to be resolved. 

  4. Control of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease among Multinational Patient Population in the Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Arafah, Mohamed; Al-Hinai, Ali T.; Shehab, Abdullah; Al-Tamimi, Omer; Al-Awadhi, Mahmoud; Al-Herz, Shorook; Al-Anazi, Faisal; Al-Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Al-Khadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel R.; Yusufali, Afzal H.; Al-Jassim, Obaid; Al-Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad O.A.S.; Amin, Haitham; Santos, Raul D.; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia (CEPHEUS) in the Arabian Gulf. Of the 4398 enrolled patients, overall mean age was 57 ± 11 years, 60% were males, 13% were smokers, 76% had diabetes, 71% had metabolic syndrome and 78% had very high ASCVD risk status. The proportion of subjects with body mass index <25 kg/m2, HbA1c <7% (in diabetics), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) and <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) for high and very high ASCVD risk cohorts, respectively and controlled blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) was 14, 26, 31% and 60%, respectively. Only 1.4% of the participants had all of their CVD risk factors controlled with significant differences among the countries (P < .001). CVD risk goal attainment rates were significantly lower in those with very high ASCVD risk compared with those with high ASCVD risk status (P < .001). Females were also, generally, less likely to attain goals when compared with males (P < .001). PMID:26496982

  5. Environmental assessment of Mangrove communities in Tarut Bay, Eastern Arabian Peninsula, based on multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ali, A. M.; Del Campo, A. G.; Rocha, C.

    2015-04-01

    Tarut Bay contains some of the most important mangrove forests in the Arabian Gulf countries, which are facing significant anthropogenic pressures. A multidisciplinary approach based on remote sensing, fieldwork, and chemical analysis was adopted in order to identify the pressures facing the mangrove communities in Tarut Bay and subsequently evaluate its current environmental condition. The analysis focused on the 2011 to 2014 timeframe in particular. The results indicate that the mangrove communities in Tarut Bay cover currently around 11.32 square km. Two major mangrove cover changes were identified in the area during the studied period, with a net loss of around 0.675 square km happening in the interim. The analysis adopted the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to evaluate the temporal change in vegetation concentration. Moreover, the study evaluated the overall pollution condition of 19 mangrove communities in Tarut Bay to be medium based on the Pollution Load Index (PLI). Nevertheless, some of the mangrove communities in Tarut Bay are very healthy while others are very polluted and require immediate action to improve their pollution status. The findings of this work led to recommending mangrove improvement measures to address further deterioration and disappearance of mangrove communities, including the re-opening of natural inlets and avoiding residential developments on the mangrove coast.

  6. Corrosion of Bare and Galvanized Mild Steel in Arabian Gulf Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saricimen, H.; Ahmad, A.; Quddus, A.; Aksakal, A.; Ul-Hamid, A.; Siddique, T. A.

    2010-10-01

    Corrosion performance of bare and galvanized mild steel in atmospheric, soil and splash zone exposure conditions was evaluated at a Khaleej Mardumah test station (KMTS) in Jubail Industrial City (JIC) located at Arabian Gulf coast. The samples were exposed for a period of 15 months. During the exposure, the environmental conditions were periodically monitored by analysis of air, soil, groundwater, and seawater samples. The corroded mild steel and galvanized steel samples were examined by SEM, XRD and XRF to identify the corrosion products and study their surface morphology. Weight loss method was employed to determine the corrosion rates. The experimental results showed that intense temperature and humidity variations as well as high chloride and sulfate concentrations in the region result in severe corrosion of bare mild steel especially under the splash zone conditions. A comparison with the corrosion data for other parts of the world shows that atmospheric and soil environments at the selected test site are significantly corrosive to mild steel. The splash zone, on the other hand, is much more corrosive to mild and galvanized steel than the other parts of the world.

  7. Extremely high aerosol loading over Arabian Sea during June 2008: The specific role of the atmospheric dynamics and Sistan dust storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Rashki, A.; Houssos, E. E.; Goto, D.; Nastos, P. T.

    2014-09-01

    This study focuses on analyzing the extreme aerosol loading and the mechanisms, source areas and meteorological conditions that favored the abnormal dust exposure towards Arabian Sea during June 2008. The analysis reveals that the spatial-averaged aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Arabian Sea in June 2008 is 0.5 (78.2%) higher than the 2000-2013 mean June value and is mostly attributed to the enhanced dust activity and several (18) dust storms originated from the Sistan region (Iran-Afghanistan borders). Landsat images show that the marshy lakes in Sistan basin got dried during the second half of June 2008 and the alluvial silt and saline material got easily eroded by the intense Levar winds, which were stronger (>15-20 m s-1) than the climatological mean for the month of June. These conditions led to enhanced dust exposure from Sistan that strongly affected the northern and central parts of the Arabian Sea, as forward air-mass trajectories show. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis reveals an abnormal intensification and spatial expansion of the Indian low pressure system towards northern Arabian Sea in June 2008. This suggests strengthening of the convection over the arid southwest Asia and exposure of significant amount of dust, which can reach further south over Arabian Sea favored by the enhanced cyclonic circulation. MODIS imagery highlighted several dust storms originated from Sistan and affecting Arabian Sea during June 2008, while the SPRINTARS model simulations of increased AOD and dust concentration over Sistan and downwind areas are in agreement with ground-based and satellite observations.

  8. Seismic Velocity Structure and Depth-Dependence of Anisotropy in the Red Sea and Arabian Shield from Surface Wave Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S; Gaherty, J; Schwartz, S; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-25

    We investigate the lithospheric and upper mantle structure as well as the depth-dependence of anisotropy along the Red Sea and beneath the Arabian Peninsula using receiver function constraints and phase velocities of surface waves traversing two transects of stations from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network. Frequency-dependent phase delays of fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves, measured using a cross-correlation procedure, require very slow shear velocities and the presence of anisotropy throughout the upper mantle. Linearized inversion of these data produce path-averaged 1D radially anisotropic models with about 4% anisotropy in the lithosphere, increasing to about 4.8% anisotropy across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Models with reasonable crustal velocities in which the mantle lithosphere is isotropic cannot satisfy the data. The lithospheric lid, which ranges in thickness from about 70 km near the Red Sea coast to about 90 km beneath the Arabian Shield, is underlain by a pronounced low-velocity zone with shear velocities as low as 4.1 km/s. Forward models, which are constructed from previously determined shear-wave splitting estimates, can reconcile surface and body wave observations of anisotropy. The low shear velocity values are similar to many other continental rift and oceanic ridge environments. These low velocities combined with the sharp velocity contrast across the LAB may indicate the presence of partial melt beneath Arabia. The anisotropic signature primarily reflects a combination of plate- and density-driven flow associated with active rifting processes in the Red Sea.

  9. Long-Period Ground Motion In the Arabian Gulf From Earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains Thrust Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitarka, A.; Al-Amri, A. M.; Rodgers, A. J.; Pasyanos, M.; Mellors, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    We will compare observed and modeled ground motions recorded in the western shore of the Arabian Gulf from selected earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains region. Exceptionally long-duration seismic waves with very large amplitude, as compared with ground motion prediction equations developed by Campbell and Bozorgnia (2008) and Boore and Atkinson (2006), are found to occur with periods of 2-10 seconds. These long-period waves may have implications for large structures near the Gulf and therefore it is important to understand the cause. In contrast, the short-period content of ground motion (<2s) at long distances is relatively weak. The long-period waves may be due to waveguide effects in the deep sedimentary basin structure of the Arabian Gulf. Therefore, we performed 3D wave propagation simulations using a finite difference method. Several different velocity models of the Gulf, were tested. The simulation results confirm our hypothesis that long period waves with extremely long duration and relatively large amplitudes are caused by the geometry of the basin sedimentary layers. The depth of the earthquakes is also a factor. Combined effects of basin edge geometry with sharp velocity contrast and shallow sources (< 10km) on the east part of the Arabian Gulf can cause large long period ground motion on the west part of the Gulf. The reduced amplitude of the short-period waves is due to wave propagation scattering and attenuation in the shallow sedimentary layers of the Gulf basin. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Human occupation of the Arabian Empty Quarter during MIS 5: evidence from Mundafan Al-Buhayrah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groucutt, Huw S.; White, Tom S.; Clark-Balzan, Laine; Parton, Ash; Crassard, Rémy; Shipton, Ceri; Jennings, Richard P.; Parker, Adrian G.; Breeze, Paul S.; Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2015-07-01

    The Empty Quarter (or Rub' al Khali) of the Arabian Peninsula is the largest continuous sandy desert in the world. It has been known for several decades that Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, representing phases of wetter climate, are preserved there. These sequences have yielded palaeontological evidence in the form of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate fossils and have been dated using various radiometric techniques. However, evidence for human presence during these wetter phases has until now been ephemeral. Here, we report on the first stratified and dated archaeology from the Empty Quarter, recovered from the site of Mundafan Al-Buhayrah (MDF-61). Human occupation at the site, represented by stone tools, has been dated to the later part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 using multiple luminescence dating techniques (multigrain and single grain OSL, TT-OSL). The sequence consists primarily of lacustrine and palustrine sediments, from which evidence for changing local environmental conditions has been obtained through analysis of fossil assemblages (phytoliths and non-marine molluscs and ostracods). The discovery of securely-dated archaeological material at ˜100 to 80 ka in the Empty Quarter has important implications for hypotheses concerning the timing and routes of dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa, which have been much debated. Consequently, the data presented here fill a crucial gap in palaeoenvironmental and archaeological understanding of the southern Arabian interior. Fossils of H. sapiens in the Levant, also dated to MIS 5, together with Middle Palaeolithic archaeological sites in Arabia and India are thought to represent the earliest dispersal of our species out of Africa. We suggest that the widespread occurrence of similar lithic technologies across southern Asia, coupled with a growing body of evidence for environmental amelioration across the Saharo-Arabian belt, indicates that occupation of the Levant by H. sapiens during MIS 5

  11. Resistivity soundings and VLF profiles for siting groundwater wells in a fractured basement aquifer in the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, A. I.; Kruse, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal shortages of groundwater are common in parts of the Arabian Shield, where complex basement hydrogeology can make siting of water wells difficult. To identify optimal production well locations, six 200-400 m-long Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic traverses and ten Vertical Electrical Soundings (VESes) were run at the western edge of the Arabian Shield near At-Taif town, Saudi Arabia. Here wadi sediments overlie fractured Precambrian basement, which in turn overlies unfractured basement. The fractured basement forms the water supply aquifer. Both VLF and VES data indicate significant lateral heterogeneity in the electrical conductivity of both wadi and basement deposits over lengths scales as small as ∼100 m. VES results correlate closely with data from two wells in the study area. The change in resistivity at the wadi-to-fractured basement contact is relatively subtle, but the transition from low resistivity fractured basement to high resistivity unfractured basement is well resolved. Inferred wadi thicknesses range from 0 to 14 m; the electrically conductive fractured basement extends from wadi down to 12-32 m depth. VES data indicate the fractured basement aquifer thickens progressively to the south in this area. A production well, sited on the basis of the VES analysis, successfully yielded 70m3/day. The relationship between VLF and VES data is complex, suggesting that the terrain is heterogeneous on the scale of the different effective sampling volumes of the two methods, and/or that fracture azimuth is locally heterogeneous. Overall resistivities in this study are similar to those observed at other locations in Saudi Arabia, suggesting these methods may be widely applicable for siting of groundwater wells in the complex basement of the Arabian Shield.

  12. New insights into the provenance of Saudi Arabian Palaeozoic sandstones from heavy mineral analysis and single-grain geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassis, Alexander; Hinderer, Matthias; Meinhold, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Saudi Arabian Palaeozoic siliciclastics cover a stratigraphic range from the Cambrian to the Permian. They crop out along the eastern margin of the Arabian Shield and are comprised of highly mature sandstones. Their heavy mineral assemblage reflects their mineralogical maturity and is dominated by the ultra-stable phases zircon, tourmaline and rutile. Less stable accessories are apatite, staurolite and garnet. Standard heavy mineral analysis of samples from two study areas in central/northern (Tabuk area) and southern (Wajid area) Saudi Arabia reveals distinct changes in provenance. Cambrian-Ordovician sandstones are first-cycle sediments, probably sourced from the 'Pan-African' basement. The overlying Hirnantian glaciogenic deposits consist of recycled Cambrian-Ordovician material. Devonian-Permian sandstones show a significant influx of fresh basement material, as attested by an increase of meta-stable heavy minerals. Single-grain geochemical analysis of rutile and garnet has proven to be a powerful supplementary technique. Rutile varietal studies reveal distinct differences in host rock lithologies between the two study areas: the Tabuk area contains predominantly felsic rutiles, whereas the Wajid area has more mafic input. Zr-in-rutile thermometry identified granulite-facies detritus in the lower Palaeozoic of the Tabuk area and has the potential to further define source areas. The distribution patterns of garnet host rock lithologies are remarkably similar in both study areas. They are dominated by amphibolite-facies metasediments and intermediate to felsic igneous rocks. Garnets derived from granulite-facies metasediments, which are scarce in the Arabian-Nubian Shield, also occur. Possible source rocks for high-grade garnets can be found in Yemen or farther south in the Mozambique Belt.

  13. Human occupation of the Arabian Empty Quarter during MIS 5: evidence from Mundafan Al-Buhayrah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groucutt, Huw S.; White, Tom S.; Clark-Balzan, Laine; Parton, Ash; Crassard, Rémy; Shipton, Ceri; Jennings, Richard P.; Parker, Adrian G.; Breeze, Paul S.; Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2015-07-01

    The Empty Quarter (or Rub' al Khali) of the Arabian Peninsula is the largest continuous sandy desert in the world. It has been known for several decades that Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, representing phases of wetter climate, are preserved there. These sequences have yielded palaeontological evidence in the form of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate fossils and have been dated using various radiometric techniques. However, evidence for human presence during these wetter phases has until now been ephemeral. Here, we report on the first stratified and dated archaeology from the Empty Quarter, recovered from the site of Mundafan Al-Buhayrah (MDF-61). Human occupation at the site, represented by stone tools, has been dated to the later part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 using multiple luminescence dating techniques (multigrain and single grain OSL, TT-OSL). The sequence consists primarily of lacustrine and palustrine sediments, from which evidence for changing local environmental conditions has been obtained through analysis of fossil assemblages (phytoliths and non-marine molluscs and ostracods). The discovery of securely-dated archaeological material at ∼100 to 80 ka in the Empty Quarter has important implications for hypotheses concerning the timing and routes of dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa, which have been much debated. Consequently, the data presented here fill a crucial gap in palaeoenvironmental and archaeological understanding of the southern Arabian interior. Fossils of H. sapiens in the Levant, also dated to MIS 5, together with Middle Palaeolithic archaeological sites in Arabia and India are thought to represent the earliest dispersal of our species out of Africa. We suggest that the widespread occurrence of similar lithic technologies across southern Asia, coupled with a growing body of evidence for environmental amelioration across the Saharo-Arabian belt, indicates that occupation of the Levant by H. sapiens during MIS 5

  14. The effect of Arabian Sea optical properties on SST biases and the South Asian summer monsoon in a coupled GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A. G.; Joshi, M.; Robertson, E. S.; Woolnough, S. J.

    2012-08-01

    This study examines the effect of seasonally varying chlorophyll on the climate of the Arabian Sea and South Asian monsoon. The effect of such seasonality on the radiative properties of the upper ocean is often a missing process in coupled general circulation models and its large amplitude in the region makes it a pertinent choice for study to determine any impact on systematic biases in the mean and seasonality of the Arabian Sea. In this study we examine the effects of incorporating a seasonal cycle in chlorophyll due to phytoplankton blooms in the UK Met Office coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM HadCM3. This is achieved by performing experiments in which the optical properties of water in the Arabian Sea—a key signal of the semi-annual cycle of phytoplankton blooms in the region—are calculated from a chlorophyll climatology derived from Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) data. The SeaWiFS chlorophyll is prescribed in annual mean and seasonally-varying experiments. In response to the chlorophyll bloom in late spring, biases in mixed layer depth are reduced by up to 50% and the surface is warmed, leading to increases in monsoon rainfall during the onset period. However when the monsoons are fully established in boreal winter and summer and there are strong surface winds and a deep mixed layer, biases in the mixed layer depth are reduced but the surface undergoes cooling. The seasonality of the response of SST to chlorophyll is found to depend on the relative depth of the mixed layer to that of the anomalous penetration depth of solar fluxes. Thus the inclusion of the effects of chlorophyll on radiative properties of the upper ocean acts to reduce biases in mixed layer depth and increase seasonality in SST.

  15. Evidence of low density sub-crustal underplating beneath western continental region of India and adjacent Arabian Sea: Geodynamical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, O. P.; Agrawal, P. K.; Negi, J. G.

    1996-07-01

    The known high mobility of the Indian subcontinent during the period from 80 to 53 Ma has evoked considerable interest in recent times. It appears to have played an important role in shaping the subcontinental structures of western India and the adjoining Arabian Sea. During this period, a major catastrophic event took place in the form of Deccan volcanism, which coincides with the biological mass extinction at the K-T boundary, including the death of dinosaurs. The origin of Deccan volcanism is still being debated. Geophysically, western India and its offshore regions exhibit numerous prominent anomalies which testify to the abnormal nature of the underlying crust-lithosphere. In this work, we develop a two-dimensional structural model of these areas along two long profiles extending from the eastern basin of the Arabian Sea to about 1000 km inland. The model, derived from the available gravity data in the oceanic and continental regions, is constrained by seismic and other relevant information in the area, and suggests, for the first time, the presence of an extensive low-density (2.95-3.05 g/cm 3) sub-crustal underplating. Such a layer is found to occur between depths of 11 and 20 km in the eastern basin of the Arabian Sea, and betweeen 45 and 60 km in the continental region where it is sandwiched in the lower lithosphere. The low density may have been caused as a result of serpentinization or fractionation of magma by a process related in some way to the Deccan volcanic event. Substantial depletion of both oceanic and continental lithosphere is indicated. We hypothesize that the present anatomy of the deformed lithosphere of the region at the K-T boundary is the result of substantial melt generated owing to frictional heat possibly giving rise to a hot cell like condition at the base of the lithosphere, resulting from the rapid movement of the Indian subcontinent between 80 and 53 Ma.

  16. Acoustic doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data from the R/V T.G. THOMPSON is part of the core data for the US JGOFS Arabian Sea project along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises on the THOMPSON are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996. The first of these cruises, a transit of the R/V THOMPSON into the northern Arabian Sea area from Singapore, was a calibration and training cruise that took place between September 18 and October 7, 1994. (The cruises on the THOMPSON are numbered consecutively from the ship`s commissioning with the first JOGFS cruise designated TN039.) The remaining cruises have been and will be staged from Muscat, Oman. Seven of these cruises, referred to as process cruises, will follow a set cruise track, making hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The remainder of the cruises while not restricted to the set cruise track, will generally stay within the region defined by the track during the deployment and retrieval of moored equipment and the towing of a SeaSoar. Each cruise will last between two weeks and one month. ADCP data will be collected on all the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises using an autonomous data acquisition system developed for ship-of-opportunity cruises. This system, referred to as the AutoADCP, makes it possible to collect the ADCP data without the constant monitoring usually necessary and assures constant data coverage and uniform data quality. The AutoADCP system is an extension of RD Instrument`s DAS version 2.48 using enhancements made possible with ``user exit`` programs. This data report presents ADCP results from the first four JGOFS cruises, TN039 through TN042, concentrating on the data collection and processing methods.

  17. Arabian Shield magmatic cycles and their relationship with Gondwana assembly: Insights from zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, F. A.; Foden, J. D.; Collins, A. S.; Payne, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Shield preserves a protracted magmatic record of amalgamated juvenile terranes that host a diverse range of early Neoproterozoic to Cambrian granitoids intruding volcanosedimentary basin assemblages that have corollaries in other parts of the East African Orogen. New zircon U-Pb geochronology of 19 granitoids intruding eight Arabian Shield terranes, define four discrete magmatic events: island arc (∼845 Ma), syncollisional (∼710 Ma), post-tectonic (∼620 Ma) and anorogenic (∼525 Ma). Zircon Lu-Hf isotopic analyses indicate that all studied granitoids are juvenile with typical εHf values of >+5 to +10 and Stenian-Tonian (∼1100-900 Ma) model ages, regardless of their precise intrusive ages or spatial relationship. Subtle changes in isotopic signatures between ∼850 and 600 Ma, suggest the result from changes in granite source materials brought about by; basaltic underplating, limited crustal interaction with Palaeoproterozoic basement and a change to lithospheric delamination/subduction roll-back processes driving juvenile ANS crustal growth. The cycle of granite intrusion reflects accretionary cycles initiated during Mozambique Ocean closure and during Gondwana amalgamation and final assembly. Post-tectonic magmatism is divided into a ∼636-600 Ma phase and post 600 Ma event that reflects first subduction and then within-plate related processes. The identification of magmatism at ∼525 Ma is now the youngest granitoid identified so far in the Saudi Arabian Shield and may change the identified age of the regional, basal Palaeozoic unconformity. This late magmatism may be generated by the Najd Fault reactivation correlating with the Malagasy/Kunnga Orogeny that marked the final stages of Gondwana assembly.

  18. Insights into Seismic and Volcanic Processes around the Arabian Plate from InSAR Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónsson, Sigurjón; Wang, Teng; Akoglu, Ahmet; Feng, Guangcai; Xu, Wenbin; Harrington, Jonathan; Cavalié, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    We use InSAR observations to study a variety of seismic and volcanic processes at the plate boundary surrounding the Arabian plate. The plate-boundary motion ranges from extension in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden to the south, to compression in Turkey and Iran to the north, with transform motion to the west and to the east. Many large earthquakes have occurred during the past two decades in the region, some of which we are studying, including the 1995 magnitude 7.2 earthquake in the Gulf of Aqaba, the 2011 magnitude 7.1 Van earthquake in eastern Turkey, the 2012 Ahar earthquake duplet in northwestern Iran, as well as the 2013 magnitude 7.7 Baluchistan (Pakistan) earthquake. These earthquakes took place in tectonic settings ranging from a transtension in the Gulf of Aqaba, to transpression in Baluchistan, to almost pure compression in eastern Turkey. For the Aqaba earthquake we add previously unused InSAR data and use modern data processing methods to improve earlier fault-model estimations. In the case of the Baluchistan earthquake we find surprisingly uniform and simple fault slip along the over 200 km long rupture, with maximum slip of almost 10 m near the surface. In addition, for the Van earthquake we use SAR-image offset tracking in the near-field, as some of the interferograms are almost completely incoherent. By identifying point-like targets within the images, we are able to derive better pixel offsets between SAR sub-images than with standard offset-tracking methods. We use the azimuth- and range offsets to derive the 3D coseismic displacements, which help constraining the geometry and slip of the causative northward-dipping thrust fault. Further west, in the region near the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian, and Anatolian plates, we use large-scale InSAR data processing to map the interseismic deformation near the triple junction and find very shallow locking depth of the eastern part of the East Anatolian Fault, indicating limited strain

  19. Arabian Night and Sea Story - Biomarkers from a Giant Mass Transport Deposit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratenkov, Sophia; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Clift, Peter D.; George, Simon C.

    2016-04-01

    The study of mass transport deposits (MTDs) is an important field of research due to the potential insights into catastrophic events in the past and modern geohazard threats (e.g. tsunamis). Submarine mass movements are very significant processes in sculpturing the structure of continental margins, particularly in their extent and magnitude that have consequences both in the modern day, as well as in the geological past. An understanding of the complex stratigraphy of a submarine mass transport deposit (MTD) might help in reconstructing the provenance and transport pathways of sedimentary material and thus give important insights into sedimentary dynamics and processes triggering specific events. Drilling operations during International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 Arabian Sea Monsoon, which took place during April and May, 2015 cored two sites in Laxmi Basin. Site U1456 was cored to 1109.4 m below seafloor (mbsf), with the oldest recovered rock dated to ~13.5-17.7 Ma. Site U1457 was cored to 1108.6 mbsf, with the oldest rock dated to ~62 Ma. At each site, we cored through ~330 m and ~190 m of MTD material. The MTD layers mainly consist of interbedded lithologies of dark grey claystone, light greenish calcarenite and calcilutite, and conglomerate/breccia, with ages based on calcareous nannofossil and foraminifer biostratigraphy ranging from the Eocene to early Miocene (Pandey et al., 2015). This MTD, known as Nataraja Slide, is the third largest MTD known from the geological record and the second largest on a passive margin. Calvés et al. (2015) identified a potential source area offshore Sourashstra on the Indian continental margin and invoked the single step mass movement model to explain the mechanism of emplacement. Initial shipboard work demonstrated the high variability in total organic carbon and total nitrogen levels in different layers within the MTD, which raises a number of questions related to the source and composition of the organic

  20. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David P.; Jaidah, Mohammed Y.; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W.; Rohner, Christoph A.; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C.; Mair, James M.; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P < 0.05). Mean estimated total length (TL) for sharks was 6.90 m ± 1.24 (median = 7 m; n = 296). Males (7.25 m ± 1.34; median = 8 m, n = 171) were larger than females (6.44 m ±1.09; median = 7 m, n = 78; Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.01). Of the male sharks assessed for maturity 63% were mature (n = 81), with 50% attaining maturity by 7.29 m and 100% by 9.00 m. Two female sharks of >9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720–6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean. PMID:27362839

  1. Simultaneous multielement analysis of Saudi Arabian petroleum by microemulsion inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS)

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Swaidan, H.M. )

    1994-01-01

    Traces of Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, Fe and Co are determined by ICP/MS in Saudi Arabian crude oil from four different producing fields. A microemulsion procedure for sample pretreatment and standard addition method using oil soluble salts of trace elements are applied. Accuracy and precision data showed percentage relative standard deviation to be less than 5% and percentage recovery values ranging from 97-102.5% for all trace metals. The microemulsion as sample pretreatment proved to be a better technique in comparison to other sample introduction methods. 10 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Temporal assessment of seroconversion in response to inactivated foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Kilgallon, C P; Bailey, T A; O'Donovan, D; Wernery, U; Alexandersen, S

    2008-12-13

    Ten male Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) were vaccinated with a commercially available standard aqueous foot-and-mouth-disease vaccine containing aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, and their antibody titres against serotypes O and A were measured using solid-phase blocking elisa and the virus neutralisation test. Mean elisa antibody titres greater than 1.45 log(10) were recorded for serotype A, but low elisa titres were recorded for serotype 0; low titres were recorded by VNT for both serotypes. PMID:19074789

  3. Molecular and cytogenetic studies in a case of XX SRY-negative sex reversal in an Arabian horse.

    PubMed

    Ciotola, F; Albarella, S; Pasolini, M P; Auletta, L; Esposito, L; Iannuzzi, L; Peretti, V

    2012-01-01

    An 18-month-old Arabian foal characterized by a stallion-like appearance was submitted for cytogenetic and molecular genetics examinations due to abnormalities of external genitalia and the presence of ovotestis-like structures in the abdominal cavity. By RB-banding the animal showed the normal female equine karyotype (2n = 64,XX). Molecular analysis revealed the absence of the SRY and ZFY genes and the presence of ZFX, a typical female equine condition. The entire RSPO1 coding region was examined to exclude its involvement. Although a SNP was found in exon 3, it was not responsible for an amino acid substitution. PMID:22025175

  4. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Robinson, David P; Jaidah, Mohammed Y; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W; Rohner, Christoph A; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C; Mair, James M; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P < 0.05). Mean estimated total length (TL) for sharks was 6.90 m ± 1.24 (median = 7 m; n = 296). Males (7.25 m ± 1.34; median = 8 m, n = 171) were larger than females (6.44 m ±1.09; median = 7 m, n = 78; Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.01). Of the male sharks assessed for maturity 63% were mature (n = 81), with 50% attaining maturity by 7.29 m and 100% by 9.00 m. Two female sharks of >9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720-6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean. PMID:27362839

  5. Multiscale Local Forcing of the Arabian Desert Daytime Boundary Layer, and Implications for the Dispersion of Surface-Released Contaminants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Thomas T.; Sheu, Rong-Shyang

    2000-05-01

    Four 6-day simulations of the atmospheric conditions over the Arabian Desert during the time of the 1991 detonation and release of toxic material at the Khamisiyah, Iraq, weapons depot were performed using a mesoscale model run in a data-assimilation mode. These atmospheric simulations are being employed in a forensic analysis of the potential contribution of the toxic material to so-called Gulf War illness. The transport and concentration of such surface-released contaminants are related strongly to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth and the horizontal wind speed in the PBL. The product of the PBL depth and the mean wind speed within it is referred to as the ventilation and is used as a metric of the horizontal transport within the PBL. Thus, a corollary study to the larger forensic analysis involves employing the model solutions and available data in an analysis of the multiscale spatial variability of the daytime desert PBL depth and ventilation as they are affected by surface forcing from terrain elevation variations, coastal circulations, and contrasts in surface physical properties.The coarsest computational grid spanned the entire northern Arabian Desert and surrounding areas of the Middle East, and represented the large-scale PBL modulation by the orography. The PBL depths were greatest over the high elevations of the western Arabian Peninsula and over the Zagros Mountains in western Iran and were shallowest over water bodies and the lower elevations in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. Higher-resolution grids in the nest (the smallest grid increment was 3.3 km) showed that the PBL depth minimum in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley was likely a consequence of compensating subsidence associated with the thermally forced daytime upward motion over the Zagros Mountains to the east in Iran, with possible contributions from an elevated mixed layer. Further local modulation of the daytime desert PBL occurred as a result of the inland penetration of the coastal sea

  6. Limpets of the genus Cellana (Patellogastropoda) from Pakistan, North Arabian Sea: species identification based on DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Fatima Hayat Shaheen; Ayub, Zarrien; Begum, Samar; Siddiqui, Ghazala; Roberts, David

    2016-07-01

    The true limpets are found in the intertidal zone of the rocky shores of Pakistan, North Arabian Sea. Partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I was used to estimate the degree of genetic differentiation among the morphological forms of Cellana, which were considered as three separate species earlier in Pakistan. The study revealed that the three morphs of Cellana on COI sequence generated a single haplotype and matched with the COI sequence of Cellana karachiensis. This point out the phenotypic plasticity between the proposed species. PMID:26065851

  7. The Khida terrane - Geochronological and isotopic evidence for Paleoproterozoic and Archean crust in the eastern Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehouse, M.J.; Stoeser, D.B.; Stacey, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Khida terrane of the eastern Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia has been proposed as being underlain by Paleoproterozoic to Archean continental crust (Stoeser and Stacey, 1988). Detailed geological aspects of the Khida terrane, particularly resulting from new fieldwork during 1999, are discussed in a companion abstract (Stoeser et al., this volume). We present conventional and ion- microprobe U-Pb zircon geoenronology, Nd whole-rock, and feldspar Pb isotopic data that further elucidate the pre-Pan-African evolution of the Khida terrane. Locations for the Muhayil samples described below are shown in figure 2 of Stoeser et al. (this volume). 

  8. Interpretation of detailed aerial gamma-ray survey, Jabal Ashirah area, southeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey of the Jabal Ashirah area in the southeastern Arabian Shield has been analyzed using computer-classification algorithms. The analysis resulted in maps that show radiometric map units and gamma-ray anomalies indicating the presence of possible concentrations of potassium and uranium. The radiometric-unit map was interpreted to 'produce a simplified radiolithic map that was correlated with the mapped geology. The gamma-ray data show uranium anomalies that coincide with a tin-bearing granite, but known gold and nickel mineralization do not have any associated gamma-ray signatures.

  9. Processes accompanying of mantle plume emplacement into continental lithosphere: Evidence from NW Arabian plate, Western Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Lower crustal xenoliths occurred in the Middle Cretaceous lamprophyre diatremes in Jabel Ansaria (Western Syria) (Sharkov et al., 1992). They are represented mainly garnet granulites and eclogite-like rocks, which underwent by deformations and retrograde metamorphism, and younger fresh pegmatoid garnet-kaersutite-clinopyroxene (Al-Ti augite) rocks; mantle peridotites are absent in these populations. According to mineralogical geothermobarometers, forming of garnet-granulite suite rocks occurred under pressure 13.5-15.4 kbar (depths 45-54 kn) and temperature 965-1115oC. At the same time, among populations of mantle xenoliths in the Late Cenozoic platobasalts of the region, quite the contrary, lower crustal xenoliths are absent, however, predominated spinel lherzolites (fragments of upper cooled rim of a plume head), derived from the close depths (30-40 km: Sharkov, Bogatikov, 2015). From this follows that ancient continental crust was existed here even in the Middle Cretaceous, but in the Late Cenozoic was removed by extended mantle plume head; at that upper sialic crust was not involved in geomechanic processes, because Precambrian metamorphic rocks survived as a basement for Cambrian to Cenozoic sedimentary cover of Arabian platform. In other words, though cardinal rebuilding of deep-seated structure of the region occurred in the Late Cenozoic but it did not affect on the upper shell of the ancient lithosphere. Because composition of mantle xenolithis in basalts is practically similar worldwide, we suggest that deep-seated processes are analogous also. As emplacement of the mantle plume heads accompanied by powerful basaltic magmatism, very likely that range of lower (mafic) continental crust existence is very convenient for extension of plume heads and their adiabatic melting. If such level, because of whatever reasons, was not reached, melting was limited but appeared excess of volatile matters which led to forming of lamprophyre or even kimberlite.

  10. Fidelity of life and death molluscan assemblages from carbonate tidal flats in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.; Albano, Paolo G.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Piller, Werner E.; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Live-dead (LD) studies aim to help understand how faithfully fossil assemblages can be used to quantitatively infer the structure of the original living communities that generated them. To this purpose, LD comparisons have been conducted in different terrestrial and aquatic environments to assess how environment-specific differences in quality and intensity of taphonomic factors affect LD fidelity. In sub-tropical and tropical settings, most LD studies have focused on hard substrates or seagrass bottoms. Here we present results on molluscan assemblages from soft carbonate sediments in tidal flats of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf (Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province). We analyzed a total of 7193 mollusks collected from six sites comprising time-averaged death assemblages (DAs) and snapshot living assemblages (LAs). All analyses were performed at site and at habitat scales after correcting for sample-size differences. We found a good match in proportional abundance and a notable mismatch in species composition. In fact, species richness in DAs is 6 times larger than in LAs at site scale, and 4 times at habitat scale. Additionally, we found a good fidelity of evenness, and rank abundance of feeding guilds. Other studies have shown that molluscan DAs from subtidal carbonate environments can display lower time-averaging than those from siliciclastic environments due to high rates of shell loss to bioerosion and dissolution. For our case study of tidal flat carbonate settings, we interpret that despite temporal autocorrelation (good fidelity of proportional abundance), substantial differences in species richness and composition can be explained by early cementation, lateral mixing, intense bioturbation and moderate sedimentation rates. Our results suggest that tidal flat carbonate environments can potentially lead to a wider window of time-averaging in comparison with subtidal carbonate settings.

  11. Characteristics of monsoon inversions over the Arabian Sea observed by satellite sounder and reanalysis data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Sanjeev; Narayanan, M. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2016-04-01

    Monsoon inversion (MI) over the Arabian Sea (AS) is one of the important characteristics associated with the monsoon activity over Indian region during summer monsoon season. In the present study, we have used 5 years (2009-2013) of temperature and water vapour measurement data obtained from satellite sounder instrument, an Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) onboard MetOp satellite, in addition to ERA-Interim data, to study their characteristics. The lower atmospheric data over the AS have been examined first to identify the areas where MIs are predominant and occur with higher strength. Based on this information, a detailed study has been made to investigate their characteristics separately in the eastern AS (EAS) and western AS (WAS) to examine their contrasting features. The initiation and dissipation times of MIs, their percentage occurrence, strength, etc., has been examined using the huge database. The relation with monsoon activity (rainfall) over Indian region during normal and poor monsoon years is also studied. WAS ΔT values are ˜ 2 K less than those over the EAS, ΔT being the temperature difference between 950 and 850 hPa. A much larger contrast between the WAS and EAS in ΔT is noticed in ERA-Interim data set vis-à-vis those observed by satellites. The possibility of detecting MI from another parameter, refractivity N, obtained directly from another satellite constellation of GPS Radio Occultation (RO) (COSMIC), has also been examined. MI detected from IASI and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard the NOAA satellite have been compared to see how far the two data sets can be combined to study the MI characteristics. We suggest MI could also be included as one of the semipermanent features of southwest monsoon along with the presently accepted six parameters.

  12. Particle size distribution and estimated carbon flux across the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roullier, F.; Berline, L.; Guidi, L.; Durrieu De Madron, X.; Picheral, M.; Sciandra, A.; Pesant, S.; Stemmann, L.

    2014-08-01

    The goal of the Arabian Sea section of the TARA oceans expedition was to study large particulate matter (LPM > 100 μm) distributions and possible impact of associated midwater biological processes on vertical carbon export through the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of this region. We propose that observed spatial patterns in LPM distribution resulted from the timing and location of surface phytoplankton bloom, lateral transport, microbial processes in the core of the OMZ, and enhanced biological processes mediated by bacteria and zooplankton at the lower oxycline. Indeed, satellite-derived net primary production maps showed that the northern stations of the transect were under the influence of a previous major bloom event while the most southern stations were in a more oligotrophic situation. Lagrangian simulations of particle transport showed that deep particles of the northern stations could originate from the surface bloom while the southern stations could be considered as driven by 1-D vertical processes. In the first 200 m of the OMZ core, minima in nitrate concentrations and the intermediate nepheloid layer (INL) coincided with high concentrations of 100 μm < LPM < 200 μm. These particles could correspond to colonies of bacteria or detritus produced by anaerobic microbial activity. However, the calculated carbon flux through this layer was not affected. Vertical profiles of carbon flux indicate low flux attenuation in the OMZ, with a Martin model b exponent value of 0.22. At three stations, the lower oxycline was associated to a deep nepheloid layer, an increase of calculated carbon flux and an increase in mesozooplankton abundance. Enhanced bacterial activity and zooplankton feeding in the deep OMZ is proposed as a mechanism for the observed deep particle aggregation. Estimated lower flux attenuation in the upper OMZ and re-aggregation at the lower oxycline suggest that OMZ may be regions of enhanced carbon flux to the deep sea relative to non OMZ regions.

  13. Particles size distribution and carbon flux across the Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roullier, F.; Berline, L.; Guidi, L.; Sciandra, A.; Durrieu De Madron, X.; Picheral, M.; Pesant, S.; Stemmann, L.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the Arabian Sea section of the TARA oceans expedition was to study Large Particulate Matter (LPM > 100 μm) distributions and possible impact of associated midwater biological processes on vertical carbon export through the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) of this region. We found that spatial patterns in LPM distribution resulted from the timing and location of surface phytoplankton bloom, lateral transport, microbial processes in the core of the OMZ, and zooplankton activity at the lower oxycline. Indeed, satellite-derived net primary production maps showed that the northern stations of the transect were under the influence of a previous major bloom event while, the most southern stations were in a more oligotrophic situation. Lagrangian simulations of particle transport showed that deep particles of the northern stations could originate from the surface bloom while the southern stations could be considered as driven by 1-D vertical processes. In the first 200 m of the OMZ core, minima in nitrate concentrations and the Intermediate Nepheloid Layer (INL) coincided with high concentrations of 100 μm < LPM < 200 μm. These particles could correspond to colonies of bacteria or detritus produced by anaerobic microbial activity. However, the calculated carbon flux through this layer was not affected. Vertical profiles of carbon flux indicate low flux attenuation in the OMZ, with a Martin model b exponent value of 0.22. At the lower oxycline, a deep nepheloid layer was associated to an increase of carbon flux and an increase in mesozooplankton abundance. Zooplankton feeding on un-mineralized sinking particles in the OMZ is proposed as a mechanism for the observed deep particle aggregation. These results suggest that OMZ may be regions of enhanced carbon flux to the deep sea relative to non-OMZ regions.

  14. Shamals and climate variability in the Northern Arabian Gulf from 1973 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Senafi, F.; Anis, A.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents key results from analysis of surface meteorological observations collected in the Northern Arabian Gulf (N AG). The dataset, which spans a 40-years period (1973-2012; Kuwait airport), was used to examine climate variability in the N AG, and the relation to Shamal events (strong NW winds that commonly create large dust storms) and teleconnection patterns (North Atlantic Oscillation, El Nino Southern Oscillation, and Indian Ocean Dipole). Results of the analysis indicate that during the 40-year period the climate in the region experienced a general trend of increase in temperature (0.8 ^oC), decreasein barometric pressure (1 mb), reduction in humidity (6%), and decrease in visibility (9%). Significant correlations were found between the three teleconnection patterns and the meteorological conditions suggesting that seasonal variability in air temperature, barometric pressure, and precipitation are closely related to the teleconnection patterns. Analysis of the 40-year period suggests that on average Shamal events occur at a rate of 10 events per year with 85% of the events occuring during the summer and winter. These events resulted in abrupt changes in meteorological conditions: an increase in wind speed of 2.7 m/s, an increase in temperature during summer of 0.8 ^oC, and a decrease of -1.5 ^oC during winter, a decrease in barometric pressure during summer of -0.6 mb and a increase of 7.8 mb during winter, a decrease in visibility of -1.7 km, and reduction in humidity of -4.3 %.

  15. The Role of Tigris Euphrates Discharge on Coastal SST in the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, R.; Sanders, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Tigris-Euphrates (T-E) river system provides most of the freshwater recharge into the Arabian/Persian Gulf, through the Shatt el-Arab, into the northern Gulf. Over the past decades, increased dam storage for irrigation and hydropower throughout the region has modified the characteristics of this flow. As a result, flow into the Iraqi Marshes has been reduced by at least half, with reduction in both peak and overall flow, and a corresponding decrease in flow through the Shatt el-Arab. This change in flow characteristics is observable in the waters on the Northern Gulf and in Kuwait bay. AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 8 day data was assembled for the time period 1985-2010. Time series were extracted for sea surface temperature (SST) for locations in the Northern and Central Gulf and Kuwait Bay. These were compared with regional precipitation and GRACE water equivalent thickness variations in the upper and lower T-E basin, and published flow estimates. Results were used to examine 1) the overall impact of discharge on SST in the coastal area affected by T-E watershed discharge; 2) the impact of reduced flow years due to damming and drought years on the differences between coastal and bay SST and central Gulf SST. Annual peak flow in the period Dec-April was found to provide a lowering of coastal SST by more than 1C compared with more well mixed water in the central Gulf. This effect was not seen to be less than half during drought years (e.g. 2006-2008). Climate models predict end of century scenarios of precipitation similar to those seen during 2007-2008. The impact of this lower discharge from the Shatt el-Arab combined with predicted regional warming may result in habitat changes in coastal waters in the Northern Gulf.

  16. The stratigraphic evolution of the Indus Fan and the history of sedimentation in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter; Gaedicke, Christoph; Edwards, Rosemary; Il Lee, Jae; Hildebrand, Peter; Amjad, Shahid; White, Robert S.; Schlüter, Hans-Ulrich

    The Indus Fan records the erosion of the western Himalayas and Karakoram since India began to collide with Asia during the Eocene, ~50 Ma. Multi-channel seismic reflection data from the northern Arabian Sea correlated to industrial well Indus Marine A-1 on the Pakistan Shelf show that sedimentation patterns are variable through time, reflecting preferential sedimentation in deep water during periods of lower sea-level (e.g., middle Miocene, Pleistocene), the diversion of sediment toward the east following uplift of the Murray Ridge, and the autocyclic switching of fan lobes. Individual channel-levee systems are estimated to have been constructed over periods of 105-106 yr during the Late Miocene. Sediment velocities derived from sonobuoys and multi-channel stacking velocities allow sections to be time-depth converted and then backstripped to calculate sediment budgets through time. The middle Miocene is the period of most rapid accumulation, probably reflecting surface uplift in the source regions and strengthening of the monsoon at that time. Increasing sedimentation during the Pleistocene, after a late Miocene-Pliocene minimum, is apparently caused by faster erosion during intense glaciation. The sediment-unloaded geometry of the basement under the Pakistan Shelf shows a steep gradient, similar to the continent-ocean transition seen at other rifted volcanic margins, with basement depths on the oceanward side indistinguishable from oceanic crust. Consequently we suggest that the continent-ocean transition is located close to the present shelf break, rather than >350 km to the south, as previously proposed.

  17. The crustal and upper-mantle structure of the interior Arabian platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Amri, Abdullah M. S.

    1999-02-01

    The crustal and upper-mantle velocity structure of the interior Arabian platform is derived using the spectral analysis of long-period P-wave amplitude ratios. The ratio of the vertical to the horizontal component is utilized to obtain crustal transfer functions using the Thomson-Haskell matrix formulation for horizontally layered crustal models. 20 earthquakes recorded at the long-period station RYD between azimuths N20 degW and N150 degE were selected for the analysis based on the following criteria: focal depths in the range 5 to 215 km, body-wave magnitudes greater than 5.0, and epicentral distances in the range 7 deg to 97 deg. A careful quality check of the data left us with six events, out of 29, that had short epicentral distances (<20 deg) to be analysed. The selection criterion for the final model in the forward modelling process was based on the correlation coefficient between observed and theoretical transfer function. The model suggested that the crust consists of five distinct layers. The upper crustal layer has a P-wave velocity of about 5.6 km s^- ^1 and is about 3 km thick. The second layer has a velocity of about 6.3 km s^- ^1 and is 10 km thick. The third layer has a velocity of 6.6 km s^- ^1 and is 8 km thick. The fourth layer has a velocity of 6.9 km s^- ^1 and is 15 km thick. The lower layer has a velocity of about 7.6 km s^- ^1 and is 10 km thick. For the Mohorovicic discontinuity, a velocity of 8.3 km s^- ^1 for the upper mantle and 46 km depth are indicated.

  18. Brief Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire: An investigation into craving and heavy smoking in Saudi Arabian males

    PubMed Central

    Albrithen, Abdulaziz A.; Singleton, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Research in the United States has shown that craving tobacco is associated with smoking, yet no investigation has been done into the relationship between craving and the use of tobacco in Saudi Arabian smokers. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the craving of tobacco by Saudi males and its influence on daily smoking. Subjects were recruited under the auspices of the Tobacco Control Program in Jeddah City and Riyadh. Methods: The American English version of the tobacco craving questionnaire (TCQ-12) is a valid measure of four distinct aspects (factors) of tobacco craving. The TCQ-12 was translated into Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire (ATCQ-12) and administered to a sample of 322 male smokers. Predictive validity was determined by examining the relationship between the factors and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Results: In a general linear multivariate analysis of variance model, CPD increased significantly as either ATCQ-12 Factor 1 (emotionality) or Factor 3 (compulsiveness) increased. A significant Factor 1 by Factor 3 interaction indicated that Factor 1 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 3 was low. Factor 3 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 1 was low. Conclusions: The ATCQ-12 is a rapid measure of craving and valid predictor of CPD and heavy smoking. Craving in anticipation of smoking as relief from a negative mood (emotionality) is an indicator of psychological withdrawal symptoms, while craving in anticipation of the inability to control tobacco use (compulsiveness) is an indicator of physical dependence. PMID:25657605

  19. Comparative ergoespirometric adaptations to a treadmill exercise test in untrained show Andalusian and Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Castejón-Riber, Cristina; Muñoz, Ana; Trigo, Pablo; Riber, Cristina; Santisteban, Rafael; Castejón, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Significant differences exist in the respiratory adaptation to exercise in different equine breeds. This research describes the ergoespirometric response to exercise of Andalusian (AN) and Arabian (A) horses, both selected according to morphological criteria. Thirteen untrained male horses (6 AN and 7 A) performed a treadmill exercise test (TET) with a slope of 6%, with workloads starting from 5 m/s and increasing 1 m/s every 3 min until the horses were not able to keep the required velocity. Tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate, minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), exercise time to fatigue (ETF) and respiratory aerobic threshold (RAT) were determined. AN horses presented higher TV and VE, whereas respiratory rate, VO2 and VCO2 were lower at the same velocities. RER was similar between breeds. ETF was longer in A horses (556.7 ± 66.5 in AN vs. 607.1 ± 71.1 s in A) and no significant differences were found in RAT (5.50 ± 0.50 in AN vs. 5.86 ± 1.07 m/s in A). In summary, despite the more intense ventilatory response to exercise at the same velocity, AN horses had lower VO2. The AN horse develops a more intense ventilatory response to fixed velocities than the A horse and it could be interesting to clarify the role of the locomotion characteristics in this response. PMID:22183731

  20. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    PubMed

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P < 0.05). Isotopic plateau was attained in blood [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P < 0.05) in horses receiving the +Phe treatment than in those fed the control diet. There was no effect of treatment diet on nonoxidative phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future. PMID:22259192

  1. Locating Noctiluca Miliaris in the Arabian Sea: An Optical Proxy Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibodeau, Patricia S.; Roesler, Collin S.; Drapeau, Susan L.; Matondkar, S. G. Prabhu; Goes, Joaquim I.; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Coincident with shifting monsoon weather patterns over India, the phytoplankter Noctiluca miliaris has recently been observed to be dominating phytoplankton blooms in the northeastern Arabian Sea during the winter monsoons. Identifying the exact environmental and/or ecological conditions that favor this species has been hampered by the lack of concurrent environmental and biological observations on time and space scales relevant to ecologic and physiologic processes. We present a bio-optical proxy for N. miliaris measured on highly resolved depth scales coincident with hydrographic observations with the goal to identify conducive hydrographic conditions for the bloom. The proxy is derived from multichannel excitation chlorophyll a fluorescence and is validated with microscopy, pigment composition, and spectral absorption. Phytoplankton populations dominated by either diatoms or other dinoflagellates were additionally discerned. N. miliaris populations in full bloom were identified offshore in low-nutrient and low-N : P ratio surface waters within a narrow temperature and salinity range. These populations transitioned to high-biomass diatom-dominated coastal upwelling populations. A week later, the N. miliaris blooms were observed in declining phase, transitioning to very-low-biomass populations of non-N. miliaris dinoflagellates. There were no clear hydrographic conditions uniquely associated with the N. miliaris populations, although N. miliaris was not found in the upwelling or extremely oligotrophic waters. Taxonomic transitions were not discernible in the spatial structure of the bloom as identified by the ocean color Chl imagery, indicating that in situ observations may be necessary to resolve community structure, particularly for populations below the surface.

  2. Association of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer in a Saudi Arabian Population

    PubMed Central

    Alkhayal, Khayal A.; Awadalia, Zainab H.; Vaali-Mohammed, Mansoor-Ali; Al Obeed, Omar A.; Al Wesaimer, Alanoud; Halwani, Rabih; Zubaidi, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D, causally implicated in bone diseases and human malignancies, exerts its effects through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR is a transcription factor modulating the expression of several genes in different pathways. Genetic variants in the VDR gene have been associated with several cancers in different population including colorectal cancer. Objective To assess the association of VDR gene polymorphisms in relation with colorectal cancer (CRC) in a Saudi population. Methods The polymorphisms of VDR gene (BsmI, FokI, ApaI and TaqI) were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction amplification of segments of interest followed by Sanger sequencing. One hundred diagnosed CRC patients and 100 healthy control subjects that were age and gender matched were recruited. Results We did not observe significant association of any of the four VDR polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk in the overall analysis. Although not statistically significant, the AA genotype of BsmI conferred about two-fold protection against CRCs compared to the GG genotype. Stratification of the study subjects based on age and gender suggests statistically significant association of CRC with the ‘C’ allele of ApaI in patients >57 years of age at disease diagnosis and BsmI polymorphism in females. In addition, statistically significant differences were observed for the genotypic distributions of VDR-BsmI, ApaI and TaqI SNPs between Saudi Arabian population and several of the International HapMap project populations. Conclusion Despite the absence of correlation of the examined VDR polymorphisms with CRCs in the combined analysis, ApaI and BsmI loci are statistically significantly associated with CRC in elderly and female patients, respectively. These findings need further validation in larger cohorts prior to utilizing these SNPs as potential screening markers for colorectal cancers in Saudi population. PMID:27309378

  3. Modeling a Typical Winter-time Dust Event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kalenderski, S.; Stenchikov, G.; Zhao, Chun

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg/day and ~1.5 Tg/day, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W/m2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  4. Heterogeneity and diversity of ABO and Rh blood group genes in select Saudi Arabian populations.

    PubMed

    AlSuhaibani, E S; Kizilbash, N A; Malik, S

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of ABO and Rh blood group genes in the Saudi Arabian population, we assembled the phenotypic data of approximately 66,000 subjects from ten representative Saudi populations: Al-Khobar, Riyadh, Tabuk/Madina Al-Munawaara, Jeddah, Abha, South region, Sakaka, Domah, Al-Qurayat, and Sweer. The frequencies of p[A], q[B], and r[O] alleles at the ABO locus were observed to be 0.1688, 0.1242, and 0.7070, respectively, and the frequency of the D allele at the Rh locus was 0.7138. The heterozygosities at the ABO and Rh loci were 0.4563 and 0.4086, respectively, while the combined heterozygosity was 0.4324. Homogeneity tests revealed the population of Abha to be the most heterogeneous while that of Tabuk/Madina was found to be the least heterogeneous. Homogeneity was higher among the Northern populations while Southern populations demonstrated subdivisions and stratification. Gene diversity analyses yielded a total heterozygosity value of 0.4449. The coefficient of gene differentiation was 0.0090. Nei's genetic distance analyses showed that there was close affinity between the populations of Al-Khobar and Riyadh. The largest differences were observed between the populations of Sakaka and Domah. Furthermore, negative correlations were found between p[A] and r[O] alleles, and between q[B] and r[O] alleles at the ABO locus. Clinal analyses revealed that the r[O] allele showed an increasing trend from North-East to South-West, and conversely the q[B] allele exhibited a decreasing trend at these coordinates. These analyses present interesting aspects of the blood group allele distribution across the geography of Saudi Arabia. PMID:26214466

  5. Biological response due to tropical cyclone PHYN in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao Neerukattu, Srinivasa; Rao, B. Venkateswara

    During the fall intermonsoon cyclone PHYN (09-11 Nov 2009) occurred in the Northeast Ara-bian Sea, we observed 4.4 C mean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) drop in Aqua-MODIS derived SST data; where the maximum wind speeds recorded were of the order of 50 Knots. High wind speeds deepened the vertical mixing of 90 m, and brought the cold (23.9C), nutrient rich waters to the surface; this is confirmed with Argo's temperature profile data. Post cyclone chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) enhancement was observed through 8 day mean average chlorophyll-a derived from Aqua-MODIS data, concentration from 4.56 mg/m3 to 16 mg/m3. SST drop and Chl-a Enhancement are not continuum all along the cyclone path; Maximum SST drop and Chl-a enhancement are observed at the establishment of `cyclone eye'. The formation of an eye is almost always an indicator of increasing tropical cyclone organization and strength. Where the cyclone stalls, its movement has fallen below 2.24m/s, movement is erratic over a small area; the wave action caused by the strong surface winds churns the ocean surface and produces upwelling. This has the effect of cooling the temperature of the sea surface over an area 200 to 300 miles across. Strong asymmetry in the SST response occurs in the wake of the storm. These results in a cool swath of SST centered 50-400 km on the right hand side of the storm track. SST drop 3o C larger than on left hand side of the track. Tropical cyclones when passing over land may have destroying human lives, but over the ocean they can strongly enhance biological life i.e. enhancing phytoplankton (Chl-a) biomass.

  6. Species delimitation in the coral genus Goniopora (Scleractinia, Poritidae) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Terraneo, Tullia I; Benzoni, Francesca; Arrigoni, Roberto; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-09-01

    Variable skeletal morphology, genotype induced plasticity, and homoplasy of skeletal structures have presented major challenges for scleractinian coral taxonomy and systematics since the 18th century. Although the recent integration of genetic and micromorphological data is helping to clarify the taxonomic confusion within the order, phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation within most coral genera are still far from settled. In the present study, the species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora were investigated using 199 colonies from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea and sequencing of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between CytB and NAD2, the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, and two single-copy nuclear genes (ATPsβ and CalM). DNA sequence data were analyzed using a variety of methods and exploratory species-delimitation tools. The results were broadly congruent in identifying five distinct molecular lineages within the sequenced Goniopora samples: G. somaliensis/G. savignyi, G. djiboutiensis/G. lobata, G. stokesi, G. albiconus/G. tenuidens, and G. minor/G. gracilis. Although the traditional macromorphological characters used to identify these nine morphospecies were not able to discriminate the obtained molecular clades, informative micromorphological and microstructural features (such as the micro-ornamentation and the arrangement of the columella) were recovered among the five lineages. Moreover, unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. This study represents the first attempt to identify species boundaries within Goniopora using a combined morpho-molecular approach. The obtained data establish a basis for future taxonomic revision of the genus, which should include colonies across its entire geographical distribution in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:27321092

  7. Fortification with vitamin D: Comparative study in the Saudi Arabian and US markets

    PubMed Central

    Sadat-Ali, Mir; Al Elq, Abdulmohsen; Al-Farhan, Mohammed; Sadat, Nazia A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is common among Saudi Arabian population. To evaluate the current status of vitamin D fortification and calcium content of commonly consumed food items by the Saudi population and to compare it to US data. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional market survey at markets of Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and State of Illinois, USA. Methods: A dietary survey was carried out for the content of calcium and vitamin D on the most commonly consumed food products by the Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D. The survey included different brands of fresh milk, yoghurt, powdered milk, cheese, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and orange juice. Vitamin D content in the products studied from the Saudi marketplace was compared with the suggested vitamin D content in the same products according to US Code of Federal Regulations recommendations. Results: The overall calcium content in the processed dairy products is generally higher than the content in fresh dairy products. Vitamin D content in the fresh dairy products varied from 40 IU/L to 400 IU/L. None of the cereals or orange juice in Saudi Arabia contain vitamin D supplement. The vitamin D content in the food items from the Saudi marketplace is mostly lower than recommended by the US Code of Federal Regulations. Conclusion: Most commonly consumed food products by Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D either not fortified or contain an amount less than recommended by guidelines set for US marketplace. PMID:23723731

  8. Characteristics of Monsoon inversions over Arabian Sea observed by satellite sounder and reanalysis data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Sanjeev; Narayanan, M. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2015-12-01

    Monsoon inversions (MIs) over Arabian Sea (AS) are an important characteristic associated with the monsoon activity over Indian region during summer monsoon season. In the present study, we have used five years (2009-2013) data of temperature and water vapor profiles obtained from satellite sounder instrument, Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) onboard MetOp satellite, besides ERA-Interim data, to study their characteristics. The lower atmospheric data over the AS have been examined first to identify the areas where monsoon inversions are predominant and occur with higher strength. Based on this information, a detailed study has been made to investigate their characteristics separately in eastern AS (EAS) and western AS (WAS) to examine their contrasting features. The initiation and dissipation times of MI, their percentage occurrence, strength etc., has been examined using the huge data base. The relation with monsoon activity (rainfall) over Indian region during normal and poor monsoon years is also studied. WAS ΔT values are ~ 2 K less than those over the EAS, ΔT being temperature difference between 950 and 850 hPa. A much larger contrast between WAS and EAS in ΔT is noticed in ERA-Interim dataset Vis a Vis those observed by satellites. The possibility of detecting MI from another parameter, Refractivity N, obtained directly from another satellite constellation of GPS RO (COSMIC), has also been examined. MI detected from IASI and Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) sounder onboard NOAA satellite have been compared to see how far the two data sets can be combined to study the MI characteristics. We suggest MI could also be included as one of the semi-permanent features of southwest monsoon along with the presently accepted six parameters.

  9. Morphological and molecular aspects of Ceratomyxa mehlhorni n. sp., a parasite of the golden trevally Gnathanodon speciosus in the Arabian Gulf off the Saudi Arabian coast, with data on its seasonal prevalence.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Lamjed; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al-Qahtani, Hussain A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2015-10-01

    During a survey of the myxosporean fauna of the golden trevally Gnathanodon speciosus from the Arabian Gulf off Saudi Arabia, a species of Ceratomyxa that did not conform to any known species was recorded. The infection was detected as a large number of mature spores free-floating in the bile. Mature spores were hat- or helm-like in the frontal view with two short and unequal valves. The spores measured 8 (7-9) × 12 (10-14). The two polar capsules were spherical, equal in size and measured 3 (2-4) in diameter with three filament turns. Sporoplasm was binucleated and filled the whole extracapsular space. The small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence of this species did not match any available sequences in GenBank. The lowest genetic distance was 0.017, observed with Ceratomyxa moseri infecting Pomacentrus wardi from Australia's Great Barrier Reef. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree showed a close association between the new species and a variety of ceratomyxid species, including Ceratomyxa arabica reported from the Arabian Gulf. Given the morphological and molecular differences between this species and other Ceratomyxa spp., we proposed the present form was a new species and the name Ceratomyxa mehlhorni sp. n. for this parasite from the gallbladder of G. speciosus. PMID:26163134

  10. Accumulation of heavy metals in kidney and heart tissues of Epinephelus microdon fish from the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Waqar

    2005-02-01

    Levels of Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cd in the kidney and heart tissues of Epinephelus Microdon collected from the Arabian Gulf, Eastern province of Saudi Arabia, were determined by wet digestion-based atomic absorption method. The results indicated that accumulation pattern of analyzed metals in the kidney tissues followed the order; Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Co > Mn > Cd, with Zn at 47.73 +/- 13.26 ppm and Cd at 0.41 +/- 0.16 ppm. Cu, Mn, Co and Ni levels in the kidney tissues were significantly lower or within the ranges reported previously. In the heart tissue the analyzed metals followed almost the same pattern of metal accumulation; Zn > Cu > Pb > Co > Ni > Mn > Cd. The average lead (3.19 +/- 2.03 ppm), nickel (1.69 +/- 0.52 ppm), cobalt (1.75 +/- 0.44 ppm), copper (3.96 +/- 0.98 ppm) and cadmium (0.34 +/- 0.23 ppm) concentrations were found high in the heart tissues whereas zinc and manganese levels were found high in kidney tissues. In general, the data indicated that marine fish from the sampling site of Arabian Gulf are comparatively clean and unpolluted. PMID:15736888

  11. DNA Barcodes of Arabian Partridge and Philby’s Rock Partridge: Implications for Phylogeny and Species Identification

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad; Arif, Ibrahim Abdulwahid; Shobrak, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Recently, DNA barcoding based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) has gained wide attention because of simplicity and robustness of these barcodes for species identification including birds. The current GenBank records show the COI barcodes of only one species, chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), of the Alectoris genus. In this study, we sequenced the 694 bp segment of COI gene of the two species including, Arabian partridge (Alectoris melanocephala) and Philby’s rock partridge (Alectoris philbyi) of the same genus. We also compared these sequences with earlier published barcodes of chukar partridge. The pair-wise sequence comparison showed a total of 53 variable sites across all the 9 sequences from 3 species. Within-species variable sites were found to be 4 (Alectoris chukar), 0 (Alectoris philbyi) and 3 (Alectoris melanocephala). The genetic distances among the 9 individuals varied from 0.000 to 0.056. Phylogenetic analysis using COI barcodes clearly discriminated the 3 species, while Alectoris chukar was found to be more closely related to Alectoris philbyi. Similar differentiation was also observed using 1155 bp mitochondrial control region (CR) sequences suggesting the efficiency of COI gene for phylogenetic reconstruction and interspecific identification. This is the first study reporting the barcodes of Arabian partridge and Philby’s rock partridge. PMID:21151586

  12. Mesoscale variability in the Arabian Sea from HYCOM model results and observations: impact on the Persian Gulf Water path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hégaret, P.; Duarte, R.; Carton, X.; Vic, C.; Ciani, D.; Baraille, R.; Corréard, S.

    2015-09-01

    The Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman circulation and water masses, subject to monsoon forcing, reveal a strong seasonal variability and intense mesoscale features. We describe and analyze this variability and these features, using both meteorological data (from ECMWF reanalyses), in situ observations (from the ARGO float program and the GDEM - Generalized Digital Environmental mode - climatology), satellite altimetry (from AVISO) and a regional simulation with a primitive equation model (HYCOM - the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model). The model and observations display comparable variability, and the model is then used to analyze the three-dimensional structure of eddies and water masses with higher temporal and spatial resolutions than the available observations. The mesoscale features are highly seasonal, with the formation of coastal currents, destabilizing into eddies, or the radiation of Rossby waves from the Indian coast. The mesoscale eddies have a deep dynamical influence and strongly drive the water masses at depth. In particular, in the Sea of Oman, the Persian Gulf Water presents several offshore ejection sites and a complex recirculation, depending on the mesoscale eddies. The associated mechanisms range from coastal ejection via dipoles, alongshore pulses due to a cyclonic eddy, to the formation of lee eddies downstream of Ra's Al Hamra. This water mass is also captured inside the eddies via several mechanisms, keeping high thermohaline characteristics in the Arabian Sea. The variations of the outflow characteristics near the Strait of Hormuz are compared with variations downstream.

  13. Distribution of smile line, gingival angle and tooth shape among the Saudi Arabian subpopulation and their association with gingival biotype

    PubMed Central

    AlQahtani, Nabeeh A.; Haralur, Satheesh B.; AlMaqbol, Mohammad; AlMufarrij, Ali Jubran; Al Dera, Ahmed Ali; Al-Qarni, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the occurrence of smile line and maxillary tooth shape in the Saudi Arabian subpopulation, and to estimate the association between these parameters with gingival biotype. Materials and Methods: On the fulfillment of selection criteria, total 315 patients belong to Saudi Arabian ethnic group were randomly selected. Two frontal photographs of the patients were acquired. The tooth morphology, gingival angle, and smile line classification were determined with ImageJ image analyzing software. The gingival biotype was assessed by probe transparency method. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 19 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA) software to determine the frequency and association between other parameters and gingival biotype. Results: Among the clinical parameters evaluated, the tapering tooth morphology (56.8%), thick gingival biotype (53%), and average smile line (57.5%) was more prevalent. The statistically significant association was found between thick gingival biotype and the square tooth, high smile line. The high gingival angle was associated with thin gingival biotype. Conclusions: The study results indicate the existence of an association between tooth shape, smile line, and gingival angle with gingival biotype. PMID:27195228

  14. Deep-water Thyasiridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the Oman Margin, Arabian Sea, new species and examples of endemism and cosmopolitanism.

    PubMed

    Oliver, P Graham

    2015-01-01

    Seven species of Thyasiridae are reported from the Oman Margin of the Arabian Sea at depths between 688 m and 3356 m. Hypoxic conditions exist at depths between 400 and 1200 m and three species are restricted to this zone and to the Arabian Sea. Leptaxinus indusarium has also been recorded from the Indus Fan and Channelaxinus investigatoris from off Sri Lanka. A new species Thyasira anassa sp. nov. is described from the hypoxic zone. Another four species are recorded from the abyssal zone where oxygen levels are typical for the deep ocean. Here another new species is described, Parathyasira bamberi sp. nov. but the other species could not be conclusively identified because of close affinity with populations from other oceans.  Deep water Atlantic species Axinulus croulinensis and Mendicula ferruginosa are apparently present in the abyssal Indian Ocean while another thyasirid shell is very close to Channelaxinus excavatus from the Eastern Pacific and C. perplicata from the Atlantic. Accompanying these abyssal thyasirids were other bivalve species, Deminucula atacellana, Limopsis pelagica and Bentharca asperula that cannot be distinguished by morphology from their Atlantic populations. It is concluded that using morphology alone that the abyssal species may well be cosmopolitan in distribution. PMID:26250317

  15. Centralized pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia: results from the CEPHEUS study in Arabian Gulf countries.

    PubMed

    Arafah, Mohamed; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Al Tamimi, Omer; Al Herz, Shorook; Al Anazi, Faisal; Al Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Alkhadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel Razak; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Al Jassim, Obaid; Al Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad Omar Ahmed S; Alawadhi, Mahmoud; Amin, Haitham; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Shehab, Abdullah

    2014-11-01

    The Centralized pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia (CEPHEUS) survey evaluated the attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals among patients on lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III) guideline. The survey was conducted in 6 Arabian Gulf countries. Patients aged ≥18 years on LLDs for at least ≥3 months (stable medication for ≥6 weeks) were recruited. Fasting blood samples were collected at a single visit. In this survey, 5276 (58.2% male) patients were included in the final analysis. The LDL-C goal was attained in 91.1% of low-risk, 52.7% of high-risk, and 32.0% in very-high-risk categories. Goal attainment was directly related to female gender, age<40 years, history of diabetes, and family history of cardiovascular disease. The results of this survey highlight the suboptimal management of hypercholesterolemia across Arabian Gulf countries. PMID:24301426

  16. Spatial variability in phytoplankton community structure along the eastern Arabian Sea during the onset of south-west monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ayaz; Kurian, Siby; Gauns, Mangesh; Chndrasekhararao, A. V.; Mulla, Amara; Naik, Bhagyashri; Naik, Hema; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2016-05-01

    The Arabian Sea experiences moderate to weak upwelling along the south-west coast of India, which subsequently propagates towards the north. This causes variation in plankton community composition, which is addressed in the present study. Here we report the spatial variations in distribution of phytoplankton groups along the north-south transect in the eastern Arabian Sea based on marker pigments supported with flow-cytometric and microscopic analyses. 15 phytoplankton pigments were identified using High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the chemotaxonomic software (CHEMTAX) analysis associated these to seven major group of phytoplankton. The phytoplankton biomass, chlorophyll a (Chl a) was higher in southern stations with dominance of fucoxanthin whereas, divinyl chlorophyll a (divinyl Chl a), marker pigment of Prochlorococcus was present only in the northern region. Microscopic observation revealed the dominance of larger forms; diatoms (Chaetoceros coarctatum and Nitzschia sp.) and dinoflagellates (Scrippsiella sp., Oxytoxum nanum and Oxytoxum sp.) in the southern region. Furthermore, a study of plankton size distribution showed dominance of picoplankton (fpico) followed by nanoplankton (fnano) along the northern stations with comparatively higher microplankton (fmicro) in the south. This study clearly showed the influence of different environmental conditions on the phytoplankton community as reflected in dominance of diatoms in the southern (south of 12 °N) and that of picoplankton in the northern (north of 12 °N) region.

  17. Climatology of the African Easterly Jet and Subtropical Highs over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula and a Numerical Case Study of an Intense African Easterly Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinks, James D.

    North African climate is analyzed between 1979 and 2010 with an emphasis on August using the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global dataset to investigate the effects of the subtropical anticyclones over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula on the Africa easterly jet (AEJ). It was found that the AEJ encloses a core with a local wind maximum (LWM) in both West and East Africa, in which the west LWM core has a higher zonal wind speed. The strength of both cores is distinctly different by way of thermal wind balance. The variability of these synoptic weather features is higher in East Africa. The most noticeable variability of intensity occurred with easterly waves. Maintenance of easterly waves from the Arabian Peninsula into East Africa is dependent on strong zonal gradients from the AEJ. These zonal gradients were induced by the strengthening of the subtropical highs and the presence of a westerly jet in Central Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. During positive ENSO periods, these systems are generally weaker while in negative periods are stronger. The origins of an intense African easterly wave (AEW) and mesoscale convective system (MCS) in August 2004 (A04) were traced back to the southern Arabian Peninsula, Asir Mountains, and Ethiopian Highlands using gridded satellite (GridSat) data, ERA-I, and the WRF-ARW model. A vorticity budget was developed to investigate the dynamics and mechanisms that contribute to the formation of A04's vorticity perturbation.

  18. Analysis of sounds produced by Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Oryctes elegans larvae and adults in data palm trees and offshoots in Saudi Arabian commercial orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sounds produced by larval and adult palm tree pests in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards were recorded using commercially available insect acoustic detection instruments. The trees and offshoots were inspected for presence/absence of insects and other visual signs of infestation. Subsequently, the sp...

  19. "I Am Different from Other Women in the World": The Experiences of Saudi Arabian Women Studying Online in International Master Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szilagyi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study that investigated seven female Saudi Arabian students of the University of Liverpool's online Masters programmes. Qualitative, first-person research methods and hermeneutic phenomenology were chosen for the analysis and interpretation of transcripts (Langeveld, 1983; van Manen, 1997; Creswell,…

  20. Theory in/to Practice: Multilingual Tutors Supporting Multilingual Peers--A Peer-Tutor Training Course in the Arabian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronesi, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    While writing centers and writing fellows programs have been integral components of many colleges and universities in North America, these models of student-to-student learning are starting to develop in postsecondary institutions in other parts of the world, particularly in the Arabian Gulf. In particular, there are growing number of…

  1. Serologic surveillance for selected viral agents in captive and free-ranging populations of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Kai; Hamblin, Christopher; Jung, Sandra; Ostrowski, Stéphane; Mwanzia, Jacob; Streich, Wolf Jürgen; Anderson, John; Armstrong, Robert M; Anajariyah, Saud

    2005-01-01

    A total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) distributed in Saudi Arabia (SA) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. Arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), rinderpest virus (RPV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV-3), cervid herpesvirus-1, foot-and-mouth disease virus, equine herpesvirus 9, and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The high seroprevalence to BTV and EHDV in the UAE and SA indicates that Arabian oryx are likely to be susceptible to infection by these viruses and therefore could act as a source of virus to vectors during the infective stage of infection. Moreover, antibodies were detected against RPV and BRSV in sera from SA and against BAV-3 in sera from the UAE. No antibodies were found against bovine herpesvirus-1, caprine herpesvirus-1, enzootic bovine leucosis virus, and peste des petits ruminants virus. On the basis of these results, caution should be applied when considering translocation of Arabian oryx, and only those proven to be free of infectious agents that might present a risk to other species should be moved. PMID:15827212

  2. A FISH KILL OF MASSIVE PROPORTION IN KUWAIT BAY, ARABIAN GULF, 2001: THE ROLES OF BACTERIAL DISEASE, HARMFUL ALGAE, AND EUTROPHICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August and September, 2001, Kuwait Bay, a semi-enclosed embayment of the Arabian Gulf, experienced a massive disease event that killed nearly 3000 tons of wild mullet (Liza klunzingeri Day 1888), due to the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae. In the Bay, this event was preceded by a small fish k...

  3. Toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recent...

  4. Strike-slip accommodated core complexes in the Najd fault system, Arabian-Nubian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, S. E.; Passchier, C. W.; Abu-Alam, T. S.; Stuewe, K.

    2013-12-01

    NW trending strike slip mylonite zone grades into a gently N-dipping detachment to the west which accommodated strike slip by exhumation of high-grade lower crustal rocks. The Qazaz and the Hafafit Domes are similar, mirror-image structures with small differences in the accommodating shear zones. It is likely that this type of strike-slip related oblique core complexes are common in the Arabian Nubian shield, and possibly elsewhere.

  5. Response of the Surface Circulation of the Arabian Sea to Monsoonal Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, L. M.; Hormann, V.; Lumpkin, R.; Foltz, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    We use two decades of drifter and satellite data to examine the monthly evolution of the surface circulation of the Arabian Sea, which reverses annually in response to the Indian monsoon winds. Most significantly, we find that in the transition from winter to summer circulations, northward flow appears along the length of the western boundary as early as March or April, one or two months before the onset of the southwest monsoon winds. This reversal is initiated by annual Rossby waves, which in turn are initiated by wind curl forcing during the previous southwest monsoon. These results lead us to speculate that there is an oceanic mechanism through which one monsoon may precondition the next. Previous studies of monsoon circulations with lower temporal resolution have highlighted basin-wide currents and connections that are not found to exist in the monthly fields. In particular, we find that the Northeast Monsoon Current does not reach the western boundary and there is no counter-rotating gyre system during boreal winter. South of the equator, the eastward-flowing South Equatorial Counter Current (SECC) is present year-round, even though equatorial winds are strongly influenced by the monsoons. Semi-annual variability of the SECC is governed by Ekman pumping over the south equatorial gyre (or Seychelles dome) and, surprisingly, it is weakest during the northeast monsoon. This region has important influence on the atmosphere and its link to the monsoons deserves further investigation. The East African Coastal Current feeds into the SECC from the boundary. During the southwest monsoon it overshoots the equator and splits, feeding both northward into the Somali Current and eastward into the SECC after looping back across the equator. This apparent retroflection of the EACC is what was previously known as the southern gyre and is obscured at the surface by strong, locally wind-driven, cross-equatorial Ekman transport. Finally, there is broad, strong eastward flow at

  6. Monitoring temporal variations in water resources across the Arabian Peninsula and identification of their controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M.; Sultan, M.; Othman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment, monitoring, and development of the fresh water resources in the Arabian Peninsula (AP) are critical for the sustenance of the AP's growing population and water consumption. Monthly (01/2003-12/2013) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data along with other relevant climatic, geologic, hydrogeologic, and remote sensing datasets were used to monitor the spatiotemporal variability in the AP's water resources and to investigate the causes of those variations. Four regions were selected; in our selection, we tried to cover major aquifers, follow political boundaries, and exceed GRACE footprint (~0.20×106 km2) to minimize uncertainties. The selected regions are: (1) Northern Saudi Arabia and Jordan (area: 0.53×106 km2), (2) Southern Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emiratis (area: 0.97×106 km2), (3) Yemen (area: 0.45×106 km2), and (4) Oman (area: 0.32×106 km2). Results indicate: (1) Northern Saudi Arabia and Jordan area is experiencing large depletions (-8.76±0.94 mm/yr; -4.68±0.50 km3/yr) in GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) that is largely related to groundwater extraction as well as decrease in rainfall rates throughout the investigated period compared to the preceding period (average annual rainfall [AAR]: 2003-2013: 58 mm; 1979-2002: 103 mm), (2) Southern Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emiratis area is experiencing a moderate depletion (-2.73±1.0 mm/yr; -2.63±0.96 km3/yr) in TWS that might be related to groundwater/oil extraction as well as a moderate decrease in rainfall rates (AAR: 2003-2013: 61 mm; 1979-2002: 82 mm), (3) Yemen is experiencing a slight depletion (-0.82±0.30 mm/yr; -0.36±0.13 km3/yr) in TWS that might be related groundwater extraction, and (4) Oman is experiencing slight increase (+0.78±0.30 mm/yr; +0.25±0.09 km3/yr) in TWS that might be related an increase in rainfall rates. Our preliminary results are being further examined by: (1) extracting temporal variations in groundwater storage by

  7. Seasonal and annual variability of vertically migrating scattering layers in the northern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhankun; DiMarco, Steven F.; Ingle, Stephanie; Belabbassi, Leila; Al-Kharusi, Lubna H.

    2014-08-01

    A 30-month time series of mean volume backscattering strength (MVBS) data obtained from moored acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) is used to analyze the evolution of vertically migrating scattering layers and their seasonal and annual variability in the Arabian and Oman Seas. Substantial diel vertical migration (DVM) is observed almost every day at all three mooring sites. Two daytime layers (Layers D1 and D2) and one nighttime layer (Layer E1) are typically present. The greatest biomass is observed near the surface during the night in Layer E1 and at depth between 250 and 450 m during the daytime in Layer D2. All layers are deepest during the spring inter-monsoon and shallowest during the summer/fall southwest monsoon (SWM). Seasonal modulation of the D2 biomass change is evident in our high-resolution data. The lowest biomass in D2 is measured in the early summer (May or June) followed by a rapid biomass increase during the SWM (June-November) until the biomass reaches a maximum at the end of the SWM season. Short-period oscillations in D2 biomass are often seen with periods ranging from days to one month. Occasionally, a lower nighttime layer E2 is formed between 180 and 270 m, mostly near the time of full moons. The upper daytime layer D1 is centered at 200 m and densely concentrated. It is only formed during the winter northeast monsoon (NEM) and the spring inter-monsoon. The influence of physical processes on layer distribution is also investigated. Interestingly, the two daytime layers are found to be formed at the two boundaries of the Persian Gulf outflow water (PGW) and follow the seasonal depth change of the PGW. The timing of the DVM and the formation, persistence, decay and reformation of the deep scattering layers seem to be governed by light, both solar and lunar. The scattering strength, the layer depth and the layer thickness are likewise closely related to the Moon phase at night. Cloud coverage, the isotherm and the isohaline also appear

  8. Retreived bacteria from Noctiluca miliaris (green) bloom of the northeastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Subhajit; Matondkar, S. G. Prabhu; Furtado, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, seasonal blooms of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris have appeared in the open-waters of the northern Arabian Sea (NAS). This study provides the first characterization of bacteria from a seasonal bloom of green Noctiluca of NAS (20°N-17°N and 64°E-70°E), during the spring-inter-monsoon cruise of Sagar Sampada 253, in March 2007. Bacterial growth as assessed by most-probable number (MPN) and plate counts, revealed `variable-physiotypes' over a wide range of salinities (0%-25% w/v NaCl), pH levels (5-8.5), and organic nutrient strengths, in comparison to non-bloom waters. MPN indices of bacteria in surface waters of bloom stations *DWK and *PRB, corresponded to (3.08-4.41)×103 cells/mL at 3.5% NaCl (w/v), and (2.82-9.49)×102 cells/mL at 25% (w/v) NaCl in tryptone-yeast extract broth (TYE). Plate counts were (1.12-4)×106 CFU/mL at 0% (w/v) NaCl, (1.28-3.9)×106 CFU/mL at 3.5% (w/v) NaCl, and (0.4-7)×104 CFU/mL at 25% NaCl (w/v) on TYE. One-tenth-strength Zobell's gave (0.6-3.74)×105 CFU/mL at pH 5 to (3.58-7.5)×105 CFU/mL at pH 8.5. These bacteria were identified to the genera Bacillus, Cellulomonas, Staphylococcus, Planococcus, Dietzia, Virgibacillus, Micrococcus, Sporosarcinae, Leucobacter, and Halomonas. The identity of three strains (GUFBSS253N2, GUFBSS253N30, and GUFBSS253N84) was confirmed through 16S rDNA sequence homology as Bacillus cohnii, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus cereus. The ˜2-3-fold higher plate counts of culturable bacteria from the open-waters of the NAS indicate that these bacteria could critically determine the biogeochemical dynamics of the bloom and its milieu. The role of these bacteria in sustaining/terminating the bloom is under evaluation.

  9. Estimation of Dust Emission from the Western Coastal Plains of Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Anatolii; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    This study is aimed at quantifying local-scale dust emission from the coastal areas of western Arabian Peninsula. The dust emitted from these areas is frequently deposited directly to the Red Sea, acting as an important component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. Most chemicals including iron, phosphorus, and nitrogen are introduced to the Red Sea with airborne dust. This process is especially significant for the oligotrophic northern Red Sea, where nutrients from the Indian Ocean cannot reach and the nutrient supply from land river discharge is negligible. The dust deposition to the Red Sea associated with major dust storms was recently estimated to be about 6 Tg/yr, but this estimate does not account for local, small-scale dust outbreaks occurring during fair weather conditions or moderate winds. The seasonality and the magnitude of this nutrient supply are largely unknown. In the present study, we quantify dust emissions using the fine-scale off-line version-4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4) with the high-resolution datasets as input parameters. We examine the model sensitivity to the spatial resolution of input land cover and vegetation data, and compare the results with weather station observations and reanalysis to choose the best model configuration. The model results are shown to be in reasonable agreement with station visibility measurements and the frequency of dust event reports. To improve the spatial characteristics of dust emission, we apply two state-of-the-art dust source functions. We found that the source function based on measurements from SEVIRI satellite substantially improves the simulation results, being in good agreement with both reanalysis data and station measurements. We identify the major dust source hot-spot areas over the coastal plain and analyze the seasonal and diurnal variability of dust emissions. The annual dust generation from the 145000 km2 coastal area reaches 6 Tg/yr. Roughly half of emitted dust could be

  10. Uptake of phytodetritus by benthic foraminifera under oxygen depletion at the Indian Margin (Arabian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enge, A. J.; Witte, U.; Kucera, M.; Heinz, P.

    2013-09-01

    Benthic foraminifera in sediments on the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea where the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) impinges on the continental slope are exposed to particularly severe levels of oxygen depletion. Food supply for the benthic community is high but delivered in distinct pulses during upwelling and water mixing events associated with summer and winter monsoon periods. In order to investigate the response by benthic foraminifera to such pulsed food delivery under oxygen concentrations of less than 0.1 mL L-1 (4.5 μmol L-1), an in situ isotope labeling experiment (13C, 15N) was performed at the western continental slope of India at 540 m water depth (OMZ core region). The assemblage of living foraminifera (>125 μm) in the uppermost centimeter at this depth is characterized by an unexpectedly high population density of 3982 ind. 10 cm-2 and a strong dominance by few calcareous species. For the experiment, we concentrated on the nine most abundant taxa, which constitute 93% of the entire foraminifera population at 0-1 cm sediment depth. Increased concentrations of 13C and 15N in the cytoplasm indicate that all investigated taxa took up the labeled phytodetritus during the 4 day experimental phase. In total, these nine species had assimilated 113.8 mg C m-2 (17.5% of the total added carbon). The uptake of nitrogen by the three most abundant taxa (Bolivina aff. B. dilatata, Cassidulina sp., Bulimina gibba) was 2.7 mg N m-2 (2% of the total added nitrogen) and showed the successful application of 15N as tracer in foraminiferal studies. The short-term response to the offered phytodetritus varied largely among foraminiferal species with Uvigerina schwageri being by far the most important species in short-term processing whereas the most abundant taxa Bolivina aff. B. dilatata and Cassidulina sp. showed comparably low uptake of the offered food. We suggest that the observed species-specific differences are related to individual biomass of species and to specific

  11. Uptake of phytodetritus by benthic foraminifera under oxygen depletion at the Indian margin (Arabian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enge, A. J.; Witte, U.; Kucera, M.; Heinz, P.

    2014-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera in sediments on the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea, where the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) impinges on the continental slope, are exposed to particularly severe levels of oxygen depletion. Food supply for the benthic community is high but delivered in distinct pulses during upwelling and water mixing events associated with summer and winter monsoon periods. In order to investigate the response by benthic foraminifera to such pulsed food delivery under oxygen concentrations of less than 0.1 mL L-1 (4.5 μmol L-1), an in situ isotope labeling experiment (13C, 15N) was performed on the western continental slope of India at 540 m water depth (OMZ core region). The assemblage of living foraminifera (>125 μm) in the uppermost centimeter at this depth is characterized by an unexpectedly high population density of 3982 individuals 10 cm-2 and a strong dominance by few calcareous species. For the experiment, we concentrated on the nine most abundant taxa, which constitute 93% of the entire foraminiferal population at 0-1 cm sediment depth. Increased concentrations of 13C and 15N in the cytoplasm indicate that all investigated taxa took up labeled phytodetritus during the 4 day experimental phase. In total, these nine species had assimilated 113.8 mg C m-2 (17.5% of the total added carbon). Uptake of nitrogen by the three most abundant taxa (Bolivina aff. B. dilatata, Cassidulina sp., Bulimina gibba) was 2.7 mg N m-2 (2% of the total added nitrogen). The response to the offered phytodetritus varied largely among foraminiferal species with Uvigerina schwageri being by far the most important species in short-term processing, whereas the most abundant taxa Bolivina aff. B. dilatata and Cassidulina sp. showed comparably low uptake of the offered food. We suggest the observed species-specific differences are related to species biomass and specific feeding preferences. In summary, the experiment in the OMZ core region shows rapid processing of fresh

  12. Spacebased Observations of the Oceanic Responses to Monsoons in South China Sea and Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Xiao-Su; Liu, W. Timothy

    2000-01-01

    A large percentage of the world's population and their agrarian economy must endure the vagaries of the monsoons over the tropical oceans between Africa and the Philippines. We know very little about the oceanic responses to changes of the monsoon in the South China Sea (SCS), which is under the influence of the East Asian Monsoon System, and the Arabian Sea (AS), which is dominated by the Indian Monsoon System; oceanic observations are sparse in both regions. Data from spaceborne microwave scatterometers and radiometers have been used to estimate the two major atmospheric forcing, momentum flux and latent heat flux (LHF), which change with the monsoon winds. Spaceborne sensors also observed the surface signatures of the oceanic response: SST and sea level changes (SLC. Sufficient durations of these data have recently become available to allow the meaningful studies of the annual cycles and interannual anomalies. In SCS, the winter monsoon is strong and steady but the summer monsoon is weak and has large intraseasonal fluctuations. In AS, the summer monsoon is much stronger than the winter monsoon. Significant correlations between LHF and SST tendency, and between curl of wind stress and SLC are found in both oceans. In the north SCS, winds are strong and dry, LHF is high, and ocean cooling is also large in fall; LHF is low and the ocean warms up in spring. In AS, LHF and SST tendency have a semi annual period; LHF is high in summer when the wind is strong and in winter when the wind is dry. Along the coast of Oman, the strong summer southwest monsoon causes intense upwelling, low SST and LHF in summer; such wind-driven SST changes is not as obvious along the Vietnam coast because of the weaker summer monsoon. The negative correlation between curl of wind stress and SLC found in the central basins of both SCS and AS agrees with a simple Ekman pumping scenario. Cyclonic winds drive surface divergence and upwelling in the ocean; the rise of the thermocline causes

  13. A Analysis of Saudi Arabian High School Students' Misconceptions about Physics Concepts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rubayea, Abdullah A. M.

    This study was conducted to explore Saudi high students' misconceptions in selected physics concepts. It also detected the effects of gender, grade level and location of school on Saudi high school students' misconceptions. In addition, a further analysis of students' misconceptions in each question was investigated and a correlation between students' responses, confidence in answers and sensibleness was conducted. There was an investigation of sources of students' answers in this study. Finally, this study included an analysis of students' selection of reasons only in the instrument. The instrument used to detect the students' misconceptions was a modified form of the Misconception Identification in Science Questionnaire (MISQ). This instrument was developed by Franklin (1992) to detected students' misconceptions in selected physics concepts. This test is a two-tier multiple choice test that examines four areas of physics: Force and motion, heat and temperature, light and color and electricity and magnetism. This study included a sample of 1080 Saudi high school students who were randomly selected from six Saudi educational districts. This study also included both genders, the three grade levels of Saudi high schools, six different educational districts, and a city and a town in each educational district. The sample was equally divided between genders, grade levels, and educational districts. The result of this study revealed that Saudi Arabian high school students hold numerous misconceptions about selected physics concepts. It also showed that tenth grade students were significantly different than the other grades. The result also showed that different misconceptions are held by the students for each concept in the MISQ. A positive correlation between students' responses, confidence in answers and sensibleness in many questions was shown. In addition, it showed that guessing was the most dominant source of misconceptions. The result revealed that gender and

  14. The environmental impacts of oil platforms in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf: the conservation paleobiology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, Paolo G.; Tomašových, Adam; Kaufman, Darrell; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Persian (Arabian) Gulf is a semi-enclosed basin that currently hosts the highest concentration of infrastructures for oil and gas extraction in the world. Moreover, major oil spills have occurred here due to accidents and conflicts. The disjunction between recent environmental monitoring programmes and industry-scale oil exploration and extraction dating back to the mid-20th century means a lack of data on pre-impact ecosystem conditions. This shortcoming hampers quantifying disturbance and ecosystem shifts and calls for novel approaches to reconstruct baselines. Conservation palaeobiology is such a new research field. It uses the accumulations of hard skeletal parts left by organisms in the sediments after death (e.g., mollusk shells) to gain information on past community states. These so-called "death assemblages" contain skeletons produced over tens to thousands of years and change very slowly in comparison to living assemblages. Accordingly, under anthropogenic pressures, living assemblages change their structure and composition faster than their corresponding death assemblages. This increases the differences between the two beyond those caused by purely natural processes. When coupled with dating of dead shells (using radiocarbon calibrated amino acid racemization), such live-dead comparisons help assess the magnitude and timing of environmental impacts and ecosystem change when baseline data are not available. We applied these approaches to two major oil platforms off the United Arab Emirates coastline. We found a mismatch between living and death assemblages, with death assemblages dominated by a single bivalve species, the semelid Ervilia purpurea. However, the frequency distributions of post-mortem shell ages of this bivalve show that the mismatch can be mainly attributed to natural extreme demographic fluctuations in its population. We conclude that, at the field scale, decadal and century-level changes in the molluscan community composition were weak

  15. Effect of smoking on reproductive hormones and semen parameters of infertile Saudi Arabians

    PubMed Central

    Al-Turki, Haifa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this retrospective study is to look into the effect of smoking on semen and hormonal profile of Saudi Arabians attending infertility clinics. Materials and Methods: Medical record numbers of patients who attended infertility clinics and who underwent full assessment were identified rom Quadramed system and out-patient log books between January 2010 and December 2012. The standard protocol of the patients include full history, age, number of years of marriage personal habits of smoking, alcohol consumption, primary or secondary infertility. Standard laboratory tests which were performed, included, complete blood picture, random blood sugar, testosterone, follicle stimulation hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin level and semen analysis; volume, count, progressive motility and morphology. The data was entered in the database and analyzed. Results: During the study period, 279 patients attended and infertility clinic and only 258 gave the sample for analysis. The average age of patients in the smoking group was 34.23 ± 7.66 and in the nonsmokers 34.07 ± 7.92 years. Primary infertility was more common in smokers versus nonsmokers P < 0.001 confidence interval (CI)< −44.0705, total serum testosterone level was lower 383.8 ± 239.5 versus 422.5 ± 139.2 ng/dL (0.009 CI< −9.9415), serum prolactin level was higher 18.68 ± 13.28 versus 12.85 ± 12.34 ng/mL (0.001 CI < 8.3794). The average volume of the semen among the smokers was 2.8 ± 1.35 mL and in nonsmokers it was 3.08 ± 0.76 mL (P < 0.008 CI< −0.123). The mean progressive motility in smokers was 31.5 ± 23.1 compared to nonsmokers 40.05 ± 25.43% (0.002 CI< −3.2962) and total sperm count was 119.52 ± 114.12 and 139.71 ± 104.82 million/mL (0.07 CI < 1.4657). Conclusions: This study shows that the effect of smoking is dramatic reduction in the hormonal levels and semen parameters. It is recommended that smoking men undergoing fertility treatment should stop smoking to increase

  16. The East Africa Oligocene intertrappean beds: Regional distribution, depositional environments and Afro/Arabian mammal dispersals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, Ernesto; Bruni, Piero; Ferretti, Marco Peter; Delmer, Cyrille; Laurenzi, Marinella Ada; Hagos, Miruts; Bedri, Omar; Rook, Lorenzo; Sagri, Mario; Libsekal, Yosief

    2014-11-01

    The extensive outpouring of the Oligocene Trap basalts over eastern Africa and western Arabia was interrupted by a period of quiescence marked by the deposition of terrestrial sediments. These so-called intertrappean beds are often lignitiferous and yield recurrent floras and faunas, sometimes represented by endemic mammals. We intended to highlight the peculiar features of these sedimentary intercalations using a large-scale approach including eastern Africa and the western Arabian peninsula. Starting from a new mapping in the Eritrean highland, the intertrappean beds resulted a continuous level that was a few tens of meters thick and traceable for some tens of kilometers. They consist of fluvial red, green and gray mudstones and siltstones with subordinate channelized pebbly sandstones, and lignite seams. Two new 40Ar-39Ar datings constraint the age of the intertrappean beds between 29.0 Ma and 23.6 Ma. The outcrops near Mendefera have yielded the remains of two proboscidean families, the Deinotheriidae and the Gomphoteriidae. The morphological grade of the two Mendefera proboscideans would suggest a more derived stage than that of representatives of the same families from other Oligocene African sites (e.g., Chilga, Ethiopia). An Oligocene age could be inferred for them. The occurrence of the genus Prodeinotherium at Mai Gobro possibly represents the first occurrence of this taxon, while the Gomphotheirum sp. might represent the oldest occurrence of this taxon in Africa before its dispersal towards Asia and Europe. Proboscideans have also been found in the lowland intertrappean beds of Dogali near Massawa. These sediments were contiguous with the Eritrean highland intertrappean beds during the Oligocene, but are now tectonically displaced from them by two thousand meters of vertical topographical distance. Dogali is also known for the occurrence of possible Deinotheriidae remains and the primitive elephantoid Eritreum. Entering the Ethiopian highland, an

  17. Deep-sea benthic foraminiferal species diversity in the NE Atlantic and NW Arabian sea: a synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooday, Andrew J.; Bett, Brian J.; Shires, Rizpah; Lambshead, P. John D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a synthesis of species diversity data (Fishers' alpha index, Shannon-Wiener (log 2), ES(100), Rank 1 Dominance) for "live" (stained) foraminifera from five bathyal (1340 m depth) and abyssal (4450-4950 m depth) sites in the NE Atlantic and a 3400 m-deep site in the Arabian Sea. Three Atlantic sites (Porcupine Seabight, BIOTRANS, Porcupine Abyssal Plain) are subject to seasonal phytodetritus inputs that support low diversity populations (8-17 species). In other respects the foraminifera are highly diverse. The meiofaunal fractions (>45 or >63 μm; including fragmented and phytodetritus species) of abyssal Atlantic samples yielded >110 and >170 species in the 0-1 cm and 0-10 cm layers, respectively; the Arabian Sea sample (0-1 cm layer only) yielded 232 species. In both cases, values for diversity measures were very high. Diversity was rather lower in bathyal Porcupine Seabight samples (0-1 cm layer), which yielded <100 species. The foraminiferal macrofauna (>500 μm; Porcupine and Madeira Abyssal Plains) was also speciose (113-133 species), but diversity measures were lower and dominance higher than for the meiofauna. All assemblages contained numerous undescribed species, many belonging to poorly known monothalamous, soft-bodied taxa. Sample diversity was influenced by several factors. Combining phytodetrital and sediment populations reduced diversity and increased dominance slightly; the inclusion of deeper sediment layers and finer sieve fractions had the opposite effect. The inclusion of fragments had more impact on macrofaunal than on meiofaunal diversity, although in both cases the effect was inconsistent (either positive or negative). Porcupine and Madeira Abyssal Plain multicore samples (>63 μm fraction) contained substantially more foraminiferal species than nematode species; the numbers of foraminiferal species in boxcore samples (>500 μm fraction) were comparable to, or greater than, literature values for macrofaunal taxa such as polychaetes

  18. New Mesozoic-Cenozoic palaeotectonic maps used to shed light on Tethyan geological development (Eastern Mediterranean, Taurides and Arabian margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. H. F.; Parlak, O.; Ustaömer, T.

    2012-04-01

    The main objective here is to present and discuss a series of new palaeotectonic maps for the region that includes the easternmost Mediterranean, the Arabian margin and the Taurides, and which assimilate much recently published information. Critical to this is a review of the Taurides which tests alternative reconstructions that involve either the creation of a series of rifts within a large continental area and/or an array of or microcontinents separated by Mesozoic ocean basins. The proposed reconstructions envisage a long-lived Palaeozoic-Early Cenozoic Tethys bordering Eurasia (Rheic and Palaeotethyan oceans), northward subduction of these oceans beneath Eurasia and the rifting of continental fragments from Gondwana (e.g. during Ordovician and Triassic). Consideration of field relations indicates that the various platform units in southern Turkey (e.g. Bey Dağları; Malatya-Keban; Kirşehir) do not restore as a single large Tauride continent. Instead continental fragments rifted from Gondwana during the Triassic to open several Mesozoic oceanic basins, notably the large Southern Neotethyan ocean, the Berit ocean (new name) and the Inner Tauride ocean, while the İzmir-Arkara-Erzincan ocean developed adjacent to Eurasia. In general, Mid-Permian to Mid-Triassic pulsed rifting culminated in Late Triassic-Early Jurassic spreading. After Early-Mid Jurassic passive subsidence, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous was characterised by alkaline, within-plate magmatism related to plume activity or renewed rifting. Late Cretaceous ophiolites formed above subduction zones in several oceanic basins. During latest the Cretaceous ophiolites were emplaced southwards onto the Tauride and Arabian platforms. The Southern Neotethys sutured with the Arabian margin during the Early-Middle Miocene, while ocean crust remained in the Eastern Mediterranean further west. The leading edge of the North African continental margin, the Eratosthenes High, collided with a subduction trench south

  19. Geomorphological and palaeoenvironmental investigations in the southeastern Arabian Gulf region and the implication for the archaeology of the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Adrian G.; Goudie, Andrew S.

    2008-10-01

    During the Late Quaternary, the climate of Arabia has fluctuated between periods of higher rainfall and fluvial activity, dominated by the influence of the Indian Ocean Monsoon (IOM) and drier/arid conditions under the influence of the westerlies. This has left a rich legacy of landforms from which temporal and spatial patterns of environmental change are reconstructed. The coastal desert region of the southeastern Arabian Gulf has been a focal point for human settlement since ~ 8000 cal yr BP. The region is strategically located on an important trade route between two 'cradles of civilization', namely, Mesopotamia and the Indus. Changes in the evolution and modification of this landscape under varying climatic conditions have influenced humans living in and exploiting this landscape for food and water, raw materials and trade routes. In this study, geomorphological and palaeoenvironmental investigations are integrated to provide a framework of environmental change for the Late Glacial and early-mid Holocene periods against which the archaeology of the area can be set. The Late Glacial and earliest Holocene was characterised by intense aridity and accumulation of mega linear dunes driven by the Shamal winds. In the Arabian Gulf region, this continued into the earliest part of the Holocene, whilst southern Arabia was under the influence of the IOM. The monsoon rains migrated into the Gulf region between 8500-6000 cal BP. During this time, semi-nomadic herders occupied this region and grazing their animals in a landscape covered with C3 savanna grassland. The Neolithic peoples also practised hunting and fishing and the collection of shellfish was an important activity. Pottery shows links with Mesopotamia at this time. From 6000 cal BP the IOM retreated south and rainfall was derived from winterly westerly sources. Under drier conditions a switch occurred to a sparser cover of C4 grasses. From 4500 cal BP the climate became much drier with the development of stronger

  20. Monsoon variability in the northeastern Arabian Sea on orbital- and millennial scale during the past 200,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lückge, Andreas; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Steinke, Stephan; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Westerhold, Thomas; Schulz, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    The Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations and Heinrich events described in the Greenland ice cores and in North Atlantic and Western Mediterranean sediments are also expressed in the climate of the tropics, for example, as documented in Arabian Sea sediments. However, little is known about these fluctuations beyond the reach of the Greenland ice cores. Here, we present high-resolution geochemical, sedimentological as well as micropaleontological data from two cores (SO130-283KL, 987m water depth and SO130-289KL, 571m) off the coast of Pakistan, extending the monsoon record on orbital and millennial scales to the past 200,000 years. The stable oxygen isotope record of the surface-dwelling planktonic foraminifer G. ruber shows a strong correspondence to Greenland ice core δ18O, whereas the deepwater δ18O signal of benthic foraminifera (U. peregrina and G. affinis) reflects patterns recorded in ice cores from Antarctica. Strong shifts in benthic δ18O during stadials/Heinrich events are interpreted to show frequent advances of oxygen-rich intermediate water masses into the Arabian Sea originating from the southern ocean. Alkenone-derived SSTs varied between 23 and 28° C. Highest temperatures were encountered during interglacial MIS 5. Rapid SST changes of 2° C magnitude on millennial scale are overlain by long-term SST fluctuations. Interstadials (of glacial phases) and the cold phases of interglacials are characterized by sediments enriched in organic carbon (up to 4 % TOC) whereas sediments with low TOC contents (< 1 % TOC) appear during stadials and Heinrich events. Shifts at climate transitions, such as onsets of interstadials, were coeval with changes in productivity-related and anoxia-indicating proxies. Interstadial inorganic elemental data consistently show that enhanced fluxes of terrestrial-derived sediments are paralleled by productivity maxima, and are characterized by an increased fluvial contribution from the Indus River. In contrast, stadials are

  1. Monsoon driven changes in phytoplankton populations in the eastern Arabian Sea as revealed by microscopy and HPLC pigment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parab, Sushma G.; Prabhu Matondkar, S. G.; Gomes, H. do R.; Goes, J. I.

    2006-12-01

    Like the rest of the Arabian Sea, the west coast of India is subject to semi-annual wind reversals associated with the monsoon cycle that result in two periods of elevated phytoplankton productivity, one during the northeast (NE) monsoon (November-February) and the other during the southwest (SW) monsoon (June-September). Although the seasonality of phytoplankton biomass in these coastal waters is well known, the abundance and composition of phytoplankton populations associated with this distinct and predictable seasonal cycle is poorly known. Here we present for the first time, the results of a study on the community structure of phytoplankton for this region, derived from HPLC pigment analysis and microscopic cell counts. Our sampling strategy allowed for large spatial and temporal coverage over regions representative of the coastal and offshore waters, and over seasons that included the NE and the SW monsoon. Monthly observations at a fixed coastal station in particular, allowed us to follow changes in phytoplankton community structure associated with the development of anoxia. Together these measurements helped establish a pattern of seasonal change of three major groups of phytoplankton: diatoms, dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria that appeared to be tightly coupled with hydrographic and chemical changes associated with the monsoonal cycle. During the SW monsoon when nitrate concentrations were high, diatoms were dominant but prymnesiophytes were present as well. By October, as nitrate fell to below detection levels and anoxic conditions began to develop on the shelf below the shallow pycnocline, both diatom and prymensiophytes declined sharply giving way to dinoflagellates. In the well oxygenated surface waters, where both nitrate and ammonium were below detection limits, pico-cyanobacterial populations became dominant. During the NE monsoon, a mixed diatom-dinoflagellate population was quickly replaced by blooms of Trichodesmium erythraeum and Noctiluca

  2. Sink or link? The bacterial role in benthic carbon cycling in the Arabian sea oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzato, L.; Van Oevelen, D.; Moodley, L.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2013-06-01

    The bacterial loop, the consumption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by bacteria and subsequent transfer of bacterial carbon to higher trophic levels, plays a prominent role in pelagic aquatic food webs. However, its role in sedimentary ecosystems is not well documented. Here we present the results of isotope tracer experiments performed under in situ oxygen conditions in sediments from inside and outside the Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) to study the importance of the microbial loop in this setting. Particulate organic matter, added as phytodetritus, was processed by bacteria, protozoa and metazoans, while dissolved organic matter was processed only by bacteria and there was very little, if any, transfer to higher trophic levels within the experimental period. This lack of significant transfer of bacterial-derived carbon to metazoan consumers indicates that the bacterial loop is rather inefficient in these sediments. Moreover, metazoans directly consume labile particulate organic matter resources and thus compete with bacteria for phytodetritus.

  3. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in intertidal gastropod and bivalve shells from central Arabian Gulf coastline, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed

    2015-11-01

    In order to assess pollutants and impact of environmental changes along the Saudi Arabian Gulf coast, forty specimens of gastropod and bivalve shells belonging to Diodora funiculata, Lunella coronata, Cerithium caeruleum, Barbatia parva, Pinctada margaritifera, Amiantis umbonella, Acrosterigma assimile and Asaphis violascens from five localities are selected for Fe, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cd, Se, As, Co, B, Cr, Hg, Mo analysis. The analysis indicated that heavy metal values (except Fe) were less than those recorded in molluscan shells from Gulf of Oman, Red Sea and Indian Ocean. D. funiculate, L. coronata, B. parva and P. margaritifera are good accumulators of Cu, As, Cr. The other species gave a nearly constant concentration in all the studied areas. Al Jubail coast recorded the highest heavy metal concentrations (except Mn at Ras Al-Ghar and Se at Al Jubail industrial city). Heavy metal contamination is mostly attributed to anthropogenic sources, especially effluents from petrochemical industries, sewage and desalination plants.

  4. Seasonal changes in the white blood cell system, lyzozyme activity and cortisol level in Arabian brood mares and their foals.

    PubMed

    Gill, J; Kompanowska-Jezierska, E; Jakubow, K; Kott, A; Szumska, D

    1985-01-01

    In 34 pure-breed Arabian horses divided into four groups (Gr. I, ten pregnant mares; Gr. II, seven barren mares; Gr. III, ten foals born in 1981; Gr. IV, seven foals born in 1982) seasonal changes in the white blood cell system, cortisol level and lyzozyme activity were studied. Seasonal periodicity was found in all groups for the number of lymphocytes, segmented neutrophils and eosinophils and cortisol level. Leukocyte periodicity was found in three groups, but not in the barren mares. In lyzozyme activity there was periodicity in three groups but not in the youngest foals. In the stab neutrophils, basophils and monocytes no cycle was observed. The behaviour of the indices studied showed the influence of age of the horses (mature vs young) and the physiological state of the mares (pregnancy or barrenness). PMID:2863038

  5. The Effect of the South Asia Monsoon on the Wind Sea and Swell Patterns in the Arabian Sea