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Sample records for arabidopsis reduces drought

  1. Overexpression of MtCAS31 enhances drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis by reducing stomatal density.

    PubMed

    Xie, Can; Zhang, Rongxue; Qu, Yueting; Miao, Zhenyan; Zhang, Yunqin; Shen, Xiaoye; Wang, Tao; Dong, Jiangli

    2012-07-01

    • Dehydrins are a type of late embryogenesis abundant protein. Some dehydrins are involved in the response to various abiotic stresses. Accumulation of dehydrins enhances the drought, cold and salt tolerances of transgenic plants, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. MtCAS31 (Medicago Truncatula cold-acclimation specific protein 31) is a Y(2)K(4)-type dehydrin that was isolated from Medicago truncatula. • We analyzed the subcellular and histochemical localization of MtCAS31, and the expression patterns of MtCAS31 under different stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis that overexpressed MtCAS31 was used to determine the function of MtCAS31. A yeast two-hybrid assay was used to screen potential proteins that could interact with MtCAS31. The interaction was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. • After a 3-h drought treatment, the expression of MtCAS31 significantly increased 600-fold. MtCAS31 overexpression dramatically reduced stomatal density and markedly enhanced the drought tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. MtCAS31 could interact with AtICE1 (inducer of CBF expression 1) and the AtICE1 homologous protein Mt7g083900.1, which was identified from Medicago truncatula both in vitro and in vivo. • Our findings demonstrate that a dehydrin induces decreased stomatal density. Most importantly, the interaction of MtCAS31 with AtICE1 plays a role in stomatal development. We hypothesize that the interaction of MtCAS31 and AtICE1 caused the decrease in stomatal density to enhance the drought resistance of transgenic Arabidopsis. PMID:22510066

  2. ß-amylase1 mutant Arabidopsis plants show improved drought tolerance due to reduced starch breakdown in guard cells

    PubMed Central

    Prasch, Christian Maximilian; Ott, Kirsten Verena; Bauer, Hubert; Ache, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    In plants, drought stress is a major growth limiting factor causing cell water loss through open stomata. In this study, guard cell-specific transcripts from drought-stressed Arabidopsis plants were analysed and a down-regulation of β-amylase 1 (BAM1) was found. In previous studies, BAM1 was shown to be involved in stomatal starch degradation under ambient conditions. Impaired starch breakdown of bam1 mutant plants was accompanied by decreased stomatal opening. Here, it is shown that drought tolerance of bam1 mutant plants is improved as compared with wild-type controls. Microarray analysis of stomata-specific transcripts from bam1 mutant plants revealed a significant down-regulation of genes encoding aquaporins, auxin- and ethylene-responsive factors, and cell-wall modifying enzymes. This expression pattern suggests that reduced water uptake and limited cell wall extension are associated with the closed state of stomata of bam1 mutant plants. Together these data suggest that regulation of stomata-specific starch turnover is important for adapting stomata opening to environmental needs and its breeding manipulation may result in drought tolerant crop plants. PMID:26139825

  3. ß-amylase1 mutant Arabidopsis plants show improved drought tolerance due to reduced starch breakdown in guard cells.

    PubMed

    Prasch, Christian Maximilian; Ott, Kirsten Verena; Bauer, Hubert; Ache, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    In plants, drought stress is a major growth limiting factor causing cell water loss through open stomata. In this study, guard cell-specific transcripts from drought-stressed Arabidopsis plants were analysed and a down-regulation of β-amylase 1 (BAM1) was found. In previous studies, BAM1 was shown to be involved in stomatal starch degradation under ambient conditions. Impaired starch breakdown of bam1 mutant plants was accompanied by decreased stomatal opening. Here, it is shown that drought tolerance of bam1 mutant plants is improved as compared with wild-type controls. Microarray analysis of stomata-specific transcripts from bam1 mutant plants revealed a significant down-regulation of genes encoding aquaporins, auxin- and ethylene-responsive factors, and cell-wall modifying enzymes. This expression pattern suggests that reduced water uptake and limited cell wall extension are associated with the closed state of stomata of bam1 mutant plants. Together these data suggest that regulation of stomata-specific starch turnover is important for adapting stomata opening to environmental needs and its breeding manipulation may result in drought tolerant crop plants. PMID:26139825

  4. Activated Expression of an Arabidopsis HD-START Protein Confers Drought Tolerance with Improved Root System and Reduced Stomatal Density[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Chen, Xi; Hong, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Yao; Xu, Ping; Ke, Sheng-Dong; Liu, Hai-Yan; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Oliver, David J.; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2008-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important environmental constraints limiting plant growth and agricultural productivity. To understand the underlying mechanism of drought tolerance and to identify genes for improving this important trait, we conducted a gain-of-function genetic screen for improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. One mutant with improved drought tolerance was isolated and designated as enhanced drought tolerance1. The mutant has a more extensive root system than the wild type, with deeper roots and more lateral roots, and shows a reduced leaf stomatal density. The mutant had higher levels of abscisic acid and Pro than the wild type and demonstrated an increased resistance to oxidative stress and high levels of superoxide dismutase. Molecular genetic analysis and recapitulation experiments showed that the enhanced drought tolerance is caused by the activated expression of a T-DNA tagged gene that encodes a putative homeodomain-START transcription factor. Moreover, overexpressing the cDNA of the transcription factor in transgenic tobacco also conferred drought tolerance associated with improved root architecture and reduced leaf stomatal density. Therefore, we have revealed functions of the homeodomain-START factor that were gained upon altering its expression pattern by activation tagging and provide a key regulator that may be used to improve drought tolerance in plants. PMID:18451323

  5. Reducing Cytoplasmic Polyamine Oxidase Activity in Arabidopsis Increases Salt and Drought Tolerance by Reducing Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Increasing Defense Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sagor, G. H. M.; Zhang, Siyuan; Kojima, Seiji; Simm, Stefan; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2016-01-01

    The link between polyamine oxidases (PAOs), which function in polyamine catabolism, and stress responses remains elusive. Here, we address this issue using Arabidopsis pao mutants in which the expression of the five PAO genes is knocked-out or knocked-down. As the five single pao mutants and wild type (WT) showed similar response to salt stress, we tried to generate the mutants that have either the cytoplasmic PAO pathway (pao1 pao5) or the peroxisomal PAO pathway (pao2 pao3 pao4) silenced. However, the latter triple mutant was not obtained. Thus, in this study, we used two double mutants, pao1 pao5 and pao2 pao4. Of interest, pao1 pao5 mutant was NaCl- and drought-tolerant, whereas pao2 pao4 showed similar sensitivity to those stresses as WT. To reveal the underlying mechanism of salt tolerance, further analyses were performed. Na uptake of the mutant (pao1 pao5) decreased to 75% of WT. PAO activity of the mutant was reduced to 62% of WT. The content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide, a reaction product of PAO action, and superoxide anion in the mutant became 81 and 72% of the levels in WT upon salt treatment. The mutant contained 2.8-fold higher thermospermine compared to WT. Moreover, the mutant induced the genes of salt overly sensitive-, abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent- and ABA-independent- pathways more strongly than WT upon salt treatment. The results suggest that the Arabidopsis plant silencing cytoplasmic PAOs shows salinity tolerance by reducing ROS production and strongly inducing subsets of stress-responsive genes under stress conditions. PMID:26973665

  6. Reducing Cytoplasmic Polyamine Oxidase Activity in Arabidopsis Increases Salt and Drought Tolerance by Reducing Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Increasing Defense Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Sagor, G H M; Zhang, Siyuan; Kojima, Seiji; Simm, Stefan; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2016-01-01

    The link between polyamine oxidases (PAOs), which function in polyamine catabolism, and stress responses remains elusive. Here, we address this issue using Arabidopsis pao mutants in which the expression of the five PAO genes is knocked-out or knocked-down. As the five single pao mutants and wild type (WT) showed similar response to salt stress, we tried to generate the mutants that have either the cytoplasmic PAO pathway (pao1 pao5) or the peroxisomal PAO pathway (pao2 pao3 pao4) silenced. However, the latter triple mutant was not obtained. Thus, in this study, we used two double mutants, pao1 pao5 and pao2 pao4. Of interest, pao1 pao5 mutant was NaCl- and drought-tolerant, whereas pao2 pao4 showed similar sensitivity to those stresses as WT. To reveal the underlying mechanism of salt tolerance, further analyses were performed. Na uptake of the mutant (pao1 pao5) decreased to 75% of WT. PAO activity of the mutant was reduced to 62% of WT. The content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide, a reaction product of PAO action, and superoxide anion in the mutant became 81 and 72% of the levels in WT upon salt treatment. The mutant contained 2.8-fold higher thermospermine compared to WT. Moreover, the mutant induced the genes of salt overly sensitive-, abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent- and ABA-independent- pathways more strongly than WT upon salt treatment. The results suggest that the Arabidopsis plant silencing cytoplasmic PAOs shows salinity tolerance by reducing ROS production and strongly inducing subsets of stress-responsive genes under stress conditions. PMID:26973665

  7. Accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid confers drought tolerance to Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Okuma, Eiji; Nozawa, Rieko; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Miura, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We investigated stomatal phenotype and drought tolerance of Arabidopsis salicylic acid-accumulating mutants, acd6 and cpr5. In these mutants, the light-induced stomatal opening was impaired and the impairment of stomatal opening was restored by peroxidase inhibitors, salicylhydroxamic acid, and azide. The acd6 and cpr5 mutant plants were more tolerant to drought stress than wild-type plants. Introduction of nahG gene into the acd6 and cpr5 mutants removed the inhibition of stomatal opening and reduced the drought tolerance. Drought tolerance-related genes were more highly expressed in the cpr5 and acd6 mutant plants than in the wild-type plants. These results suggest that accumulation of salicylic acid improves drought tolerance through inhibition of light-induced stomatal opening in Arabidopsis. PMID:24603484

  8. Overexpression of SpCBL6, a calcineurin B-like protein of Stipa purpurea, enhanced cold tolerance and reduced drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Supriyo, Basak; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yongping

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize SpCBL6 (GenBank accession number: KT780442) from Stipa purpurea and elucidate the function of this protein in abiotic stress. The full-length cDNA of SpCBL6 was isolated from S. purpurea by rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Laser confocal microscopy was used to analyze the subcellular localization of SpCBL6. The constructs of 35S:GFP-SpCBL6 was used to transform wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants (ecotype Columbia-0) with the floral dip method. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), water potential, photosynthetic efficiency (F v/F m), and ion leakage was performed to investigate the role of SpCBL6 in abiotic stress. The open reading frame of SpCBL6 contains 681 bp nucleotides and encodes a 227-amino acid polypeptide. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SpCBL6 showed the highest similarity with rice OsCBL6. SpCBL6 transcripts were induced by freezing and drought treatments. Subcellular localization analysis showed that SpCBL6 was located in membrane of protoplast. Overexpression of SpCBL6 in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that the transgenic plants were more tolerant to cold treatment, but less tolerant to drought, compared with the plants. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the drought stress marker genes were inhibited in transgenic plants, whereas the cold stress marker genes were enhanced. Further analysis showed that SpCBL6-overexpressing plants showed enhanced water potential, photosynthetic efficiency (F v/F m), and reduced ion leakage compared with the wild-type after cold treatment. Collectively, these results indicate that SpCBL6, a new member of the CBL gene family isolated from S. purpurea, enhances cold tolerance and reduces drought tolerance in plants. PMID:27393148

  9. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Xiuyang; Wang, Bing; Liu, Erlong; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Heng

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:26923071

  10. Arabidopsis YAK1 regulates abscisic acid response and drought resistance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongjin; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Xiong, Liming

    2016-07-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that controls several plant processes such as seed germination, seedling growth, and abiotic stress response. Here, we report that AtYak1 plays an important role in ABA signaling and postgermination growth in Arabidopsis. AtYak1 knockout mutant plants were hyposensitive to ABA inhibition of seed germination, cotyledon greening, seedling growth, and stomatal movement. atyak1-1 mutant plants display reduced drought stress resistance, as evidenced by water loss rate and survival rate. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that AtYak1 deficiency led to elevated expression of stomatal-related gene, MYB60, and down-regulation of several stress-responsive genes. Altogether, these results indicate that AtYak1 plays a role as a positive regulator in ABA-mediated drought response in Arabidopsis. PMID:27264339

  11. Drought Stress Predominantly Endures Arabidopsis thaliana to Pseudomonas syringae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aarti; Dixit, Sandeep K.; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2016-01-01

    Plant responses to a combination of drought and bacterial pathogen infection, an agronomically important and altogether a new stress, are not well-studied. While occurring concurrently, these two stresses can lead to synergistic or antagonistic effects on plants due to stress-interaction. It is reported that plant responses to the stress combinations consist of both strategies, unique to combined stress and those shared between combined and individual stresses. However, the combined stress response mechanisms governing stress interaction and net impact are largely unknown. In order to study these adaptive strategies, an accurate and convenient methodology is lacking even in model plants like Arabidopsis thaliana. The gradual nature of drought stress imposition protocol poses a hindrance in simultaneously applying pathogen infection under laboratory conditions to achieve combined stress. In present study we aimed to establish systematic combined stress protocol and to study physiological responses of the plants to various degrees of combined stress. Here, we have comprehensively studied the impact of combined drought and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 infection on A. thaliana. Further, by employing different permutations of drought and pathogen stress intensities, an attempt was made to dissect the contribution of each individual stress effects during their concurrence. We hereby present two main aspects of combined stress viz., stress interaction and net impact of the stress on plants. Mainly, this study established a systematic protocol to assess the impact of combined drought and bacterial pathogen stress. It was observed that as a result of net impact, some physiological responses under combined stress are tailored when compared to the plants exposed to individual stresses. We also infer that plant responses under combined stress in this study are predominantly influenced by the drought stress. Our results show that pathogen multiplication was reduced by

  12. Drought Stress Predominantly Endures Arabidopsis thaliana to Pseudomonas syringae Infection.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aarti; Dixit, Sandeep K; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2016-01-01

    Plant responses to a combination of drought and bacterial pathogen infection, an agronomically important and altogether a new stress, are not well-studied. While occurring concurrently, these two stresses can lead to synergistic or antagonistic effects on plants due to stress-interaction. It is reported that plant responses to the stress combinations consist of both strategies, unique to combined stress and those shared between combined and individual stresses. However, the combined stress response mechanisms governing stress interaction and net impact are largely unknown. In order to study these adaptive strategies, an accurate and convenient methodology is lacking even in model plants like Arabidopsis thaliana. The gradual nature of drought stress imposition protocol poses a hindrance in simultaneously applying pathogen infection under laboratory conditions to achieve combined stress. In present study we aimed to establish systematic combined stress protocol and to study physiological responses of the plants to various degrees of combined stress. Here, we have comprehensively studied the impact of combined drought and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 infection on A. thaliana. Further, by employing different permutations of drought and pathogen stress intensities, an attempt was made to dissect the contribution of each individual stress effects during their concurrence. We hereby present two main aspects of combined stress viz., stress interaction and net impact of the stress on plants. Mainly, this study established a systematic protocol to assess the impact of combined drought and bacterial pathogen stress. It was observed that as a result of net impact, some physiological responses under combined stress are tailored when compared to the plants exposed to individual stresses. We also infer that plant responses under combined stress in this study are predominantly influenced by the drought stress. Our results show that pathogen multiplication was reduced by

  13. Azospirillum brasilense ameliorates the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to drought mainly via enhancement of ABA levels.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ana C; Bottini, Rubén; Pontin, Mariela; Berli, Federico J; Moreno, Daniela; Boccanlandro, Hernán; Travaglia, Claudia N; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2015-01-01

    Production of phytohormones is one of the main mechanisms to explain the beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Azospirillum sp. The PGPRs induce plant growth and development, and reduce stress susceptibility. However, little is known regarding the stress-related phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) produced by bacteria. We investigated the effects of Azospirillum brasilense Sp 245 strain on Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and aba2-1 mutant plants, evaluating the morphophysiological and biochemical responses when watered and in drought. We used an in vitro-grown system to study changes in the root volume and architecture after inoculation with Azospirillum in Arabidopsis wild-type Col-0 and on the mutant aba2-1, during early growth. To examine Arabidopsis development and reproductive success as affected by the bacteria, ABA and drought, a pot experiment using Arabidopsis Col-0 plants was also carried out. Azospirillum brasilense augmented plant biomass, altered root architecture by increasing lateral roots number, stimulated photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments and retarded water loss in correlation with incremented ABA levels. As well, inoculation improved plants seed yield, plants survival, proline levels and relative leaf water content; it also decreased stomatal conductance, malondialdehyde and relative soil water content in plants submitted to drought. Arabidopsis inoculation with A. brasilense improved plants performance, especially in drought. PMID:24796562

  14. The Arabidopsis LYST INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 Acts in Regulating Abscisic Acid Signaling and Drought Response.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zongliang; Huo, Yongjin; Wei, Yangyang; Chen, Qiansi; Xu, Ziwei; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are unique endosomes containing vesicles in the lumens and play essential roles in many eukaryotic cellular processes. The Arabidopsis LYST INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 (LIP5), a positive regulator of MVB biogenesis, has critical roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, whether the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling is involved in LIP5-mediated stress response is largely unknown. Here, we report that LIP5 functions in regulating ABA signaling and drought response in Arabidopsis. Analyses of a LIP5 promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) construct revealed substantial GUS activity in whole seedlings. The expression of LIP5 was induced by ABA and drought, and overexpression of LIP5 led to ABA hypersensitivity, enhanced stomatal closure, reduced water loss, and, therefore, increased drought tolerance. On the contrary, LIP5 knockdown mutants showed ABA-insensitive phenotypes and reduced drought tolerance; suggesting that LIP5 acts in regulating ABA response. Further analysis using a fluorescent dye revealed that ABA and water stress induced cell endocytosis or vesicle trafficking in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of several drought- or ABA-inducible marker genes was significantly down-regulated in the lip5 mutant seedlings. Collectively, our data suggest that LIP5 positively regulates drought tolerance through ABA-mediated cell signaling. PMID:27313589

  15. The Arabidopsis LYST INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 Acts in Regulating Abscisic Acid Signaling and Drought Response

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zongliang; Huo, Yongjin; Wei, Yangyang; Chen, Qiansi; Xu, Ziwei; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are unique endosomes containing vesicles in the lumens and play essential roles in many eukaryotic cellular processes. The Arabidopsis LYST INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 (LIP5), a positive regulator of MVB biogenesis, has critical roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, whether the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling is involved in LIP5-mediated stress response is largely unknown. Here, we report that LIP5 functions in regulating ABA signaling and drought response in Arabidopsis. Analyses of a LIP5 promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) construct revealed substantial GUS activity in whole seedlings. The expression of LIP5 was induced by ABA and drought, and overexpression of LIP5 led to ABA hypersensitivity, enhanced stomatal closure, reduced water loss, and, therefore, increased drought tolerance. On the contrary, LIP5 knockdown mutants showed ABA-insensitive phenotypes and reduced drought tolerance; suggesting that LIP5 acts in regulating ABA response. Further analysis using a fluorescent dye revealed that ABA and water stress induced cell endocytosis or vesicle trafficking in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of several drought- or ABA-inducible marker genes was significantly down-regulated in the lip5 mutant seedlings. Collectively, our data suggest that LIP5 positively regulates drought tolerance through ABA-mediated cell signaling. PMID:27313589

  16. CBL1, a calcium sensor that differentially regulates salt, drought, and cold responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Yong Hwa; Kim, Kyung-Nam; Pandey, Girdhar K; Gupta, Rajeev; Grant, John J; Luan, Sheng

    2003-08-01

    Although calcium is a critical component in the signal transduction pathways that lead to stress gene expression in higher plants, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying calcium function. It is believed that cellular calcium changes are perceived by sensor molecules, including calcium binding proteins. The calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein family represents a unique group of calcium sensors in plants. A member of the family, CBL1, is highly inducible by multiple stress signals, implicating CBL1 in stress response pathways. When the CBL1 protein level was increased in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, it altered the stress response pathways in these plants. Although drought-induced gene expression was enhanced, gene induction by cold was inhibited. In addition, CBL1-overexpressing plants showed enhanced tolerance to salt and drought but reduced tolerance to freezing. By contrast, cbl1 null mutant plants showed enhanced cold induction and reduced drought induction of stress genes. The mutant plants displayed less tolerance to salt and drought but enhanced tolerance to freezing. These studies suggest that CBL1 functions as a positive regulator of salt and drought responses and a negative regulator of cold response in plants. PMID:12897256

  17. Overexpression of ARGOS Genes Modifies Plant Sensitivity to Ethylene, Leading to Improved Drought Tolerance in Both Arabidopsis and Maize.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinrui; Habben, Jeffrey E; Archibald, Rayeann L; Drummond, Bruce J; Chamberlin, Mark A; Williams, Robert W; Lafitte, H Renee; Weers, Ben P

    2015-09-01

    Lack of sufficient water is a major limiting factor to crop production worldwide, and the development of drought-tolerant germplasm is needed to improve crop productivity. The phytohormone ethylene modulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to abiotic stress. Recent research has shown that modifying ethylene biosynthesis and signaling can enhance plant drought tolerance. Here, we report novel negative regulators of ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). These regulators are encoded by the ARGOS gene family. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of maize ARGOS1 (ZmARGOS1), ZmARGOS8, Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 (AtOSR1), and AtOSR2 reduced plant sensitivity to ethylene, leading to enhanced drought tolerance. RNA profiling and genetic analysis suggested that the ZmARGOS1 transgene acts between an ethylene receptor and CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 in the ethylene signaling pathway, affecting ethylene perception or the early stages of ethylene signaling. Overexpressed ZmARGOS1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane, where the ethylene receptors and the ethylene signaling protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 and REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 reside. In transgenic maize plants, overexpression of ARGOS genes also reduces ethylene sensitivity. Moreover, field testing showed that UBIQUITIN1:ZmARGOS8 maize events had a greater grain yield than nontransgenic controls under both drought stress and well-watered conditions. PMID:26220950

  18. Leaf biomechanical properties in Arabidopsis thaliana polysaccharide mutants affect drought survival.

    PubMed

    Balsamo, Ronald; Boak, Merewyn; Nagle, Kayla; Peethambaran, Bela; Layton, Bradley

    2015-11-26

    Individual sugars are the building blocks of cell wall polysaccharides, which in turn comprise a plant׳s overall architectural structure. But which sugars play the most prominent role in maintaining a plant׳s mechanical stability during large cellular deformations induced by drought? We investigated the individual contributions of several genes that are involved in the synthesis of monosaccharides which are important for cell wall structure. We then measured drought tolerance and mechanical integrity during simulated drought in Arabidopsis thaliana. To assess mechanical properties, we designed a small-scale tensile tester for measuring failure strain, ultimate tensile stress, work to failure, toughness, and elastic modulus of 6-week-old leaves in both hydrated and drought-simulated states. Col-0 mutants used in this study include those deficient in lignin, cellulose, components of hemicellulose such as xylose and fucose, the pectic components arabinose and rhamnose, as well as mutants with enhanced arabinose and total pectin content. We found that drought tolerance is correlated to the mechanical and architectural stability of leaves as they experience dehydration. Of the mutants, S096418 with mutations for reduced xylose and galactose was the least drought tolerant, while the arabinose-altered CS8578 mutants were the least affected by water loss. There were also notable correlations between drought tolerance and mechanical properties in the diminished rhamnose mutant, CS8575 and the dehydrogenase-disrupted S120106. Our findings suggest that components of hemicellulose and pectins affect leaf biomechanical properties and may play an important role in the ability of this model system to survive drought. PMID:26520913

  19. Reducing societal vulnerability to drought: A methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Given worldwide experience with drought during the past several decades and the magnitude of associated impacts, it is apparent that vulnerability to extended periods of water shortage is escalating. Developing a national or provincial drought policy and preparedness plan is a complicated but essential first step toward reducing societal vulnerability. Until recently, nations had devoted little effort to drought preparedness, preferring instead the reactive or crisis management approach. Presently, an increasing number of nations are pursuing a more proactive approach that emphasizes the principles of risk management and sustainable development. Because of the multitude of impacts associated with drought and the numerous governmental agencies that have responsibility for some aspect of monitoring, assessment, mitigation, and planning, developing a policy and plan must be an integrated process within and between levels of government. This paper outlines a generic process that can be adopted by governments that desire to develop a more comprehensive and long-term approach to drought management and planning. Countries and states or provincial authorities that have adopted this approach is presented as case studies. This process is timely, given the declaration of the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction and the recent International Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought (June, 1994), an offshoot of deliberations at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

  20. Gamma-aminobutyric acid depletion affects stomata closure and drought tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Dereje Worku; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Ludewig, Frank

    2016-04-01

    A rapid accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during biotic and abiotic stresses is well documented. However, the specificity of the response and the primary role of GABA under such stress conditions are hardly understood. To address these questions, we investigated the response of the GABA-depleted gad1/2 mutant to drought stress. GABA is primarily synthesized from the decarboxylation of glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) which exists in five copies in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, only GAD1 and GAD2 are abundantly expressed, and knockout of these two copies dramatically reduced the GABA content. Phenotypic analysis revealed a reduced shoot growth of the gad1/2 mutant. Furthermore, the gad1/2 mutant was wilted earlier than the wild type following a prolonged drought stress treatment. The early-wilting phenotype was due to an increase in stomata aperture and a defect in stomata closure. The increase in stomata aperture contributed to higher stomatal conductance. The drought oversensitive phenotype of the gad1/2 mutant was reversed by functional complementation that increases GABA level in leaves. The functionally complemented gad1/2 x pop2 triple mutant contained more GABA than the wild type. Our findings suggest that GABA accumulation during drought is a stress-specific response and its accumulation induces the regulation of stomatal opening thereby prevents loss of water. PMID:26940489

  1. SpBADH of the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum strongly confers drought tolerance through ROS scavenging in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenglong; Zhou, Yang; Fan, Jie; Fu, Yuhua; Shen, Longbin; Yao, Yuan; Li, Ruimei; Fu, Shaoping; Duan, Ruijun; Hu, Xinwen; Guo, Jianchun

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) accumulation is involved in abiotic stress. However, it is not known whether BADH, the key enzyme of GB synthesis, utilizes the antioxidant system to confer drought stress tolerance. In this study, a novel member of the ALDH10 gene family, SpBADH, was isolated from Sesuvium portulacastrum. The expression of this gene was up-regulated by NaCl, PEG6000, H2O2, ABA and high temperature in S. portulacastrum. SpBADH overexpression in Arabidopsis resulted in higher BADH activity and GB content and might increase tolerance to drought/osmotic stresses, specifically strong tolerance to drought stress. Transgenic lines exhibited lower MDA and H2O2 contents but higher proline, POD, SOD and CAT contents than the wild type under drought and osmotic stresses. SpBADH overexpression in Arabidopsis also enhanced the expression of ROS-related genes including AtSOD, AtPOD, AtCAT, AtAPX and Atpsb under drought and osmotic stresses. Thus, SpBADH increases plant tolerance to drought or osmotic stresses by reducing H2O2, increasing proline, and activating antioxidative enzymes to improve ROS scavenging. PMID:26368017

  2. Overexpression of the poplar NF-YB7 transcription factor confers drought tolerance and improves water-use efficiency in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; Tang, Sha; An, Yi; Zheng, Dong-Chao; Xia, Xin-Li; Yin, Wei-Lun

    2013-11-01

    Water deficit is a serious environmental factor limiting the growth and productivity of plants worldwide. Improvement of drought tolerance and efficient water use are significant strategies to overcome this dilemma. In this study, a drought-responsive transcription factor, nuclear factor Y subunit B 7 (PdNF-YB7), induced by osmotic stress (PEG6000) and abscisic acid, was isolated from fast-growing poplar clone NE-19 [Populus nigra × (Populus deltoides × Populus nigra)]. Ectopic overexpression of PdNF-YB7 (oxPdB7) in Arabidopsis enhanced drought tolerance and whole-plant and instantaneous leaf water-use efficiency (WUE, the ratio of biomass produced to water consumed). Overexpressing lines had an increase in germination rate and root length and decrease in water loss and displayed higher photosynthetic rate, instantaneous leaf WUE, and leaf water potential to exhibit enhanced drought tolerance under water scarcity. Additionally, overexpression of PdNF-YB7 in Arabidopsis improved whole-plant WUE by increasing carbon assimilation and reducing transpiration with water abundance. These drought-tolerant, higher WUE transgenic Arabidopsis had earlier seedling establishment and higher biomass than controls under normal and drought conditions. In contrast, Arabidopsis mutant nf-yb3 was more sensitive to drought stress with lower WUE. However, complementation analysis indicated that complementary lines (nf-yb3/PdB7) had almost the same drought response and WUE as wild-type Col-0. Taken together, these results suggest that PdNF-YB7 positively confers drought tolerance and improves WUE in Arabidopsis; thus it could potentially be used in breeding drought-tolerant plants with increased production even under water deficiency. PMID:24006421

  3. Arabidopsis type B cytokinin response regulators ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12 negatively regulate plant responses to drought.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kien Huu; Ha, Chien Van; Nishiyama, Rie; Watanabe, Yasuko; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; Fujita, Yasunari; Tran, Uven Thi; Li, Weiqiang; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki; Schaller, G Eric; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, L S

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we used a loss-of-function approach to elucidate the functions of three Arabidopsis type B response regulators (ARRs)--namely ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12--in regulating the Arabidopsis plant responses to drought. The arr1,10,12 triple mutant showed a significant increase in drought tolerance versus WT plants, as indicated by its higher relative water content and survival rate on drying soil. This enhanced drought tolerance of arr1,10,12 plants can be attributed to enhanced cell membrane integrity, increased anthocyanin biosynthesis, abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, and reduced stomatal aperture, but not to altered stomatal density. Further drought-tolerance tests of lower-order double and single mutants indicated that ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12 negatively and redundantly control plant responses to drought, with ARR1 appearing to bear the most critical function among the three proteins. In agreement with these findings, a comparative genome-wide analysis of the leaves of arr1,10,12 and WT plants under both normal and dehydration conditions suggested a cytokinin (CK) signaling-mediated network controlling plant adaptation to drought via many dehydration/drought- and/or ABA-responsive genes that can provide osmotic adjustment and protection to cellular and membrane structures. Expression of all three ARR genes was repressed by dehydration and ABA treatments, inferring that plants down-regulate these genes as an adaptive mechanism to survive drought. Collectively, our results demonstrate that repression of CK response, and thus CK signaling, is one of the strategies plants use to cope with water deficit, providing novel insight for the design of drought-tolerant plants by genetic engineering. PMID:26884175

  4. Arabidopsis type B cytokinin response regulators ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12 negatively regulate plant responses to drought

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kien Huu; Ha, Chien Van; Nishiyama, Rie; Watanabe, Yasuko; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; Fujita, Yasunari; Tran, Uven Thi; Li, Weiqiang; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki; Schaller, G. Eric; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a loss-of-function approach to elucidate the functions of three Arabidopsis type B response regulators (ARRs)—namely ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12—in regulating the Arabidopsis plant responses to drought. The arr1,10,12 triple mutant showed a significant increase in drought tolerance versus WT plants, as indicated by its higher relative water content and survival rate on drying soil. This enhanced drought tolerance of arr1,10,12 plants can be attributed to enhanced cell membrane integrity, increased anthocyanin biosynthesis, abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, and reduced stomatal aperture, but not to altered stomatal density. Further drought-tolerance tests of lower-order double and single mutants indicated that ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12 negatively and redundantly control plant responses to drought, with ARR1 appearing to bear the most critical function among the three proteins. In agreement with these findings, a comparative genome-wide analysis of the leaves of arr1,10,12 and WT plants under both normal and dehydration conditions suggested a cytokinin (CK) signaling-mediated network controlling plant adaptation to drought via many dehydration/drought- and/or ABA-responsive genes that can provide osmotic adjustment and protection to cellular and membrane structures. Expression of all three ARR genes was repressed by dehydration and ABA treatments, inferring that plants down-regulate these genes as an adaptive mechanism to survive drought. Collectively, our results demonstrate that repression of CK response, and thus CK signaling, is one of the strategies plants use to cope with water deficit, providing novel insight for the design of drought-tolerant plants by genetic engineering. PMID:26884175

  5. Polyamine metabolic canalization in response to drought stress in Arabidopsis and the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Dorothea; Koncz, Csaba; Altabella, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the transcriptional profiles of polyamine biosynthetic genes and analyzed polyamine metabolic fluxes during a gradual drought acclimation response in Arabidopsis thaliana and the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. The analysis of free putrescine, spermidine and spermine titers in Arabidopsis arginine decarboxylase (adc1–3, adc2–3), spermidine synthase (spds1–2, spds2–3) and spermine synthase (spms-2) mutants during drought stress, combined with the quantitative expression of the entire polyamine biosynthetic pathway in the wild-type, has revealed a strong metabolic canalization of putrescine to spermine induced by drought. Such canalization requires spermidine synthase 1 (SPDS1) and spermine synthase (SPMS) activities and, intriguingly, does not lead to spermine accumulation but to a progressive reduction in spermidine and spermine pools in the wild-type. Our results suggest the participation of the polyamine back-conversion pathway during the drought stress response rather than the terminal catabolism of spermine. The putrescine to spermine canalization coupled to the spermine to putrescine back-conversion confers an effective polyamine recycling-loop during drought acclimation. Putrescine to spermine canalization has also been revealed in the desiccation tolerant plant C. plantagineum, which conversely to Arabidopsis, accumulates high spermine levels which associate with drought tolerance. Our results provide a new insight to the polyamine homeostasis mechanisms during drought stress acclimation in Arabidopsis and resurrection plants. PMID:21330782

  6. Arabidopsis Enhanced Drought Tolerance1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 Confers Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Rice without Yield Penalty1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Linhui; Chen, Xi; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Shimei; Wang, Yuping; Zhu, Qisheng; Li, Shigui; Xiang, Chengbin

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing drought tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. Here, we report the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor Enhanced Drought Tolerance/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (EDT1/HDG11) was able to confer drought tolerance and increase grain yield in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The improved drought tolerance was associated with a more extensive root system, reduced stomatal density, and higher water use efficiency. The transgenic rice plants also had higher levels of abscisic acid, proline, soluble sugar, and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activities during stress treatments. The increased grain yield of the transgenic rice was contributed by improved seed setting, larger panicle, and more tillers as well as increased photosynthetic capacity. Digital gene expression analysis indicated that AtEDT1/HDG11 had a significant influence on gene expression profile in rice, which was consistent with the observed phenotypes of transgenic rice plants. Our study shows that AtEDT1/HDG11 can improve both stress tolerance and grain yield in rice, demonstrating the efficacy of AtEDT1/HDG11 in crop improvement. PMID:23735506

  7. Increased drought tolerance through the suppression of ESKMO1 gene and overexpression of CBF-related genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuhui; Liu, Zhixue; Xie, Hongyan; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Juren; Kraus, Josef; Blaschnig, Tasja; Nehls, Reinhard; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Improved drought tolerance is always a highly desired trait for agricultural plants. Significantly increased drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia-0) has been achieved in our work through the suppression of ESKMO1 (ESK1) gene expression with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and overexpression of CBF genes with constitutive gene expression. ESK1 has been identified as a gene linked to normal development of the plant vascular system, which is assumed directly related to plant drought response. By using siRNA that specifically targets ESK1, the gene expression has been reduced and drought tolerance of the plant has been enhanced dramatically in the work. However, the plant response to external abscisic acid application has not been changed. ICE1, CBF1, and CBF3 are genes involved in a well-characterized plant stress response pathway, overexpression of them in the plant has demonstrated capable to increase drought tolerance. By overexpression of these genes combining together with suppression of ESK1 gene, the significant increase of plant drought tolerance has been achieved in comparison to single gene manipulation, although the effect is not in an additive way. Accompanying the increase of drought tolerance via suppression of ESK1 gene expression, the negative effect has been observed in seeds yield of transgenic plants in normal watering conditions comparing with wide type plant. PMID:25184213

  8. Flower Development under Drought Stress: Morphological and Transcriptomic Analyses Reveal Acute Responses and Long-Term Acclimation in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhao; Ma, Xuan; Guo, Huihong; Sukiran, Noor Liyana; Guo, Bin; Assmann, Sarah M.; Ma, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Drought dramatically affects plant growth and crop yield, but previous studies primarily examined responses to drought during vegetative development. Here, to study responses to drought during reproductive development, we grew Arabidopsis thaliana plants with limited water, under conditions that allowed the plants to initiate and complete reproduction. Drought treatment from just after the onset of flowering to seed maturation caused an early arrest of floral development and sterility. After acclimation, plants showed reduced fertility that persisted throughout reproductive development. Floral defects included abnormal anther development, lower pollen viability, reduced filament elongation, ovule abortion, and failure of flowers to open. Drought also caused differential expression of 4153 genes, including flowering time genes FLOWERING LOCUS T, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1, and LEAFY, genes regulating anther and pistil development, and stress-related transcription factors. Mutant phenotypes of hypersensitivity to drought and fewer differentially expressed genes suggest that DEHYDRATION RESPONSE ELEMENT B1A may have an important function in drought response in flowers. A more severe filament elongation defect under drought in myb21 plants demonstrated that appropriate stamen development requires MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 21 under drought conditions. Our study reveals a regulatory cascade in reproductive responses and acclimation under drought. PMID:24179129

  9. Expression of OsCAS (Calcium-Sensing Receptor) in an Arabidopsis Mutant Increases Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Rongrong; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaS), which is localized in the chloroplasts, is a crucial regulator of extracellular calcium-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis. It has homologs in Oryza sativa and other plants. These sequences all have a rhodanese-like protein domain, which has been demonstrated to be associated with specific stress conditions. In this study, we cloned the Oryza sativa calcium-sensing receptor gene (OsCAS) and demonstrated that OsCAS could sense an increase of extracellular Ca2+ concentration and mediate an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. The OsCAS gene was transformed into an Arabidopsis CaS knockout mutant (Salk) and overexpressed in the transgenic plants. OsCAS promoted stomatal closure. We screened homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis plants and determined physiological indices such as the oxidative damage biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA), relative membrane permeability (RMP), proline content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, after 21 days of drought treatment. Our results revealed lower RMP and MDA contents and a higher Proline content in transgenic Arabidopsis plants after drought stress, whereas the opposite was observed in Salk plants. With respect to chlorophyll fluorescence, the electron transport rate and effective PSII quantum yield decreased in all lines under drought stress; however, in the transgenic plants these two parameters changed fewer and were higher than those in wild-type and Salk plants. The quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation and nonregulated energy dissipation in PSII were higher in Salk plants, whereas these values were lower in the transgenic plants than in the wild type under drought stress. The above results suggest that the transgenic plants showed better resistance to drought stress by decreasing damage to the cell membrane, increasing the amount of osmoprotectants, and maintaining a relatively high photosynthetic capacity. In conclusion, OsCAS is an extracellular calcium-sensing receptor

  10. Expression of OsCAS (Calcium-Sensing Receptor) in an Arabidopsis Mutant Increases Drought Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Xu, Mengmeng; Wei, Rongrong; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaS), which is localized in the chloroplasts, is a crucial regulator of extracellular calcium-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis. It has homologs in Oryza sativa and other plants. These sequences all have a rhodanese-like protein domain, which has been demonstrated to be associated with specific stress conditions. In this study, we cloned the Oryza sativa calcium-sensing receptor gene (OsCAS) and demonstrated that OsCAS could sense an increase of extracellular Ca2+ concentration and mediate an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. The OsCAS gene was transformed into an Arabidopsis CaS knockout mutant (Salk) and overexpressed in the transgenic plants. OsCAS promoted stomatal closure. We screened homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis plants and determined physiological indices such as the oxidative damage biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA), relative membrane permeability (RMP), proline content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, after 21 days of drought treatment. Our results revealed lower RMP and MDA contents and a higher Proline content in transgenic Arabidopsis plants after drought stress, whereas the opposite was observed in Salk plants. With respect to chlorophyll fluorescence, the electron transport rate and effective PSII quantum yield decreased in all lines under drought stress; however, in the transgenic plants these two parameters changed fewer and were higher than those in wild-type and Salk plants. The quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation and nonregulated energy dissipation in PSII were higher in Salk plants, whereas these values were lower in the transgenic plants than in the wild type under drought stress. The above results suggest that the transgenic plants showed better resistance to drought stress by decreasing damage to the cell membrane, increasing the amount of osmoprotectants, and maintaining a relatively high photosynthetic capacity. In conclusion, OsCAS is an extracellular calcium-sensing receptor

  11. The Role of Annexin 1 in Drought Stress in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota; Clark, Greg; Goch, Grazyna; Debski, Janusz; Floras, Krzysztof; Cantero, Araceli; Fijolek, Bartlomiej; Roux, Stanley; Hennig, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    Annexins act as targets of calcium signals in eukaryotic cells, and recent results suggest that they play an important role in plant stress responses. We found that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), AnnAt1 (for annexin 1) mRNA levels were up-regulated in leaves by most of the stress treatments applied. Plants overexpressing AnnAt1 protein were more drought tolerant and knockout plants were more drought sensitive than ecotype Columbia plants. We also observed that hydrogen peroxide accumulation in guard cells was reduced in overexpressing plants and increased in knockout plants both before and after treatment with abscisic acid. Oxidative protection resulting from AnnAt1 overexpression could be due to the low level of intrinsic peroxidase activity exhibited by this protein in vitro, previously linked to a conserved histidine residue found in a peroxidase-like motif. However, analyses of a mutant H40A AnnAt1 protein in a bacterial complementation test and in peroxidase activity assays indicate that this residue is not critical to the ability of AnnAt1 to confer oxidative protection. To further examine the mechanism(s) linking AnnAt1 expression to stress resistance, we analyzed the reactive S3 cluster to determine if it plays a role in AnnAt1 oligomerization and/or is the site for posttranslational modification. We found that the two cysteine residues in this cluster do not form intramolecular or intermolecular bonds but are highly susceptible to oxidation-driven S-glutathionylation, which decreases the Ca2+ affinity of AnnAt1 in vitro. Moreover, S-glutathionylation of AnnAt1 occurs in planta after abscisic acid treatment, which suggests that this modification could be important in regulating the cellular function of AnnAt1 during stress responses. PMID:19482919

  12. The Arabidopsis RNA-binding protein AtRGGA regulates tolerance to salt and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Ambrosone, Alfredo; Batelli, Giorgia; Nurcato, Roberta; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Punzo, Paola; Bangarusamy, Dhinoth Kumar; Ruberti, Ida; Sassi, Massimiliano; Leone, Antonietta; Costa, Antonello; Grillo, Stefania

    2015-05-01

    Salt and drought stress severely reduce plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. The identification of genes underlying stress response and tolerance is the subject of intense research in plant biology. Through microarray analyses, we previously identified in potato (Solanum tuberosum) StRGGA, coding for an Arginine Glycine Glycine (RGG) box-containing RNA-binding protein, whose expression was specifically induced in potato cell cultures gradually exposed to osmotic stress. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ortholog, AtRGGA, is a functional RNA-binding protein required for a proper response to osmotic stress. AtRGGA gene expression was up-regulated in seedlings after long-term exposure to abscisic acid (ABA) and polyethylene glycol, while treatments with NaCl resulted in AtRGGA down-regulation. AtRGGA promoter analysis showed activity in several tissues, including stomata, the organs controlling transpiration. Fusion of AtRGGA with yellow fluorescent protein indicated that AtRGGA is localized in the cytoplasm and the cytoplasmic perinuclear region. In addition, the rgga knockout mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in root growth and survival tests and to salt stress during germination and at the vegetative stage. AtRGGA-overexpressing plants showed higher tolerance to ABA and salt stress on plates and in soil, accumulating lower levels of proline when exposed to drought stress. Finally, a global analysis of gene expression revealed extensive alterations in the transcriptome under salt stress, including several genes such as ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2, GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE TAU9, and several SMALL AUXIN UPREGULATED RNA-like genes showing opposite expression behavior in transgenic and knockout plants. Taken together, our results reveal an important role of AtRGGA in the mechanisms of plant response and adaptation to stress. PMID:25783413

  13. Expression of Vitis amurensis NAC26 in Arabidopsis enhances drought tolerance by modulating jasmonic acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Linchuan; Su, Lingye; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Xinbo; Sun, Mengxiang; Karungo, Sospeter Karanja; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Shaohua; Xin, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The growth and fruit quality of grapevines are widely affected by abnormal climatic conditions such as water deficits, but many of the precise mechanisms by which grapevines respond to drought stress are still largely unknown. Here, we report that VaNAC26, a member of the NAC transcription factor family, was upregulated dramatically during cold, drought and salinity treatments in Vitis amurensis, a cold and drought-hardy wild Vitis species. Heterologous overexpression of VaNAC26 enhanced drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower concentrations of H2O2 and O2 − were found in VaNAC26-OE lines than in wild type plants under drought stress. These results indicated that scavenging by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was enhanced by VaNAC26 in transgenic lines. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis and signaling were upregulated in VaNAC26-OE lines under both normal and drought conditions. VaNAC26 showed a specific binding ability on the NAC recognition sequence (NACRS) motif, which broadly exists in the promoter regions of upregulated genes in transgenic lines. Endogenous JA content significantly increased in the VaNAC26-OE lines 2 and 3. Our data suggest that VaNAC26 responds to abiotic stresses and may enhance drought tolerance by transcriptional regulation of JA synthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27162276

  14. Expression of Vitis amurensis NAC26 in Arabidopsis enhances drought tolerance by modulating jasmonic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Linchuan; Su, Lingye; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Xinbo; Sun, Mengxiang; Karungo, Sospeter Karanja; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Shaohua; Xin, Haiping

    2016-04-01

    The growth and fruit quality of grapevines are widely affected by abnormal climatic conditions such as water deficits, but many of the precise mechanisms by which grapevines respond to drought stress are still largely unknown. Here, we report that VaNAC26, a member of the NAC transcription factor family, was upregulated dramatically during cold, drought and salinity treatments in Vitis amurensis, a cold and drought-hardy wild Vitis species. Heterologous overexpression of VaNAC26 enhanced drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower concentrations of H2O2 and O2 (-) were found in VaNAC26-OE lines than in wild type plants under drought stress. These results indicated that scavenging by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was enhanced by VaNAC26 in transgenic lines. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis and signaling were upregulated in VaNAC26-OE lines under both normal and drought conditions. VaNAC26 showed a specific binding ability on the NAC recognition sequence (NACRS) motif, which broadly exists in the promoter regions of upregulated genes in transgenic lines. Endogenous JA content significantly increased in the VaNAC26-OE lines 2 and 3. Our data suggest that VaNAC26 responds to abiotic stresses and may enhance drought tolerance by transcriptional regulation of JA synthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27162276

  15. Etopic expression of "Arabidopsis" H(+)-pyrophosphatase AVP1 enhances drought resistance in bottle gourd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottle gourd ("Lagenaria siceraria" Standl.) has been used as a source of rootstock for grafting watermelon to improve its fruit quality. We report here the development of a bottle gourd with resistance to drought by ectopic expression of the "Arabidopsis AVP1" gene that encodes a vacuolar H(+)-pyro...

  16. Virus induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis gene homologues in wheat identify genes conferring improved drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a non-model staple crop like wheat, functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for wheat breeding. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited tra...

  17. Heterologous expression of the gourd E3 ubiquitin ligase gene LsRZF1 compromises the drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji-Hee; Ju, Hyun-Woo; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Chung, Jung-Sung; Cho, Baik-Ho; Kim, Cheol Soo

    2014-04-01

    Protein ubiquitination is one of the major regulatory processes used by eukaryotic cells. The ubiquitin E3 ligase acts as a main determinant of substrate specificity. However, the precise roles of E3 ligase in plants to drought stress are poorly understood. In this study, a gourd family (Lagenaria siceraria) ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana RING Zinc Finger 1 (AtRZF1) gene, designated LsRZF1, was identified and characterized. LsRZF1 was reduced by abscisic acid (ABA), osmotic stress, and drought conditions. Compared to wild type, transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopic expressing LsRZF1 were hypersensitive to ABA and osmotic stress during early seedling development, indicating that LsRZF1 negatively regulates drought-mediated control of early seedling development. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the LsRZF1 gene was very influential in drought sensitive parameters including proline content, water loss, and the expression of dehydration stress-related genes. Furthermore, ubiquitin E3 ligase activity and genetic data indicate that AtRZF1 and LsRZF1 function in similar pathway to control proline metabolism in Arabidopsis under drought condition. Together, these results suggest that the E3 ligase LsRZF1 is an important regulator of water deficit stress during early seedling development. PMID:24525351

  18. Histone deacetylase HDA9 negatively regulates salt and drought stress responsiveness in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Ding, Yue; Sun, Xuan; Xie, Sisi; Wang, Dan; Liu, Xiaoyun; Su, Lufang; Wei, Wei; Pan, Lei; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2016-04-01

    Histone modification is an important epigenetic regulation in higher plants adapting to environment changes including salt and drought stresses. In this report, we show that the Arabidopsis RPD3-type histone deacetylase HDA9 is involved in modulating plant responses to salt and drought stresses in Arabidopsis. Loss-of-function mutants of the gene displayed phenotypes (such as seedling root growth and seed germination) insensitive to NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments. HDA9 mutation led to up-regulation of many genes, among which those involved in response to water deprivation stress (GO: 0009414) were enriched. These genes were much more induced in the mutants than wild-type plants when treated with PEG and NaCl. In addition, we found that in the mutants, salt and drought stresses led to much higher levels of histone H3K9 acetylation at promoters of 14 genes randomly selected from those that respond to water-deprivation stress than in wild-type plants. Our study suggested that HDA9 might be a novel chromatin protein that negatively regulates plant sensitivity to salt and drought stresses by regulating histone acetylation levels of a large number of stress-responsive genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:26733691

  19. Verticillium infection triggers VASCULAR-RELATED NAC DOMAIN7-dependent de novo xylem formation and enhances drought tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Reusche, Michael; Thole, Karin; Janz, Dennis; Truskina, Jekaterina; Rindfleisch, Sören; Drübert, Christine; Polle, Andrea; Lipka, Volker; Teichmann, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    The soilborne fungal plant pathogen Verticillium longisporum invades the roots of its Brassicaceae hosts and proliferates in the plant vascular system. Typical aboveground symptoms of Verticillium infection on Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana are stunted growth, vein clearing, and leaf chloroses. Here, we provide evidence that vein clearing is caused by pathogen-induced transdifferentiation of chloroplast-containing bundle sheath cells to functional xylem elements. In addition, our findings suggest that reinitiation of cambial activity and transdifferentiation of xylem parenchyma cells results in xylem hyperplasia within the vasculature of Arabidopsis leaves, hypocotyls, and roots. The observed de novo xylem formation correlates with Verticillium-induced expression of the VASCULAR-RELATED NAC DOMAIN (VND) transcription factor gene VND7. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the chimeric repressor VND7-SRDX under control of a Verticillium infection-responsive promoter exhibit reduced de novo xylem formation. Interestingly, infected Arabidopsis wild-type plants show higher drought stress tolerance compared with noninfected plants, whereas this effect is attenuated by suppression of VND7 activity. Together, our results suggest that V. longisporum triggers a tissue-specific developmental plant program that compensates for compromised water transport and enhances the water storage capacity of infected Brassicaceae host plants. In conclusion, we provide evidence that this natural plant-fungus pathosystem has conditionally mutualistic features. PMID:23023171

  20. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor NAC016 Promotes Drought Stress Responses by Repressing AREB1 Transcription through a Trifurcate Feed-Forward Regulatory Loop Involving NAP[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sakuraba, Yasuhito; Kim, Ye-Sol; Han, Su-Hyun; Lee, Byoung-Doo; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2015-01-01

    Drought and other abiotic stresses negatively affect plant growth and development and thus reduce productivity. The plant-specific NAM/ATAF1/2/CUC2 (NAC) transcription factors have important roles in abiotic stress-responsive signaling. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana NAC016 is involved in drought stress responses; nac016 mutants have high drought tolerance, and NAC016-overexpressing (NAC016-OX) plants have low drought tolerance. Using genome-wide gene expression microarray analysis and MEME motif searches, we identified the NAC016-specific binding motif (NAC16BM), GATTGGAT[AT]CA, in the promoters of genes downregulated in nac016-1 mutants. The NAC16BM sequence does not contain the core NAC binding motif CACG (or its reverse complement CGTG). NAC016 directly binds to the NAC16BM in the promoter of ABSCISIC ACID-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN1 (AREB1), which encodes a central transcription factor in the stress-responsive abscisic acid signaling pathway and represses AREB1 transcription. We found that knockout mutants of the NAC016 target gene NAC-LIKE, ACTIVATED BY AP3/PI (NAP) also exhibited strong drought tolerance; moreover, NAP binds to the AREB1 promoter and suppresses AREB1 transcription. Taking these results together, we propose that a trifurcate feed-forward pathway involving NAC016, NAP, and AREB1 functions in the drought stress response, in addition to affecting leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. PMID:26059204

  1. Alteration of Arabidopsis SLAC1 promoter and its association with natural variation in drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hiroe; Noda, Yusaku; Tamaoki, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Natural variation for drought tolerance is a major issue in adaptation and geographic distribution of terrestrial plants. Despite the importance, little is known about the genes and molecular mechanisms that determine its naturally occurring diversity. We analyzed the intraspecific drought tolerance variation between 2 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, Columbia (Col)-0 and Wassilewskija (Ws)-2. Measurement of weight loss in detached seedlings demonstrated a clear difference between drought-tolerant Col-0 and drought-sensitive Ws-2. They also differed in their stomatal response under drought condition. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we found a significant quantitative locus on chromosome 1. Surveying in the locus, we extrapolated that the SLAC1 gene, which is associated with stomatal closure, was likely responsible for the difference of drought tolerance. Comparison of their nucleotide and amino acid sequences revealed that there were few differences in regions encoding SLAC1 protein but was a large deletion in SLAC1 promoter of Ws-2. Histochemical GUS staining showed that the SLAC1 expressed dominantly in guard cells of Col-0, but did less in guard cells of Ws-2. Quantitative PCR analysis also showed that transcript level of SLAC1 in guard cells was higher in Col-0 than in Ws-2. The SLAC1 transcription analyses indicate low accumulation of SLAC1 in guard cells of Ws-2. When taken together, our results suggest that the low drought tolerance of Ws-2 was associated with the deletion of the promoter region of Ws-2 SLAC1. PMID:25695335

  2. Warm Spring Reduced Impact of Summer Drought on Carbon Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S.; Keenan, T. F.; Fisher, J. B.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Drought severely impacts biosphere-atmosphere carbon and water fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems by reducing productivity, carbon uptake and water transport to the atmosphere. The 2012 US drought was among the most intense and widespread drought events in the U.S. since the 'Dust Bowl' period in the 1930s, and had devastating effects on agricultural production. In addition, 2012 was among the warmest years on record. Using eddy covariance measurements of carbon, water and energy exchange from 25 AmeriFlux sites along with remote sensing products, we show that this summer drought substantially reduced ecosystem productivity, net carbon uptake and water transport to the atmosphere. However, the warm spring with higher ecosystem productivity reduced the impact of the summer drought on annual carbon uptake. Shifts in vegetation activity during spring also triggered feedbacks that contributed to the summer heatwave. Although the drought was exceptional, 2012 was an example of what is expected in terms of future climate change - i.e. warmer temperatures all year and an increased frequency and duration of drought in summer. Understanding the response of ecosystem carbon and water cycling to drought will help to mitigate these changes, and our study provides important new insights for that.

  3. Warm Spring Reduced Impact of Summer Drought on Carbon Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Sebastian; Keenan, Trevor F.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Drought severely impacts biosphere-atmosphere carbon and water fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems by reducing productivity, carbon uptake and water transport to the atmosphere. The 2012 US drought was among the most intense and widespread drought events in the U.S. since the 'Dust Bowl' period in the 1930s, and had devastating effects on agricultural production. In addition, 2012 was among the warmest years on record. Using eddy covariance measurements of carbon, water and energy exchange from AmeriFlux sites along with remote sensing products, we show that this summer drought substantially reduced ecosystem productivity, net carbon uptake and water transport to the atmosphere. However, the warm spring with higher ecosystem productivity reduced the impact of the summer drought on annual carbon uptake. Shifts in vegetation activity during spring also triggered feedbacks that contributed to the summer heatwave. Although the drought was exceptional, 2012 was an example of what is expected in terms of future climate change - i.e. warmer temperatures all year and an increased frequency and duration of drought in summer. Understanding the response of ecosystem carbon and water cycling to drought will help to mitigate these changes, and our study provides important new insights for that.

  4. The MaASR gene as a crucial component in multiple drought stress response pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Hu, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Renjun; Zhang, Yindong; Liu, Juhua; Jia, Caihong; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) proteins are involved in abiotic stress responses. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying their function remains unclear. In this study, we report that MaASR expression was induced by drought stress and MaASR overexpression in Arabidopsis strongly enhanced drought stress tolerance. Physiological analyses indicated that transgenic lines had higher plant survival rates, seed germination rates, and leaf proline content and lower water loss rates (WLR) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. MaASR-overexpressing lines also showed smaller leaves and reduced sensitivity to ABA. Further, microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation-based sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis revealed that MaASR participates in regulating photosynthesis, respiration, carbohydrate and phytohormone metabolism, and signal transduction to confer plants with enhanced drought stress tolerance. Direct interactions of MaASR with promoters for the hexose transporter and Rho GTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP) genes were confirmed by electrophoresis mobility shift array (EMSA) analysis. Our results indicate that MaASR acts as a crucial regulator of photosynthesis, respiration, carbohydrate and phytohormone metabolism, and signal transduction to mediate drought stress tolerance. PMID:25414087

  5. Wheat Transcription Factor TaAREB3 Participates in Drought and Freezing Tolerances in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Li, Qian; Mao, Xinguo; Li, Ang; Jing, Ruilian

    2016-01-01

    AREB (ABA response element binding) proteins in plants play direct regulatory roles in response to multiple stresses, but their functions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are not clear. In the present study, TaAREB3, a new member of the AREB transcription factor family, was isolated from wheat. Sequence analysis showed that the TaAREB3 protein is composed of three parts, a conserved N-terminal, a variable M region, and a conserved C-terminal with a bZIP domain. It belongs to the group A subfamily of bZIP transcription factors. TaAREB3 was constitutively expressed in stems, leaves, florets, anthers, pistils, seeds, and most highly, in roots. TaAREB3 gene expression was induced with abscisic acid (ABA) and low temperature stress, and its protein was localized in the nucleus when transiently expressed in tobacco epidermal cells and stably expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. TaAREB3 protein has transcriptional activation activity, and can bind to the ABRE cis-element in vitro. Overexpression of TaAREB3 in Arabidopsis not only enhanced ABA sensitivity, but also strengthened drought and freezing tolerances. TaAREB3 also activated RD29A, RD29B, COR15A, and COR47 by binding to their promoter regions in transgenic Arabidopsis. These results demonstrated that TaAREB3 plays an important role in drought and freezing tolerances in Arabidopsis. PMID:26884722

  6. Wheat Transcription Factor TaAREB3 Participates in Drought and Freezing Tolerances in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyi; Li, Qian; Mao, Xinguo; Li, Ang; Jing, Ruilian

    2016-01-01

    AREB (ABA response element binding) proteins in plants play direct regulatory roles in response to multiple stresses, but their functions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are not clear. In the present study, TaAREB3, a new member of the AREB transcription factor family, was isolated from wheat. Sequence analysis showed that the TaAREB3 protein is composed of three parts, a conserved N-terminal, a variable M region, and a conserved C-terminal with a bZIP domain. It belongs to the group A subfamily of bZIP transcription factors. TaAREB3 was constitutively expressed in stems, leaves, florets, anthers, pistils, seeds, and most highly, in roots. TaAREB3 gene expression was induced with abscisic acid (ABA) and low temperature stress, and its protein was localized in the nucleus when transiently expressed in tobacco epidermal cells and stably expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. TaAREB3 protein has transcriptional activation activity, and can bind to the ABRE cis-element in vitro. Overexpression of TaAREB3 in Arabidopsis not only enhanced ABA sensitivity, but also strengthened drought and freezing tolerances. TaAREB3 also activated RD29A, RD29B, COR15A, and COR47 by binding to their promoter regions in transgenic Arabidopsis. These results demonstrated that TaAREB3 plays an important role in drought and freezing tolerances in Arabidopsis. PMID:26884722

  7. Arabidopsis mutants with a reduced seed dormancy.

    PubMed Central

    Léon-Kloosterziel, K M; van de Bunt, G A; Zeevaart, J A; Koornneef, M

    1996-01-01

    The development of seed dormancy is an aspect of seed maturation, the last stage of seed development. To isolate mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that are affected in this process, we selected directly for the absence of dormancy among freshly harvested M2 seeds. The screen yielded two mutants exhibiting a reduced dormancy, rdo1 and rdo2, that are specifically affected in dormancy determined by the embryo. The rdo1 and rdo2 mutants show normal levels of abscisic acid and the same sensitivity to abscisic acid, ethylene, auxin, and cytokinin as the wild type. The rdo2 mutant but not the rdo1 mutant has a reduced sensitivity to the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor tetcyclacis. Double-mutant analysis suggested that the RDO1 and RDO2 genes are involved in separate pathways leading to the development of dormancy. We assume that the RDO2 gene controls a step in the induction of dormancy that is most likely induced by abscisic acid and is expressed as an increase of the gibberellin requirement for germination. PMID:8587986

  8. A dehydrin gene isolated from feral olive enhances drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic plants

    PubMed Central

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Muto, Antonella; Bruno, Leonardo; Woloszynska, Magdalena; Lijsebettens, Mieke Van; Bitonti, Maria B.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrins belong to a protein family whose expression may be induced or enhanced by developmental process and environmental stresses that lead to cell dehydration. A dehydrin gene named OesDHN was isolated and characterized from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea, var. sylvestris), the wild form of olive. To elucidate the contribution of OesDHN in the development of drought tolerance, its expression levels were investigated in oleaster plants during development and under drought stress condition. The involvement of OesDHN in plant stress response was also evaluated in Arabidopsis transgenic lines, engineered to overexpress this gene, and exposed to a controlled mild osmotic stress. OesDHN expression was found to be modulated during development and induced under mild drought stress in oleaster plants. In addition, the Arabidopsis transgenic plants showed a better tolerance to osmotic stress than wild-type plants. The results demonstrated that OesDHN expression is induced by drought stress and is able to confer osmotic stress tolerance. We suggest a role for OesDHN, as a putative functional marker of plant stress tolerance. PMID:26175736

  9. Increased STM expression is associated with drought tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Gil; Choi, Yee-Ram; Seo, Pil Joon

    2016-08-20

    In higher plants, shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintains cell division activity in order to give rise to aerial plant organs. Several lines of evidence have suggested that plants ensure stem cell proliferation activity in response to various external stimuli, thereby contributing to plant adaptation and fitness. Here, we report that the abscisic acid (ABA)-inducible R2R3-type MYB96 transcription factor regulates transcript accumulation of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) possibly to contribute to plant adaptation to environmental stress. STM was up-regulated in MYB96-overexpressing activation-tagging myb96-ox plants, but down-regulated in MYB96-deficient myb96-1 mutant plants, even in the presence of ABA. Notably, the MYB96 transcription factor bound directly to the STM promoter. In addition, consistent with the role of MYB96 in drought tolerance, transgenic plants overexpressing STM (35S:STM-MYC) were more tolerant to drought stress. These observations suggest that the MYB96-STM module contributes to enhancing plant tolerance to drought stress. PMID:27448723

  10. Positive feedback regulation of a Lycium chinense-derived VDE gene by drought-induced endogenous ABA, and over-expression of this VDE gene improve drought-induced photo-damage in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chunfeng; Ji, Jing; Zhang, Xuqiang; Li, Xiaozhou; Jin, Chao; Guan, Wenzhu; Wang, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage by dissipating excessively absorbed light energy as heat, via the conversion of violaxanthin (V) to intermediate product antheraxanthin (A) and final product zeaxanthin (Z) under light stress. We have cloned a VDE gene (LcVDE) from Lycium chinense, a deciduous woody perennial halophyte, which can grow in a large variety of soil types. The amino acid sequence of LcVDE has high homology with VDEs in other plants. Under drought stress, relative expression of LcVDE and the de-epoxidation ratio (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) increased rapidly, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) also rose. Interestingly, these elevations induced by drought stress were reduced by the topical administration of abamine SG, a potent ABA inhibitor via inhibition of NCED in the ABA synthesis pathway. Until now, little has been done to explore the relationship between endogenous ABA and the expression of VDE genes. Since V serves as a common precursor for ABA, these data support the possible involvement of endogenous ABA in the positive feedback regulation of LcVDE gene expression in L. chinense under drought stress. Moreover, the LcVDE may be involved in modulating the level of photosynthesis damage caused by drought stress. Furthermore, the ratio of (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) and NPQ increased more in transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE gene than the wild types under drought stress. The maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry of PSII (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis decreased more slowly during the stressed period than that in wild types under the same conditions. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE showed increased tolerance to drought stress. PMID:25460873

  11. AtTGA4, a bZIP transcription factor, confers drought resistance by enhancing nitrate transport and assimilation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Li; Chen, Dandan; Min, Donghong; Li, Weiwei; Xu, Zhaoshi; Zhou, Yongbin; Li, Liancheng; Chen, Ming; Ma, Youzhi

    2015-02-13

    To cope with environmental stress caused by global climate change and excessive nitrogen application, it is important to improve water and nitrogen use efficiencies in crop plants. It has been reported that higher nitrogen uptake could alleviate the damaging impact of drought stress. However, there is scant evidence to explain how nitrogen uptake affects drought resistance. In this study we observed that bZIP transcription factor AtTGA4 (TGACG motif-binding factor 4) was induced by both drought and low nitrogen stresses, and that overexpression of AtTGA4 simultaneously improved drought resistance and reduced nitrogen starvation in Arabidopsis. Following drought stress there were higher nitrogen and proline contents in transgenic AtTGA4 plants than in wild type controls, and activity of the key enzyme nitrite reductase (NIR) involved in nitrate assimilation processes was also higher. Expressions of the high-affinity nitrate transporter genes NRT2.1 and NRT2.2 and nitrate reductase genes NIA1 and NIA2 in transgenic plants were all higher than in wild type indicating that higher levels of nitrate transport and assimilation activity contributed to enhanced drought resistance of AtTGA4 transgenic plants. Thus genetic transformation with AtTGA4 may provide a new approach to simultaneously improve crop tolerance to drought and low nitrogen stresses. PMID:25596127

  12. Overexpression of a wheat phospholipase D gene, TaPLDα, enhances tolerance to drought and osmotic stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junbin; Ding, Bo; Guo, Yaolin; Li, Ming; Chen, Shuaijun; Huang, Guozhong; Xie, Xiaodong

    2014-07-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is crucial for plant responses to stress and signal transduction, however, the regulatory mechanism of PLD in abiotic stress is not completely understood; especially, in crops. In this study, we isolated a gene, TaPLDα, from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Analysis of the amino acid sequence of TaPLDα revealed a highly conserved C2 domain and two characteristic HKD motifs, which is similar to other known PLD family genes. Further characterization revealed that TaPLDα expressed differentially in various organs, such as roots, stems, leaves and spikelets of wheat. After treatment with abscisic acid (ABA), methyl jasmonate, dehydration, polyethylene glycol and NaCl, the expression of TaPLDα was up-regulated in shoots. Subsequently, we generated TaPLDα-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis lines under the control of the dexamethasone-inducible 35S promoter. The overexpression of TaPLDα in Arabidopsis resulted in significantly enhanced tolerance to drought, as shown by reduced chlorosis and leaf water loss, higher relative water content and lower relative electrolyte leakage than the wild type. Moreover, the TaPLDα-overexpressing plants exhibited longer roots in response to mannitol treatment. In addition, the seeds of TaPLDα-overexpressing plants showed hypersensitivity to ABA and osmotic stress. Under dehydration, the expression of several stress-related genes, RD29A, RD29B, KIN1 and RAB18, was up-regulated to a higher level in TaPLDα-overexpressing plants than in wild type. Taken together, our results indicated that TaPLDα can enhance tolerance to drought and osmotic stress in Arabidopsis and represents a potential candidate gene to enhance stress tolerance in crops. PMID:24705986

  13. Effect of prior drought and pathogen stress on Arabidopsis transcriptome changes to caterpillar herbivory.

    PubMed

    Davila Olivas, Nelson H; Coolen, Silvia; Huang, Pingping; Severing, Edouard; van Verk, Marcel C; Hickman, Richard; Wittenberg, Alexander H J; de Vos, Martin; Prins, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A; Aarts, Mark G M; van Wees, Saskia C M; Pieterse, Corné M J; Dicke, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    In nature, plants are exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses that often occur simultaneously. Therefore, plant responses to combinations of stresses are most representative of how plants respond to stresses. We used RNAseq to assess temporal changes in the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana to herbivory by Pieris rapae caterpillars, either alone or in combination with prior exposure to drought or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Pre-exposure to drought stress or Botrytis infection resulted in a significantly different timing of the caterpillar-induced transcriptional changes. Additionally, the combination of drought and P. rapae induced an extensive downregulation of A. thaliana genes involved in defence against pathogens. Despite a more substantial growth reduction observed for plants exposed to drought plus P. rapae feeding compared with P. rapae feeding alone, this did not affect weight increase of this specialist caterpillar. Plants respond to combined stresses with phenotypic and transcriptional changes that differ from the single stress situation. The effect of a previous exposure to drought or B. cinerea infection on transcriptional changes to caterpillars is largely overridden by the stress imposed by caterpillars, indicating that plants shift their response to the most recent stress applied. PMID:26847575

  14. A novel thiol-reductase activity of Arabidopsis YUC6 confers drought tolerance independently of auxin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Kang, Sun Bin; Kim, Jeong Im; Baek, Dongwon; Jung, In Jung; Kim, Mi Ri; Li, Ning; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Asami, Tadao; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Lee, Sang Yeol; Bohnert, Hans J.; Bressan, Ray A.; Pardo, Jose M.; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    YUCCA (YUC) proteins constitute a family of flavin monooxygenases (FMOs), with an important role in auxin (IAA) biosynthesis. Here we report that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing YUC6 display enhanced IAA-related phenotypes and exhibit improved drought stress tolerance, low rate of water loss and controlled ROS accumulation under drought and oxidative stresses. Co-overexpression of an IAA-conjugating enzyme reduces IAA levels but drought stress tolerance is unaffected, indicating that the stress-related phenotype is not based on IAA overproduction. YUC6 contains a previously unrecognized FAD- and NADPH-dependent thiol-reductase activity (TR) that overlaps with the FMO domain involved in IAA biosynthesis. Mutation of a conserved cysteine residue (Cys-85) preserves FMO but suppresses TR activity and stress tolerance, whereas mutating the FAD- and NADPH-binding sites, that are common to TR and FMO domains, abolishes all outputs. We provide a paradigm for a single protein playing a dual role, regulating plant development and conveying stress defence responses. PMID:26314500

  15. A novel thiol-reductase activity of Arabidopsis YUC6 confers drought tolerance independently of auxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Kang, Sun Bin; Kim, Jeong Im; Baek, Dongwon; Jung, In Jung; Kim, Mi Ri; Li, Ning; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Asami, Tadao; Sabir, Jamal S M; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Lee, Sang Yeol; Bohnert, Hans J; Bressan, Ray A; Pardo, Jose M; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    YUCCA (YUC) proteins constitute a family of flavin monooxygenases (FMOs), with an important role in auxin (IAA) biosynthesis. Here we report that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing YUC6 display enhanced IAA-related phenotypes and exhibit improved drought stress tolerance, low rate of water loss and controlled ROS accumulation under drought and oxidative stresses. Co-overexpression of an IAA-conjugating enzyme reduces IAA levels but drought stress tolerance is unaffected, indicating that the stress-related phenotype is not based on IAA overproduction. YUC6 contains a previously unrecognized FAD- and NADPH-dependent thiol-reductase activity (TR) that overlaps with the FMO domain involved in IAA biosynthesis. Mutation of a conserved cysteine residue (Cys-85) preserves FMO but suppresses TR activity and stress tolerance, whereas mutating the FAD- and NADPH-binding sites, that are common to TR and FMO domains, abolishes all outputs. We provide a paradigm for a single protein playing a dual role, regulating plant development and conveying stress defence responses. PMID:26314500

  16. Interaction of proline, sugars, and anthocyanins during photosynthetic acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Sperdouli, Ilektra; Moustakas, Michael

    2012-04-15

    The relationships among photosynthetic acclimation, proline (Pro), soluble sugar (SS), and anthocyanin (An) accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves to the onset of drought stress (OnDS), mild (MiDS) and moderate drought stress (MoDS), were evaluated. As leaf water content (LWC) decreased, metabolic concentrations (Pro, SS, and An) increased and were negatively and significantly correlated with LWC. Thus, these metabolites may have an important role in the acclimation process to drought stress (DS). No correlations among Pro, SS and An accumulation with the quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Φ(PSII)) and the excitation pressure (1-q(P)) were observed under DS. This implies that, while metabolites increased in a drought-dependent way, PSII activity did not decrease in the same pattern. Our results indicated that, under MoDS, A. thaliana leaves were able to maintain oxidative compounds such as malondialdeyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation, within the range of control leaves, and to cope with oxidative damage, as was evident by the decreased excitation pressure (1-q(P)) and similar (ns difference) Φ(PSII) to that of control leaves. In addition, a statistically significant increased accumulation of Pro, SS and An was recorded only under MoDS compared to controls. The better PSII functioning of MoDS Arabidopsis leaves may reflect the greater capacity of these leaves to undertake key metabolic adjustments, including increased Pro, SS and An accumulation, to maintain a higher antioxidant protection and a better balance between light capture and energy use. PMID:22305050

  17. A Role for Arabidopsis miR399f in Salt, Drought, and ABA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Dongwon; Chun, Hyun Jin; Kang, Songhwa; Shin, Gilok; Park, Su Jung; Hong, Hyewon; Kim, Chanmin; Kim, Doh Hoon; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Min Chul; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    MiR399f plays a crucial role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under phosphate starvation conditions, AtMYB2, which plays a role in plant salt and drought stress responses, directly regulates the expression of miR399f. In this study, we found that miR399f also participates in plant responses to abscisic acid (ABA), and to abiotic stresses including salt and drought. Salt and ABA treatment induced the expression of miR399f, as confirmed by histochemical analysis of promoter-GUS fusions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing miR399f (miR399f-OE) exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt stress and exogenous ABA, but hypersensitivity to drought. Our in silico analysis identified ABF3 and CSP41b as putative target genes of miR399f, and expression analysis revealed that mRNA levels of ABF3 and CSP41b decreased remarkably in miR399f-OE plants under salt stress and in response to treatment with ABA. Moreover, we showed that activation of stress-responsive gene expression in response to salt stress and ABA treatment was impaired in miR399f-OE plants. Thus, these results suggested that in addition to phosphate starvation signaling, miR399f might also modulates plant responses to salt, ABA, and drought, by regulating the expression of newly discovered target genes such as ABF3 and CSP41b. PMID:26674968

  18. Arabidopsis DREB1B in transgenic Salvia miltiorrhiza increased tolerance to drought stress without stunting growth.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Deng, Kejun; Gao, Yonghong; Liu, Yu; Yang, Meiling; Zhang, Lipeng; Zheng, Xuelian; Wang, Chunguo; Song, Wenqin; Chen, Chengbin; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Multiple stress response genes are controlled by transcription factors in a coordinated manner; therefore, these factors can be used for molecular plant breeding. CBF1/DREB1B, a known stress-inducible gene, was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana and introduced into Salvia miltiorrhiza under the control of the CaMV35S or RD29A promoter. Under drought stress, relative water content, chlorophyll content, and the net photosynthetic rate were observed to be higher in the transgenic lines than in the wild type (WT). Moreover, O2(-) and H2O2 accumulation was observed to be lower in the transgenic lines. Additional analyses revealed that the AtDREB1B transgenic plants generally displayed lesser malondialdehyde (MDA) but higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activities than the WT under drought stress. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of a subset of genes involved in photosynthesis, stress response, carbohydrate metabolism, and cell protection further verified that AtDREB1B could enhance tolerance to drought by activating different downstream DREB/CBF genes in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, no growth inhibition was detected in transgenic S. miltiorrhiza plants that expressed AtDREB1B driven by either the constitutive CaMV35S promoter or the stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Together, these results suggest that AtDREB1B is a good candidate gene for increasing drought tolerance in transgenic S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:27002402

  19. A history of stress alters drought calcium signalling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Knight, H; Brandt, S; Knight, M R

    1998-12-01

    Environmental stresses commonly encountered by plants lead to rapid transient elevations in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) (Bush, 1995; Knight et al., 1991). These cellular calcium (Ca2+) signals lead ultimately to the increased expression of stress-responsive genes, including those encoding proteins of protective function (Knight et al., 1996; Knight et al., 1997). The kinetics and magnitude of the Ca2+ signal, or 'calcium signature', differ between different stimuli and are thought to contribute to the specificity of the end response (Dolmetsch et al., 1997; McAinsh and Hetherington, 1998). We measured [Ca2+]cyt changes during treatment with mannitol (to mimic drought stress) in whole intact seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. The responses of plants which were previously exposed to osmotic and oxidative stresses were compared to those of control plants. We show here that osmotic stress-induced Ca2+ responses can be markedly altered by previous encounters with either osmotic or oxidative stress. The nature of the alterations in Ca2+ response depends on the identity and severity of the previous stress: oxidative stress pre-treatment reduced the mannitol-induced [Ca2+]cyt response whereas osmotic stress pretreatment increased the [Ca2+]cyt response. Therefore, our data show that different combinations of environmental stress can produce novel Ca2+ signal outputs. These alterations are accompanied by corresponding changes in the patterns of osmotic stress-induced gene expression and, in the case of osmotic stress pre-treatment, the acquisition of stress-tolerance. This suggests that altered Ca2+ responses encode a 'memory' of previous stress encounters and thus may perhaps be involved in acclimation to environmental stresses. PMID:10069075

  20. A Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o participates in stomatal and root hair development and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiao; Sun, Mingzhe; Chen, Chao; Ding, Xiaodong; Wang, Xuedong; Yang, Shanshan; Yu, Qingyue; Jia, Bowei; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that 14-3-3 proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. However, the biological functions of soybean 14-3-3 proteins, especially in plant drought response, are not yet known. In this study, we characterized a Glycine soja 14-3-3 gene, GsGF14o, which is involved in plant development and drought response. GsGF14o expression was greatly induced by drought stress, as evidenced by the quantitative real-time PCR and β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity analysis. GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in decreased drought tolerance during seed germination and seedling growth. Furthermore, silencing of AtGF14µ, the most homologous 14-3-3 gene of GsGF14o, led to enhanced drought tolerance at both the seed germination and seedling stage. Unexpectedly, GsGF14o transgenic lines showed reduced water loss and transpiration rates compared with wild-type plants, which was demonstrated to be the consequence of the decreased stomatal size. At the same time, the smaller stomata due to GsGF14o overexpression led to a relatively slow net photosynthesis rate, which led to a growth penalty under drought stress. We further demonstrated that GsGF14o overexpression caused deficits in root hair formation and development, and thereby reduced the water intake capacity of the transgenic root system. In addition, GsGF14o overexpression down-regulated the transcript levels of drought-responsive marker genes. Finally, we also investigated the tissue-specific accumulation of GsGF14o by using a GUS activity assay. Collectively, the results presented here confirm that GsGF14o plays a dual role in drought stress responses through its involvement in the regulation of stomatal size and root hair development. PMID:24272249

  1. CYCLIN H;1 regulates drought stress responses and blue light-induced stomatal opening by inhibiting reactive oxygen species accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao Feng; Jin, Yin Hua; Yoo, Chan Yul; Lin, Xiao-Li; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Yun, Dae-Jin; Bressan, Ray A; Hasegawa, Paul M; Jin, Jing Bo

    2013-06-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE Ds (CDKDs) phosphorylate the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Arabidopsis CYCLIN H;1 (CYCH;1) interacts with and activates CDKDs; however, the physiological function of CYCH;1 has not been determined. Here, we report that CYCH;1, which is localized to the nucleus, positively regulates blue light-induced stomatal opening. Reduced-function cych;1 RNA interference (cych;1 RNAi) plants exhibited a drought tolerance phenotype. CYCH;1 is predominantly expressed in guard cells, and its expression was substantially down-regulated by dehydration. Transpiration of intact leaves was reduced in cych;1 RNAi plants compared with the wild-type control in light but not in darkness. CYCH;1 down-regulation impaired blue light-induced stomatal opening but did not affect guard cell development or abscisic acid-mediated stomatal closure. Microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that CYCH;1 did not regulate the expression of abscisic acid-responsive genes or light-induced stomatal opening signaling determinants, such as MYB60, MYB61, Hypersensitive to red and blue1, and Protein phosphatase7. CYCH;1 down-regulation induced the expression of redox homeostasis genes, such as LIPOXYGENASE3 (LOX3), LOX4, ARABIDOPSIS GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE 7 (ATGPX7), EARLY LIGHT-INDUCIBLE PROTEIN1 (ELIP1), and ELIP2, and increased hydrogen peroxide production in guard cells. Furthermore, loss-of-function mutations in CDKD;2 or CDKD;3 did not affect responsiveness to drought stress, suggesting that CYCH;1 regulates the drought stress response in a CDKD-independent manner. We propose that CYCH;1 regulates blue light-mediated stomatal opening by controlling reactive oxygen species homeostasis. PMID:23656895

  2. Reduced Lateral Root Branching Density Improves Drought Tolerance in Maize.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ai; Schneider, Hannah; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-08-01

    An emerging paradigm is that root traits that reduce the metabolic costs of soil exploration improve the acquisition of limiting soil resources. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density will improve drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays) by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration, permitting greater axial root elongation, greater rooting depth, and thereby greater water acquisition from drying soil. Maize recombinant inbred lines with contrasting lateral root number and length (few but long [FL] and many but short [MS]) were grown under water stress in greenhouse mesocosms, in field rainout shelters, and in a second field environment with natural drought. Under water stress in mesocosms, lines with the FL phenotype had substantially less lateral root respiration per unit of axial root length, deeper rooting, greater leaf relative water content, greater stomatal conductance, and 50% greater shoot biomass than lines with the MS phenotype. Under water stress in the two field sites, lines with the FL phenotype had deeper rooting, much lighter stem water isotopic signature, signifying deeper water capture, 51% to 67% greater shoot biomass at flowering, and 144% greater yield than lines with the MS phenotype. These results entirely support the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density improves drought tolerance. The FL lateral root phenotype merits consideration as a selection target to improve the drought tolerance of maize and possibly other cereal crops. PMID:26077764

  3. The Arabidopsis RNA-Binding Protein AtRGGA Regulates Tolerance to Salt and Drought Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosone, Alfredo; Batelli, Giorgia; Nurcato, Roberta; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Punzo, Paola; Bangarusamy, Dhinoth Kumar; Ruberti, Ida; Sassi, Massimiliano; Leone, Antonietta; Costa, Antonello; Grillo, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Salt and drought stress severely reduce plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. The identification of genes underlying stress response and tolerance is the subject of intense research in plant biology. Through microarray analyses, we previously identified in potato (Solanum tuberosum) StRGGA, coding for an Arginine Glycine Glycine (RGG) box-containing RNA-binding protein, whose expression was specifically induced in potato cell cultures gradually exposed to osmotic stress. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ortholog, AtRGGA, is a functional RNA-binding protein required for a proper response to osmotic stress. AtRGGA gene expression was up-regulated in seedlings after long-term exposure to abscisic acid (ABA) and polyethylene glycol, while treatments with NaCl resulted in AtRGGA down-regulation. AtRGGA promoter analysis showed activity in several tissues, including stomata, the organs controlling transpiration. Fusion of AtRGGA with yellow fluorescent protein indicated that AtRGGA is localized in the cytoplasm and the cytoplasmic perinuclear region. In addition, the rgga knockout mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in root growth and survival tests and to salt stress during germination and at the vegetative stage. AtRGGA-overexpressing plants showed higher tolerance to ABA and salt stress on plates and in soil, accumulating lower levels of proline when exposed to drought stress. Finally, a global analysis of gene expression revealed extensive alterations in the transcriptome under salt stress, including several genes such as ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2, GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE TAU9, and several SMALL AUXIN UPREGULATED RNA-like genes showing opposite expression behavior in transgenic and knockout plants. Taken together, our results reveal an important role of AtRGGA in the mechanisms of plant response and adaptation to stress. PMID:25783413

  4. Virus-induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis thaliana gene homologues in wheat identifies genes conferring improved drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Lapitan, Nora

    2013-01-01

    In a non-model staple crop like wheat (Triticum aestivumI L.), functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for breeding. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited transformation potential that hamper functional validation studies in wheat. In this study, three potential candidate genes shown to be involved in abiotic stress response pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana were selected for VIGS experiments in wheat. These include Era1 (enhanced response to abscisic acid), Cyp707a (ABA 8’-hydroxylase), and Sal1 (inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase). Gene homologues for these three genes were identified in wheat and cloned in the viral vector barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) in the antisense direction, followed by rub inoculation of BSMV viral RNA transcripts onto wheat plants. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated wheat plants had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. When VIGS-treated plants generated for Era1 and Sal1 were subjected to limiting water conditions, they showed increased relative water content, improved water use efficiency, reduced gas exchange, and better vigour compared to water-stressed control plants inoculated with RNA from the empty viral vector (BSMV0). In comparison, the Cyp707a-silenced plants showed no improvement over BSMV0-inoculated plants under limited water condition. These results indicate that Era1 and Sal1 play important roles in conferring drought tolerance in wheat. Other traits affected by Era1 silencing were also studied. Delayed seed germination in Era1-silenced plants suggests this gene may be a useful target for developing resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. PMID:23364940

  5. Enhancement of oxidative and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis by overaccumulation of antioxidant flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Urano, Kaoru; Suzuki, Makoto; Yamada, Yutaka; Nishizawa, Tomoko; Matsuda, Fumio; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Michael, Anthony J; Tohge, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2014-01-01

    The notion that plants use specialized metabolism to protect against environmental stresses needs to be experimentally proven by addressing the question of whether stress tolerance by specialized metabolism is directly due to metabolites such as flavonoids. We report that flavonoids with radical scavenging activity mitigate against oxidative and drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Metabolome and transcriptome profiling and experiments with oxidative and drought stress in wild-type, single overexpressors of MYB12/PFG1 (PRODUCTION OF FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDES1) or MYB75/PAP1 (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1), double overexpressors of MYB12 and PAP1, transparent testa4 (tt4) as a flavonoid-deficient mutant, and flavonoid-deficient MYB12 or PAP1 overexpressing lines (obtained by crossing tt4 and the individual MYB overexpressor) demonstrated that flavonoid overaccumulation was key to enhanced tolerance to such stresses. Antioxidative activity assays using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, methyl viologen, and 3,3′-diaminobenzidine clearly showed that anthocyanin overaccumulation with strong in vitro antioxidative activity mitigated the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in vivo under oxidative and drought stress. These data confirm the usefulness of flavonoids for enhancing both biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in crops. PMID:24274116

  6. The Suppression of WRKY44 by GIGANTEA-miR172 Pathway Is Involved in Drought Response of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Yaofeng; Ming, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Water availability is an important environmental factor that controls flowering time. Many plants accelerate flowering under drought conditions, a phenomenon called drought escape. Four pathways are involved in controlling flowering time, but which ones participate in drought escape is not yet known. In this study, plants with loss-of-function mutations of GIGANTEA (GI) and CONSTANS (CO) exhibited abnormal drought-escape phenotypes. The peak mRNA levels of GI and FKF1 (Flavin-binding Kelch domain F box protein 1) and the mRNA levels of CO and FT (Flowering locus T) changed under drought stress. The microRNA factor miRNA172E was up-regulated by drought stress, and its up-regulation was dependent on GI, while other miRNA172s were not. Water-loss analyses indicated that gi mutants were more sensitive while miRNA172 over-expressing (miRNA172-OX) plants were less so to drought stress than wild-type plants. Digital gene expression and real-time PCR analyses showed that WRKY44 was down-regulated by GI and miRNA172. The WRKY44 protein could interact with TOE1 (a target of miRNA172) in a yeast two-hybrid system. We proposed that GI–miRNA172–WRKY44 may regulate drought escape and drought tolerance by affecting sugar signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:24223111

  7. The induction of free proline accumulation by endogenous ABA in Arabidopsis thaliana during drought

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, M.L.; Bray, E.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA) and free proline increase in response to drought stress. Exogenous ABA has been shown to induce proline accumulation, suggesting that ABA triggers the amino acid response. To determine if endogenous ABA induces free proline accumulation, increases in ABA and proline during drought stress were compared between wild type (WT), ABA-insensitive (abi) and ABA-deficient (aba) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. If elevated levels of endogenous ABA signal the proline response, then the mutants would not be expected to accumulate proline during stress. abi should be unable to respond to increased levels of endogenous ABA, while aba should be unable to accumulate sufficient ABA to elicit a proline response. Drought-stressed three week old shoots of WT, abi, and aba exhibited different patterns of endogenous ABA accumulation, but similar patterns of proline accumulation over 24 hours. Although the patterns of endogenous ABA accumulation differed, maximum levels were similar in WT and abi, but aba produced approximately 25% less. However, free proline accumulated in all three plant lines. abi exhibited a greater, more rapid increase in free proline over that in either WT or aba. aba, however, showed the same pattern and levels of accumulation as that in WT. Since free proline accumulated to at least similar levels in both WT and mutants, regardless of the levels of ABA accumulation, it may be that only a small endogenous ABA accumulation is required for proline accumulation. Alternatively, endogenous ABA may not be the direct signal for the proline response during drought stress.

  8. Suppression of Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase AtATL78 increases tolerance to cold stress and decreases tolerance to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Woo Taek

    2013-08-19

    AtATL78 is an Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase. RT-PCR and promoter-GUS assays revealed that AtATL78 was up-regulated by cold stress and down-regulated by drought. AtATL78 was localized at the plasma-membrane. Suppression of AtATL78 increased tolerance to cold stress but decreased tolerance to drought. Our data suggests that AtATL78 is a negative regulator of cold stress response and a positive regulator of drought stress response in Arabidopsis. These results further suggest that AtATL78 plays opposing roles in cold and drought stress responses. PMID:23831064

  9. Verticillium Infection Triggers VASCULAR-RELATED NAC DOMAIN7–Dependent de Novo Xylem Formation and Enhances Drought Tolerance in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Reusche, Michael; Thole, Karin; Janz, Dennis; Truskina, Jekaterina; Rindfleisch, Sören; Drübert, Christine; Polle, Andrea; Lipka, Volker; Teichmann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The soilborne fungal plant pathogen Verticillium longisporum invades the roots of its Brassicaceae hosts and proliferates in the plant vascular system. Typical aboveground symptoms of Verticillium infection on Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana are stunted growth, vein clearing, and leaf chloroses. Here, we provide evidence that vein clearing is caused by pathogen-induced transdifferentiation of chloroplast-containing bundle sheath cells to functional xylem elements. In addition, our findings suggest that reinitiation of cambial activity and transdifferentiation of xylem parenchyma cells results in xylem hyperplasia within the vasculature of Arabidopsis leaves, hypocotyls, and roots. The observed de novo xylem formation correlates with Verticillium-induced expression of the VASCULAR-RELATED NAC DOMAIN (VND) transcription factor gene VND7. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the chimeric repressor VND7-SRDX under control of a Verticillium infection-responsive promoter exhibit reduced de novo xylem formation. Interestingly, infected Arabidopsis wild-type plants show higher drought stress tolerance compared with noninfected plants, whereas this effect is attenuated by suppression of VND7 activity. Together, our results suggest that V. longisporum triggers a tissue-specific developmental plant program that compensates for compromised water transport and enhances the water storage capacity of infected Brassicaceae host plants. In conclusion, we provide evidence that this natural plant–fungus pathosystem has conditionally mutualistic features. PMID:23023171

  10. Putrescine accumulation confers drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing the homologous Arginine decarboxylase 2 gene.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Rubén; Planas, Joan; Saxena, Triambak; Zarza, Xavier; Bortolotti, Cristina; Cuevas, Juan; Bitrián, Marta; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Altabella, Teresa

    2010-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, a model genus missing a functional ornithine decarboxylase pathway, most of the key genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis are duplicated. This gene redundancy has been related to the involvement of certain gene isoforms in the response to specific environmental stimuli. We have previously shown that drought stress induces Arginine decarboxlase 2 expression, while transcript levels for Arginine decarboxlase 1 remain constant. Accumulation of putrescine and increased arginine decarboxlase activity (EC 4.1.1.19) levels in response to different abiotic stresses have been reported in many different plant systems, but the biological meaning of this increase remains unclear. To get a new insight into these questions, we have studied the response to drought of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines constitutively expressing the homologous Arginine decarboxlase 2 gene. These lines contain high levels of putrescine with no changes in spermidine and spermine content even under drought stress. Drought tolerance experiments indicate that the different degree of resistance to dehydration correlates with Put content. Although no significant differences were observed in the number of stomata between wild-type and transgenic plants, a reduction in transpiration rate and stomata conductance was observed in the ADC2 over-expressor lines. These results indicate that one of the mechanisms involved in the drought tolerance of transgenic plants over-producing Put is related to a reduction of water loss by transpiration. PMID:20206537

  11. Expression of an Arabidopsis Vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase Gene (AVP1) in Cotton Improves Drought- and Salt Tolerance and Increases Fibre Yield in the Field Conditions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Arabidopsis gene AVP1 encodes a vacuolar pyrophosphatase that functions as a proton pump on the vacuolar membrane. Overexpression of AVP1 in Arabidopsis, tomato and rice enhances plant performance under salt and drought stress conditions, because up-regulation of the type I H+PPase from Arabido...

  12. Expression of an arabidopsis vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase gene (AVP1) in cotton improves drought- and salt tolerance and increases fibre yield in the field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Arabidopsis gene AVP1 encodes a vacuolar pyrophosphatase that functions as a proton pump on the vacuolar membrane. Overexpression of AVP1 in Arabidopsis, tomato and rice enhances plant performance under salt and drought stress conditions, because up-regulation of the type I H+-PPase from Arabid...

  13. A viral RNA silencing suppressor interferes with abscisic acid-mediated signalling and induces drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Westwood, Jack H; McCann, Lucy; Naish, Matthew; Dixon, Heather; Murphy, Alex M; Stancombe, Matthew A; Bennett, Mark H; Powell, Glen; Webb, Alex A R; Carr, John P

    2013-02-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) encodes the 2b protein, which plays a role in local and systemic virus movement, symptom induction and suppression of RNA silencing. It also disrupts signalling regulated by salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. CMV induced an increase in tolerance to drought in Arabidopsis thaliana. This was caused by the 2b protein, as transgenic plants expressing this viral factor showed increased drought tolerance, but plants infected with CMVΔ2b, a viral mutant lacking the 2b gene, did not. The silencing effector ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) controls a microRNA-mediated drought tolerance mechanism and, in this study, we noted that plants (dcl2/3/4 triple mutants) lacking functional short-interfering RNA-mediated silencing were also drought tolerant. However, drought tolerance engendered by CMV may be independent of the silencing suppressor activity of the 2b protein. Although CMV infection did not alter the accumulation of the drought response hormone abscisic acid (ABA), 2b-transgenic and ago1-mutant seeds were hypersensitive to ABA-mediated inhibition of germination. However, the induction of ABA-regulated genes in 2b-transgenic and CMV-infected plants was inhibited more strongly than in ago1-mutant plants. The virus engenders drought tolerance by altering the characteristics of the roots and not of the aerial tissues as, compared with the leaves of silencing mutants, leaves excised from CMV-infected or 2b-transgenic plants showed greater stomatal permeability and lost water more rapidly. This further indicates that CMV-induced drought tolerance is not mediated via a change in the silencing-regulated drought response mechanism. Under natural conditions, virus-induced drought tolerance may serve viruses by aiding susceptible hosts to survive periods of environmental stress. PMID:23083401

  14. A novel bHLH transcription factor PebHLH35 from Populus euphratica confers drought tolerance through regulating stomatal development, photosynthesis and growth in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yan; Wang, Congpeng; Han, Xiao; Tang, Sha; Liu, Sha; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • PebHLH35 is firstly cloned from Populus euphratica and characterized its functions. • PebHLH35 is important for earlier seedling establishment and vegetative growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating stomatal development. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating photosynthesis and transpiration. - Abstract: Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in a variety of physiological processes including the regulation of plant responses to various abiotic stresses. However, few drought-responsive bHLH family members in Populus have been reported. In this study, a novel bHLH gene (PebHLH35) was cloned from Populus euphratica. Expression analysis in P. euphratica revealed that PebHLH35 was induced by drought and abscisic acid. Subcellular localization studies using a PebHLH35-GFP fusion showed that the protein was localized to the nucleus. Ectopic overexpression of PebHLH35 in Arabidopsis resulted in a longer primary root, more leaves, and a greater leaf area under well-watered conditions compared with vector control plants. Notably, PebHLH35 overexpression lines showed enhanced tolerance to water-deficit stress. This finding was supported by anatomical and physiological analyses, which revealed a reduced stomatal density, stomatal aperture, transpiration rate, and water loss, and a higher chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. Our results suggest that PebHLH35 functions as a positive regulator of drought stress responses by regulating stomatal density, stomatal aperture, photosynthesis and growth.

  15. Constitutive production of nitric oxide leads to enhanced drought stress resistance and extensive transcriptional reprogramming in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in plant responses to many environmental stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines that constitutively express rat neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) were described recently. In this study, it is reported that the nNOS transgenic Arabidopsis plants displayed high levels of osmolytes and increased antioxidant enzyme activities. Transcriptomic analysis identified 601 or 510 genes that were differentially expressed as a consequence of drought stress or nNOS transformation, respectively. Pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis, redox, stress, and phytohormone and secondary metabolism were greatly affected by the nNOS transgene. Several CBF genes and members of zinc finger gene families, which are known to regulate transcription in the stress response, were changed by the nNOS transgene. Genes regulated by both the nNOS transgene and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments were compared and identified, including those for two ABA receptors (AtPYL4 and AtPYL5). Moreover, overexpression of AtPYL4 and AtPYL5 enhanced drought resistance, antioxidant enzyme activity, and osmolyte levels. These observations increase our understanding of the role of NO in drought stress response in Arabidopsis. PMID:24868034

  16. Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Expressing Tomato Glutathione S-Transferase Showed Enhanced Resistance to Salt and Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Xing, Xiao-Juan; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Peng, Ri-He; Xue, Yong; Zhao, Wei; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Although glutathione S-transferases (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) are involved in response to abiotic stress, limited information is available regarding gene function in tomato. In this study, a GST gene from tomato, designated LeGSTU2, was cloned and functionally characterized. Expression profile analysis results showed that it was expressed in roots and flowers, and the transcription was induced by salt, osmotic, and heat stress. The gene was then introduced to Arabidopsis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants were normal in terms of growth and maturity compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic plants also showed an enhanced resistance to salt and osmotic stress induced by NaCl and mannitol. The increased tolerance of transgenic plants was correlated with the changes in proline, malondialdehyde and antioxidative emzymes activities. Our results indicated that the gene from tomato plays a positive role in improving tolerance to salinity and drought stresses in Arabidopsis. PMID:26327625

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of Soil-Grown Arabidopsis thaliana Roots and Shoots in Response to a Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Sultana; Bashir, Khurram; Matsui, Akihiro; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress has a negative impact on crop yield. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for plant drought stress tolerance is essential for improving this beneficial trait in crops. In the current study, a transcriptional analysis was conducted of gene regulatory networks in roots of soil-grown Arabidopsis plants in response to a drought stress treatment. A microarray analysis of drought-stressed roots and shoots was performed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days. Results indicated that the expression of many drought stress-responsive genes and abscisic acid biosynthesis-related genes was differentially regulated in roots and shoots from days 3 to 9. The expression of cellular and metabolic process-related genes was up-regulated at an earlier time-point in roots than in shoots. In this regard, the expression of genes involved in oxidative signaling, chromatin structure, and cell wall modification also increased significantly in roots compared to shoots. Moreover, the increased expression of genes involved in the transport of amino acids and other solutes; including malate, iron, and sulfur, was observed in roots during the early time points following the initiation of the drought stress. These data suggest that plants may utilize these signaling channels and metabolic adjustments as adaptive responses in the early stages of a drought stress. Collectively, the results of the present study increases our understanding of the differences pertaining to the molecular mechanisms occurring in roots vs. shoots in response to a drought stress. Furthermore, these findings also aid in the selection of novel genes and promoters that can be used to potentially produce crop plants with increased drought tolerance. PMID:26941754

  18. Transcriptomic Analysis of Soil-Grown Arabidopsis thaliana Roots and Shoots in Response to a Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Sultana; Bashir, Khurram; Matsui, Akihiro; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress has a negative impact on crop yield. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for plant drought stress tolerance is essential for improving this beneficial trait in crops. In the current study, a transcriptional analysis was conducted of gene regulatory networks in roots of soil-grown Arabidopsis plants in response to a drought stress treatment. A microarray analysis of drought-stressed roots and shoots was performed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days. Results indicated that the expression of many drought stress-responsive genes and abscisic acid biosynthesis-related genes was differentially regulated in roots and shoots from days 3 to 9. The expression of cellular and metabolic process-related genes was up-regulated at an earlier time-point in roots than in shoots. In this regard, the expression of genes involved in oxidative signaling, chromatin structure, and cell wall modification also increased significantly in roots compared to shoots. Moreover, the increased expression of genes involved in the transport of amino acids and other solutes; including malate, iron, and sulfur, was observed in roots during the early time points following the initiation of the drought stress. These data suggest that plants may utilize these signaling channels and metabolic adjustments as adaptive responses in the early stages of a drought stress. Collectively, the results of the present study increases our understanding of the differences pertaining to the molecular mechanisms occurring in roots vs. shoots in response to a drought stress. Furthermore, these findings also aid in the selection of novel genes and promoters that can be used to potentially produce crop plants with increased drought tolerance. PMID:26941754

  19. Two Soybean Plant Introductions Display Slow Leaf Wilting and Reduced Yield Loss under Drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to high costs of irrigation, limited availability of irrigation water in many locations genetic improvement for drought tolerance is an effective method to reduce yield loss in soybean. Slow wilting and minimal yield reduction under drought are important traits in evaluating drought tolerance. ...

  20. ZmNAC55, a maize stress-responsive NAC transcription factor, confers drought resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hude; Yu, Lijuan; Han, Ran; Li, Zhanjie; Liu, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Abiotic stress has been shown to significantly limit the growth and productivity of crops. NAC transcription factors play essential roles in response to various abiotic stresses. However, only little information regarding stress-related NAC genes is available in maize. Here, we cloned a maize NAC transcription factor ZmNAC55 and identified its function in drought stress. Transient expression and transactivation assay demonstrated that ZmNAC55 was localized in the nucleus and had transactivation activity. Expression analysis of ZmNAC55 in maize showed that this gene was induced by drought, high salinity and cold stresses and by abscisic acid (ABA). Promoter analysis demonstrated that multiple stress-related cis-acting elements exist in promoter region of ZmNAC55. Overexpression of ZmNAC55 in Arabidopsis led to hypersensitivity to ABA at the germination stage, but enhanced drought resistence compared to wild-type seedlings. Transcriptome analysis identified a number of differentially expressed genes between 35S::ZmNAC55 transgenic and wild-type plants, and many of which are involved in stress response, including twelve qRT-PCR confirmed well-known drought-responsive genes. These results highlight the important role of ZmNAC55 in positive regulates of drought resistence, and may have potential applications in transgenic breeding of drought-tolerant crops. PMID:27085597

  1. Global Transcriptional Analysis Reveals Unique and Shared Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana Exposed to Combined Drought and Pathogen Stress.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aarti; Sarkar, Ananda K; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2016-01-01

    With frequent fluctuations in global climate, plants are exposed to co-occurring drought and pathogen infection and this combination adversely affects plant survival. In the past, some studies indicated that morpho-physiological responses of plants to the combined stress are different from the individual stressed plants. However, interaction of drought stressed plants with pathogen has not been widely studied at molecular level. Such studies are important to understand the defense pathways that operate as part of combined stress tolerance mechanism. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was exposed to individual drought stress, Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) infection and their combination. Using Affymetrix WT gene 1.0 ST array, global transcriptome profiling of leaves under individual drought stress and pathogen infection was compared with their combination. The results obtained from pathway mapping (KAAS and MAPMAN) demonstrated the modulation in defense pathways in A. thaliana under drought and host pathogen Pst DC3000 infection. Further, our study revealed "tailored" responses under combined stress and the time of occurrence of each stress during their concurrence has shown differences in transcriptome profile. Our results from microarray and RT-qPCR revealed regulation of 20 novel genes uniquely during the stress interaction. This study indicates that plants exposed to concurrent drought and pathogen stress experience a new state of stress. Thus, under frequently changing climatic conditions, time of occurrence of each stress in the interaction defines the plant responses and should thus be studied explicitly. PMID:27252712

  2. Global Transcriptional Analysis Reveals Unique and Shared Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana Exposed to Combined Drought and Pathogen Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aarti; Sarkar, Ananda K.; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2016-01-01

    With frequent fluctuations in global climate, plants are exposed to co-occurring drought and pathogen infection and this combination adversely affects plant survival. In the past, some studies indicated that morpho-physiological responses of plants to the combined stress are different from the individual stressed plants. However, interaction of drought stressed plants with pathogen has not been widely studied at molecular level. Such studies are important to understand the defense pathways that operate as part of combined stress tolerance mechanism. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was exposed to individual drought stress, Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) infection and their combination. Using Affymetrix WT gene 1.0 ST array, global transcriptome profiling of leaves under individual drought stress and pathogen infection was compared with their combination. The results obtained from pathway mapping (KAAS and MAPMAN) demonstrated the modulation in defense pathways in A. thaliana under drought and host pathogen Pst DC3000 infection. Further, our study revealed “tailored” responses under combined stress and the time of occurrence of each stress during their concurrence has shown differences in transcriptome profile. Our results from microarray and RT-qPCR revealed regulation of 20 novel genes uniquely during the stress interaction. This study indicates that plants exposed to concurrent drought and pathogen stress experience a new state of stress. Thus, under frequently changing climatic conditions, time of occurrence of each stress in the interaction defines the plant responses and should thus be studied explicitly. PMID:27252712

  3. Does globalization of water reduce societal resilience to drought?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2010-07-01

    Most food production depends, directly or indirectly, on freshwater resources. In the absence of importation of food commodities, population growth is constrained by the availability of local resources—including water—as well as by cultural and health-related factors. The global trade of massive amounts of food makes societies less reliant on locally available water resources, thereby allowing some populations to exceed the limits posed by their local water budget. Thus, international trade implies a virtual transfer of water resources from areas of food production to importing regions. While it is recognized that in the short term this globalization of (virtual) water resources may prevent malnourishment, famine, and conflicts, its long-term effects on the coupled human-natural system remain poorly investigated. Here we develop a minimalist modeling framework to investigate the effect of the uncontrolled trade of food products on the resilience of human societies with respect to drought and famine. Our results suggest that in the long run the globalization of water resources reduces the societal resilience with respect to water limitations in that it leaves fewer options available to cope with exceptional droughts and crop failure.

  4. Expression of Arabidopsis Bax Inhibitor-1 in transgenic sugarcane confers drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Daniel Alves; Melotto-Passarin, Danila Montewka; Barbosa, Mariana de Almeida; Santos, Flavio Dos; Gomez, Sergio Gregorio Perez; Massola Júnior, Nelson Sidnei; Lam, Eric; Carrer, Helaine

    2016-09-01

    The sustainability of global crop production is critically dependent on improving tolerance of crop plants to various types of environmental stress. Thus, identification of genes that confer stress tolerance in crops has become a top priority especially in view of expected changes in global climatic patterns. Drought stress is one of the abiotic stresses that can result in dramatic loss of crop productivity. In this work, we show that transgenic expression of a highly conserved cell death suppressor, Bax Inhibitor-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtBI-1), can confer increased tolerance of sugarcane plants to long-term (>20 days) water stress conditions. This robust trait is correlated with an increased tolerance of the transgenic sugarcane plants, especially in the roots, to induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by the protein glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin. Our findings suggest that suppression of ER stress in C4 grasses, which include important crops such as sorghum and maize, can be an effective means of conferring improved tolerance to long-term water deficit. This result could potentially lead to improved resilience and yield of major crops in the world. PMID:26872943

  5. Arabidopsis Small Rubber Particle Protein Homolog SRPs Play Dual Roles as Positive Factors for Tissue Growth and Development and in Drought Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Yu; Park, Ki Youl; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-04-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) act as repositories for fatty acids and sterols, which are used for various cellular processes such as energy production and membrane and hormone synthesis. LD-associated proteins play important roles in seed development and germination, but their functions in postgermination growth are not well understood. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three SRP homologs (SRP1, SRP2, and SRP3) that share sequence identities with small rubber particle proteins of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this report, the possible cellular roles of SRPs in postgermination growth and the drought tolerance response were investigated. Arabidopsis SRPs appeared to be LD-associated proteins and displayed polymerization properties in vivo and in vitro. SRP-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:SRP1, 35S:SRP2, and 35S:SRP3) exhibited higher vegetative and reproductive growth and markedly better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type Arabidopsis. In addition, constitutive over-expression of SRPs resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in postgermination seedlings. In contrast, single (srp1, 35S:SRP2-RNAi, and srp3) and triple (35S:SRP2-RNAi/srp1srp3) loss-of-function mutant lines exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Our results suggest that Arabidopsis SRPs play dual roles as positive factors in postgermination growth and the drought stress tolerance response. The possible relationships between LD-associated proteins and the drought stress response are discussed. PMID:26903535

  6. Arabidopsis Small Rubber Particle Protein Homolog SRPs Play Dual Roles as Positive Factors for Tissue Growth and Development and in Drought Stress Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Yu; Park, Ki Youl; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) act as repositories for fatty acids and sterols, which are used for various cellular processes such as energy production and membrane and hormone synthesis. LD-associated proteins play important roles in seed development and germination, but their functions in postgermination growth are not well understood. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three SRP homologs (SRP1, SRP2, and SRP3) that share sequence identities with small rubber particle proteins of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this report, the possible cellular roles of SRPs in postgermination growth and the drought tolerance response were investigated. Arabidopsis SRPs appeared to be LD-associated proteins and displayed polymerization properties in vivo and in vitro. SRP-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:SRP1, 35S:SRP2, and 35S:SRP3) exhibited higher vegetative and reproductive growth and markedly better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type Arabidopsis. In addition, constitutive over-expression of SRPs resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in postgermination seedlings. In contrast, single (srp1, 35S:SRP2-RNAi, and srp3) and triple (35S:SRP2-RNAi/srp1srp3) loss-of-function mutant lines exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Our results suggest that Arabidopsis SRPs play dual roles as positive factors in postgermination growth and the drought stress tolerance response. The possible relationships between LD-associated proteins and the drought stress response are discussed. PMID:26903535

  7. Direct and indirect selection on flowering time, water-use efficiency (WUE, δ 13C), and WUE plasticity to drought in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Amanda M; McKay, John K; Richards, James H; Juenger, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time and water-use efficiency (WUE) are two ecological traits that are important for plant drought response. To understand the evolutionary significance of natural genetic variation in flowering time, WUE, and WUE plasticity to drought in Arabidopsis thaliana, we addressed the following questions: (1) How are ecophysiological traits genetically correlated within and between different soil moisture environments? (2) Does terminal drought select for early flowering and drought escape? (3) Is WUE plasticity to drought adaptive and/or costly? We measured a suite of ecophysiological and reproductive traits on 234 spring flowering accessions of A. thaliana grown in well-watered and season-ending soil drying treatments, and quantified patterns of genetic variation, correlation, and selection within each treatment. WUE and flowering time were consistently positively genetically correlated. WUE was correlated with WUE plasticity, but the direction changed between treatments. Selection generally favored early flowering and low WUE, with drought favoring earlier flowering significantly more than well-watered conditions. Selection for lower WUE was marginally stronger under drought. There were no net fitness costs of WUE plasticity. WUE plasticity (per se) was globally neutral, but locally favored under drought. Strong genetic correlation between WUE and flowering time may facilitate the evolution of drought escape, or constrain independent evolution of these traits. Terminal drought favored drought escape in these spring flowering accessions of A. thaliana. WUE plasticity may be favored over completely fixed development in environments with periodic drought. PMID:25512847

  8. Role of arabidopsis MYC and MYB homologs in drought- and abscisic acid-regulated gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Abe, H; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K; Urao, T; Iwasaki, T; Hosokawa, D; Shinozaki, K

    1997-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the induction of a dehydration-responsive gene, rd22, is mediated by abscisic acid (ABA) and requires protein biosynthesis for ABA-dependent gene expression. Previous experiments established that a 67-bp DNA fragment of the rd22 promoter is sufficient for dehydration- and ABA-induced gene expression and that this DNA fragment contains two closely located putative recognition sites for the basic helix-loop-helix protein MYC and one putative recognition site for MYB. We have carefully analyzed the 67-bp region of the rd22 promoter in transgenic tobacco plants and found that both the first MYC site and the MYB recognition site function as cis-acting elements in the dehydration-induced expression of the rd22 gene. A cDNA encoding a MYC-related DNA binding protein was isolated by DNA-ligand binding screening, using the 67-bp region as a probe, and designated rd22BP1. The rd22BP1 cDNA encodes a 68-kD protein that has a typical DNA binding domain of a basic region helix-loop-helix leucine zipper motif in MYC-related transcription factors. The rd22BP1 protein binds specifically to the first MYC recognition site in the 67-bp fragment. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that transcription of the rd22BP1 gene is induced by dehydration stress and ABA treatment, and its induction precedes that of rd22. We have reported a drought- and ABA-inducible gene that encodes the MYB-related protein ATMYB2. In a transient transactivation experiment using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, we demonstrated that both the rd22BP1 and ATMYB2 proteins activate transcription of the rd22 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. These results indicate that both the rd22BP1 (MYC) and ATMYB2 (MYB) proteins function as transcriptional activators in the dehydration- and ABA-inducible expression of the rd22 gene. PMID:9368419

  9. Major latex protein-like protein 43 (MLP43) functions as a positive regulator during abscisic acid responses and confers drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanping; Yang, Li; Chen, Xi; Ye, Tiantian; Zhong, Bao; Liu, Ruijie; Wu, Yan; Chan, Zhulong

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the disadvantageous environmental conditions for plant growth and reproduction. Given the importance of abscisic acid (ABA) to plant growth and abiotic stress responses, identification of novel components involved in ABA signalling transduction is critical. In this study, we screened numerous Arabidopsis thaliana mutants by seed germination assay and identified a mutant mlp43 (major latex protein-like 43) with decreased ABA sensitivity in seed germination. The mlp43 mutant was sensitive to drought stress while the MLP43-overexpressed transgenic plants were drought tolerant. The tissue-specific expression pattern analysis showed that MLP43 was predominantly expressed in cotyledons, primary roots and apical meristems, and a subcellular localization study indicated that MLP43 was localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Physiological and biochemical analyses indicated that MLP43 functioned as a positive regulator in ABA- and drought-stress responses in Arabidopsis through regulating water loss efficiency, electrolyte leakage, ROS levels, and as well as ABA-responsive gene expression. Moreover, metabolite profiling analysis indicated that MLP43 could modulate the production of primary metabolites under drought stress conditions. Reconstitution of ABA signalling components in Arabidopsis protoplasts indicated that MLP43 was involved in ABA signalling transduction and acted upstream of SnRK2s by directly interacting with SnRK2.6 and ABF1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Moreover, ABA and drought stress down-regulated MLP43 expression as a negative feedback loop regulation to the performance of MLP43 in ABA and drought stress responses. Therefore, this study provided new insights for interpretation of physiological and molecular mechanisms of Arabidopsis MLP43 mediating ABA signalling transduction and drought stress responses. PMID:26512059

  10. Major latex protein-like protein 43 (MLP43) functions as a positive regulator during abscisic acid responses and confers drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanping; Yang, Li; Chen, Xi; Ye, Tiantian; Zhong, Bao; Liu, Ruijie; Wu, Yan; Chan, Zhulong

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the disadvantageous environmental conditions for plant growth and reproduction. Given the importance of abscisic acid (ABA) to plant growth and abiotic stress responses, identification of novel components involved in ABA signalling transduction is critical. In this study, we screened numerous Arabidopsis thaliana mutants by seed germination assay and identified a mutant mlp43 (major latex protein-like 43) with decreased ABA sensitivity in seed germination. The mlp43 mutant was sensitive to drought stress while the MLP43-overexpressed transgenic plants were drought tolerant. The tissue-specific expression pattern analysis showed that MLP43 was predominantly expressed in cotyledons, primary roots and apical meristems, and a subcellular localization study indicated that MLP43 was localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Physiological and biochemical analyses indicated that MLP43 functioned as a positive regulator in ABA- and drought-stress responses in Arabidopsis through regulating water loss efficiency, electrolyte leakage, ROS levels, and as well as ABA-responsive gene expression. Moreover, metabolite profiling analysis indicated that MLP43 could modulate the production of primary metabolites under drought stress conditions. Reconstitution of ABA signalling components in Arabidopsis protoplasts indicated that MLP43 was involved in ABA signalling transduction and acted upstream of SnRK2s by directly interacting with SnRK2.6 and ABF1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Moreover, ABA and drought stress down-regulated MLP43 expression as a negative feedback loop regulation to the performance of MLP43 in ABA and drought stress responses. Therefore, this study provided new insights for interpretation of physiological and molecular mechanisms of Arabidopsis MLP43 mediating ABA signalling transduction and drought stress responses. PMID:26512059

  11. Genetic Analysis of Ca2+ Priming in Arabidopsis Guard Cell Stomatal Closure in Response to the Drought Hormone Abscisic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Aaron B.

    2014-11-30

    A primary objective of modern agriculture and biofuel production is to utilize arable land to its fullest potential. However, sub-optimal growing conditions—arising from abiotic stresses such as drought, soil salinity, low humidity, cold, and heat—reduce crop yield and quality. Optimal yield under both stressed and non-stressed conditions requires the plant to activate coping mechanisms at a level commensurate with the severity of the drought stress. The osmotic sensors and associated regulatory mechanisms that initiate drought- and salt-tolerance responses in plants are largely unknown. This research aimed to identify and characterize these initial sensory components.

  12. Soybean Salt Tolerance 1 (GmST1) Reduces ROS Production, Enhances ABA Sensitivity, and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Shuxin; Lyle, Chimera; Jiang, Guo-liang; Penumala, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, including high soil salinity, significantly reduce crop production worldwide. Salt tolerance in plants is a complex trait and is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms and dissecting the components on their regulatory pathways will provide new insights, leading to novel strategies for the improvement of salt tolerance in agricultural and economic crops of importance. Here we report that soybean salt tolerance 1, named GmST1, exhibited strong tolerance to salt stress in the Arabidopsis transgenic lines. The GmST1-overexpressed Arabidopsis also increased sensitivity to ABA and decreased production of reactive oxygen species under salt stress. In addition, GmST1 significantly improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. GmST1 belongs to a 3-prime part of Glyma.03g171600 gene in the current version of soybean genome sequence annotation. However, comparative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis around Glyma.03g171600 genomic region confirmed that GmST1 might serve as an intact gene in soybean leaf tissues. Unlike Glyma.03g171600 which was not expressed in leaves, GmST1 was strongly induced by salt treatment in the leaf tissues. By promoter analysis, a TATA box was detected to be positioned close to GmST1 start codon and a putative ABRE and a DRE cis-acting elements were identified at about 1 kb upstream of GmST1 gene. The data also indicated that GmST1-transgenic lines survived under drought stress and showed a significantly lower water loss than non-transgenic lines. In summary, our results suggest that overexpression of GmST1 significantly improves Arabidopsis tolerance to both salt and drought stresses and the gene may be a potential candidate for genetic engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant crops. PMID:27148284

  13. Soybean Salt Tolerance 1 (GmST1) Reduces ROS Production, Enhances ABA Sensitivity, and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shuxin; Lyle, Chimera; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Penumala, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, including high soil salinity, significantly reduce crop production worldwide. Salt tolerance in plants is a complex trait and is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms and dissecting the components on their regulatory pathways will provide new insights, leading to novel strategies for the improvement of salt tolerance in agricultural and economic crops of importance. Here we report that soybean salt tolerance 1, named GmST1, exhibited strong tolerance to salt stress in the Arabidopsis transgenic lines. The GmST1-overexpressed Arabidopsis also increased sensitivity to ABA and decreased production of reactive oxygen species under salt stress. In addition, GmST1 significantly improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. GmST1 belongs to a 3-prime part of Glyma.03g171600 gene in the current version of soybean genome sequence annotation. However, comparative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis around Glyma.03g171600 genomic region confirmed that GmST1 might serve as an intact gene in soybean leaf tissues. Unlike Glyma.03g171600 which was not expressed in leaves, GmST1 was strongly induced by salt treatment in the leaf tissues. By promoter analysis, a TATA box was detected to be positioned close to GmST1 start codon and a putative ABRE and a DRE cis-acting elements were identified at about 1 kb upstream of GmST1 gene. The data also indicated that GmST1-transgenic lines survived under drought stress and showed a significantly lower water loss than non-transgenic lines. In summary, our results suggest that overexpression of GmST1 significantly improves Arabidopsis tolerance to both salt and drought stresses and the gene may be a potential candidate for genetic engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant crops. PMID:27148284

  14. Moderate drought causes dramatic floral transcriptomic reprogramming to ensure successful reproductive development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drought is a major constraint that leads to extensive losses to agricultural yield worldwide. The potential yield is largely determined during inflorescence development. However, to date, most investigations on plant response to drought have focused on vegetative development. This study describes the morphological changes of reproductive development and the comparison of transcriptomes under various drought conditions. Results The plants grown were studied under two drought conditions: minimum for successful reproduction (45-50% soil water content, moderate drought, MD) and for survival (30-35%, severe drought, SD). MD plants can produce similar number of siliques on the main stem and similar number of seeds per silique comparing with well-water plants. The situation of SD plants was much worse than MD plants. The transcriptomes of inflorescences were further investigated at molecular level using microarrays. Our results showed more than four thousands genes with differential expression under severe drought and less than two thousand changed under moderate drought condition (with 2-fold change and q-value < 0.01). We found a group of genes with increased expression as the drought became more severe, suggesting putative adaptation to the dehydration. Interestingly, we also identified genes with alteration only under the moderate but not the severe drought condition, indicating the existence of distinct sets of genes responsive to different levels of water availability. Further cis-element analyses of the putative regulatory sequences provided more information about the underlying mechanisms for reproductive responses to drought, suggesting possible novel candidate genes that protect those developing flowers under drought stress. Conclusions Different pathways may be activated in response to moderate and severe drought in reproductive tissues, potentially helping plant to maximize its yield and balance the resource consumption between vegetative and

  15. GpDSR7, a Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Gene in Grimmia pilifera Is Involved in Tolerance to Drought Stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengmeng; Li, Yihao; Zhao, Junyi; Liu, Hai; Jia, Shenghua; Li, Jie; Zhao, Heping; Han, Shengcheng; Wang, Yingdian

    2016-01-01

    The growth and development of plants under drought stress depends mainly on the expression levels of various genes and modification of proteins. To clarify the molecular mechanism of drought-tolerance of plants, suppression subtractive hybridisation cDNA libraries were screened to identify drought-stress-responsive unigenes in Grimmia pilifera, and a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase gene, GpDSR7, was identified among the 240 responsive unigenes. GpDSR7 expression was induced by various abiotic stresses, particularly by drought. GpDSR7 displayed E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro and was exclusively localised on the ER membrane in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. GpDSR7-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed a high water content and survival ratio under drought stress. Moreover, the expression levels of some marker genes involved in drought stress were higher in the transgenic plants than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that GpDSR7, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is involved in tolerance to drought stress at the protein modification level. PMID:27228205

  16. GpDSR7, a Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Gene in Grimmia pilifera Is Involved in Tolerance to Drought Stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengmeng; Li, Yihao; Zhao, Junyi; Liu, Hai; Jia, Shenghua; Li, Jie; Zhao, Heping; Han, Shengcheng; Wang, Yingdian

    2016-01-01

    The growth and development of plants under drought stress depends mainly on the expression levels of various genes and modification of proteins. To clarify the molecular mechanism of drought-tolerance of plants, suppression subtractive hybridisation cDNA libraries were screened to identify drought-stress-responsive unigenes in Grimmia pilifera, and a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase gene, GpDSR7, was identified among the 240 responsive unigenes. GpDSR7 expression was induced by various abiotic stresses, particularly by drought. GpDSR7 displayed E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro and was exclusively localised on the ER membrane in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. GpDSR7-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed a high water content and survival ratio under drought stress. Moreover, the expression levels of some marker genes involved in drought stress were higher in the transgenic plants than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that GpDSR7, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is involved in tolerance to drought stress at the protein modification level. PMID:27228205

  17. A wheat PI4K gene whose product possesses threonine autophophorylation activity confers tolerance to drought and salt in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Pan-Pan, Lu; Hu, Di; Chen, Ming; Li, Lian-Cheng; Ma, You-Zhi

    2013-07-01

    Phosphoinositides are involved in regulation of recruitment and activity of signalling proteins in cell membranes. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinases (PI4Ks) generate PI4-phosphate the precursor of regulatory phosphoinositides. No type II PI4K research on the abiotic stress response has previously been reported in plants. A stress-inducible type II PI4K gene, named TaPI4KIIγ, was obtained by de novo transcriptome sequencing of drought-treated wheat (Triticum aestivum). TaPI4KIIγ, localized on the plasma membrane, underwent threonine autophosphorylation, but had no detectable lipid kinase activity. Interaction of TaPI4KIIγ with wheat ubiquitin fusion degradation protein (TaUDF1) indicated that it might be hydrolysed by the proteinase system. Overexpression of TaPI4KIIγ revealed that it could enhance drought and salt stress tolerance during seed germination and seedling growth. A ubdkγ7 mutant, identified as an orthologue of TaPI4KIIγ in Arabidopsis, was sensitive to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and abscisic acid (ABA), and overexpression of TaPI4KIIγ in the ubdkγ7 mutant compensated stress sensitivity. TaPI4KIIγ promoted root growth in Arabidopsis, suggesting that TaPI4KIIγ might enhance stress resistance by improving root growth. Overexpression of TaPI4KIIγ led to an altered expression level of stress-related genes and changes in several physiological traits that made the plants more tolerant to stress. The results provided evidence that overexpression of TaPI4KIIγ could improve drought and salt tolerance. PMID:23682116

  18. Ecological interactions and the fitness effect of water-use efficiency: Competition and drought alter the impact of natural MPK12 alleles in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Campitelli, Brandon E; Des Marais, David L; Juenger, Thomas E

    2016-04-01

    The presence of substantial genetic variation for water-use efficiency (WUE) suggests that natural selection plays a role in maintaining alleles that affect WUE. Soil water deficit can reduce plant survival, and is likely to impose selection to increase WUE, whereas competition for resources may select for decreased WUE to ensure water acquisition. We tested the fitness consequences of natural allelic variation in a single gene (MPK12) that influences WUE in Arabidopsis, using transgenic lines contrasting in MPK12 alleles, under four treatments; drought/competition, drought/no competition, well-watered/competition, well-watered/no competition. Results revealed an allele × environment interaction: Low WUE plants performed better in competition, resulting from increased resource consumption. Contrastingly, high WUE individuals performed better in no competition, irrespective of water availability, presumably from enhanced water conservation and nitrogen acquisition. Our findings suggest that selection can influence MPK12 evolution, and represents the first assessment of plant fitness resulting from natural allelic variation at a single locus affecting WUE. PMID:26868103

  19. NERF encodes a RING E3 ligase important for drought resistance and enhances the expression of its antisense gene NFYA5 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Liu, Wenwen; Zhao, Meng; Li, Wen-Xue

    2015-01-01

    NFYA5 is an important drought-stress inducible transcription factor gene that is targeted by miR169 in Arabidopsis. We show here that the cis-natural antisense transcript gene of NFYA5, NFYA5 Enhancing RING FINGER (NERF), can produce siRNAs from their overlapping region (OR) and affect NFYA5 transcripts by functioning together with miR169. The NERF protein functions as an E3 ligase for ubiquitination. Overexpression of NERF or OR cDNA leads to siRNANERF accumulation, miR169 repression, and NFYA5 transcript enhancement; knock-down of NERF transcripts by an artificial miRNA enhances miR169 abundance and reduces NFYA5 transcripts. Overexpression of NFYA5 does not affect the NERF mRNA level. Deep sequencing of the small RNA library from 35S::OR plants identifies 960 sequences representing 323 unique siRNAs that originate from OR; the sequences of some siRNANERF are similar/complementary to those of miR169. Overexpression of the 195- to 280-bp OR cDNA-containing siRNAs similar/complementary to miR169 also leads to the accumulation of NFYA5 transcripts. Analysis of NERF knock-down plants and NERF overexpression lines showed that, like NFYA5, NERF is important for controlling stomatal aperture and drought resistance. This regulatory model might apply to other natural antisense transcripts with positively correlated expression patterns. PMID:25514924

  20. Pattern of CsICE1 expression under cold or drought treatment and functional verification through analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Z T; Li, C; Shi, H; Wang, H; Wang, Y

    2015-01-01

    CsICE1 is thought to be involved in hardiness resistance of tea plants. Using seedling cuttings of biennial Wuniuzao in this study, the pattern of CsICE1 expression under cold temperature (4°, -5°C), drought [20% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000)], and plant hormone [200 mg/L abscisic acid (ABA), 1 mg/L brassinolide (BR)] treatment was studied by real-time quantitative PCR. Additionally, stress resistance, such as the freezing resistance of CsICE1, was studied using Arabidopsis lines transformed with sense or anti-sense CsICE1 via Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Our results showed that CsICE1 mRNA could be induced under -5°C, PEG, ABA, or BR treatment, although the pattern of expression differed for all treatments. Compared to wild type (WT) and anti-sense ICE1 transgenic lines, sense lines displayed higher relative germination rates under salt and drought stress. After freezing treatment, the sense transgenic lines over-expressing CsICE1 showed a higher survival rate, increased levels of proline, and decreased levels of malonaldehyde. Conversely, compared with WT, anti-sense ICE1 transgenic lines had lower proline levels and higher malonaldehyde levels under freezing conditions. Our study indicates that CsICE1 is an important anti-freezing gene and that over-expression of CsICE1 can improve cold resistance and enhance salt and drought tolerance of transgenic lines. PMID:26400357

  1. Exploiting Differential Gene Expression and Epistasis to Discover Candidate Genes for Drought-Associated QTLs in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, John T.; Mullen, Jack L.; Lowry, David B.; Awole, Kedija; Richards, James H.; Sen, Saunak; Verslues, Paul E.; Juenger, Thomas E.; McKay, John K.

    2015-01-01

    Soil water availability represents one of the most important selective agents for plants in nature and the single greatest abiotic determinant of agricultural productivity, yet the genetic bases of drought acclimation responses remain poorly understood. Here, we developed a systems-genetic approach to characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs), physiological traits and genes that affect responses to soil moisture deficit in the TSUxKAS mapping population of Arabidopsis thaliana. To determine the effects of candidate genes underlying QTLs, we analyzed gene expression as a covariate within the QTL model in an effort to mechanistically link markers, RNA expression, and the phenotype. This strategy produced ranked lists of candidate genes for several drought-associated traits, including water use efficiency, growth, abscisic acid concentration (ABA), and proline concentration. As a proof of concept, we recovered known causal loci for several QTLs. For other traits, including ABA, we identified novel loci not previously associated with drought. Furthermore, we documented natural variation at two key steps in proline metabolism and demonstrated that the mitochondrial genome differentially affects genomic QTLs to influence proline accumulation. These findings demonstrate that linking genome, transcriptome, and phenotype data holds great promise to extend the utility of genetic mapping, even when QTL effects are modest or complex. PMID:25873386

  2. Soil microbiomass vary in their ability to confer drought tolerance to Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helping plants cope with drought is a major agricultural issue that has been addressed by genetic improvement of crops and recently by using specific soil micro-organisms that confer drought tolerance. Here, we analyzed the effect of using co-adapted and non-co-adapted whole soil microbiomes to help...

  3. A G-Protein β Subunit, AGB1, Negatively Regulates the ABA Response and Drought Tolerance by Down-Regulating AtMPK6-Related Pathway in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong-bei; Chen, Ming; Ma, Ya-nan; Xu, Zhao-shi; Li, Lian-cheng; Chen, Yao-feng; Ma, You-zhi

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are versatile regulators involved in diverse cellular processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the function of G-proteins is primarily associated with ABA signaling. However, the downstream effectors and the molecular mechanisms in the ABA pathway remain largely unknown. In this study, an AGB1 mutant (agb1-2) was found to show enhanced drought tolerance, indicating that AGB1 might negatively regulate drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Data showed that AGB1 interacted with protein kinase AtMPK6 that was previously shown to phosphorylate AtVIP1, a transcription factor responding to ABA signaling. Our study found that transcript levels of three ABA responsive genes, AtMPK6, AtVIP1 and AtMYB44 (downstream gene of AtVIP1), were significantly up-regulated in agb1-2 lines after ABA or drought treatments. Other ABA-responsive and drought-inducible genes, such as RD29A (downstream gene of AtMYB44), were also up-regulated in agb1-2 lines. Furthermore, overexpression of AtVIP1 resulted in hypersensitivity to ABA at seed germination and seedling stages, and significantly enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic plants. These results suggest that AGB1 was involved in the ABA signaling pathway and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis through down-regulating the AtMPK6, AtVIP1 and AtMYB44 cascade. PMID:25635681

  4. Transcriptome analysis reveals genes commonly induced by Botrytis cinerea infection, cold, drought and oxidative stresses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sham, Arjun; Al-Azzawi, Ahmed; Al-Ameri, Salma; Al-Mahmoud, Bassam; Awwad, Falah; Al-Rawashdeh, Ahmed; Iratni, Rabah; AbuQamar, Synan

    2014-01-01

    Signaling pathways controlling biotic and abiotic stress responses may interact synergistically or antagonistically. To identify the similarities and differences among responses to diverse stresses, we analyzed previously published microarray data on the transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to infection with Botrytis cinerea (a biotic stress), and to cold, drought, and oxidative stresses (abiotic stresses). Our analyses showed that at early stages after B. cinerea inoculation, 1498 genes were up-regulated (B. cinerea up-regulated genes; BUGs) and 1138 genes were down-regulated (B. cinerea down-regulated genes; BDGs). We showed a unique program of gene expression was activated in response each biotic and abiotic stress, but that some genes were similarly induced or repressed by all of the tested stresses. Of the identified BUGs, 25%, 6% and 12% were also induced by cold, drought and oxidative stress, respectively; whereas 33%, 7% and 5.5% of the BDGs were also down-regulated by the same abiotic stresses. Coexpression and protein-protein interaction network analyses revealed a dynamic range in the expression levels of genes encoding regulatory proteins. Analysis of gene expression in response to electrophilic oxylipins suggested that these compounds are involved in mediating responses to B. cinerea infection and abiotic stress through TGA transcription factors. Our results suggest an overlap among genes involved in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Changes in the transcript levels of genes encoding components of the cyclopentenone signaling pathway in response to biotic and abiotic stresses suggest that the oxylipin signal transduction pathway plays a role in plant defense. Identifying genes that are commonly expressed in response to environmental stresses, and further analyzing the functions of their encoded products, will increase our understanding of the plant stress response. This information could identify targets for genetic

  5. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Genes Commonly Induced by Botrytis cinerea Infection, Cold, Drought and Oxidative Stresses in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ameri, Salma; Al-Mahmoud, Bassam; Awwad, Falah; Al-Rawashdeh, Ahmed; Iratni, Rabah; AbuQamar, Synan

    2014-01-01

    Signaling pathways controlling biotic and abiotic stress responses may interact synergistically or antagonistically. To identify the similarities and differences among responses to diverse stresses, we analyzed previously published microarray data on the transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to infection with Botrytis cinerea (a biotic stress), and to cold, drought, and oxidative stresses (abiotic stresses). Our analyses showed that at early stages after B. cinerea inoculation, 1498 genes were up-regulated (B. cinerea up-regulated genes; BUGs) and 1138 genes were down-regulated (B. cinerea down-regulated genes; BDGs). We showed a unique program of gene expression was activated in response each biotic and abiotic stress, but that some genes were similarly induced or repressed by all of the tested stresses. Of the identified BUGs, 25%, 6% and 12% were also induced by cold, drought and oxidative stress, respectively; whereas 33%, 7% and 5.5% of the BDGs were also down-regulated by the same abiotic stresses. Coexpression and protein-protein interaction network analyses revealed a dynamic range in the expression levels of genes encoding regulatory proteins. Analysis of gene expression in response to electrophilic oxylipins suggested that these compounds are involved in mediating responses to B. cinerea infection and abiotic stress through TGA transcription factors. Our results suggest an overlap among genes involved in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Changes in the transcript levels of genes encoding components of the cyclopentenone signaling pathway in response to biotic and abiotic stresses suggest that the oxylipin signal transduction pathway plays a role in plant defense. Identifying genes that are commonly expressed in response to environmental stresses, and further analyzing the functions of their encoded products, will increase our understanding of the plant stress response. This information could identify targets for genetic

  6. A maize mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, ZmMKK1, positively regulated the salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guohua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Li; Liu, Yang; Pan, Jiaowen; Li, Dequan

    2014-07-15

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are highly conserved signal transduction modules in animals, plants and yeast. MAPK cascades are complicated networks and play vital roles in signal transduction pathways involved in biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a maize MAPKK gene, ZmMKK1, was characterized. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that ZmMKK1 transcripts were induced by diverse stresses and ABA signal molecule in maize root. Further study showed that the ZmMKK1-overexpressing Arabidopsis enhanced the tolerance to salt and drought stresses. However, seed germination, post-germination growth and stomatal aperture analysis demonstrated that ZmMKK1 overexpression was sensitive to ABA in transgenic Arabidopsis. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that the overexpression of ZmMKK1 in Arabidopsis enhanced the expression of ROS scavenging enzyme- and ABA-related genes, such as POD, CAT, RAB18 and RD29A under salt and drought conditions. In addition, heterologous overexpression of ZmMKK1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) improved the tolerance to salt and drought stresses. These results suggested that ZmMKK1 might act as an ABA- and ROS-dependent protein kinase in positive modulation of salt and drought tolerance. Most importantly, ZmMKK1 interacted with ZmMEKK1 as evidenced by yeast two-hybrid assay, redeeming a deficiency of MAPK interaction partners in maize. PMID:24974327

  7. Overexpression of AT14A confers tolerance to drought stress-induced oxidative damage in suspension cultured cells of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; He, Jie; Ding, Haidong; Liu, Hui; Lü, Bing; Liang, Jiansheng; Wang, L; He, J; Ding, H D; Liu, H; Lü, B; Liang, J S

    2015-07-01

    Drought stress can affect interaction between plant cell plasma membrane and cell wall. Arabidopsis AT14A, an integrin-like protein, mediates the cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton continuum (WMC continuum). To gain further insight into the function of AT14A, the role of AT14A in response to drought stress simulated by polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) in Arabidopsis suspension cultures was investigated. The expression of this gene was induced by PEG-6000 resulting from reverse transcription-PCR, which was further confirmed by the expression data from publically available microarray datasets. Compared to the wild-type cells, overexpression of AT14A (AT14A-OE) in Arabidopsis cultures exhibited a greater ability to adapt to water deficit, as evidenced by higher biomass accumulation and cell survival rate. Furthermore, AT14A-OE cells showed a higher tolerance to PEG-induced oxidative damage, as reflected by less H2O2 content, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) content), and ion leakage, which was further verified by maintaining high levels of activities of antioxidant defense enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase and soluble protein. Taken together, our results suggest that overexpression of AT14A improves drought stress tolerance and that AT14A is involved in suppressing oxidative damage under drought stress in part via regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:25500719

  8. Overexpression of a NF-YB3 transcription factor from Picea wilsonii confers tolerance to salinity and drought stress in transformed Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Dun; Liu, Yajing; Luo, Chaobing; Zhou, Yanni; Zhang, Lingyun

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a highly conserved transcription factor comprising NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits. To date, the roles of NF-Y subunit in plant still remain elusive. In this study, a subunit NF-YB (PwNF-YB3), was isolated from Picea wilsonii Mast. and its role was studied. PwNF-YB3 transcript was detected in all vegetative and reproductive tissues with higher levels in stem and root and was greatly induced by salinity, heat and PEG but not by cold and ABA treatment. Over-expression of PwNF-YB3 in Arabidopsis showed a significant acceleration in the onset of flowering and resulted in more vigorous seed germination and significant tolerance for seedlings under salinity, drought and osmotic stress compared with wild type plants. Transcription levels of salinity-responsive gene (SOS3) and drought-induced gene (CDPK1) were substantially higher in transgenic Arabidopsis than in wild-type plants. Importantly, CBF pathway markers (COR15B, KIN1, LEA76), but not ABA pathway markers CBF4, were greatly induced under condition of drought. The nuclear localization showed that NF-YB3 acted as a transcription factor. Taken together, the data provide evidence that PwNF-YB3 positively confers significant tolerance to salt, osmotic and drought stress in transformed Arabidopsis plants probably through modulating gene regulation in CBF-dependent pathway. PMID:26093308

  9. [Nucleotide polymorphism in the drought induced transcription factor CBF4 region of Arabidopsis thaliana and its molecular evolution analyses].

    PubMed

    Hao, Gang-Ping; Wu, Zhong-Yi; Cao, Ming-Qing; Pelletier, Georges; Brunel, Dominique; Huang, Cong-Lin; Yang, Qing

    2004-12-01

    Intraspecific nucleotide polymorphism in the drought induced transcription factor CBF4 region of Arabidopsis thaliana was analyzed with 17 core accessions growing in different ecoclimate. High density of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (Indel) were found, on average 1 SNP per 35.8 bp and 1 Indel per 143 bp. Nucleotide polymorphism in non-coding region was three times higher than that in coding region. In coding region of CBF4, SNP frequency is one SNP per 96.4 bp, one nonsynonymous mutation was detected from 25 av, 203 av and 244 av accessions, which is the 205th site amino acid variation: gly <--> val caused by the 1034th site (corresponding to 19,696 site nucleotide of GenBank No. AB015478 as 1) nucleotide variation: G <--> T. Statistical result of nucleotide diversity showed that linkage disequilibrium (LD) existed in large-scale region of CBF4 and recombination event was also detected in 5' non-coding region. Identical to the results of other genes of Arabidopsis, different regions of the gene were seemingly under different selective pressures. Balancing selection resulted in high nucleotide diversity in 3' non-coding region, and the neutral mutation hypothesis can explain the DNA polymorphism in coding region, whereas, nature positive selection in the population affected nucleotide variation in 5' non-coding region of gene. PMID:15633649

  10. Arabidopsis galactinol synthase AtGolS2 improves drought tolerance in the monocot model Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Himuro, Yasuyo; Ishiyama, Kanako; Mori, Fumie; Gondo, Takahiro; Takahashi, Fuminori; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Akashi, Ryo

    2014-08-15

    Brachypodium distachyon (purple false brome) is a herbaceous species belonging to the grass subfamily Pooideae, which also includes major crops like wheat, barley, oat and rye. The species has been established as experimental model organism for understanding and improving cereal crops and temperate grasses. The complete genome of Bd21, the community standard line of B. distachyon, has been sequenced and protocols for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation have been published. Further improvements to the experimental platform including better evaluation systems for transgenic plants are still needed. Here we describe the growth conditions for Bd21 plants yielding highly responsive immature embryos that can generate embryogenic calli for transformation. A prolonged 20-h photoperiod produced seeds with superior immature embryos. In addition, osmotic treatment of embryogenic calli enhanced the efficiency of transfection by particle bombardment. We generated transgenic plants expressing Arabidopsis thaliana galactinol synthase 2 (AtGolS2) in these experiments. AtGolS2-expressing transgenics displayed significantly improved drought tolerance, increasing with increased expression of AtGolS2. These results demonstrate that AtGolS2 can confer drought tolerance to monocots and confirm that Brachypodium is a useful model to further explore ways to understand and improve major monocot crop species. PMID:24973584

  11. Genetic improvement of sugarcane for drought and salinity stress tolerance using Arabidopsis vacuolar pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tanweer; Uzma; Khan, Muhammad Ramzan; Abbas, Zaheer; Ali, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    Sugarcane plant is a glycophyte, hence its growth and sucrose contents are severely affected by drought and salinity stresses. Bioengineering approaches offer a plausible and rapid solution to mitigate these losses. Therefore for genetic improvement of sugarcane against these stresses, the present study was conceived to transform Arabidopsis Vacuolar Pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene--confers tolerance against drought and salinity--into sugarcane through Agrobacterium. For this purpose, highly regenerable apical buds of sugarcane variety CP77-400 were used as explants. EHA105 strain of Agrobacterium harboring pGreen0029 vector containing AVP1 gene driven under 35SCaMV promoter was employed for transformation. The key factors studied include application of acetosyringone, cefotaxime, kanamycin, and co-cultivation period for successful transformation. Maximum regeneration frequency of 77.5 % was achieved on MS media containing 1 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l Kn, 1 mg/l GA₃, 0.25 mg/l NAA, 50 μM acetosyringone, 500 mg/l cefotaxime, and 150 mg/l kanamycin on 3 days of co-cultivation. The results revealed that apical buds are distinctive viable tissues for sugarcane transformation and regeneration to produce a large number of CP77-400 transgenic plants in shorter period of time without intervening mosaics and chimeras. The AVP1 transcripts expression in transgenic lines at various levels was detected by RT-PCR. Longer and profuse root system was observed in transgenic plants in comparison with control plants. Concomitantly, only transgenic plants were able to withstand higher NaCl salt stress as well as scarcity of water thus, showing tolerance against salinity and drought stresses. PMID:24002911

  12. Heterologous Expression of Two Jatropha Aquaporins Imparts Drought and Salt Tolerance and Improves Seed Viability in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Kasim; Agarwal, Pallavi; Shanware, Arti; Sane, Vidhu Aniruddha

    2015-01-01

    Drought and high salinity are environmental conditions that cause adverse effects on the growth and productivity of crops. Aquaporins are small integral membrane proteins that belong to the family of the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), with members in animals, plants and microbes, where they facilitate the transport of water and/or small neutral solutes thereby affecting water balance. In this study we characterized two aquaporin genes namely, plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP2;7) and tonoplast intrinsic protein TIP1;3 from Jatropha curcas that are localised to the plasma membrane and vacuole respectively. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing JcPIP2;7 and JcTIP1;3 under a constitutive promoter show improved germination under high salt and mannitol compared to control seeds. These transgenic plants also show increased root length under abiotic stress conditions compared to wild type Col-0 plants. Transgenic lines exposed to drought conditions by withholding water for 20 days, were able to withstand water stress and attained normal growth after re-watering unlike control plants which could not survive. Transgenic lines also had better seed yield than control under salt stress. Importantly, seed viability of transgenic plants grown under high salt concentration was 35%-45% compared to less than 5% for control seeds obtained from plants growing under salt stress. The effect of JcPIP2;7 and JcTIP1;3 on improving germination and seed viability in drought and salinity make these important candidates for genetic manipulation of plants for growth in saline soils. PMID:26067295

  13. Heterologous Expression of Two Jatropha Aquaporins Imparts Drought and Salt Tolerance and Improves Seed Viability in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kasim; Agarwal, Pallavi; Shanware, Arti; Sane, Vidhu Aniruddha

    2015-01-01

    Drought and high salinity are environmental conditions that cause adverse effects on the growth and productivity of crops. Aquaporins are small integral membrane proteins that belong to the family of the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), with members in animals, plants and microbes, where they facilitate the transport of water and/or small neutral solutes thereby affecting water balance. In this study we characterized two aquaporin genes namely, plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP2;7) and tonoplast intrinsic protein TIP1;3 from Jatropha curcas that are localised to the plasma membrane and vacuole respectively. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing JcPIP2;7 and JcTIP1;3 under a constitutive promoter show improved germination under high salt and mannitol compared to control seeds. These transgenic plants also show increased root length under abiotic stress conditions compared to wild type Col-0 plants. Transgenic lines exposed to drought conditions by withholding water for 20 days, were able to withstand water stress and attained normal growth after re-watering unlike control plants which could not survive. Transgenic lines also had better seed yield than control under salt stress. Importantly, seed viability of transgenic plants grown under high salt concentration was 35%-45% compared to less than 5% for control seeds obtained from plants growing under salt stress. The effect of JcPIP2;7 and JcTIP1;3 on improving germination and seed viability in drought and salinity make these important candidates for genetic manipulation of plants for growth in saline soils. PMID:26067295

  14. Paenibacillus yonginensis DCY84(T) induces changes in Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression against aluminum, drought, and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Choi, Eul-Su; Koh, Sung-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Yu-Jin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2015-03-01

    Current agricultural production methods, for example the improper use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, create many health and environmental problems. Use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) for agricultural benefits is increasing worldwide and also appears to be a trend for the future. There is possibility to develop microbial inoculants for use in agricultural biotechnology, based on these beneficial plant-microbe interactions. For this study, ten bacterial strains were isolated from Yongin forest soil for which in vitro plant-growth promoting trait screenings, such as indole acetic acid (IAA) production, a phosphate solubilization test, and a siderophore production test were used to select two PGPB candidates. Arabidopsis thaliana plants were inoculated with Paenibacillus yonginensis DCY84(T) and Micrococcus yunnanensis PGPB7. Salt stress, drought stress and heavy metal (aluminum) stress challenges indicated that P. yonginensis DCY84(T)-inoculated plants were more resistant than control plants. AtRSA1, AtVQ9 and AtWRKY8 were used as the salinity responsive genes. The AtERD15, AtRAB18, and AtLT178 were selected to check A. thaliana responses to drought stress. Aluminum stress response was checked using AtAIP, AtALS3 and AtALMT1. The qRT-PCR results indicated that P. yonginensis DCY84(T) can promote plant tolerance against salt, drought, and aluminum stress. P. yonginensis DCY84(T) also showed positive results during in vitro compatibility testing and virulence assay against X. oryzae pv. oryzae Philippine race 6 (PXO99). Better germination rates and growth parameters were also recorded for the P. yonginensis DCY84(T) Chuchung cultivar rice seed which was grown on coastal soil collected from Suncheon. Based on these results, P. yonginensis DCY84(T) can be used as a promising PGPB isolate for crop improvement. PMID:25721473

  15. Severe summer heatwave and drought strongly reduced carbon uptake in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenping; Cai, Wenwen; Chen, Yang; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Zhang, Haicheng; Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhuoqi; He, Honglin; Guo, Weidong; Liu, Dan; Liu, Shaoming; Xiang, Wenhua; Xie, Zhenghui; Zhao, Zhonghui; Zhou, Guomo

    2016-01-01

    Increasing heatwave and drought events can potentially alter the carbon cycle. Few studies have investigated the impacts of hundred-year return heatwaves and droughts, as those events are rare. In the summer of 2013, southern China experienced its strongest drought and heatwave on record for the past 113 years. We show that the record-breaking heatwave and drought lasted two months (from July to August), significantly reduced the satellite-based vegetation index and gross primary production, substantially altered the regional carbon cycle, and produced the largest negative crop yield anomaly since 1960. The event resulted in a net reduction of 101.54 Tg C in carbon sequestration in the region during these two months, which was 39-53% of the annual net carbon sink of China's terrestrial ecosystems (190-260 Tg C yr(-1)). Moreover, model experiments showed that heatwaves and droughts consistently decreased ecosystem vegetation primary production but had opposite impacts on ecosystem respiration (TER), with increased TER by 6.78 ± 2.15% and decreased TER by 15.34 ± 3.57% assuming only changed temperature and precipitation, respectively. In light of increasing frequency and severity of future heatwaves and droughts, our study highlights the importance of accounting for the impacts of heatwaves and droughts in assessing the carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26739761

  16. Severe summer heatwave and drought strongly reduced carbon uptake in Southern China

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yuan, Wenping; Cai, Wenwen; Chen, Yang; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Zhang, Haicheng; Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhuoqi; He, Honglin; Guo, Weidong; et al

    2016-01-07

    Increasing heatwave and drought events can potentially alter the carbon cycle. Few studies have investigated the impacts of hundred-year return heatwaves and droughts, as those events are rare. In the summer of 2013, southern China experienced its strongest drought and heatwave on record for the past 113 years. We show that the record-breaking heatwave and drought lasted two months (from July to August), significantly reduced the satellite-based vegetation index and gross primary production, substantially altered the regional carbon cycle, and produced the largest negative crop yield anomaly since 1960. The event resulted in a net reduction of 101.54 Tg Cmore » in carbon sequestration in the region during these two months, which was 39–53% of the annual net carbon sink of China’s terrestrial ecosystems (190–260 Tg C yr-1). Moreover, model experiments showed that heatwaves and droughts consistently decreased ecosystem vegetation primary production but had opposite impacts on ecosystem respiration (TER), with increased TER by 6.78 ± 2.15% and decreased TER by 15.34 ± 3.57% assuming only changed temperature and precipitation, respectively. As a result, in light of increasing frequency and severity of future heatwaves and droughts, our study highlights the importance of accounting for the impacts of heatwaves and droughts in assessing the carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems.« less

  17. Severe summer heatwave and drought strongly reduced carbon uptake in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wenping; Cai, Wenwen; Chen, Yang; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Zhang, Haicheng; Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhuoqi; He, Honglin; Guo, Weidong; Liu, Dan; Liu, Shaoming; Xiang, Wenhua; Xie, Zhenghui; Zhao, Zhonghui; Zhou, Guomo

    2016-01-01

    Increasing heatwave and drought events can potentially alter the carbon cycle. Few studies have investigated the impacts of hundred-year return heatwaves and droughts, as those events are rare. In the summer of 2013, southern China experienced its strongest drought and heatwave on record for the past 113 years. We show that the record-breaking heatwave and drought lasted two months (from July to August), significantly reduced the satellite-based vegetation index and gross primary production, substantially altered the regional carbon cycle, and produced the largest negative crop yield anomaly since 1960. The event resulted in a net reduction of 101.54 Tg C in carbon sequestration in the region during these two months, which was 39-53% of the annual net carbon sink of China’s terrestrial ecosystems (190-260 Tg C yr-1). Moreover, model experiments showed that heatwaves and droughts consistently decreased ecosystem vegetation primary production but had opposite impacts on ecosystem respiration (TER), with increased TER by 6.78 ± 2.15% and decreased TER by 15.34 ± 3.57% assuming only changed temperature and precipitation, respectively. In light of increasing frequency and severity of future heatwaves and droughts, our study highlights the importance of accounting for the impacts of heatwaves and droughts in assessing the carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems.

  18. Severe summer heatwave and drought strongly reduced carbon uptake in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wenping; Cai, Wenwen; Chen, Yang; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Zhang, Haicheng; Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhuoqi; He, Honglin; Guo, Weidong; Liu, Dan; Liu, Shaoming; Xiang, Wenhua; Xie, Zhenghui; Zhao, Zhonghui; Zhou, Guomo

    2016-01-01

    Increasing heatwave and drought events can potentially alter the carbon cycle. Few studies have investigated the impacts of hundred-year return heatwaves and droughts, as those events are rare. In the summer of 2013, southern China experienced its strongest drought and heatwave on record for the past 113 years. We show that the record-breaking heatwave and drought lasted two months (from July to August), significantly reduced the satellite-based vegetation index and gross primary production, substantially altered the regional carbon cycle, and produced the largest negative crop yield anomaly since 1960. The event resulted in a net reduction of 101.54 Tg C in carbon sequestration in the region during these two months, which was 39–53% of the annual net carbon sink of China’s terrestrial ecosystems (190–260 Tg C yr−1). Moreover, model experiments showed that heatwaves and droughts consistently decreased ecosystem vegetation primary production but had opposite impacts on ecosystem respiration (TER), with increased TER by 6.78 ± 2.15% and decreased TER by 15.34 ± 3.57% assuming only changed temperature and precipitation, respectively. In light of increasing frequency and severity of future heatwaves and droughts, our study highlights the importance of accounting for the impacts of heatwaves and droughts in assessing the carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26739761

  19. Time-Series Transcriptomics Reveals That AGAMOUS-LIKE22 Affects Primary Metabolism and Developmental Processes in Drought-Stressed Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Penfold, Christopher A.; Jenkins, Dafyd J.; Legaie, Roxane; Lawson, Tracy; Vialet-Chabrand, Silvere R.M.; Subramaniam, Sunitha; Hickman, Richard; Feil, Regina; Bowden, Laura; Hill, Claire; Lunn, John E.; Finkenstädt, Bärbel; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Beynon, Jim; Wild, David L.; Ott, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, changes in metabolism and gene expression drive increased drought tolerance and initiate diverse drought avoidance and escape responses. To address regulatory processes that link these responses, we set out to identify genes that govern early responses to drought. To do this, a high-resolution time series transcriptomics data set was produced, coupled with detailed physiological and metabolic analyses of plants subjected to a slow transition from well-watered to drought conditions. A total of 1815 drought-responsive differentially expressed genes were identified. The early changes in gene expression coincided with a drop in carbon assimilation, and only in the late stages with an increase in foliar abscisic acid content. To identify gene regulatory networks (GRNs) mediating the transition between the early and late stages of drought, we used Bayesian network modeling of differentially expressed transcription factor (TF) genes. This approach identified AGAMOUS-LIKE22 (AGL22), as key hub gene in a TF GRN. It has previously been shown that AGL22 is involved in the transition from vegetative state to flowering but here we show that AGL22 expression influences steady state photosynthetic rates and lifetime water use. This suggests that AGL22 uniquely regulates a transcriptional network during drought stress, linking changes in primary metabolism and the initiation of stress responses. PMID:26842464

  20. Time-Series Transcriptomics Reveals That AGAMOUS-LIKE22 Affects Primary Metabolism and Developmental Processes in Drought-Stressed Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Ulrike; Penfold, Christopher A; Jenkins, Dafyd J; Legaie, Roxane; Moore, Jonathan D; Lawson, Tracy; Matthews, Jack S A; Vialet-Chabrand, Silvere R M; Baxter, Laura; Subramaniam, Sunitha; Hickman, Richard; Florance, Hannah; Sambles, Christine; Salmon, Deborah L; Feil, Regina; Bowden, Laura; Hill, Claire; Baker, Neil R; Lunn, John E; Finkenstädt, Bärbel; Mead, Andrew; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Beynon, Jim; Rand, David A; Wild, David L; Denby, Katherine J; Ott, Sascha; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Mullineaux, Philip M

    2016-02-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, changes in metabolism and gene expression drive increased drought tolerance and initiate diverse drought avoidance and escape responses. To address regulatory processes that link these responses, we set out to identify genes that govern early responses to drought. To do this, a high-resolution time series transcriptomics data set was produced, coupled with detailed physiological and metabolic analyses of plants subjected to a slow transition from well-watered to drought conditions. A total of 1815 drought-responsive differentially expressed genes were identified. The early changes in gene expression coincided with a drop in carbon assimilation, and only in the late stages with an increase in foliar abscisic acid content. To identify gene regulatory networks (GRNs) mediating the transition between the early and late stages of drought, we used Bayesian network modeling of differentially expressed transcription factor (TF) genes. This approach identified AGAMOUS-LIKE22 (AGL22), as key hub gene in a TF GRN. It has previously been shown that AGL22 is involved in the transition from vegetative state to flowering but here we show that AGL22 expression influences steady state photosynthetic rates and lifetime water use. This suggests that AGL22 uniquely regulates a transcriptional network during drought stress, linking changes in primary metabolism and the initiation of stress responses. PMID:26842464

  1. Downregulation of N-terminal acetylation triggers ABA-mediated drought responses in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Linster, Eric; Stephan, Iwona; Bienvenut, Willy V.; Maple-Grødem, Jodi; Myklebust, Line M.; Huber, Monika; Reichelt, Michael; Sticht, Carsten; Geir Møller, Simon; Meinnel, Thierry; Arnesen, Thomas; Giglione, Carmela; Hell, Rüdiger; Wirtz, Markus

    2015-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (NTA) catalysed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (Nats) is among the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes, but its significance is still enigmatic. Here we characterize the plant NatA complex and reveal evolutionary conservation of NatA biochemical properties in higher eukaryotes and uncover specific and essential functions of NatA for development, biosynthetic pathways and stress responses in plants. We show that NTA decreases significantly after drought stress, and NatA abundance is rapidly downregulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid. Accordingly, transgenic downregulation of NatA induces the drought stress response and results in strikingly drought resistant plants. Thus, we propose that NTA by the NatA complex acts as a cellular surveillance mechanism during stress and that imprinting of the proteome by NatA is an important switch for the control of metabolism, development and cellular stress responses downstream of abscisic acid. PMID:26184543

  2. Arabidopsis Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase CPK10 Functions in Abscisic Acid- and Ca2+-Mediated Stomatal Regulation in Response to Drought Stress1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun-Jie; Wei, Feng-Ju; Wang, Cun; Wu, Juan-Juan; Ratnasekera, Disna; Liu, Wen-Xin; Wu, Wei-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Plant calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) may function as calcium sensors and play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development and in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome encodes 34 CDPKs, and most of them have not been functionally characterized. Here, we report the functional characterization of CPK10 in Arabidopsis response to drought stress. The cpk10 mutant, a T-DNA insertion mutant for the Arabidopsis CPK10 gene, showed a much more sensitive phenotype to drought stress compared with wild-type plants, while the CPK10 overexpression lines displayed enhanced tolerance to drought stress. Induction of stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening by abscisic acid (ABA) and Ca2+ were impaired in the cpk10 mutants. Using yeast two-hybrid methods, a heat shock protein, HSP1, was identified as a CPK10-interacting protein. The interaction between CPK10 and HSP1 was further confirmed by pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. The HSP1 knockout mutant (hsp1) plants showed a similar sensitive phenotype under drought stress as the cpk10 mutant plants and were similarly less sensitive to ABA and Ca2+ in regulation of stomatal movements. Electrophysiological experiments showed that ABA and Ca2+ inhibition of the inward K+ currents in stomatal guard cells were impaired in the cpk10 and hsp1 mutants. All presented data demonstrate that CPK10, possibly by interacting with HSP1, plays important roles in ABA- and Ca2+-mediated regulation of stomatal movements. PMID:20805328

  3. Molecular genetic analysis of the drought-inducible linker histone variant in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, R; Gantt, J S

    1999-09-01

    Linker histones are ubiquitous structural components of chromatin that have been shown to influence the expression of a subset of genes in diverse organisms. Plants contain a minor linker histone variant that is expressed in most tissues of all organs, and is induced during drought stress. Based on reporter gene analysis in roots, His1-3 is expressed almost exclusively in emerging secondary roots in unstressed plants, but is primarily expressed in the root meristem and elongation zone of stressed plants. In shoots, expression is higher in younger tissues than older tissues. In order to investigate the function of H1-3, we have generated lines with altered levels of H1-3. Plants expressing an antisense His1-3 transcript exhibit a greatly impaired induction (5% of wild-type RNA levels during stress) of His1-3 transcripts in shoots during drought and contain decreased protein relative to wild-type control plants. In plants overexpressing His1-3, more H1-3 is bound to chromatin than in unstressed wild-type plants. None of the plants containing these transgenes display phenotypic aberrations or differences in water content during drought stress. Additionally, the expression of several drought-responsive genes is not significantly altered in lines misexpressing His1-3. PMID:10579484

  4. GhWRKY68 Reduces Resistance to Salt and Drought in Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Haihong; Wang, Chen; Wang, Fang; Liu, Shuchang; Li, Guilin; Guo, Xingqi

    2015-01-01

    The WRKY transcription factors modulate numerous physiological processes, including plant growth, development and responses to various environmental stresses. Currently, our understanding of the functions of the majority of the WRKY family members and their possible roles in signalling crosstalk is limited. In particular, very few WRKYs have been identified and characterised from an economically important crop, cotton. In this study, we characterised a novel group IIc WRKY gene, GhWRKY68, which is induced by different abiotic stresses and multiple defence-related signalling molecules. The β-glucuronidase activity driven by the GhWRKY68 promoter was enhanced after exposure to drought, salt, abscisic acid (ABA) and H2O2. The overexpression of GhWRKY68 in Nicotiana benthamiana reduced resistance to drought and salt and affected several physiological indices. GhWRKY68 may mediate salt and drought responses by modulating ABA content and enhancing the transcript levels of ABA-responsive genes. GhWRKY68-overexpressing plants exhibited reduced tolerance to oxidative stress after drought and salt stress treatments, which correlated with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced enzyme activities, elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) content and altered ROS-related gene expression. These results indicate that GhWRKY68 is a transcription factor that responds to drought and salt stresses by regulating ABA signalling and modulating cellular ROS. PMID:25793865

  5. MzPIP2;1: An Aquaporin Involved in Radial Water Movement in Both Water Uptake and Transportation, Altered the Drought and Salt Tolerance of Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Qiong; Feng, Chao; Gao, Yinan; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yu; Wang, Zhi; Kong, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Plants are unavoidably subjected to various abiotic stressors, including high salinity, drought and low temperature, which results in water deficit and even death. Water uptake and transportation play a critical role in response to these stresses. Many aquaporin proteins, localized at different tissues, function in various transmembrane water movements. We targeted at the key aquaporin in charge of both water uptake in roots and radial water transportation from vascular tissues through the whole plant. Results The MzPIP2;1 gene encoding a plasma membrane intrinsic protein was cloned from salt-tolerant apple rootstock Malus zumi Mats. The GUS gene was driven by MzPIP2;1 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis. It indicated that MzPIP2;1 might function in the epidermal and vascular cells of roots, parenchyma cells around vessels through the stems and vascular tissues of leaves. The ectopically expressed MzPIP2;1 conferred the transgenic Arabidopsis plants enhanced tolerance to slight salt and drought stresses, but sensitive to moderate salt stress, which was indicated by root length, lateral root number, fresh weight and K+/Na+ ratio. In addition, the possible key cis-elements in response to salt, drought and cold stresses were isolated by the promoter deletion experiment. Conclusion The MzPIP2;1 protein, as a PIP2 aquaporins subgroup member, involved in radial water movement, controls water absorption and usage efficiency and alters transgenic plants drought and salt tolerance. PMID:26562158

  6. Plant responses to increasing CO2 reduce estimates of climate impacts on drought severity.

    PubMed

    Swann, Abigail L S; Hoffman, Forrest M; Koven, Charles D; Randerson, James T

    2016-09-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 will make Earth warmer, and many studies have inferred that this warming will cause droughts to become more widespread and severe. However, rising atmospheric CO2 also modifies stomatal conductance and plant water use, processes that are often are overlooked in impact analysis. We find that plant physiological responses to CO2 reduce predictions of future drought stress, and that this reduction is captured by using plant-centric rather than atmosphere-centric metrics from Earth system models (ESMs). The atmosphere-centric Palmer Drought Severity Index predicts future increases in drought stress for more than 70% of global land area. This area drops to 37% with the use of precipitation minus evapotranspiration (P-E), a measure that represents the water flux available to downstream ecosystems and humans. The two metrics yield consistent estimates of increasing stress in regions where precipitation decreases are more robust (southern North America, northeastern South America, and southern Europe). The metrics produce diverging estimates elsewhere, with P-E predicting decreasing stress across temperate Asia and central Africa. The differing sensitivity of drought metrics to radiative and physiological aspects of increasing CO2 partly explains the divergent estimates of future drought reported in recent studies. Further, use of ESM output in offline models may double-count plant feedbacks on relative humidity and other surface variables, leading to overestimates of future stress. The use of drought metrics that account for the response of plant transpiration to changing CO2, including direct use of P-E and soil moisture from ESMs, is needed to reduce uncertainties in future assessment. PMID:27573831

  7. WRKY1 regulates stomatal movement in drought-stressed Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhu; Li, Chun-Long; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    A key response of plants to moisture stress is stomatal closure, a process mediated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Closure is affected by changes in the turgor of the stomatal guard cell. The transcription factor WRKY1 is a part of the regulatory machinery underlying stomatal movements, and through this, in the plant's response to drought stress. The loss-of-function T-DNA insertion mutant wrky1 was particularly sensitive to ABA, with respect to both ion channel regulation and stomatal movements, and less sensitive to drought than the wild type. Complementation of the wrky1 mutant resulted in the recovery of the wild type phenotype. The WRKY1 product localized to the nucleus, and was shown able to bind to the W-box domain in the promoters of MYB2, ABCG40, DREB1A and ABI5, and thereby to control their transcription in response to drought stress or ABA treatment. WRKY1 is thought to act as a negative regulator in guard cell ABA signalling. PMID:26820136

  8. Drought Stress-Induced Rma1H1, a RING Membrane-Anchor E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Homolog, Regulates Aquaporin Levels via Ubiquitination in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Kyung; Cho, Seok Keun; Son, Ora; Xu, Zhengyi; Hwang, Inhwan; Kim, Woo Taek

    2009-01-01

    Ubiquitination is involved in a variety of biological processes, but the exact role of ubiquitination in abiotic responses is not clearly understood in higher plants. Here, we investigated Rma1H1, a hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) homolog of a human RING membrane-anchor 1 E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase. Bacterially expressed Rma1H1 displayed E3 Ub ligase activity in vitro. Rma1H1 was rapidly induced by various abiotic stresses, including dehydration, and its overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants conferred strongly enhanced tolerance to drought stress. Colocalization experiments with marker proteins revealed that Rma1H1 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Overexpression of Rma1H1 in Arabidopsis inhibited trafficking of an aquaporin isoform PIP2;1 from the ER to the plasma membrane and reduced PIP2;1 levels in protoplasts and transgenic plants. This Rma1H1-induced reduction of PIP2;1 was inhibited by MG132, an inhibitor of the 26S proteasome. Furthermore, Rma1H1 interacted with PIP2;1 in vitro and ubiquitinated it in vivo. Similar to Rma1H1, Rma1, an Arabidopsis homolog of Rma1H1, localized to the ER, and its overexpression reduced the PIP2;1 protein level and inhibited trafficking of PIP2;1 from the ER to the plasma membrane in protoplasts. In addition, reduced expression of Rma homologs resulted in the increased level of PIP2;1 in protoplasts. We propose that Rma1H1 and Rma1 play a critical role in the downregulation of plasma membrane aquaporin levels by inhibiting aquaporin trafficking to the plasma membrane and subsequent proteasomal degradation as a response to dehydration in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. PMID:19234086

  9. Reduced Lateral Root Branching Density Improves Drought Tolerance in Maize1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Ai; Schneider, Hannah; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    An emerging paradigm is that root traits that reduce the metabolic costs of soil exploration improve the acquisition of limiting soil resources. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density will improve drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays) by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration, permitting greater axial root elongation, greater rooting depth, and thereby greater water acquisition from drying soil. Maize recombinant inbred lines with contrasting lateral root number and length (few but long [FL] and many but short [MS]) were grown under water stress in greenhouse mesocosms, in field rainout shelters, and in a second field environment with natural drought. Under water stress in mesocosms, lines with the FL phenotype had substantially less lateral root respiration per unit of axial root length, deeper rooting, greater leaf relative water content, greater stomatal conductance, and 50% greater shoot biomass than lines with the MS phenotype. Under water stress in the two field sites, lines with the FL phenotype had deeper rooting, much lighter stem water isotopic signature, signifying deeper water capture, 51% to 67% greater shoot biomass at flowering, and 144% greater yield than lines with the MS phenotype. These results entirely support the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density improves drought tolerance. The FL lateral root phenotype merits consideration as a selection target to improve the drought tolerance of maize and possibly other cereal crops. PMID:26077764

  10. Warm spring reduced carbon cycle impact of the 2012 US summer drought.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sebastian; Keenan, Trevor F; Fisher, Joshua B; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Desai, Ankur R; Richardson, Andrew D; Scott, Russell L; Law, Beverly E; Litvak, Marcy E; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Peters, Wouter; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T

    2016-05-24

    The global terrestrial carbon sink offsets one-third of the world's fossil fuel emissions, but the strength of this sink is highly sensitive to large-scale extreme events. In 2012, the contiguous United States experienced exceptionally warm temperatures and the most severe drought since the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s, resulting in substantial economic damage. It is crucial to understand the dynamics of such events because warmer temperatures and a higher prevalence of drought are projected in a changing climate. Here, we combine an extensive network of direct ecosystem flux measurements with satellite remote sensing and atmospheric inverse modeling to quantify the impact of the warmer spring and summer drought on biosphere-atmosphere carbon and water exchange in 2012. We consistently find that earlier vegetation activity increased spring carbon uptake and compensated for the reduced uptake during the summer drought, which mitigated the impact on net annual carbon uptake. The early phenological development in the Eastern Temperate Forests played a major role for the continental-scale carbon balance in 2012. The warm spring also depleted soil water resources earlier, and thus exacerbated water limitations during summer. Our results show that the detrimental effects of severe summer drought on ecosystem carbon storage can be mitigated by warming-induced increases in spring carbon uptake. However, the results also suggest that the positive carbon cycle effect of warm spring enhances water limitations and can increase summer heating through biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. PMID:27114518

  11. A novel zinc-finger HIT protein with an additional PAPA-1-like region from Suaeda liaotungensis K. enhanced transgenic Arabidopsis drought and salt stresses tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Lan; Hu, Yu-Xin; Yang, Xing; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Qiu-Li

    2014-12-01

    Zinc-finger HIT belongs to the cross-brace zinc finger protein family and is involved in the regulation of plant defense and stress responses. In this study, we cloned a full-length zinc-finger HIT gene (1,377 bp) named SlPAPA1 using polymerase chain reaction from Suaeda liaotungensis K. and investigated its function by overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis. SlPAPA1 contains a zinc-finger HIT domain and a Pim-1-associated protein-1 (PAP-1)-associated protein-1-like (PAPA-1-like) conserved region. Its expression in S. liaotungensis was induced by drought, high-salt, and cold (4 °C) stresses and by abscisic acid (ABA). Subcellular localization experiments in onion epidermal cells indicated that SlPAPA1 is localized in the nucleus. Yeast-one hybrid assays showed that SlPAPA1 functions as a transcriptional activator. SlPAPA1 transgenic Arabidopsis displayed a higher survival ratio and lower rate of water loss under drought stress; a higher germination ratio, higher survival ratio, and lower root inhibition rate under salt stress; and a lower germination ratio and root inhibition rate under ABA treatment, compared with wild-type Arabidopsis. These results suggested that SlPAPA1 functions as a stress-responsive zinc-finger HIT protein involved in the ABA-dependent signaling pathway and may have potential applications in transgenic breeding to enhance crops abiotic stress tolerances. PMID:25119646

  12. Reduced Root Cortical Cell File Number Improves Drought Tolerance in Maize1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chimungu, Joseph G.; Brown, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that reduced root cortical cell file number (CCFN) would improve drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays) by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration. Maize genotypes with contrasting CCFN were grown under well-watered and water-stressed conditions in greenhouse mesocosms and in the field in the United States and Malawi. CCFN ranged from six to 19 among maize genotypes. In mesocosms, reduced CCFN was correlated with 57% reduction of root respiration per unit of root length. Under water stress in the mesocosms, genotypes with reduced CCFN had between 15% and 60% deeper rooting, 78% greater stomatal conductance, 36% greater leaf CO2 assimilation, and between 52% to 139% greater shoot biomass than genotypes with many cell files. Under water stress in the field, genotypes with reduced CCFN had between 33% and 40% deeper rooting, 28% lighter stem water oxygen isotope enrichment (δ18O) signature signifying deeper water capture, between 10% and 35% greater leaf relative water content, between 35% and 70% greater shoot biomass at flowering, and between 33% and 114% greater yield than genotypes with many cell files. These results support the hypothesis that reduced CCFN improves drought tolerance by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration, enabling deeper soil exploration, greater water acquisition, and improved growth and yield under water stress. The large genetic variation for CCFN in maize germplasm suggests that CCFN merits attention as a breeding target to improve the drought tolerance of maize and possibly other cereal crops. PMID:25355868

  13. Reduced root cortical cell file number improves drought tolerance in maize.

    PubMed

    Chimungu, Joseph G; Brown, Kathleen M; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2014-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that reduced root cortical cell file number (CCFN) would improve drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays) by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration. Maize genotypes with contrasting CCFN were grown under well-watered and water-stressed conditions in greenhouse mesocosms and in the field in the United States and Malawi. CCFN ranged from six to 19 among maize genotypes. In mesocosms, reduced CCFN was correlated with 57% reduction of root respiration per unit of root length. Under water stress in the mesocosms, genotypes with reduced CCFN had between 15% and 60% deeper rooting, 78% greater stomatal conductance, 36% greater leaf CO2 assimilation, and between 52% to 139% greater shoot biomass than genotypes with many cell files. Under water stress in the field, genotypes with reduced CCFN had between 33% and 40% deeper rooting, 28% lighter stem water oxygen isotope enrichment (δ(18)O) signature signifying deeper water capture, between 10% and 35% greater leaf relative water content, between 35% and 70% greater shoot biomass at flowering, and between 33% and 114% greater yield than genotypes with many cell files. These results support the hypothesis that reduced CCFN improves drought tolerance by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration, enabling deeper soil exploration, greater water acquisition, and improved growth and yield under water stress. The large genetic variation for CCFN in maize germplasm suggests that CCFN merits attention as a breeding target to improve the drought tolerance of maize and possibly other cereal crops. PMID:25355868

  14. Cloning of Gossypium hirsutum Sucrose Non-Fermenting 1-Related Protein Kinase 2 Gene (GhSnRK2) and Its Overexpression in Transgenic Arabidopsis Escalates Drought and Low Temperature Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Babatunde; Zhang, Xueyan; Liu, Chuanliang; Yang, Zhaoen; Yang, Zuoren; Wang, Qianhua; Zhao, Ge; Li, Fuguang

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance and the use of modern genetics approaches for the improvement of drought stress tolerance have been major focuses of plant molecular biologists. In the present study, we cloned the Gossypium hirsutum sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (GhSnRK2) gene and investigated its functions in transgenic Arabidopsis. We further elucidated the function of this gene in transgenic cotton using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) techniques. We hypothesized that GhSnRK2 participates in the stress signaling pathway and elucidated its role in enhancing stress tolerance in plants via various stress-related pathways and stress-responsive genes. We determined that the subcellular localization of the GhSnRK2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) was localized in the nuclei and cytoplasm. In contrast to wild-type plants, transgenic plants overexpressing GhSnRK2 exhibited increased tolerance to drought, cold, abscisic acid and salt stresses, suggesting that GhSnRK2 acts as a positive regulator in response to cold and drought stresses. Plants overexpressing GhSnRK2 displayed evidence of reduced water loss, turgor regulation, elevated relative water content, biomass, and proline accumulation. qRT-PCR analysis of GhSnRK2 expression suggested that this gene may function in diverse tissues. Under normal and stress conditions, the expression levels of stress-inducible genes, such as AtRD29A, AtRD29B, AtP5CS1, AtABI3, AtCBF1, and AtABI5, were increased in the GhSnRK2-overexpressing plants compared to the wild-type plants. GhSnRK2 gene silencing alleviated drought tolerance in cotton plants, indicating that VIGS technique can certainly be used as an effective means to examine gene function by knocking down the expression of distinctly expressed genes. The results of this study suggested that the GhSnRK2 gene, when incorporated into Arabidopsis, functions in positive responses to drought stress and in low temperature tolerance. PMID:25393623

  15. At14a-Like1 participates in membrane-associated mechanisms promoting growth during drought in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Nagaraj; Hsieh, Yi-Fang; Verslues, Paul E

    2015-08-18

    Limited knowledge of how plants regulate their growth and metabolism in response to drought and reduced soil water potential has impeded efforts to improve stress tolerance. Increased expression of the membrane-associated protein At14a-like1 (AFL1) led to increased growth and accumulation of the osmoprotective solute proline without negative effects on unstressed plants. Conversely, inducible RNA-interference suppression of AFL1 decreased growth and proline accumulation during low water potential while having no effect on unstressed plants. AFL1 overexpression lines had reduced expression of many stress-responsive genes, suggesting AFL1 may promote growth in part by suppression of negative regulatory genes. AFL1 interacted with the endomembrane proteins protein disulfide isomerase 5 (PDI5) and NAI2, with the PDI5 interaction being particularly increased by stress. PDI5 and NAI2 are negative regulatory factors, as pdi5, nai2, and pdi5-2nai2-3 mutants had increased growth and proline accumulation at low water potential. AFL1 also interacted with Adaptor protein2-2A (AP2-2A), which is part of a complex that recruits cargo proteins and promotes assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles. AFL1 colocalization with clathrin light chain along the plasma membrane, together with predictions of AFL1 structure, were consistent with a role in vesicle formation or trafficking. Fractionation experiments indicated that AFL1 is a peripheral membrane protein associated with both plasma membrane and endomembranes. These data identify classes of proteins (AFL1, PDI5, and NAI2) not previously known to be involved in drought signaling. AFL1-predicted structure, protein interactions, and localization all indicate its involvement in previously uncharacterized membrane-associated drought sensing or signaling mechanisms. PMID:26240315

  16. At14a-Like1 participates in membrane-associated mechanisms promoting growth during drought in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. Nagaraj; Hsieh, Yi-Fang; Verslues, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Limited knowledge of how plants regulate their growth and metabolism in response to drought and reduced soil water potential has impeded efforts to improve stress tolerance. Increased expression of the membrane-associated protein At14a-like1 (AFL1) led to increased growth and accumulation of the osmoprotective solute proline without negative effects on unstressed plants. Conversely, inducible RNA-interference suppression of AFL1 decreased growth and proline accumulation during low water potential while having no effect on unstressed plants. AFL1 overexpression lines had reduced expression of many stress-responsive genes, suggesting AFL1 may promote growth in part by suppression of negative regulatory genes. AFL1 interacted with the endomembrane proteins protein disulfide isomerase 5 (PDI5) and NAI2, with the PDI5 interaction being particularly increased by stress. PDI5 and NAI2 are negative regulatory factors, as pdi5, nai2, and pdi5-2nai2-3 mutants had increased growth and proline accumulation at low water potential. AFL1 also interacted with Adaptor protein2-2A (AP2-2A), which is part of a complex that recruits cargo proteins and promotes assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles. AFL1 colocalization with clathrin light chain along the plasma membrane, together with predictions of AFL1 structure, were consistent with a role in vesicle formation or trafficking. Fractionation experiments indicated that AFL1 is a peripheral membrane protein associated with both plasma membrane and endomembranes. These data identify classes of proteins (AFL1, PDI5, and NAI2) not previously known to be involved in drought signaling. AFL1-predicted structure, protein interactions, and localization all indicate its involvement in previously uncharacterized membrane-associated drought sensing or signaling mechanisms. PMID:26240315

  17. Experimental drought and heat can delay phenological development and reduce foliar and shoot growth in semiarid trees.

    PubMed

    Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Briggs, Samuel P; Vennetier, Michel; Dickman, L Turin; Sevanto, Sanna A; Garcia-Forner, Núria; Powers, Heath H; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-11-01

    Higher temperatures associated with climate change are anticipated to trigger an earlier start to the growing season, which could increase the terrestrial C sink strength. Greater variability in the amount and timing of precipitation is also expected with higher temperatures, bringing increased drought stress to many ecosystems. We experimentally assessed the effects of higher temperature and drought on the foliar phenology and shoot growth of mature trees of two semiarid conifer species. We exposed field-grown trees to a ~45% reduction in precipitation with a rain-out structure ('drought'), a ~4.8 °C temperature increase with open-top chambers ('heat'), and a combination of both simultaneously ('drought + heat'). Over the 2013 growing season, drought, heat, and drought + heat treatments reduced shoot and needle growth in piñon pine (Pinus edulis) by ≥39%, while juniper (Juniperus monosperma) had low growth and little response to these treatments. Needle emergence on primary axis branches of piñon pine was delayed in heat, drought, and drought + heat treatments by 19-57 days, while secondary axis branches were less likely to produce needles in the heat treatment, and produced no needles at all in the drought + heat treatment. Growth of shoots and needles, and the timing of needle emergence correlated inversely with xylem water tension and positively with nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations. Our findings demonstrate the potential for delayed phenological development and reduced growth with higher temperatures and drought in tree species that are vulnerable to drought and reveal potential mechanistic links to physiological stress responses. Climate change projections of an earlier and longer growing season with higher temperatures, and consequent increases in terrestrial C sink strength, may be incorrect for regions where plants will face increased drought stress with climate change. PMID:26149972

  18. A maize calcium-dependent protein kinase gene, ZmCPK4, positively regulated abscisic acid signaling and enhanced drought stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Li; Pan, Jiaowen; Liu, Yang; Kong, Xiangpei; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dequan

    2013-10-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play essential roles in calcium-mediated signal transductions in plant response to abiotic stress. Several members have been identified to be regulators for plants response to abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Here, we isolated a subgroup I CDPK gene, ZmCPK4, from maize. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that the ZmCPK4 transcripts were induced by various stresses and signal molecules. Transient and stable expression of the ZmCPK4-GFP fusion proteins revealed ZmCPK4 localized to the membrane. Moreover, overexpression of ZmCPK4 in the transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced ABA sensitivity in seed germination, seedling growth and stomatal movement. The transgenic plants also enhanced drought stress tolerance. Taken together, the results suggest that ZmCPK4 might be involved in ABA-mediated regulation of stomatal closure in response to drought stress. PMID:23911729

  19. Arabidopsis HEAT SHOCK TRANSCRIPTION FACTORA1b overexpression enhances water productivity, resistance to drought, and infection.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Ulrike; Albihlal, Waleed S; Lawson, Tracy; Fryer, Michael J; Sparrow, Penelope A C; Richard, François; Persad, Ramona; Bowden, Laura; Hickman, Richard; Martin, Cathie; Beynon, Jim L; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Baker, Neil R; Morison, James I L; Schöffl, Friedrich; Ott, Sascha; Mullineaux, Philip M

    2013-08-01

    Heat-stressed crops suffer dehydration, depressed growth, and a consequent decline in water productivity, which is the yield of harvestable product as a function of lifetime water consumption and is a trait associated with plant growth and development. Heat shock transcription factor (HSF) genes have been implicated not only in thermotolerance but also in plant growth and development, and therefore could influence water productivity. Here it is demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana plants with increased HSFA1b expression showed increased water productivity and harvest index under water-replete and water-limiting conditions. In non-stressed HSFA1b-overexpressing (HSFA1bOx) plants, 509 genes showed altered expression, and these genes were not over-represented for development-associated genes but were for response to biotic stress. This confirmed an additional role for HSFA1b in maintaining basal disease resistance, which was stress hormone independent but involved H₂O₂ signalling. Fifty-five of the 509 genes harbour a variant of the heat shock element (HSE) in their promoters, here named HSE1b. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR confirmed binding of HSFA1b to HSE1b in vivo, including in seven transcription factor genes. One of these is MULTIPROTEIN BRIDGING FACTOR1c (MBF1c). Plants overexpressing MBF1c showed enhanced basal resistance but not water productivity, thus partially phenocopying HSFA1bOx plants. A comparison of genes responsive to HSFA1b and MBF1c overexpression revealed a common group, none of which harbours a HSE1b motif. From this example, it is suggested that HSFA1b directly regulates 55 HSE1b-containing genes, which control the remaining 454 genes, collectively accounting for the stress defence and developmental phenotypes of HSFA1bOx. PMID:23828547

  20. Soybean C2H2-Type Zinc Finger Protein GmZFP3 with Conserved QALGGH Motif Negatively Regulates Drought Responses in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dayong; Tong, Jinfeng; Xu, Zhaolong; Wei, Peipei; Xu, Ling; Wan, Qun; Huang, Yihong; He, Xiaolan; Yang, Jiayin; Shao, Hongbo; Ma, Hongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Plant response to environmental stresses is regulated by a complicated network of regulatory and functional genes. In this study, we isolated the putative stress-associated gene GmZFP3 (a C2H2-type Zinc finger protein gene) based on the previous finding that it was one of two genes located in the QTL region between the Satt590 and Satt567 markers related to soybean tolerance to drought. Temporal and spatial expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR indicated that GmZFP3 was primarily expressed in roots, stems and leaf organs and was expressed at low levels in flowers and soybean pods. Moreover, GmZFP3 expression increased in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. In addition, subcellular localization analysis indicated that GmZFP3 was ubiquitously distributed in plant cells. Transgenic experiments indicated that GmZFP3 played a negative role in plant tolerance to drought. Analysis of ABA-related marker gene expression in Arabidopsis suggested that GmZFP3 might be involved in the ABA-dependent pathway during the drought stress response. Taken together, these results suggest that soybean GmZFP3 negatively regulates the drought response. PMID:27047508

  1. Arabidopsis RZFP34/CHYR1, a Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, Regulates Stomatal Movement and Drought Tolerance via SnRK2.6-Mediated Phosphorylation[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that plays a fundamental role in plant development and stress response, especially in the regulation of stomatal closure in response to water deficit stress. The signal transduction that occurs in response to ABA and drought stress is mediated by protein phosphorylation and ubiquitination. This research identified Arabidopsis thaliana RING ZINC-FINGER PROTEIN34 (RZP34; renamed here as CHY ZINC-FINGER AND RING PROTEIN1 [CHYR1]) as an ubiquitin E3 ligase. CHYR1 expression was significantly induced by ABA and drought, and along with its corresponding protein, was expressed mainly in vascular tissues and stomata. Analysis of CHYR1 gain-of-function and loss-of-function plants revealed that CHYR1 promotes ABA-induced stomatal closure, reactive oxygen species production, and plant drought tolerance. Furthermore, CHYR1 interacted with SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2 (SnRK2) kinases and could be phosphorylated by SnRK2.6 on the Thr-178 residue. Overexpression of CHYR1T178A, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant, interfered with the proper function of CHYR1, whereas CHYR1T178D phenocopied the gain of function of CHYR1. Thus, this study identified a RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase that functions positively in ABA and drought responses and detailed how its ubiquitin E3 ligase activity is regulated by SnRK2.6-mediated protein phosphorylation. PMID:26508764

  2. Soybean C2H2-Type Zinc Finger Protein GmZFP3 with Conserved QALGGH Motif Negatively Regulates Drought Responses in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dayong; Tong, Jinfeng; Xu, Zhaolong; Wei, Peipei; Xu, Ling; Wan, Qun; Huang, Yihong; He, Xiaolan; Yang, Jiayin; Shao, Hongbo; Ma, Hongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Plant response to environmental stresses is regulated by a complicated network of regulatory and functional genes. In this study, we isolated the putative stress-associated gene GmZFP3 (a C2H2-type Zinc finger protein gene) based on the previous finding that it was one of two genes located in the QTL region between the Satt590 and Satt567 markers related to soybean tolerance to drought. Temporal and spatial expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR indicated that GmZFP3 was primarily expressed in roots, stems and leaf organs and was expressed at low levels in flowers and soybean pods. Moreover, GmZFP3 expression increased in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. In addition, subcellular localization analysis indicated that GmZFP3 was ubiquitously distributed in plant cells. Transgenic experiments indicated that GmZFP3 played a negative role in plant tolerance to drought. Analysis of ABA-related marker gene expression in Arabidopsis suggested that GmZFP3 might be involved in the ABA-dependent pathway during the drought stress response. Taken together, these results suggest that soybean GmZFP3 negatively regulates the drought response. PMID:27047508

  3. The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Asaph; Dixit, Shital; Jetter, Reinhard; Thoenes, Eveline; van Arkel, Gert; Pereira, Andy

    2004-09-01

    The interface between plants and the environment plays a dual role as a protective barrier as well as a medium for the exchange of gases, water, and nutrients. The primary aerial plant surfaces are covered by a cuticle, acting as the essential permeability barrier toward the atmosphere. It is a heterogeneous layer composed mainly of lipids, namely cutin and intracuticular wax with epicuticular waxes deposited on the surface. We identified an Arabidopsis thaliana activation tag gain-of-function mutant shine (shn) that displayed a brilliant, shiny green leaf surface with increased cuticular wax compared with the leaves of wild-type plants. The gene responsible for the phenotype encodes one member of a clade of three proteins of undisclosed function, belonging to the plant-specific family of AP2/EREBP transcription factors. Overexpression of all three SHN clade genes conferred a phenotype similar to that of the original shn mutant. Biochemically, such plants were altered in wax composition (very long fatty acid derivatives). Total cuticular wax levels were increased sixfold in shn compared with the wild type, mainly because of a ninefold increase in alkanes that comprised approximately half of the total waxes in the mutant. Chlorophyll leaching assays and fresh weight loss experiments indicated that overexpression of the SHN genes increased cuticle permeability, probably because of changes in its ultrastructure. Likewise, SHN gene overexpression altered leaf and petal epidermal cell structure, trichome number, and branching as well as the stomatal index. Interestingly, SHN overexpressors displayed significant drought tolerance and recovery, probably related to the reduced stomatal density. Expression analysis using promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusions of the SHN genes provides evidence for the role of the SHN clade in plant protective layers, such as those formed during abscission, dehiscence, wounding, tissue strengthening, and the cuticle. We propose that these

  4. Crucial roles of the pentatricopeptide repeat protein SOAR1 in Arabidopsis response to drought, salt and cold stresses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shang-Chuan; Mei, Chao; Liang, Shan; Yu, Yong-Tao; Lu, Kai; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2015-07-01

    Whereas several mitochondrial/chloroplast pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins have been reported to regulate plant responses to abiotic stresses, no nucleus-localized PPR protein has been found to play role in these processes. In the present experiment, we provide evidence that a cytosol-nucleus dual-localized PPR protein SOAR1, functioning to negatively regulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in seed germination and postgermination growth, is a crucial, positive regulator of plant response to abiotic stresses. Downregulation of SOAR1 expression reduces, but upregulation of SOAR1 expression enhances, ABA sensitivity in ABA-induced promotion of stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening, and plant tolerance to multiple, major abiotic stresses including drought, high salinity and low temperature. Interestingly and importantly, the SOAR1-overexpression lines display strong abilities to tolerate drought, salt and cold stresses, with surprisingly high resistance to salt stress in germination and postgermination growth of seeds that are able to potentially germinate in seawater, while no negative effect on plant growth and development was observed. So, the SOAR1 gene is likely useful for improvement of crops by transgenic manipulation to enhance crop productivity in stressful conditions. Further experimental data suggest that SOAR1 likely regulates plant stress responses at least partly by integrating ABA-dependent and independent signaling pathways, which is different from the ABI2/ABI1 type 2C protein phosphatase-mediated ABA signaling. These findings help to understand highly complicated stress and ABA signalling network. PMID:26093896

  5. OaMAX2 of Orobanche aegyptiaca and Arabidopsis AtMAX2 share conserved functions in both development and drought responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-09-16

    Previous studies in Arabidopsis reported that the MAX2 (more axillary growth 2) gene is a component of the strigolactone (SL) signaling pathway, which regulates a wide range of biological processes, from plant growth and development to environmental stress responses. Orobanche aegyptiaca is a harmful parasitic plant for many economically important crops. Seed germination of O. aegyptiaca is very sensitive to SLs, suggesting that O. aegyptiaca may contain components of the SL signaling pathway. To investigate this hypothesis, we identified and cloned a MAX2 ortholog from O. aegyptiaca for complementation analyses using the Arabidopsis Atmax2 mutant. The so-called OaMAX2 gene could rescue phenotypes of the Atmax2 mutant in various tested developmental aspects, including seed germination, shoot branching, leaf senescence and growth and development of hypocotyl, root hair, primary root and lateral root. More importantly, OaMAX2 could enhance the drought tolerance of Atmax2 mutant, suggesting its ability to restore the drought-tolerant phenotype of mutant plants defected in AtMAX2 function. Thus, this study provides genetic evidence that the functions of the MAX2 orthologs, and perhaps the MAX2 signaling pathways, are conserved in parasitic and non-parasitic plants. Furthermore, the results of our study enable us to develop a strategy to fight against parasitic plants by suppressing the MAX signaling, which ultimately leads to enhanced productivity of crop plants. PMID:27425246

  6. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea) is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26) was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2) and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1) were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling. PMID:27338368

  7. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanli; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea) is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26) was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2) and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1) were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling. PMID:27338368

  8. Brassica RNA binding protein ERD4 is involved in conferring salt, drought tolerance and enhancing plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rai, Archana N; Tamirisa, Srinath; Rao, K V; Kumar, Vinay; Suprasanna, P

    2016-03-01

    'Early responsive to dehydration' (ERD) genes are a group of plant genes having functional roles in plant stress tolerance and development. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a Brassica juncea 'ERD' gene (BjERD4) which encodes a novel RNA binding protein. The expression pattern of ERD4 analyzed under different stress conditions showed that transcript levels were increased with dehydration, sodium chloride, low temperature, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The BjERD4 was found to be localized in the chloroplasts as revealed by Confocal microscopy studies. To study the function, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated and analyzed for various morphological and physiological parameters. The overexpressing transgenic lines showed significant increase in number of leaves with more leaf area and larger siliques as compared to wild type plants, whereas RNAi:ERD4 transgenic lines showed reduced leaf number, leaf area, dwarf phenotype and delayed seed germination. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BjERD4 gene also exhibited enhanced tolerance to dehydration and salt stresses, while the knockdown lines were susceptible as compared to wild type plants under similar stress conditions. It was observed that BjERD4 protein could bind RNA as evidenced by the gel-shift assay. The overall results of transcript analysis, RNA gel-shift assay, and transgenic expression, for the first time, show that the BjERD4 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance besides offering new clues about the possible roles of BjERD4 in plant growth and development. PMID:26711633

  9. Arabidopsis CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE8 and CATALASE3 Function in Abscisic Acid-Mediated Signaling and H2O2 Homeostasis in Stomatal Guard Cells under Drought Stress[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cun; Zhang, Wen-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major threat to plant growth and crop productivity. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, CPKs) are believed to play important roles in plant responses to drought stress. Here, we report that Arabidopsis thaliana CPK8 functions in abscisic acid (ABA)- and Ca2+-mediated plant responses to drought stress. The cpk8 mutant was more sensitive to drought stress than wild-type plants, while the transgenic plants overexpressing CPK8 showed enhanced tolerance to drought stress compared with wild-type plants. ABA-, H2O2-, and Ca2+-induced stomatal closing were impaired in cpk8 mutants. Arabidopsis CATALASE3 (CAT3) was identified as a CPK8-interacting protein, confirmed by yeast two-hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. CPK8 can phosphorylate CAT3 at Ser-261 and regulate its activity. Both cpk8 and cat3 plants showed lower catalase activity and higher accumulation of H2O2 compared with wild-type plants. The cat3 mutant displayed a similar drought stress-sensitive phenotype as cpk8 mutant. Moreover, ABA and Ca2+ inhibition of inward K+ currents were diminished in guard cells of cpk8 and cat3 mutants. Together, these results demonstrated that CPK8 functions in ABA-mediated stomatal regulation in responses to drought stress through regulation of CAT3 activity. PMID:25966761

  10. Arabidopsis CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE8 and CATALASE3 Function in Abscisic Acid-Mediated Signaling and H2O2 Homeostasis in Stomatal Guard Cells under Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jun-Jie; Li, Xi-Dong; Ratnasekera, Disna; Wang, Cun; Liu, Wen-Xin; Song, Lian-Fen; Zhang, Wen-Zheng; Wu, Wei-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Drought is a major threat to plant growth and crop productivity. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, CPKs) are believed to play important roles in plant responses to drought stress. Here, we report that Arabidopsis thaliana CPK8 functions in abscisic acid (ABA)- and Ca(2+)-mediated plant responses to drought stress. The cpk8 mutant was more sensitive to drought stress than wild-type plants, while the transgenic plants overexpressing CPK8 showed enhanced tolerance to drought stress compared with wild-type plants. ABA-, H2O2-, and Ca(2+)-induced stomatal closing were impaired in cpk8 mutants. Arabidopsis CATALASE3 (CAT3) was identified as a CPK8-interacting protein, confirmed by yeast two-hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. CPK8 can phosphorylate CAT3 at Ser-261 and regulate its activity. Both cpk8 and cat3 plants showed lower catalase activity and higher accumulation of H2O2 compared with wild-type plants. The cat3 mutant displayed a similar drought stress-sensitive phenotype as cpk8 mutant. Moreover, ABA and Ca(2+) inhibition of inward K(+) currents were diminished in guard cells of cpk8 and cat3 mutants. Together, these results demonstrated that CPK8 functions in ABA-mediated stomatal regulation in responses to drought stress through regulation of CAT3 activity. PMID:25966761

  11. Overexpression of the MYB37 transcription factor enhances abscisic acid sensitivity, and improves both drought tolerance and seed productivity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Tao; Wu, Zhen; Lu, Kai; Bi, Chao; Liang, Shan; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2016-02-01

    Although a lot of genes have been revealed to participate in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, many of the additional components involved in ABA signaling remain to be discovered. Here we report that overexpression of MYB37, a R2R3 MYB subgroup 14 transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana, confers hypersensitive phenotypes to exogenous ABA in all the major ABA responses, including ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination, cotyledon greening and early seedling growth, and ABA-induced stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening. Interestingly and importantly, MYB37-overexpression improves plant tolerance to drought, enhances growth of mature plants and seed productivity, thought it delays flowering, which suggests that this gene may be used for improving crop adaptability to drought environment and productivity. However, a myb37-1 knockout mutant displays wild-type ABA responses most likely due to a functional redundancy of the multiple MYB members. Real-time PCR analysis shows that upregulation of the MYB37 expression changes expression of a subset of ABA-responsive genes. Together, these findings suggest that the MYB37 transcription factor plays an important, positive role in plant response to ABA and drought stress, and meanwhile, it plays a positive role in the regulation of seed production. PMID:26646286

  12. REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE genes from Arabidopsis thaliana help to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Robert M.; Stefano, Giovanni; Ruckle, Michael E.; Stavoe, Andrea K.; Sinkler, Christopher A.; Brandizzi, Federica; Malmstrom, Carolyn M.; Osteryoung, Katherine W.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells require mechanisms to establish the proportion of cellular volume devoted to particular organelles. These mechanisms are poorly understood. From a screen for plastid-to-nucleus signaling mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana, we cloned a mutant allele of a gene that encodes a protein of unknown function that is homologous to two other Arabidopsis genes of unknown function and to FRIENDLY, which was previously shown to promote the normal distribution of mitochondria in Arabidopsis. In contrast to FRIENDLY, these three homologs of FRIENDLY are found only in photosynthetic organisms. Based on these data, we proposed that FRIENDLY expanded into a small gene family to help regulate the energy metabolism of cells that contain both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Indeed, we found that knocking out these genes caused a number of chloroplast phenotypes, including a reduction in the proportion of cellular volume devoted to chloroplasts to 50% of wild type. Thus, we refer to these genes as REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE (REC). The size of the chloroplast compartment was reduced most in rec1 mutants. The REC1 protein accumulated in the cytosol and the nucleus. REC1 was excluded from the nucleus when plants were treated with amitrole, which inhibits cell expansion and chloroplast function. We conclude that REC1 is an extraplastidic protein that helps to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment, and that signals derived from cell expansion or chloroplasts may regulate REC1. PMID:26862170

  13. Market Anatomy of a Drought: Modeling Barge and Corn Market Adaptation to Reduced Rainfall and Low Mississippi River Water Levels During the 2012 Midwestern U.S. Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, B.; Characklis, G. W.; Thurman, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    In mid 2012, a severe drought swept across the Midwest, the heartland of corn production in the U.S. When the drought persisted into late Fall, corn markets were affected in two distinct ways: (1) reduced rainfall led to projected and actual corn yields that were lower than expected and (2) navigation restrictions, a result of low water levels on the Mississippi River, disrupted barge transportation, the most common and inexpensive mode for moving corn to many markets. Both (1) and (2) led to significant financial losses, but due to the complexity of the economic system and the coincidence of two different market impacts, the size of the role that low water levels played wass unclear. This is important, as losses related to low water levels are used to justify substantial investments in dredging activities on the Mississippi River. An "engineering" model of the system, suggests that low water levels should drive large increases in barge and corn prices, while some econometric models suggest that water levels explain very little of the changes in barge rates and corn prices. Employing a model that integrates both the engineering and economic elements of the system indicates that corn prices and barge rates during the drought display spatial and temporal behavior that is difficult to explain using either the engineering or econometric models alone. This integrated model accounts for geographic and temporal variations in drought impacts and identifies unique market responses to four different sets of conditions over the drought's length. Results illustrate that corn and barge price responses during the drought were a product of comingled, but distinct, reactions to both supply changes and navigation disruptions. Results also provide a more structured description of how the economic system that governs corn allocation interacts with the Mississippi River system during drought. As both public and private parties discuss potential managerial or infrastructural methods

  14. Synergy of extreme drought and shrub invasion reduce ecosystem functioning and resilience in water-limited climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Maria C.; Lecomte, Xavier; David, Teresa S.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Bugalho, Miguel N.; Werner, Christiane

    2015-10-01

    Extreme drought events and plant invasions are major drivers of global change that can critically affect ecosystem functioning and alter ecosystem-atmosphere exchange. Invaders are expanding worldwide and extreme drought events are projected to increase in frequency and intensity. However, very little is known on how these drivers may interact to affect the functioning and resilience of ecosystems to extreme events. Using a manipulative shrub removal experiment and the co-occurrence of an extreme drought event (2011/2012) in a Mediterranean woodland, we show that native shrub invasion and extreme drought synergistically reduced ecosystem transpiration and the resilience of key-stone oak tree species. Ecosystem transpiration was dominated by the water use of the invasive shrub Cistus ladanifer, which further increased after the extreme drought event. Meanwhile, the transpiration of key-stone tree species decreased, indicating a competitive advantage in favour of the invader. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean-type climates the invasion of water spending species and projected recurrent extreme drought events may synergistically cause critical drought tolerance thresholds of key-stone tree species to be surpassed, corroborating observed higher tree mortality in the invaded ecosystems. Ultimately, this may shift seasonally water limited ecosystems into less desirable alternative states dominated by water spending invasive shrubs.

  15. Synergy of extreme drought and shrub invasion reduce ecosystem functioning and resilience in water-limited climates

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, Maria C.; Lecomte, Xavier; David, Teresa S.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Bugalho, Miguel N.; Werner, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Extreme drought events and plant invasions are major drivers of global change that can critically affect ecosystem functioning and alter ecosystem-atmosphere exchange. Invaders are expanding worldwide and extreme drought events are projected to increase in frequency and intensity. However, very little is known on how these drivers may interact to affect the functioning and resilience of ecosystems to extreme events. Using a manipulative shrub removal experiment and the co-occurrence of an extreme drought event (2011/2012) in a Mediterranean woodland, we show that native shrub invasion and extreme drought synergistically reduced ecosystem transpiration and the resilience of key-stone oak tree species. Ecosystem transpiration was dominated by the water use of the invasive shrub Cistus ladanifer, which further increased after the extreme drought event. Meanwhile, the transpiration of key-stone tree species decreased, indicating a competitive advantage in favour of the invader. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean-type climates the invasion of water spending species and projected recurrent extreme drought events may synergistically cause critical drought tolerance thresholds of key-stone tree species to be surpassed, corroborating observed higher tree mortality in the invaded ecosystems. Ultimately, this may shift seasonally water limited ecosystems into less desirable alternative states dominated by water spending invasive shrubs. PMID:26461978

  16. Synergy of extreme drought and shrub invasion reduce ecosystem functioning and resilience in water-limited climates.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Maria C; Lecomte, Xavier; David, Teresa S; Pinto, Joaquim G; Bugalho, Miguel N; Werner, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Extreme drought events and plant invasions are major drivers of global change that can critically affect ecosystem functioning and alter ecosystem-atmosphere exchange. Invaders are expanding worldwide and extreme drought events are projected to increase in frequency and intensity. However, very little is known on how these drivers may interact to affect the functioning and resilience of ecosystems to extreme events. Using a manipulative shrub removal experiment and the co-occurrence of an extreme drought event (2011/2012) in a Mediterranean woodland, we show that native shrub invasion and extreme drought synergistically reduced ecosystem transpiration and the resilience of key-stone oak tree species. Ecosystem transpiration was dominated by the water use of the invasive shrub Cistus ladanifer, which further increased after the extreme drought event. Meanwhile, the transpiration of key-stone tree species decreased, indicating a competitive advantage in favour of the invader. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean-type climates the invasion of water spending species and projected recurrent extreme drought events may synergistically cause critical drought tolerance thresholds of key-stone tree species to be surpassed, corroborating observed higher tree mortality in the invaded ecosystems. Ultimately, this may shift seasonally water limited ecosystems into less desirable alternative states dominated by water spending invasive shrubs. PMID:26461978

  17. Summer drought leads to reduced net CO2 uptake and CH4 fluxes in a New Zealand peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, J. P.; Campbell, D.; Schipper, L. A.; Clearwater, M.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change is likely to influence the frequency and severity of drought events in many regions. This has implications for changing carbon (C) storage in peatland ecosystems, which provide an important global sink for atmospheric C. However, the relative impacts on ecosystem respiration (ER), gross primary productivity (GPP), and CH4 efflux are not well understood and may alter the C balance differently depending on peatland type, vegetation, and timing of drought. We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes using eddy covariance in a New Zealand peatland during two contrasting years capturing the impact of an historically extreme drought on these two major components of the net ecosystem C balance. Kopuatai bog is a 96 km2 ombrotrophic raised bog dominated by the endemic peat-forming rush species, Empodisma robustum. The drought impacted the growing season period from January to May, 2013. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) during the drought was approximately half that of the previous relatively wet summer. From January 1 to May 1, cumulative NEE was -133.3 gC m-2 in 2012 and -66.7 gC m-2 in 2013. Increases in ER during the drought were responsible for up to 88% of the difference in NEE, while differences in GPP were comparatively small. For April, mean daily CH4 fluxes during the drought (25 mgCH4 m-2 day-1) reduced to approximately one third of the mean flux measured in April 2012 (80 mgCH4 m-2 day-1). CH4 fluxes remained low for several months following water table recharge, suggesting a substantial lag in the recovery of the methanogenic population. Despite the magnitude of respiration enhancement, the relatively consistent GPP and reduced CH4 flux led to net storage of C during drought, albeit significantly smaller than the previous wet year.

  18. Extreme drought event and shrub invasion combine to reduce ecosystem functioning and resilience in water-limited climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Maria; Lecomte, Xavier; David, Teresa; Pinto, Joaquim; Bugalho, Miguel; Werner, Christiane

    2016-04-01

    Extreme droughts and plant invasions are major drivers of global change that can critically affect ecosystem functioning. Shrub encroachment is increasing in many regions worldwide and extreme events are projected to increase in frequency and intensity, namely in the Mediterranean region. Nevertheless, little is known about how these drivers may interact and affect ecosystem functioning and resilience to extreme droughts. Using a manipulative shrub removal experiment and the co-occurrence of an extreme drought event (2011/2012) in a Mediterranean woodland, we show that the native shrub invasion and extreme drought combined to reduce ecosystem transpiration and the resilience of the key-stone oak tree species. We established six 25 x 25 m paired plots in a shrub (Cistus ladanifer L.) encroached Mediterranean cork-oak (Quercus suber L.) woodland. We measured sapflow and pre-dawn leaf water potential of trees and shrubs and soil water content in all plots during three years. We determined the resilience of tree transpiration to evaluate to what extent trees recovered from the extreme drought event. From February to November 2011 we conducted baseline measurements for plot comparison. In November 2011 all the shrubs from one of all the paired plots were cut and removed. Ecosystem transpiration was dominated by the water use of the invasive shrub, which further increased after the extreme drought. Simultaneously, tree transpiration in invaded plots declined much stronger (67 ± 13 %) than in plots cleared from shrubs (31 ± 11%) relative to the pre-drought year. Trees in invaded plots were not able to recover in the following wetter year showing lower resilience to the extreme drought event. Our results imply that in Mediterranean-type of climates invasion by water spending species can combine with projected recurrent extreme droughts causing critical drought tolerance thresholds of trees to be overcome increasing the probability of tree mortality (Caldeira et.al. 2015

  19. Arabidopsis Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger proteins function as transcription repressors under drought, cold, and high-salinity stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hideki; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Sakuma, Yoh; Meshi, Tetsuo; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2004-09-01

    ZPT2-related proteins that have two canonical Cys-2/His-2-type zinc-finger motifs in their molecules are members of a family of plant transcription factors. To characterize the role of this type of protein, we analyzed the function of Arabidopsis L. Heynh. genes encoding four different ZPT2-related proteins (AZF1, AZF2, AZF3, and STZ). Gel-shift analysis showed that the AZFs and STZ bind to A(G/C)T repeats within an EP2 sequence, known as a target sequence of some petunia (Petunia hybrida) ZPT2 proteins. Transient expression analysis using synthetic green fluorescent protein fusion genes indicated that the AZFs and STZ are preferentially localized to the nucleus. These four ZPT2-related proteins were shown to act as transcriptional repressors that down-regulate the transactivation activity of other transcription factors. RNA gel-blot analysis showed that expression of AZF2 and STZ was strongly induced by dehydration, high-salt and cold stresses, and abscisic acid treatment. Histochemical analysis of beta-glucuronidase activities driven by the AZF2 or STZ promoters revealed that both genes are induced in leaves rather than roots of rosette plants by the stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing STZ showed growth retardation and tolerance to drought stress. These results suggest that AZF2 and STZ function as transcriptional repressors to increase stress tolerance following growth retardation. PMID:15333755

  20. Improvement of Arabidopsis Biomass and Cold, Drought and Salinity Stress Tolerance by Modified Circadian Clock-Associated PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORs.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Norihito; Takao, Saori; Kudo, Toru; Kiba, Takatoshi; Wang, Yin; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    Plant circadian clocks control the timing of a variety of genetic, metabolic and physiological processes. Recent studies revealed a possible molecular mechanism for circadian clock regulation. Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR) genes, including TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1), encode clock-associated transcriptional repressors that act redundantly. Disruption of multiple PRR genes results in drastic phenotypes, including increased biomass and abiotic stress tolerance, whereas PRR single mutants show subtle phenotypic differences due to genetic redundancy. In this study, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of engineered PRR5 (PRR5-VP), which functions as a transcriptional activator, can increase biomass and abiotic stress tolerance, similar to prr multiple mutants. Concomitant analyses of relative growth rate, flowering time and photosynthetic activity suggested that increased biomass of PRR5-VP plants is mostly due to late flowering, rather than to alterations in photosynthetic activity or growth rate. In addition, genome-wide gene expression profiling revealed that genes related to cold stress and water deprivation responses were up-regulated in PRR5-VP plants. PRR5-VP plants were more resistant to cold, drought and salinity stress than the wild type, whereas ft tsf and gi, well-known late flowering and increased biomass mutants, were not. These findings suggest that attenuation of PRR function by a single transformation of PRR-VP is a valuable method for increasing biomass as well as abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Because the PRR gene family is conserved in vascular plants, PRR-VP may regulate biomass and stress responses in many plants, but especially in long-day annual plants. PMID:27012548

  1. Elevated CO2 Reduced Floret Death in Wheat Under Warmer Average Temperatures and Terminal Drought

    PubMed Central

    Dias de Oliveira, Eduardo; Palta, Jairo A.; Bramley, Helen; Stefanova, Katia; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated CO2 often increases grain yield in wheat by enhancing grain number per ear, which can result from an increase in the potential number of florets or a reduction in the death of developed florets. The hypotheses that elevated CO2 reduces floret death rather than increases floret development, and that grain size in a genotype with more grains per unit area is limited by the rate of grain filling, were tested in a pair of sister lines contrasting in tillering capacity (restricted- vs. free-tillering). The hypotheses were tested under elevated CO2, combined with +3°C above ambient temperature and terminal drought, using specialized field tunnel houses. Elevated CO2 increased net leaf photosynthetic rates and likely the availability of carbon assimilates, which significantly reduced the rates of floret death and increased the potential number of grains at anthesis in both sister lines by an average of 42%. The restricted-tillering line had faster grain-filling rates than the free-tillering line because the free-tillering line had more grains to fill. Furthermore, grain-filling rates were faster under elevated CO2 and +3°C above ambient. Terminal drought reduced grain yield in both lines by 19%. Elevated CO2 alone increased the potential number of grains, but a trade-off in yield components limited grain yield in the free-tillering line. This emphasizes the need for breeding cultivars with a greater potential number of florets, since this was not affected by the predicted future climate variables. PMID:26635837

  2. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, CRK5, enhances abscisic acid sensitivity and confers drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Liang, Shan; Wu, Zhen; Bi, Chao; Yu, Yong-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) have been reported to regulate many developmental and defense process, but only a few members have been functionally characterized. In the present study, our observations suggest that one of the RLKs, a membrane-localized cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, CRK5, is involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of CRK5 increases ABA sensitivity in ABA-induced early seedling growth arrest and promotion of stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening. Interestingly, and importantly, overexpression of CRK5 enhances plant drought tolerance without affecting plant growth at the mature stages and plant productivity. Transgenic lines overexpressing a mutated form of CRK5, CRK5 K372E with the change of the 372nd conserved amino acid residue from lysine to glutamic acid in its kinase domain, result in wild-type ABA and drought responses, supporting the role of CRK5 in ABA signaling. The loss-of-function mutation of the CRK5 gene does not affect the ABA response, while overexpression of two homologs of CRK5, CRK4 and CRK19, confers ABA responses, suggesting that these CRK members function redundantly. We further showed that WRKY18, WRKY40 and WRKY60 transcription factors repress the expression of CRK5, and that CRK5 likely functions upstream of ABI2 in ABA signaling. These findings help in understanding the complex ABA signaling network. PMID:27406784

  3. Overexpression of the OsChI1 gene, encoding a putative laccase precursor, increases tolerance to drought and salinity stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Yong; Lee, Chanhui; Hwang, Sun-Goo; Park, Yong Chan; Lim, Hye Lee; Jang, Cheol Seong

    2014-11-15

    In a previous study, we identified a number of genes induced by chilling using a microarray approach. In order to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying chilling tolerance and possible crosstalk with other abiotic stresses, we selected a rice gene, OsChI1 (Os01g61160), for further analysis. The OsChI1 gene encodes a putative laccase precursor protein. In accordance with our previous results, its transcript is highly accumulated during a 12-day period of chilling treatment. Higher expression of the OsChI1 gene was also detected in roots and tissues at the vegetative and productive stages. In addition, we also observed increased transcript levels of the OsChI1 gene during dehydration and high salinity conditions. Transient expression of OsChI1 proteins tagged with fluorescence protein in rice protoplasts revealed that OsChI1 is localized in the plasma membrane. The Arabidopsis transgenic plants overexpressing OsChI1-EGFP resulted in an increased tolerance to drought and salinity stress. In silico analysis of OsChI1 suggests that several genes coexpressed with OsChI1 in the root during various abiotic stresses, such as chilling, drought and salt stress, may play an important role in the ROS signaling pathway. Potential roles of OsChI1 in response to abiotic stresses are discussed. PMID:25218040

  4. Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura 78 (AtATL78) mediates ABA-dependent ROS signaling in response to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Suh, Ji Yeon; Kim, Soo Jin; Oh, Tae Rin; Cho, Seok Keun; Yang, Seong Wook; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-01-01

    Plants have developed a variety of complicated responses to cope with drought, one of the most challenging environmental stresses. As a quick response, plants rapidly inhibit stomatal opening under the control of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, in order to preserve water. Here, we report that Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL), a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, mediates the ABA-dependent stomatal closure. In contrast to wild-type plants, the stomatal closure was fully impaired in atatl78 mutant plants even in the presence of exogenous ABA and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Besides, under high concentrations of Ca(2+), a down-stream signaling molecule of ABA signaling pathway, atatl78 mutant plants successfully closed the pores. Furthermore, AtATL78 protein indirectly associated with catalases and the deficiency of AtATL78 led the reduction of catalase activity and H2O2, implying the function of AtATL78 in the modulation of ROS activity. Based on these results, we suggest that AtATL78 possibly plays a role in promoting ROS-mediated ABA signaling pathway during drought stress. PMID:26612255

  5. Root-Specific Reduction of Cytokinin Causes Enhanced Root Growth, Drought Tolerance, and Leaf Mineral Enrichment in Arabidopsis and Tobacco[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Tomáš; Nehnevajova, Erika; Köllmer, Ireen; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Krämer, Ute; Schmülling, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing root system architecture can overcome yield limitations in crop plants caused by water or nutrient shortages. Classic breeding approaches are difficult because the trait is governed by many genes and is difficult to score. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with enhanced root-specific degradation of the hormone cytokinin, a negative regulator of root growth. These transgenic plants form a larger root system, whereas growth and development of the shoot are similar. Elongation of the primary root, root branching, and root biomass formation were increased by up to 60% in transgenic lines, increasing the root-to-shoot ratio. We thus demonstrated that a single dominant gene could regulate a complex trait, root growth. Moreover, we showed that cytokinin regulates root growth in a largely organ-autonomous fashion that is consistent with its dual role as a hormone with both paracrine and long-distance activities. Transgenic plants had a higher survival rate after severe drought treatment. The accumulation of several elements, including S, P, Mn, Mg, Zn, as well as Cd from a contaminated soil, was significantly increased in shoots. Under conditions of sulfur or magnesium deficiency, leaf chlorophyll content was less affected in transgenic plants, demonstrating the physiological relevance of shoot element accumulation. Our approach might contribute to improve drought tolerance, nutrient efficiency, and nutrient content of crop plants. PMID:21148816

  6. Reduced tolerance to abiotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing a Capsicum annuum multiprotein bridging factor 1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pepper fruit is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide. However, low temperature affects the vegetative development and reproduction of the pepper, resulting in economic losses. To identify cold-related genes regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in pepper seedlings, cDNA representational difference analysis was previously performed using a suppression subtractive hybridization method. One of the genes cloned from the subtraction was homologous to Solanum tuberosum MBF1 (StMBF1) encoding the coactivator multiprotein bridging factor 1. Here, we have characterized this StMBF1 homolog (named CaMBF1) from Capsicum annuum and investigated its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Results Tissue expression profile analysis using quantitative RT-PCR showed that CaMBF1 was expressed in all tested tissues, and high-level expression was detected in the flowers and seeds. The expression of CaMBF1 in pepper seedlings was dramatically suppressed by exogenously supplied salicylic acid, high salt, osmotic and heavy metal stresses. Constitutive overexpression of CaMBF1 in Arabidopsis aggravated the visible symptoms of leaf damage and the electrolyte leakage of cell damage caused by cold stress in seedlings. Furthermore, the expression of RD29A, ERD15, KIN1, and RD22 in the transgenic plants was lower than that in the wild-type plants. On the other hand, seed germination, cotyledon greening and lateral root formation were more severely influenced by salt stress in transgenic lines compared with wild-type plants, indicating that CaMBF1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants were hypersensitive to salt stress. Conclusions Overexpression of CaMBF1 in Arabidopsis displayed reduced tolerance to cold and high salt stress during seed germination and post-germination stages. CaMBF1 transgenic Arabidopsis may reduce stress tolerance by downregulating stress-responsive genes to aggravate the leaf damage caused by cold stress. CaMBF1 may be useful for genetic engineering of novel

  7. Reduced gravitropism in hypocotyls of starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Guisinger, M. M.; Miller, A. J.; Stackhouse, K. S.

    1997-01-01

    Gravitropism was examined in dark- and light-grown hypocotyls of wild-type (WT), two reduced starch mutants (ACG 20 and ACG 27), and a starchless mutant (ACG 21) of Arabidopsis. In addition, the starch content of these four strains was studied with light and electron microscopy. Based on time course of curvature and orientation studies, the graviresponse in hypocotyls is proportional to the amount of starch in a genotype. Furthermore, starch mutations seem to primarily affect gravitropism rather than differential growth since both phototropic curvature and growth rates among the four genotypes are approximately equal. Our results suggest that gravity perception may require a greater plastid mass in hypocotyls compared to roots. The kinetics of gravitropic curvature also was compared following reorientation at 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and 135 degrees. As has been reported for other plant species, the optimal angle of reorientation is 135 degrees for WT Arabidopsis and the two reduced starch mutants, but the magnitude of curvature of the starchless mutant appears to be independent of the initial angle of displacement. Taken together, the results of the present study and our previous experiments with roots of the same four genotypes [Kiss et al. (1996) Physiol. Plant. 97: 237] support a plastid-based hypothesis for gravity perception in plants.

  8. Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a piñon–juniper woodland

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pangle, Robert E.; Limousin, Jean -Marc; Plaut, Jennifer A.; Yepez, Enrico A.; Hudson, Patrick J.; Boutz, Amanda L.; Gehres, Nathan; Pockman, William T.; McDowell, Nate G.

    2015-03-23

    Plant hydraulic conductance (ks) is a critical control on whole-plant water use and carbon uptake and, during drought, influences whether plants survive or die. To assess long-term physiological and hydraulic responses of mature trees to water availability, we manipulated ecosystem-scale water availability from 2007 to 2013 in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We examined the relationship between ks and subsequent mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations, and the subsequent impact of reduced hydraulic function and mortality on total woody canopy transpiration (EC) and conductance (GC). For both species, we observed significant reductionsmore » in plant transpiration (E) and ks under experimentally imposed drought. Conversely, supplemental water additions increased E and ks in both species. Interestingly, both species exhibited similar declines in ks under the imposed drought conditions, despite their differing stomatal responses and mortality patterns during drought. Reduced whole-plant ks also reduced carbon assimilation in both species, as leaf-level stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (An) declined strongly with decreasing ks. Finally, we observed that chronically low whole-plant ks was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both piñon and juniper and that subsequent reductions in woody canopy biomass due to mortality had a significant impact on both daily and annual canopy EC and GC. Our data indicate that significant reductions in ks precede drought-related tree mortality events in this system, and the consequence is a significant reduction in canopy gas exchange and carbon fixation. Our results suggest that reductions in productivity and woody plant cover in piñon–juniper woodlands can be expected due to reduced plant hydraulic conductance and increased mortality of both piñon pine and juniper under anticipated future conditions of more frequent and persistent

  9. Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a piñon–juniper woodland

    PubMed Central

    Pangle, Robert E; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Plaut, Jennifer A; Yepez, Enrico A; Hudson, Patrick J; Boutz, Amanda L; Gehres, Nathan; Pockman, William T; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-01-01

    Plant hydraulic conductance (ks) is a critical control on whole-plant water use and carbon uptake and, during drought, influences whether plants survive or die. To assess long-term physiological and hydraulic responses of mature trees to water availability, we manipulated ecosystem-scale water availability from 2007 to 2013 in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We examined the relationship between ks and subsequent mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations, and the subsequent impact of reduced hydraulic function and mortality on total woody canopy transpiration (EC) and conductance (GC). For both species, we observed significant reductions in plant transpiration (E) and ks under experimentally imposed drought. Conversely, supplemental water additions increased E and ks in both species. Interestingly, both species exhibited similar declines in ks under the imposed drought conditions, despite their differing stomatal responses and mortality patterns during drought. Reduced whole-plant ks also reduced carbon assimilation in both species, as leaf-level stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (An) declined strongly with decreasing ks. Finally, we observed that chronically low whole-plant ks was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both piñon and juniper and that subsequent reductions in woody canopy biomass due to mortality had a significant impact on both daily and annual canopy EC and GC. Our data indicate that significant reductions in ks precede drought-related tree mortality events in this system, and the consequence is a significant reduction in canopy gas exchange and carbon fixation. Our results suggest that reductions in productivity and woody plant cover in piñon–juniper woodlands can be expected due to reduced plant hydraulic conductance and increased mortality of both piñon pine and juniper under anticipated future conditions of more frequent and persistent

  10. Overexpression of the autophagy-related gene SiATG8a from foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) confers tolerance to both nitrogen starvation and drought stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-wei; Chen, Ming; Zhong, Li; Liu, Jia-ming; Xu, Zhao-shi; Li, Lian-cheng; Zhou, Yong-Bin; Guo, Chang-Hong; Ma, You-Zhi

    2015-12-25

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved biological process in all eukaryotes for the degradation of intracellular components for nutrient recycling. Autophagy is known to be involved in responses to low nitrogen stress in Arabidopsis. Foxtail millet has strong abiotic stress resistance to both low nutrient and drought stress. However, to date, there have only been a few genes reported to be related with abiotic stress resistance in foxtail millet. In this study, we identified an autophagy-related gene, SiATG8a, from foxtail millet. SiATG8a is mainly expressed in stems and its expression was dramatically induced by drought stress and nitrogen starvation treatments. SiATG8a was localized in the membrane and cytoplasm of foxtail millet. Overexpression of SiATG8a in Arabidopsis conferred tolerance to both nitrogen starvation and to drought stress. Under nitrogen starvation conditions, the SiATG8a transgenic plants had larger root and leaf areas and accumulated more total nitrogen than wild-type plants. The transgenic plants had lower total protein concentrations than did the WT plants. Under drought stress, the SiATG8a transgenic plants had higher survival rates, chlorophyll content, and proline content, but had lower MDA content than wild type plants. Taken together, our results represent the first identified case where overexpression of autophagy related gene can simultaneously improve plant resistance to low nitrogen and drought stresses. These findings implicate plant autophagy in plant stress responses to low nitrogen and drought and should be helpful in efforts to improve stresses resistance to nitrogen starvation and drought of crops by genetic transformation. PMID:26577407

  11. Expression of GhNAC2 from G. herbaceum, improves root growth and imparts tolerance to drought in transgenic cotton and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gunapati, Samatha; Naresh, Ram; Ranjan, Sanjay; Nigam, Deepti; Hans, Aradhana; Verma, Praveen C.; Gadre, Rekha; Pathre, Uday V.; Sane, Aniruddha P.; Sane, Vidhu A.

    2016-01-01

    NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors that play essential roles in regulating development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. We show that over-expression of the cotton GhNAC2 under the CaMV35S promoter increases root growth in both Arabidopsis and cotton under unstressed conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also show improved root growth in presence of mannitol and NaCl while transgenic cotton expressing GhNAC2 show reduced leaf abscission and wilting upon water stress compared to control plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also have larger leaves, higher seed number and size under well watered conditions, reduced transpiration and higher relative leaf water content. Micro-array analysis of transgenic plants over-expressing GhNAC2 reveals activation of the ABA/JA pathways and a suppression of the ethylene pathway at several levels to reduce expression of ERF6/ERF1/WRKY33/ MPK3/MKK9/ACS6 and their targets. This probably suppresses the ethylene-mediated inhibition of organ expansion, leading to larger leaves, better root growth and higher yields under unstressed conditions. Suppression of the ethylene pathway and activation of the ABA/JA pathways also primes the plant for improved stress tolerance by reduction in transpiration, greater stomatal control and suppression of growth retarding factors. PMID:27113714

  12. Expression of GhNAC2 from G. herbaceum, improves root growth and imparts tolerance to drought in transgenic cotton and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gunapati, Samatha; Naresh, Ram; Ranjan, Sanjay; Nigam, Deepti; Hans, Aradhana; Verma, Praveen C; Gadre, Rekha; Pathre, Uday V; Sane, Aniruddha P; Sane, Vidhu A

    2016-01-01

    NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors that play essential roles in regulating development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. We show that over-expression of the cotton GhNAC2 under the CaMV35S promoter increases root growth in both Arabidopsis and cotton under unstressed conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also show improved root growth in presence of mannitol and NaCl while transgenic cotton expressing GhNAC2 show reduced leaf abscission and wilting upon water stress compared to control plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also have larger leaves, higher seed number and size under well watered conditions, reduced transpiration and higher relative leaf water content. Micro-array analysis of transgenic plants over-expressing GhNAC2 reveals activation of the ABA/JA pathways and a suppression of the ethylene pathway at several levels to reduce expression of ERF6/ERF1/WRKY33/ MPK3/MKK9/ACS6 and their targets. This probably suppresses the ethylene-mediated inhibition of organ expansion, leading to larger leaves, better root growth and higher yields under unstressed conditions. Suppression of the ethylene pathway and activation of the ABA/JA pathways also primes the plant for improved stress tolerance by reduction in transpiration, greater stomatal control and suppression of growth retarding factors. PMID:27113714

  13. Sequence Polymorphisms at the REDUCED DORMANCY5 Pseudophosphatase Underlie Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Dormancy.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yong; Song, Baoxing; Née, Guillaume; Kramer, Katharina; Finkemeier, Iris; Soppe, Wim J J

    2016-08-01

    Seed dormancy controls the timing of germination, which regulates the adaptation of plants to their environment and influences agricultural production. The time of germination is under strong natural selection and shows variation within species due to local adaptation. The identification of genes underlying dormancy quantitative trait loci is a major scientific challenge, which is relevant for agricultural and ecological goals. In this study, we describe the identification of the DELAY OF GERMINATION18 (DOG18) quantitative trait locus, which was identified as a factor in natural variation for seed dormancy in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). DOG18 encodes a member of the clade A of the type 2C protein phosphatases family, which we previously identified as the REDUCED DORMANCY5 (RDO5) gene. DOG18/RDO5 shows a relatively high frequency of loss-of-function alleles in natural accessions restricted to northwestern Europe. The loss of dormancy in these loss-of-function alleles can be compensated for by genetic factors like DOG1 and DOG6, and by environmental factors such as low temperature. RDO5 does not have detectable phosphatase activity. Analysis of the phosphoproteome in dry and imbibed seeds revealed a general decrease in protein phosphorylation during seed imbibition that is enhanced in the rdo5 mutant. We conclude that RDO5 acts as a pseudophosphatase that inhibits dephosphorylation during seed imbibition. PMID:27288362

  14. Expression of Arabidopsis Hexokinase in Citrus Guard Cells Controls Stomatal Aperture and Reduces Transpiration.

    PubMed

    Lugassi, Nitsan; Kelly, Gilor; Fidel, Lena; Yaniv, Yossi; Attia, Ziv; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Raveh, Eran; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase (HXK) is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1) under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species. PMID:26734024

  15. Sequence Polymorphisms at the REDUCED DORMANCY5 Pseudophosphatase Underlie Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Dormancy1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yong; Song, Baoxing; Née, Guillaume; Kramer, Katharina; Soppe, Wim J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Seed dormancy controls the timing of germination, which regulates the adaptation of plants to their environment and influences agricultural production. The time of germination is under strong natural selection and shows variation within species due to local adaptation. The identification of genes underlying dormancy quantitative trait loci is a major scientific challenge, which is relevant for agricultural and ecological goals. In this study, we describe the identification of the DELAY OF GERMINATION18 (DOG18) quantitative trait locus, which was identified as a factor in natural variation for seed dormancy in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). DOG18 encodes a member of the clade A of the type 2C protein phosphatases family, which we previously identified as the REDUCED DORMANCY5 (RDO5) gene. DOG18/RDO5 shows a relatively high frequency of loss-of-function alleles in natural accessions restricted to northwestern Europe. The loss of dormancy in these loss-of-function alleles can be compensated for by genetic factors like DOG1 and DOG6, and by environmental factors such as low temperature. RDO5 does not have detectable phosphatase activity. Analysis of the phosphoproteome in dry and imbibed seeds revealed a general decrease in protein phosphorylation during seed imbibition that is enhanced in the rdo5 mutant. We conclude that RDO5 acts as a pseudophosphatase that inhibits dephosphorylation during seed imbibition. PMID:27288362

  16. Reduced Na+ uptake in the NaCl-hypersensitive sos1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, L; Zhu, J K

    1997-01-01

    Sos1 is an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant with > 20 times higher sensitivity toward Na+ inhibition due to a defective high-affinity potassium-uptake system. We report here that sos1 accumulates less Na+ than the wild type in response to NaCl stress. The Na+ contents in sos1 seedlings exposed to 25 mM NaCl for 2 or more d are about 43% lower than those in the wild type. When assayed at 20 mM external NaCl, sos1 seedlings pretreated with low potassium have 32% lower Na+ uptake than the wild type. However, little difference in Na+ uptake could be measured when the seedlings were not pretreated with low potassium. Low-potassium treatment was shown to induce high-affinity potassium-uptake activity in Arabidopsis seedlings. No substantial difference in Na+ efflux between sos1 and the wild type was detected. The results show that the reduced Na+ accumulation in sos1 is due to a lower Na+ influx rate. Therefore, the sos1 mutation appears to disrupt low-affinity Na+ uptake in addition to its impairment of high-affinity K+ uptake. PMID:9085573

  17. Expression of Arabidopsis Hexokinase in Citrus Guard Cells Controls Stomatal Aperture and Reduces Transpiration

    PubMed Central

    Lugassi, Nitsan; Kelly, Gilor; Fidel, Lena; Yaniv, Yossi; Attia, Ziv; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Raveh, Eran; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase (HXK) is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1) under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species. PMID:26734024

  18. Genome-Wide Identification of Soybean U-Box E3 Ubiquitin Ligases and Roles of GmPUB8 in Negative Regulation of Drought Stress Response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Liu, Yaping; Cong, Yahui; Wang, Tingting; Zhong, Xiujuan; Yang, Shouping; Li, Yan; Gai, Junyi

    2016-06-01

    Plant U-box (PUB) E3 ubiquitin ligases play important roles in hormone signaling pathways and response to abiotic stresses, but little is known about them in soybean, Glycine max. Here, we identified and characterized 125 PUB genes from the soybean genome, which were classified into eight groups according to their protein domains. Soybean PUB genes (GmPUB genes) are broadly expressed in many tissues and are a little more abundant in the roots than in the other tissues. Nine GmPUB genes, GmPUB1-GmPUB9, showed induced expression patterns by drought, and the expression of GmPUB8 was also induced by exogenous ABA and NaCl. GmPUB8 was localized to post-Golgi compartments, interacting with GmE2 protein as demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiments, and showed E3 ubiquitin ligase activity by in vitro ubiquitination assay. Heterogeneous overexpression of GmPUB8 in Arabidopsis showed decreased drought tolerance, enhanced sensitivity with respect to osmotic and salt stress inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, and inhibited ABA- and mannitol-mediated stomatal closure. Eight drought stress-related genes were less induced in GmPUB8-overexpressing Arabidopsis after drought treatment compared with the wild type and the pub23 mutant. Taken together, our results suggested that GmPUB8 might negatively regulate plant response to drought stress. In addition, Y2H and BiFC showed that GmPUB8 interacted with soybean COL (CONSTANS LIKE) protein. GmPUB8-overexpressing Arabidopsis flowered earlier under middle- and short-day conditions but later under long-day conditions, indicating that GmPUB8 might regulate flowering time in the photoperiod pathway. This study helps us to understand the functions of PUB E3 ubiquitin ligases in soybean. PMID:27057003

  19. Severe Droughts Reduce Estuarine Primary Productivity with Cascading Effects on Higher Trophic Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a 10 year time-series dataset, we analyzed the effects of two severe droughts on water quality and ecosystem processes in a temperate, eutrophic estuary (Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina). During the droughts, dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations were on average 4...

  20. Sorghum stay-green QTL individually reduce post-flowering drought-induced leaf senescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is an important source of food and feed, especially in the semi-arid tropics because this cereal is well adapted to harsh, drought-prone environments. Post-flowering drought adaptation in sorghum is associated with the stay-green phenotype. Alleles that contribute to this complex trait hav...

  1. Complexation of arsenite with phytochelatins reduces arsenite efflux and translocation from roots to shoots in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Ju; Wood, B Alan; Raab, Andrea; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Feldmann, Jörg

    2010-04-01

    Complexation of arsenite [As(III)] with phytochelatins (PCs) is an important mechanism employed by plants to detoxify As; how this complexation affects As mobility was little known. We used high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and accurate mass electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry coupled to HPLC to identify and quantify As(III)-thiol complexes and free thiol compounds in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) exposed to arsenate [As(V)]. As(V) was efficiently reduced to As(III) in roots. In wild-type roots, 69% of As was complexed as As(III)-PC4, As(III)-PC3, and As(III)-(PC2)2. Both the glutathione (GSH)-deficient mutant cad2-1 and the PC-deficient mutant cad1-3 were approximately 20 times more sensitive to As(V) than the wild type. In cad1-3 roots, only 8% of As was complexed with GSH as As(III)-(GS)3 and no As(III)-PCs were detected, while in cad2-1 roots, As(III)-PCs accounted for only 25% of the total As. The two mutants had a greater As mobility, with a significantly higher accumulation of As(III) in shoots and 4.5 to 12 times higher shoot-to-root As concentration ratio than the wild type. Roots also effluxed a substantial proportion of the As(V) taken up as As(III) to the external medium, and this efflux was larger in the two mutants. Furthermore, when wild-type plants were exposed to l-buthionine sulfoximine or deprived of sulfur, both As(III) efflux and root-to-shoot translocation were enhanced. The results indicate that complexation of As(III) with PCs in Arabidopsis roots decreases its mobility for both efflux to the external medium and for root-to-shoot translocation. Enhancing PC synthesis in roots may be an effective strategy to reduce As translocation to the edible organs of food crops. PMID:20130102

  2. A Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter Plays a Dual Role in Polar Auxin Transport and Drought Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Remy, Estelle; Cabrito, Tânia R.; Baster, Pawel; Batista, Rita A.; Teixeira, Miguel C.; Friml, Jiri; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Duque, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Many key aspects of plant development are regulated by the polarized transport of the phytohormone auxin. Cellular auxin efflux, the rate-limiting step in this process, has been shown to rely on the coordinated action of PIN-formed (PIN) and B-type ATP binding cassette (ABCB) carriers. Here, we report that polar auxin transport in the Arabidopsis thaliana root also requires the action of a Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporter, Zinc-Induced Facilitator-Like 1 (ZIFL1). Sequencing, promoter-reporter, and fluorescent protein fusion experiments indicate that the full-length ZIFL1.1 protein and a truncated splice isoform, ZIFL1.3, localize to the tonoplast of root cells and the plasma membrane of leaf stomatal guard cells, respectively. Using reverse genetics, we show that the ZIFL1.1 transporter regulates various root auxin-related processes, while the ZIFL1.3 isoform mediates drought tolerance by regulating stomatal closure. Auxin transport and immunolocalization assays demonstrate that ZIFL1.1 indirectly modulates cellular auxin efflux during shootward auxin transport at the root tip, likely by regulating plasma membrane PIN2 abundance. Finally, heterologous expression in yeast revealed that ZIFL1.1 and ZIFL1.3 share H+-coupled K+ transport activity. Thus, by determining the subcellular and tissue distribution of two isoforms, alternative splicing dictates a dual function for the ZIFL1 transporter. We propose that this MFS carrier regulates stomatal movements and polar auxin transport by modulating potassium and proton fluxes in Arabidopsis cells. PMID:23524662

  3. Overexpression of the Mg-chelatase H subunit in guard cells confers drought tolerance via promotion of stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Tsuzuki, Tomo; Takahashi, Koji; Tomiyama, Masakazu; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    The Mg-chelatase H subunit (CHLH) has been shown to mediate chlorophyll biosynthesis, as well as plastid-to-nucleus and abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated signaling. A recent study using a novel CHLH mutant, rtl1, indicated that CHLH specifically affects ABA-induced stomatal closure, but also that CHLH did not serve as an ABA receptor in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the molecular mechanism by which CHLH engages in ABA-mediated signaling in guard cells remains largely unknown. In the present study, we examined CHLH function in guard cells and explored whether CHLH expression might influence stomatal aperture. Incubation of rtl1 guard cell protoplasts with ABA induced expression of the ABA-responsive genes RAB18 and RD29B, as also observed in wild-type (WT) cells, indicating that CHLH did not affect the expression of ABA-responsive genes. Earlier, ABA was reported to inhibit blue light (BL)-mediated stomatal opening, at least in part through dephosphorylating/inhibiting guard cell H+-ATPase (which drives opening). Therefore, we immunohistochemically examined the phosphorylation status of guard cell H+-ATPase. Notably, ABA inhibition of BL-induced phosphorylation of H+-ATPase was impaired in rtl1 cells, suggesting that CHLH influences not only ABA-induced stomatal closure but also inhibition of BL-mediated stomatal opening by ABA. Next, we generated CHLH-GFP-overexpressing plants using CER6 promoter, which induces gene expression in the epidermis including guard cells. CHLH-transgenic plants exhibited a closed stomata phenotype even when brightly illuminated. Moreover, plant growth experiments conducted under water-deficient conditions showed that CHLH transgenic plants were more tolerant of drought than WT plants. In summary, we show that CHLH is involved in the regulation of stomatal aperture in response to ABA, but not in ABA-induced gene expression, and that manipulation of stomatal aperture via overexpression of CHLH in guard cells improves plant drought tolerance

  4. Cloning and characterization of a maize bZIP transcription factor, ZmbZIP72, confers drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ying, Sheng; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Fu, Jing; Shi, Yun-Su; Song, Yan-Chun; Wang, Tian-Yu; Li, Yu

    2012-02-01

    In plants, the bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors regulate diverse functions, including processes such as plant development and stress response. However, few have been functionally characterized in maize (Zea mays). In this study, we cloned ZmbZIP72, a bZIP transcription factor gene from maize, which had only one copy in the maize genome and harbored three introns. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of ZmbZIP72 revealed a highly conserved bZIP DNA-binding domain in its C-terminal region, and four conserved sequences distributed in N- or C-terminal region. The ZmbZIP72 gene expressed differentially in various organs of maize plants and was induced by abscisic acid, high salinity, and drought treatment in seedlings. Subcellular localization analysis in onion epidermal cells indicated that ZmbZIP72 was a nuclear protein. Transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that ZmbZIP72 functioned as a transcriptional activator and its N terminus (amino acids 23-63) was necessary for the transactivation activity. Heterologous overexpression of ZmbZIP72 improved drought and partial salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants, as determined by physiological analyses of leaf water loss, electrolyte leakage, proline content, and survival rate under stress. In addition, the seeds of ZmbZIP72-overexpressing transgenic plants were hypersensitive to ABA and osmotic stress. Moreover, overexpression of ZmbZIP72 enhanced the expression of ABA-inducible genes such as RD29B, RAB18, and HIS1-3. These results suggest that the ZmbZIP72 protein functions as an ABA-dependent transcription factor in positive modulation of abiotic stress tolerance and may be a candidate gene with potential application in molecular breeding to enhance stress tolerance in crops. PMID:21866346

  5. Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN reduces impact of freezing temperatures on photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fan; Jacquard, Cédric; Villaume, Sandra; Michel, Jean; Rabenoelina, Fanja; Clément, Christophe; Barka, Essaid A.; Dhondt-Cordelier, Sandrine; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Several plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to improve plant tolerance to multiple stresses, including low temperatures. However, mechanisms underlying this protection are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the endophytic PGPR, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN (Bp PsJN), on Arabidopsis thaliana cold tolerance using photosynthesis parameters as physiological markers. Under standard conditions, our results indicated that Bp PsJN inoculation led to growth promotion of Arabidopsis plants without significant modification on photosynthesis parameters and chloroplast organization. However, bacterial colonization induced a cell wall strengthening in the mesophyll. Impact of inoculation modes (either on seeds or by soil irrigation) and their effects overnight at 0, -1, or -3°C, were investigated by following photosystem II (PSII) activity and gas exchanges. Following low temperatures stress, a decrease of photosynthesis parameters was observed. In addition, during three consecutive nights or days at -1°C, PSII activity was monitored. Pigment contents, RuBisCO protein abundance, expression of several genes including RbcS, RbcL, CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, ICE1, COR15a, and COR78 were evaluated at the end of exposure. To assess the impact of the bacteria on cell ultrastructure under low temperatures, microscopic observations were achieved. Results indicated that freezing treatment induced significant changes in PSII activity as early as the first cold day, whereas the same impact on PSII activity was observed only during the third cold night. The significant effects conferred by PsJN were differential accumulation of pigments, and reduced expression of RbcL and COR78. Microscopical observations showed an alteration/disorganization in A. thaliana leaf mesophyll cells independently of the freezing treatments. The presence of bacteria during the three successive nights or days did not significantly improved A. thaliana

  6. Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN reduces impact of freezing temperatures on photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Su, Fan; Jacquard, Cédric; Villaume, Sandra; Michel, Jean; Rabenoelina, Fanja; Clément, Christophe; Barka, Essaid A; Dhondt-Cordelier, Sandrine; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Several plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to improve plant tolerance to multiple stresses, including low temperatures. However, mechanisms underlying this protection are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the endophytic PGPR, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN (Bp PsJN), on Arabidopsis thaliana cold tolerance using photosynthesis parameters as physiological markers. Under standard conditions, our results indicated that Bp PsJN inoculation led to growth promotion of Arabidopsis plants without significant modification on photosynthesis parameters and chloroplast organization. However, bacterial colonization induced a cell wall strengthening in the mesophyll. Impact of inoculation modes (either on seeds or by soil irrigation) and their effects overnight at 0, -1, or -3°C, were investigated by following photosystem II (PSII) activity and gas exchanges. Following low temperatures stress, a decrease of photosynthesis parameters was observed. In addition, during three consecutive nights or days at -1°C, PSII activity was monitored. Pigment contents, RuBisCO protein abundance, expression of several genes including RbcS, RbcL, CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, ICE1, COR15a, and COR78 were evaluated at the end of exposure. To assess the impact of the bacteria on cell ultrastructure under low temperatures, microscopic observations were achieved. Results indicated that freezing treatment induced significant changes in PSII activity as early as the first cold day, whereas the same impact on PSII activity was observed only during the third cold night. The significant effects conferred by PsJN were differential accumulation of pigments, and reduced expression of RbcL and COR78. Microscopical observations showed an alteration/disorganization in A. thaliana leaf mesophyll cells independently of the freezing treatments. The presence of bacteria during the three successive nights or days did not significantly improved A. thaliana

  7. A drought-stress-inducible histone gene in Arabidopsis thaliana is a member of a distinct class of plant linker histone variants.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, R; Gantt, J S

    1997-07-01

    We have isolated and characterized a gene, His1-3, encoding a structurally divergent linker histone in Arabidopsis thaliana. Southern and northern hybridization data indicate that A. thaliana expresses three single-copy linker histone genes, each encoding a structurally distinct variant. H1-3 is a considerably smaller protein (167 amino acids with a mass of 19.0 kDa) than any other described linker histone from higher eukaryotes. We examined the expression of His1-3 at the RNA and protein levels and found that it is induced specifically by water stress. In contrast, expression of His1-1, His1-2 and His4 appear unaffected by water stress. Furthermore, the primary structure of the protein possesses distinct characteristics that are shared with another drought-inducible linker histone, H1-D, isolated from Lycopersicon pennellii. Based on structural characteristics of the deduced protein and its inducible expression, we hypothesize that H1-3 and H1-D are linker histone variants that have specialized roles in the structure and function of plant chromatin and therefore they can be considered to be members of a unique subclass of plant histones. Immunoblotting with an antibody produced against a short polypeptide in the conserved domain of this subtype indicates that similar proteins may exist in other plants. PMID:9247544

  8. Stress induced and nuclear localized HIPP26 from Arabidopsis thaliana interacts via its heavy metal associated domain with the drought stress related zinc finger transcription factor ATHB29.

    PubMed

    Barth, Olaf; Vogt, Sebastian; Uhlemann, Ria; Zschiesche, Wiebke; Humbeck, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    HIPP26 from Arabidopsis thaliana belongs to a novel class of plant proteins, characterized by a heavy metal associated domain and an additional isoprenylation motif. It is induced during cold, salt and drought stress. The nuclear localization of HIPP26, predicted by a NLS motif, could be confirmed in onion epidermal cells overexpressing GFP-HIPP26. Experiments with modified HIPP26 indicate that the isoprenylation plays a role in the spatial distribution in the nucleus. Using promoter-GUS constructs, a tissue specific expression pattern of HIPP26 could be shown, with high expression in the vascular tissue. By a yeast-two-hybrid approach a strong interaction of HIPP26 with the zinc finger homeodomain transcription factor ATHB29, which is known to play a role in dehydration stress response could be detected. This was confirmed by GST pull-down assays. When using a modified HIPP26 lacking the two central cysteines of the heavy metal associated domain, ATHB29 was not bound in the GST pull-down assay, indicating that this structure is necessary for the interaction. Further yeast-two-hybrid analyses testing interaction of different members of the HIPP family with related zinc finger transcription factors revealed a specific interaction of ATHB29 with several HIPP proteins. A functional relationship between HIPP26 and ATHB29 is also indicated by experiments with mutants of HIPP26 showing altered expression levels of such genes known to be regulated by ATHB29. PMID:18974936

  9. AtRD22 and AtUSPL1, Members of the Plant-Specific BURP Domain Family Involved in Arabidopsis thaliana Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Harshavardhan, Vokkaliga Thammegowda; Van Son, Le; Seiler, Christiane; Junker, Astrid; Weigelt-Fischer, Kathleen; Klukas, Christian; Altmann, Thomas; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Bäumlein, Helmut; Kuhlmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Crop plants are regularly challenged by a range of environmental stresses which typically retard their growth and ultimately compromise economic yield. The stress response involves the reprogramming of approximately 4% of the transcriptome. Here, the behavior of AtRD22 and AtUSPL1, both members of the Arabidopsis thaliana BURP (BNM2, USP, RD22 and polygalacturonase isozyme) domain-containing gene family, has been characterized. Both genes are up-regulated as part of the abscisic acid (ABA) mediated moisture stress response. While AtRD22 transcript was largely restricted to the leaf, that of AtUSPL1 was more prevalent in the root. As the loss of function of either gene increased the plant's moisture stress tolerance, the implication was that their products act to suppress the drought stress response. In addition to the known involvement of AtUSPL1 in seed development, a further role in stress tolerance was demonstrated. Based on transcriptomic data and phenotype we concluded that the enhanced moisture stress tolerance of the two loss-of-function mutants is a consequence of an enhanced basal defense response. PMID:25333723

  10. AtRD22 and AtUSPL1, members of the plant-specific BURP domain family involved in Arabidopsis thaliana drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Harshavardhan, Vokkaliga Thammegowda; Van Son, Le; Seiler, Christiane; Junker, Astrid; Weigelt-Fischer, Kathleen; Klukas, Christian; Altmann, Thomas; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Bäumlein, Helmut; Kuhlmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Crop plants are regularly challenged by a range of environmental stresses which typically retard their growth and ultimately compromise economic yield. The stress response involves the reprogramming of approximately 4% of the transcriptome. Here, the behavior of AtRD22 and AtUSPL1, both members of the Arabidopsis thaliana BURP (BNM2, USP, RD22 and polygalacturonase isozyme) domain-containing gene family, has been characterized. Both genes are up-regulated as part of the abscisic acid (ABA) mediated moisture stress response. While AtRD22 transcript was largely restricted to the leaf, that of AtUSPL1 was more prevalent in the root. As the loss of function of either gene increased the plant's moisture stress tolerance, the implication was that their products act to suppress the drought stress response. In addition to the known involvement of AtUSPL1 in seed development, a further role in stress tolerance was demonstrated. Based on transcriptomic data and phenotype we concluded that the enhanced moisture stress tolerance of the two loss-of-function mutants is a consequence of an enhanced basal defense response. PMID:25333723

  11. Apoplastic Nucleoside Accumulation in Arabidopsis Leads to Reduced Photosynthetic Performance and Increased Susceptibility Against Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Daumann, Manuel; Fischer, Marietta; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Girke, Christopher; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between plant and pathogen often occur in the extracellular space and especially nucleotides like ATP and NAD have been identified as key players in this scenario. Arabidopsis mutants accumulating nucleosides in the extracellular space were generated and studied with respect to susceptibility against Botrytis cinerea infection and general plant fitness determined as photosynthetic performance. The mutants used are deficient in the main nucleoside uptake system ENT3 and the extracellular nucleoside hydrolase NSH3. When grown on soil but not in hydroponic culture, these plants markedly accumulate adenosine and uridine in leaves. This nucleoside accumulation was accompanied by reduced photosystem II efficiency and altered expression of photosynthesis related genes. Moreover, a higher susceptibility toward Botrytis cinerea infection and a reduced induction of pathogen related genes PR1 and WRKY33 was observed. All these effects did not occur in hydroponically grown plants substantiating a contribution of extracellular nucleosides to these effects. Whether reduced general plant fitness, altered pathogen response capability or more direct interactions with the pathogen are responsible for these observations is discussed. PMID:26779190

  12. Reducing isozyme competition increases target fatty acid accumulation in seed triacylglycerols of transgenic Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One goal of green chemistry is the production of industrially useful fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants. We focus on the engineering of industrial FAs, specifically hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) and conjugated polyenoic fatty acids (a-eleostearic acid, ESA), using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a m...

  13. Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a piñon–juniper woodland

    SciTech Connect

    Pangle, Robert E.; Limousin, Jean -Marc; Plaut, Jennifer A.; Yepez, Enrico A.; Hudson, Patrick J.; Boutz, Amanda L.; Gehres, Nathan; Pockman, William T.; McDowell, Nate G.

    2015-03-23

    Plant hydraulic conductance (ks) is a critical control on whole-plant water use and carbon uptake and, during drought, influences whether plants survive or die. To assess long-term physiological and hydraulic responses of mature trees to water availability, we manipulated ecosystem-scale water availability from 2007 to 2013 in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We examined the relationship between ks and subsequent mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations, and the subsequent impact of reduced hydraulic function and mortality on total woody canopy transpiration (EC) and conductance (GC). For both species, we observed significant reductions in plant transpiration (E) and ks under experimentally imposed drought. Conversely, supplemental water additions increased E and ks in both species. Interestingly, both species exhibited similar declines in ks under the imposed drought conditions, despite their differing stomatal responses and mortality patterns during drought. Reduced whole-plant ks also reduced carbon assimilation in both species, as leaf-level stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (An) declined strongly with decreasing ks. Finally, we observed that chronically low whole-plant ks was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both piñon and juniper and that subsequent reductions in woody canopy biomass due to mortality had a significant impact on both daily and annual canopy EC and GC. Our data indicate that significant reductions in ks precede drought-related tree mortality events in this system, and the consequence is a significant reduction in canopy gas exchange and carbon fixation. Our results suggest that reductions in productivity and woody plant cover in piñon–juniper woodlands can be

  14. Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a piñon-juniper woodland.

    PubMed

    Pangle, Robert E; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Plaut, Jennifer A; Yepez, Enrico A; Hudson, Patrick J; Boutz, Amanda L; Gehres, Nathan; Pockman, William T; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-04-01

    Plant hydraulic conductance (k s) is a critical control on whole-plant water use and carbon uptake and, during drought, influences whether plants survive or die. To assess long-term physiological and hydraulic responses of mature trees to water availability, we manipulated ecosystem-scale water availability from 2007 to 2013 in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We examined the relationship between k s and subsequent mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations, and the subsequent impact of reduced hydraulic function and mortality on total woody canopy transpiration (E C) and conductance (G C). For both species, we observed significant reductions in plant transpiration (E) and k s under experimentally imposed drought. Conversely, supplemental water additions increased E and k s in both species. Interestingly, both species exhibited similar declines in k s under the imposed drought conditions, despite their differing stomatal responses and mortality patterns during drought. Reduced whole-plant k s also reduced carbon assimilation in both species, as leaf-level stomatal conductance (g s) and net photosynthesis (A n) declined strongly with decreasing k s. Finally, we observed that chronically low whole-plant k s was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both piñon and juniper and that subsequent reductions in woody canopy biomass due to mortality had a significant impact on both daily and annual canopy E C and G C. Our data indicate that significant reductions in k s precede drought-related tree mortality events in this system, and the consequence is a significant reduction in canopy gas exchange and carbon fixation. Our results suggest that reductions in productivity and woody plant cover in piñon-juniper woodlands can be expected due to reduced plant hydraulic conductance and increased mortality of both piñon pine and juniper under anticipated future conditions of more frequent and

  15. Disruption of adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase in Arabidopsis reduces levels of sulfated secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Mugford, Sarah G; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Reichelt, Michael; Wirtz, Markus; Hill, Lionel; Mugford, Sam T; Nakazato, Yoshimi; Noji, Masaaki; Takahashi, Hideki; Kramell, Robert; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Wasternack, Claus; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hell, Rüdiger; Saito, Kazuki; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2009-03-01

    Plants can metabolize sulfate by two pathways, which branch at the level of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS). APS can be reduced to sulfide and incorporated into Cys in the primary sulfate assimilation pathway or phosphorylated by APS kinase to 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate, which is the activated sulfate form for sulfation reactions. To assess to what extent APS kinase regulates accumulation of sulfated compounds, we analyzed the corresponding gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of T-DNA insertion knockout lines for each of the four isoforms did not reveal any phenotypical alterations. However, when all six combinations of double mutants were compared, the apk1 apk2 plants were significantly smaller than wild-type plants. The levels of glucosinolates, a major class of sulfated secondary metabolites, and the sulfated 12-hydroxyjasmonate were reduced approximately fivefold in apk1 apk2 plants. Although auxin levels were increased in the apk1 apk2 mutants, as is the case for most plants with compromised glucosinolate synthesis, typical high auxin phenotypes were not observed. The reduction in glucosinolates resulted in increased transcript levels for genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis and accumulation of desulfated precursors. It also led to great alterations in sulfur metabolism: the levels of sulfate and thiols increased in the apk1 apk2 plants. The data indicate that the APK1 and APK2 isoforms of APS kinase play a major role in the synthesis of secondary sulfated metabolites and are required for normal growth rates. PMID:19304933

  16. Could shading reduce the negative impacts of drought on coffee? A morphophysiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavatte, Paulo C; Oliveira, Alvaro A G; Morais, Leandro E; Martins, Samuel C V; Sanglard, Lílian M V P; DaMatta, Fábio M

    2012-02-01

    Based on indirect evidence, it was previously suggested that shading could attenuate the negative impacts of drought on coffee (Coffea arabica), a tropical crop species native to shady environments. A variety (47) of morphological and physiological traits were examined in plants grown in 30-l pots in either full sunlight or 85% shade for 8 months, after which a 4-month water shortage was implemented. Overall, the traits showed weak or negligible responses to the light × water interaction, explaining less than 10% of the total data variation. Only slight variations in biomass allocation were observed in the combined shade and drought treatment. Differences in relative growth rates were mainly associated with physiological and not with morphological adjustments. In high light, drought constrained the photosynthetic rate through stomatal limitations with no sign of apparent photoinhibition; in low light, such constraints were apparently linked to biochemical factors. Sun-grown plants displayed osmotic adjustments, decreased tissue elasticities and improved long-term water use efficiencies, especially under drought. Regardless of the water availability, higher concentrations of lipids, total phenols, total soluble sugars and lignin were found in high light compared to shade conditions, in contrast to the effects on cellulose and hemicellulose concentrations. Proline concentrations increased in water-deprived plants, particularly those grown under full sun. Phenotypic plasticity was much higher in response to the light than to the water supply. Overall, shading did not alleviate the negative impacts of drought on the coffee tree. PMID:21939445

  17. Identification of drought-responsive genes in a drought-tolerant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar under reduced irrigation field conditions and development of candidate gene markers for drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton productivity is affected by water deficit, and little is known about the molecular basis of drought tolerance in cotton. In this study, microarray analysis was conducted to identify drought-responsive genes in the third topmost leaves of the field-grown drought-tolerant cotton (Gossypium hirs...

  18. An ER-targeted calcium-binding peptide confers salt and drought tolerance mediated by CIPK6 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Pei-Lan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Allen, Nina Stromgren; Winter-Sederoff, Heike; Robertson, Dominique

    2012-03-01

    Different plant organelles have high internal stores of Ca(2+) compared to the cytoplasm and could play independent roles in stress responses or signal transduction. We used a GFP fusion with the C-domain of calreticulin, which shows low-affinity, high capacity Ca(2+) binding in the ER, as a calcium-binding peptide (CBP) to specifically increase stores in the ER and nucleus. Despite the presence of a signal sequence and KDEL retention sequence, our work and previous studies (Brandizzi et al. Plant Journal 34:269-281, 2003) demonstrated both ER and nuclear localization of GFP-CBP. Under normal conditions, GFP-CBP-expressing lines had ~25% more total Ca(2+) and higher levels of chlorophyll and seed yield than wild type and GFP controls. CBP-expressing plants also had better survival under intermittent drought or high salt treatments and increased root growth. One member of the CIPK (calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinase) gene family, CIPK6, was up-regulated in CBP-expressing plants, even under non-stress conditions. A null mutation in cipk6 abolished the increased stress tolerance of CBP-transgenic plants, as well as the CBP-mediated induction of two stress-associated genes, DREB1A and RD29A, under non-stress conditions. Although this suggested that it was the induction of CIPK6, rather than localized changes in Ca(2+), that resulted in increased survival under adverse conditions, CIPK6 induction still required Ca(2+). This work demonstrates that ER (or nuclear) Ca(2+) can directly participate in signal transduction to alter gene expression. The discovery of a method for increasing Ca(2+) levels without deleterious effects on plant growth may have practical applications. PMID:21971994

  19. Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wentao; Du, Bojing; Liu, Di; Qi, Xiaoting

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Arabidopsis splicing factor SR34b gene is cadmium-inducible. • SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant is sensitive to cadmium due to high cadmium uptake. • SR34b is a regulator of cadmium transporter IRT1 at the posttranscription level. • These results highlight the roles of splicing factors in cadmium tolerance of plant. - Abstract: Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerance in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd{sup 2+} uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance.

  20. Reducing Isozyme Competition Increases Target Fatty Acid Accumulation in Seed Triacylglycerols of Transgenic Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Harrie; Shockey, Jay; Zhang, Meng; Adhikari, Neil D.; Browse, John

    2015-01-01

    One goal of green chemistry is the production of industrially useful fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants. We focus on hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) and conjugated polyenoic FAs (α-eleostearic acids [ESAs]) using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a model. These FAs are found naturally in seed oils of castor (Ricinus communis) and tung tree (Vernicia fordii), respectively, and used for the production of lubricants, nylon, and paints. Transgenic oils typically contain less target FA than that produced in the source species. We hypothesized that competition between endogenous and transgenic isozymes for substrates limits accumulation of unique FAs in Arabidopsis seeds. This hypothesis was tested by introducing a mutation in Arabidopsis diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (AtDGAT1) in a line expressing castor FA hydroxylase and acyl-Coenzyme A:RcDGAT2 in its seeds. This led to a 17% increase in the proportion of HFA in seed oil. Expression of castor phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1A in this line increased the proportion of HFA by an additional 12%. To determine if our observations are more widely applicable, we investigated if isozyme competition influenced production of ESA. Expression of tung tree FA conjugase/desaturase in Arabidopsis produced approximately 7.5% ESA in seed lipids. Coexpression of VfDGAT2 increased ESA levels to approximately 11%. Overexpression of VfDGAT2 combined with suppression of AtDGAT1 increased ESA accumulation to 14% to 15%. Our results indicate that isozyme competition is a limiting factor in the engineering of unusual FAs in heterologous plant systems and that reduction of competition through mutation and RNA suppression may be a useful component of seed metabolic engineering strategies. PMID:25739701

  1. The evolution of drought escape and avoidance in natural herbaceous populations.

    PubMed

    Kooyers, Nicholas J

    2015-05-01

    While the functional genetics and physiological mechanisms controlling drought resistance in crop plants have been intensely studied, less research has examined the genetic basis of adaptation to drought stress in natural populations. Drought resistance adaptations in nature reflect natural rather than human-mediated selection and may identify novel mechanisms for stress tolerance. Adaptations conferring drought resistance have historically been divided into alternative strategies including drought escape (rapid development to complete a life cycle before drought) and drought avoidance (reducing water loss to prevent dehydration). Recent studies in genetic model systems such as Arabidopsis, Mimulus, and Panicum have begun to elucidate the genes, expression profiles, and physiological changes responsible for ecologically important variation in drought resistance. Similar to most crop plants, variation in drought escape and avoidance is complex, underlain by many QTL of small effect, and pervasive gene by environment interactions. Recently identified major-effect alleles point to a significant role for genetic constraints in limiting the concurrent evolution of both drought escape and avoidance strategies, although these constraints are not universally found. This progress suggests that understanding the mechanistic basic and fitness consequences of gene by environment interactions will be critical for crop improvement and forecasting population persistence in unpredictable environments. PMID:25804818

  2. Drought stress responses in crops.

    PubMed

    Shanker, Arun K; Maheswari, M; Yadav, S K; Desai, S; Bhanu, Divya; Attal, Neha Bajaj; Venkateswarlu, B

    2014-03-01

    Among the effects of impending climate change, drought will have a profound impact on crop productivity in the future. Response to drought stress has been studied widely, and the model plant Arabidopsis has guided the studies on crop plants with genome sequence information viz., rice, wheat, maize and sorghum. Since the value of functions of genes, dynamics of pathways and interaction of networks for drought tolerance in plants can only be judged by evidence from field performance, this mini-review provides a research update focussing on the current developments on the response to drought in crop plants. Studies in Arabidopsis provide the basis for interpreting the available information in a systems biology perspective. In particular, the elucidation of the mechanism of drought stress response in crops is considered from evidence-based outputs emerging from recent omic studies in crops. PMID:24408129

  3. Airborne Ethylene May Alter Antioxidant Protection and Reduce Tolerance of Holm Oak to Heat and Drought Stress1

    PubMed Central

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Peñuelas, Josep; Asensio, Dolores; Llusià, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Plant-emitted ethylene has received considerable attention as a stress hormone and is considered to play a major role at low concentrations in the tolerance of several species to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, airborne ethylene at high concentrations, such as those found in polluted areas (20–100 nL L−1) for several days, has received far less attention in studies of plant stress tolerance, though it has been shown to alter photosynthesis and reproductive stages (seed germination, flowering, and fruit ripening) in some species. To assess the potential effects of airborne ethylene on plant stress tolerance in polluted areas, the extent of oxidative stress, photo- and antioxidant protection, and visual leaf area damage were evaluated in ethylene-treated (approximately 100 nL L−1 in air) and control (without ethylene fumigation) holm oak (Quercus ilex) plants exposed to heat stress or to a combination of heat and drought stress. Control plants displayed tolerance to temperatures as high as 50°C, which might be attributed, at least in part, to enhanced xanthophyll de-epoxidation and 2-fold increases in α-tocopherol, and they suffered oxidative stress only when water deficit was superimposed on temperatures above 45°C. By contrast, ethylene-treated plants showed symptoms of oxidative stress at lower temperatures (35°C) than the controls in drought, as indicated by enhanced malondialdehyde levels, lower α-tocopherol and ascorbate concentrations, and a shift of the redox state of ascorbate to its oxidized form. In addition, ethylene-treated plants showed higher visual leaf area damage and greater reductions in the maximum efficiency of the PSII photochemistry than controls in response to heat stress or to a combination of heat and drought stress. These results demonstrate for the first time that airborne ethylene at concentrations similar to those found in polluted areas may reduce plant stress tolerance by altering, among other possible mechanisms

  4. Reducing saturated fatty acids in Arabidopsis seeds by expression of a Caenorhabditis elegans 16:0-specific desaturase.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Deirdre; Scheer, Barbara; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2013-05-01

    Plant oilseeds are a major source of nutritional oils. Their fatty acid composition, especially the proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, has important effects on human health. Because intake of saturated fats is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, a goal of metabolic engineering is to develop oils low in saturated fatty acids. Palmitic acid (16:0) is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in the seeds of many oilseed crops and in Arabidopsis thaliana. We expressed FAT-5, a membrane-bound desaturase cloned from Caenorhabditis elegans, in Arabidopsis using a strong seed-specific promoter. The FAT-5 enzyme is highly specific to 16:0 as substrate, converting it to 16:1∆9; expression of fat-5 reduced the 16:0 content of the seed by two-thirds. Decreased 16:0 and elevated 16:1 levels were evident both in the storage and membrane lipids of seeds. Regiochemical analysis of phosphatidylcholine showed that 16:1 was distributed at both positions on the glycerolipid backbone, unlike 16:0, which is predominately found at the sn-1 position. Seeds from a plant line homozygous for FAT-5 expression were comparable to wild type with respect to seed set and germination, while oil content and weight were somewhat reduced. These experiments demonstrate that targeted heterologous expression of a desaturase in oilseeds can reduce the level of saturated fatty acids in the oil, significantly improving its nutritional value. PMID:23279079

  5. Reduced Carbon Availability to Bacteroids and Elevated Ureides in Nodules, But Not in Shoots, Are Involved in the Nitrogen Fixation Response to Early Drought in Soybean1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Ladrera, Rubén; Marino, Daniel; Larrainzar, Estíbaliz; González, Esther M.; Arrese-Igor, Cesar

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation (NF) in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is highly sensitive to soil drying. This sensitivity has been related to an accumulation of nitrogen compounds, either in shoots or in nodules, and a nodular carbon flux shortage under drought. To assess the relative importance of carbon and nitrogen status on NF regulation, the responses to the early stages of drought were monitored with two soybean cultivars with known contrasting tolerance to drought. In the sensitive cultivar (‘Biloxi’), NF inhibition occurred earlier and was more dramatic than in the tolerant cultivar (‘Jackson’). The carbon flux to bacteroids was also more affected in ‘Biloxi’ than in ‘Jackson’, due to an earlier inhibition of sucrose synthase activity and a larger decrease of malate concentration in the former. Drought provoked ureide accumulation in nodules of both cultivars, but this accumulation was higher and occurred earlier in ‘Biloxi’. However, at this early stage of drought, there was no accumulation of ureides in the leaves of either cultivar. These results indicate that a combination of both reduced carbon flux and nitrogen accumulation in nodules, but not in shoots, is involved in the inhibition of NF in soybean under early drought. PMID:17720761

  6. Reduced carbon availability to bacteroids and elevated ureides in nodules, but not in shoots, are involved in the nitrogen fixation response to early drought in soybean.

    PubMed

    Ladrera, Rubén; Marino, Daniel; Larrainzar, Estíbaliz; González, Esther M; Arrese-Igor, Cesar

    2007-10-01

    Nitrogen fixation (NF) in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is highly sensitive to soil drying. This sensitivity has been related to an accumulation of nitrogen compounds, either in shoots or in nodules, and a nodular carbon flux shortage under drought. To assess the relative importance of carbon and nitrogen status on NF regulation, the responses to the early stages of drought were monitored with two soybean cultivars with known contrasting tolerance to drought. In the sensitive cultivar ('Biloxi'), NF inhibition occurred earlier and was more dramatic than in the tolerant cultivar ('Jackson'). The carbon flux to bacteroids was also more affected in 'Biloxi' than in 'Jackson', due to an earlier inhibition of sucrose synthase activity and a larger decrease of malate concentration in the former. Drought provoked ureide accumulation in nodules of both cultivars, but this accumulation was higher and occurred earlier in 'Biloxi'. However, at this early stage of drought, there was no accumulation of ureides in the leaves of either cultivar. These results indicate that a combination of both reduced carbon flux and nitrogen accumulation in nodules, but not in shoots, is involved in the inhibition of NF in soybean under early drought. PMID:17720761

  7. Reduced expression of the SHORT-ROOT gene increases the rates of growth and development in hybrid poplar and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiehua; Andersson-Gunnerås, Sara; Gaboreanu, Ioana; Hertzberg, Magnus; Tucker, Matthew R; Zheng, Bo; Leśniewska, Joanna; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Laux, Thomas; Sandberg, Göran; Jones, Brian

    2011-01-01

    SHORT-ROOT (SHR) is a well characterized regulator of cell division and cell fate determination in the Arabidopsis primary root. However, much less is known about the functions of SHR in the aerial parts of the plant. In this work, we cloned SHR gene from Populus trichocarpa (PtSHR1) as an AtSHR ortholog and down-regulated its expression in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×P. tremuloides Michx-clone T89) in order to determine its physiological functions in shoot development. Sharing a 90% similarity to AtSHR at amino acid level, PtSHR1 was able to complement the Arabidopsis shr mutant. Down regulation of PtSHR1 led to a strong enhancement of primary (height) and secondary (girth) growth rates in the transgenic poplars. A similar approach in Arabidopsis showed a comparable accelerated growth and development phenotype. Our results suggest that the response to SHR could be dose-dependent and that a partial down-regulation of SHR could lead to enhanced meristem activity and a coordinated acceleration of plant growth in woody species. Therefore, SHR functions in plant growth and development as a regulator of cell division and meristem activity not only in the roots but also in the shoots. Reducing SHR expression in transgenic poplar was shown to lead to significant increases in primary and secondary growth rates. Given the current interest in bioenergy crops, SHR has a broader role as a key regulator of whole plant growth and development and SHR suppression has considerable potential for accelerating biomass accumulation in a variety of species. PMID:22194939

  8. A banana aquaporin gene, MaPIP1;1, is involved in tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aquaporin (AQP) proteins function in transporting water and other small molecules through the biological membranes, which is crucial for plants to survive in drought or salt stress conditions. However, the precise role of AQPs in drought and salt stresses is not completely understood in plants. Results In this study, we have identified a PIP1 subfamily AQP (MaPIP1;1) gene from banana and characterized it by overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Transient expression of MaPIP1;1-GFP fusion protein indicated its localization at plasma membrane. The expression of MaPIP1;1 was induced by NaCl and water deficient treatment. Overexpression of MaPIP1;1 in Arabidopsis resulted in an increased primary root elongation, root hair numbers and survival rates compared to WT under salt or drought conditions. Physiological indices demonstrated that the increased salt tolerance conferred by MaPIP1;1 is related to reduced membrane injury and high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio. Additionally, the improved drought tolerance conferred by MaPIP1;1 is associated with decreased membrane injury and improved osmotic adjustment. Finally, reduced expression of ABA-responsive genes in MaPIP1;1-overexpressing plants reflects their improved physiological status. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that heterologous expression of banana MaPIP1;1 in Arabidopsis confers salt and drought stress tolerances by reducing membrane injury, improving ion distribution and maintaining osmotic balance. PMID:24606771

  9. Reducing the genetic redundancy of Arabidopsis PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 transporters to study phosphate uptake and signaling.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, Amal; David, Pascale; Arrighi, Jean-François; Chiarenza, Serge; Thibaud, Marie-Christine; Nussaume, Laurent; Marin, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) absorbs inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the soil through an active transport process mediated by the nine members of the PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 (PHT1) family. These proteins share a high level of similarity (greater than 61%), with overlapping expression patterns. The resulting genetic and functional redundancy prevents the analysis of their specific roles. To overcome this difficulty, our approach combined several mutations with gene silencing to inactivate multiple members of the PHT1 family, including a cluster of genes localized on chromosome 5 (PHT1;1, PHT1;2, and PHT1;3). Physiological analyses of these lines established that these three genes, along with PHT1;4, are the main contributors to Pi uptake. Furthermore, PHT1;1 plays an important role in translocation from roots to leaves in high phosphate conditions. These genetic tools also revealed that some PHT1 transporters likely exhibit a dual affinity for phosphate, suggesting that their activity is posttranslationally controlled. These lines display significant phosphate deficiency-related phenotypes (e.g. biomass and yield) due to a massive (80%-96%) reduction in phosphate uptake activities. These defects limited the amount of internal Pi pool, inducing compensatory mechanisms triggered by the systemic Pi starvation response. Such reactions have been uncoupled from PHT1 activity, suggesting that systemic Pi sensing is most probably acting downstream of PHT1. PMID:25670816

  10. Two fatty acid desaturases, STEAROYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN Δ9-DESATURASE6 and FATTY ACID DESATURASE3, are involved in drought and hypoxia stress signaling in Arabidopsis crown galls.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, Joern; Faist, Hanna; Saupe, Stefanie; Lambertz, Sophie; Krischke, Markus; Stingl, Nadja; Fekete, Agnes; Mueller, Martin J; Feussner, Ivo; Hedrich, Rainer; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-02-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-derived crown galls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contain elevated levels of unsaturated fatty acids and strongly express two fatty acid desaturase genes, ω3 FATTY ACID DESATURASE3 (FAD3) and STEAROYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN Δ9-DESATURASE6 (SAD6). The fad3-2 mutant with impaired α-linolenic acid synthesis developed significantly smaller crown galls under normal, but not under high, relative humidity. This strongly suggests that FAD3 plays a role in increasing drought stress tolerance of crown galls. SAD6 is a member of the SAD family of as yet unknown function. Expression of the SAD6 gene is limited to hypoxia, a physiological condition found in crown galls. As no sad6 mutant exists and to link the function of SAD6 with fatty acid desaturation in crown galls, the lipid pattern was analyzed of plants with constitutive SAD6 overexpression (SAD6-OE). SAD6-OE plants contained lower stearic acid and higher oleic acid levels, which upon reduction of SAD6 overexpression by RNA interference (SAD6-OE-RNAi) regained wild-type-like levels. The development of crown galls was not affected either in SAD6-OE or SAD6-OE-RNAi or by RNA interference in crown galls. Since biochemical analysis of SAD6 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Escherichia coli failed, SAD6 was ectopically expressed in the background of the well-known suppressor of salicylic acid-insensitive2 (ssi2-2) mutant to confirm the desaturase function of SAD6. All known ssi2-2 phenotypes were rescued, including the high stearic acid level. Thus, our findings suggest that SAD6 functions as a Δ9-desaturase, and together with FAD3 it increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids in crown galls under hypoxia and drought stress conditions. PMID:24368335

  11. Masting mediated by summer drought reduces acorn predation in Mediterranean oak forests.

    PubMed

    Espelta, Josep Maria; Cortés, Pilar; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Sánchez-Humanes, Belén; Retana, Javier

    2008-03-01

    species mediated by an environmental cue (summer drought) may contribute to the reduction of the impact of seed predation at a within-species level. Future research should be aimed at addressing whether this process could be a factor assisting in the coexistence of Q. ilex and Q. humilis. PMID:18459343

  12. Plasmodesmata formation and cell-to-cell transport are reduced in decreased size exclusion limit 1 during embryogenesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Cho, Euna; Burch-Smith, Tessa M.; Zambryski, Patricia C.

    2012-01-01

    In plants, plasmodesmata (PD) serve as channels for micromolecular and macromolecular cell-to-cell transport. Based on structure, PD in immature tissues are classified into two types, simple and branched (X- and Y-shaped) or twinned. The maximum size of molecules capable of PD transport defines PD aperture, known as the PD size exclusion limit. Here we report an Arabidopsis mutation, decreased size exclusion limit1 (dse1), that exhibits reduced cell-to-cell transport of the small (524 Da) fluorescent tracer 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid at the midtorpedo stage of embryogenesis. Correspondingly, the fraction of X- and Y-shaped and twinned PD was reduced in dse1 embryos compared with WT embryos at this stage, suggesting that the frequency of PD is related to transport capability. dse1 is caused by a point mutation in At4g29860 (previously termed TANMEI) at the last donor splice site of its transcript, resulting in alternative splicing in both the first intron and the last intron. AtDSE1 is a conserved eukaryotic 386-aa WD-repeat protein critical for Arabidopsis morphogenesis and reproduction. Similar to its homologs in mouse, null mutants are embryo-lethal. The weak loss-of-function mutant dse1 exhibits pleiotropic phenotypes, including retarded vegetative growth, delayed flowering time, dysfunctional male and female organs, and delayed senescence. Finally, silencing of DSE1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves leads to reduced movement of GFP fused to tobacco mosaic virus movement protein. Thus, DSE1 is important for regulating PD transport between plant cells. PMID:22411811

  13. The overexpression of AtPrx37, an apoplastic peroxidase, reduces growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pedreira, Jorge; Herrera, María Teresa; Zarra, Ignacio; Revilla, Gloria

    2011-02-01

    Understanding peroxidase function in plants is difficult because of the lack of substrate specificity, the high number of genes and their diversity in structure. In the present study, the relative expression of 22 genes coding putative peroxidases (E.C 1.11.1.x) in Arabidopsis was studied. The relative expression of AtPrx37 showed a correlation with the cessation of growth in rosette leaves as well as with the growth capacity along the flower stem. Using AtPrx37::GUS construction, its expression was associated with the vascular bundles. Furthermore, the overexpression of AtPrx37 under the control of CaMV 35S promoter rendered a dwarf phenotype with smaller plants and delayed development. The plants overexpressing AtPrx37 also showed an increase in the amount of esterified phenolic material associated with their walls. A role in the growth cessation and phenolic cross-linking during lignin deposition is postulated. PMID:21044085

  14. Overexpression of Rice NAC Gene SNAC1 Improves Drought and Salt Tolerance by Enhancing Root Development and Reducing Transpiration Rate in Transgenic Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guanze; Li, Xuelin; Jin, Shuangxia; Liu, Xuyan; Zhu, Longfu; Nie, Yichun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-01-01

    The SNAC1 gene belongs to the stress-related NAC superfamily of transcription factors. It was identified from rice and overexpressed in cotton cultivar YZ1 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SNAC1-overexpressing cotton plants showed more vigorous growth, especially in terms of root development, than the wild-type plants in the presence of 250 mM NaCl under hydroponic growth conditions. The content of proline was enhanced but the MDA content was decreased in the transgenic cotton seedlings under drought and salt treatments compared to the wild-type. Furthermore, SNAC1-overexpressing cotton plants also displayed significantly improved tolerance to both drought and salt stresses in the greenhouse. The performances of the SNAC1-overexpressing lines under drought and salt stress were significantly better than those of the wild-type in terms of the boll number. During the drought and salt treatments, the transpiration rate of transgenic plants significantly decreased in comparison to the wild-type, but the photosynthesis rate maintained the same at the flowering stage in the transgenic plants. These results suggested that overexpression of SNAC1 improve more tolerance to drought and salt in cotton through enhanced root development and reduced transpiration rates. PMID:24489802

  15. Complexation of Arsenite with Phytochelatins Reduces Arsenite Efflux and Translocation from Roots to Shoots in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Ju; Wood, B. Alan; Raab, Andrea; McGrath, Steve P.; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Feldmann, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Complexation of arsenite [As(III)] with phytochelatins (PCs) is an important mechanism employed by plants to detoxify As; how this complexation affects As mobility was little known. We used high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and accurate mass electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry coupled to HPLC to identify and quantify As(III)-thiol complexes and free thiol compounds in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) exposed to arsenate [As(V)]. As(V) was efficiently reduced to As(III) in roots. In wild-type roots, 69% of As was complexed as As(III)-PC4, As(III)-PC3, and As(III)-(PC2)2. Both the glutathione (GSH)-deficient mutant cad2-1 and the PC-deficient mutant cad1-3 were approximately 20 times more sensitive to As(V) than the wild type. In cad1-3 roots, only 8% of As was complexed with GSH as As(III)-(GS)3 and no As(III)-PCs were detected, while in cad2-1 roots, As(III)-PCs accounted for only 25% of the total As. The two mutants had a greater As mobility, with a significantly higher accumulation of As(III) in shoots and 4.5 to 12 times higher shoot-to-root As concentration ratio than the wild type. Roots also effluxed a substantial proportion of the As(V) taken up as As(III) to the external medium, and this efflux was larger in the two mutants. Furthermore, when wild-type plants were exposed to l-buthionine sulfoximine or deprived of sulfur, both As(III) efflux and root-to-shoot translocation were enhanced. The results indicate that complexation of As(III) with PCs in Arabidopsis roots decreases its mobility for both efflux to the external medium and for root-to-shoot translocation. Enhancing PC synthesis in roots may be an effective strategy to reduce As translocation to the edible organs of food crops. PMID:20130102

  16. Inhibition of Nitrate Transporter 1.1-Controlled Nitrate Uptake Reduces Cadmium Uptake in Arabidopsis1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qian Qian; Guan, Mei Yan; Lu, Kai Xing; Du, Shao Ting; Fan, Shi Kai; Ye, Yi-Quan; Lin, Xian Yong; Jin, Chong Wei

    2014-01-01

    Identification of mechanisms that decrease cadmium accumulation in plants is a prerequisite for minimizing dietary uptake of cadmium from contaminated crops. Here, we show that cadmium inhibits nitrate transporter 1.1 (NRT1.1)-mediated nitrate (NO3−) uptake in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and impairs NO3− homeostasis in roots. In NO3−-containing medium, loss of NRT1.1 function in nrt1.1 mutants leads to decreased levels of cadmium and several other metals in both roots and shoots and results in better biomass production in the presence of cadmium, whereas in NO3−-free medium, no difference is seen between nrt1.1 mutants and wild-type plants. These results suggest that inhibition of NRT1.1 activity reduces cadmium uptake, thus enhancing cadmium tolerance in an NO3− uptake-dependent manner. Furthermore, using a treatment rotation system allowing synchronous uptake of NO3− and nutrient cations and asynchronous uptake of cadmium, the nrt1.1 mutants had similar cadmium levels to wild-type plants but lower levels of nutrient metals, whereas the opposite effect was seen using treatment rotation allowing synchronous uptake of NO3− and cadmium and asynchronous uptake of nutrient cations. We conclude that, although inhibition of NRT1.1-mediated NO3− uptake by cadmium might have negative effects on nitrogen nutrition in plants, it has a positive effect on cadmium detoxification by reducing cadmium entry into roots. NRT1.1 may regulate the uptake of cadmium and other cations by a common mechanism. PMID:25106820

  17. The U.S. breeding program to develop peanut with drought tolerance and reduced aflatoxin contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination costs the U.S. peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) industry over $20 million annually. The development of peanut cultivars with resistance to preharvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) would reduce these costs. Screening techniques have been developed that can measure genetic differ...

  18. Functional convergence of oxylipin and abscisic acid pathways controls stomatal closure in response to drought.

    PubMed

    Savchenko, Tatyana; Kolla, Venkat A; Wang, Chang-Quan; Nasafi, Zainab; Hicks, Derrick R; Phadungchob, Bpantamars; Chehab, Wassim E; Brandizzi, Federica; Froehlich, John; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2014-03-01

    Membranes are primary sites of perception of environmental stimuli. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are major structural constituents of membranes that also function as modulators of a multitude of signal transduction pathways evoked by environmental stimuli. Different stresses induce production of a distinct blend of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids, "oxylipins." We employed three Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotypes to examine the oxylipin signature in response to specific stresses and determined that wounding and drought differentially alter oxylipin profiles, particularly the allene oxide synthase branch of the oxylipin pathway, responsible for production of jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (12-OPDA). Specifically, wounding induced both 12-OPDA and JA levels, whereas drought induced only the precursor 12-OPDA. Levels of the classical stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) were also mainly enhanced by drought and little by wounding. To explore the role of 12-OPDA in plant drought responses, we generated a range of transgenic lines and exploited the existing mutant plants that differ in their levels of stress-inducible 12-OPDA but display similar ABA levels. The plants producing higher 12-OPDA levels exhibited enhanced drought tolerance and reduced stomatal aperture. Furthermore, exogenously applied ABA and 12-OPDA, individually or combined, promote stomatal closure of ABA and allene oxide synthase biosynthetic mutants, albeit most effectively when combined. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Brassica napus verified the potency of this combination in inducing stomatal closure in plants other than Arabidopsis. These data have identified drought as a stress signal that uncouples the conversion of 12-OPDA to JA and have revealed 12-OPDA as a drought-responsive regulator of stomatal closure functioning most effectively together with ABA. PMID:24429214

  19. UDP-glucosyltransferase71c5, a major glucosyltransferase, mediates abscisic acid homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Yan, Jin-Ping; Li, De-Kuan; Luo, Qin; Yan, Qiujie; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Ye, Li-Ming; Wang, Jian-Mei; Li, Xu-Feng; Yang, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in plant growth and development. The effect of ABA in plants mainly depends on its concentration, which is determined by a balance between biosynthesis and catabolism of ABA. In this study, we characterize a unique UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT), UGT71C5, which plays an important role in ABA homeostasis by glucosylating ABA to abscisic acid -: glucose ester (GE) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Biochemical analyses show that UGT71C5 glucosylates ABA in vitro and in vivo. Mutation of UGT71C5 and down-expression of UGT71C5 in Arabidopsis cause delay in seed germination and enhanced drought tolerance. In contrast, overexpression of UGT71C5 accelerates seed germination and reduces drought tolerance. Determination of the content of ABA and ABA-GE in Arabidopsis revealed that mutation in UGT71C5 and down-expression of UGT71C5 resulted in increased level of ABA and reduced level of ABA-GE, whereas overexpression of UGT71C5 resulted in reduced level of ABA and increased level of ABA-GE. Furthermore, altered levels of ABA in plants lead to changes in transcript abundance of ABA-responsive genes, correlating with the concentration of ABA regulated by UGT71C5 in Arabidopsis. Our work shows that UGT71C5 plays a major role in ABA glucosylation for ABA homeostasis. PMID:25713337

  20. Overexpressing the Multiple-Stress Responsive Gene At1g74450 Reduces Plant Height and Male Fertility in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Anne M.; Belfield, Eric J.; Vlad, Daniela; Irani, Niloufer; Moore, Ian; Harberd, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    A subset of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana is known to be up-regulated in response to a wide range of different environmental stress factors. However, not all of these genes are characterized as yet with respect to their functions. In this study, we used transgenic knockout, overexpression and reporter gene approaches to try to elucidate the biological roles of five unknown multiple-stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis. The selected genes have the following locus identifiers: At1g18740, At1g74450, At4g27652, At4g29780 and At5g12010. Firstly, T-DNA insertion knockout lines were identified for each locus and screened for altered phenotypes. None of the lines were found to be visually different from wildtype Col-0. Secondly, 35S-driven overexpression lines were generated for each open reading frame. Analysis of these transgenic lines showed altered phenotypes for lines overexpressing the At1g74450 ORF. Plants overexpressing the multiple-stress responsive gene At1g74450 are stunted in height and have reduced male fertility. Alexander staining of anthers from flowers at developmental stage 12–13 showed either an absence or a reduction in viable pollen compared to wildtype Col-0 and At1g74450 knockout lines. Interestingly, the effects of stress on crop productivity are most severe at developmental stages such as male gametophyte development. However, the molecular factors and regulatory networks underlying environmental stress-induced male gametophytic alterations are still largely unknown. Our results indicate that the At1g74450 gene provides a potential link between multiple environmental stresses, plant height and pollen development. In addition, ruthenium red staining analysis showed that At1g74450 may affect the composition of the inner seed coat mucilage layer. Finally, C-terminal GFP fusion proteins for At1g74450 were shown to localise to the cytosol. PMID:26485022

  1. Effect of reducing the topographical altitude of the Tibetan Plateau on a severe winter drought in eastern China as determined using RAMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Chunchun; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Gou, Peng

    2016-05-01

    Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was applied to the study of the effect of the topographical altitude of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) on a severe drought event which took place in eastern China from November 2008 to January 2009. Two simulations of this drought event were conducted: a control simulation (CNTRL run) using original model settings and a sensitive simulation (TOPO run), where no change other than to reduce the TP topography by 50 %. The results show that the CNTRL simulation validates RAMS by reproducing this drought event fairly accurately. However, as part of the TOPO simulation, the total heat flux showed a decrease over most parts of the TP, latent heat flux underwent a significant increase over the southeastern TP, contrary to sensible heat, and a universal decrease over eastern China; this led to an increase in precipitation over the southeastern TP and a decrease in precipitation over eastern China. The decrease of total heat flux over the TP is collocated with an anomalous anticyclonic circulation from the TP to the coasts of southeastern China. Changes in atmospheric circulation and low-level water vapor transport pathways were consistent with changes in precipitation. In general, reducing the topographical altitude of the TP worsens drought in eastern China and moreover causes a significant decrease in precipitation over southern China.

  2. Disruption of Adenosine-5′-Phosphosulfate Kinase in Arabidopsis Reduces Levels of Sulfated Secondary Metabolites[W

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, Sarah G.; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Reichelt, Michael; Wirtz, Markus; Hill, Lionel; Mugford, Sam T.; Nakazato, Yoshimi; Noji, Masaaki; Takahashi, Hideki; Kramell, Robert; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Wasternack, Claus; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hell, Rüdiger; Saito, Kazuki; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    Plants can metabolize sulfate by two pathways, which branch at the level of adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS). APS can be reduced to sulfide and incorporated into Cys in the primary sulfate assimilation pathway or phosphorylated by APS kinase to 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate, which is the activated sulfate form for sulfation reactions. To assess to what extent APS kinase regulates accumulation of sulfated compounds, we analyzed the corresponding gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of T-DNA insertion knockout lines for each of the four isoforms did not reveal any phenotypical alterations. However, when all six combinations of double mutants were compared, the apk1 apk2 plants were significantly smaller than wild-type plants. The levels of glucosinolates, a major class of sulfated secondary metabolites, and the sulfated 12-hydroxyjasmonate were reduced approximately fivefold in apk1 apk2 plants. Although auxin levels were increased in the apk1 apk2 mutants, as is the case for most plants with compromised glucosinolate synthesis, typical high auxin phenotypes were not observed. The reduction in glucosinolates resulted in increased transcript levels for genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis and accumulation of desulfated precursors. It also led to great alterations in sulfur metabolism: the levels of sulfate and thiols increased in the apk1 apk2 plants. The data indicate that the APK1 and APK2 isoforms of APS kinase play a major role in the synthesis of secondary sulfated metabolites and are required for normal growth rates. PMID:19304933

  3. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Zhi Wei; Lei, Gui Jie; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2012-11-15

    Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 μM for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd2+, GA at 5 μM improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd2+ increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd2+ absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd2+ uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis. PMID:23021314

  4. Reduced Biosynthesis of Digalactosyldiacylglycerol, a Major Chloroplast Membrane Lipid, Leads to Oxylipin Overproduction and Phloem Cap Lignification in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang-Tsung; Chen, Lih-Jen; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Li, Hsou-Min

    2016-01-01

    DIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL SYNTHASE1 (DGD1) is a chloroplast outer membrane protein responsible for the biosynthesis of the lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) from monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG). The Arabidopsis thaliana dgd1 mutants have a greater than 90% reduction in DGDG content, reduced photosynthesis, and altered chloroplast morphology. However, the most pronounced visible phenotype is the extremely short inflorescence stem, but how deficient DGDG biosynthesis causes this phenotype is unclear. We found that, in dgd1 mutants, phloem cap cells were lignified and jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes were highly upregulated under normal growth conditions. The coronative insensitive1 dgd1 and allene oxide synthase dgd1 double mutants no longer exhibited the short inflorescence stem and lignification phenotypes but still had the same lipid profile and reduced photosynthesis as dgd1 single mutants. Hormone and lipidomics analyses showed higher levels of JA, JA-isoleucine, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and arabidopsides in dgd1 mutants. Transcript and protein level analyses further suggest that JA biosynthesis in dgd1 is initially activated through the increased expression of genes encoding 13-lipoxygenases (LOXs) and phospholipase A-Iγ3 (At1g51440), a plastid lipase with a high substrate preference for MGDG, and is sustained by further increases in LOX and allene oxide cyclase mRNA and protein levels. Our results demonstrate a link between the biosynthesis of DGDG and JA. PMID:26721860

  5. Over-expression of a tomato N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase gene (SlNAGS1) in Arabidopsis thaliana results in high ornithine levels and increased tolerance in salt and drought stresses

    PubMed Central

    Kalamaki, Mary S.; Alexandrou, Dimitris; Lazari, Diamanto; Merkouropoulos, Georgios; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Pateraki, Irene; Aggelis, Alexandros; Carrillo-López, Armando; Rubio-Cabetas, Maria J.; Kanellis, Angelos K.

    2009-01-01

    A single copy of the N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase gene (SlNAGS1) has been isolated from tomato. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 604 amino acids and shows a high level of similarity to the predicted Arabidopsis NAGS1 and NAGS2 proteins. Furthermore, the N-terminus ArgB domain and the C-terminus ArgA domain found in SlNAGS1 are similar to the structural arrangements that have been reported for other predicted NAGS proteins. SlNAGS1 was expressed at high levels in all aerial organs, and at basic levels in seeds, whereas it was not detected at all in roots. SlNAGS1 transcript accumulation was noticed transiently in tomato fruit at the red-fruit stage. In addition, an increase of SlNAGS1 transcripts was detected in mature green tomato fruit within the first hour of exposure to low oxygen concentrations. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants have been generated expressing the SlNAGS1 gene under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Three homozygous transgenic lines expressing the transgene (lines 1-7, 3-8, and 6-5) were evaluated further. All three transgenic lines showed a significant accumulation of ornithine in the leaves with line 3-8 exhibiting the highest concentration. The same lines demonstrated higher germination ability compared to wild-type (WT) plants when subjected to 250 mM NaCl. Similarly, mature plants of all three transgenic lines displayed a higher tolerance to salt and drought stress compared to WT plants. Under most experimental conditions, transgenic line 3-8 performed best, while the responses obtained from lines 1-7 and 6-5 depended on the applied stimulus. To our knowledge, this is the first plant NAGS gene to be isolated, characterized, and genetically modified. PMID:19357433

  6. Over-expression of a tomato N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase gene (SlNAGS1) in Arabidopsis thaliana results in high ornithine levels and increased tolerance in salt and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Kalamaki, Mary S; Alexandrou, Dimitris; Lazari, Diamanto; Merkouropoulos, Georgios; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Pateraki, Irene; Aggelis, Alexandros; Carrillo-López, Armando; Rubio-Cabetas, Maria J; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2009-01-01

    A single copy of the N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase gene (SlNAGS1) has been isolated from tomato. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 604 amino acids and shows a high level of similarity to the predicted Arabidopsis NAGS1 and NAGS2 proteins. Furthermore, the N-terminus ArgB domain and the C-terminus ArgA domain found in SlNAGS1 are similar to the structural arrangements that have been reported for other predicted NAGS proteins. SlNAGS1 was expressed at high levels in all aerial organs, and at basic levels in seeds, whereas it was not detected at all in roots. SlNAGS1 transcript accumulation was noticed transiently in tomato fruit at the red-fruit stage. In addition, an increase of SlNAGS1 transcripts was detected in mature green tomato fruit within the first hour of exposure to low oxygen concentrations. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants have been generated expressing the SlNAGS1 gene under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Three homozygous transgenic lines expressing the transgene (lines 1-7, 3-8, and 6-5) were evaluated further. All three transgenic lines showed a significant accumulation of ornithine in the leaves with line 3-8 exhibiting the highest concentration. The same lines demonstrated higher germination ability compared to wild-type (WT) plants when subjected to 250 mM NaCl. Similarly, mature plants of all three transgenic lines displayed a higher tolerance to salt and drought stress compared to WT plants. Under most experimental conditions, transgenic line 3-8 performed best, while the responses obtained from lines 1-7 and 6-5 depended on the applied stimulus. To our knowledge, this is the first plant NAGS gene to be isolated, characterized, and genetically modified. PMID:19357433

  7. Drought: A comprehensive R package for drought monitoring, prediction and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zengchao; Hao, Fanghua; Singh, Vijay P.; Cheng, Hongguang

    2015-04-01

    Drought may impose serious challenges to human societies and ecosystems. Due to complicated causing effects and wide impacts, a universally accepted definition of drought does not exist. The drought indicator is commonly used to characterize drought properties such as duration or severity. Various drought indicators have been developed in the past few decades for the monitoring of a certain aspect of drought condition along with the development of multivariate drought indices for drought characterizations from multiple sources or hydro-climatic variables. Reliable drought prediction with suitable drought indicators is critical to the drought preparedness plan to reduce potential drought impacts. In addition, drought analysis to quantify the risk of drought properties would provide useful information for operation drought managements. The drought monitoring, prediction and risk analysis are important components in drought modeling and assessments. In this study, a comprehensive R package "drought" is developed to aid the drought monitoring, prediction and risk analysis (available from R-Forge and CRAN soon). The computation of a suite of univariate and multivariate drought indices that integrate drought information from various sources such as precipitation, temperature, soil moisture, and runoff is available in the drought monitoring component in the package. The drought prediction/forecasting component consists of statistical drought predictions to enhance the drought early warning for decision makings. Analysis of drought properties such as duration and severity is also provided in this package for drought risk assessments. Based on this package, a drought monitoring and prediction/forecasting system is under development as a decision supporting tool. The package will be provided freely to the public to aid the drought modeling and assessment for researchers and practitioners.

  8. Overexpression of GhWRKY27a reduces tolerance to drought stress and resistance to Rhizoctonia solani infection in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Jia, Haihong; Wang, Fang; Wang, Chen; Liu, Shuchang; Guo, Xingqi

    2015-01-01

    WRKY proteins constitute transcriptional regulators involved in various biological processes, especially in coping with diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, in contrast to other well-characterized WRKY groups, the functions of group III WRKY transcription factors are poorly understood in the economically important crop cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). In this study, a group III WRKY gene from cotton, GhWRKY27a, was isolated and characterized. Our data indicated that GhWRKY27a localized to the nucleus and that GhWRKY27a expression could be strongly induced by abiotic stresses, pathogen infection, and multiple defense-related signaling molecules. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of GhWRKY27a enhanced tolerance to drought stress in cotton. In contrast, GhWRKY27a overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana markedly reduced plant tolerance to drought stress, as determined through physiological analyses of leaf water loss, survival rates, and the stomatal aperture. This susceptibility was coupled with reduced stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid and decreased expression of stress-related genes. In addition, GhWRKY27a-overexpressing plants exhibited reduced resistance to Rhizoctonia solani infection, mainly demonstrated by the transgenic lines exhibiting more severe disease symptoms, accompanied by attenuated expression of defense-related genes in N. benthamiana. Taken together, these findings indicated that GhWRKY27a functions in negative responses to drought tolerance and in resistance to R. solani infection. PMID:26483697

  9. Effects of reduced amounts of lipid unsaturation on chloroplast ultrastructure and photosynthesis in a mutant of Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    McCourt, P.; Kunst, L.; Browse, J.; Somerville, C.R.

    1987-06-01

    A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana with reduced content of C/sub 18:3/ and C/sub 16:3/ fatty acids in membrane lipids exhibited a 45% reduction in the cross-sectional area of chloroplasts and had a decrease of similar magnitude in the amount of chloroplast lamellar membranes. The reduction in chloroplast size was partially compensated by a 45% increase in the number of chloroplasts per cell in the mutant. When expressed on a chlorophyll basis the rates of CO/sub 2/-fixation and photosynthetic electron transport were not affected by these changes. Fluorescence polarization measurements indicated that the fluidity of the thylakoid membranes was not significantly altered by the mutation. Similarly, on the basis of temperature-induced fluorescence yield enhancement measurements, there was no significant effect on the thermal stability of chlorophyll-protein complexes in the mutant. These observations suggest that the high content of trienoic fatty acids in chloroplast lipids may be an important factor regulating organelle biogenesis but is not required to support normal levels of the photosynthetic activities associated with the thylakoid membranes.

  10. Does reduced precipitation trigger physiological and morphological drought adaptations in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)? Comparing provenances across a precipitation gradient.

    PubMed

    Knutzen, Florian; Meier, Ina Christin; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Global warming and associated decreases in summer rainfall may threaten tree vitality and forest productivity in many regions of the temperate zone in the future. One option for forestry to reduce the risk of failure is to plant genotypes which combine high productivity with drought tolerance. Growth experiments with provenances from different climates indicate that drought exposure can trigger adaptive drought responses in temperate trees, but it is not well known whether and to what extent regional precipitation reduction can increase the drought resistance of a species. We conducted a common garden growth experiment with five European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations from a limited region with pronounced precipitation heterogeneity (816-544 mm year(-1)), where phylogenetically related provenances grew under small to large water deficits. We grew saplings of the five provenances at four soil moisture levels (dry to moist) and measured ∼30 morphological (leaf and root properties, root : shoot ratio), physiological (leaf water status parameters, leaf conductance) and growth-related traits (above- and belowground productivity) with the aim to examine provenance differences in the drought response of morphological and physiological traits and to relate the responsiveness to precipitation at origin. Physiological traits were more strongly influenced by provenance (one-third of the studied traits), while structural traits were primarily affected by water availability in the experiment (two-thirds of the traits). The modulus of leaf tissue elasticity ϵ reached much higher values late in summer in plants from moist origins resulting in more rapid turgor loss and a higher risk of hydraulic failure upon drought. While experimental water shortage affected the majority of morphological and productivity-related traits in the five provenances, most parameters related to leaf water status were insensitive to water shortage. Thus, plant morphology, and root

  11. UDP-Glucosyltransferase71C5, a Major Glucosyltransferase, Mediates Abscisic Acid Homeostasis in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Yan, Jin-Ping; Li, De-Kuan; Yan, Qiujie; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Ye, Li-Ming; Wang, Jian-Mei; Li, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in plant growth and development. The effect of ABA in plants mainly depends on its concentration, which is determined by a balance between biosynthesis and catabolism of ABA. In this study, we characterize a unique UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT), UGT71C5, which plays an important role in ABA homeostasis by glucosylating ABA to abscisic acid-glucose ester (GE) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Biochemical analyses show that UGT71C5 glucosylates ABA in vitro and in vivo. Mutation of UGT71C5 and down-expression of UGT71C5 in Arabidopsis cause delay in seed germination and enhanced drought tolerance. In contrast, overexpression of UGT71C5 accelerates seed germination and reduces drought tolerance. Determination of the content of ABA and ABA-GE in Arabidopsis revealed that mutation in UGT71C5 and down-expression of UGT71C5 resulted in increased level of ABA and reduced level of ABA-GE, whereas overexpression of UGT71C5 resulted in reduced level of ABA and increased level of ABA-GE. Furthermore, altered levels of ABA in plants lead to changes in transcript abundance of ABA-responsive genes, correlating with the concentration of ABA regulated by UGT71C5 in Arabidopsis. Our work shows that UGT71C5 plays a major role in ABA glucosylation for ABA homeostasis. PMID:25713337

  12. Use of the wetting method on cassava flour in three konzo villages in Mozambique reduces cyanide intake and may prevent konzo in future droughts.

    PubMed

    Nhassico, Dulce; Bradbury, James Howard; Cliff, Julie; Majonda, Rita; Cuambe, Constantino; Denton, Ian C; Foster, Matthew P; Martins, Arlinda; Cumbane, Adelaide; Sitoe, Luis; Pedro, Joao; Muquingue, Humberto

    2016-07-01

    Konzo is an irreversible paralysis of the legs that occurs mainly in children and young women associated with large cyanide intake from bitter cassava coupled with malnutrition. In East Africa outbreaks occur during drought, when cassava plants produce much more cyanogens than normal. A wetting method that removes cyanogens from cassava flour was taught to the women of three konzo villages in Mozambique, to prevent sporadic konzo and konzo outbreaks in the next drought. The intervention was in three villages with 72 konzo cases and mean konzo prevalence of 1.2%. The percentage of children with high (>350 μmol/L) urinary thiocyanate content and at risk of contracting konzo in Cava, Acordos de Lusaka, and Mujocojo reduced from 52, 10, and 6 at baseline to 17, 0, and 4 at conclusion of the intervention. Cassava flour showed large reductions in total cyanide over the intervention. The percentage of households using the wetting method was 30-40% in Acordos de Lusaka and Mujocojo and less in Cava. If the wetting method is used extensively by households during drought it should prevent konzo outbreaks and chronic cyanide intoxication. We recommend that the wetting method be taught in all konzo areas in East Africa. PMID:27386105

  13. A mutant of the Arabidopsis thaliana TOC159 gene accumulates reduced levels of linolenic acid and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Afitlhile, Meshack; Workman, Samantha; Duffield, Kayla; Sprout, Danielle; Berhow, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that a mutant of Arabidopsis that lacks the Toc159 receptor is impaired in chloroplast biogenesis. The mutant is referred as plastid protein import 2 or ppi2 and has an albino phenotype due to its inability to import the photosynthetic proteins. In this study, we measured fatty acid composition and transcript levels of plastid-localized fatty acid desaturases in the wild type and ppi2 mutant. The objective was to evaluate whether the Toc159 receptor was critical in the import of lipid-synthesizing enzymes. The ppi2 mutant accumulated decreased levels of oleic acid (18:1) and α-linolenic acid (18:3). The mutant accumulated drastically reduced amounts of the chloroplast lipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), which contains more than 80% of 18:3. The expression of genes that encode stearoyl-ACP desaturase and MGD1 synthase were down-regulated in the ppi2 mutant, and this corresponded to decreased levels of 18:1 and MGDG, respectively. We conclude that in the ppi2 mutant the impaired synthesis of MGDG resulted in decreased amounts of 18:3. The mutant however, had a 30-fold increase in fad5 transcript levels; this increase was mirrored by a 16- to 50-fold accumulation of hexadecatrienoic acid (16:3), a fatty acid found exclusively in MGDG. Taken together, these data suggest that the Toc159 receptor is required in the import of stearoyl-ACP desaturase and MGD1 synthase into the chloroplasts. Since the expression of fad5 gene was up-regulated in the ppi2 mutant, we propose that fad5 desaturase is imported into plastids through the atToc132/atToc120 protein import pathway. PMID:24184455

  14. Drought description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    What constitutes a comprehensive description of drought, a description forming a basis for answering why a drought occurred is outlined. The description entails two aspects that are "naturally" coupled, named physical and economic, and treats the set of hydrologic measures of droughts in terms of their multivariate distribution, rather than in terms of a collection of the marginal distributions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Drought impact functions as intermediate step towards drought damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmair, Sophie; Svensson, Cecilia; Prosdocimi, Ilaria; Hannaford, Jamie; Helm Smith, Kelly; Svoboda, Mark; Stahl, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    While damage or vulnerability functions for floods and seismic hazards have gained considerable attention, there is comparably little knowledge on drought damage or loss. On the one hand this is due to the complexity of the drought hazard affecting different domains of the hydrological cycle and different sectors of human activity. Hence, a single hazard indicator is likely not able to fully capture this multifaceted hazard. On the other hand, drought impacts are often non-structural and hard to quantify or monetize. Examples are impaired navigability of streams, restrictions on domestic water use, reduced hydropower production, reduced tree growth, and irreversible deterioration/loss of wetlands. Apart from reduced crop yield, data about drought damage or loss with adequate spatial and temporal resolution is scarce, making the development of drought damage functions difficult. As an intermediate step towards drought damage functions we exploit text-based reports on drought impacts from the European Drought Impact report Inventory and the US Drought Impact Reporter to derive surrogate information for drought damage or loss. First, text-based information on drought impacts is converted into timeseries of absence versus presence of impacts, or number of impact occurrences. Second, meaningful hydro-meteorological indicators characterizing drought intensity are identified. Third, different statistical models are tested as link functions relating drought hazard indicators with drought impacts: 1) logistic regression for drought impacts coded as binary response variable; and 2) mixture/hurdle models (zero-inflated/zero-altered negative binomial regression) and an ensemble regression tree approach for modeling the number of drought impact occurrences. Testing the predictability of (number of) drought impact occurrences based on cross-validation revealed a good agreement between observed and modeled (number of) impacts for regions at the scale of federal states or

  16. Expression of AtGRXS17 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) enhances tolerance to drought stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The monothiol glutaredoxin AtGRXS17 from "Arabidopsis" provides thermotolerance in yeast, "Arabidopsis", and tomato. Here we report its crucial role in drought response as well as its ortholog SlGRXS17’s ability to complement a T-DNA insertional AtGRXS17 "Arabidopsis" mutant under heat stress, there...

  17. A mutant of the Arabidopsis thaliana Toc159 gene accumulates reduced levels of linolenic acid and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that a null mutant of Arabidopsis that lacks Toc159 receptor is impaired in chloroplast biogenesis and incapable of importing photosynthetic proteins. The mutant is referred to as plastid protein import 2 or ppi2, and has an albino phenotype. In this study, we measured ...

  18. A mutant of the Arabidopsis thaliana TOC159 gene accumulates reduced levels of linolenic acid and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that a mutant of Arabidopsis that lacks the Toc159 receptor is impaired in chloroplast biogenesis. The mutant is referred as plastid protein import 2 or ppi2 and has an albino phenotype due to its inability to import the photosynthetic proteins. In this study, we measured...

  19. The German drought monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  20. Salt Stress Reduces Root Meristem Size by Nitric Oxide-Mediated Modulation of Auxin Accumulation and Signaling in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Li, Rong-Jun; Han, Tong-Tong; Cai, Wei; Fu, Zheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The development of the plant root system is highly plastic, which allows the plant to adapt to various environmental stresses. Salt stress inhibits root elongation by reducing the size of the root meristem. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In this study, we explored whether and how auxin and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in salt-mediated inhibition of root meristem growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using physiological, pharmacological, and genetic approaches. We found that salt stress significantly reduced root meristem size by down-regulating the expression of PINFORMED (PIN) genes, thereby reducing auxin levels. In addition, salt stress promoted AUXIN RESISTANT3 (AXR3)/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID17 (IAA17) stabilization, which repressed auxin signaling during this process. Furthermore, salt stress stimulated NO accumulation, whereas blocking NO production with the inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine-methylester compromised the salt-mediated reduction of root meristem size, PIN down-regulation, and stabilization of AXR3/IAA17, indicating that NO is involved in salt-mediated inhibition of root meristem growth. Taken together, these findings suggest that salt stress inhibits root meristem growth by repressing PIN expression (thereby reducing auxin levels) and stabilizing IAA17 (thereby repressing auxin signaling) via increasing NO levels. PMID:25818700

  1. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A.; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress. PMID:26831097

  2. Detoxification potential and expression analysis of eutypine reducing aldehyde reductase (VrALR) during progressive drought and recovery in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek roots.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Debashree; Mudalkar, Shalini; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2012-10-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants is an inevitable consequence of adverse environmental cues and the ability to detoxify deleterious by-products of ROS-mediated oxidation reactions reflect an important defence strategy to combat abiotic stress. Here, we have cloned the eutypine reducing aldehyde reductase gene (VrALR) from Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek roots. We have expressed and purified the VrALR protein and analyzed its enzyme kinetic parameters and catalytic efficiency with three different substrates to confirm its identity. The functional characterization of this enzyme was unravelled through heterologous expression of the gene in Escherichia coli BL21 and an oxidative stress-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain, W3O3-1-A. Finally, the endogenous VrALR enzyme activity and the mRNA expression patterns of the VrALR gene in the roots of V. radiata in response to progressive drought stress in vivo was studied to correlate the ROS-detoxifying role of this important enzyme under the influence of progressive drought stress. Our results, for the first time, demonstrate that eutypine reducing VrALR provides varying degree of stress tolerance in bacteria, yeast systems and also plays a promising protective role against oxidative stress in V. radiata roots during gradual water deprivation. The present study provides an unequivocal evidence to understand the crucial role of aldehyde reductase ROS-detoxifying system which is highly essential for developing stress tolerance in economically important crop plants. PMID:22837052

  3. Quantifying and Reducing the Uncertainties in Future Projections of Droughts and Heat Waves for North America that Result from the Diversity of Models in CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Sheffield, J.

    2014-12-01

    There are many sources of uncertainty regarding the future projections of our climate, including the multiple possible Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), the variety of climate models used, and the initial and boundary conditions with which they are run. Moreover, it has been shown that the internal variability of the climate system can sometimes be of the same order of magnitude as the climate change signal or even larger for some variables. Nonetheless, in order to help inform stakeholders in water resources and agriculture in North America when developing adaptation strategies, particularly for extreme events such as droughts and heat waves, it is necessary to study the plausible range of changes that the region might experience during the 21st century. We aim to understand and reduce the uncertainties associated with this range of possible scenarios by focusing on the diversity of climate models involved in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Data output from various CMIP5 models is compared against near surface climate and land-surface hydrological data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS)-2 to evaluate how well each climate model represents the land-surface processes associated with droughts and heat waves during the overlapping historical period (1979-2005). These processes include the representation of precipitation and radiation and their partitioning at the land surface, land-atmosphere interactions, and the propagation of signals of these extreme events through the land surface. The ability of the CMIP5 models to reproduce these important physical processes for regions of North America is used to inform a multi-model ensemble in which models that represent the processes relevant to droughts and heat waves better are given more importance. Furthermore, the future projections are clustered to identify possible dependencies in behavior across models. The results indicate a wide range in performance

  4. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis reveals correlation between higher WRKY61 expression and reduced symptom severity in Turnip crinkle virus infected Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruimin; Liu, Peng; Yong, Yuhan; Wong, Sek-Man

    2016-01-01

    Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a carmovirus that infects many Arabidopsis ecotypes. Most studies mainly focused on discovery of resistance genes against TCV infection, and there is no Next Generation Sequencing based comparative genome wide transcriptome analysis reported. In this study, RNA-seq based transcriptome analysis revealed that 238 (155 up-regulated and 83 down-regulated) significant differentially expressed genes with at least 15-fold change were determined. Fifteen genes (including upregulated, unchanged and downregulated) were selected for RNA-seq data validation using quantitative real-time PCR, which showed consistencies between these two sets of data. GO enrichment analysis showed that numerous terms such as stress, immunity, defence and chemical stimulus were affected in TCV-infected plants. One putative plant defence related gene named WRKY61 was selected for further investigation. It showed that WRKY61 overexpression plants displayed reduced symptoms and less virus accumulation, as compared to wild type (WT) and WRKY61 deficient lines, suggesting that higher WRKY61 expression level reduced TCV viral accumulation. In conclusion, our transcriptome analysis showed that global gene expression was detected in TCV-infected Arabidopsis thaliana. WRKY61 gene was shown to be negatively correlated with TCV infection and viral symptoms, which may be connected to plant immunity pathways. PMID:27086702

  5. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis reveals correlation between higher WRKY61 expression and reduced symptom severity in Turnip crinkle virus infected Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruimin; Liu, Peng; Yong, Yuhan; Wong, Sek-Man

    2016-01-01

    Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a carmovirus that infects many Arabidopsis ecotypes. Most studies mainly focused on discovery of resistance genes against TCV infection, and there is no Next Generation Sequencing based comparative genome wide transcriptome analysis reported. In this study, RNA-seq based transcriptome analysis revealed that 238 (155 up-regulated and 83 down-regulated) significant differentially expressed genes with at least 15-fold change were determined. Fifteen genes (including upregulated, unchanged and downregulated) were selected for RNA-seq data validation using quantitative real-time PCR, which showed consistencies between these two sets of data. GO enrichment analysis showed that numerous terms such as stress, immunity, defence and chemical stimulus were affected in TCV-infected plants. One putative plant defence related gene named WRKY61 was selected for further investigation. It showed that WRKY61 overexpression plants displayed reduced symptoms and less virus accumulation, as compared to wild type (WT) and WRKY61 deficient lines, suggesting that higher WRKY61 expression level reduced TCV viral accumulation. In conclusion, our transcriptome analysis showed that global gene expression was detected in TCV-infected Arabidopsis thaliana. WRKY61 gene was shown to be negatively correlated with TCV infection and viral symptoms, which may be connected to plant immunity pathways. PMID:27086702

  6. Downregulation of the δ-Subunit Reduces Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Levels, Alters Respiration, and Restricts Growth and Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Daniela A.; Päpke, Carola; Obata, Toshihiro; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Matthes, Annemarie; Schneitz, Kay; Maximova, Eugenia; Araújo, Wagner L.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Persson, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial ATP synthase (F1Fo complex) is an evolutionary conserved multimeric protein complex that synthesizes the main bulk of cytosolic ATP, but the regulatory mechanisms of the subunits are only poorly understood in plants. In yeast, the δ-subunit links the membrane-embedded Fo part to the matrix-facing central stalk of F1. We used genetic interference and an inhibitor to investigate the molecular function and physiological impact of the δ-subunit in Arabidopsis thaliana. Delta mutants displayed both male and female gametophyte defects. RNA interference of delta resulted in growth retardation, reduced ATP synthase amounts, and increased alternative oxidase capacity and led to specific long-term increases in Ala and Gly levels. By contrast, inhibition of the complex using oligomycin triggered broad metabolic changes, affecting glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and led to a successive induction of transcripts for alternative respiratory pathways and for redox and biotic stress-related transcription factors. We conclude that (1) the δ-subunit is essential for male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis, (2) a disturbance of the ATP synthase appears to lead to an early transition phase and a long-term metabolic steady state, and (3) the observed long-term adjustments in mitochondrial metabolism are linked to reduced growth and deficiencies in gametophyte development. PMID:22805435

  7. Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha; Harholt, Jesper; Chong, Sun-Li; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Tenkanen, Maija; Cheng, Kun; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2013-01-01

    The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double, triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development. The quadruple rwa mutant can be completely complemented with the RWA2 protein expressed under 35S promoter, indicating the functional redundancy of the RWA proteins. Nevertheless, the degree of acetylation of xylan, (gluco)mannan, and xyloglucan as well as overall cell wall acetylation is affected differently in different combinations of triple mutants, suggesting their diversity in substrate preference. The overall degree of wall acetylation in the rwa quadruple mutant was reduced by 63% compared with the wild type, and histochemical analysis of the rwa quadruple mutant stem indicates defects in cell differentiation of cell types with secondary cell walls. PMID:24019426

  8. Downregulation of the δ-subunit reduces mitochondrial ATP synthase levels, alters respiration, and restricts growth and gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Daniela A; Päpke, Carola; Obata, Toshihiro; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Matthes, Annemarie; Schneitz, Kay; Maximova, Eugenia; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R; Persson, Staffan

    2012-07-01

    The mitochondrial ATP synthase (F(1)F(o) complex) is an evolutionary conserved multimeric protein complex that synthesizes the main bulk of cytosolic ATP, but the regulatory mechanisms of the subunits are only poorly understood in plants. In yeast, the δ-subunit links the membrane-embedded F(o) part to the matrix-facing central stalk of F(1). We used genetic interference and an inhibitor to investigate the molecular function and physiological impact of the δ-subunit in Arabidopsis thaliana. Delta mutants displayed both male and female gametophyte defects. RNA interference of delta resulted in growth retardation, reduced ATP synthase amounts, and increased alternative oxidase capacity and led to specific long-term increases in Ala and Gly levels. By contrast, inhibition of the complex using oligomycin triggered broad metabolic changes, affecting glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and led to a successive induction of transcripts for alternative respiratory pathways and for redox and biotic stress-related transcription factors. We conclude that (1) the δ-subunit is essential for male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis, (2) a disturbance of the ATP synthase appears to lead to an early transition phase and a long-term metabolic steady state, and (3) the observed long-term adjustments in mitochondrial metabolism are linked to reduced growth and deficiencies in gametophyte development. PMID:22805435

  9. Shoot-Specific Down-Regulation of Protein Farnesyltransferase (α-Subunit) for Yield Protection against Drought in Canola

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Beaith, Michelle; Chalifoux, Maryse; Ying, Jifeng; Uchacz, Tina; Sarvas, Carlene; Griffiths, Rebecca; Kuzma, Monika; Wan, Jiangxin; Huang, Yafan

    2009-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world and its seed yield and quality are significantly affected by drought stress. As an innate and adaptive response to water deficit, land plants avoid potential damage by rapid biosynthesis of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which triggers stomatal closure to reduce transpirational water loss. The ABA-mediated stomatal response is a dosage-dependent process; thus, one genetic engineering approach for achieving drought avoidance could be to sensitize the guard cell's responsiveness to this hormone. Recent genetic studies have pinpointed protein farnesyltransferase as a key negative regulator controlling ABA sensitivity in the guard cells. We have previously shown that down-regulation of the gene encoding Arabidopsis β-subunit of farnesyltransferase (ERA1) enhances the plant's sensitivity to ABA and drought tolerance. Although the α-subunit of farnesyltransferase (AtFTA) is also implicated in ABA sensing, the effectiveness of using such a gene target for improving drought tolerance in a crop plant has not been validated. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the promoter of Arabidopsis hydroxypyruvate reductase (AtHPR1), which expresses specifically in the shoot and not in non-photosynthetic tissues such as root. The promoter region of AtHPR1 contains the core motif of the well characterized dehydration-responsive cis-acting element and we have confirmed that AtHPR1 expression is inducible by drought stress. Conditional and specific down-regulation of FTA in canola using the AtHPR1 promoter driving an RNAi construct resulted in yield protection against drought stress in the field. Using this molecular strategy, we have made significant progress in engineering drought tolerance in this important crop species. PMID:19529821

  10. Drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress is a major limiting factor to crop yields, even in sub-humid regions like the Missouri Bootheel. Due to common factors such as soils with low available water holding capacities, even short-term drought can impact yield leading producers of rainfed crops to convert to irrigated product...

  11. Suppression of antiviral silencing by cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein in Arabidopsis is associated with drastically reduced accumulation of three classes of viral small interfering RNAs.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Pendon, Juan A; Li, Feng; Li, Wan-Xiang; Ding, Shou-Wei

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the genetic pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana targeted during infection by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b protein, known to suppress non-cell-autonomous transgene silencing and salicylic acid (SA)-mediated virus resistance. We show that 2b expressed from the CMV genome drastically reduced the accumulation of 21-, 22-, and 24-nucleotide classes of viral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) produced by Dicer-like4 (DCL4), DCL2, and DCL3, respectively. The defect of a CMV 2b-deletion mutant (CMV-Delta2b) in plant infection was efficiently rescued in Arabidopsis mutants producing neither 21- nor 22-nucleotide viral siRNAs. Since genetic analysis further identifies a unique antiviral role for DCL3 upstream of DCL4, our data indicate that inhibition of the accumulation of distinct viral siRNAs plays a key role in 2b suppression of antiviral silencing. Strikingly, disease symptoms caused by CMV-Delta2b in Arabidopsis mutants defective in antiviral silencing were as severe as those caused by CMV, demonstrating an indirect role for the silencing suppressor activity in virus virulence. We found that production of CMV siRNAs without 2b interference depended largely on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) inducible by SA. Given the known role of RDR6-dependent transgene siRNAs in non-cell-autonomous silencing, our results suggest a model in which 2b inhibits the production of RDR1-dependent viral siRNAs that confer SA-dependent virus resistance by directing non-cell-autonomous antiviral silencing. PMID:17586651

  12. Reducing the Genetic Redundancy of Arabidopsis PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 Transporters to Study Phosphate Uptake and Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Amal; David, Pascale; Arrighi, Jean-François; Chiarenza, Serge; Thibaud, Marie-Christine; Nussaume, Laurent; Marin, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) absorbs inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the soil through an active transport process mediated by the nine members of the PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 (PHT1) family. These proteins share a high level of similarity (greater than 61%), with overlapping expression patterns. The resulting genetic and functional redundancy prevents the analysis of their specific roles. To overcome this difficulty, our approach combined several mutations with gene silencing to inactivate multiple members of the PHT1 family, including a cluster of genes localized on chromosome 5 (PHT1;1, PHT1;2, and PHT1;3). Physiological analyses of these lines established that these three genes, along with PHT1;4, are the main contributors to Pi uptake. Furthermore, PHT1;1 plays an important role in translocation from roots to leaves in high phosphate conditions. These genetic tools also revealed that some PHT1 transporters likely exhibit a dual affinity for phosphate, suggesting that their activity is posttranslationally controlled. These lines display significant phosphate deficiency-related phenotypes (e.g. biomass and yield) due to a massive (80%–96%) reduction in phosphate uptake activities. These defects limited the amount of internal Pi pool, inducing compensatory mechanisms triggered by the systemic Pi starvation response. Such reactions have been uncoupled from PHT1 activity, suggesting that systemic Pi sensing is most probably acting downstream of PHT1. PMID:25670816

  13. Synthesis of Hydroxylated Sterols in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Alters Growth and Steroid Metabolism1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Beste, Lisa; Nahar, Nurun; Dalman, Kerstin; Fujioka, Shozo; Jonsson, Lisbeth; Dutta, Paresh C.; Sitbon, Folke

    2011-01-01

    To explore mechanisms in plant sterol homeostasis, we have here increased the turnover of sterols in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants by overexpressing four mouse cDNA encoding cholesterol hydroxylases (CHs), hydroxylating cholesterol at the C-7, C-24, C-25, or C-27 positions. Compared to the wild type, the four types of Arabidopsis transformant showed varying degrees of phenotypic alteration, the strongest one being in CH25 lines, which were dark-green dwarfs resembling brassinosteroid-related mutants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of extracts from wild-type Arabidopsis plants revealed trace levels of α and β forms of 7-hydroxycholesterol, 7-hydroxycampesterol, and 7-hydroxysitosterol. The expected hydroxycholesterol metabolites in CH7-, CH24-, and CH25 transformants were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Additional hydroxysterol forms were also observed, particularly in CH25 plants. In CH24 and CH25 lines, but not in CH7 ones, the presence of hydroxysterols was correlated with a considerable alteration of the sterol profile and an increased sterol methyltransferase activity in microsomes. Moreover, CH25 lines contained clearly reduced levels of brassinosteroids, and displayed an enhanced drought tolerance. Equivalent transformations of potato plants with the CH25 construct increased hydroxysterol levels, but without the concomitant alteration of growth and sterol profiles observed in Arabidopsis. The results suggest that an increased hydroxylation of cholesterol and/or other sterols in Arabidopsis triggers compensatory processes, acting to maintain sterols at adequate levels. PMID:21746809

  14. Loss of Arabidopsis GAUT12/IRX8 causes anther indehiscence and leads to reduced G lignin associated with altered matrix polysaccharide deposition

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zhangying; Avci, Utku; Tan, Li; Zhu, Xiang; Glushka, John; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Eberhard, Stefan; Sholes, Tipton; Rothstein, Grace E.; Lukowitz, Wolfgang; Orlando, Ron; Hahn, Michael G.; Mohnen, Debra

    2014-01-01

    GAlactUronosylTransferase12 (GAUT12)/IRregular Xylem8 (IRX8) is a putative glycosyltransferase involved in Arabidopsis secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Previous work showed that Arabidopsis irregular xylem8 (irx8) mutants have collapsed xylem due to a reduction in xylan and a lesser reduction in a subfraction of homogalacturonan (HG). We now show that male sterility in the irx8 mutant is due to indehiscent anthers caused by reduced deposition of xylan and lignin in the endothecium cell layer. The reduced lignin content was demonstrated by histochemical lignin staining and pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (pyMBMS) and is associated with reduced lignin biosynthesis in irx8 stems. Examination of sequential chemical extracts of stem walls using 2D 13C-1H Heteronuclear Single-Quantum Correlation (HSQC) NMR spectroscopy and antibody-based glycome profiling revealed a reduction in G lignin in the 1 M KOH extract and a concomitant loss of xylan, arabinogalactan and pectin epitopes in the ammonium oxalate, sodium carbonate, and 1 M KOH extracts from the irx8 walls compared with wild-type walls. Immunolabeling of stem sections using the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M138 reactive against an unsubstituted xylopentaose epitope revealed a bi-lamellate pattern in wild-type fiber cells and a collapsed bi-layer in irx8 cells, suggesting that at least in fiber cells, GAUT12 participates in the synthesis of a specific layer or type of xylan or helps to provide an architecture framework required for the native xylan deposition pattern. The results support the hypothesis that GAUT12 functions in the synthesis of a structure required for xylan and lignin deposition during secondary cell wall formation. PMID:25120548

  15. Flower numbers, pod production, pollen viability, and pistil function are reduced and flower and pod abortion increased in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under terminal drought

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiangwen; Turner, Neil C.; Yan, Guijun; Li, Fengmin; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Terminal drought during the reproductive stage is a major constraint to yield of chickpea in many regions of the world. Termination of watering (WS) during podding in a small-seeded desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivar, Rupali, and a large-seeded kabuli chickpea cultivar, Almaz, induced a decrease in predawn leaf water potential (LWP), in the rate of photosynthesis, and in stomatal conductance. Compared to well-watered (WW) controls, the WS treatment reduced flower production by about two-thirds. In the WW treatment, about 15% of the flowers aborted and 42% (Rupali) and 67% (Almaz) of the pods aborted, whereas in the WS treatment 37% and 56% of the flowers aborted and 54% and 73% of the pods aborted, resulting in seed yields of 33% and 15% of the yields in WW plants in Rupali and Almaz, respectively. In vitro pollen viability and germination in Rupali decreased by 50% and 89% in the WS treatment, and pollen germination decreased by 80% in vivo when pollen from a WS plant was placed on a stigma of a WW plant. While about 37% of the germinated pollen tubes from WW plants and 22% from the WS plants reached the ovary in the WW plants, less than 3% of pollen grains reached the ovary when pollen from either WS or WW plants was placed on a stigma of a WS plant. It is concluded that, in addition to pod abortion, flower abortion is an important factor limiting yield in chickpea exposed to terminal drought and that water deficit impaired the function of the pistil/style more than the pollen. PMID:19854801

  16. Hd3a, RFT1 and Ehd1 integrate photoperiodic and drought stress signals to delay the floral transition in rice.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Francesca; Chiozzotto, Remo; Locatelli, Franca; Spada, Alberto; Genga, Annamaria; Fornara, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Plants show a high degree of developmental plasticity in response to external cues, including day length and environmental stress. Water scarcity in particular can interfere with photoperiodic flowering, resulting in the acceleration of the switch to reproductive growth in several species, a process called drought escape. However, other strategies are possible and drought stress can also delay flowering, albeit the underlying mechanisms have never been addressed at the molecular level. We investigated these interactions in rice, a short day species in which drought stress delays flowering. A protocol that allows the synchronization of drought with the floral transition was set up to profile the transcriptome of leaves subjected to stress under distinct photoperiods. We identified clusters of genes that responded to drought differently depending on day length. Exposure to drought stress under floral-inductive photoperiods strongly reduced transcription of EARLY HEADING DATE 1 (Ehd1), HEADING DATE 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 (RFT1), primary integrators of day length signals, providing a molecular connection between stress and the photoperiodic pathway. However, phenotypic and transcriptional analyses suggested that OsGIGANTEA (OsGI) does not integrate drought and photoperiodic signals as in Arabidopsis, highlighting molecular differences between long and short day model species. PMID:27111837

  17. Groundwater in times of droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attinger, Sabine; Kumar, Rohini; Musuuza, Jude; Samaniego, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are characterized as sustained and regionally extensive occurrences of below-average natural water availability. They affect all components of the water cycle: from deficits in soil moisture (agricultural droughts) through reduced groundwater recharge and groundwater levels to low streamflows or dried-up rivers (hydrological droughts). Groundwater discharge is a significant component of streamflow, with groundwater contributing as much as 90 percent of annual streamflow volume in some parts of the U.S., Canada and Europe (Beck et al., 2013). And groundwater systems strongly control the hydrological drought characteristics all over the world (van Lanen et al., 2013). Making use of large scale hydrological models van Lanen demonstrated that groundwater systems substantially affect the duration, particularly of the more extreme drought events. The responsiveness of the groundwater system is as important as climate for hydrological drought development. This urges for an improvement of subsurface modules in conceptual hydrological models to be more useful for water resources assessments. In this talk, we will discuss different subsurface modeling approaches ranging from spatially distributed groundwater models to simpler reservoir-type modeling approaches and the implications the chosen model has on modelled groundwater droughts and base flow characteristics. In particular, we discuss a standardized groundwater drought index (SGI) to characterize the groundwater deficit and the groundwater head anomalies. Based on SGI, we investigate different statistics (severity, area and duration) of individual drought events for the different model approaches. These results will be related to locally measured groundwater data.

  18. Probabilistic drought characterization in the categorical form using ordinal regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zengchao; Hong, Yang; Xia, Youlong; Singh, Vijay P.; Hao, Fanghua; Cheng, Hongguang

    2016-04-01

    Drought is an insidious natural hazard that may cause tremendous losses to different sectors, including agriculture and ecosystems. Reliable drought monitoring and early warning are of critical importance for drought preparedness planning and mitigation to reduce potential impacts. Traditional drought monitoring is generally based on drought indices, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), that are computed from hydro-climatic variables. The U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) classifies drought conditions into different drought categories to provide composite drought information by integrating multiple drought indices, which has been commonly used to aid decision making at the federal, state, and local levels. Characterizing drought in categories similar to USDM would be important for decision making for both research and operational purposes. However, drought monitoring, based on a variety of drought indices, is challenged by the classification of drought into categories used by USDM. In this study, an ordinal regression model is proposed to characterize droughts in USDM drought categories based on several drought indices, in which the probability of each drought category can be estimated. The proposed method is assessed by comparing with USDM in Texas and a satisfactory performance for estimating drought categories is revealed.

  19. Functional Genomics of Drought Tolerance in Bioenergy Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Hengfu; Chen, Rick; Yang, Jun; Weston, David; Chen, Jay; Muchero, Wellington; Ye, Ning; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan

    2014-01-01

    With the predicted trends in climate change, drought will increasingly impose a grand challenge to biomass production. Most of the bioenergy crops have some degree of drought susceptibility with low water-use efficiency (WUE). It is imperative to improve drought tolerance and WUE in bioenergy crops for sustainable biomass production in arid and semi-arid regions with minimal water input. Genetics and functional genomics can play a critical role in generating knowledge to inform and aid genetic improvement of drought tolerance in bioenergy crops. The molecular aspect of drought response has been extensively investigated in model plants like Arabidopsis, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops are limited. Crops exhibit various responses to drought stress depending on species and genotype. A rational strategy for studying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops is to translate the knowledge from model plants and pinpoint the unique features associated with individual species and genotypes. In this review, we summarize the general knowledge about drought responsive pathways in plants, with a focus on the identification of commonality and specialty in drought responsive mechanisms among different species and/or genotypes. We describe the genomic resources developed for bioenergy crops and discuss genetic and epigenetic regulation of drought responses. We also examine comparative and evolutionary genomics to leverage the ever-increasing genomics resources and provide new insights beyond what has been known from studies on individual species. Finally, we outline future exploration of drought tolerance using the emerging new technologies.

  20. Reducing plant abiotic and biotic stress: Drought and attacks of greenbugs, corn leaf aphids, and virus disease in dryland sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-year spatial overlay patterns of plants, insects and soil water may yield insights for management for reducing biotic and abiotic stresses in dryland crops. A study of non-irrigated grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) was conducted in a Pullman clay loam on the semi-arid High Plain of ...

  1. Drought in the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Anne F.; Gleeson, Tom; Clark, Julian; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Stahl, Kerstin; Hannaford, Jamie; di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Hannah, David M.; Sheffield, Justin; Svoboda, Mark; Verbeiren, Boud; Wagener, Thorsten; Rangecroft, Sally; Wanders, Niko; van Lanen, Henny A. J.

    2016-02-01

    Drought management is inefficient because feedbacks between drought and people are not fully understood. In this human-influenced era, we need to rethink the concept of drought to include the human role in mitigating and enhancing drought.

  2. Manipulating stomatal density enhances drought tolerance without deleterious effect on nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, Christopher; Doheny-Adams, Timothy; Hunt, Lee; Cameron, Duncan D; Gray, Julie E

    2015-10-01

    Manipulation of stomatal density was investigated as a potential tool for enhancing drought tolerance or nutrient uptake. Drought tolerance and soil water retention were assessed using Arabidopsis epidermal patterning factor mutants manipulated to have increased or decreased stomatal density. Root nutrient uptake via mass flow was monitored under differing plant watering regimes using nitrogen-15 ((15) N) isotope and mass spectrometry. Plants with less than half of their normal complement of stomata, and correspondingly reduced levels of transpiration, conserve soil moisture and are highly drought tolerant but show little or no reduction in shoot nitrogen concentrations especially when water availability is restricted. By contrast, plants with over twice the normal density of stomata have a greater capacity for nitrogen uptake, except when water availability is restricted. We demonstrate the possibility of producing plants with reduced transpiration which have increased drought tolerance, with little or no loss of nutrient uptake. We demonstrate that increasing transpiration can enhance nutrient uptake when water is plentiful. PMID:26268722

  3. Probabilistic drought intensification forecasts using temporal patterns of satellite-derived drought indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sumin; Im, Jungho; Park, Seonyeong

    2016-04-01

    A drought occurs when the condition of below-average precipitation in a region continues, resulting in prolonged water deficiency. A drought can last for weeks, months or even years, so can have a great influence on various ecosystems including human society. In order to effectively reduce agricultural and economic damage caused by droughts, drought monitoring and forecasts are crucial. Drought forecast research is typically conducted using in situ observations (or derived indices such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)) and physical models. Recently, satellite remote sensing has been used for short term drought forecasts in combination with physical models. In this research, drought intensification was predicted using satellite-derived drought indices such as Normalized Difference Drought Index (NDDI), Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI), and Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI) generated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products over the Korean Peninsula. Time series of each drought index at the 8 day interval was investigated to identify drought intensification patterns. Drought condition at the previous time step (i.e., 8 days before) and change in drought conditions between two previous time steps (e.g., between 16 days and 8 days before the time step to forecast) Results show that among three drought indices, SDCI provided the best performance to predict drought intensification compared to NDDI and NMDI through qualitative assessment. When quantitatively compared with SPI, SDCI showed a potential to be used for forecasting short term drought intensification. Finally this research provided a SDCI-based equation to predict short term drought intensification optimized over the Korean Peninsula.

  4. Cuticular wax biosynthesis is up-regulated by the MYB94 transcription factor in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saet Buyl; Suh, Mi Chung

    2015-01-01

    The aerial parts of all land plants are covered with hydrophobic cuticular wax layers that act as the first barrier against the environment. The MYB94 transcription factor gene is expressed in abundance in aerial organs and shows a higher expression in the stem epidermis than within the stem. When seedlings were subjected to various treatments, the expression of the MYB94 transcription factor gene was observed to increase approximately 9-fold under drought, 8-fold for ABA treatment and 4-fold for separate NaCl and mannitol treatments. MYB94 harbors the transcriptional activation domain at its C-terminus, and fluorescent signals from MYB94:enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) were observed in the nucleus of tobacco epidermis and in transgenic Arabidopsis roots. The total wax loads increased by approximately 2-fold in the leaves of the MYB94-overexpressing (MYB94 OX) lines, as compared with those of the wild type (WT). MYB94 activates the expression of WSD1, KCS2/DAISY, CER2, FAR3 and ECR genes by binding directly to their gene promoters. An increase in the accumulation of cuticular wax was observed to reduce the rate of cuticular transpiration in the leaves of MYB94 OX lines, under drought stress conditions. Taken together, a R2R3-type MYB94 transcription factor activates Arabidopsis cuticular wax biosynthesis and might be important in plant response to environmental stress, including drought. PMID:25305760

  5. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T.

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism. PMID:25738325

  6. Reduced Biosynthesis of Digalactosyldiacylglycerol, a Major Chloroplast Membrane Lipid, Leads to Oxylipin Overproduction and Phloem Cap Lignification in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lih-Jen; Herrfurth, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    DIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL SYNTHASE1 (DGD1) is a chloroplast outer membrane protein responsible for the biosynthesis of the lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) from monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG). The Arabidopsis thaliana dgd1 mutants have a greater than 90% reduction in DGDG content, reduced photosynthesis, and altered chloroplast morphology. However, the most pronounced visible phenotype is the extremely short inflorescence stem, but how deficient DGDG biosynthesis causes this phenotype is unclear. We found that, in dgd1 mutants, phloem cap cells were lignified and jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes were highly upregulated under normal growth conditions. The coronative insensitive1 dgd1 and allene oxide synthase dgd1 double mutants no longer exhibited the short inflorescence stem and lignification phenotypes but still had the same lipid profile and reduced photosynthesis as dgd1 single mutants. Hormone and lipidomics analyses showed higher levels of JA, JA-isoleucine, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and arabidopsides in dgd1 mutants. Transcript and protein level analyses further suggest that JA biosynthesis in dgd1 is initially activated through the increased expression of genes encoding 13-lipoxygenases (LOXs) and phospholipase A-Iγ3 (At1g51440), a plastid lipase with a high substrate preference for MGDG, and is sustained by further increases in LOX and allene oxide cyclase mRNA and protein levels. Our results demonstrate a link between the biosynthesis of DGDG and JA. PMID:26721860

  7. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism. PMID:25738325

  8. Creating Drought- and Salt-Tolerant Crops by Overexpressing a Vacuolar Pyrophosphatase Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased expression of an Arabidopsis vacuolar pyrophosphatase gene, AVP1, leads to increased drought and salt tolerance in transgenic plants, which has been demonstrated in laboratory and field conditions. The molecular mechanism of AVP1-mediated drought resistance is likely due to increased proto...

  9. Drought-tolerance of wheat improved by rhizosphere bacteria from harsh environments: enhanced biomass production and reduced emissions of stress volatiles.

    PubMed

    Timmusk, Salme; Abd El-Daim, Islam A; Copolovici, Lucian; Tanilas, Triin; Kännaste, Astrid; Behers, Lawrence; Nevo, Eviatar; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Stenström, Elna; Niinemets, Ülo

    2014-01-01

    Water is the key resource limiting world agricultural production. Although an impressive number of research reports have been published on plant drought tolerance enhancement via genetic modifications during the last few years, progress has been slower than expected. We suggest a feasible alternative strategy by application of rhizospheric bacteria coevolved with plant roots in harsh environments over millions of years, and harboring adaptive traits improving plant fitness under biotic and abiotic stresses. We show the effect of bacterial priming on wheat drought stress tolerance enhancement, resulting in up to 78% greater plant biomass and five-fold higher survivorship under severe drought. We monitored emissions of seven stress-related volatiles from bacterially-primed drought-stressed wheat seedlings, and demonstrated that three of these volatiles are likely promising candidates for a rapid non-invasive technique to assess crop drought stress and its mitigation in early phases of stress development. We conclude that gauging stress by elicited volatiles provides an effectual platform for rapid screening of potent bacterial strains and that priming with isolates of rhizospheric bacteria from harsh environments is a promising, novel way to improve plant water use efficiency. These new advancements importantly contribute towards solving food security issues in changing climates. PMID:24811199

  10. Drought-Tolerance of Wheat Improved by Rhizosphere Bacteria from Harsh Environments: Enhanced Biomass Production and Reduced Emissions of Stress Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Timmusk, Salme; Abd El-Daim, Islam A.; Copolovici, Lucian; Tanilas, Triin; Kännaste, Astrid; Behers, Lawrence; Nevo, Eviatar; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Stenström, Elna; Niinemets, Ülo

    2014-01-01

    Water is the key resource limiting world agricultural production. Although an impressive number of research reports have been published on plant drought tolerance enhancement via genetic modifications during the last few years, progress has been slower than expected. We suggest a feasible alternative strategy by application of rhizospheric bacteria coevolved with plant roots in harsh environments over millions of years, and harboring adaptive traits improving plant fitness under biotic and abiotic stresses. We show the effect of bacterial priming on wheat drought stress tolerance enhancement, resulting in up to 78% greater plant biomass and five-fold higher survivorship under severe drought. We monitored emissions of seven stress-related volatiles from bacterially-primed drought-stressed wheat seedlings, and demonstrated that three of these volatiles are likely promising candidates for a rapid non-invasive technique to assess crop drought stress and its mitigation in early phases of stress development. We conclude that gauging stress by elicited volatiles provides an effectual platform for rapid screening of potent bacterial strains and that priming with isolates of rhizospheric bacteria from harsh environments is a promising, novel way to improve plant water use efficiency. These new advancements importantly contribute towards solving food security issues in changing climates. PMID:24811199

  11. Reduced naphthylphthalamic acid binding in the tir3 mutant of Arabidopsis is associated with a reduction in polar auxin transport and diverse morphological defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruegger, M.; Dewey, E.; Hobbie, L.; Brown, D.; Bernasconi, P.; Turner, J.; Muday, G.; Estelle, M.

    1997-01-01

    Polar auxin transport plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development. To identify genes involved in this process, we have developed a genetic procedure to screen for mutants of Arabidopsis that are altered in their response to auxin transport inhibitors. We recovered a total of 16 independent mutants that defined seven genes, called TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE (TIR) genes. Recessive mutations in one of these genes, TIR3, result in altered responses to transport inhibitors, a reduction in polar auxin transport, and a variety of morphological defects that can be ascribed to changes in indole-3-acetic acid distribution. Most dramatically, tir3 seedlings are strongly deficient in lateral root production, a process that is known to depend on polar auxin transport from the shoot into the root. In addition, tir3 plants display a reduction in apical dominance as well as decreased elongation of siliques, pedicels, roots, and the inflorescence. Biochemical studies indicate that tir3 plants have a reduced number of N-1-naphthylphthalamic (NPA) binding sites, suggesting that the TIR3 gene is required for expression, localization, or stabilization of the NPA binding protein (NBP). Alternatively, the TIR3 gene may encode the NBP. Because the tir3 mutants have a substantial defect in NPA binding, their phenotype provides genetic evidence for a role for the NBP in plant growth and development.

  12. DNA double-strand breaks induce the expression of flavin-containing monooxygenase and reduce root meristem size in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Poyu; Umeda, Masaaki

    2015-08-01

    Plants use various mechanisms to cope with environmental stresses, which often threaten genome integrity. In Arabidopsis, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) reduce root meristem size in a SOG1-dependent manner. SOG1 is a key transcription factor controlling the response to DNA damage. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that treatment with the DSB inducer zeocin increased the accumulation of H2O2 in root tips. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that SOG1 directly binds to the promoter of FMO1, which encodes a flavin-containing monooxygenase and is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 in particular. Indeed, zeocin induced the expression of FMO1 in a SOG1-dependent manner, and neither the sog1 nor the fmo1 knockout mutant exhibited higher H2O2 accumulation in root tips. Consequently, both sog1 and fmo1 could tolerate exposure to zeocin, in terms of root growth and the maintenance of the meristem size. However, transgenic plants over-expressing FMO1 also accumulated H2O2 in response to zeocin exposure, suggesting that other ROS-synthesis genes are also involved in the regulation of ROS production. We conclude that SOG1-mediated regulation of ROS homeostasis plays a key role in the reduction of root meristem size under DNA stress conditions. PMID:26033196

  13. Reduced naphthylphthalamic acid binding in the tir3 mutant of Arabidopsis is associated with a reduction in polar auxin transport and diverse morphological defects.

    PubMed Central

    Ruegger, M; Dewey, E; Hobbie, L; Brown, D; Bernasconi, P; Turner, J; Muday, G; Estelle, M

    1997-01-01

    Polar auxin transport plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development. To identify genes involved in this process, we have developed a genetic procedure to screen for mutants of Arabidopsis that are altered in their response to auxin transport inhibitors. We recovered a total of 16 independent mutants that defined seven genes, called TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE (TIR) genes. Recessive mutations in one of these genes, TIR3, result in altered responses to transport inhibitors, a reduction in polar auxin transport, and a variety of morphological defects that can be ascribed to changes in indole-3-acetic acid distribution. Most dramatically, tir3 seedlings are strongly deficient in lateral root production, a process that is known to depend on polar auxin transport from the shoot into the root. In addition, tir3 plants display a reduction in apical dominance as well as decreased elongation of siliques, pedicels, roots, and the inflorescence. Biochemical studies indicate that tir3 plants have a reduced number of N-1-naphthylphthalamic (NPA) binding sites, suggesting that the TIR3 gene is required for expression, localization, or stabilization of the NPA binding protein (NBP). Alternatively, the TIR3 gene may encode the NBP. Because the tir3 mutants have a substantial defect in NPA binding, their phenotype provides genetic evidence for a role for the NBP in plant growth and development. PMID:9165751

  14. Overexpression of AtEDT1/HDG11 in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) Enhances Drought and Osmotic Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhangsheng; Sun, Binmei; Xu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hao; Zou, Lifang; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Improvement of drought and osmotic stress tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. The Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a protein of the class IV HD-Zip family, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice, and pepper. Here, we report that AtEDT1/HDG11 confers drought and osmotic stress tolerance in the Chinese kale. AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression lines exhibit auxin-overproduction phenotypes, such as long hypocotyls, tall stems, more root hairs, and a larger root system architecture. Compared with the untransformed control, transgenic lines have significantly reduced stomatal density. In the leaves of transgenic Chinese kale plants, proline (Pro) content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity was significantly increased after drought and osmotic stress, particularly compared to wild kale. More importantly, AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression leads to abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, resulting in ABA inhibitor germination and induced stomatal closure. Consistent with observed phenotypes, the expression levels of auxin, ABA, and stress-related genes were also altered under both normal and/or stress conditions. Further analysis showed that AtEDT1/HDG11, as a transcription factor, can target the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCC6 and ABA response genes ABI3 and ABI5. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into the role of AtEDT1/HDG11 in enhancing abiotic stress resistance through auxin- and ABA-mediated signaling response in Chinese kale. PMID:27625663

  15. Overexpression of AtEDT1/HDG11 in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) Enhances Drought and Osmotic Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhangsheng; Sun, Binmei; Xu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hao; Zou, Lifang; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Improvement of drought and osmotic stress tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. The Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a protein of the class IV HD-Zip family, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice, and pepper. Here, we report that AtEDT1/HDG11 confers drought and osmotic stress tolerance in the Chinese kale. AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression lines exhibit auxin-overproduction phenotypes, such as long hypocotyls, tall stems, more root hairs, and a larger root system architecture. Compared with the untransformed control, transgenic lines have significantly reduced stomatal density. In the leaves of transgenic Chinese kale plants, proline (Pro) content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity was significantly increased after drought and osmotic stress, particularly compared to wild kale. More importantly, AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression leads to abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, resulting in ABA inhibitor germination and induced stomatal closure. Consistent with observed phenotypes, the expression levels of auxin, ABA, and stress-related genes were also altered under both normal and/or stress conditions. Further analysis showed that AtEDT1/HDG11, as a transcription factor, can target the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCC6 and ABA response genes ABI3 and ABI5. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into the role of AtEDT1/HDG11 in enhancing abiotic stress resistance through auxin- and ABA-mediated signaling response in Chinese kale. PMID:27625663

  16. Overexpression of Rice Glutaredoxin OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 Reduces Intracellular Arsenic Accumulation and Increases Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pankaj K.; Verma, Shikha; Pande, Veena; Mallick, Shekhar; Deo Tripathi, Rudra; Dhankher, Om P.; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are a family of small multifunctional proteins involved in various cellular functions, including redox regulation and protection under oxidative stress. Despite the high number of Grx genes in plant genomes (48 Grxs in rice), the biological functions and physiological roles of most of them remain unknown. Here, the functional characterization of the two arsenic-responsive rice Grx family proteins, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 are reported. Over-expression of OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana conferred arsenic (As) tolerance as reflected by germination, root growth assay, and whole plant growth. Also, the transgenic expression of OsGrxs displayed significantly reduced As accumulation in A. thaliana seeds and shoot tissues compared to WT plants during both AsIII and AsV stress. Thus, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 seem to be an important determinant of As-stress response in plants. OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 transgenic showed to maintain intracellular GSH pool and involved in lowering AsIII accumulation either by extrusion or reducing uptake by altering the transcript of A. thaliana AtNIPs. Overall, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 may represent a Grx family protein involved in As stress response and may allow a better understanding of the As induced stress pathways and the design of strategies for the improvement of stress tolerance as well as decreased As content in crops. PMID:27313586

  17. Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of the Selenium-binding and Reducing Site in Arabidopsis thaliana Homologue to Mammals Selenium-binding Protein 1*

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Florie; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Palencia, Andrés; Cobessi, David; Sarret, Géraldine; Zubieta, Chloé; Jourdain, Agnès; Dumas, Renaud; Forge, Vincent; Testemale, Denis; Bourguignon, Jacques; Hugouvieux, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    The function of selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1), present in almost all organisms, has not yet been established. In mammals, SBP1 is known to bind the essential element selenium but the binding site has not been identified. In addition, the SBP family has numerous potential metal-binding sites that may play a role in detoxification pathways in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtSBP1 over-expression increases tolerance to two toxic compounds for plants, selenium and cadmium, often found as soil pollutants. For a better understanding of AtSBP1 function in detoxification mechanisms, we investigated the chelating properties of the protein toward different ligands with a focus on selenium using biochemical and biophysical techniques. Thermal shift assays together with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed that AtSBP1 binds selenium after incubation with selenite (SeO32−) with a ligand to protein molar ratio of 1:1. Isothermal titration calorimetry confirmed the 1:1 stoichiometry and revealed an unexpectedly large value of binding enthalpy suggesting a covalent bond between selenium and AtSBP1. Titration of reduced Cys residues and comparative mass spectrometry on AtSBP1 and the purified selenium-AtSBP1 complex identified Cys21 and Cys22 as being responsible for the binding of one selenium. These results were validated by site-directed mutagenesis. Selenium K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy performed on the selenium-AtSBP1 complex demonstrated that AtSBP1 reduced SeO32− to form a R-S-Se(II)-S-R-type complex. The capacity of AtSBP1 to bind different metals and selenium is discussed with respect to the potential function of AtSBP1 in detoxification mechanisms and selenium metabolism. PMID:25274629

  18. Overexpression of Rice Glutaredoxin OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 Reduces Intracellular Arsenic Accumulation and Increases Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pankaj K; Verma, Shikha; Pande, Veena; Mallick, Shekhar; Deo Tripathi, Rudra; Dhankher, Om P; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are a family of small multifunctional proteins involved in various cellular functions, including redox regulation and protection under oxidative stress. Despite the high number of Grx genes in plant genomes (48 Grxs in rice), the biological functions and physiological roles of most of them remain unknown. Here, the functional characterization of the two arsenic-responsive rice Grx family proteins, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 are reported. Over-expression of OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana conferred arsenic (As) tolerance as reflected by germination, root growth assay, and whole plant growth. Also, the transgenic expression of OsGrxs displayed significantly reduced As accumulation in A. thaliana seeds and shoot tissues compared to WT plants during both AsIII and AsV stress. Thus, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 seem to be an important determinant of As-stress response in plants. OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 transgenic showed to maintain intracellular GSH pool and involved in lowering AsIII accumulation either by extrusion or reducing uptake by altering the transcript of A. thaliana AtNIPs. Overall, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 may represent a Grx family protein involved in As stress response and may allow a better understanding of the As induced stress pathways and the design of strategies for the improvement of stress tolerance as well as decreased As content in crops. PMID:27313586

  19. Overexpression of AtDREB1D transcription factor improves drought tolerance in soybean.

    PubMed

    Guttikonda, Satish K; Valliyodan, Babu; Neelakandan, Anjanasree K; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Kumar, Rajesh; Quach, Truyen N; Voothuluru, Priyamvada; Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Juan J; Aldrich, Donavan L; Pallardy, Stephen G; Sharp, Robert E; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Nguyen, Henry T

    2014-12-01

    Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect productivity in soybean (Glycine max L.) Several genes induced by drought stress include functional genes and regulatory transcription factors. The Arabidopsis thaliana DREB1D transcription factor driven by the constitutive and ABA-inducible promoters was introduced into soybean through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. Several transgenic lines were generated and molecular analysis was performed to confirm transgene integration. Transgenic plants with an ABA-inducible promoter showed a 1.5- to two-fold increase of transgene expression under severe stress conditions. Under well-watered conditions, transgenic plants with constitutive and ABA-inducible promoters showed reduced total leaf area and shoot biomass compared to non-transgenic plants. No significant differences in root length or root biomass were observed between transgenic and non-transgenic plants under non-stress conditions. When subjected to gradual water deficit, transgenic plants maintained higher relative water content because the transgenic lines used water more slowly as a result of reduced total leaf area. This caused them to wilt slower than non-transgenic plants. Transgenic plants showed differential drought tolerance responses with a significantly higher survival rate compared to non-transgenic plants when subjected to comparable severe water-deficit conditions. Moreover, the transgenic plants also showed improved drought tolerance by maintaining 17-24 % greater leaf cell membrane stability compared to non-transgenic plants. The results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering soybean for enhanced drought tolerance by expressing stress-responsive genes. PMID:25192890

  20. Overexpression of soybean miR172c confers tolerance to water deficit and salt stress, but increases ABA sensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yuhang; Li, Yongguang

    2016-01-01

    MiRNAs play crucial roles in many aspects of plant development and the response to the environment. The miR172 family has been shown to participate in the control of flowering time and the response to abiotic stress. This family regulates the expression of APETALA2 (AP2)-like transcription factors in Arabidopsis. In the present study, soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) miR172c, a member of the miR172 family, and its target gene were investigated for abiotic stress responses in transgenic Arabidopsis. gma-miR172c was induced by abscisic acid (ABA) treatments and abiotic stresses, including salt and water deficit. 5'-RACE (5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assays indicated that miR172c directed Glyma01g39520 mRNA cleavage in soybeans. Overexpression of gma-miR172c in Arabidopsis resulted in reduced leaf water loss and increased survival rate under stress conditions. Meanwhile, the root length, germination rate, and cotyledon greening of transgenic plants were improved during both high salt and water deficit conditions. In addition, transgenic plants exhibited hypersensitivity to ABA during both the seed germination and post-germination seedling growth stages. Stress-related physiological indicators and the expression of stress/ABA-responsive genes were affected by abiotic treatments. The overexpression of gma-miR172c in Arabidopsis promoted earlier flowering compared with the wild type through modulation of the expression of flowering genes, such as FT and LFY during long days, especially under drought conditions. Glyma01g39520 weakened ABA sensitivity and reduced the tolerance to drought stress in the snz mutant of Arabidopsis by reducing the expression of ABI3 and ABI5. Overall, the present results demonstrate that gma-miR172c confers water deficit and salt tolerance but increased ABA sensitivity by regulating Glyma01g39520, which also accelerates flowering under abiotic stresses. PMID:26466661

  1. Overexpression of Arabidopsis YUCCA6 in potato results in high-auxin developmental phenotypes and enhanced resistance to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Im; Baek, Dongwon; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Chun, Hyun Jin; Oh, Dong-Ha; Lee, Min Kyung; Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Kim, Min Chul; Chung, Woo Sik; Bohnert, Hans J; Lee, Sang Yeol; Bressan, Ray A; Lee, Shin-Woo; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2013-03-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a major plant auxin, is produced in both tryptophan-dependent and tryptophan-independent pathways. A major pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana generates IAA in two reactions from tryptophan. Step one converts tryptophan to indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) by tryptophan aminotransferases followed by a rate-limiting step converting IPA to IAA catalyzed by YUCCA proteins. We identified eight putative StYUC (Solanum tuberosum YUCCA) genes whose deduced amino acid sequences share 50%-70% identity with those of Arabidopsis YUCCA proteins. All include canonical, conserved YUCCA sequences: FATGY motif, FMO signature sequence, and FAD-binding and NADP-binding sequences. In addition, five genes were found with ~50% amino acid sequence identity to Arabidopsis tryptophan aminotransferases. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Jowon) constitutively overexpressing Arabidopsis AtYUC6 displayed high-auxin phenotypes such as narrow downward-curled leaves, increased height, erect stature, and longevity. Transgenic potato plants overexpressing AtYUC6 showed enhanced drought tolerance based on reduced water loss. The phenotype was correlated with reduced levels of reactive oxygen species in leaves. The results suggest a functional YUCCA pathway of auxin biosynthesis in potato that may be exploited to alter plant responses to the environment. PMID:22986790

  2. Loss of function of folylpolyglutamate synthetase 1 reduces lignin content and improves cell wall digestibility in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Avinash C.; Chen, Fang; Ray, Tui; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Peña, Maria J.; Avci, Utku; Li, Hongjia; Huhman, David V.; Backe, Jason; Urbanowicz, Breeanna; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Bedair, Mohamed; Wyman, Charles E.; Sumner, Lloyd W.; York, William S.; Hahn, Michael G.; Dixon, Richard A.; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Tang, Yuhong

    2015-12-21

    One-carbon (C1) metabolism is important for synthesizing a range of biologically important compounds that are essential for life. In plants, the C1 pathway is crucial for the synthesis of a large number of secondary metabolites, including lignin. Tetrahydrofolate and its derivatives, collectively referred to as folates, are crucial co-factors for C1 metabolic pathway enzymes. Given the link between the C1 and phenylpropanoid pathways, we evaluated whether folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS), an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a glutamate tail to folates to form folylpolyglutamates, can be a viable target for reducing cell wall recalcitrance in plants. Consistent with its role in lignocellulosic formation, FPGS1 was preferentially expressed in vascular tissues. Total lignin was low in fpgs1 plants leading to higher saccharification efficiency of the mutant. The decrease in total lignin in fpgs1 was mainly due to lower guaiacyl (G) lignin levels. Glycome profiling revealed subtle alterations in the cell walls of fpgs1. Further analyses of hemicellulosic polysaccharides by NMR showed that the degree of methylation of 4-O-methyl glucuronoxylan was reduced in the fpgs1 mutant. Microarray analysis and real-time qRT-PCR revealed that transcripts of a number of genes in the C1 and lignin pathways had altered expression in fpgs1 mutants. Consistent with the transcript changes of C1-related genes, a significant reduction in S-adenosyl-l-methionine content was detected in the fpgs1 mutant. The modified expression of the various methyltransferases and lignin-related genes indicate possible feedback regulation of C1 pathway-mediated lignin biosynthesis. In conclusion, our observations provide genetic and biochemical support for the importance of folylpolyglutamates in the lignocellulosic pathway and reinforces previous observations that targeting a single FPGS isoform for down-regulation leads to reduced lignin in plants. Because fpgs1 mutants had no dramatic defects in

  3. Loss of function of folylpolyglutamate synthetase 1 reduces lignin content and improves cell wall digestibility in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Srivastava, Avinash C.; Chen, Fang; Ray, Tui; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Peña, Maria J.; Avci, Utku; Li, Hongjia; Huhman, David V.; Backe, Jason; Urbanowicz, Breeanna; et al

    2015-12-21

    One-carbon (C1) metabolism is important for synthesizing a range of biologically important compounds that are essential for life. In plants, the C1 pathway is crucial for the synthesis of a large number of secondary metabolites, including lignin. Tetrahydrofolate and its derivatives, collectively referred to as folates, are crucial co-factors for C1 metabolic pathway enzymes. Given the link between the C1 and phenylpropanoid pathways, we evaluated whether folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS), an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a glutamate tail to folates to form folylpolyglutamates, can be a viable target for reducing cell wall recalcitrance in plants. Consistent with its rolemore » in lignocellulosic formation, FPGS1 was preferentially expressed in vascular tissues. Total lignin was low in fpgs1 plants leading to higher saccharification efficiency of the mutant. The decrease in total lignin in fpgs1 was mainly due to lower guaiacyl (G) lignin levels. Glycome profiling revealed subtle alterations in the cell walls of fpgs1. Further analyses of hemicellulosic polysaccharides by NMR showed that the degree of methylation of 4-O-methyl glucuronoxylan was reduced in the fpgs1 mutant. Microarray analysis and real-time qRT-PCR revealed that transcripts of a number of genes in the C1 and lignin pathways had altered expression in fpgs1 mutants. Consistent with the transcript changes of C1-related genes, a significant reduction in S-adenosyl-l-methionine content was detected in the fpgs1 mutant. The modified expression of the various methyltransferases and lignin-related genes indicate possible feedback regulation of C1 pathway-mediated lignin biosynthesis. In conclusion, our observations provide genetic and biochemical support for the importance of folylpolyglutamates in the lignocellulosic pathway and reinforces previous observations that targeting a single FPGS isoform for down-regulation leads to reduced lignin in plants. Because fpgs1 mutants had no dramatic

  4. Roles of YUCCAs in auxin biosynthesis and drought stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Cheol Park, Hyeong; Cha, Joon-Yung; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2013-06-01

    Auxin, a plant hormone, plays crucial roles in diverse aspects of plant growth and development reacting to and integrating environmental stimuli. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the major plant auxin that is synthesized by members of the YUCCA (YUC) family of flavin monooxygenases that catalyse a rate-limiting step. Although the paths to IAA biosynthesis are characterized in Arabidopsis, little is known about the corresponding components in potato. Recently, we isolated eight putative StYUC (Solanum tuberosum YUCCA) genes and five putative tryptophan aminotransferase genes in comparison to those found in Arabidopsis. (1) The specific domains of YUC proteins were well conserved in all StYUC amino acid sequences. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Jowon) overexpressing AtYUC6 showed high-auxin and enhanced drought tolerance phenotypes. The transgenic potatoes also exhibited reduced levels of ROS (reactive oxygen species) compared to control plants. We therefore propose that YUCCA and TAA families in potato would function in the auxin biosynthesis. The overexpression of AtYUC6 in potato establishes enhanced drought tolerance through regulated ROS homeostasis. PMID:23603963

  5. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh

  6. Increased Biomass, Seed Yield and Stress Tolerance Is Conferred in Arabidopsis by a Novel Enzyme from the Resurrection Grass Sporobolus stapfianus That Glycosylates the Strigolactone Analogue GR24

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Sharmin; Griffiths, Cara A.; Blomstedt, Cecilia K.; Le, Tuan-Ngoc; Gaff, Donald F.; Hamill, John D.; Neale, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    Isolation of gene transcripts from desiccated leaf tissues of the resurrection grass, Sporobolus stapfianus, resulted in the identification of a gene, SDG8i, encoding a Group 1 glycosyltransferase (UGT). Here, we examine the effects of introducing this gene, under control of the CaMV35S promoter, into the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results show that Arabidopsis plants constitutively over-expressing SDG8i exhibit enhanced growth, reduced senescence, cold tolerance and a substantial improvement in protoplasmic drought tolerance. We hypothesise that expression of SDG8i in Arabidopsis negatively affects the bioactivity of metabolite/s that mediate/s environmentally-induced repression of cell division and expansion, both during normal development and in response to stress. The phenotype of transgenic plants over-expressing SDG8i suggests modulation in activities of both growth- and stress-related hormones. Plants overexpressing the UGT show evidence of elevated auxin levels, with the enzyme acting downstream of ABA to reduce drought-induced senescence. Analysis of the in vitro activity of the UGT recombinant protein product demonstrates that SDG8i can glycosylate the synthetic strigolactone analogue GR24, evoking a link with strigolactone-related processes in vivo. The large improvements observed in survival of transgenic Arabidopsis plants under cold-, salt- and drought-stress, as well as the substantial increases in growth rate and seed yield under non-stress conditions, indicates that overexpression of SDG8i in crop plants may provide a novel means of increasing plant productivity. PMID:24224034

  7. Overexpression of SrUGT85C2 from Stevia reduced growth and yield of transgenic Arabidopsis by influencing plastidial MEP pathway.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Praveen; Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-04-15

    The transcript expression of a gene SrUGT85C2 has been documented for direct relation with steviol glycoside content in Stevia plant. Steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthetic routes are divergent branches of methyl erythritol-4 phosphate (MEP) pathway. So, SrUGT85C2 might be an influencing gibberellin content. Hence in the present study, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing SrUGT85C2 cDNA from Stevia rebaudiana was developed to check its effect on gibberellin accumulation and related plant growth parameters. The developed transgenics showed a noteworthy decrease of 78-83% in GA3 content. Moreover, the transgenics showed a gibberellin deficient phenotype comprising stunted hypocotyl length, reduced shoot growth and a significant fall in relative water content. Transgenics also showed 17-37 and 64-76% reduction in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, respectively. Reduction in photosynthetic pigments could be responsible for the noticed significant decrease in plant biomass. Like steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthesis also occurs from the precursors isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) of MEP pathway in the plastids. The observed downregulated expression of genes encoding MEP pathway enzymes geranyl geranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS), copalyl diphosphate synthase (CDPS), kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), chlorophyll synthetase and chlorophyll a oxygenase in transgenics overexpressing SrUGT85C2 might be responsible for the reduction in gibberellins as well as chlorophyll. This study has documented for the first time the regulatory role of SrUGT85C2 in the biosynthesis of steviol glycoside, gibberellins and chlorophyll. PMID:24518812

  8. Arabidopsis abi1-1 and abi2-1 phosphatase mutations reduce abscisic acid-induced cytoplasmic calcium rises in guard cells.

    PubMed

    Allen, G J; Kuchitsu, K; Chu, S P; Murata, Y; Schroeder, J I

    1999-09-01

    Elevations in cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca(2)+](cyt)) are an important component of early abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction. To determine whether defined mutations in ABA signal transduction affect [Ca(2)+](cyt) signaling, the Ca(2)+-sensitive fluorescent dye fura 2 was loaded into the cytoplasm of Arabidopsis guard cells. Oscillations in [Ca(2)+](cyt) could be induced when the external calcium concentration was increased, showing viable Ca(2)+ homeostasis in these dye-loaded cells. ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) elevations in wild-type stomata were either transient or sustained, with a mean increase of approximately 300 nM. Interestingly, ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) increases were significantly reduced but not abolished in guard cells of the ABA-insensitive protein phosphatase mutants abi1 and abi2. Plasma membrane slow anion currents were activated in wild-type, abi1, and abi2 guard cell protoplasts by increasing [Ca(2)+](cyt), demonstrating that the impairment in ABA activation of anion currents in the abi1 and abi2 mutants was bypassed by increasing [Ca(2)+](cyt). Furthermore, increases in external calcium alone (which elevate [Ca(2)+](cyt)) resulted in stomatal closing to the same extent in the abi1 and abi2 mutants as in the wild type. Conversely, stomatal opening assays indicated different interactions of abi1 and abi2, with Ca(2)+-dependent signal transduction pathways controlling stomatal closing versus stomatal opening. Together, [Ca(2)+](cyt) recordings, anion current activation, and stomatal closing assays demonstrate that the abi1 and abi2 mutations impair early ABA signaling events in guard cells upstream or close to ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) elevations. These results further demonstrate that the mutations can be bypassed during anion channel activation and stomatal closing by experimental elevation of [Ca(2)+](cyt). PMID:10488243

  9. The German Drought Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas; Zink, Matthias; Pommerencke, Julia; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Samaniego, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture droughts reduce the amount of water available to plant growth potentially leading e.g. to crop failure or increased forest fire risk. The threat of human livelihoods in developing countries and large economic losses in developed ones are severe consequences of these events. Monitoring the current state of soil water content allows to improve water management to mitigate the associated damages. Since summer 2014, the German Drought Monitor (GDM, available at: www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor) has been established using an operational hydrological modeling system, which consists of 3 steps: (1) the daily download of meteorological forcing data, consistency check and interpolation of this data, (2) running the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; Samaniego et al. 2010) and saving the state variables at the end of the model run as restart-file for the next days run, and (3) calculation of the soil moisture index (SMI, Samaniego et al. 2013, JHM) and visualization of the drought data. The hydrological model mHM was used to generate daily soil moisture fields for the period 1954-2013 over the entire area of Germany at a high spatial resolution of 4 x 4 km². The model requires daily precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration as forcing. A three-layer soil scheme was used to model the soil moisture dynamics over the entire root zone depth. Based on the 60 year simulation of soil moisture, the frequency distributions have been calculated for each grid cell to derive the soil moisture index. In this beta version, we do a monthly online update of the SMI. Furthermore, a trend analysis of drought events for 69 German subregions since 1954 was conducted. It showed that for most parts of Germany, the frequency of abnormally dry conditions increased while the stronger drought situations with SMI<0.2 decreased at the same time. For the coming year, a stakeholder consultation is planned. The aim is to clarify for whom a drought monitor would be useful, what

  10. A case study on the early warning of agricultural drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Fan, Jinlong; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Yinjuan; Wei, Jianguo

    2010-10-01

    In general, agricultural drought always occurs under the circumstance of the comprehensive interactions among the factors of nature, economy and society. The loss due to agricultural drought in China is huge every year. Therefore the timely monitoring of agricultural drought is critical to help reduce the loss. The information of agricultural drought early warning is helpful for local governmental officials and farmers in preparation for coping with the likely happening drought. The paper presents an approach and findings of an early warning of agricultural drought which has been successfully conducted in the semiarid and rainfed farming area in Ningxia autonomous region in the northwest of China.

  11. Pulse-drought atop press-drought: unexpected plant responses and implications for dryland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hoover, David L; Duniway, Michael C; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-12-01

    In drylands, climate change is predicted to cause chronic reductions in water availability (press-droughts) through reduced precipitation and increased temperatures as well as increase the frequency and intensity of short-term extreme droughts (pulse-droughts). These changes in precipitation patterns may have profound ecosystem effects, depending on the sensitivities of the dominant plant functional types (PFTs). Here we present the responses of four Colorado Plateau PFTs to an experimentally imposed, 4-year, press-drought during which a natural pulse-drought occurred. Our objectives were to (1) identify the drought sensitivities of the PFTs, (2) assess the additive effects of the press- and pulse-drought, and (3) examine the interactive effects of soils and drought. Our results revealed that the C3 grasses were the most sensitive PFT to drought, the C3 shrubs were the most resistant, and the C4 grasses and shrubs had intermediate drought sensitivities. Although we expected the C3 grasses would have the greatest response to drought, the higher resistance of C3 shrubs relative to the C4 shrubs was contrary to our predictions based on the higher water use efficiency of C4 photosynthesis. Also, the additive effects of press- and pulse-droughts caused high morality in C3 grasses, which has large ecological and economic ramifications for this region. Furthermore, despite predictions based on the inverse texture hypothesis, we observed no interactive effects of soils with the drought treatment on cover or mortality. These results suggest that plant responses to droughts in drylands may differ from expectations and have large ecological effects if press- and pulse-droughts push species beyond physiological and mortality thresholds. PMID:26254259

  12. Pulse-drought atop press-drought: unexpected plant responses and implications for dryland ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, David L; Duniway, Michael C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    In drylands, climate change is predicted to cause chronic reductions in water availability (press-droughts) through reduced precipitation and increased temperatures as well as increase the frequency and intensity of short-term extreme droughts (pulse-droughts). These changes in precipitation patterns may have profound ecosystem effects, depending on the sensitivities of the dominant plant functional types (PFTs). Here we present the responses of four Colorado Plateau PFTs to an experimentally imposed, 4-year, press-drought during which a natural pulse-drought occurred. Our objectives were to (1) identify the drought sensitivities of the PFTs, (2) assess the additive effects of the press- and pulse-drought, and (3) examine the interactive effects of soils and drought. Our results revealed that the C3 grasses were the most sensitive PFT to drought, the C3shrubs were the most resistant, and the C4 grasses and shrubs had intermediate drought sensitivities. Although we expected the C3 grasses would have the greatest response to drought, the higher resistance of C3 shrubs relative to the C4 shrubs was contrary to our predictions based on the higher water use efficiency of C4 photosynthesis. Also, the additive effects of press- and pulse-droughts caused high morality in C3 grasses, which has large ecological and economic ramifications for this region. Furthermore, despite predictions based on the inverse texture hypothesis, we observed no interactive effects of soils with the drought treatment on cover or mortality. These results suggest that plant responses to droughts in drylands may differ from expectations and have large ecological effects if press- and pulse-droughts push species beyond physiological and mortality thresholds.

  13. Drought Resistance and Recovery in Drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, J. C.; Linstädter, A.

    2014-12-01

    Projected global change will increase the level of land use and environmental stressors such as drought and grazing in the near future, particularly in drylands. Still, combined effects of drought and grazing on plant production are poorly understood, thus hampering establishment of adequate projections and mitigation strategies. We used a large, cross-continental database on long-term studies from drylands to quantify ecosystem responses to drought and grazing with the ultimate goal to increase functional understanding of these responses. Two key aspects of ecosystem stability, resistance to and recovery after a drought, were evaluated based on standardized and normalized aboveground net primary production (ANPP) data. Drought events and intensities were classified via the standardized precipitation index (SPI). We tested effects of drought intensity (SPI class), grazing regime (grazed, ungrazed), biome (grassland, shrubland, savanna) or dominant life history of the herbaceous layer (annual, perennial) to assess the relative importance of these factors for ecosystem stability, and to identify predictable relationships between drought intensity and ecosystem resistance and recovery. We found that ecosystem stability was better explained by dominant life history of the herbaceous layer than by biome. Increasing drought intensity (quasi-) linearly reduced ecosystem resistance. Even though annual and perennial systems had a similar response rate to increasing drought intensity, they differed in their general magnitude of resistance, with annual systems being ca. 27% less resistant. Vice versa, systems with an herbaceous layer dominated by annuals had substantially higher post-drought recovery, particularly when grazed. Combined effects of drought and grazing were not merely additive but modulated by dominant life history of the herbaceous layer. Our study established predictable relationships between drought intensity and drought-related relative losses in ANPP, and

  14. Overexpression of Rat Neurons Nitric Oxide Synthase in Rice Enhances Drought and Salt Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wei; Liu, Wen; Wang, Wen-Shu; Fu, Zheng-Wei; Han, Tong-Tong; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to play an important role in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis mutants with lower or higher levels of endogenous NO. The exogenous application of NO donors or scavengers has also suggested an important role for NO in plant defense against environmental stress. In this study, rice plants under drought and high salinity conditions showed increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NO levels. Overexpression of rat neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in rice increased both NOS activity and NO accumulation, resulting in improved tolerance of the transgenic plants to both drought and salt stresses. nNOS-overexpressing plants exhibited stronger water-holding capability, higher proline accumulation, less lipid peroxidation and reduced electrolyte leakage under drought and salt conditions than wild rice. Moreover, nNOS-overexpressing plants accumulated less H2O2, due to the observed up-regulation of OsCATA, OsCATB and OsPOX1. In agreement, the activities of CAT and POX were higher in transgenic rice than wild type. Additionally, the expression of six tested stress-responsive genes including OsDREB2A, OsDREB2B, OsSNAC1, OsSNAC2, OsLEA3 and OsRD29A, in nNOS-overexpressing plants was higher than that in the wild type under drought and high salinity conditions. Taken together, our results suggest that nNOS overexpression suppresses the stress-enhanced electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation and H2O2 accumulation, and promotes proline accumulation and the expression of stress-responsive genes under stress conditions, thereby promoting increased tolerance to drought and salt stresses. PMID:26121399

  15. Drought monitoring and analysis in China based on the Integrated Surface Drought Index (ISDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianjun; Zhou, Lei; Mo, Xinyu; Zhou, Hongkui; Zhang, Jie; Jia, Ruijing

    2015-09-01

    Timely and accurate monitoring of the onset and evolution of drought in China are important to reduce losses from drought. The Integrated Surface Drought Index (ISDI) which originally established in mideast China shows a large potential for real-time regional drought monitoring. However, ISDI is still at the developmental stage, and the applicability of the index requires further examination especially for China with vast area, climatic conditions, complex topography, and land cover. Furthermore, ISDI model depends on the historical training data corresponding to the study area. ISDI application in China must be remodeled using the historical training data over China. In this paper, we remodeled ISDI over China based on previous work and evaluated its capability for near real-time drought monitoring. Using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) as a dependent variable, ISDI integrates climate-based drought indices, satellite-based Vegetation Index (VI) and land surface temperature (LST) with other biophysical and elevation data to produce a 1-km regional drought condition map at 16-day intervals. Strong relationships were determined between the calculated ISDI and PDSI for spring, summer and autumn, and all of the correlation coefficients exceeded 0.8. The initial ISDI results demonstrated a good performance for monitoring droughts in southwestern China from 2009 to 2010, high temperatures and droughts in southern China in 2013, and floods in northeastern China in 2013. The higher spatial resolution and near real-time capability of ISDI can provide important inputs for drought management and mitigation in China.

  16. The pepper late embryogenesis abundant protein CaLEA1 acts in regulating abscisic acid signaling, drought and salt stress response.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Lim, Sohee; Baek, Woonhee; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-08-01

    As sessile organisms, plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Among the various abiotic stresses, osmotic stress is one of the most important factors for growth and significantly reduces crop productivity in agriculture. Here, we report a function of the CaLEA1 protein in the defense responses of plants to osmotic stress. Our analyses showed that the CaLEA1 gene was strongly induced in pepper leaves exposed to drought and increased salinity. Furthermore, we determined that the CaLEA1 protein has a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA)_3 homolog domain highly conserved among other known group 5 LEA proteins and is localized in the processing body. We generated CaLEA1-silenced peppers and CaLEA1-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to evaluate their responses to dehydration and high salinity. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLEA1 in pepper plants conferred enhanced sensitivity to drought and salt stresses, which was accompanied by high levels of lipid peroxidation in dehydrated and NaCl-treated leaves. CaLEA1-OX plants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination and in the seedling stage; furthermore, these plants were more tolerant to drought and salt stress than the wild-type plants because of enhanced stomatal closure and increased expression of stress-responsive genes. Collectively, our data suggest that CaLEA1 positively regulates drought and salinity tolerance through ABA-mediated cell signaling. PMID:25302464

  17. The "Arabidopsis cax3" mutants display altered salt tolerance, pH sensitivity and reduced plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perturbing CAX1, an "Arabidopsis" vacuolar H(+)/Ca(2+) antiporter, and the related vacuolar transporter CAX3, has been previously shown to cause severe growth defects; however, the specific function of CAX3 has remained elusive. Here, we describe plant phenotypes that are shared among "cax1" and "ca...

  18. Over-Expression of SlSHN1 Gene Improves Drought Tolerance by Increasing Cuticular Wax Accumulation in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abdallat, Ayed M.; Al-Debei, Hmoud S.; Ayad, Jamal Y.; Hasan, Shireen

    2014-01-01

    Increasing cuticular wax accumulation in plants has been associated with improving drought tolerance in plants. In this study, a cDNA clone encoding the SlSHN1 transcription factor, the closest ortholog to WIN/SHN1 gene in Arabidopsis, was isolated from tomato plant. Expression analysis of SlSHN1 indicated that it is induced in response to drought conditions. The over-expression of SlSHN1 in tomato under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter produced plants that showed mild growth retardation phenotype with shiny and dark green leaves. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the over-expression of SlSHN1 in tomato resulted in higher cuticular wax deposition on leaf epidermial tissue when compared to non-transformed plants. Expression analysis in transgenic lines over-expressing SlSHN1 indicated that several wax-related synthesis genes were induced. Transgenic tomato plants over-expressing SlSHN1 showed higher drought tolerance when compared with wild type plants; this was reflected in delayed wilting of transgenic lines, improved water status and reduced water loss rate when compared with wild type plants. In conclusion, the SlSHN1 gene can modulate wax accumulation and could be utilized to enhance drought tolerance in tomato plant. PMID:25350113

  19. BODYGUARD is required for the biosynthesis of cutin in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jakobson, Liina; Lindgren, Leif Ove; Verdier, Gaëtan; Laanemets, Kristiina; Brosché, Mikael; Beisson, Fred; Kollist, Hannes

    2016-07-01

    The cuticle plays a critical role in plant survival during extreme drought conditions. There are, however, surprisingly, many gaps in our understanding of cuticle biosynthesis. An Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA mutant library was screened for mutants with enhanced transpiration using a simple condensation spot method. Five mutants, named cool breath (cb), were isolated. The cb5 mutant was found to be allelic to bodyguard (bdg), which is affected in an α/β-hydrolase fold protein important for cuticle structure. The analysis of cuticle components in cb5 (renamed as bdg-6) and another T-DNA mutant allele (bdg-7) revealed no impairment in wax synthesis, but a strong decrease in total cutin monomer load in young leaves and flowers. Root suberin content was also reduced. Overexpression of BDG increased total leaf cutin monomer content nearly four times by affecting preferentially C18 polyunsaturated ω-OH fatty acids and dicarboxylic acids. Whole-plant gas exchange analysis showed that bdg-6 had higher cuticular conductance and rate of transpiration; however, plant lines overexpressing BDG resembled the wild-type with regard to these characteristics. This study identifies BDG as an important component of the cutin biosynthesis machinery in Arabidopsis. We also show that, using BDG, cutin can be greatly modified without altering the cuticular water barrier properties and transpiration. PMID:26990896

  20. Heterologous expression of rice SUMO E3 ligase (OsSIZ1) enhances drought and heat tolerance in transgenic cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Arabidopsis gene AtSIZ1 encodes a SUMO E3 ligase that plays important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, cold, salt, and nutrient starvation. Loss of function in AtSIZ1 leads to increased sensitivity to drought, heat, and salt stresses, whereas overexpression of t...

  1. Lessons Learned While Breeding Peanut for Improved Drought Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts become contaminated with aflatoxins when subjected to prolong periods of heat and drought stress. We have documented that improved drought tolerance can result in reduced aflatoxin contamination, and we are using drought-tolerance as an indirect selection technique to develop peanut cultiva...

  2. Unique drought resistance functions of the highly ABA-induced clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs.

    PubMed

    Bhaskara, Govinal Badiger; Nguyen, Thao Thi; Verslues, Paul E

    2012-09-01

    Six Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) have established abscisic acid (ABA) signaling roles; however, phenotypic roles of the remaining three "HAI" PP2Cs, Highly ABA-Induced1 (HAI1), AKT1-Interacting PP2C1/HAI2, and HAI3, have remained unclear. HAI PP2C mutants had enhanced proline and osmoregulatory solute accumulation at low water potential, while mutants of other clade A PP2Cs had no or lesser effect on these drought resistance traits. hai1-2 also had increased expression of abiotic stress-associated genes, including dehydrins and late embryogenesis abundant proteins, but decreased expression of several defense-related genes. Conversely, the HAI PP2Cs had relatively less impact on several ABA sensitivity phenotypes. HAI PP2C single mutants were unaffected in ABA sensitivity, while double and triple mutants were moderately hypersensitive in postgermination ABA response but ABA insensitive in germination. The HAI PP2Cs interacted most strongly with PYL5 and PYL7 to -10 of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family, with PYL7 to -10 interactions being relatively little affected by ABA in yeast two-hybrid assays. HAI1 had especially limited PYL interaction. Reduced expression of the main HAI1-interacting PYLs at low water potential when HAI1 expression was strongly induced also suggests limited PYL regulation and a role of HAI1 activity in negatively regulating specific drought resistance phenotypes. Overall, the HAI PP2Cs had greatest effect on ABA-independent low water potential phenotypes and lesser effect on classical ABA sensitivity phenotypes. Both this and their distinct PYL interaction demonstrate a new level of functional differentiation among the clade A PP2Cs and a point of cross talk between ABA-dependent and ABA-independent drought-associated signaling. PMID:22829320

  3. Inheritance of the physiological traits for drought reistance under terminal drought conditions and genotypic correlations with agronomic traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding for terminal drought resistance in peanut can increase their productivity in drought-prone environments and reduce aflatoxin contamination. To improve selection efficiency for superior drought-resistant genotypes, a study of inheritance of traits is worthy, and provides useful information ...

  4. Effect of mid season drought on phenolic compounds in peanut genotypes with different levels of resistance to drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a major constraint in peanut production. Drought not only reduces pod yield but also may affect phenolic compounds in peanut. This experiment was conducted for two years under field conditions. Soil moisture levels (field capacity and mid season drought stress) were assigned as main pl...

  5. Global integrated drought monitoring and prediction system

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid; Farahmand, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Drought is by far the most costly natural disaster that can lead to widespread impacts, including water and food crises. Here we present data sets available from the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS), which provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators. The system provides meteorological and agricultural drought information based on multiple satellite-, and model-based precipitation and soil moisture data sets. GIDMaPS includes a near real-time monitoring component and a seasonal probabilistic prediction module. The data sets include historical drought severity data from the monitoring component, and probabilistic seasonal forecasts from the prediction module. The probabilistic forecasts provide essential information for early warning, taking preventive measures, and planning mitigation strategies. GIDMaPS data sets are a significant extension to current capabilities and data sets for global drought assessment and early warning. The presented data sets would be instrumental in reducing drought impacts especially in developing countries. Our results indicate that GIDMaPS data sets reliably captured several major droughts from across the globe. PMID:25977759

  6. Global integrated drought monitoring and prediction system.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid; Farahmand, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Drought is by far the most costly natural disaster that can lead to widespread impacts, including water and food crises. Here we present data sets available from the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS), which provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators. The system provides meteorological and agricultural drought information based on multiple satellite-, and model-based precipitation and soil moisture data sets. GIDMaPS includes a near real-time monitoring component and a seasonal probabilistic prediction module. The data sets include historical drought severity data from the monitoring component, and probabilistic seasonal forecasts from the prediction module. The probabilistic forecasts provide essential information for early warning, taking preventive measures, and planning mitigation strategies. GIDMaPS data sets are a significant extension to current capabilities and data sets for global drought assessment and early warning. The presented data sets would be instrumental in reducing drought impacts especially in developing countries. Our results indicate that GIDMaPS data sets reliably captured several major droughts from across the globe. PMID:25977759

  7. Proteomic responses of drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive cotton varieties to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Ni, Zhiyong; Chen, Quanjia; Guo, Zhongjun; Gao, Wenwei; Su, Xiujuan; Qu, Yanying

    2016-06-01

    Drought, one of the most widespread factors reducing agricultural crop productivity, affects biological processes such as development, architecture, flowering and senescence. Although protein analysis techniques and genome sequencing have made facilitated the proteomic study of cotton, information on genetic differences associated with proteomic changes in response to drought between different cotton genotypes is lacking. To determine the effects of drought stress on cotton seedlings, we used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to comparatively analyze proteome of drought-responsive proteins during the seedling stage in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars, drought-tolerant KK1543 and drought-sensitive Xinluzao26. A total of 110 protein spots were detected on 2-DE maps, of which 56 were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The identified proteins were mainly associated with metabolism (46.4 %), antioxidants (14.2 %), and transport and cellular structure (23.2 %). Some key proteins had significantly different expression patterns between the two genotypes. In particular, 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate-homocysteine methyltransferase, UDP-D-glucose pyrophosphorylase and ascorbate peroxidase were up-regulated in KK1543 compared with Xinluzao26. Under drought stress conditions, the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase catalytic subunit, a 14-3-3g protein, translation initiation factor 5A and pathogenesis-related protein 10 were up-regulated in KK1543, whereas ribosomal protein S12, actin, cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, protein disulfide isomerase, S-adenosylmethionine synthase and cysteine synthase were down-regulated in Xinluzao26. This work represents the first characterization of proteomic changes that occur in response to drought in roots of cotton plants. These differentially expressed proteins may be related to

  8. Advancing Drought Understanding, Monitoring and Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mariotti, Annarita; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Mo, Kingtse; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Wood, Andy; Pulwarty, Roger; Huang, Jin; Barrie, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Having the capacity to monitor droughts in near-real time and providing accurate drought prediction from weeks to seasons in advance can greatly reduce the severity of social and economic damage caused by drought, a leading natural hazard for North America. The congressional mandate to establish the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS; Public Law 109-430) in 2006 was a major impulse to develop, integrate, and provide drought information to meet the challenges posed by this hazard. Significant progress has been made on many fronts. On the research front, efforts by the broad scientific community have resulted in improved understanding of North American droughts and improved monitoring and forecasting tools. We now have a better understanding of the droughts of the twentieth century including the 1930s "Dust Bowl"; we have developed a broader array of tools and datasets that enhance the official North American Drought Monitor based on different methodologies such as state-of-the-art land surface modeling (e.g., the North American Land Data Assimilation System) and remote sensing (e.g., the evaporative stress index) to better characterize the occurrence and severity of drought in its multiple manifestations. In addition, we have new tools for drought prediction [including the new National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System, version 2, for operational prediction and an experimental National Multimodel Ensemble] and have explored diverse methodologies including ensemble hydrologic prediction approaches. Broad NIDIS-inspired progress is influencing the development of a Global Drought Information System (GDIS) under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program. Despite these advances, current drought monitoring and forecasting capabilities still fall short of users' needs, especially the need for skillful and reliable drought forecasts at regional and local scales. To tackle this outstanding challenging problem

  9. Understanding the phenomenon of drought

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, D.A. )

    1993-08-01

    As the demands placed on water resources increase, society and industry become more vulnerable to the effects of drought. Having a better understanding of drought can enable hydroelectric project owners, operators, and developers to improve their planning for future drought risks. This article describes drought in general as part of the climate, causes and predictability of drought, and the effects of drought.

  10. Stress physiology functions of the Arabidopsis histidine kinase cytokinin receptors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Nagaraj; Verslues, Paul E

    2015-07-01

    Cytokinin signaling has complex effects on abiotic stress responses that remain to be fully elucidated. The Arabidopsis histidine kinases (AHKs), AHK2, AHK3 and CRE1 (cytokinin response1/AHK4) are the principle cytokinin receptors of Arabidopsis. Using a set of ahk mutants, we found dramatic differences in response to low water potential and salt stress among the AHKs. ahk3-3 mutants had increased root elongation after transfer to low water potential media. Conversely ahk2-2 was hypersensitive to salt stress in terms of root growth and fresh weight and accumulated higher than wild-type levels of proline specifically under salt stress. Strongly reduced proline accumulation in ahk double mutants after low water potential treatment indicated a more general role of cytokinin signaling in proline metabolism. Reduced P5CS1 (Δ(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase1) gene expression may have contributed to this reduced proline accumulation. Low water potential phenotypes of ahk mutants were not caused by altered abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation as all ahk mutants had wild-type ABA levels, despite the observation that ahk double mutants had reduced NCED3 (9-cis-epoxycartenoid dioxygenase3) expression when exposed to low water potential. No difference in osmoregulatory solute accumulation was detected in any of the ahk mutants indicating that they do not affect drought responsive osmotic adjustment. Overall, our examination of ahk mutants found specific phenotypes associated with AHK2 and AHK3 as well as a general function of cytokinin signaling in proline accumulation and low water potential induction of P5CS1 and NCED3 expression. These results show the stress physiology function of AHKs at a new level of detail. PMID:25263537

  11. Plant Stress Indicates Drought

    NASA Video Gallery

    Farmers across America rely on early drought warning systems to manage their crops. Americans everywhere rely on those farmers to provide food. A new drought tracking system called ESI helps by mon...

  12. Drought-induced increase in water-use efficiency reduces secondary tree growth and tracheid wall thickness in a Mediterranean conifer.

    PubMed

    Olano, José Miguel; Linares, Juan Carlos; García-Cervigón, Ana I; Arzac, Alberto; Delgado, Antonio; Rozas, Vicente

    2014-09-01

    In order to understand the impact of drought and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) on tree growth, we evaluated the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of water availability on secondary growth and xylem anatomy of Juniperus thurifera, a Mediterranean anisohydric conifer. Dendrochronological techniques, quantitative xylem anatomy, and (13)C/(12)C isotopic ratio were combined to develop standardized chronologies for iWUE, BAI (basal area increment), and anatomical variables on a 40-year-long annually resolved series for 20 trees. We tested the relationship between iWUE and secondary growth at short-term (annual) and long-term (decadal) temporal scales to evaluate whether gains in iWUE may lead to increases in secondary growth. We obtained a positive long-term correlation between iWUE and BAI, simultaneously with a negative short-term correlation between them. Furthermore, BAI and iWUE were correlated with anatomical traits related to carbon sink or storage (tracheid wall thickness and ray parenchyma amount), but no significant correlation with conductive traits (tracheid lumen) was found. Water availability during the growing season significantly modulated tree growth at the xylem level, where growth rates and wood anatomical traits were affected by June precipitation. Our results are consistent with a drought-induced limitation of tree growth response to rising CO2, despite the trend of rising iWUE being maintained. We also remark the usefulness of exploring this relationship at different temporal scales to fully understand the actual links between iWUE and secondary growth dynamics. PMID:24958369

  13. Plastid Osmotic Stress Activates Cellular Stress Responses in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Margaret E.; Basu, Meera R.; Bhaskara, Govinal Badiger; Verslues, Paul E.; Haswell, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about cytoplasmic osmoregulatory mechanisms in plants, and even less is understood about how the osmotic properties of the cytoplasm and organelles are coordinately regulated. We have previously shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants lacking functional versions of the plastid-localized mechanosensitive ion channels Mechanosensitive Channel of Small Conductance-Like2 (MSL2) and MSL3 contain leaf epidermal plastids under hypoosmotic stress, even during normal growth and development. Here, we use the msl2 msl3 mutant as a model to investigate the cellular response to constitutive plastid osmotic stress. Under unstressed conditions, msl2 msl3 seedlings exhibited several hallmarks of drought or environmental osmotic stress, including solute accumulation, elevated levels of the compatible osmolyte proline (Pro), and accumulation of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Furthermore, msl2 msl3 mutants expressed Pro and ABA metabolism genes in a pattern normally seen under drought or osmotic stress. Pro accumulation in the msl2 msl3 mutant was suppressed by conditions that reduce plastid osmotic stress or inhibition of ABA biosynthesis. Finally, treatment of unstressed msl2 msl3 plants with exogenous ABA elicited a much greater Pro accumulation response than in the wild type, similar to that observed in plants under drought or osmotic stress. These results suggest that osmotic imbalance across the plastid envelope can elicit a response similar to that elicited by osmotic imbalance across the plasma membrane and provide evidence for the integration of the osmotic state of an organelle into that of the cell in which it resides. PMID:24676856

  14. Indole-3-butyric acid synthesis in ecotypes and mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2007-01-01

    Although IBA is a naturally occurring auxin, its role in plant development is still under debate. In this study a set of Arabidopsis mutants was used to analyze the biosynthesis of IBA in vitro. The mutants chosen for this study can be classified as: (1) involvement in auxin metabolism, transport or synthesis (amt1, aux1, ilr1, nit1, rib1, sur1, trp1-100); (2) other hormones possibly involved in the regulation of IBA synthesis (aba1, aba3, eto2, fae1, hls1, jar1); (3) photomorphogenesis (det1, det2, det3); and (4) root architecture (cob1, cob2, scr1). In addition, two transgenic lines overexpressing the IAA glucose synthase (iaglu) gene from maize were analyzed. The ecotypes No-0 and Wassilewskija showed the highest IBA synthetase activity under control conditions, followed by Columbia, Enkheim and Landsberg erecta. In the mutant lines IBA synthetase activity differed in most cases from the wild type, however no particular pattern of up- or down-regulation, which could be correlated to their possible function, was found. For rib1 mutant seedlings it was tested whether reduced IBA synthetase activity correlates with the endogenous IBA levels. Free IBA differed only depending on the culture conditions, but gave no clear correlation with IBA synthetase activity compared to the wild type. Since drought and osmotic stress as well as abscisic acid (ABA) application enhanced IBA synthesis in maize, it was tested whether IBA synthetase from Arabidopsis is also inducible by drought stress conditions. This was confirmed for the two ecotypes Col and Ler which showed different IBA synthetase activity when cultivated with various degrees of drought stress. IBA synthetase was also determined in photomorphogenic mutants under different light regimes. Induction of IBA synthetase in det1 and det3 plants was found under short day plus a red light pulse or in the dark, respectively. The results are discussed with respect to the functions of the mutated genes. PMID:16325963

  15. Drought resistant sugar beets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Increased water demands and drought have resulted in a need to indentify crop hybrids that are drought tolerant, requiring less irrigation to sustain yields. This study was conducted to assess differences in drought tolerance among a group of genetically diverse sugarbeet hybrids...

  16. Evaluation of groundwater droughts in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Johannes Christoph; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Droughts are abnormally dry periods that affect various aspects of human life on earth, ranging from negative impacts on agriculture or industry, to being the cause for conflict and loss of human life. The changing climate reinforces the importance of investigations into this phenomenon. Various methods to analyze and classify droughts have been developed. These include drought indices such as the Standard Precipitation Index SPI, the Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI or the Crop Moisture Index CMI. These and other indices consider meteorological parameters and/or their effects on soil moisture. A depletion of soil moisture triggered by low precipitation and high evapotranspiration may also cause reduced groundwater recharge and thus decreasing groundwater levels and reduced groundwater flow to springs, streams, and wetlands. However, the existing indices were generally not designed to address such drought effects on groundwater. Thus, a Standardized Groundwater level Index has recently been proposed by Bloomfied and Marchant (2013). Yet, to our knowledge, this approach has only been applied to consolidated aquifers in the UK. This work analyzes time series of groundwater levels from various, mostly unconsolidated aquifers in Austria in order to characterize the effects of droughts on aquifers in different hydrogeologic and climatic settings as well as under different usage scenarios. In particular, comparisons are made between the water rich Alpine parts of Austria, and the dryer parts situated in the East. The time series of groundwater levels are compared to other data, such as meteorological time series and written weather records about generally accepted phenomena, such as the 2003 European drought and heat wave. Thus, valuable insight is gained into the propagation of meteorological droughts through the soil and the aquifer in different types of hydrogeologic and climatic settings, which provides a prerequisite for the assessment of the aquifers' drought

  17. Loss of the ETR1 ethylene receptor reduces the inhibitory effect of far-red light and darkness on seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rebecca L; Bakshi, Arkadipta; Binder, Brad M

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to far-red light followed by darkness, wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seeds fail to germinate or germinate very poorly. We have previously shown that the ethylene receptor ETR1 (ETHYLENE RESPONSE1) inhibits and ETR2 stimulates seed germination of Arabidopsis during salt stress. This function of ETR1 requires the full-length receptor. These roles are independent of ethylene levels and sensitivity and are mainly mediated by a change in abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity. In the current study we find that etr1-6 and etr1-7 loss-of-function mutant seeds germinate better than wild-type seeds after illumination with far-red light or when germinated in the dark indicating an inhibitory role for ETR1. Surprisingly, this function of ETR1 does not require the receiver domain. No differences between these mutants and wild-type are seen when germination proceeds after treatment with white, blue, green, or red light. Loss of any of the other four ethylene receptor isoforms has no measurable effect on germination after far-red light treatment. An analysis of the transcript abundance for genes encoding ABA and gibberellic acid (GA) metabolic enzymes indicates that etr1-6 mutants may produce more GA and less ABA than wild-type seeds after illumination with far-red light which correlates with the better germination of the mutants. Epistasis analysis suggests that ETR1 may genetically interact with the phytochromes (phy), PHYA and PHYB to control germination and growth. This study shows that of the five ethylene receptor isoforms in Arabidopsis, ETR1 has a unique role in modulating the effects of red and far-red light on plant growth and development. PMID:25221561

  18. Zambia: drought in Monze.

    PubMed

    Foster, S

    1992-08-22

    In Monze District, Zambia, the population must face the drought of 1991-92, corridor disease (tick-borne East Coast fever), and AIDS. The Ministry of Agriculture in Lusaka acted quick in securing available world stocks in maize which are being targeted to households most at risk of starvation. Food and other interventions are also being targeted to AIDS families to help avoid family breakup and economic ruin. The tradition is that a dead man's relatives may seize belongings, even cooking pots, which may mean the widow and children are left with no means of support. This situation occurs in Monze District despite legislation prohibiting the claiming of possessions. Women are in a difficult position as both planters and weeders of maize and as caretakers of the ill AIDS patients. Men caring for the sick or taking over women's work is necessary in order to prevent a labor shortage for the production of maize. Stocks of mealie meal are needed for families until the next harvest. Seed will be needed in October for planting. With adequate rain, agriculture could return to normal in 1-2 years, unless the impact of AIDS is significant. It is worrisome because 33% of families are expected to have had 1 family member who dies from AIDS by 1997. At present in a population of 160,000, 3600 cases of AIDS have appeared. In adjusting to the drought, the population has had to sell off livestock and their main assets, which has depressed the market value. In addition, 33% of the animals in the southern district have died from corridor disease. The loss of trained oxen will affect ploughing next year. Relief maize is the only hope for subsistence farmers with little or no money, no food in the granary, and no prospect for improvement. Wealthy farmers have had their difficulties also. One man borrowed money to buy fertilizer and maize seed and lost his investment. Maize seed production has been reduced by 50% as a result of the drought, although government authorities have reassured

  19. How useful are meteorological drought indicators to assess agricultural drought impacts across Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmair, Sophie; Tanguy, Maliko; Hannaford, Jamie; Stahl, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Drought monitoring and early warning (M&EW) is an important component of agricultural and silvicultural risk management. Meteorological indicators such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are widely used in operational M&EW systems and for drought hazard assessment. Meteorological drought yet does not necessarily equate to agricultural drought given differences in drought susceptibility, e.g. crop-specific vulnerability, soil water holding capacity, irrigation and other management practices. How useful are meteorological indicators such as SPI to assess agricultural drought? Would the inclusion of vegetation indicators into drought M&EW systems add value for the agricultural sector? To answer these questions, it is necessary to investigate the link between meteorological indicators and agricultural impacts of drought. Crop yield or loss data is one source of information for drought impacts, yet mostly available as aggregated data at the annual scale. Remotely sensed vegetation stress data offer another possibility to directly assess agricultural impacts with high spatial and temporal resolution and are already used by some M&EW systems. At the same time, reduced crop yield and satellite-based vegetation stress potentially suffer from multi-causality. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the relation between meteorological drought indicators and agricultural drought impacts for Europe, and to intercompare different agricultural impact variables. As drought indicators we used SPI and the Standardized Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI) for different accumulation periods. The focus regarding drought impact variables was on remotely sensed vegetation stress derived from MODIS NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and LST (Land Surface Temperature) data, but the analysis was complemented with crop yield data and text-based information from the European Drought Impact report Inventory (EDII) for selected countries. A correlation analysis

  20. Global Drought Watch from Space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix N.

    1997-04-01

    Drought is the most damaging environmental phenomenon. During 1967-91, droughts affected 50% of the 2.8 billion people who suffered from weather-related disasters. Since droughts cover large areas, it is difficult to monitor them using conventional systems. In recent years the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has designed a new Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer- (AVHRR) based Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI), which have been useful in detecting and monitoring large area, drought-related vegetation stress. The VCI was derived from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which is the ratio of the difference between AVHRR-measured near-infrared and visible reflectance to their sum. The TCI was derived from the 10.3-11.3-mm AVHRR-measured radiances, converted to brightness temperature (BT). Algorithms were developed to reduce the noise and to adjust NDVI and BT for land surface nonhomogeneity. The VCI and TCI are used to determine the water- and temperature-related vegetation stress occuring during drought. This paper provides the principles of these indices, describes data processing, and gives examples of VCI-TCI applications in different ecological environments of the world. The results presented here are the first attempt to use both NDVI and thermal channels on a large area with very diversified ecological resources. The application of VCI and TCI are illustrated and validated by in situ measurements. These indices were also used for assessment of drought impact on regional agricultural production in South America, Africa, Asia, North America, and Europe. For this purpose, the average VCI-TCI values for a given region and for each week of the growing season were calculated and compared with yields of agricultural crops. The results showed a very strong correlation between these indices and yield, particularly during the critical periods of crop growth.

  1. Avoiding Drought Risks and Social Conflict Under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towler, E.; Lazrus, H.; Paimazumder, D.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional drought research has mainly focused on physical drought risks and less on the cultural processes that also contribute to how drought risks are perceived and managed. However, as society becomes more vulnerable to drought and climate change threatens to increase water scarcity, it is clear that drought research would benefit from a more interdisciplinary approach. To assess avoided drought impacts from reduced climate change, drought risks need to be assessed in the context of both climate prediction as well as improved understanding of socio-cultural processes. To this end, this study explores a risk-based framework to combine physical drought likelihoods with perceived risks from stakeholder interviews. Results are presented from a case study on how stakeholders in south-central Oklahoma perceive drought risks given diverse cultural beliefs, water uses, and uncertainties in future drought prediction. Stakeholder interviews (n=38) were conducted in 2012 to understand drought risks to various uses of water, as well as to measure worldviews from the cultural theory of risk - a theory that explains why people perceive risks differently, potentially leading to conflict over management decisions. For physical drought risk, drought projections are derived from a large ensemble of future climates generated from two RCPs that represent higher and lower emissions trajectories (i.e., RCP8.5 and RCP4.5). These are used to develop a Combined Drought Risk Matrix (CDRM) that characterizes drought risks for different water uses as the products of both physical likelihood (from the climate ensemble) and risk perception (from the interviews). We use the CRDM to explore the avoided drought risks posed to various water uses, as well as to investigate the potential for reduction of conflict over water management.

  2. Advances in European drought research efforts and related research networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallaksen, Lena; van Lanen, Henny

    2010-05-01

    Drought is a complex phenomenon with wide-ranging socio-economic and environmental impacts; still drought research and operational applications like drought monitoring and forecasting, have been lagging behind the development in flood-related research. However, recently several drought research projects and networks have emerged in Europe, partly in response to the occurrence of a series of dry and hot summers in the 21st century, notable the record breaking 2003 event covering large part of central Europe. These events were a strong reminder of Europe's vulnerability to drought and neither were forecasted. Meteorological drought is caused by regional or meso- (synoptic) scale spatial and temporal anomalies in the climatic system, which control the natural short- and long term variability in drought occurrence. However, climate forcing by synoptic scale conditions is not the only cause of drought, also various regional land-surface feedbacks through soil moisture and vegetation, concur to amplify dry weather and high summer temperatures. A deficit in the climatic water balance may affect all components of the hydrological cycle through a reduction in soil moisture, groundwater and surface water and subsequently, reduced water availability. Understanding how a climate water deficiency propagates through the hydrological system and its feedbacks to the atmosphere is crucial to develop drought mitigation and adaptation plans. Moreover, it is the basis for early warning and forecasting of hydrological drought (groundwater and surface water). A review of drought studies from the 20th century suggests that drought in Europe has occurred more frequently in the latter part of the century, partly enhanced by higher temperatures. However, the scientific understanding of the driving forces behind large-scale droughts is incomplete and further complicated by insufficient knowledge about long-term (decadal and millennial) natural variability. Moreover, the role of the physical

  3. Drought Frequency Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Valdes, J. B.

    2003-04-01

    Droughts are related with prolonged time periods during moisture is significantly below normal situation. Drought indexes try to scale the main drought features based on similar definitions. The Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is a well-known index, which for a given aggregation-time measures the deviation from the normality of the precipitation. One of the SPI weak points in the representation of drought phenomenon is that drought duration should be analyzed by using different aggregation-times. In this work, a new index is presented, which simultaneously characterize droughts based on the deviation from the normal precipitation regime and the drought persistence, both from the statistical point of view. The new index does not require aggregation at different time-lengths. Instead droughts are treated as multivariate events, whose dimensionality depends on the duration. Probabilistic events with different dimensionalities are compared on a common dimension of interest. In this case the dimension chosen is the mean frequency of recurrence. The derived index, named Drought Frequency Index (DFI) may be used to characterize historical droughts or current situation. It can be apply not only over precipitation but also over flows or other hydroclimatic variables. The new index was applied to several places in USA and Spain both for precipitation and flow historical sequences, and compared with SPI. The DFI allows the representation of the main drought characteristics in a single value, based on the stochastic feature of the phenomenon, and scaled on the mean frequency of recurrence.

  4. Drought impacts in the New York City metropolitan area: A comparison of impacts between 1995 and other recent droughts

    SciTech Connect

    DeGaetano, A.T.

    1997-11-01

    This study is intended to provide information on drought impact on the major cities in the northeastern US. The effects of the 1995 drought on water resources, electric utilities, agriculture, forestry, recreation, and retail sales are analyzed for New York City and surrounding counties. Water resource related impacts associated with the most recent drought are also compared with those that occurred during the prolonged mid-1960s drought and shorter drought periods in the early and mid-1980s. The assessment of drought impacts from the 1995 drought in the New York metropolitan area showed the influence of this drought on water resources to be relatively minor with the exception of some show ground water problems and reduced flow on the Hudson River. There were also negative impacts on non-irrigated agriculture and fire prevention/control operations. In general, these impacts were relatively minor in comparison with prior droughts. Based on the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and precipitation deficit, a temporal comparison of droughts in New York City with respect to water supply indicates a general delay in the occurrence of drought impacts and responses. This may be a result of improved efforts to promote water conservation within the city or a reflection of increased reservoir capacity coupled with a declining urban population. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Chemically Induced Conditional Rescue of the Reduced Epidermal Fluorescence8 Mutant of Arabidopsis Reveals Rapid Restoration of Growth and Selective Turnover of Secondary Metabolite Pools1[C][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Im; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Chapple, Clint; Li, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse and important secondary metabolites including lignin and flavonoids. The reduced epidermal fluorescence8 (ref8) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is defective in a lignin biosynthetic enzyme p-coumaroyl shikimate 3′-hydroxylase (C3′H), exhibits severe dwarfism and sterility. To better understand the impact of perturbation of phenylpropanoid metabolism on plant growth, we generated a chemically inducible C3′H expression construct and transformed it into the ref8 mutant. Application of dexamethasone to these plants greatly alleviates the dwarfism and sterility and substantially reverses the biochemical phenotypes of ref8 plants, including the reduction of lignin content and hyperaccumulation of flavonoids and p-coumarate esters. Induction of C3′H expression at different developmental stages has distinct impacts on plant growth. Although early induction effectively restored the elongation of primary inflorescence stem, application to 7-week-old plants enabled them to produce new rosette inflorescence stems. Examination of hypocotyls of these plants revealed normal vasculature in the newly formed secondary xylem, presumably restoring water transport in the mutant. The ref8 mutant accumulates higher levels of salicylic acid than the wild type, but depletion of this compound in ref8 did not relieve the mutant’s growth defects, suggesting that the hyperaccumulation of salicylic acid is unlikely to be responsible for dwarfism in this mutant. PMID:24381065

  6. Functional characterization of a higher plant sphingolipid Delta4-desaturase: defining the role of sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Louise V; Zäuner, Simone; Markham, Jonathan E; Haslam, Richard P; Desikan, Radhika; Mugford, Sarah; Albrecht, Sandra; Warnecke, Dirk; Sperling, Petra; Heinz, E; Napier, Johnathan A

    2009-01-01

    The role of Delta4-unsaturated sphingolipid long-chain bases such as sphingosine was investigated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Identification and functional characterization of the sole Arabidopsis ortholog of the sphingolipid Delta4-desaturase was achieved by heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. A P. pastoris mutant disrupted in the endogenous sphingolipid Delta4-desaturase gene was unable to synthesize glucosylceramides. Synthesis of glucosylceramides was restored by the expression of Arabidopsis gene At4g04930, and these sphingolipids were shown to contain Delta4-unsaturated long-chain bases, confirming that this open reading frame encodes the sphingolipid Delta4-desaturase. At4g04930 has a very restricted expression pattern, transcripts only being detected in pollen and floral tissues. Arabidopsis insertion mutants disrupted in the sphingolipid Delta4-desaturase At4g04930 were isolated and found to be phenotypically normal. Sphingolipidomic profiling of a T-DNA insertion mutant indicated the absence of Delta4-unsaturated sphingolipids in floral tissue, also resulting in the reduced accumulation of glucosylceramides. No difference in the response to drought or water loss was observed between wild-type plants and insertion mutants disrupted in the sphingolipid Delta4-desaturase At4g04930, nor was any difference observed in stomatal closure after treatment with abscisic acid. No differences in pollen viability between wild-type plants and insertion mutants were detected. Based on these observations, it seems unlikely that Delta4-unsaturated sphingolipids and their metabolites such as sphingosine-1-phosphate play a significant role in Arabidopsis growth and development. However, Delta4-unsaturated ceramides may play a previously unrecognized role in the channeling of substrates for the synthesis of glucosylceramides. PMID:18978071

  7. Functional Characterization of a Higher Plant Sphingolipid Δ4-Desaturase: Defining the Role of Sphingosine and Sphingosine-1-Phosphate in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, Louise V.; Zäuner, Simone; Markham, Jonathan E.; Haslam, Richard P.; Desikan, Radhika; Mugford, Sarah; Albrecht, Sandra; Warnecke, Dirk; Sperling, Petra; Heinz, E.; Napier, Johnathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of Δ4-unsaturated sphingolipid long-chain bases such as sphingosine was investigated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Identification and functional characterization of the sole Arabidopsis ortholog of the sphingolipid Δ4-desaturase was achieved by heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. A P. pastoris mutant disrupted in the endogenous sphingolipid Δ4-desaturase gene was unable to synthesize glucosylceramides. Synthesis of glucosylceramides was restored by the expression of Arabidopsis gene At4g04930, and these sphingolipids were shown to contain Δ4-unsaturated long-chain bases, confirming that this open reading frame encodes the sphingolipid Δ4-desaturase. At4g04930 has a very restricted expression pattern, transcripts only being detected in pollen and floral tissues. Arabidopsis insertion mutants disrupted in the sphingolipid Δ4-desaturase At4g04930 were isolated and found to be phenotypically normal. Sphingolipidomic profiling of a T-DNA insertion mutant indicated the absence of Δ4-unsaturated sphingolipids in floral tissue, also resulting in the reduced accumulation of glucosylceramides. No difference in the response to drought or water loss was observed between wild-type plants and insertion mutants disrupted in the sphingolipid Δ4-desaturase At4g04930, nor was any difference observed in stomatal closure after treatment with abscisic acid. No differences in pollen viability between wild-type plants and insertion mutants were detected. Based on these observations, it seems unlikely that Δ4-unsaturated sphingolipids and their metabolites such as sphingosine-1-phosphate play a significant role in Arabidopsis growth and development. However, Δ4-unsaturated ceramides may play a previously unrecognized role in the channeling of substrates for the synthesis of glucosylceramides. PMID:18978071

  8. Overexpression of MuHSP70 gene from Macrotyloma uniflorum confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2016-02-01

    A 70-KD heat shock protein (HSP70) is one of the most conserved chaperones. It is involved in de novo protein folding and prevents the aggregation of unfolded proteins under lethal environmental factors. The purpose of this study is to characterise a MuHSP70 from horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) and elucidating its role in stress tolerance of plants. A MuHSP70 was cloned and characterised from a natural drought stress tolerant HPK4 variety of horsegram (M. uniflorum). For functional characterization, MuHSP70 was overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. Overexpression of MuHSP70 was found to provide tolerance to the transgenic Arabidopsis against various stresses such as heat, cold, drought, salinity and oxidative stress. MuHSP70 transgenics were observed to maintain the shoot biomass, root length, relative water content, and chlorophyll content during exposure to multi-stresses relative to non-transgenic control. Transgenic lines have further shown the reduced levels of MDA, H2O2, and proteolytic activity. Together, these findings suggest that overexpression of MuHSP70 plays an important role in improving abiotic stress tolerance and could be a crucial candidate gene for exploration in crop improvement program. PMID:26694324

  9. The 2009/2010 Caribbean drought: a case study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Everson J

    2015-10-01

    The impacts of drought in the Caribbean have not been as dramatic as in some other parts of world, but it is not exempt from the experiences of drought. As a result of the effects of a prolonged drought in 2009/2010, the agenda for the 21st Inter-Sessional Meeting of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) paid particular attention to the issue of drought. This paper reviews the management framework for responding to drought disasters in five CARICOM countries. The paper also reports on some of the effects of the 2009/2010 drought with particular reference to Grenada and the Grenadines. During the drought in these islands there were numerous bush fires with devastating effects on agriculture, severe water shortages that impacted on the tourism industry and other social effects. It is evident that there was inadequate preparation for the event. Greater planning and investment are therefore required to reduce future impacts. PMID:25754334

  10. Unique Drought Resistance Functions of the Highly ABA-Induced Clade A Protein Phosphatase 2Cs1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskara, Govinal Badiger; Nguyen, Thao Thi; Verslues, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Six Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) have established abscisic acid (ABA) signaling roles; however, phenotypic roles of the remaining three “HAI” PP2Cs, Highly ABA-Induced1 (HAI1), AKT1-Interacting PP2C1/HAI2, and HAI3, have remained unclear. HAI PP2C mutants had enhanced proline and osmoregulatory solute accumulation at low water potential, while mutants of other clade A PP2Cs had no or lesser effect on these drought resistance traits. hai1-2 also had increased expression of abiotic stress-associated genes, including dehydrins and late embryogenesis abundant proteins, but decreased expression of several defense-related genes. Conversely, the HAI PP2Cs had relatively less impact on several ABA sensitivity phenotypes. HAI PP2C single mutants were unaffected in ABA sensitivity, while double and triple mutants were moderately hypersensitive in postgermination ABA response but ABA insensitive in germination. The HAI PP2Cs interacted most strongly with PYL5 and PYL7 to -10 of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family, with PYL7 to -10 interactions being relatively little affected by ABA in yeast two-hybrid assays. HAI1 had especially limited PYL interaction. Reduced expression of the main HAI1-interacting PYLs at low water potential when HAI1 expression was strongly induced also suggests limited PYL regulation and a role of HAI1 activity in negatively regulating specific drought resistance phenotypes. Overall, the HAI PP2Cs had greatest effect on ABA-independent low water potential phenotypes and lesser effect on classical ABA sensitivity phenotypes. Both this and their distinct PYL interaction demonstrate a new level of functional differentiation among the clade A PP2Cs and a point of cross talk between ABA-dependent and ABA-independent drought-associated signaling. PMID:22829320

  11. Drought Definitions Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A.; Van Lanen, H.; Gleeson, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is commonly defined as a temporary lack of water compared to normal conditions. In the traditional definition used in the natural sciences (climate science, hydrology, earth science) only natural drivers are included and the human effect on water resources is excluded. Drought impact studies, however, using observed crop yields, wildfire data, reservoir information, etc., can hardy make this division. The interdisciplinarity of drought asks for a broader definition that considers the interplay between the hazard, impacts and management. In the IPCC-SREX report definitional issues are mentioned as one of the reasons that no clear conclusions can be drawn about historic and future changes in drought. Human activities related to drought are mentioned by IPCC, but not included in their definition of drought. In the anthropocene the human aspects of drought can no longer be neglected. The IAHS Panta Rhei initiative, for example, urges hydrologists to include the connection with human systems. We propose a paradigm shift in the definition of drought, namely to expand it to include the effects of human action. For attribution we can then distinguish between climate-induced drought and human-induced drought. In this presentation, we will present a conceptual diagram that will do justice to the interdisciplinarity of drought. We will discuss issues of variability and change, scale (both temporal and spatial scales), feedbacks, and direct and indirect anthropogenic effects. The revised definition provides recognition and a common ground to researchers in all fields of research and is better aligned with drought impacts and with stakeholders' and policy maker's views on drought.

  12. Expression analysis in response to drought stress in soybean: Shedding light on the regulation of metabolic pathway genes.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Dias, Fábia; Neves-Borges, Anna Cristina; Viana, Antonio Americo Barbosa; Mesquita, Rosilene Oliveira; Romano, Eduardo; de Fátima Grossi-de-Sá, Maria; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio

    2012-06-01

    Metabolomics analysis of wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants, under control and drought stress conditions revealed several metabolic pathways that are induced under water deficit. The metabolic response to drought stress is also associated with ABA dependent and independent pathways, allowing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in this model plant. Through combining an in silico approach and gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR, the present work aims at identifying genes of soybean metabolic pathways potentially associated with water deficit. Digital expression patterns of Arabidopsis genes, which were selected based on the basis of literature reports, were evaluated under drought stress condition by Genevestigator. Genes that showed strong induction under drought stress were selected and used as bait to identify orthologs in the soybean genome. This allowed us to select 354 genes of putative soybean orthologs of 79 Arabidopsis genes belonging to 38 distinct metabolic pathways. The expression pattern of the selected genes was verified in the subtractive libraries available in the GENOSOJA project. Subsequently, 13 genes from different metabolic pathways were selected for validation by qPCR experiments. The expression of six genes was validated in plants undergoing drought stress in both pot-based and hydroponic cultivation systems. The results suggest that the metabolic response to drought stress is conserved in Arabidopsis and soybean plants. PMID:22802708

  13. Expression analysis in response to drought stress in soybean: Shedding light on the regulation of metabolic pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães-Dias, Fábia; Neves-Borges, Anna Cristina; Viana, Antonio Americo Barbosa; Mesquita, Rosilene Oliveira; Romano, Eduardo; de Fátima Grossi-de-Sá, Maria; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics analysis of wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants, under control and drought stress conditions revealed several metabolic pathways that are induced under water deficit. The metabolic response to drought stress is also associated with ABA dependent and independent pathways, allowing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in this model plant. Through combining an in silico approach and gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR, the present work aims at identifying genes of soybean metabolic pathways potentially associated with water deficit. Digital expression patterns of Arabidopsis genes, which were selected based on the basis of literature reports, were evaluated under drought stress condition by Genevestigator. Genes that showed strong induction under drought stress were selected and used as bait to identify orthologs in the soybean genome. This allowed us to select 354 genes of putative soybean orthologs of 79 Arabidopsis genes belonging to 38 distinct metabolic pathways. The expression pattern of the selected genes was verified in the subtractive libraries available in the GENOSOJA project. Subsequently, 13 genes from different metabolic pathways were selected for validation by qPCR experiments. The expression of six genes was validated in plants undergoing drought stress in both pot-based and hydroponic cultivation systems. The results suggest that the metabolic response to drought stress is conserved in Arabidopsis and soybean plants. PMID:22802708

  14. A Look into the National Drought Mitigation Center: Providing 15 Years of Drought Services (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, M. D.; Hayes, M. J.; Knutson, C. L.; Wardlow, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) was formed in 1995 at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Over the past 15 years, the NDMC has made it a priority to work with various local, state, tribal and federal entities to provide a suite of drought/climate services, with a goal of bringing research to fruition through applications and operations. Through our research and outreach projects, the NDMC has worked to reduce risk to drought by developing several mitigation strategies, monitoring and decision making tools and other services aimed at enhancing our nation’s capacity to cope with drought. Two of the earliest NDMC activities were the creation of a website and assessing drought conditions around the United States. An electronic drought clearinghouse was built in 1995 at drought.unl.edu. The site was designed, and still concentrates, on the concepts of drought monitoring, planning, and mitigation and also serves as a repository of information from around the world. The NDMC’s electronic quarterly newsletter, DroughtScape, disseminates information about all things drought to people across the country. In addition, the NDMC has developed and is home to websites for the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), Drought Impact Reporter (DIR), and the Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI). In an effort to inform decision makers, the NDMC continually pursues ways to raise the awareness and visibility of drought as one of the most costly hazards we face. This began in the mid-1990s with the creation of a state-based drought impact assessment map that would help lead to the formation of the USDM in 1999 and the DIR in 2005. The NDMC plays a key role in producing the weekly USDM and the monthly North American Drought Monitor (NADM). The USDM was created out of collaborations between the NDMC, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and has quickly become one of the most widely used products in assessing

  15. Drought, Climate Change and Potential Agricultural Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Caylor, K. K.; Wood, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a major factor in agricultural productivity, especially in developing regions where the capacity for water resources management is limited and climate variability ensures that drought is recurrent and problematic. Recent events in East Africa are testament to this, where drought conditions that have slowly developed over multiple years have contributed to reduced productivity and ultimately food crises and famine. Prospects for the future are not promising given ongoing problems of dwindling water supplies from non-renewable sources and the potential for increased water scarcity and increased drought with climate change. This is set against the expected increase in population by over 2 billion people by 2050 and rise in food demand, coupled with changes in demographics that affect food choices and increases in non-food agriculture. In this talk we discuss the global variability of drought over the 20th century and recent years, and the projected changes over the 21st century, and how this translates into changes in potential agricultural productivity. Drought is quantified using land surface hydrological models driven by a hybrid reanalysis-observational meteorological forcing dataset. Drought is defined in terms of anomalies of hydroclimatic variables, in particular precipitation, evaporation and soil moisture, and we calculate changes in various drought characteristics. Potential agricultural productivity is derived from the balance of precipitation to crop water demand, where demand is based on potential evaporation and crop coefficients for a range of staple crops. Some regional examples are shown of historic variations in drought and potential productivity, and the estimated water deficit for various crops. The multitude of events over the past decade, including heat waves in Europe, fires in Russia, long-term drought in northern China, southeast Australia, the Western US and a series of droughts in the Amazon and Argentina, hint at the influence of

  16. Dealing with drought: Securing nitrogen with cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This year the drought in the Midwest has significantly reduced the growth and yield of all crops. When the growth of the cash crop has been reduced by drought or any other cause it is important to remember that more nitrogent than normal will remain in the soil after harvest. This nitrogen will be v...

  17. Pleiotropic effects of TaMYB3R1 on plant development and response to osmotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongsheng; Tian, Shan; Dong, Hansong; Guo, Changhong

    2015-03-10

    In a previous study, we isolated and characterized TaMYB3R1, a MYB3R gene, from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In vitro assays showed that the TaMYB3R1 protein is localized to the nucleus, and functions as an MSA-binding transcriptional activator. Expression of TaMYB3R1 is induced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stress, which encouraged us to further investigate its function in planta. In the present study, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaMYB3R1. Compared with wild-type plants, the transgenic lines produced more rosette leaves, and thus more inflorescences, but the plants showed delayed development at the reproductive stage. The TaMYB3R1 protein also functions in the osmotic stress response. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stresses, and the tolerance phenotype was conveyed by limiting transpiration through increasing stomatal closure as well as reducing water loss. In addition, TaMYB3R1 influenced the expression of both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent responsive genes, implicating TaMYB3R1 in diverse osmotic stress-response mechanisms in Arabidopsis. Our study sheds light on novel functions of a plant MYB3R protein. PMID:25560188

  18. The anisotropy1 D604N Mutation in the Arabidopsis Cellulose Synthase1 Catalytic Domain Reduces Cell Wall Crystallinity and the Velocity of Cellulose Synthase Complexes1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Miki; Himmelspach, Regina; Ward, Juliet; Whittington, Angela; Hasenbein, Nortrud; Liu, Christine; Truong, Thy T.; Galway, Moira E.; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Hocart, Charles H.; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple cellulose synthase (CesA) subunits assemble into plasma membrane complexes responsible for cellulose production. In the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) model system, we identified a novel D604N missense mutation, designated anisotropy1 (any1), in the essential primary cell wall CesA1. Most previously identified CesA1 mutants show severe constitutive or conditional phenotypes such as embryo lethality or arrest of cellulose production but any1 plants are viable and produce seeds, thus permitting the study of CesA1 function. The dwarf mutants have reduced anisotropic growth of roots, aerial organs, and trichomes. Interestingly, cellulose microfibrils were disordered only in the epidermal cells of the any1 inflorescence stem, whereas they were transverse to the growth axis in other tissues of the stem and in all elongated cell types of roots and dark-grown hypocotyls. Overall cellulose content was not altered but both cell wall crystallinity and the velocity of cellulose synthase complexes were reduced in any1. We crossed any1 with the temperature-sensitive radial swelling1-1 (rsw1-1) CesA1 mutant and observed partial complementation of the any1 phenotype in the transheterozygotes at rsw1-1’s permissive temperature (21°C) and full complementation by any1 of the conditional rsw1-1 root swelling phenotype at the restrictive temperature (29°C). In rsw1-1 homozygotes at restrictive temperature, a striking dissociation of cellulose synthase complexes from the plasma membrane was accompanied by greatly diminished motility of intracellular cellulose synthase-containing compartments. Neither phenomenon was observed in the any1 rsw1-1 transheterozygotes, suggesting that the proteins encoded by the any1 allele replace those encoded by rsw1-1 at restrictive temperature. PMID:23532584

  19. Molecular and systems approaches towards drought-tolerant canola crops.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Monroe, J Grey; Suhail, Yasir; Villiers, Florent; Mullen, Jack; Pater, Dianne; Hauser, Felix; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Bader, Joel S; Kwak, June M; Schroeder, Julian I; McKay, John K; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-06-01

    1169 I. 1170 II. 1170 III. 1172 IV. 1176 V. 1181 VI. 1182 1183 References 1183 SUMMARY: Modern agriculture is facing multiple challenges including the necessity for a substantial increase in production to meet the needs of a burgeoning human population. Water shortage is a deleterious consequence of both population growth and climate change and is one of the most severe factors limiting global crop productivity. Brassica species, particularly canola varieties, are cultivated worldwide for edible oil, animal feed, and biodiesel, and suffer dramatic yield loss upon drought stress. The recent release of the Brassica napus genome supplies essential genetic information to facilitate identification of drought-related genes and provides new information for agricultural improvement in this species. Here we summarize current knowledge regarding drought responses of canola, including physiological and -omics effects of drought. We further discuss knowledge gained through translational biology based on discoveries in the closely related reference species Arabidopsis thaliana and through genetic strategies such as genome-wide association studies and analysis of natural variation. Knowledge of drought tolerance/resistance responses in canola together with research outcomes arising from new technologies and methodologies will inform novel strategies for improvement of drought tolerance and yield in this and other important crop species. PMID:26879345

  20. Droughts in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Nancy L.; Stamey, Timothy C.

    2000-01-01

    Droughts do not have the immediate effects of floods, but sustained droughts can cause economic stress throughout the State. The word 'drought' has various meanings, depending on a person's perspective. To a farmer, a drought is a period of moisture deficiency that affects the crops under cultivation - even two weeks without rainfall can stress many crops during certain periods of the growing cycle. To a meteorologist, a drought is a prolonged period when precipitation is less than normal. To a water manager, a drought is a deficiency in water supply that affects water availability and water quality. To a hydrologist, a drought is an extended period of decreased precipitation and streamflow. Droughts in Georgia have severely affected municipal and industrial water supplies, agriculture, stream water quality, recreation at major reservoirs, hydropower generation, navigation, and forest resources. In Georgia, droughts have been documented at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow gaging stations since the 1890's. From 1910 to 1940, about 20 streamflow gaging stations were in operation. Since the early 1950's through the late 1980's, about 100 streamflow gaging stations were in operation. Currently (2000), the USGS streamflow gaging network consists of more than 135 continuous-recording gages. Ground-water levels are currently monitored at 165 wells equipped with continuous recorders.

  1. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review

    PubMed Central

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; Setter, Tim L.; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12–18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance breeding. PMID

  2. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review.

    PubMed

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; Setter, Tim L; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12-18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance breeding. PMID

  3. Tackling Drought Stress: RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASES Present New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alex; Aalen, Reidunn B.; Audenaert, Dominique; Beeckman, Tom; Broadley, Martin R.; Butenko, Melinka A.; Caño-Delgado, Ana I.; de Vries, Sacco; Dresselhaus, Thomas; Felix, Georg; Graham, Neil S.; Foulkes, John; Granier, Christine; Greb, Thomas; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Hammond, John P.; Heidstra, Renze; Hodgman, Charlie; Hothorn, Michael; Inzé, Dirk; Østergaard, Lars; Russinova, Eugenia; Simon, Rüdiger; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Stahl, Yvonne; Zipfel, Cyril; De Smet, Ive

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change and a growing population require tackling the reduction in arable land and improving biomass production and seed yield per area under varying conditions. One of these conditions is suboptimal water availability. Here, we review some of the classical approaches to dealing with plant response to drought stress and we evaluate how research on RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASES (RLKs) can contribute to improving plant performance under drought stress. RLKs are considered as key regulators of plant architecture and growth behavior, but they also function in defense and stress responses. The available literature and analyses of available transcript profiling data indeed suggest that RLKs can play an important role in optimizing plant responses to drought stress. In addition, RLK pathways are ideal targets for nontransgenic approaches, such as synthetic molecules, providing a novel strategy to manipulate their activity and supporting translational studies from model species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, to economically useful crops. PMID:22693282

  4. Rooting traits of peanut genotypes with different yield responses to terminal drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought at pod filling can severely reduce yield of peanut. Better root systems can reduce yield loss from drought. However, the relationship of root characters with yield under terminal drought is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of peanut genotyp...

  5. Effect of drought stress on the yield and composition of volatile oils of drought-tolerant and non-drought-tolerant clones of Tagetes minuta.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, M A-H; Harris, P J; Henderson, J; Senatore, F

    2002-05-01

    A drought-tolerant clone of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) was selected in vitro on a medium containing 60 mM mannitol. In the greenhouse, a decrease in soil field capacity (FC) from 100 to 40 % reduced oil yield by 49, 71 and 71 % for drought-tolerant, non-drought tolerant cloned and seed-grown plants, respectively. In soil at 40 % FC, the drought-tolerant clone had the highest leaf dry weight and oil yield. At 100 % FC, there was no significant difference in leaf dry weight, but the drought-tolerant clone had a significantly higher percentage oil content and yield than seed-grown plants. The main components of the oil were monoterpenes of which trans- and cis-tagetone together were 52.3 % - 64.2 %. Drought significantly altered the content of some oil components. PMID:12058333

  6. Comparative proteome analysis of drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant rapeseed roots and their hybrid F1 line under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Payam Pour; Moieni, Ahmad; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-11-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), which is the third leading source of vegetable oil, is sensitive to drought stress during the early vegetative growth stage. To investigate the initial response of rapeseed to drought stress, changes in the protein expression profiles of drought-sensitive (RGS-003) and drought-tolerant lines (SLM-003), and their F1 hybrid, were analyzed using a proteomics approach. Seven-day-old rapeseed seedlings were treated with drought stress by restricting water for 7 days, and proteins were extracted from roots and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the sensitive rapeseed line, 35 protein spots were differentially expressed under drought stress, and proteins related to metabolism, energy, disease/defense, and transport were decreased. In the tolerant line, 32 protein spots were differentially expressed under drought stress, and proteins involved in metabolism, disease/defense, and transport were increased, while energy-related proteins were decreased. Six protein spots in F1 hybrid were common among expressed proteins in the drought-sensitive and -tolerant lines. Notably, tubulin beta-2 and heat shock protein 70 were decreased in the drought-sensitive line and hybrid F1 plants, while jasmonate-inducible protein and 20S proteasome subunit PAF1 were increased in the F1 hybrids and drought-tolerant line. These results indicate that (1) V-type H(+) ATPase, plasma-membrane associated cation-binding protein, HSP 90, and elongation factor EF-2 have a role in the drought tolerance of rapeseed; (2) The decreased levels of heat shock protein 70 and tubulin beta-2 in the drought-sensitive and hybrid F1 lines might explain the reduced growth of these lines in drought conditions. PMID:22543724

  7. Operational drought characterization using thermal remote sensing: A case study in Georgia's Altamaha River Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unprecedented recent droughts in the Southeast US stressed water supplies, elevated wildfire hazard risks, reduced hydropower generation and caused severe economic hardships for farmers and nurseries. Understanding the timing, severity and location of droughts continues to challenge natural reso...

  8. Heterologous Expression of AtWRKY57 Confers Drought Tolerance in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanjuan; Qiu, Yuping; Hu, Yanru; Yu, Diqiu

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is a severe environmental factor that greatly restricts plant distribution and crop production. Recently, we have found that overexpressing AtWRKY57 enhanced drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we further reported that the Arabidopsis WRKY57 transcription factor was able to confer drought tolerance to transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic rice was resulted from the lower water loss rates, cell death, malondialdehyde contents and relative electrolyte leakage while a higher proline content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activities was observed during stress conditions. Moreover, further investigation revealed that the expression levels of several stress-responsive genes were up-regulated in drought-tolerant transgenic rice plants, compared with those in wild-type plants. In addition to the drought tolerance, the AtWRKY57 over-expressing plants also had enhanced salt and PEG stress tolerances. Taken together, our study indicates that over-expressing AtWRKY57 in rice improved not only drought tolerance but also salt and PEG tolerance, demonstrating its potential role in crop improvement. PMID:26904091

  9. Maize ABP9 enhances tolerance to multiple stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis by modulating ABA signaling and cellular levels of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Wang, Lei; Meng, Hui; Wen, Hongtao; Fan, Yunliu; Zhao, Jun

    2011-03-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play critical roles in mediating abiotic stress responses in plants. It is well known that ABA is involved in the modulation of ROS levels by regulating ROS-producing and ROS-scavenging genes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation are poorly understood. Here we show that the expression of maize ABP9 gene, which encodes a bZIP transcription factor capable of binding to the ABRE2 motif in the maize Cat1 promoter, is induced by ABA, H(2)O(2), drought and salt. Constitutive expression of ABP9 in transgenic Arabidopsis leads to remarkably enhanced tolerance to multiple stresses including drought, high salt, freezing temperature and oxidative stresses. ABP9 expressing Arabidopsis plants also exhibit increased sensitivity to exogenously applied ABA during seed germination, root growth and stomatal closure and improved water-conserving capacity. Moreover, constitutive expression of ABP9 causes reduced cellular levels of ROS, alleviated oxidative damage and reduced cell death, accompanied by elevated expression of many stress/ABA responsive genes including those for scavenging and regulating ROS. Taken together, these results suggest that ABP9 may play a pivotal role in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses by fine tuning ABA signaling and control of ROS accumulation. PMID:21327835

  10. A Reduced-Function Allele Reveals That EARLY FLOWERING3 Repressive Action on the Circadian Clock Is Modulated by Phytochrome Signals in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kolmos, Elsebeth; Herrero, Eva; Bujdoso, Nora; Millar, Andrew J.; Tóth, Réka; Gyula, Peter; Nagy, Ferenc; Davis, Seth J.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) is essential for the generation of circadian rhythms. ELF3 has been proposed to restrict light signals to the oscillator through phytochrome photoreceptors, but that has not been explicitly shown. Furthermore, the genetic action of ELF3 within the clock had remained elusive. Here, we report a functional characterization of ELF3 through the analysis of the elf3-12 allele, which encodes an amino acid replacement in a conserved domain. Circadian oscillations persisted, and unlike elf3 null alleles, elf3-12 resulted in a short circadian period only under ambient light. The period shortening effect of elf3-12 was enhanced by the overexpression of phytochromes phyA and phyB. We found that elf3-12 was only modestly perturbed in resetting of the oscillator and in gating light-regulated gene expression. Furthermore, elf3-12 essentially displayed wild-type development. We identified targets of ELF3 transcriptional repression in the oscillator, highlighting the action at the morning gene PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9. Taken together, we identified two separable roles for ELF3, one affecting the circadian network and the other affecting light input to the oscillator. This is consistent with a dual function of ELF3 as both an integrator of phytochrome signals and a repressor component of the core oscillator. PMID:21908721

  11. Moderate salinity reduced phenanthrene-induced stress in the halophyte plant model Thellungiella salsuginea compared to its glycophyte relative Arabidopsis thaliana: Cross talk and metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Moez; Rabhi, Mokded; Abdelly, Chedly; Bouchereau, Alain; El Amrani, Abdelhak

    2016-07-01

    It was shown that halophytes experience higher cross-tolerance to stresses than glycophytes, which was often associated with their more powerful antioxidant systems. Moreover, salinity was reported to enhance halophyte tolerance to several stresses. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether a moderate salinity enhances phenanthrene stress tolerance in the halophyte Thellungiella salsuginea. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, considered as its glycophyte relative, was used as reference. Our study was based on morpho-physiological, antioxidant, and metabolomic parameters. Results showed that T. salsuginea was more tolerant to phenanthrene stress as compared to A. thaliana. An improvement of phenanthrene-induced responses was recorded in the two plants in the presence of 25 mM NaCl, but the effect was significantly more obvious in the halophyte. This observation was particularly related to the higher antioxidant activities and the induction of more adapted metabolism in the halophyte. Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantify alcohols, ammonium, sugars, and organic acids. It showed the accumulation of several metabolites, many of them are known to be involved in signaling and abiotic stress tolerance. Moderate salinity and phenanthrene cross-tolerance involved in these two stresses was discussed. PMID:27139124

  12. Knockdown of the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast protein disulfide isomerase 6 results in reduced levels of photoinhibition and increased D1 synthesis in high light.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, Gal; Levitan, Alexander; Klein, Tamir; Dangoor, Inbal; Keren, Nir; Danon, Avihai

    2014-06-01

    A chloroplast protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was previously proposed to regulate translation of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast psbA mRNA, encoding the D1 protein, in response to light. Here we show that AtPDI6, one of 13 Arabidopsis thaliana PDI genes, also plays a role in the chloroplast. We found that AtPDI6 is targeted and localized to the chloroplast. Interestingly, AtPDI6 knockdown plants displayed higher resistance to photoinhibition than wild-type plants when exposed to a tenfold increase in light intensity. The AtPDI6 knockdown plants also displayed a higher rate of D1 synthesis under a similar light intensity. The increased resistance to photoinhibition may not be rationalized by changes in antenna or non-photochemical quenching. Thus, the increased D1 synthesis rate, which may result in a larger proportion of active D1 under light stress, may led to the decrease in photoinhibition. These results suggest that, although the D1 synthesis rates observed in wild-type plants under high light intensities are elevated, repair can potentially occur faster. The findings implicate AtPDI6 as an attenuator of D1 synthesis, modulating photoinhibition in a light-regulated manner. PMID:24684167

  13. Operationalising resilience to drought: Multi-layered safety for flooding applied to droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijke, Jeroen; Smith, Jennifer Vessels; Gersonius, Berry; van Herk, Sebastiaan; Pathirana, Assela; Ashley, Richard; Wong, Tony; Zevenbergen, Chris

    2014-11-01

    This paper sets out a way of thinking about how to prepare for and respond to droughts in a holistic way using a framework developed for managing floods. It shows how the multi-layered safety (MLS) approach for flood resilience can be utilised in the context of drought in a way that three layers of intervention can be distinguished for operationalising drought resilience: (1) protection against water shortage through augmentation and diversification of water supplies; (2) prevention of damage in case of water shortage through increased efficiency of water use and timely asset maintenance; (3) preparedness for future water shortages through mechanisms to reduce the use of water and adopt innovative water technologies. Application of MLS to the cities of Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney shows that recent water reforms in these cities were primarily focused on protection measures that aim to reduce the hazard source or exposure to insufficient water supplies. Prevention and preparedness measures could be considered in defining interventions that aim to further increase the drought resilience of these cities. Although further research is needed, the application suggests that MLS can be applied to the context of drought risk management. The MLS framework can be used to classify the suite of plans deployed by a city to manage future drought risks and can be considered a planning tool to identify opportunities for increasing the level of redundancy and hence resilience of the drought risk management system.

  14. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  15. Drought and pasture management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a common feature of every landscape and can last from a few months to several years. According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), droughts are the most costly natural hazard affecting the United States costing 6 to 8 billion dollars annually. Mitigating the impacts of dr...

  16. Drought tolerance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nezhadahmadi, Arash; Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  17. Different responses to the 2011 drought between native- and exotic-dominated experimental communities in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilsey, B. J.; Polley, W.; Daneshgar, P. P.

    2014-12-01

    Global change includes invasion by non-native species, and invasion may affect ecosystem recovery from drought, especially when they cause species diversity declines. Here we test predictions in central Texas in a six-year experiment that compares mixtures of all exotic or all native species under two summer irrigation treatments (128 or 0 mm) that varies the amount of summer drought stress. A major drought (precipitation of 41% of normal) occurred in year 4 (2011), allowing a "natural experiment" test of how treatments affect drought resistance and recovery. Peak biomass was only 8% of pre-drought values in the drought year of 2011. Biomass resistance (drought/pre-drought biomass) and resilience (post-drought/pre-drought biomass) were similar among treatments. Native communities lost fewer species during the drought, and recovered more species after the drought than exotic communities. Over time, the responses in peak biomass to summer irrigation changed between native and exotic communities, with initially large responses in exotic communities in year 1 diminishing to non-significant responses by years 5 and 6. Native communities on the other hand, showed a small response to summer irrigation in year 1, but this response grew to become a large increase with irrigation by years 4-6. Reduced response to summer irrigation in exotic communities were associated with reduced species diversity and shifts in species composition towards C4 grasses. The differential effects of the drought indicate that non-native species will alter grassland community responses to drought events.

  18. Assessing Urban Droughts in a Smart City Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obringer, R.; Zhang, X.; Mallick, K.; Alemohammad, S. H.; Niyogi, D.

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to integrate environmental data for drought monitoring to reduce uncertainty in urban drought characterization as part of the smart city framework. Currently, drought monitoring in urban areas is a challenge. This is due, in part, to a lack of knowledge on the subject of urban droughts and urban drought vulnerability. A critical part to assessing urban drought and implementing the necessary policies is determining drought conditions. Often the timing and severity of the drought can leave cities to enforce water restrictions, so accuracy of this determination has socioeconomic implications. To determine drought conditions, we need to know the water balance over the urban landscape, of which evapotranspiration (ET) is a key variable. However, ET data and models have high uncertainty when compared to other hydrological variables (i.e., precipitation). This is largely due to ill-defined empirical models for characterizing the urban surface resistance parameter (rs) that is used in ET calculations. We propose a method to estimate rs values using a combination of the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC) method that calculates regional evapotranspiration data and an inverted version of the Penman-Monteith equation. We use this approach across the region surrounding Indianapolis, IN (USA) from 2010-2014. We discuss the potential for this method to be integrated in to smart city framework to improve urban drought assessment.

  19. Nuclear-localized AtHSPR links abscisic acid-dependent salt tolerance and antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Liang; Hao, Hongyan; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Haowei; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Yongli; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Chongying

    2015-12-01

    Salt stress from soil or irrigation water limits plant growth. A T-DNA insertion mutant in C24, named athspr (Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein-related), showed several phenotypes, including reduced organ size and enhanced sensitivity to environmental cues. The athspr mutant is severely impaired under salinity levels at which wild-type (WT) plants grow normally. AtHSPR encodes a nuclear-localized protein with ATPase activity, and its expression was enhanced by high salinity and abscisic acid (ABA). Overexpression (OE) of AtHSPR significantly enhanced tolerance to salt stress by increasing the activities of the antioxidant system and by maintaining K(+) /Na(+) homeostasis. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that OE of AtHSPR increased the expression of ABA/stress-responsive, salt overly sensitive (SOS)-related and antioxidant-related genes. In addition, ABA content was reduced in athspr plants with or without salt stress, and exogenous ABA restored WT-like salt tolerance to athspr plants. athspr exhibited increased leaf stomatal density and stomatal index, slower ABA-induced stomatal closure and reduced drought tolerance relative to the WT. AtHSPR OE enhanced drought tolerance by reducing leaf water loss and stomatal aperture. Transcript profiling in athspr showed a differential salt-stress response for genes involved in accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ABA signaling, cell death, stress response and photosynthesis. Taken together, our results suggested that AtHSPR is involved in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis through modulation of ROS levels, ABA-dependent stomatal closure, photosynthesis and K(+) /Na(+) homeostasis. PMID:26603028

  20. Controls on Extreme Droughts and Adaptation Strategies in Semiarid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Cook, C.; Fernando, D. N.; LeBlanc, M.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing vulnerability to droughts with reduced per capita water storage, particularly in semiarid regions, underscores the need for predictive understanding of drought controls and development of adaptation strategies for water resources management. In this study we evaluate causes of major droughts in southwest and southcentral US (California and Texas) and southeast Australia (Murray Darling Basin). Impacts of climate cycles (ENSO, PDO, AMO, NAO, IOD) and atmospheric circulation on drought initiation and persistence are examined. Effects of drought on surface water reservoir storage, groundwater storage, irrigation, and crop production are compared. Adaptation strategies being evaluated include water transfers among sectors, particularly from irrigated agriculture to other groups, increasing storage using managed aquifer recharge, water reuse, and development of new water sources (e.g. seawater desalination). It is critical to develop a broad portfolio of water sources to increase resilience to future droughts.

  1. Long-Term Drought Forecasting based on Climate Signals using Multi-Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Singh, V. P.; Tang, Q.; Ge, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is an insidious natural hazard, which may cause severe damage both in natural environment and human society. Timely drought forecasting enables civil protection authorities and public to take actions to reduce the risk of droughts. Thus drought forecasting plays an important role in setting out drought mitigation strategy. Analysis of the dominant oscillations of droughts and large-scale climate indices has shown that climate indices, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), are significant indicators of drought occurrences in southern United States. It suggests that the climate indices may be used in drought forecasting at a long lead time. In this study, the multi-channel entropy spectral analysis (MCESA) was developed to incorporate the ENSO climate signals to entropy approach for long-term drought forecasting. To focus on the lack of surface water, drought was quantified by standardized streamflow index (SSI) in this study. SSI time series turned out to be stationary and highly autocorrelated, which showed significant 12-month periodicity. As a result, SSI was successfully forecasted using MCESA with ENSO as an indicator for lead times of 4-6 years. The drought forecasting was more reliable for the stations in humid areas than arid areas. Comparison from the retrospective drought forecasts with or without ENSO showed that inclusion of ENSO climate signals reduced the forecasting errors. The forecasts under El Nino (La Nina) condition reduced (increased) drought severity, making the forecasts more accurate.

  2. Drought and resprouting plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zeppel, Melanie J. B.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Adams, Henry D.; Kelley, Douglas I.; Li, Guangqi; Tissue, David T.; Dawson, Todd E.; Fensham, Rod; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Palmer, Anthony; West, Adam G.; McDowell, Nate G.

    2014-12-17

    Many species have the ability to resprout vegetatively after a substantial loss of biomass induced by environmental stress, including drought. Many of the regions characterised by ecosystems where resprouting is common are projected to experience more frequent and intense drought during the 21st century. However, in assessments of ecosystem response to drought disturbance there has been scant consideration of the resilience and post-drought recovery of resprouting species. Systematic differences in hydraulic and allocation traits suggest that resprouting species are more resilient to drought-stress than nonresprouting species. Evidence suggests that ecosystems dominated by resprouters recover from disturbance more quickly than ecosystems dominated by nonresprouters. The ability of resprouters to avoid mortality and withstand drought, coupled with their ability to recover rapidly, suggests that the impact of increased drought stress in ecosystems dominated by these species may be small. Furthermore, the strategy of resprouting needs to be modelled explicitly to improve estimates of future climate-change impacts on the carbon cycle, but this will require several important knowledge gaps to be filled before resprouting can be properly implemented.

  3. Drought and resprouting plants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zeppel, Melanie J. B.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Adams, Henry D.; Kelley, Douglas I.; Li, Guangqi; Tissue, David T.; Dawson, Todd E.; Fensham, Rod; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Palmer, Anthony; et al

    2014-12-17

    Many species have the ability to resprout vegetatively after a substantial loss of biomass induced by environmental stress, including drought. Many of the regions characterised by ecosystems where resprouting is common are projected to experience more frequent and intense drought during the 21st century. However, in assessments of ecosystem response to drought disturbance there has been scant consideration of the resilience and post-drought recovery of resprouting species. Systematic differences in hydraulic and allocation traits suggest that resprouting species are more resilient to drought-stress than nonresprouting species. Evidence suggests that ecosystems dominated by resprouters recover from disturbance more quickly than ecosystemsmore » dominated by nonresprouters. The ability of resprouters to avoid mortality and withstand drought, coupled with their ability to recover rapidly, suggests that the impact of increased drought stress in ecosystems dominated by these species may be small. Furthermore, the strategy of resprouting needs to be modelled explicitly to improve estimates of future climate-change impacts on the carbon cycle, but this will require several important knowledge gaps to be filled before resprouting can be properly implemented.« less

  4. Drought - A Global Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, S.; Barnwal, P.; von der Goltz, J.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the lasting effects of early childhood exposure to drought on economic and health outcomes in a large multi-country dataset. By pooling all Demographic and Health Survey rounds for which household geocodes are available, we obtain an individual-level dataset covering 47 developing countries. Among other impact measures, we collect infant and child mortality data from 3.3m live births and data on stunting and wasting for 1.2m individuals, along with data on education, employment, wealth, marriage and childbearing later in life for similarly large numbers of respondents. Birth years vary from 1893 to 2012. We seek to improve upon existing work on the socio-economic impact of drought in a number of ways. First, we introduce from the hydrological literature a drought measure, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), that has been shown to closely proxy the Palmer drought index, but has far less demanding data requirements, and can be obtained globally and for long time periods. We estimate the SPI for 110 years on a global 0.5° grid, which allows us to assign drought histories to the geocoded individual data. Additionally, we leverage our large sample size to explicitly investigate both how drought impacts have changed over time as adaptation occurred at a varying pace in different locations, and the role of the regional extent of drought in determining impacts.

  5. The Arabidopsis outward K+ channel GORK is involved in regulation of stomatal movements and plant transpiration

    PubMed Central

    Hosy, Eric; Vavasseur, Alain; Mouline, Karine; Dreyer, Ingo; Gaymard, Frédéric; Porée, Fabien; Boucherez, Jossia; Lebaudy, Anne; Bouchez, David; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Simonneau, Thierry; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Sentenac, Hervé

    2003-01-01

    Microscopic pores present in the epidermis of plant aerial organs, called stomata, allow gas exchanges between the inner photosynthetic tissue and the atmosphere. Regulation of stomatal aperture, preventing excess transpirational vapor loss, relies on turgor changes of two highly differentiated epidermal cells surrounding the pore, the guard cells. Increased guard cell turgor due to increased solute accumulation results in stomatal opening, whereas decreased guard cell turgor due to decreased solute accumulation results in stomatal closing. Here we provide direct evidence, based on reverse genetics approaches, that the Arabidopsis GORK Shaker gene encodes the major voltage-gated outwardly rectifying K+ channel of the guard cell membrane. Expression of GORK dominant negative mutant polypeptides in transgenic Arabidopsis was found to strongly reduce outwardly rectifying K+ channel activity in the guard cell membrane, and disruption of the GORK gene (T-DNA insertion knockout mutant) fully suppressed this activity. Bioassays on epidermal peels revealed that disruption of GORK activity resulted in impaired stomatal closure in response to darkness or the stress hormone azobenzenearsonate. Transpiration measurements on excised rosettes and intact plants (grown in hydroponic conditions or submitted to water stress) revealed that absence of GORK activity resulted in increased water consumption. The whole set of data indicates that GORK is likely to play a crucial role in adaptation to drought in fluctuating environments. PMID:12671068

  6. Increased glutathione contributes to stress tolerance and global translational changes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mei-Chun; Ko, Ko; Chang, Wan-Ling; Kuo, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Guan-Hong; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2015-09-01

    Although glutathione is well known for its reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging function and plays a protective role in biotic stress, its regulatory function in abiotic stress still remains to be elucidated. Our previous study showed that exogenously applied reduced glutathione (GSH) could improve abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Here, we report that endogenously increased GSH also conferred tolerance to drought and salt stress in Arabidopsis. Moreover, both exogenous and endogenous GSH delayed senescence and flowering time. Polysomal profiling results showed that global translation was enhanced after GSH treatment and by the induced increase of GSH level by salt stress. By performing transcriptomic analyses of steady-state and polysome-bound mRNAs in GSH-treated plants, we reveal that GSH has a substantial impact on translation. Translational changes induced by GSH treatment target numerous hormones and stress signaling molecules, which might contribute to the enhanced stress tolerance in GSH-treated plants. Our translatome analysis also revealed that abscisic acid (ABA), auxin and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis, as well as signaling genes, were activated during GSH treatment, which has not been reported in previously published transcriptomic data. Together, our data suggest that the increased glutathione level results in stress tolerance and global translational changes. PMID:26213235

  7. Physiological Response to Drought Stress at Different Stages in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a major factor in reducing productivity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the response patterns of relative water content (RWC), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf dry mater content (LDMC) to drought stress at three stages of 30 60, and ...

  8. Variation and Trends of Regional Drought in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Lu, G.; Wen, L.; Kuang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    . Drought in Northwest is primarily from autumn to spring. Drought in Xinjiang is likely to occur in winter and spring seasons with a reducing trend. Summer droughts are unlikely to occur in South, but mainly winter droughts. Droughts in Southwest often occur in spring and summer seasons, while droughts in East mainly happen in autumn with rare spring droughts. An upward trend in drought-affected areas has been detected in three regions (Inner Mongolia, Northeast and North) from 1951-2009. However, the decadal variability of droughts has been weak in the rest of the five regions (South, Southwest, East, Northwest, and Tibet). Xinjiang has even been showing steadily wetter since the 1950s. VIC future simulation on soil moisture from 2010 to 2099 is done with five GCMs (BCCR,CSIRO,INMCM,MIROC and NCAR) inputs under IPCC SRES A1B,A2 and B1 scenarios. The impacts of climate change on regional drought and water resources in China under different scenarios are reported on.

  9. What does drought look like?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd-Hughes, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Drought is commonly portrayed using images of cracked earth, dry dams and empty river beds. However, these 2-dimensional representations illustrate the impact of drought rather than drought itself and ignore the rich 4-dimensional spatio-temporal variablity which characterises drought as a natural hazard. Improved visualisations of drought are needed to increase public understanding and assist the research community in understanding its drivers. WebGL is explored as a medium for contructing interactive drought graphics that go beyond displaying drought impacts and address the multi-dimensionality of the problem.

  10. THI1, a Thiamine Thiazole Synthase, Interacts with Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinase CPK33 and Modulates the S-Type Anion Channels and Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Long; Wang, Mei; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Chen, Dong-Hua; Lv, Hong-Jun; Shen, Jian-Lin; Qiao, Zhu; Zhang, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Thiamine is required for both plant growth and development. Here, the involvement of a thiamine thiazole synthase, THI1, has been demonstrated in both guard cell abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and the drought response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). THI1 overexpressors proved to be more sensitive to ABA than the wild type with respect to both the activation of guard cell slow type anion channels and stomatal closure; this effectively reduced the rate of water loss from the plant and thereby enhanced its level of drought tolerance. A yeast two-hybrid strategy was used to screen a cDNA library from epidermal strips of leaves for THI1 regulatory factors, and identified CPK33, a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase, as interactor with THI1 in a plasma membrane-delimited manner. Loss-of-function cpk33 mutants were hypersensitive to ABA activation of slow type anion channels and ABA-induced stomatal closure, while the CPK33 overexpression lines showed opposite phenotypes. CPK33 kinase activity was essential for ABA-induced stomatal closure. Consistent with their contrasting regulatory role over stomatal closure, THI1 suppressed CPK33 kinase activity in vitro. Together, our data reveal a novel regulatory role of thiamine thiazole synthase to kinase activity in guard cell signaling. PMID:26662273

  11. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes

    PubMed Central

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation. PMID:21825128

  12. North American Drought Projections

    NASA Video Gallery

    Droughts in the Southwest and Central Plains of the United States in the second half of the 21st century could be drier and longer than anything humans have seen in those regions in the last 1,000 ...

  13. An Arabidopsis callose synthase.

    PubMed

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2002-08-01

    Beta-1,3-glucan polymers are major structural components of fungal cell walls, while cellulosic beta-1,4-glucan is the predominant polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Plant beta-1,3-glucan, called callose, is produced in pollen and in response to pathogen attack and wounding, but it has been unclear whether callose synthases can also produce cellulose and whether plant cellulose synthases may also produce beta-1,3-glucans. We describe here an Arabidopsis gene, AtGsl5, encoding a plasma membrane-localized protein homologous to yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase whose expression partially complements a yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase mutant. AtGsl5 is developmentally expressed at highest levels in flowers, consistent with flowers having high beta-1,3-glucan synthase activities for deposition of callose in pollen. A role for AtGsl5 in callose synthesis is also indicated by AtGsl5 expression in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while expression of the nahG salicylate hydroxylase reduces AtGsl5 mRNA levels in the mpk4 mutant. These results indicate that AtGsl5 is likely involved in callose synthesis in flowering tissues and in the mpk4 mutant. PMID:12081364

  14. Human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Van Beek, L. P.; Wanders, N.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decades, human water consumption has more than doubled, and reduced streamflow over various regions of the world. However, it remains unclear to what degree human water consumption intensifies hydrological droughts, i.e. the occurrence of anomalously low streamflow. Here, we quantify over the period 1960-2010 the impact of human water consumption on the intensity and frequency of hydrological droughts worldwide. We simulated streamflow by the global hydrological and water resources model PCR-GLOBWB at a 0.5 degree spatial resolution, and reduced the amount of streamflow with different levels of human water consumption over the period 1960-2010. We applied the commonly used variable threshold level method to identify below-normal water availability as the onset of hydrological droughts. We then standardized the deficit volume dividing relative to the threshold level to express the intensity of drought conditions to normal streamflow conditions. The results show that human water consumption substantially reduced local and downstream streamflow in many regions of the world. This subsequently intensified hydrological droughts regionally by 10-500%. Irrigation is responsible for the intensification of hydrological droughts over western and central U.S., southern Europe, Asia, and southeastern Australia, whereas the impact of industrial and households' consumption on the intensification is considerably larger over eastern U.S., and western and central Europe. The results also show that drought frequency increased by more than 27% compared to pristine or natural condition as a result of human water consumption. The intensification of drought frequency is most severe over Asia, but also substantial over North America and Europe. Importantly, global population under severe hydrological droughts considerably increased from 0.7 billion in 1960 to 2.2 billion in 2010 due to rapid population growth. As a limited validation exercise, we compared simulated deficit

  15. Resource assurance predicts specialist and generalist bee activity in drought

    PubMed Central

    Minckley, Robert L.; Roulston, T'ai H.; Williams, Neal M.

    2013-01-01

    Many short-lived desert organisms remain in diapause during drought. Theoretically, the cues desert species use to continue diapause through drought should differ depending on the availability of critical resources, but the unpredictability and infrequent occurrence of climate extremes and reduced insect activity during such events make empirical tests of this prediction difficult. An intensive study of a diverse bee–plant community through a drought event found that bee specialists of a drought-sensitive host plant were absent in the drought year in contrast to generalist bees and to specialist bees of a drought-insensitive host plant. Different responses of bee species to drought indicate that the diapause cues used by bee species allow them to reliably predict host availability. Species composition of the bee community in drought shifted towards mostly generalist species. However, we predict that more frequent and extended drought, predicted by climate change models for southwest North America, will result in bee communities that are species-poor and dominated by specialist species, as found today in the most arid desert region of North America. PMID:23536593

  16. Public Participation, Education, and Engagement in Drought Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathke, D. J.; Wall, N.; Haigh, T.; Smith, K. H.; Bernadt, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is a complex problem that typically goes beyond the capacity, resources, and jurisdiction of any single person, program, organization, political boundary, or sector. Thus, by nature, monitoring, planning for, and reducing drought risk must be a collaborative process. The National Drought Mitigation Center, in partnership with the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) Program Office and others, provides active engagement and education drought professionals, stakeholders, and the general public about managing drought-related risks through resilience planning, monitoring, and education. Using case studies, we discuss recruitment processes, network building, participation techniques, and educational methods as they pertain to a variety of unique audiences with distinct objectives. Examples include collaborative decision-making at a World Meteorological Organization conference; planning, and peer-learning among drought professionals in a community of practice; drought condition monitoring through citizen science networks; research and education dissemination with stakeholder groups; and informal learning activities for all ages. Finally, we conclude with evaluation methods, indicators of success, and lessons learned for increasing the effectiveness of our programs in increasing drought resilience.

  17. Ecosystem response to multiple drought events: the role of legacy effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Hoover, D. L.; Wilcox, K. R.; Felton, A. J.; Knapp, A.

    2015-12-01

    Climate extremes, such as drought and heat waves, are forecast to be more frequent and severe with climate change. As a consequence, such events will become increasingly important drivers of future ecosystem dynamics and function. We experimentally imposed two extreme growing season drought events in a central US grassland to assess the impacts of multiple droughts on ecosystem response and recovery dynamics. The first extreme drought (with growing season precipitation totals lower than the driest two year period of the 1930s US Dust Bowl)reduced aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) below the lowest level measured in this grassland for almost thirty years. The extreme reduction in ecosystem function with the first two-year drought was a consequence of reduced productivity of the two dominant functional groups in this grassland - C4 grasses and C3 forbs. However, the most abundant (dominant) C3 forb was negatively impacted by the drought more than the dominant C4 grass. This differential sensitivity led to a reordering of species abundances within the plant community. Yet, despite this large shift in plant community composition, which persisted post-drought, ANPP recovered completely the year after drought. This rapid recovery in function was due to a rapid demographic response by the dominant C4 grass, which compensated for loss of the dominant C3 forb. Because of this shift in composition to greater C4 grass dominance, we expected that the second drought would have a greater impact on ecosystem function of plots that had not experienced drought. However, contrary to these expectations, previously droughted plots were more sensitive to drought than those plots that had not experienced drought. Thus, the legacy of drought (shift in community composition) made this grassland more sensitive to subsequent drought. Overall, our results suggest that low resistance of ecosystem function to an extreme climatic event does not preclude rapid ecosystem recovery

  18. The Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 Cysteine-2/Histidine-2 Repressor-Like Transcription Factor Regulates Development and Tolerance to Salinity in Tomato and Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Hichri, Imène; Muhovski, Yordan; Žižková, Eva; Dobrev, Petre I.; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose Manuel; Solano, Roberto; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Motyka, Vaclav; Lutts, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    The zinc finger superfamily includes transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of plant development and were recently shown to regulate abiotic stress tolerance. Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 [SIZF2]) is a cysteine-2/histidine-2-type zinc finger transcription factor bearing an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression domain and binding to the ACGTCAGTG sequence containing two AGT core motifs. SlZF2 is ubiquitously expressed during plant development, and is rapidly induced by sodium chloride, drought, and potassium chloride treatments. Its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato impaired development and influenced leaf and flower shape, while causing a general stress visible by anthocyanin and malonyldialdehyde accumulation. SlZF2 enhanced salt sensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas SlZF2 delayed senescence and improved tomato salt tolerance, particularly by maintaining photosynthesis and increasing polyamine biosynthesis, in salt-treated hydroponic cultures (125 mm sodium chloride, 20 d). SlZF2 may be involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis/signaling, because SlZF2 is rapidly induced by ABA treatment and 35S::SlZF2 tomatoes accumulate more ABA than wild-type plants. Transcriptome analysis of 35S::SlZF2 revealed that SlZF2 both increased and reduced expression of a comparable number of genes involved in various physiological processes such as photosynthesis, polyamine biosynthesis, and hormone (notably ABA) biosynthesis/signaling. Involvement of these different metabolic pathways in salt stress tolerance is discussed. PMID:24567191

  19. Over-expression of the bacterial phytase US417 in Arabidopsis reduces the concentration of phytic acid and reveals its involvement in the regulation of sulfate and phosphate homeostasis and signaling.

    PubMed

    Belgaroui, Nibras; Zaidi, Ikram; Farhat, Ameny; Chouayekh, Hichem; Bouain, Nadia; Chay, Sandrine; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane; Masmoudi, Khaled; Davidian, Jean-Claude; Berthomieu, Pierre; Rouached, Hatem; Hanin, Moez

    2014-11-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is the main phosphorus storage form in plant seeds. It is recognized as an anti-nutrient for humans and non-ruminant animals, as well as one of the major sources of phosphorus that contributes to eutrophication. Therefore, engineering plants with low PA content without affecting plant growth capacity has become a major focus in plant breeding. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge on the role of PA seed reserves in regulating plant growth and in maintaining ion homeostasis hinders such an agronomical application. In this context, we report here that the over-expression of the bacterial phytase PHY-US417 in Arabidopsis leads to a significant decrease in seed PA, without any effect on the seed germination potential. Interestingly, this over-expression also induced a higher remobilization of free iron during germination. Moreover, the PHY-over-expressor lines show an increase in inorganic phosphate and sulfate contents, and a higher biomass production after phosphate starvation. Finally, phosphate sensing was altered because of the changes in the expression of genes induced by phosphate starvation or involved in phosphate or sulfate transport. Together, these results show that the over-expression of PHY-US417 reduces PA concentration, and provide the first evidence for the involvement of PA in the regulation of sulfate and phosphate homeostasis and signaling. PMID:25231959

  20. The Arabidopsis Circadian System

    PubMed Central

    McClung, C. Robertson; Salomé, Patrice A.; Michael, Todd P.

    2002-01-01

    Rhythms with periods of approximately 24 hr are widespread in nature. Those that persist in constant conditions are termed circadian rhythms and reflect the activity of an endogenous biological clock. Plants, including Arabidopsis, are richly rhythmic. Expression analysis, most recently on a genomic scale, indicates that the Arabidopsis circadian clock regulates a number of key metabolic pathways and stress responses. A number of sensitive and high-throughput assays have been developed to monitor the Arabidopsis clock. These assays have facilitated the identification of components of plant circadian systems through genetic and molecular biological studies. Although much remains to be learned, the framework of the Arabidopsis circadian system is coming into focus. Dedication This review is dedicated to the memory of DeLill Nasser, a wonderful mentor and an unwavering advocate of both Arabidopsis and circadian rhythms research. PMID:22303209

  1. Identification of Drought Induced Genes in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants are challenged with environmental stresses such as drought, high-salinity, and high and low temperature which can adversely affect growth and development and ultimate reduce yield and quality. In order to cope with the dynamic adverse environmental changes, plants have evolved a complex netw...

  2. Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Emerson, Rachel; Hoover, Amber; Ray, Allison; Lacey, Jeffrey; Cortez, Marnie; Payne, Courtney; Karlen, Douglas; Birrell, Stuart; Laird, David; Kallenbach, Robert; et al

    2014-07-04

    Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe in recent history. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of drought on quality, quantity, and theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) of three bioenergy feedstocks, corn stover, mixed grasses from Conservation Reserve Program lands, and Miscanthus × giganteus. To assess drought effects on these feedstocks, samples from 2010 (minimal to no drought) and 2012 (severe drought) were compared from multiple locations in the US. In all feedstocks, drought significantly increased extractives and reduced structural sugars and lignin; subsequently, TEYs were reduced 10–15%. Biomass yields were significantly reduced formore » M. × giganteus and mixed grasses. When reduction in quality and quantity were combined, TEYs decreased 26–59%. Drought negatively affected biomass quality and quantity that resulted in significant TEY reductions. As a result, such fluctuations in biomass quality and yield may have significant consequences for developing lignocellulosic biorefineries.« less

  3. Monitoring vegetation responses to drought -- linking Remotely-sensed Drought Indices with Meteorological drought indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Lin, H.; Liu, D.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: Effectively monitoring vegetation drought is of great significance in ecological conservation and agriculture irrigation at the regional scale. Combining meteorological drought indices with remotely sensed drought indices can improve tracking vegetation dynamic under the threat of drought. This study analyzes the dynamics of spatially-defined Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) and temporally-defined Vegetation Health Index (VHI) from remotely sensed NDVI and LST datasets in the dry spells in Southwest China. We analyzed the correlation between remotely sensed drought indices and meteorological drought index of different time scales. The results show that TVDI was limited by the spatial variations of LST and NDVI, while VHI was limited by the temporal variations of LST and NDVI. Station-based buffering analysis indicates that the extracted remotely sensed drought indices and Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) could reach stable correlation with buffering radius larger than 35 km. Three factors affect the spatiotemporal relationship between remotely sensed drought indices and SPI: i) different vegetation types; ii) the timescale of SPI; and iii) remote sensing data noise. Vegetation responds differently to meteorological drought at various time scales. The correlation between SPI6 and VHI is more significant than that between SPI6 and TVDI. Spatial consistency between VHI and TVDI varies with drought aggravation. In early drought period from October to December, VHI and TVDI show limited consistency due to the low quality of remotely sensed images. The study helps to improve monitoring vegetation drought using both meteorological drought indices and remotely sensed drought indices.

  4. Diagnosing Drought in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, A. L. S.; Hoffman, F. M.; Koven, C. D.; Randerson, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Predictions of future climate impacts such as drought rely heavily on metrics based on changes in rainfall and changes in the demand for water from the atmosphere. However, the underlying driver of climate change is the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), which simultaneously increases temperature globally and modifies the water needs of plants. Although the influence of CO2 on plant stomatal conductance and transpiration is well established, the relative impact of this physiology on different drought metrics has not been rigorously assessed. We find that predictions of increasing drought stress derived using atmospheric demand metrics in many regions (including potential evapotraspiration and Palmer Drought Stress Index) correspond to places where Earth system models show stable or increasing water availability on land when assessed using the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. Approximately 70% of the increase in global water availability is a direct result of the effect of CO2 reducing plant water needs. Current models predict a decoupling of water flux and carbon flux, which require revisions to how aridity is measured and drought is calculated under changing CO2.

  5. Hydrological drought in cold climates: new drought types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lanen, Henny A. J.; van Loon, Anne F.; Ploum, Stefan; Laaha, Gregor; Parajka, Juraj; Garnier, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    The previous winter (2013-2014) was warm and dry in many regions of Europe, leading to serious problems in water supply in for example Kosovo. This winter was not an exception. Analyses of drought-related impacts on nature and society indicate that not all drought impacts occur in summer, during periods with below-normal rainfall and connected heat waves. We found that several drought impacts are a consequence of anomalies in winter-related processes, such as snow accumulation and melt. The hydrological drought typology (Van Loon & Van Lanen, 2012) was developed based on analysis of the processes underlying drought propagation in catchments in Norway, Czech Republic and Slovakia. In this typology, two drought types were distinguished that are caused by anomalous winter processes: cold snow season drought and warm snow season drought. In a recent study in the Alpine region, however, we found drought events that could not be classified into one of the types of the existing hydrological drought typology. We could reveal the processes underlying these drought events with further detailed analysis of an extensive dataset of observations and simulations of hydrometeorological variables for a large number of catchments in Austria. In this paper we present two new hydrological drought types related to snow and glacier melt. We discuss the processes underlying these drought types and show that besides precipitation, temperature plays an important role. Furthermore, we discuss the differences between hydrological droughts in the Alpine region and the previously studied regions in North and Central Europe, and investigate the relationship with the impacts of hydrological drought, both in the ancient (1500-1950) and in the recent past (1970-2010). Van Loon, A.F., and Van Lanen, H.A.J.: A process-based typology of hydrological drought, Hydrology and Earth System Science, 16, p. 1915-1946, doi: 10.5194/hess-16-1915-2012, 2012

  6. Drought, Climate Change and the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. E.

    2010-03-01

    employment losses exceeded 41,000 jobs for 2001 and 2002. This drought also contributed to a negative or zero net farm income for several provinces for the first time in 25 years with agricultural production over Canada dropping an estimated 3.6 billion in 2001/2002. Previously reliable water supplies such as streams, wetlands, dugouts, reservoirs, and groundwater were placed under stress and often failed. Despite their enormous economic, environmental, and societal impacts, there has never been a coordinated and integrated drought research program in Canada. To begin to address these issues related to drought, the Drought Research Initiative, DRI was established. The overall objective of DRI is "to better understand the physical characteristics of and processes influencing Canadian Prairie droughts, and to contribute to their better prediction, through a focus on the recent severe drought that began in 1999 and largely ended in 2005". DRI is focused on five research objectives: 1. Quantify the physical features of this recent drought 2. Improve the understanding of the processes and feedbacks governing the formation, evolution, cessation and structure of the drought 3. Assess and reduce uncertainties in the prediction of drought and its structure 4. Compare the similarities and differences of the recent drought to previous and future droughts 5. Apply progress to address critical issues of importance to society Major progress is being made within each of these research areas. These coordinated studies furthermore represent an essential step towards our ultimate goal which is to better assess whether there will be more droughts in the future over this region due to climate change, what features these droughts will exhibit, and how we can best prepare for them. The focus of these activities is on changes to occur over the next several decades and significant progress is being made in addressing these issues as well. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview

  7. Drought, Climate Change and the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. E.

    2010-03-01

    employment losses exceeded 41,000 jobs for 2001 and 2002. This drought also contributed to a negative or zero net farm income for several provinces for the first time in 25 years with agricultural production over Canada dropping an estimated 3.6 billion in 2001/2002. Previously reliable water supplies such as streams, wetlands, dugouts, reservoirs, and groundwater were placed under stress and often failed. Despite their enormous economic, environmental, and societal impacts, there has never been a coordinated and integrated drought research program in Canada. To begin to address these issues related to drought, the Drought Research Initiative, DRI was established. The overall objective of DRI is "to better understand the physical characteristics of and processes influencing Canadian Prairie droughts, and to contribute to their better prediction, through a focus on the recent severe drought that began in 1999 and largely ended in 2005". DRI is focused on five research objectives: 1. Quantify the physical features of this recent drought 2. Improve the understanding of the processes and feedbacks governing the formation, evolution, cessation and structure of the drought 3. Assess and reduce uncertainties in the prediction of drought and its structure 4. Compare the similarities and differences of the recent drought to previous and future droughts 5. Apply progress to address critical issues of importance to society Major progress is being made within each of these research areas. These coordinated studies furthermore represent an essential step towards our ultimate goal which is to better assess whether there will be more droughts in the future over this region due to climate change, what features these droughts will exhibit, and how we can best prepare for them. The focus of these activities is on changes to occur over the next several decades and significant progress is being made in addressing these issues as well. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview

  8. Hydroclimatological influences on recently increased droughts in China's largest freshwater lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Wu, G.

    2016-01-01

    Lake droughts are the consequence of climatic, hydrologic and anthropogenic influences. Quantification of droughts and estimation of the contributions from the individual factors are essential for understanding drought features and their causation structure. This is also important for policymakers to make effective adaption decisions, especially under changing climate. This study examines Poyang Lake, China's largest freshwater lake, which has been undergoing drastic hydrological alternation in the past decade. Standardized lake stage is used to identify and quantify the lake droughts, and hydroclimatic contributions are determined with a water budget analysis, in which absolute deficiency is defined in reference to normal hydrologic conditions. Our analyses demonstrate that in the past decade the lake droughts worsened in terms of duration, frequency, intensity and severity. Hydroclimatic contributions to each individual drought varied between droughts, and the overall contribution to the lake droughts in the past decade came from decreased inflow, increased outflow, and reduced precipitation and increased evapotranspiration in the lake region. The decreased inflow resulted mainly from reduced precipitation and less from increased evapotranspiration over the Poyang Lake basin. The increased outflow was attributable to the weakened blocking effects of the Yangtze River, which the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) established upstream. The TGD impoundments were not responsible for the increased number of drought events, but they may have intensified the droughts and changed the frequency of classified droughts. However, the TGD contribution is limited in comparison with hydroclimatic influences. Hence, the recently increased droughts were due to hydroclimatic effects, with a less important contribution from anthropogenic influences.

  9. Regulation of reactive oxygen species-mediated abscisic acid signaling in guard cells and drought tolerance by glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Munemasa, Shintaro; Muroyama, Daichi; Nagahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C.; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces stomatal closure in response to drought stress, leading to reduction of transpirational water loss. A thiol tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is an important regulator of cellular redox homeostasis in plants. Although it has been shown that cellular redox state of guard cells controls ABA-mediated stomatal closure, roles of GSH in guard cell ABA signaling were largely unknown. Recently we demonstrated that GSH functions as a negative regulator of ABA signaling in guard cells. In this study we performed more detailed analyses to reveal how GSH regulates guard cell ABA signaling using the GSH-deficient Arabidopsis mutant cad2-1. The cad2-1 mutant exhibited reduced water loss from rosette leaves. Whole-cell current recording using patch clamp technique revealed that the cad2-1 mutation did not affect ABA regulation of S-type anion channels. We found enhanced activation of Ca2+ permeable channels by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in cad2-1 guard cells. The cad2-1 mutant showed enhanced H2O2-induced stomatal closure and significant increase of ROS accumulation in whole leaves in response to ABA. Our findings provide a new understanding of guard cell ABA signaling and a new strategy to improve plant drought tolerance. PMID:24312112

  10. AtHSPR may function in salt-induced cell death and ER stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chongying

    2016-07-01

    Salt stress is a harmful and global abiotic stress to plants and has an adverse effect on all physiological processes of plants. Recently, we cloned and identified a novel AtHSPR (Arabidopsis thaliana Heat Shock Protein Related), which encodes a nuclear-localized protein with ATPase activity, participates in salt and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Transcript profiling analysis revealed a differential expression of genes involved in accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, stress response and photosynthesis between athspr mutant and WT under salt stress. Here, we provide further analysis of the data showing the regulation of salt-induced cell death and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in Arabidopsis and propose a hypothetical model for the role of AtHSPR in the regulation of the salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:27302034

  11. Ocimum sanctum leaf extract induces drought stress tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Veena; Ansari, M W; Tula, Suresh; Sahoo, R K; Bains, Gurdeep; Kumar, J; Tuteja, Narendra; Shukla, Alok

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum leaves are highly enriched in antioxidant components. Thus, its leaf extract, if applied in plants, is believed to efficiently scavenge ROS, thereby preventing oxidative damage under drought stress. Thus, the present study was performed in kharif 2013 and rabi 2014 season to evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum against drought stress in 2 rice genotype under glass house conditions. Here we show that various morpho- physiological (chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf rolling score, leaf tip burn, number of senesced leaves and total dry matter) and biochemical parameters (proline, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase content) were amended by Ocimum treatment in both the seasons. Application of Ocimum extract increased expression of dehydrin genes, while reducing expression of aquaporin genes in drought stressed rice plant. Thus, application of Ocimum leaf extract under drought stress can be suggested as a promising strategy to mitigate drought stress in economical, accessible and ecofriendly manner. PMID:26890603

  12. Impacts of drought and crayfish invasion on stream ecosystem structure and function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Drought and seasonal drying can be important disturbance events in many small streams, leading to intermittent or isolated habitats. Many small streams contain crayfish populations that are often keystone or dominant species in these systems. I conducted an experiment in stream mesocosms to examine the effects of drought and potential ecological redundancy of a native and invasive crayfish species. I examined the effects of drought (drought or control) and crayfish presence (none, native crayfish Orconectes eupunctus or invasive crayfish Orconectes neglectus) on stream mesocosm structure and function (leaf breakdown, community metabolism, periphyton, sediment and chironomid densities) in a fully factorial design. Each mesocosm contained a deep and shallow section, and drought treatments had surface water present (5-cm depth) in deep sections where tiles and leaf packs were placed. Drought and crayfish presence did not interact for any response variable. Drought significantly reduced leaf breakdown, and crayfish presence significantly increased leaf breakdown. However, the native and invasive crayfish species did not differ significantly in their effects on leaf breakdown. Drought significantly reduced primary production and community respiration overall, whereas crayfish presence did not significantly affect primary production and community respiration. Neither drought nor crayfish presence significantly affected periphyton overall. However, drought significantly reduced autotrophic index (AI), and crayfish presence increased AI. Inorganic sediment and chironomid density were not affected by drought, but both were significantly reduced by crayfish presence. O. eupunctus reduced AI and sediment more than O. neglectus did. Neither drought nor crayfish species significantly affected crayfish growth or survival. Drought can have strong effects on ecosystem function, but weaker effects on benthic structure. Crayfish can have strong effects on ecosystem

  13. Drought Risk Identification: Early Warning System of Seasonal Agrometeorological Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalecios, Nicolas; Spyropoulos, Nicos V.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    By considering drought as a hazard, drought types are classified into three categories, namely meteorological or climatological, agrometeorological or agricultural and hydrological drought and as a fourth class the socioeconomic impacts can be considered. This paper addresses agrometeorological drought affecting agriculture within the risk management framework. Risk management consists of risk assessment, as well as a feedback on the adopted risk reduction measures. And risk assessment comprises three distinct steps, namely risk identification, risk estimation and risk evaluation. This paper deals with the quantification and monitoring of agrometeorological drought, which constitute part of risk identification. For the quantitative assessment of agrometeorological or agricultural drought, as well as the computation of spatiotemporal features, one of the most reliable and widely used indices is applied, namely the Vegetation Health Index (VHI). The computation of VHI is based on satellite data of temperature and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The spatiotemporal features of drought, which are extracted from VHI are: areal extent, onset and end time, duration and severity. In this paper, a 20-year (1981-2001) time series of NOAA/AVHRR satellite data is used, where monthly images of VHI are extracted. Application is implemented in Thessaly, which is the major agricultural region of Greece characterized by vulnerable and drought-prone agriculture. The results show that every year there is a seasonal agrometeorological drought with a gradual increase in the areal extent and severity with peaks appearing usually during the summer. Drought monitoring is conducted by monthly remotely sensed VHI images. Drought early warning is developed using empirical relationships of severity and areal extent. In particular, two second-order polynomials are fitted, one for low and the other for high severity drought, respectively. The two fitted curves offer a seasonal

  14. Toward a Drought Cyberinfrastructure System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momtaz, Farshad; Nakhjiri, Navid; AghaKouchak, Amir

    2014-06-01

    Drought chokes ecosystems, strangles economies, and threatens human health [Wilhite, 2005]. In the United States, drought has recently forced states, including economic powerhouses like California and Texas, to declare a state of emergency. Complications such as an increase in fires, rising food prices, and water scarcity further compound the effects of drought [Pozzi et al., 2013; Hao et al., 2014].

  15. Drought, Mortality and Social Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Sanjay

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the human population explosion, resource depletion, drought, malnutrition, and disease. As a sample study, mortality trends in Rajasthan State in India in the 1980s were analyzed to correlate the increased death rate with the drought of 1987. It is demonstrated that drought-induced malnutrition was the root cause…

  16. Drought responses of flood-tolerant trees in Amazonian floodplains

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Pia; Lucas, Christine; Piedade, Maria Teresa F.; Wittmann, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Background Flood-tolerant tree species of the Amazonian floodplain forests are subjected to an annual dry period of variable severity imposed when low river-water levels coincide with minimal precipitation. Although the responses of these species to flooding have been examined extensively, their responses to drought, in terms of phenology, growth and physiology, have been neglected hitherto, although some information is found in publications that focus on flooding. Scope The present review examines the dry phase of the annual flooding cycle. It consolidates existing knowledge regarding responses to drought among adult trees and seedlings of many Amazonian floodplain species. Main Findings Flood-tolerant species display variable physiological responses to dry periods and drought that indicate desiccation avoidance, such as reduced photosynthetic activity and reduced root respiration. However, tolerance and avoidance strategies for drought vary markedly among species. Drought can substantially decrease growth, biomass and photosynthetic activity among seedlings in field and laboratory studies. When compared with the responses to flooding, drought can impose higher seedling mortality and slower growth rates, especially among evergreen species. Results indicate that tolerance and avoidance strategies for drought vary markedly between species. Both seedling recruitment and photosynthetic activity are affected by drought, Conclusions For many species, the effects of drought can be as important as flooding for survival and growth, particularly at the seedling phase of establishment, ultimately influencing species composition. In the context of climate change and predicted decreases in precipitation in the Amazon Basin, the effects of drought on plant physiology and species distribution in tropical floodplain forest ecosystems should not be overlooked. PMID:19880423

  17. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Yusa, Anna; Berry, Peter; Cheng, June J.; Ogden, Nicholas; Bonsal, Barrie; Stewart, Ronald; Waldick, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases). A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation) options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health. PMID:26193300

  18. Recovery of trees from drought depends on belowground sink control.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Frank; Joseph, Jobin; Peter, Martina; Luster, Jörg; Pritsch, Karin; Geppert, Uwe; Kerner, Rene; Molinier, Virginie; Egli, Simon; Schaub, Marcus; Liu, Jian-Feng; Li, Maihe; Sever, Krunoslav; Weiler, Markus; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Gessler, Arthur; Arend, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Climate projections predict higher precipitation variability with more frequent dry extremes(1). CO2 assimilation of forests decreases during drought, either by stomatal closure(2) or by direct environmental control of sink tissue activities(3). Ultimately, drought effects on forests depend on the ability of forests to recover, but the mechanisms controlling ecosystem resilience are uncertain(4). Here, we have investigated the effects of drought and drought release on the carbon balances in beech trees by combining CO2 flux measurements, metabolomics and (13)CO2 pulse labelling. During drought, net photosynthesis (AN), soil respiration (RS) and the allocation of recent assimilates below ground were reduced. Carbohydrates accumulated in metabolically resting roots but not in leaves, indicating sink control of the tree carbon balance. After drought release, RS recovered faster than AN and CO2 fluxes exceeded those in continuously watered trees for months. This stimulation was related to greater assimilate allocation to and metabolization in the rhizosphere. These findings show that trees prioritize the investment of assimilates below ground, probably to regain root functions after drought. We propose that root restoration plays a key role in ecosystem resilience to drought, in that the increased sink activity controls the recovery of carbon balances. PMID:27428669

  19. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  20. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Anna; Berry, Peter; J Cheng, June; Ogden, Nicholas; Bonsal, Barrie; Stewart, Ronald; Waldick, Ruth

    2015-07-01

    Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases). A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation) options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health. PMID:26193300

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana ggt1 photorespiratory mutants maintain leaf carbon/nitrogen balance by reducing RuBisCO content and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Dellero, Younès; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Jossier, Mathieu; Hodges, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic and physiological analyses of glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (GGT1) mutants were performed at the global leaf scale to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their photorespiratory growth phenotype. Air-grown ggt1 mutants showed retarded growth and development, that was not observed at high CO2 (3000 μL L(-1) ). When compared to wild-type (WT) plants, air-grown ggt1 plants exhibited glyoxylate accumulation, global changes in amino acid amounts including a decrease in serine content, lower organic acid levels, and modified ATP/ADP and NADP(+) /NADPH ratios. When compared to WT plants, their net CO2 assimilation rates (An ) were 50% lower and this mirrored decreases in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) contents. High CO2 -grown ggt1 plants transferred to air revealed a rapid decrease of An and photosynthetic electron transfer rate while maintaining a high energetic state. Short-term (a night period and 4 h of light) transferred ggt1 leaves accumulated glyoxylate and exhibited low serine contents, while other amino acid levels were not modified. RuBisCO content, activity and activation state were not altered after a short-term transfer while the ATP/ADP ratio was lowered in ggt1 rosettes. However, plant growth and RuBisCO levels were both reduced in ggt1 leaves after a long-term (12 days) acclimation to air from high CO2 when compared to WT plants. The data are discussed with respect to a reduced photorespiratory carbon recycling in the mutants. It is proposed that the low An limits nitrogen-assimilation, this decreases leaf RuBisCO content until plants attain a new homeostatic state that maintains a constant C/N balance and leads to smaller, slower growing plants. PMID:26216646

  2. A theoretical drought classification method for the multivariate drought index based on distribution properties of standardized drought indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zengchao; Hao, Fanghua; Singh, Vijay P.; Xia, Youlong; Ouyang, Wei; Shen, Xinyi

    2016-06-01

    Drought indices have been commonly used to characterize different properties of drought and the need to combine multiple drought indices for accurate drought monitoring has been well recognized. Based on linear combinations of multiple drought indices, a variety of multivariate drought indices have recently been developed for comprehensive drought monitoring to integrate drought information from various sources. For operational drought management, it is generally required to determine thresholds of drought severity for drought classification to trigger a mitigation response during a drought event to aid stakeholders and policy makers in decision making. Though the classification of drought categories based on the univariate drought indices has been well studied, drought classification method for the multivariate drought index has been less explored mainly due to the lack of information about its distribution property. In this study, a theoretical drought classification method is proposed for the multivariate drought index, based on a linear combination of multiple indices. Based on the distribution property of the standardized drought index, a theoretical distribution of the linear combined index (LDI) is derived, which can be used for classifying drought with the percentile approach. Application of the proposed method for drought classification of LDI, based on standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized soil moisture index (SSI), and standardized runoff index (SRI) is illustrated with climate division data from California, United States. Results from comparison with the empirical methods show a satisfactory performance of the proposed method for drought classification.

  3. A new indicator in early drought diagnosis of cucumber with chlorophyll fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Heng; Li, Haifeng; Xu, Liang; Liu, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Crop population growth information can more fully reflect the state of crop growth, eliminate individual differences, and reduce error in judgment. We have built a suitable plant population growth information online monitoring system with the plant chlorophyll fluorescence and spectral scanning imaging to get the crop growth status. On the basis of the fluorescence image detection, we have studied the early drought diagnosis of cucumber. The typical chlorophyll fluorescence parameters can not reflect the drought degree significantly. We define a new indication parameter (DI). With the drought deepening, DI declines. DI can enlarge the early manifestation of cucumber drought (3-5 days), indicate more significantly in the early drought diagnosis of cucumber.

  4. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin; Stagge, James Howard; Tallaksen, Lena M.; De Stefano, Lucia; Vogt, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, meant as the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work tests the capability of commonly applied drought indices and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and combines information on past drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This hybrid approach bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact prediction in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro-region-specific sensitivities of drought indices, with the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) for a 12-month accumulation period as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictors, with information about land use and water resources being the best vulnerability-based predictors. The application of the hybrid approach revealed strong regional and sector-specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of the best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer accumulation periods, and a combination of information on land use and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information with drought risk prediction

  5. Systems genetics reveals key genetic elements of drought induced gene regulation in diploid potato.

    PubMed

    van Muijen, Dennis; Anithakumari, A M; Maliepaard, Chris; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, C Gerard

    2016-09-01

    In plants, tolerance to drought stress is a result of numerous minor effect loci in which transcriptional regulation contributes significantly to the observed phenotypes. Under severe drought conditions, a major expression quantitative trait loci hotspot was identified on chromosome five in potato. A putative Nuclear factor y subunit C4 was identified as key candidate in the regulatory cascade in response to drought. Further investigation of the eQTL hotspots suggests a role for a putative Homeobox leucine zipper protein 12 in relation to drought in potato. Genes strongly co-expressed with Homeobox leucine zipper protein 12 were plant growth regulators responsive to water deficit stress in Arabidopsis thaliana, implying a possible conserved mechanism. Integrative analysis of genetic, genomic, phenotypic and transcriptomic data provided insights in the downstream functional components of the drought response. The abscisic acid- and environmental stress-inducible protein TAS14 was highly induced by severe drought in potato and acts as a reliable biomarker for the level of stress perceived by the plant. The systems genetics approach supported a role for multiple genes responsive to severe drought stress of Solanum tuberosum. The combination of gene regulatory networks, expression quantitative trait loci mapping and phenotypic analysis proved useful for candidate gene selection. PMID:27353051

  6. Recent progress in drought and salt tolerance studies in Brassica crops.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuekun; Lu, Guangyuan; Long, Weihua; Zou, Xiling; Li, Feng; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    Water deficit imposed by either drought or salinity brings about severe growth retardation and yield loss of crops. Since Brassica crops are important contributors to total oilseed production, it is urgently needed to develop tolerant cultivars to ensure yields under such adverse conditions. There are various physiochemical mechanisms for dealing with drought and salinity in plants at different developmental stages. Accordingly, different indicators of tolerance to drought or salinity at the germination, seedling, flowering and mature stages have been developed and used for germplasm screening and selection in breeding practices. Classical genetic and modern genomic approaches coupled with precise phenotyping have boosted the unravelling of genes and metabolic pathways conferring drought or salt tolerance in crops. QTL mapping of drought and salt tolerance has provided several dozen target QTLs in Brassica and the closely related Arabidopsis. Many drought- or salt-tolerant genes have also been isolated, some of which have been confirmed to have great potential for genetic improvement of plant tolerance. It has been suggested that molecular breeding approaches, such as marker-assisted selection and gene transformation, that will enhance oil product security under a changing climate be integrated in the development of drought- and salt-tolerant Brassica crops. PMID:24987291

  7. Recent progress in drought and salt tolerance studies in Brassica crops

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuekun; Lu, Guangyuan; Long, Weihua; Zou, Xiling; Li, Feng; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Water deficit imposed by either drought or salinity brings about severe growth retardation and yield loss of crops. Since Brassica crops are important contributors to total oilseed production, it is urgently needed to develop tolerant cultivars to ensure yields under such adverse conditions. There are various physiochemical mechanisms for dealing with drought and salinity in plants at different developmental stages. Accordingly, different indicators of tolerance to drought or salinity at the germination, seedling, flowering and mature stages have been developed and used for germplasm screening and selection in breeding practices. Classical genetic and modern genomic approaches coupled with precise phenotyping have boosted the unravelling of genes and metabolic pathways conferring drought or salt tolerance in crops. QTL mapping of drought and salt tolerance has provided several dozen target QTLs in Brassica and the closely related Arabidopsis. Many drought- or salt-tolerant genes have also been isolated, some of which have been confirmed to have great potential for genetic improvement of plant tolerance. It has been suggested that molecular breeding approaches, such as marker-assisted selection and gene transformation, that will enhance oil product security under a changing climate be integrated in the development of drought- and salt-tolerant Brassica crops. PMID:24987291

  8. Assessing future drought impacts on yields based on historical irrigation reaction to drought for four major crops in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyi; Lin, Xiaomao

    2016-04-15

    Evaluation of how historical irrigation reactions can adapt to future drought is indispensable to irrigation policy, however, such reactions are poorly quantified. In this paper, county-level irrigation data for maize, soybean, grain sorghum, and wheat crops in Kansas were compiled. Statistical models were developed to quantify changes of irrigation and yields in response to drought for each crop. These were then used to evaluate the ability of current irrigation to cope with future drought impacts on each crop based on an ensemble Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) prediction under the Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 scenario. Results indicate that irrigation in response to drought varies by crop; approximately 10 to 13% additional irrigation was applied when PDSI was reduced by one unit for maize, soybean, and grain sorghum. However, the irrigation reaction for wheat exhibits a large uncertainty, indicating a weaker irrigation reaction. Analysis of future climate conditions indicates that maize, soybean, and grain sorghum yields would decrease 2.2-12.4% at the state level despite additional irrigation application induced by drought (which was expected to increase 5.1-19.0%), suggesting that future drought will exceed the range that historical irrigation reactions can adapt to. In contrast, a lower reduction (-0.99 to -0.63%) was estimated for wheat yields because wetter climate was projected in the central section of the study area. Expanding wheat areas may be helpful in avoiding future drought risks for Kansas agriculture. PMID:26851757

  9. Spatiotemporal drought forecasting using nonlinear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Loukas, Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    Spatiotemporal data mining is the extraction of unknown and implicit knowledge, structures, spatiotemporal relationships, or patterns not explicitly stored in spatiotemporal databases. As one of data mining techniques, forecasting is widely used to predict the unknown future based upon the patterns hidden in the current and past data. In order to achieve spatiotemporal forecasting, some mature analysis tools, e.g., time series and spatial statistics are extended to the spatial dimension and the temporal dimension, respectively. Drought forecasting plays an important role in the planning and management of natural resources and water resource systems in a river basin. Early and timelines forecasting of a drought event can help to take proactive measures and set out drought mitigation strategies to alleviate the impacts of drought. Despite the widespread application of nonlinear mathematical models, comparative studies on spatiotemporal drought forecasting using different models are still a huge task for modellers. This study uses a promising approach, the Gamma Test (GT), to select the input variables and the training data length, so that the trial and error workload could be greatly reduced. The GT enables to quickly evaluate and estimate the best mean squared error that can be achieved by a smooth model on any unseen data for a given selection of inputs, prior to model construction. The GT is applied to forecast droughts using monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) timeseries at multiple timescales in several precipitation stations at Pinios river basin in Thessaly region, Greece. Several nonlinear models have been developed efficiently, with the aid of the GT, for 1-month up to 12-month ahead forecasting. Several temporal and spatial statistical indices were considered for the performance evaluation of the models. The predicted results show reasonably good agreement with the actual data for short lead times, whereas the forecasting accuracy decreases with

  10. Toward a Drought Cyberinfrastructure System for Improving Water Resource Management and Policy Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AghaKouchak, A.; Feldman, D.; Grant, S.; Farahmand, A.; Nakhjiri, N.; Momtaz, F.

    2014-12-01

    resource management in California. Furthermore, the presentation provides an overview of the information farmers need for better decision making and how GIDMaPS can be used to improve decision making and reducing drought impacts.

  11. Population Changes of Tylenchulus semipenetrans Under Localized Versus Uniform Drought in the Citrus Root Zone

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, L. W.; El-Morshedy, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Population development of Tylenchulus semipenetrans in dry soil was investigated in a greenhouse study. Citrus seedlings were grown in sandy soil in vertical tubes with upper and lower sections. Nematode population densities in the upper tubes were measured at 16, 23, and 37 days, post-treatment. Three treatments consisted of i) irrigating both tubes when soil water potential reached -1 5 kPa (non-drought), ii) irrigating only the bottom tube (local drought), and iii) no irrigation (uniform drought). Soil water potential in the upper tubes did not differ under local and uniform drought during the first 16 days post-treatment, when it approached - 125 kPa. Thereafter, the water potential of soil under uniform drought continued to decrease, while that under local drought stabilized at approximately -150 kPa. Treatments had no consistent effects on female T. semipenetrans counts from soil or roots. However, after 37 days, numbers of eggs, juvenile, and male nematodes per gram of root under local drought were more than 2.4-fold greater than those under non-drought or uniform drought. Numbers of juvenile and male nematodes in soil were 6.5 times higher under local drought than under non-drought after 37 days. Nematodes did not survive in soil under uniform drought. Most of the eggs recovered on each date, from roots under local and non-drought, hatched within 35 days. Sixteen days of uniform drought reduced cumulative egg hatch to 51%, and almost no eggs hatched after 23 and 37 days of uniform drought. Thus, the response of T. semipenetrans to dry soil is fundamentally different, depending on whether all or part of the rhizosphere experiences drought. These data and field observations suggest that hydraulic lift via the root xylem may prolong the activity of some nematodes and possibly other rhizosphere-inhabiting organisms in dry soil. PMID:19277154

  12. Drought vulnerability assessment for prioritising drought warning implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Gustavo; Faneca Sànchez, Marta; Mwangi, Emmah; Barbosa, Paulo; Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Werner, Micha

    2014-05-01

    Drought warning provides a potentially efficient approach to mitigation of drought impacts, and should be targeted at areas most vulnerable to being adversely impacted. Assessing drought vulnerability is, however, complex and needs to consider susceptibility to drought impact as well as the capacity to cope with drought. In this paper a Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI) is proposed that considers four primary components that reflect the capacity of society to adapt to drought; the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the available infrastructure and technology. The DVI is established as a weighted combination of these four components, each a composite of selected indicators. Constituent indicators are calculated based on national and/or regional census data and statistics, and while the resulting DVI should not be considered an absolute measure of drought vulnerability it does provide for a prioritisation of areas that can be used to target drought warning efforts. Sensitivity analysis of weights applied show the established DVI to be robust. Through the DVI the development of drought forecasting and warning can be targeted at the most vulnerable areas. The proposed DVI is applied at both the continental scale in Africa to assess drought vulnerability of the different nations across Africa, and at the national level in Kenya, allowing for prioritisation of the counties within Kenya to drought vulnerability. Results show the relative vulnerability of countries and counties vulnerable to drought. At the continental scale, Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad are found to be the countries most vulnerable to drought. At the national level, the relative vulnerability of the counties across Kenya is found, with counties in the North-East of Kenya having the highest values of DVI. At the country level results were compared with drought disaster information from the EM-DAT disaster database, showing a good

  13. Drought and alfalfa nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although established alfalfa can access deep subsoil water, dry topsoils limit the availability of many nutrients. Dry topsoils can limit the uptake of many plant nutrients. With the potential for drought in 2007, farmers should consider fertilizing alfalfa if the soil tends to be droughty, is shall...

  14. Developing drought tolerant plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought and heat are major environmental factors that limit agricultural productivity. Decreased availability of arable land for agricultural production, increased water demand for urban use, and declining aquifer levels are the primary constraints placed on food and fiber production now and in the ...

  15. Ranchers responding to drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thad Box, a distinguished rangeland professional, once said, “We continue to approach each new drought as if it is a disaster rather than the norm, ignoring the past, and paying only lip service to sustainable use of dry rangelands.” I guess it should not be surprising to continue to see below avera...

  16. AtMYB12 regulates flavonoids accumulation and abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feibing; Kong, Weili; Wong, Gary; Fu, Lifeng; Peng, Rihe; Li, Zhenjun; Yao, Quanhong

    2016-08-01

    In plants, transcriptional regulation is the most important tool for modulating flavonoid biosynthesis. The AtMYB12 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana has been shown to regulate the expression of key enzyme genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, leading to the increased accumulation of flavonoids. In this study, the codon-optimized AtMYB12 gene was chemically synthesized. Subcellular localization analysis in onion epidermal cells indicated that AtMYB12 was localized to the nucleus. Its overexpression significantly increased accumulation of flavonoids and enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that overexpression of AtMYB12 resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, proline biosynthesis, stress responses and ROS scavenging under salt and drought stresses. Further analyses under salt and drought stresses showed significant increases of ABA, proline content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, as well as significant reduction of H2O2 and malonaldehyde (MDA) content. The results demonstrate the explicit role of AtMYB12 in conferring salt and drought tolerance by increasing the levels of flavonoids and ABA in transgenic Arabidopsis. The AtMYB12 gene has the potential to be used to enhance tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. PMID:27033553

  17. Transgenic poplar expressing Arabidopsis YUCCA6 exhibits auxin-overproduction phenotypes and increased tolerance to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Ke, Qingbo; Wang, Zhi; Ji, Chang Yoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Li, Hongbing; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xiping; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-09-01

    YUCCA6, a member of the YUCCA family of flavin monooxygenase-like proteins, is involved in the tryptophan-dependent IAA biosynthesis pathway and responses to environmental cues in Arabidopsis. However, little is known about the role of the YUCCA pathway in auxin biosynthesis in poplar. Here, we generated transgenic poplar (Populus alba × P. glandulosa) expressing the Arabidopsis YUCCA6 gene under the control of the oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SY plants). Three SY lines (SY7, SY12 and SY20) were selected based on the levels of AtYUCCA6 transcript. SY plants displayed auxin-overproduction morphological phenotypes, such as rapid shoot growth and retarded main root development with increased root hair formation. In addition, SY plants had higher levels of free IAA and early auxin-response gene transcripts. SY plants exhibited tolerance to drought stress, which was associated with reduced levels of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, SY plants showed delayed hormone- and dark-induced senescence in detached leaves due to higher photosystem II efficiency and less membrane permeability. These results suggest that the conserved IAA biosynthesis pathway mediated by YUCCA family members exists in poplar. PMID:25980973

  18. Physiological and Molecular Assessment of Altered Expression of Hsc70-1 in Arabidopsis. Evidence for Pleiotropic Consequences1

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Dong Yul; Guy, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    Hsp70s function as molecular chaperones. The protective chaperone activities of hsp70 help to confer tolerance to heat, glucose deprivation, and drought. Overexpression of hsp70s in many organisms correlates with enhanced thermotolerance, altered growth, and development. To better understand the roles of hsp70 proteins in Arabidopsis, the molecular and physiological consequences of altered expression of the major heat shock cognate, Hsc70-1, were analyzed. Extensive efforts to achieve underexpression of Hsc70-1 mRNA using a full-length antisense cDNA resulted in no viable transgenic plants, suggesting that reduced expression is lethal. Constitutive overexpression of Hsc70-1 also appeared to be deleterious to viability, growth, and development because fewer transformants were recovered, and most were dwarfed with altered root systems. Despite being dwarfed, the overexpression plants progressed normally through four selected developmental stages. Heat treatment revealed that Hsc70-1 overexpression plants were more tolerant to heat shock (44°C for 10 min). The elevated basal levels of HSC70-1 in transgenic plants led to delayed heat shock response of several heat shock genes. The data in this study suggest that tight regulation of Hsc70-1 expression is critical for the viability of Arabidopsis and that the functions of HSC70-1 contribute to optimum growth, development, thermotolerance, and regulation of the heat shock response. PMID:12805626

  19. Management, Drought, and Fire Interact to Pre-Adapt an Eastern Bolivian Forest to Disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenkin, A.; Putz, F. "

    2012-12-01

    Logging, drought, and fire are considered to be among the largest threats facing Amazonian forests. While interactions between two of these three threats have been investigated, interactions between all three have yet to be reported. We hypothesized that logging pre-adapts forests to drought by selecting for drought-tolerant species in gaps and skid trails; that drought most severely affects trees with exposed crowns; that fires kill mostly small trees and those with thin bark; and, that the interaction of these three factors pushes forests towards a smaller-statured and lower basal-area forest that is drought- and fire-tolerant. To address these hypotheses, we complemented a 12-year biennially-censused silvicultural experimental plots that were partially burned in 2004 with a seedling drought-tolerance experiment, bark-thickness measurements, and measurements of seedling survival during the most severe drought in at least 50 years. We find that drought-tolerant seedlings have only slightly higher survival rates than drought-intolerants as climatological water deficit increases, but drought-tolerants survive substantially better than drought-intolerant seedlings in logging gaps and skid-trails, thereby pre-adapting the community of tree species to future droughts. We confirm previous findings that emergent and dominant adult trees suffer more than from drought than co-dominant and sub-canopy trees, and that fire kills mostly small and thin barked trees. Combined, drought and fire tend to reduce forest stature. Overall, we confirmed that logging, drought, and fire pushed this forest towards one that, while reduced in height and basal area, is better adapted to future disturbances.

  20. The Wheat GT Factor TaGT2L1D Negatively Regulates Drought Tolerance and Plant Development

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xin; Liu, Haipei; Ji, Hongtao; Wang, Youning; Dong, Baodi; Qiao, Yunzhou; Liu, Mengyu; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    GT factors are trihelix transcription factors that specifically regulate plant development and stress responses. Recently, several GT factors have been characterized in different plant species; however, little is known about the role of GT factors in wheat. Here, we show that TaGT2L1A, TaGT2L1B, and TaGT2L1D are highly homologous in hexaploid wheat, and are localized to wheat chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 2D, respectively. These TaGT2L1 genes encode proteins containing two SANT domains and one central helix. All three homologs were ubiquitously expressed during wheat development and were responsive to osmotic stress. Functional analyses demonstrated that TaGT2L1D acts as a transcriptional repressor; it was able to suppress the expression of AtSDD1 in Arabidopsis by binding directly to the GT3 box in its promoter that negatively regulates drought tolerance. TaGT2L1D overexpression markedly increased the number of stomata and reduced drought tolerance in gtl1-3 plants. Notably, ectopic expression of TaGT2L1D also affected floral organ development and overall plant growth. These results demonstrate that TaGT2L1 is an ortholog of AtGTL1, and that it plays an evolutionarily conserved role in drought resistance by fine tuning stomatal density in wheat. Our data also highlight the role of TaGT2L1 in plant growth and development. PMID:27245096

  1. The Wheat GT Factor TaGT2L1D Negatively Regulates Drought Tolerance and Plant Development.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Liu, Haipei; Ji, Hongtao; Wang, Youning; Dong, Baodi; Qiao, Yunzhou; Liu, Mengyu; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    GT factors are trihelix transcription factors that specifically regulate plant development and stress responses. Recently, several GT factors have been characterized in different plant species; however, little is known about the role of GT factors in wheat. Here, we show that TaGT2L1A, TaGT2L1B, and TaGT2L1D are highly homologous in hexaploid wheat, and are localized to wheat chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 2D, respectively. These TaGT2L1 genes encode proteins containing two SANT domains and one central helix. All three homologs were ubiquitously expressed during wheat development and were responsive to osmotic stress. Functional analyses demonstrated that TaGT2L1D acts as a transcriptional repressor; it was able to suppress the expression of AtSDD1 in Arabidopsis by binding directly to the GT3 box in its promoter that negatively regulates drought tolerance. TaGT2L1D overexpression markedly increased the number of stomata and reduced drought tolerance in gtl1-3 plants. Notably, ectopic expression of TaGT2L1D also affected floral organ development and overall plant growth. These results demonstrate that TaGT2L1 is an ortholog of AtGTL1, and that it plays an evolutionarily conserved role in drought resistance by fine tuning stomatal density in wheat. Our data also highlight the role of TaGT2L1 in plant growth and development. PMID:27245096

  2. THI1, a Thiamine Thiazole Synthase, Interacts with Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinase CPK33 and Modulates the S-Type Anion Channels and Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Long; Wang, Mei; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Chen, Dong-Hua; Lv, Hong-Jun; Shen, Jian-Lin; Qiao, Zhu; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Thiamine is required for both plant growth and development. Here, the involvement of a thiamine thiazole synthase, THI1, has been demonstrated in both guard cell abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and the drought response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). THI1 overexpressors proved to be more sensitive to ABA than the wild type with respect to both the activation of guard cell slow type anion channels and stomatal closure; this effectively reduced the rate of water loss from the plant and thereby enhanced its level of drought tolerance. A yeast two-hybrid strategy was used to screen a cDNA library from epidermal strips of leaves for THI1 regulatory factors, and identified CPK33, a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase, as interactor with THI1 in a plasma membrane-delimited manner. Loss-of-function cpk33 mutants were hypersensitive to ABA activation of slow type anion channels and ABA-induced stomatal closure, while the CPK33 overexpression lines showed opposite phenotypes. CPK33 kinase activity was essential for ABA-induced stomatal closure. Consistent with their contrasting regulatory role over stomatal closure, THI1 suppressed CPK33 kinase activity in vitro. Together, our data reveal a novel regulatory role of thiamine thiazole synthase to kinase activity in guard cell signaling. PMID:26662273

  3. Developing Drought Outlook Forums in Support of a Regional Drought Early Warning Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcnutt, C. A.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Darby, L. S.; Verdin, J. P.; Webb, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-430) charged NIDIS with developing the leadership and partnerships necessary to implement an integrated national drought monitoring and forecasting system that creates a drought "early warning system". The drought early warning information system should be capable of providing accurate, timely and integrated information on drought conditions at the relevant spatial scale to facilitate proactive decisions aimed at minimizing the economic, social and ecosystem losses associated with drought. As part of this effort, NIDIS has held Regional Drought Outlook Forums in several regions of the U.S. The purpose of the Forums is to inform practices that reduce vulnerability to drought through an interactive and collaborative process that includes the users of the information. The Forums have focused on providing detailed assessments of present conditions and impacts, comparisons with past drought events, and seasonal predictions including discussion of the state and expected evolution of the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena. Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) that include close interaction between information providers and users are not a new concept, however. RCOFs started in Africa in the 1990s in response to the 1997-98 El Niño and have since expanded to South America, Asia, the Pacific islands, and the Caribbean. As a result of feedback from the RCOFs a large body of research has gone into improving seasonal forecasts and the capacity of the users to apply the information in a way that improves their decision-making. Over time, it has become clear that more is involved than just improving the interaction between the climate forecasters and decision-makers. NIDIS is using the RCOF approach as one component in a larger effort to develop Regional Drought Early Warning Information Systems (RDEWS) around the U.S. Using what has been learned over the past decade in the RCOF process

  4. Drought, Water Scarcity and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lanen, H. A. J.; Tallaksen, L. M.; Stahl, K.; van Loon, A. F.; van Huijgevoort, M. H. J.; Corzo Perez, G. A.; Wanders, N.

    2012-04-01

    -scale models were compared with the observed trends and the results showed that the ensemble mean outperforms individual models. Maps displaying the model ensemble mean annual trend will be presented, which confirm the well-known pattern of contrasting trends in Europe (positive trends in northwest, negative trends in south and southeast). Positive (wetter) trends were slightly exaggerated, whereas negative (drier) trends were underestimated. Imperfect representation of stores in river basins causes a rather large spread of trends in monthly summer flows and low flow among the large-scale models. Together these studies confirm the importance of river basin characteristics in the transformation of meteorological into hydrological drought and the need for global hydrological models to improve on their process representation during dry period. Moreover, the debate on promising land and water management options to reduce future water scarcity and vulnerability to drought still has to face substantial uncertainties in model estimates.

  5. Use of climate information for drought risk management in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, C.; Magaña Rueda, V.

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of meteorological droughts in Mexico has brought to light the large vulnerability of the central-northern part of the country to water shortages. This region is facing current and future water shortages due to the increased demand of water from urban growth in addition to droughts. Assessing droughts requires considering long-term losses and side effects. However, governments generally invest little resources in the creation of drought risk reduction programs, even in regions where droughts have been documented in historical records, such as in the northern region of Mexico. It is not clear until now, what is our capacity to predict droughts on seasonal time scale, and even the Drought Monitor for North America not always reflect the severity of the condition at the regional level. An analysis of strategies that focus on droughts show that one of the principal limits in the management of drought risks and preventive decision making is the use of inadequate definitions of drought predictability. In addition, the means to communicate confidence in seasonal climate forecasts has inhibited the use of climate information in the planning of various socioeconomic activities. Although some sectors such as agriculture have programs to reduce the impacts of drought, their efforts have focused in providing subsidies to get along with dry conditions. In other words, there are no actions to reduce the potential impacts of drought. The characterization of the vulnerability of water user groups, particularly in Sonora as case of study, has been useful to identifying what type of climate information decision makers needed. This information will be included in a proposal of a drought early warming for Mexico. A key element in a drought early warming for Mexico is the development of reliable climate information and the use of indicators to determine of the onset, maximum intensity and duration of the event. The occurrence and severity of drought may be estimated using

  6. Drought definitions and processes: how do humans fit in?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, Anne; Van Lanen, Henny; Gleeson, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Drought is commonly defined as a temporary lack of water compared to normal conditions. In the traditional definition used in the natural sciences (climate science, hydrology, earth science) only natural drivers are included and the human effect on water resources is excluded. Drought impact studies, however, using observed crop yields, wildfire data, reservoir information, etc., can hardy make this division. The interdisciplinarity of drought asks for a broader definition that considers the interplay between the hazard, impacts and management. In flood research, human effects on the volume and timing of the flood event are traditionally taken into account and there is the awareness that human factors like channel modification, land surface changes and water supply engineering can both intensify and reduce flooding. Drought researchers can learn from the flooding community and try to elucidate the effects of human factors on drought duration and severity. This is not only a necessary step to answer relevant societal questions in the anthropocene, but also the IAHS Panta Rhei initiative urges hydrologists to include the connection with human systems. We propose a paradigm shift in the definition of drought, namely to expand it to include the effects of human action. Here, we will present a conceptual diagram that will do justice to the interdisciplinarity of drought. We will discuss the complex interconnected system of climate - hydrology - society - ecosystem and which processes in that system are most relevant to take into consideration when studying drought. The revised definition provides recognition and a common ground to researchers in all fields of research and is better aligned with drought impacts and with stakeholders' and policy maker's views on drought. We will also go into some of the pitfalls and challenges that come with applying this revised definition. For example, the natural and human-induced processes related to drought can have different scales

  7. β-amylase 1 (BAM1) degrades transitory starch to sustain proline biosynthesis during drought stress.

    PubMed

    Zanella, Martina; Borghi, Gian Luca; Pirone, Claudia; Thalmann, Matthias; Pazmino, Diana; Costa, Alex; Santelia, Diana; Trost, Paolo; Sparla, Francesca

    2016-03-01

    During photosynthesis of higher plants, absorbed light energy is converted into chemical energy that, in part, is accumulated in the form of transitory starch within chloroplasts. In the following night, transitory starch is mobilized to sustain the heterotrophic metabolism of the plant. β-amylases are glucan hydrolases that cleave α-1,4-glycosidic bonds of starch and release maltose units from the non-reducing end of the polysaccharide chain. In Arabidopsis, nocturnal degradation of transitory starch involves mainly β-amylase-3 (BAM3). A second β-amylase isoform, β-amylase-1 (BAM1), is involved in diurnal starch degradation in guard cells, a process that sustains stomata opening. However, BAM1 also contributes to diurnal starch turnover in mesophyll cells under osmotic stress. With the aim of dissecting the role of β-amylases in osmotic stress responses in Arabidopsis, mutant plants lacking either BAM1 or BAM3 were subject to a mild (150mM mannitol) and prolonged (up to one week) osmotic stress. We show here that leaves of osmotically-stressed bam1 plants accumulated more starch and fewer soluble sugars than both wild-type and bam3 plants during the day. Moreover, bam1 mutants were impaired in proline accumulation and suffered from stronger lipid peroxidation, compared with both wild-type and bam3 plants. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that carbon skeletons deriving from BAM1 diurnal degradation of transitory starch support the biosynthesis of proline required to face the osmotic stress. We propose the transitory-starch/proline interplay as an interesting trait to be tackled by breeding technologies aimingto improve drought tolerance in relevant crops. PMID:26792489

  8. Positive and negative feedbacks among Amazon land uses, drought, and fire: the drought of 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepstad, D.; Brando, P.; Soares-Filho, B.; Balch, J.; Moutinho, P.

    2006-12-01

    Climate, rural economies, and ecosystems are connected in the Amazon basin through complex interactions with important implications for greenhouse gas fluxes, biodiversity, and the well-being of rural people. In the historically severe drought of 2005, drought-induced tree mortality and fire-dependent land uses (cattle ranching, swidden agriculture) favored forest fire as it increased the likelihood of further drought. Regions with fire-sensitive investments in the landscape, including improved cattle forage, agroforestry systems, and forest management, were also regions of high investments in the prevention of accidental fire, and experienced low levels of forest fire, in a negative feedback cycle. Some areas of agroindustrial production(cultivated soy) also experienced low forest fire occurrence because of the low flammability of crop fields. The combination of drought- and fire-induced carbon emissions can approach one billion tons in years of severe drought. The negative feedbacks between some types of land use and forest fire could substantially reduce these emissions in the short term.

  9. Functional traits predict drought performance and distribution of Mediterranean woody species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Iglesias, Bárbara; Villar, Rafael; Poorter, Lourens

    2014-04-01

    Water availability is one of the key environmental factors that affect plant establishment and distribution. In many regions water availability will decline with climate change, exposing small seedlings to a greater likelihood of drought. In this study, 17 leaves, stem, root, and whole-plant traits of ten woody Mediterranean species were measured under favourable growing conditions and seedling drought survival was evaluated during a simulated dry-down episode. The aims of this study were: i) to assess drought survival of different species, ii) to analyse which functional traits predict drought survival time, and iii) to explain species distribution in the field, based on species drought survival and drought strategies. Drought survival time varied ten-fold across species, from 19 to 192 days. Across species, drought survival was positively related to the rooting depth per leaf area, i.e., the ability to acquire water from deeper soil layers while reducing transpiring leaf area. Drought survival time was negatively related to species ability to grow quickly, as indicated by high relative growth and net assimilation rates. Drought survival also explained species distribution in the field. It was found that species were sorted along a continuum, ranging between two contrasting species functional extremes based on functional traits and drought performance. One extreme consisted of acquisitive fast-growing deciduous species, with thin, soft metabolically active leaves, with high resource use and vulnerability to drought. The opposite extreme consisted of conservative slow-growing evergreen species with sclerophyllous leaves, deep roots, a low transpiring area, and low water use, resulting in high drought survival and drought tolerance. The results show that these drought strategies shape species distribution in this Mediterranean area.

  10. Plasma membrane receptor-like kinase leaf panicle 2 acts downstream of the DROUGHT AND SALT TOLERANCE transcription factor to regulate drought sensitivity in rice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fuqing; Sheng, Peike; Tan, Junjie; Chen, Xiuling; Lu, Guangwen; Ma, Weiwei; Heng, Yueqin; Lin, Qibing; Zhu, Shanshan; Wang, Jiulin; Wang, Jie; Guo, Xiuping; Zhang, Xin; Lei, Cailin; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a recurring climatic hazard that reduces the crop yields. To avoid the negative effects of drought on crop production, extensive efforts have been devoted to investigating the complex mechanisms of gene expression and signal transduction during drought stress. Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) play important roles in perceiving extracellular stimuli and activating downstream signalling responses. The rice genome contains >1100 RLK genes, of which only two are reported to function in drought stress. A leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-RLK gene named Leaf Panicle 2 (LP2) was previously found to be strongly expressed in leaves and other photosynthetic tissues, but its function remains unclear. In the present study, it was shown that the expression of LP2 was down-regulated by drought and abscisic acid (ABA). Transgenic plants overexpressing LP2 accumulated less H2O2, had more open stomata in leaves, and showed hypersensitivity to drought stress. Further investigation revealed that transcription of LP2 was directly regulated by the zinc finger transcription factor DROUGHT AND SALT TOLERANCE (DST). In addition, LP2 was identified as a functional kinase localized to the plasma membrane and interacted with the drought-responsive aquaporin proteins OsPIP1; 1, OsPIP1; 3, and OsPIP2; 3. Thus, the findings provided evidence that the LRR-RLK LP2, transcriptionally regulated by the drought-related transcription factor DST, served as a negative regulator in drought response. PMID:25385766

  11. Plasma membrane receptor-like kinase leaf panicle 2 acts downstream of the DROUGHT AND SALT TOLERANCE transcription factor to regulate drought sensitivity in rice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuqing; Sheng, Peike; Tan, Junjie; Chen, Xiuling; Lu, Guangwen; Ma, Weiwei; Heng, Yueqin; Lin, Qibing; Zhu, Shanshan; Wang, Jiulin; Wang, Jie; Guo, Xiuping; Zhang, Xin; Lei, Cailin; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a recurring climatic hazard that reduces the crop yields. To avoid the negative effects of drought on crop production, extensive efforts have been devoted to investigating the complex mechanisms of gene expression and signal transduction during drought stress. Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) play important roles in perceiving extracellular stimuli and activating downstream signalling responses. The rice genome contains >1100 RLK genes, of which only two are reported to function in drought stress. A leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-RLK gene named Leaf Panicle 2 (LP2) was previously found to be strongly expressed in leaves and other photosynthetic tissues, but its function remains unclear. In the present study, it was shown that the expression of LP2 was down-regulated by drought and abscisic acid (ABA). Transgenic plants overexpressing LP2 accumulated less H₂O₂, had more open stomata in leaves, and showed hypersensitivity to drought stress. Further investigation revealed that transcription of LP2 was directly regulated by the zinc finger transcription factor DROUGHT AND SALT TOLERANCE (DST). In addition, LP2 was identified as a functional kinase localized to the plasma membrane and interacted with the drought-responsive aquaporin proteins OsPIP1; 1, OsPIP1; 3, and OsPIP2; 3. Thus, the findings provided evidence that the LRR-RLK LP2, transcriptionally regulated by the drought-related transcription factor DST, served as a negative regulator in drought response. PMID:25385766

  12. Evaluating the Response of the Terrestrial Biosphere to Significant Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiach, I.; Baker, I. T.; Denning, A.

    2011-12-01

    The response of terrestrial fluxes of energy, water, and carbon to drought is evaluated. Major droughts should be clearly evident in reanalyzed precipitation data, although this is not always the case. With reduced precipitation we can expect a suppression in Gross Primary Photosynthesis (GPP) if physiological stress is sufficient, with atttendant changes in energy partitioning due to stomatal closure. There may also be a response in respiratory release of CO2 with temperature increase. This study aimed to investigate the behavior of the terrestrial biosphere using the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB3) during and following times of drought and to identify any model responses inconsistent with observational relationships. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was evaluated from 1983 to 2006 in order to evaluate historical drought maps, and to facilitate a qualitative analysis of modeled drought behavior. Standardized and raw anomaly maps were produced for modeled physiological variables (GPP, transpiration, respiration, heat fluxes, carbon flux, and stress factors) in order to determine general response patterns for comparison with observations. The SiB model was determined to be generally accurate in its representation of significant drought, with regard to perturbations in Bowen ratio, GPP, and CO2 respiration. However, model response was heterogeneous, and did not always respond in a manner consistent with published descriptions of drought.

  13. Dual controls on carbon loss during drought in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongjun; Richardson, Curtis J.; Ho, Mengchi

    2015-06-01

    Peatlands store one-third of global soil carbon. Drought/drainage coupled with climate warming present the main threat to these stores. Hence, understanding drought effects and inherent feedbacks related to peat decomposition has been a primary global challenge. However, widely divergent results concerning drought in recent studies challenge the accepted paradigm that waterlogging and associated anoxia are the overarching controls locking up carbon stored in peat. Here, by linking field and microcosm experiments, we show how previously unrecognized mechanisms regulate the build-up of phenolics, which protects stored carbon directly by reducing phenol oxidase activity during short-term drought and, indirectly, through a shift from low-phenolic Sphagnum/herbs to high-phenolic shrubs after long-term moderate drought. We demonstrate that shrub expansion induced by drought/warming in boreal peatlands might be a long-term self-adaptive mechanism not only increasing carbon sequestration but also potentially protecting historic soil carbon. We therefore propose that the projected `positive feedback loop’ between carbon emission and drought in peatlands may not occur in the long term.

  14. Drought in the Rockies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the difference between the amount of vegetation in July 2000 and the average July vegetation for North America. Of particular interest are the dry conditions in the western United States. This spring and summer the Rocky Mountains have been relatively dry, and the brown regions stretching from the Canadian to the Mexican border, indicate the effect on the regions' forests. Western Montana and eastern Idaho are particularly parched, and appear darker brown. The dry conditions have contributed to this year's devastating fire season, during which millions of acres have burned in the west. Scientists find that during the growing season, land plants can be used to measure drought. Healthy, thriving plants reflect and absorb visible and near-infrared light differently than plants under stress. These variations in reflectance and absorption can be measured by satellites to produce maps of healthy and stressed vegetation. This image shows Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomaly, which indicates where vegetation growth was above average (green pixels), below average (brown pixels), or normal (white pixels). For more images and information about measuring vegetation and drought from space visit: Drought and Vegetation Monitoring. Image courtesy NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Biospheric Sciences Branch, based on data from NOAA.

  15. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  16. System robustness analysis for drought risk management in South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilander, D.; Bouwer, L.; Barnes, J.; Mens, M.; Obeysekera, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is a frequently returning natural hazard in Florida, with at least one severe drought to be expected every decade. These droughts have had many impacts such as loss of agricultural products, inadequate public water supply and salt water intrusion into freshwater aquifers. Furthermore, climate change projections for South Florida suggest that dry spells are likely to be more frequent and prolonged, with negative impacts on water supply management for all users. In this study a System Robustness Analysis was conducted in order to analyse the effectiveness of strategies to limit the socio-economic impact of droughts under climate change. System Robustness Analysis (SRA) aims to support decision making by quantifying how well a system, with and without additional measures, can remain functioning under a range of external disturbances. Two system characteristics add up to system robustness: Resistance is the ability to withstand disturbances without responding (zero impact), and resilience is the ability to recover from the response to a disturbance. SRA can help to provide insight into the sensitivity of a system to changing magnitudes of extreme weather events. A regional-scale hydrologic and water management model is used to simulate the effect of changing precipitation and evaporation forcing on agricultural and urban water supply and demand in South Florida. The complex water management operational rules including water use restrictions are simulated in the model. Based on model runs with a various climate scenarios, drought events with a wide range of severity are identified and for each event the socio-economic impacts are determined. Here, a drought is defined as a reduced streamflow in the upstream Kissimmee basin, which contributes most to Lake Okeechobee, the major surface water storage in the system. The drought severity is characterized by the maximum drought deficit volume. Drought impacts are analyzed for several users in Miami Dade County. From

  17. Effects of drought on characters related to nitrogen fixation in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve peanut genotypes were tested under three water regimes in two greenhouses to investigate the effects of drought on biomass production and N2 fixation. Drought reduced biomass production from 36.5 to 56.0% and reduced nitrogen fixation from 26.8 to 68.8%. Most genotypes with high biomass produ...

  18. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ). PMID:26579187

  19. Genetics of water use physiology in locally adapted Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Julius P; Mullen, Jack; Lovell, John T; Monroe, J Grey; Paul, John R; Oakley, Christopher G; McKay, John K

    2016-10-01

    Identifying the genetic basis of adaptation to climate has long been a goal in evolutionary biology and has applications in agriculture. Adaptation to drought represents one important aspect of local adaptation, and drought is the major factor limiting agricultural yield. We examined local adaptation between Sweden and Italy Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes, which show contrasting levels of water availability in their local environments. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling water use physiology traits and adaptive trait QTL (genomic regions where trait QTL and fitness QTL colocalize), we performed QTL mapping on 374F9 recombinant inbred lines in well-watered and terminal drought conditions. We found 72 QTL (32 in well-watered, 31 in drought, 9 for plasticity) across five water use physiology traits: δ(13)C, rosette area, dry rosette weight, leaf water content and percent leaf nitrogen. Some of these genomic regions colocalize with fitness QTL and with other physiology QTL in defined hotspots. In addition, we found evidence of both constitutive and inducible water use physiology QTL. Finally, we identified highly divergent candidate genes, in silico. Our results suggest that many genes with minor effects may influence adaptation through water use physiology and that pleiotropic water use physiology QTL have fitness consequences. PMID:27593459

  20. Drought impact on forest carbon dynamics and fluxes in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Metcalfe, D. B.; Girardin, C. A. J.; Amézquita, F. Farfán; Cabrera, D. Galiano; Huasco, W. Huaraca; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Araujo-Murakami, A.; da Costa, M. C.; Rocha, W.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Mendoza, A. L. M.; da Costa, A. C. L.; Meir, P.; Phillips, O. L.; Malhi, Y.

    2015-03-01

    In 2005 and 2010 the Amazon basin experienced two strong droughts, driven by shifts in the tropical hydrological regime possibly associated with global climate change, as predicted by some global models. Tree mortality increased after the 2005 drought, and regional atmospheric inversion modelling showed basin-wide decreases in CO2 uptake in 2010 compared with 2011 (ref. 5). But the response of tropical forest carbon cycling to these droughts is not fully understood and there has been no detailed multi-site investigation in situ. Here we use several years of data from a network of thirteen 1-ha forest plots spread throughout South America, where each component of net primary production (NPP), autotrophic respiration and heterotrophic respiration is measured separately, to develop a better mechanistic understanding of the impact of the 2010 drought on the Amazon forest. We find that total NPP remained constant throughout the drought. However, towards the end of the drought, autotrophic respiration, especially in roots and stems, declined significantly compared with measurements in 2009 made in the absence of drought, with extended decreases in autotrophic respiration in the three driest plots. In the year after the drought