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Sample records for arachidonic acid-induced ear

  1. Extract and compounds obtained from Mandevilla velutina inhibit arachidonic acid-induced ear oedema in mice, but not rat stomach contraction.

    PubMed

    Calixto, J B; Zanini Júnior, J C; Cruz, A B; Yunes, R A; Medeiros, Y S

    1991-05-01

    This study was designed to analyse the effect of crude extract (CE) and some pure compounds isolated from M. velutina on arachidonic acid (AA)-induced ear oedema in mice. The effect of these compounds on contractions in the rat stomach induced by AA and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was also investigated. The CE given orally to mice (50-400 mg/kg) 1h before inhibited the ear oedema in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximal inhibition (MI) of 56%. Given topically, compound MV8612 (200-600 mg/ear) isolated from this plant inhibited the oedema in a concentration-dependent manner with a MI of 66%, while compounds MV8608 and MV8610 (100-600 mg/ear) caused less inhibition, MI 29% and 39% respectively. Compound MV8612, given i.p. (3-30 mg/kg) 30 min before, also caused a dose-dependent inhibition of AA-induced ear oedema (MI of 60.5% compared with 28% and 49% for MV8608 and MV8610). Indomethacin (0.25-1.0 mg/ear) applied topically had no effect, but orally (1-10 mg/kg) gave MI of 66%. Phenidone given orally (10-100 mg/kg) gave a MI of 30% but it was very potent topically (0.5-2 mg/ear) (MI 66%). Nordihydroguaiaretic acid applied either topically (0.5-2.0 mg/ear) or orally (10-100 mg/kg) caused MI of 63% and 47%, respectively. BW 755C, orally (10-100 mg/kg), inhibited the AA-induced oedema in a dose-dependent manner (MI 48%), but was less effective when applied topically (0.25-1 mg/ear) (MI 32%). In the rat stomach preparation, compounds MV8608 and MV8612 (0.1-20 micrograms/ml) had no significant effect on contractions to AA or PGE2, while indomethacin (0.01-3 micrograms/ml) potently inhibited AA contraction, but had no effect on the PGE2 response. These results indicate that MV8608 and MV8612 exhibit both a topical and a systemic anti-inflammatory profile, presumably by a mechanism not related to inhibition of cyclooxygenase. PMID:1907393

  2. Arachidonic acid-induced inflammation: inhibition by dual inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism, SK&F 86002.

    PubMed

    Griswold, D E; Webb, E; Schwartz, L; Hanna, N

    1987-06-01

    The antiinflammatory activity of the structurally novel dual inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism, SK&F 86002 was evaluated using arachidonic acid-induced edema and inflammatory cell infiltration. Histological examination demonstrated extensive subcutaneous edema and neutrophil (PMN) accumulation in perivascular and interstitial locations one hour after application of arachidonic acid to the ear. SK&F 86002 and, to a lesser extent, phenidone demonstrated potent inhibition of this inflammatory response following oral and topical administration. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) displayed only topical activity. The selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors ibuprofen and naproxen were either inactive or stimulated ear swelling. Histological evaluation of the lesion in drug-treated animals revealed that SK&F 86002 impaired edema formation and caused a significant reduction in numbers of infiltrating neutrophils. Using arachidonic acid-induced peritoneal exudation, a reduction in the cellular infiltrate was observed after oral treatment with SK&F 86002 or phenidone, but not with naproxen. Taken together, these data illustrate the potent antiinflammatory effects of SK&F 86002 and support the suggestion that 5-lipoxygenase products play a significant role in both the edematous and cellular phases of arachidonic acid-induced inflammation. PMID:3108157

  3. Arachidonic acid-induced pleurisy (ARIP): an in vivo model for testing 5-lipoxygenase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Boctor, A M; Burke, C; Hovinga, M E

    1987-12-01

    Arachidonic acid-induced pleurisy in the rat was evaluated for testing inhibitors of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. The model involves the administration of AA intrapleurally and the determination of LTB4 and PGE2 as indicators of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activities in the exudate/wash. This model is suitable for the in vivo evaluation of potential inhibitors of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway but not the cyclooxygenase pathway of AA cascade. PMID:2831442

  4. Effect of acetylsalicylic acid on glutathione consumption and hexose monophosphate shunt during arachidonic acid induced stimulation of human blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Lösche, W; Pescarmona, G P; Hofmann, J; Bosia, A; Arese, P; Thielmann, K; Till, U

    1984-01-01

    Aggregation of human blood platelets by exogenous arachidonic acid is accompanied by a powerful increase in the net flux through the hexose monophosphate shunt and a decrease of the level of reduced glutathione. When platelet cyclooxygenase is inhibited by acetylsalicylic acid diminution by about 60% of arachidonic acid induced flux through the hexose monophosphate shunt as well as lower initial decrease of the glutathione level are found. Investigations with other glutathione oxidizing agents as diamide or tertiary butyl hydroperoxide reveal that acetylsalicylic acid influences neither the activities of glutathione providing enzymes nor that of glutathione peroxidase which catalyzes glutathione consuming reactions in the arachidonic acid metabolism. Together with literature data the results point to a consumption of reduced coenzymes in both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways in platelets. PMID:6442581

  5. Activation of the central histaminergic system mediates arachidonic-acid-induced cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Altinbas, Burcin; Topuz, Bora Burak; ?lhan, Tuncay; Yilmaz, Mustafa Sertac; Erdost, Hatice; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the involvement of the central histaminergic system in arachidonic acid (AA)-induced cardiovascular effects in normotensive rats using hemodynamic, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis studies. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered AA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 ?mol) induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and decreased heart rate in conscious normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of AA (0.5 ?mol) also increased posterior hypothalamic extracellular histamine levels and produced strong COX-1 but not COX-2 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus of rats. Moreover, the cardiovascular effects and COX-1 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus induced by AA (0.5 ?mol; i.c.v.) were almost completely blocked by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.) and partially blocked by the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (100 nmol; i.c.v.) and the H3-H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, these results indicate that centrally administered AA induces pressor and bradycardic responses in conscious rats. Moreover, we suggest that AA may activate histaminergic neurons and increase extracellular histamine levels, particularly in the posterior hypothalamus. Acting as a neurotransmitter, histamine is potentially involved in AA-induced cardiovascular effects under normotensive conditions. PMID:25065747

  6. 21-aminosteroid and 2-(aminomethyl)chromans inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced lipid peroxidation and permeability enhancement in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers

    E-print Network

    Shi, Fenglin; Cavitt, Jennifer; Audus, Kenneth L.

    1995-09-01

    ) production by BMECs. Arachidonate produced a corresponding concentration-dependent increase in BMEC monolayer permeability to the membrane impermeant marker, sucrose. Pretreatment of BMEC monolayers with either the 21-aminosteroids or the 2-(aminomethyl...

  7. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 ?M fatty acids; ?-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFN?. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  8. Effect of topically applied cyclosporin A on arachidonic acid (AA)- and tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)-induced dermal inflammation in mouse ear.

    PubMed

    Puigneró, V; Queralt, J

    1997-06-01

    Topical cyclosporin A (CsA) was compared with dexamethasone, indomethacin and phenidone in edema, increases in vascular permeability, eicosanoids and cell-influx induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) in mouse ears. CsA ED(50) on AA-edema (7.7 micrograms/ear) was similar to dexamethasone and lower than indomethacin and phenidone. CsA ED(50) in TPA edema (21 micrograms/ear) was higher than dexamethasone and lower than indomethacin or phenidone. All drugs equally reduce the AA-induced increase in vascular permeability, but CsA and dexamethasone had more activity on TPA. AA-increase in vascular 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was reduced by dexamethasone, indomethacin and phenidone but not by CsA; only phenidone reduced LTB4. TPA-increase in 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was reduced by CsA and indomethacin while CsA, dexamethasone and phenidone decreased LTB4. CsA, indomethacin and phenidone, but not dexamethasone, suppressed AA-neutrophil influx. In TPA-ears all drugs produced similar reduction in neutrophil influx. CsA was shown to be a good topical anti-inflammatory drug. PMID:9246577

  9. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Pyeongwisan on LPS-Stimulated Murine Macrophages and Mouse Models of Acetic Acid-Induced Writhing Response and Xylene-Induced Ear Edema

    PubMed Central

    Oh, You-Chang; Jeong, Yun Hee; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ha, Jeong-Ho; Gu, Min Jung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Pyeongwisan (PW) is an herbal medication used in traditional East Asian medicine to treat anorexia, abdominal distension, borborygmus and diarrhea caused by gastric catarrh, atony and dilatation. However, its effects on inflammation-related diseases are unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of PW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in macrophages and on local inflammation in vivo. We investigated the biological effects of PW on the production of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokines and related products as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Additionally, we evaluated the analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the inhibitory activity on xylene-induced ear edema in mice. PW showed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?). In addition, PW strongly suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a NO synthesis enzyme, induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and inhibited NF-?B activation and MAPK phosphorylation. Also, PW suppressed TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? cytokine production in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophage cells. Furthermore, PW showed an analgesic effect on the writhing response and an inhibitory effect on mice ear edema. We demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects and inhibitory mechanism in macrophages as well as inhibitory activity of PW in vivo for the first time. Our results suggest the potential value of PW as an inflammatory therapeutic agent developed from a natural substance. PMID:25569097

  10. Arachidonic acid is a physiological activator of the ryanodine receptor in pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Woolcott, Orison O; Gustafsson, Amanda J; Dzabic, Mensur; Pierro, Cristina; Tedeschi, Patrizia; Sandgren, Johanna; Bari, M Rizuanul; Nguyen, K Hoa; Bianchi, Marta; Rakonjac, Marija; Rådmark, Olof; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2006-06-01

    Pancreatic beta-cells have ryanodine receptors but little is known about their physiological regulation. Previous studies have shown that arachidonic acid releases Ca(2+) from intracellular stores in beta-cells but the identity of the channels involved in the Ca(2+) release has not been elucidated. We studied the mechanism by which arachidonic acid induces Ca(2+) concentration changes in pancreatic beta-cells. Cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration was measured in fura-2-loaded INS-1E cells and in primary beta-cells from Wistar rats. The increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration induced by arachidonic acid (150microM) was due to both Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and influx of Ca(2+) from extracellular medium. 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic acid, a non-metabolizable analogue of arachidonic acid, mimicked the effect of arachidonic acid, indicating that arachidonic acid itself mediated Ca(2+) increase. The Ca(2+) release induced by arachidonic acid was from the endoplasmic reticulum since it was blocked by thapsigargin. 2-Aminoethyl diphenylborinate (50microM), which is known to inhibit 1,4,5-inositol-triphosphate-receptors, did not block Ca(2+) release by arachidonic acid. However, ryanodine (100microM), a blocker of ryanodine receptors, abolished the effect of arachidonic acid on Ca(2+) release in both types of cells. These observations indicate that arachidonic acid is a physiological activator of ryanodine receptors in beta-cells. PMID:16620964

  11. Ear Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Ear Infections Overview How does the ear work? The ear works by receiving sound waves and sending messages to the brain. The outer ear includes the part of the ear you can ...

  12. SK&F 86002: a structurally novel anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits lipoxygenase- and cyclooxygenase-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Griswold, D E; Marshall, P J; Webb, E F; Godfrey, R; Newton, J; DiMartino, M J; Sarau, H M; Gleason, J G; Poste, G; Hanna, N

    1987-10-15

    The effects of SK&F 86002 [5-(4-pyridyl)-6 (4-fluorophenyl)-2,3-dihydroimidazo (2,1-b) thiazole] on the generation of eicosanoids in vitro and on inflammatory responses in vivo are described and compared to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. SK&F 86002 inhibited prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) synthase activity (IC50 120 microM) as well as prostanoid production by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-1) cells (IC50 70 microM) and its sonicate (IC50 100 microM) and human monocytes (IC50 1 microM). In addition, SK&F 86002 inhibited the generation of dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (diHETE) and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) by a high speed supernatant fraction of RBL-1 cells (IC50 10 microM). Cellular production of 5-lipoxygenase products was inhibited by SK&F 86002 as measured by leukotriene B4 (LTB4) generation from human neutrophils (IC50 20 microM), leukotriene C4 (LTC4) generation by human monocytes (IC50 20 microM), and 5-HETE production by RBL-1 cells (IC50 40 microM). The in vivo profile of anti-inflammatory activity of SK&F 86002 supports the dual inhibition of arachidonate metabolism as indicated by its activity in inflammation models that are insensitive to selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors. The responses of arachidonic-acid-induced edema in the mouse ear and rat paw, as well as the cell infiltration induced by carrageenan in the mouse peritoneum and by arachidonic acid in the rat air pouch, were inhibited by SK&F 86002 and phenidone but not by the selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors naproxen and indomethacin. PMID:2823821

  13. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    Ear emergencies include objects in the ear canal and ruptured eardrums. ... Children often put objects into their ears. These objects can be hard to remove. The ear canal is a tube of solid bone that is lined with thin, sensitive ...

  14. Ear Tubes

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    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  15. Pierced Ears

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    ... System How the Body Works Main Page Pierced Ears KidsHealth > Kids > Puberty & Growing Up > Girl Stuff > Pierced ... cool, but infected ears do not! Getting Your Ears Pierced It's important to get your ears pierced ...

  16. The human sperm acrosome reaction does not depend on arachidonic acid metabolism via the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways.

    PubMed

    Mack, S R; Han, H L; De Jonge, J; Anderson, R A; Zaneveld, L J

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the metabolism of arachidonic acid via the cyclooxygenase pathway, the lipoxygenase pathway, or both has a pivotal role in the human sperm acrosome reaction. To do so, the stimulatory effect of arachidonic acid and a number of its metabolites, as well as the inhibitory effect of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors on the acrosome reaction, was evaluated. Arachidonic acid, prostaglandin E2, and prostacyclin (PGI2) induced the acrosome reaction when added to 3-hour preincubated (capacitated) spermatozoa. The arachidonic acid-induced acrosome reaction was dependent upon extracellular calcium. Leukotriene B4 and 15-HPETE only induced the acrosome reaction when present throughout the preincubation period, indicating that they may enhance the capacitation process rather than the acrosome reaction. Thromboxane did not affect the acrosome reaction under any of the conditions tested. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (indomethacin, phenylbutazone) and lipoxygenase (phenidone, nordihydroguiaretic acid) or FPL 55712 (a leukotriene antagonist) did not prevent the arachidonic acid-stimulated acrosome reaction. Furthermore, 5, 8, 11, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), the acetylenic analog of arachidonic acid that inhibits arachidonic acid metabolism, induced an acrosome reaction equivalent to that of arachidonic acid. These results strongly suggest that the acrosome reaction induced by exogenous arachidonic acid is not mediated via either the cyclooxygenase pathway or the lipoxygenase pathway.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1338069

  17. Ear Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... most common illness in infants and young children. Tinnitus, a roaring in your ears, can be the ... problems in your inner ear; its symptoms include tinnitus and dizziness. Ear barotrauma is an injury to ...

  18. Your Ears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gross and useful. Continue The Middle Ear: Good Vibrations After sound waves enter the outer ear, they ... take those sound waves and turn them into vibrations that are delivered to the inner ear. To ...

  19. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePLUS

    ... such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) Vinegar (acetic acid) ear drops People with chronic swimmer's ear may ... drop of alcohol with 1 drop of white vinegar and placing the mixture into the ears after ...

  20. Swimmer's Ear

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    ... System How the Body Works Main Page Swimmer's Ear KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > Aches, Pains & Injuries > Swimmer's ... How Do I Know if I Have Swimmer's Ear? Swimmer's ear may start with some itching, but ...

  1. Ear examination

    MedlinePLUS

    An ear exam is performed when a health care provider looks inside your ear using an instrument called an otoscope. ... the head tilted toward the shoulder opposite the ear being examined. The provider will gently pull up, ...

  2. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  3. Ear wax

    MedlinePLUS

    ... water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or ... who may remove the wax by: Repeating the irrigation attempts Suctioning the ear canal Using a small ...

  4. Elephant ear

    MedlinePLUS

    Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with very large, arrow-shaped leaves. Poisoning may occur if you ... Elephant ear grows naturally in tropical and subtropical areas, but is easily found in northern climates as well.

  5. Ear barotrauma

    MedlinePLUS

    Barotitis media; Barotrauma; Ear popping; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction ... The air pressure in the middle ear is most often the same as the air pressure outside of the body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ...

  6. Cauliflower Ear

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    ... How the Body Works Main Page What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > Kids > Q&A > Q&A > What's Cauliflower Ear? Print A A A Text Size Have you ever seen someone whose ear looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have ...

  7. Ear Infections in Children

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    ... Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is ... additional information about ear infections? What is an ear infection? An ear infection is an inflammation of ...

  8. Effects of NSAIDs on the Inner Ear: Possible Involvement in Cochlear Protection

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Tomofumi; Tabuchi, Keiji; Hara, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, two important enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, are major targets of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Recent investigations suggest that arachidonic cascades and their metabolites may be involved in maintaining inner ear functions. The excessive use of aspirin may cause tinnitus in humans and impairment of the outer hair cell functions in experimental animals. On the other hand, NSAIDs reportedly exhibit protective effects against various kinds of inner ear disorder. The present review summarizes the effects of NSAIDs on cochlear pathophysiology. NSAIDs are a useful ameliorative adjunct in the management of inner ear disorders.

  9. Role of arachidonic acid cascade in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Arias-Torres, Ana Josefina; Zelarayán, Liliana Isabel

    2015-08-01

    There are no studies that document the production of prostaglandins (PGs) or their role in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation. In this study, we analysed the effect of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandins (PGs) on maturation, activation and pronuclear formation in R. arenarum oocytes. Our results demonstrated that AA was capable of inducing maturation in time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Arachidonic acid-induced maturation was inhibited by indomethacin. PGs from AA hydrolysis, such as prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) and, to a lesser extent, PGE2, induced meiosis resumption. Oocyte maturation in response to PGF2? was similar to that produced by progesterone (P4). Oocyte response to PGE1 was scarce. Rhinella arenarum oocyte PGF2?-induced maturation showed seasonal variation. From February to June, oocytes presented low sensitivity to PGF2?. In following periods, this response increased until a maximum was reached during October to January, a close temporal correlation with oocyte response to P4 being observed. The effect of PGF2? on maturation was verified by analysing the capacity of oocytes to activate and form pronuclei after being injected with homologous sperm. The cytological analysis of activated oocytes demonstrated the absence of cortical granules in oocytes, suggesting that PGF2? induces germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and meiosis resumption up to metaphase II. In turn, oocytes matured by the action of PGF2? were able to form pronuclei after fertilization in a similar way to oocyte maturated by P4. In microinjection of mature cytoplasm experiments, the transformation of pre-maturation promoting factor (pre-MPF) to MPF was observed when oocytes were treated with PGF2?. In summary, our results illustrated the participation of the AA cascade and its metabolites in maturation, activation and pronuclei formation in R. arenarum. PMID:24964276

  10. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

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    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Patient Health Information ... with a hearing loss. How Does the Healthy Ear Work? The ear has three main parts: the ...

  11. Ear Infection and Vaccines

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    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News media ... who suffer from the most common type of ear infection, called middle ear infection or otitis media ( ...

  12. Ear Plastic Surgery

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    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  13. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Swimmer's Ear (Otitis Externa) KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Ear Infections > Swimmer's ... Treatment When to Call the Doctor About Swimmer's Ear Otitis externa — commonly known as swimmer's ear — is ...

  14. How the Ear Works

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You How the Ear Works How the Ear Works Patient Health Information News media interested in ... public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . The ear has three main parts: the outer ear (including ...

  15. Caring for Pierced Ears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... care Caring for pierced ears Caring for pierced ears Although ear piercings are more common and can be less ... handled safely. For anyone thinking about getting their ears pierced, dermatologists urge people to follow these steps ...

  16. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  17. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... can be released from the gland. Benign bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are ...

  18. Travel Inside the Ear

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Travel Inside the Ear Video Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach your ear, you know you've heard a soft sound ... loud sound. The sound passes through the outer ear and is funneled into the middle ear, where ...

  19. Caring for Pierced Ears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Video library Find a dermatologist Caring for pierced ears Although ear piercings are more common and can be less ... handled safely. For anyone thinking about getting their ears pierced, dermatologists urge people to follow these steps ...

  20. Ears and Altitude

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ears and Altitude Ears and Altitude Patient Health Information ... uncomfortable feeling of fullness or pressure. Why do ears pop? Normally, swallowing causes a little click or ...

  1. Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Sanat, Faizah; Hui, Gan Eng; Wahab, Shahrin Iskandar; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil) or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day). Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model. PMID:25436198

  2. Flying and Your Child's Ears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pregnant? What to Expect Flying and Your Child's Ears KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Your Kid's Eyes, Ears, ... Tips for Easing Ear Pain Flying's Effects on Ears Many of us have felt that weird ear- ...

  3. ?-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Induced Electrographic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Darken, Rachel S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. Citation: Cheung J, Lucey BP, Duntley SP, Darken RS. ?-hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):811-812. PMID:25024661

  4. Control of arachidonic acid release in chick muscle cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, G. H.; Padalino, M.; Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    Cultures from thigh muscles of 12 day old embryonic chicks are utilized to examine arachidonic release, prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The preparation of the cultures is described. It is observed that exogenous arachidonic acid is formed into photsphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, is released by a calcium ionosphere or phospholiphase simulator, and is the substrate for the biosynthesis of PG; the epidermal growth factor and PGF do not stimulate protein synthesis over the basal levels. The relationship between arachidonate release and melittin is studied. The data reveal that a change in intracellular calcium stimulates phospholiphase activity, arachidonate release, and PG synthesis in chick muscle culture.

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Visualization of Oleic Acid-induced Transdermal Diusion

    E-print Network

    So, Peter

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Visualization of Oleic Acid-induced Transdermal Di¡usion Pathways Using Two. These £uorescent model drugs delineate the oleic acid induced changes in permeant di¡usion with respect to the skin drugs, in the absence of oleic acid chemical enhancer action. The mechanism of oleic acid chemical

  6. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Expect Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Ears, Nose, Throat/Speech & ... Diagnosis Treatment Tympanostomy Tube Surgery After Surgery Why Surgery? Many kids get middle ear infections (known as ...

  7. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePLUS

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and petrositis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  8. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  9. Middle Ear Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Middle Ear Infections Article Body What are the new guidelines? ... illness. What if a child with a middle ear infection is in great pain and discomfort? The ...

  10. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis) KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis) Print A A A Text Size ...

  11. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  12. Fusion of the ear bones

    MedlinePLUS

    Fusion of the ear bones is the joining of the bones of the inner ear. These are the incus, malleus, and stapes bones. Related topics include: Chronic ear infection Otosclerosis Middle ear malformations

  13. New uses of bioglycerin: production of arachidonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filamentous fungi of the genus Mortierella are known to produce arachidonic acid from glucose and M. alpina is currently used in industrial scale production of arachidonic acid in Japan. In anticipation of a large excess of co-product bioglycerin from the national biodiesel program, we would like ...

  14. Arachidonic acid increases cholinergic secretory responsiveness of ferret tracheal glands.

    PubMed

    McBride, R K; Stone, K K; Marin, M G

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if arachidonic acid could alter ferret tracheal gland secretory responsiveness to a cholinergic agonist. We prepared glandular explants and incubated the explants in medium containing [3H]glucosamine. Secretory responsiveness was expressed as the percent change in basal secretion of acid-precipitable [3H]glucosamine-labeled glycoconjugates induced by the addition of agonist with and without arachidonic acid [mean +/- SE (n)]. Addition of 10(-3) M arachidonic acid caused a significant increase in secretion [28 +/- 6% (n = 6)] compared with untreated control tissues [-10 +/- 4% (n = 7), P less than or equal to 0.05]. Carbachol (10(-7) M) increased secretion 39 +/- 9% (n = 7). The combination of 10(-3) M arachidonic acid and 10(-7) M carbachol elicited a significantly greater change in secretion compared with either agent alone [173 +/- 50% (n = 5)]. The addition of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (10(-6) M) or indomethacin (10(-6) M) partially attenuated the arachidonic acid-enhanced secretory responsiveness to carbachol. Treatment with both blockers completely inhibited the arachidonic acid-enhanced secretory responsiveness to carbachol. The effect of arachidonic acid on cholinergic stimulation was also abolished by treating the explant cultures with tetrodotoxin (10(-7) M). This hypersecretory state is most likely mediated by eicosanoid-induced release of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals. PMID:1616053

  15. Arachidonic acid-stimulated platelet tests: Identification of patients less sensitive to aspirin treatment.

    PubMed

    Temperilli, Flavia; Rina, Aldona; Massimi, Isabella; Montemari, Anna Lisa; Guarino, Maria Luisa; Zicari, Alessandra; Pulcinelli, Fabio M

    2015-12-01

    Serum thromboxane-B2 (TxB2), together with arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation, are, at the moment, the most used tests to identify patients displaying high on-aspirin treatment platelet reactivity (HAPR). Both tests are specific for aspirin action on cyclooxygenase-1. While the correlation between serum TxB2 assay and clinical outcome is established, data are conflicting with regard to aspirin treatment and a possible association with AA-stimulated platelet markers and clinical outcome. To understand such discrepancy, we performed a retrospective study to compare both assays. We collected data from 132 patients receiving a daily dose of aspirin (100?mg/day) and data from 48 patients receiving aspirin on alternate days. All Patients who received a daily dose of aspirin were studied for AA-induced platelet aggregation together with serum TxB2 levels and AA-induced TxB2 formation was also studied in 71 patients out of entire population. Consistent with recommendations in the literature, we defined HAPR by setting a cut-off point at 3.1?ng/ml for serum levels of thromboxane B2 and 20% for AA-induced platelet aggregation. According to this cut-off point, we divided our overall population into two groups: (1) TxB2??3.1?ng/ml. We found low agreement between such tests to identify patients displaying HAPR. Our results show that AA-induced platelet aggregation >20% identify a smaller number of HAPR patients in comparison with TxB2. A good correlation between serum TxB2 and arachidonic acid-induced TxB2 production was found (r?=?0.76619). PMID:25734355

  16. Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Associated Conditions » Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, nose, and ... Are Common in Children With Down Syndrome? External Ear Canal Stenosis Stenotic ear canals (narrow ear canals) ...

  17. Otoplasty for prominent ears.

    PubMed

    Furnas, David W

    2002-04-01

    Protruding ears may be a source of psychological distress in either sex and at any age. A truly gratifying psychological response to a well performed otoplasty is the rule. If the neonate with protruding ears, mildly constricted ears, Stahl's ear, or cryptotia is seen by a plastic surgeon during the baby's first days of life, the timing is auspicious. If the process of shaping the ear with molding splints and Steri-Strips is promptly initiated, correction of the problem without surgery is a realistic expectation. The urgency and the effectiveness of early nonsurgical treatment of such ears is not yet widely appreciated by those responsible for primary medical care of neonates. The plastic surgeon is in a position to increase awareness of the availability and effectiveness of this technique. PMID:12120683

  18. Pathology of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

  19. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... the middle ear and the back of the nose and upper throat. ... down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are ...

  20. What Is an Ear Infection?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Body Works Main Page What Is an Ear Infection? KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > I Feel Sick! > ... pain and a fever . What Is a Middle Ear Infection? Middle ear infections are one of the ...

  1. Taking Care of Your Ears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Body Works Main Page Taking Care of Your Ears KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Healthy > Being Good to My ... you clean it out. Taking Care of Pierced Ears Pierced ears may look pretty, but you need ...

  2. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or service advertised on this site. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease What is autoimmunity? How is it connected ... reaction. The immune system can attack just the ear, attack the ear and some other body part ...

  3. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Middle Ear Infections KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Middle ... 3 years old. A Close Look at the Ear To understand how ear infections develop, let's review ...

  4. Ear problems in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone

    2005-08-01

    Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane. PMID:16138712

  5. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially those with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  6. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... head, sports injuries, and even listening to loud music can cause ear damage, which can affect hearing ... But for kids and teens, listening to loud music (at concerts, in the car, through headphones) is ...

  7. Hypochlorous and peracetic acid induced oxidation of dairy proteins.

    PubMed

    Kerkaert, Barbara; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Cucu, Tatiana; Aedo, Philip Roger; Ling, Shen Yan; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-02-01

    Hypochlorous and peracetic acids, both known disinfectants in the food industry, were compared for their oxidative capacity toward dairy proteins. Whey proteins and caseins were oxidized under well controlled conditions at pH 8 as a function of the sanitizing concentration. Different markers for protein oxidation were monitored. The results established that the protein carbonyl content was a rather unspecific marker for protein oxidation, which did not allow one to differentiate the oxidant used especially at the lower concentrations. Cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine were proven to be the most vulnerable amino acids for degradation upon hypochlorous and peracetic acid treatment, while tyrosine was only prone to degradation in the presence of hypochlorous acid. Hypochlorous acid induced oxidation gave rise to protein aggregation, while during peracetic acid induced oxidation, no high molecular weight aggregates were observed. Protein aggregation upon hypochlorous acid oxidation could primarily be linked to tryptophan and tyrosine degradation. PMID:21214246

  8. EFFECTS OF PHOSGENE EXPOSURE ON LUNG ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosgene is a pulmonary toxicant that can produce lung edema, bronchoconstriction, and immune suppression following an acute exposure. he response of the lung to phosgene inhalation may be mediated through alternations in the metabolism of arachidonic acid to the biologically pot...

  9. Salicylate enables cochlear arachidonic-acid-sensitive NMDA receptor responses.

    PubMed

    Ruel, Jérôme; Chabbert, Christian; Nouvian, Régis; Bendris, Rim; Eybalin, Michel; Leger, Claude Louis; Bourien, Jérôme; Mersel, Marcel; Puel, Jean-Luc

    2008-07-16

    Currently, many millions of people treated for various ailments receive high doses of salicylate. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms by which salicylate induces tinnitus is an important issue for the research community. Behavioral testing in rats have shown that tinnitus induced by salicylate or mefenamate (both cyclooxygenase blockers) are mediated by cochlear NMDA receptors. Here we report that the synapses between the sensory inner hair cells and the dendrites of the cochlear spiral ganglion neurons express NMDA receptors. Patch-clamp recordings and two-photon calcium imaging demonstrated that salicylate and arachidonate (a substrate of cyclooxygenase) enabled the calcium flux and the neural excitatory effects of NMDA on cochlear spiral ganglion neurons. Salicylate also increased the arachidonate content of the whole cochlea in vivo. Single-unit recordings of auditory nerve fibers in adult guinea pig confirmed the neural excitatory effect of salicylate and the blockade of this effect by NMDA antagonist. These results suggest that salicylate inhibits cochlear cyclooxygenase, which increased levels of arachidonate. The increased levels of arachidonate then act on NMDA receptors to enable NMDA responses to glutamate that inner hair cells spontaneously release. This new pharmacological profile of salicylate provides a molecular mechanism for the generation of tinnitus at the periphery of the auditory system. PMID:18632935

  10. Digital ear scanner : measuring the compliance of the ear

    E-print Network

    Hernandez-Stewart, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to resolve the biggest problem with hearing aids, their physical fit. By digitally scanning the ear canal and taking the dynamics of the ear into account the performance and comfort of a hearing aid can ...

  11. Arachidonic acid products and the thoracic accumulation of neutrophils and platelets following i.v. antigen challenge of sensitised guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Walker, J R; Woodhouse, S A

    1989-01-01

    The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, AA861 and phenidone, have been shown to inhibit the formation and release of leukotrienes C4, D4 and B4 from isolated perfused sensitised guinea pigs lungs when challenged through either the pulmonary system or the airways. The same drugs inhibit the thoracic neutrophil, but not platelet, accumulation observed following i.v. antigen challenge of sensitised guinea pigs. Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, at doses which inhibited an arachidonic acid-induced thoracic platelet accumulation, had no effect on the platelet response following antigen challenge. Indomethacin did affect, however, the neutrophil response to antigen challenge presumably through mechanisms unrelated to cyclooxygenase inhibition. These observations suggest a role for lipoxygenase products, possibly LTB4, but not cyclooxygenase products in the neutrophil response to i.v. antigen challenge. PMID:2496596

  12. From Ear to Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  13. Middle ear meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Prayson, R A

    2000-06-01

    Meningiomas arising in or presenting as middle ear lesions are relatively uncommon. This study retrospectively reviews the clinicopathologic features of six meningiomas arising in or extending into the middle ear. The patients comprise five women and one man ranging in age from 45 to 67 years (median, 55 years) at the time of surgery. Five tumors arose in the posterior fossa or temporal bone region and one tumor arose from the auditory canal itself. Three tumors arose on the right side and three on the left. Duration of symptoms before surgery involving the middle ear was known in five patients and ranged from 2 to 13 years (median, 10 years). Symptoms at presentation included gait or balance problems (n = 3), chronic otitis media (n = 2), diplopia (n = 2), hearing loss (n = 2), pain (n = 1), aural polyp (n = 1), and tinnitus (n = 1). Histologically, all six tumors resembled a syncytial (meningotheliomatous) meningioma. Psamomma bodies were noted in two tumors and two tumors demonstrated mild nuclear pleomorphism. None of the tumors demonstrated histologic features of atypical meningioma. Follow-up information was available in five patients. Four patients had prior surgery for removal of posterior fossa temporal bone meningiomas and developed recurrences involving the auditory canal 60 to 84 months after surgery. At the time of most recent follow-up examination, three patients were alive with evidence of tumor (65, 112, and 214 months), one patient was alive with no evidence of tumor (99 months), one patient died in the postoperative period of sepsis and pneumonia following resection of a middle ear recurrence (64 months), and one patient was lost to follow-up analysis. Meningiomas arising in or extending to the middle ear canal are unusual. They more commonly arise in woman and in most cases involve extension of intracranial/cranial tumors into the canal. PMID:10919384

  14. How to Use Ear Drops

    MedlinePLUS

    How to Use Ear Drops(Having someone else give you the ear drops may make this procedure easier.) Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and ... facecloth and then dry your ear. Warm the drops to near body temperature by holding the container ...

  15. Ear Infections and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…

  16. Neurologic evaluation of the ear.

    PubMed

    Cook, Laurie B

    2004-03-01

    Diseases of the ear often cause signs of neurologic dysfunction because of damage of peripheral nervous system structures associated with the middle and inner ear. Vestibular dysfunction, facial paralysis, Horner's syndrome, and hearing deficits are the most common neurologic deficits that accompany middle and inner ear disease. Differentiating these signs from disease of the central nervous system is crucial for an accurate diagnosis and prognosis but can be difficult. Understanding the normal anatomy of the ear and its association with the brain is crucial to interpretation of the neurologic examination. This article reviews neurologic dysfunction commonly associated with diseases of the ear and differentiating these signs from central disease. PMID:15062617

  17. Stereocontrol of Arachidonic Acid Oxygenation by Vertebrate Lipoxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Christian; Hofheinz, Katharina; Vogel, Robert; Roffeis, Jana; Anton, Monika; Reddanna, Pallu; Kuhn, Hartmut; Walther, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Animal lipoxygenases (LOXs) are classified according to their specificity of arachidonic acid oxygenation, and previous sequence alignments suggested that S-LOXs contain a conserved Ala at a critical position at the active site but R-LOXs carry a Gly instead. Here we cloned, expressed, and characterized a novel LOX isoform from the model vertebrate Danio rerio (zebrafish) that carries a Gly at this critical position, classifying this enzyme as putative arachidonic acid R-LOX. Surprisingly, the almost exclusive arachidonic acid oxygenation product was 12S-H(p)ETE (hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid), and extensive mutation around Gly-410 failed to induce R-lipoxygenation. This finding prompted us to explore the importance of the corresponding amino acids in other vertebrate S-LOXs. We found that Ala-to-Gly exchange in human 15-LOX2 and human platelet 12-LOX induced major alterations in the reaction specificity with an increase of specific R-oxygenation products. For mouse 5-LOX and 12/15-LOX from rabbits, men, rhesus monkeys, orangutans, and mice, only minor alterations in the reaction specificity were observed. For these enzymes, S-HETE (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) isomers remained the major oxygenation products, whereas chiral R-HETEs contributed only 10–30% to the total product mixture. Taken together these data indicate that the Ala-versus-Gly concept may not always predict the reaction specificity of vertebrate LOX isoforms. PMID:21880725

  18. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  19. Endoscopy of the middle ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Michail M.; Poe, Dennis S.; Gadre, Arun K.; Rebeiz, Elie E.

    1992-08-01

    Transtympanic endoscopy provides a unique opportunity to view, undisturbed, the contents of the middle ear. Flexible and rigid endoscopes with diameters of 2 mm and smaller are now available with adequate resolution to perform exploration of the middle ear. Endoscopes can be introduced through a myringotomy or an existing perforation in the tympanic membrane to examine the middle ear in the office setting, thus reducing the need for exploratory surgery.

  20. The ear: Diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

  1. Crystal Structure of the Acid-Induced Arginine Decarboxylase from Escherichia coli: Reversible Decamer Assembly Controls

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Tracy

    Crystal Structure of the Acid-Induced Arginine Decarboxylase from Escherichia coli: Reversible: The acid-induced arginine decarboxylase is part of an enzymatic system in Escherichia coli that contributes to making this organism acid resistant. The arginine decarboxylase is a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme

  2. PLANT-INSECT INTERACTIONS Costs and Benefits of Jasmonic Acid Induced Responses in Soybean

    E-print Network

    Cronin, James T.

    PLANT-INSECT INTERACTIONS Costs and Benefits of Jasmonic Acid Induced Responses in Soybean A. K species is lacking. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) has emerged as a model species with which to address and beneÞts of jasmonic acid-induced responses by soybean in the absence and presence of soybean loopers

  3. Otoscopic exam of the ear (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... intrument which is used to look into the ear canal. The ear speculum (a cone-shaped viewing piece of the otoscope) is slowly inserted into the ear canal while looking into the otoscope. The speculum ...

  4. Wax blockage in the ear (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the ... wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear ...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

  7. How to Use Ear Drops Properly

    MedlinePLUS

    How to Use Ear Drops Properly (Having someone else give you the ear drops may make this procedure easier.) 1 Wash your hands ... with soap and water. 2 Gently clean your ear with a damp facecloth and then dry your ...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

  11. Contributions of arachidonic acid derivatives and substance P to the sensitization of cutaneous nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Cohen, R H; Perl, E R

    1990-08-01

    1. The role of presumed chemical mediators of inflammation in the heat-induced sensitization of cutaneous C-polymodal nociceptors (CPNs) was examined in a rabbit ear preparation maintained in vitro by intra-arterial perfusion with a solution free of protein and cellular elements. 2. In this preparation, CPNs consistently showed enhanced responsiveness after repeated exposure of their receptive fields to noxious levels of heat. The average magnitude of sensitization was quantitatively similar to that observed in vivo, suggesting that blood-born factors are not essential for development of sensitization. 3. Sensitization in one-half of randomly selected CPNs was blocked or reduced when the perfusate contained a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin or dipyrone, or the dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW755C, even though initial responsiveness to heat and pressure was unaltered. These observations suggest that arachidonic acid breakdown products, possibly prostaglandins, are intermediaries in the sensitization of some, but not all, C-fiber nociceptors of the skin. In addition, heat-induced sensitization for some C-fiber cutaneous nociceptors is the result of processes that are at least partially independent of those involved in excitation. 4. Substance P (SP) or the putative SP antagonists, [D-Pro2, D-Trp7.9]-SP or [D-Pro2, D-Phe7, D-Trip9]-SP, produced no significant effect on heat-responsiveness or sensitization, although ongoing activity may have marginally increased over control levels after repeated heat stimulations. We conclude that SP in an in vitro preparation is not involved in the enhancement of cutaneous C-fiber nociceptor responsiveness after repeated thermal insults. PMID:1698937

  12. Ear Reconstruction in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, John

    2015-12-01

    The use of a porous high-density polyethylene ear implant, rather than a costal cartilage framework, allows ear reconstruction in young children before they enter school. The fact that the growth of the normal ear matures early allows for good symmetry. If the implant is covered completely with a large, well-vascularized superficial parietal fascia flap and appropriately color-matched skin, an ear with excellent projection and definition can be obtained with minimal complications and long-term viability. Ear reconstruction in young children is preferred by the author because the necessary fascial flap coverage is thinner, easier to harvest than in older patients, and can be done in a single outpatient procedure with minimal discomfort or psychological trauma. PMID:26667634

  13. Measurement of the incorporation of orally administered arachidonic acid into tissue lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Kulmacz, R.J.; Sivarajan, M.; Lands, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of a stable isotope method to monitor the mixing of dietary arachidonic acid with endogenous arachidonic acid in tissue lipids was evaluated. Rats were fed octadeuterated arachidonic acid during a 20-day period, and the entry of the dietary acid into lipid esters of various tissues was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of their fatty acids. The rats were maintained on a fat-free diet from weaning until 63 days old to enhance the ratio of the dietary acid to endogenous arachidonate. Three separate forms of eicosatetraenoic acid in the tissue lipids could be distinguished by GC-MS: octadeuterated arachidonic acid (recent dietary origin), unlabeled arachidonic acid (maternal origin) and unlabeled 4,7,10,13-eicosatetraenoic acid (originating from palmitoleic acid). The total eicosatetraenoic acid in the tissue lipids contained about 90% arachidonate from recent dietary origin in lung, kidney, heart and fat, 70% in muscle and liver and 27% in brain. The n-7 isomer of eicosatetraenoic acid was estimated to make up 6% or less of the total eicosatetraenoic acid in lung, kidney, brain, muscle and heart tissue lipids, but it comprised around 15% of the total eicosatetraenoic acid in liver. The unlabeled arachidonic acid of maternal origin thus comprised only about 10% of the eicosatetraenoic acid in all tissues examined except muscle and brain, where it was 24% and 70% of the eicosatetraenoic acid, respectively.

  14. Arachidonic Acid Enhances Turnover of the Dermal Skeleton: Studies on Zebrafish Scales

    PubMed Central

    de Vrieze, Erik; Moren, Mari; Metz, Juriaan R.; Flik, Gert; Lie, Kai Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    In fish nutrition, the ratio between omega-3 and omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids influences skeletal development. Supplementation of fish oils with vegetable oils increases the content of omega-6 fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid in the diet. Arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenases to prostaglandin E2, an eicosanoid with effects on bone formation and remodeling. To elucidate effects of poly-unsaturated fatty acids on developing and existing skeletal tissues, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed (micro-) diets low and high in arachidonic acid content. Elasmoid scales, dermal skeletal plates, are ideal to study skeletal metabolism in zebrafish and were exploited in the present study. The fatty acid profile resulting from a high arachidonic acid diet induced mild but significant increase in matrix resorption in ontogenetic scales of adult zebrafish. Arachidonic acid affected scale regeneration (following removal of ontogenetic scales): mineral deposition was altered and both gene expression and enzymatic matrix metalloproteinase activity changed towards enhanced osteoclastic activity. Arachidonic acid also clearly stimulates matrix metalloproteinase activity in vitro, which implies that resorptive effects of arachidonic acid are mediated by matrix metalloproteinases. The gene expression profile further suggests that arachidonic acid increases maturation rate of the regenerating scale; in other words, enhances turnover. The zebrafish scale is an excellent model to study how and which fatty acids affect skeletal formation. PMID:24586706

  15. Oxygenation products of arachidonic acid: third messengers for insulin release.

    PubMed

    Metz, S A; Fujimoto, W Y; Robertson, R P

    1984-09-01

    Although an association between membrane phospholipid turnover and exocytotic hormone release has long been recognized, a causal relationship has not been firmly established. Recent studies suggest that glucose (and probably other insulin secretagogues) activates phospholipases and thereby releases membrane-bound arachidonic acid (AA). AA is then converted through islet 12-lipoxygenase to mediators or modulators of insulin release (tentatively identified as peroxides and epoxides of arachidonate). These products may be critical links in stimulus-secretion coupling, since blockade of either AA release or lipoxygenation abrogates insulin release induced by glucose and many other (but not all) stimuli. Cogeneration of prostaglandins from AA through the cyclooxygenase pathway may directly or indirectly modulate the formation and/or effect of lipoxygenase products. A critical role for lipoxygenase products (and possibly metabolites of AA synthesized by other pathways, such as P-450-dependent monooxygenases) may extend to many secretory cells in addition to pancreatic beta cells. The phasic release of AA described in many cells could explain the biphasic pattern of insulin release induced by glucose. Since some phospholipases and lipoxygenases are Ca++ activated, the release of AA in conjunction with its oxygenation appears to be a concerted system generating "third messengers" for hormone release. PMID:6432880

  16. Comparative effects of inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Beckman, B; Nystuen, L

    1988-01-01

    The effects of a variety of inhibitors of the arachidonic acid metabolic pathway have been tested on the growth of early erythroid progenitor cell-derived colonies (CFU-E and BFU-E) in an attempt to discern whether products of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway or lipoxygenase pathway are essential for erythropoiesis. Murine erythroid progenitor cells obtained from fetal livers were cultured in the presence of erythropoietin for CFU-E and of interleukin 3 for BFU-E colony formation in response to the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors, aspirin or sodium meclofenamate, and the lipoxygenase inhibitors, BW755C, nordihydroguiaretic acid (NDGA), phenidone, and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The most potent inhibitor of colony formation (both CFU-E and BFU-E) was the selective lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW755C, followed by NDGA, phenidone and BHA. Neither aspirin nor sodium meclofenamate (10(-4) - 10(-6)M) significantly (p less than 0.05) inhibited CFU-E or BFU-E formation. These results support the hypothesis that lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism may be essential for erythroid cell proliferation/differentiation. PMID:3131779

  17. Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

    2008-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

  18. Possible involvement of ?-endorphin in docosahexaenoic acid-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Kazuo; Nishinaka, Takashi; Ambo, Akihiro; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2011-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has an antinociceptive effect on various pain stimuli in a naloxone-reversible manner. In the present study, the role of the endogenous opioid peptide ?-endorphin in DHA-induced antinociception was examined. DHA-induced antinociception was abolished when mice were pretreated with the ?-opioid receptor antagonist ?-funaltrexamine (?-FNA) and the ?-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole, but not by the ?-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. In the radioligand binding assay, DHA itself did not have affinity for ?- , ?- or ?-opioid receptors. On the other hand, the pretreatment of anti-?-endorphin antiserum inhibited DHA-induced antinociception. Furthermore, the intracerebroventricular injection of DHA dose-dependently reduced writhing behavior, and this effect was inhibited by d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2) (CTOP) and naltrindole, but not nor-BNI. ?-endorphin-induced antinociception was inhibited by the pretreatment of ?-FNA, but not naltrindole or nor-BNI, and its levels in plasma were increased by DHA treatment. These findings suggest that the induction of antinociception by DHA may partially involve the ?-opioid receptor via the release of ?-endorphin. PMID:21658380

  19. Sphingoid bases inhibit acid-induced demineralization of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van 't Hof, Wim; Bikker, Floris J; Nazmi, Kamran; Brand, Henk S; Sotres, Javier; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Veerman, Enno C I

    2015-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), the main constituent of dental enamel, is inherently susceptible to the etching and dissolving action of acids, resulting in tooth decay such as dental caries and dental erosion. Since the prevalence of erosive wear is gradually increasing, there is urgent need for agents that protect the enamel against erosive attacks. In the present study we studied in vitro the anti-erosive effects of a number of sphingolipids and sphingoid bases, which form the backbone of sphingolipids. Pretreatment of HAp discs with sphingosine, phytosphingosine (PHS), PHS phosphate and sphinganine significantly protected these against acid-induced demineralization by 80 ± 17%, 78 ± 17%, 78 ± 7% and 81 ± 8%, respectively (p < 0.001). On the other hand, sphingomyelin, acetyl PHS, octanoyl PHS and stearoyl PHS had no anti-erosive effects. Atomic force measurement revealed that HAp discs treated with PHS were almost completely and homogeneously covered by patches of PHS. This suggests that PHS and other sphingoid bases form layers on the surface of HAp, which act as diffusion barriers against H(+) ions. In principle, these anti-erosive properties make PHS and related sphingosines promising and attractive candidates as ingredients in oral care products. PMID:25300299

  20. Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... minimal hearing loss and "ringing in the ears" (tinnitus), while others may experience major problems with balance ... if there's background noise. Or they may have tinnitus, which can cause not just that annoying ringing ...

  1. Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with hearing loss Ear Infections — facts for parents Communication Methods & Devices for People With Hearing Loss American ... Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC 2320, Bethesda, MD ...

  2. Monoacylglycerol lipase regulates 2-arachidonoylglycerol action and arachidonic acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Daniel K.; Hudak, Carolyn S.S.; Ward, Anna M.; Burston, James J.; Issa, Roger S.; Fisher, Karl J.; Abood, Mary E.; Wiley, Jenny L.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Casida, John E.

    2008-01-01

    The structure-activity relationships of organophosphorus (OP) and organosulfur compounds were examined in vitro and in vivo as inhibitors of mouse brain monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) hydrolysis of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and agonist binding at the CB1 receptor. Several compounds showed exceptional potency towards MAGL activity with IC50 values of 0.1-10 nM in vitro and high inihibition at 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally in mice. We find for the first time that MAGL activity is a major in vivo determinant of 2-AG and arachidonic acid levels not only in brain but also in spleen, lung and liver. Apparent direct OP inhibition of CB1 agonist binding may be due instead to metabolic stabilization of 2-AG in brain membranes as the actual inhibitor. PMID:18752948

  3. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  4. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  8. Responses of the Inner Ear toResponses of the Inner Ear to InfrasoundInfrasound

    E-print Network

    Salt, Alec N.

    Responses of the Inner Ear toResponses of the Inner Ear to InfrasoundInfrasound Alec N. Salt, Ph this TalkTake-Home Messages from this Talk · The ear is sensitive and responds to low frequency sounds Noise Floor Electrical recording from the guinea pig earElectrical recording from the guinea pig ear

  9. Wonder Ears: Identification of Identical Twins from Ear Images Hossein Nejati

    E-print Network

    Sim, Terence

    Wonder Ears: Identification of Identical Twins from Ear Images Hossein Nejati , Li Zhang ,Terence explored automatic ear recognition for identical twin identification. Ear image recognition has been stud (performed manually). We here explore the possibility of automatic twin identification from their ear images

  10. Analysis of Mucosal Stress Response in Acid-Induced Esophagitis in Opossum

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Analysis of Mucosal Stress Response in Acid-Induced Esophagitis in Opossum ROBERT J. WHITE, Ph, and proximal samples were excised from anesthetized opossums 24 hr after three consecutive days of 45-min

  11. Increased intraocular pressure after third ventricle injections of prostaglandin E1 and arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Krupin, T; Oestrich, C; Podos, S M; Becker, B

    1976-03-01

    Prostaglandin E1 administered into the third ventricle of rabbits produced increased intraocular pressure and body temperature. Similar responses were observed after third ventricle instillation of arachidonic acid, a precursor of prostaglandin E2. Increase of body temperature occurred with lower doses of prostaglandin E1 and arachidonic acid while the intraocular pressure response required larger amounts of these drugs. Pretreatment with aspirin rectal suppositories had no effect on the third ventricle responses induced by prostaglandin E1. Aspirin pretreatment before third ventricle instillation of arachidonic acid blocked the increases of intraocular pressure and temperature. PMID:1258959

  12. In vitro release of arachidonic acid and in vivo responses to respirable fractions of cotton dust

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, T.A.; Edwards, J.H.; Al-Zubaidy, T.S.; Brown, R.C.; Poole, A.; Nicholls, P.J.

    1986-04-01

    It was considered that the fall in lung function seen after exposure to cotton dust may be attributable in part to the activity of arachidonic acid metabolites, such as leucotrienes as well as to the more established release of histamine by cotton dust. However, we found that cotton and barley dusts elicited poor release of arachidonic acid from an established macrophage like cell line compared with that observed with other organic dusts. In the experimental animal, pulmonary cellular responses to both cotton and barley dust were similar to those evoked by moldy hay and pigeon dropping dusts, although after multiple doses a more severe response was seen to cotton and barley. Since both moldy hay and pigeon droppings elicit a greater arachidonic acid release than cotton or barley, a role for arachidonic acid in inducing the cellular response is less likely than other factors. There are limitations to our conclusions using this system, i.e., the arachidonic acid may be released in a nonmetabolized form, although it is noted that the two dusts with the greatest arachidonic acid release produce their clinical responses in humans largely by hypersensitivity mechanisms.

  13. Development of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Tanya T

    2015-06-01

    The vertebrate inner ear is a sensory organ of exquisite design and sensitivity. It responds to sound, gravity and movement, serving both auditory (hearing) and vestibular (balance) functions. Almost all cell types of the inner ear, including sensory hair cells, sensory neurons, secretory cells and supporting cells, derive from the otic placode, one of the several ectodermal thickenings that arise around the edge of the anterior neural plate in the early embryo. The developmental patterning mechanisms that underlie formation of the inner ear from the otic placode are varied and complex, involving the reiterative use of familiar signalling pathways, together with roles for transcription factors, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix components. In this review, I have selected highlights that illustrate just a few of the many recent discoveries relating to the development of this fascinating organ system. PMID:25796080

  14. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar levels in breast milk throughout the world, whereas the level of DHA is highly diet dependent. Autopsy studies show similar diet-dependent variation in brain DHA, whereas AA is little affected by intake. Early intake of DHA has been shown to affect visual development, but the effect of LCPUFA on neurodevelopment remains to be established. Few studies have found any functional difference between infants supplemented with DHA alone compared to DHA+AA, but some studies show neurodevelopmental advantages in breast-fed infants of mothers supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA alone. It also remains to be established whether the AA/DHA balance could affect allergic and inflammatory outcomes later in life. Disentangling effects of genetic variability and dietary intake on AA and DHA-status and on functional outcomes may be an important step in the process of determining whether AA-intake is of any physiological or clinical importance. However, based on the current evidence we hypothesize that dietary AA plays a minor role on growth and development relative to the impact of dietary DHA. PMID:25314584

  15. Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenases with reference to their selective inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Shozo . E-mail: yamamosh@kyoto-wu.ac.jp; Katsukawa, Michiko; Nakano, Ayumi; Hiraki, Emi; Nishimura, Kohji; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Yokota, Kazushige; Ueda, Natsuo

    2005-12-09

    Lipoxygenase is a dioxygenase recognizing a 1-cis,4-cis-pentadiene of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The enzyme oxygenates various carbon atoms of arachidonic acid as a substrate and produces 5-, 8-, 12- or 15-hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid with a conjugated diene chromophore. The enzyme is referred to as 5-, 8-, 12- or 15-lipoxygenase, respectively. Earlier we found two isoforms of 12-lipoxygenase, leukocyte- and platelet-type enzymes, which were distinguished by substrate specificity, catalytic activity, primary structure, gene intron size, and antigenicity. Recently, the epidermis-type enzyme was found as the third isoform. Attempts have been made to find isozyme-specific inhibitors of 12-lipoxygenase, and earlier we found hinokitol, a tropolone, as a potent inhibitor selective for the platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase. More recently, we tested various catechins of tea leaves and found that (-)-geotechnical gallate was a potent and selective inhibitor of human platelet 12-lipoxygenase with an IC{sub 5} of 0.14 {mu}M. The compound was much less active with 12-lipoxygenase of leukocyte-type, 15-, 8-, and 5-lipoxygenases, and cyclo oxygenases-1 and -2.

  16. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification...prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the external ear. (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification...prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the external ear. (b)...

  18. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ear infection) occurs when there is bacterial or viral infection of the fluid of the middle ear, which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes ...

  19. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

  20. Neurosensory Development in the Zebrafish Inner Ear 

    E-print Network

    Vemaraju, Shruti

    2012-02-14

    The vertebrate inner ear is a complex structure responsible for hearing and balance. The inner ear houses sensory epithelia composed of mechanosensory hair cells and non-sensory support cells. Hair cells synapse with neurons of the VIIIth cranial...

  1. The caecilian ear: further observations.

    PubMed

    Wever, E G; Gans, C

    1976-10-01

    The structure of the ear is examined in two species of caecilians, Ichthyophis glutinosus and I. orthoplicatus, and the sensitivity to aerial sounds is assessed in terms of the electrical potentials of the cochlea. The results are in general agreement with previous reports on other caecilian species. PMID:1068485

  2. Surgery of the ear and pinna.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Otto I; Wood, Brett C

    2004-03-01

    There are several disease processes of the ear and pinna that warrant surgical intervention. This article reviews surgical anatomy and common surgical procedures of the ear and pinna, including aural hematomas, lateral wall resection, vertical ear canal resection, total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy, partial pinna resection, and feline inflammatory polyps. The clinical signs, diagnosis, and surgical treatment along with potential complications for each disease process are discussed. PMID:15062625

  3. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification...middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle ear cavity during...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification...middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle ear cavity during...

  5. Ear Recognition Based on Gabor Features and KFDA

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Zhichun

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the same size. For its eminent characteristics in spatial local feature extraction and orientation selection, Gabor filter based ear feature extraction is presented in this paper. Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA) is then applied for dimension reduction of the high-dimensional Gabor features. Finally distance based classifier is applied for ear recognition. Experimental results of ear recognition on two datasets (USTB and UND datasets) and the performance of the ear authentication system show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:24778595

  6. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity and Ear, ... all children be regularly screened for snoring. Middle ear infections Acute otitis media (AOM) and chronic ear ...

  7. Ear recognition based on Gabor features and KFDA.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Mu, Zhichun

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the same size. For its eminent characteristics in spatial local feature extraction and orientation selection, Gabor filter based ear feature extraction is presented in this paper. Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA) is then applied for dimension reduction of the high-dimensional Gabor features. Finally distance based classifier is applied for ear recognition. Experimental results of ear recognition on two datasets (USTB and UND datasets) and the performance of the ear authentication system show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:24778595

  8. Ear Modeling and Sound Signal Processing Ear modeling can significantly improve sound signal processing and

    E-print Network

    Xin, Jack

    Ear Modeling and Sound Signal Processing Jack Xin Abstract Ear modeling can significantly improve sound signal processing and the design of hearing devices. Ear models based on mechanics and neu- ral phenomenology of the inner ear (cochlea) form a class of nonlinear nonlocal dispersive partial differential

  9. Immunologic Disorders of the Inner Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.

    1997-01-01

    Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  10. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How the Body Works Main Page Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > Kids > Q&A > Q&A > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A Text ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  11. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  12. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  13. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  14. Ear Biometrics in Human Identification A Dissertation

    E-print Network

    Bowyer, Kevin W.

    Ear Biometrics in Human Identification A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School and Engineering Notre Dame, Indiana June 2006 #12;Ear Biometrics in Human Identification Abstract by Ping Yan the ear as a biometric and investigate its potential with both 2D and 3D data. Our work is the largest

  15. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  16. EYES 'N EARS FACE DETECTION B. Kapralos

    E-print Network

    Milios, Evangelos E.

    EYES 'N EARS FACE DETECTION B. Kapralos ¢¡ £ , M. Jenkin ¢¡ £ , E. Milios ¤¥¡ £ and J. K. Tsotsos Ears teleconferencing system, which is responsible for automatically detecting the face of all to the audio system as possible sound source positions (or directions). Fig. 1. Eyes 'n Ears Sensor. 1

  17. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  18. EEG Recorded from the Ear: Characterizing the Ear-EEG Method

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Kaare B.; Kappel, Simon L.; Mandic, Danilo P.; Kidmose, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Auditory middle and late latency responses can be recorded reliably from ear-EEG.For sources close to the ear, ear-EEG has the same signal-to-noise-ratio as scalp.Ear-EEG is an excellent match for power spectrum-based analysis. A method for measuring electroencephalograms (EEG) from the outer ear, so-called ear-EEG, has recently been proposed. The method could potentially enable robust recording of EEG in natural environments. The objective of this study was to substantiate the ear-EEG method by using a larger population of subjects and several paradigms. For rigor, we considered simultaneous scalp and ear-EEG recordings with common reference. More precisely, 32 conventional scalp electrodes and 12 ear electrodes allowed a thorough comparison between conventional and ear electrodes, testing several different placements of references. The paradigms probed auditory onset response, mismatch negativity, auditory steady-state response and alpha power attenuation. By comparing event related potential (ERP) waveforms from the mismatch response paradigm, the signal measured from the ear electrodes was found to reflect the same cortical activity as that from nearby scalp electrodes. It was also found that referencing the ear-EEG electrodes to another within-ear electrode affects the time-domain recorded waveform (relative to scalp recordings), but not the timing of individual components. It was furthermore found that auditory steady-state responses and alpha-band modulation were measured reliably with the ear-EEG modality. Finally, our findings showed that the auditory mismatch response was difficult to monitor with the ear-EEG. We conclude that ear-EEG yields similar performance as conventional EEG for spectrogram-based analysis, similar timing of ERP components, and equal signal strength for sources close to the ear. Ear-EEG can reliably measure activity from regions of the cortex which are located close to the ears, especially in paradigms employing frequency-domain analyses. PMID:26635514

  19. Inner Time and Inner Ear

    E-print Network

    Michael Rvachov

    2012-11-10

    Sounds are information sequences that cannot exist outside of a time base and therefore cannot be analyzed inside an animal without an accurate internal clock. It is suggested that the clock may be hidden in the inner ear. It is shown that if a mechanism of counting of the electrical charge passing through the inner ear hair cells exists then the mechanism can be used both for the conversion of acceleration into velocity and as the inner clock, in the presence of a constant current. The causes of vertigo during rotation are discussed. It is shown that if a continuous inner time exists then sleeping is a "mathematical necessity". It is indicated that both for visual and hearing inputs the recognition of an input signal is recognition of function(s) of two variables.

  20. Inner Time and Inner Ear

    E-print Network

    Rvachov, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Sounds are information sequences that cannot exist outside of a time base and therefore cannot be analyzed inside an animal without an accurate internal clock. It is suggested that the clock may be hidden in the inner ear. It is shown that if a mechanism of counting of the electrical charge passing through the inner ear hair cells exists then the mechanism can be used both for the conversion of acceleration into velocity and as the inner clock, in the presence of a constant current. The causes of vertigo during rotation are discussed. It is shown that if a continuous inner time exists then sleeping is a mathematical necessity. It is indicated that both for visual and hearing inputs the recognition of an input signal is recognition of function(s) of two variables.

  1. The War of Jenkins’ Ear

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

  2. The stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets by hydrodynamic stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajagopalan, Sridhar; Mcintire, Larry V.; Hall, Elizabeth R.; Wu, Kenneth K.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of stimulating human platelets by thrombin and by hydrodynamic stresses on the platelets' arachidonic acid metabolism were investigated using (1-C-14)-arachidonic acid label and a specially designed viscometer that ensured laminar shear flow with a nearly uniform shear rate throughout the flow region. It was found that platelets activated by thrombin formed principally thromboxane A2, 12-hydroxy 5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid and 12-hydroxy 5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE). On the other hand, platelets activated by shear, formed only 12-HETE (although arachidonic acid metabolism was stimulated); no cyclooxygenase metabolites were detected. Results indicate that platelets may greatly increase their 12-HETE production when activated by passage through a high-stress region of the circulation, such as an atherosclerotic stenosis.

  3. In Vitro Visualization and Quantication of Oleic Acid Induced Changes in Transdermal Transport Using

    E-print Network

    So, Peter

    In Vitro Visualization and Quanti®cation of Oleic Acid Induced Changes in Transdermal Transport coef®cient of each probe induced by the oleic acid enhancer action were calculated relative to the control sample (not exposed to oleic acid), and subsequently applied to theoretically derived mathematical

  4. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory


    MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have demonstrated the hepatocarcinogenicity of DCA in rodents when administered in dri...

  5. GPR109A (PUMA-G/HM74A) mediates nicotinic acid–induced flushing

    PubMed Central

    Benyó, Zoltán; Gille, Andreas; Kero, Jukka; Csiky, Marion; Suchánková, Marie Catherine; Nüsing, Rolf M.; Moers, Alexandra; Pfeffer, Klaus; Offermanns, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (niacin) has long been used as an antidyslipidemic drug. Its special profile of actions, especially the rise in HDL-cholesterol levels induced by nicotinic acid, is unique among the currently available pharmacological tools to treat lipid disorders. Recently, a G-protein–coupled receptor, termed GPR109A (HM74A in humans, PUMA-G in mice), was described and shown to mediate the nicotinic acid–induced antilipolytic effects in adipocytes. One of the major problems of the pharmacotherapeutical use of nicotinic acid is a strong flushing response. This side effect, although harmless, strongly affects patient compliance. In the present study, we show that mice lacking PUMA-G did not show nicotinic acid–induced flushing. In addition, flushing in response to nicotinic acid was also abrogated in the absence of cyclooxygenase type 1, and mice lacking prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptors had reduced flushing responses. The mouse orthologue of GPR109A, PUMA-G, is highly expressed in macrophages and other immune cells, and transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into irradiated PUMA-G–deficient mice restored the nicotinic acid–induced flushing response. Our data clearly indicate that GPR109A mediates nicotinic acid–induced flushing and that this effect involves release of PGE2 and PGD2, most likely from immune cells of the skin. PMID:16322797

  6. Bias-dependent amino-acid-induced conductance changes in short semi-metallic carbon nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Bias-dependent amino-acid-induced conductance changes in short semi-metallic carbon nanotubes G the interaction between short semi-metallic carbon nanotubes and different amino acids using molecular dynamics different mechanisms of nanotube-conductance-change upon adsorption of amino acids: one due to the change

  7. Trivalent Ions Activate Abscisic Acid-Inducible Promoters through an ABI1-Dependent Pathway in

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Trivalent Ions Activate Abscisic Acid-Inducible Promoters through an ABI1-Dependent Pathway in Rice abscisic acid (ABA) mediates many vital processes in plant growth and development, including seed dormancy, cell division, water use efficiency, and adaptation to drought, salinity, chilling, pathogen attack

  8. Protein kinase C, arachidonate metabolism, and tracheal smooth muscle - effects of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.; Baraban, J.; Menkes, H.

    1986-03-01

    Cooling causes airway obstruction in asthma. Contractions of airway smooth muscle may be produced through the phosphatidylinositol cycle and the activation of protein kinase C. Protein kinase C can be activated directly with phorbol esters. The authors studied the effects of temperature on responses to phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) in guinea pig tracheal rings bathed in Krebs-Henseleit solution. At 37/sup 0/C, 1 ..mu..M PDA relaxed the tissue (tension fell 0.60 +/- S.E. 0.04 g). At 27/sub 0/C, 1 ..mu..M PDA contracted the tissue (tension rose 0.050 +/- 0.05 g). In comparison, near maximum contractions produced by 4 ..mu..M carbachol were 2.00 +/- 0.09 g at 37/sub 0/C and 1.90 +/- 0.09 g at 27/sup 0/C. Butler-Gralla et al. showed that phorbol esters may stimulate the release of arachidonic acid from cultured cells. In order to determine whether arachidonate metabolites play a role in responses observed in guinea pig trachea, the authors used indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), FPL 55712 (a leukotriene receptor antagonist) and Na arachidonate. At 37/sup 0/C, 3 ..mu..M indomethacin pretreatment abolished relaxationby 1 uM PDA. At 27/sup 0/C, 10 uM FPL 55712 pretreatment abolished contractions by 1 ..mu..M PDA. Like PDA, 1 ..mu..M Na arachidonate produced relaxation at 37/sup 0/C and contraction at 27/sup 0/C. The authors conclude that the effects of PDA at different temperatures parallel the effects of Na arachidonate. These results suggest that the effects of PDA in the guinea pig trachea are related to the release of endogenous arachidonic acid and that the cyclooxygenase pathway predominates at high temperature and the lipoxygenase pathway predominates at low temperature.

  9. Cellular events involved in butyric acid-induced T cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Amano, Shigeru; Fukushima, Kazuo; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2003-10-01

    We have previously demonstrated that butyric acid induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis of murine thymocytes, splenic T cells, and human Jurkat T cells. Therefore, to determine the apoptotic signaling pathway induced by butyric acid, we investigated the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondria, ceramide, and mitogen-activated protein kinases in butyric acid-induced human Jurkat cell apoptosis. After exposure of cells to butyric acid, a pronounced accumulation of ROS was seen. Pretreatment of cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or 3-aminobenzamide attenuated butyric acid-induced apoptosis through a reduction of ROS generation. Cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases protein release from mitochondria into the cytosol were detected shortly after butyric acid treatment. Exposure of cells to butyric acid resulted in an increase in cellular ceramide in a time-dependent fashion. In addition, butyric acid-induced apoptosis was inhibited by DL-threo-dihidrosphingosine, a potent inhibitor of sphingosine kinase. Using anti-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), anti-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and anti-p38 phosphospecific Abs, we showed a decrease in ERK, but not in JNK and p38 phosphorylation after treatment of cells with butyric acid. Pretreatment of cells with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 attenuated the effect of butyric acid on apoptosis, whereas no effect was seen with the p38 inhibitor SB202190 or the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Taken together, our results indicate that butyric acid-induced T cell apoptosis is mediated by ceramide production, ROS synthesis in mitochondria, and JNK activation in the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Finally, these results were further substantiated by the expression profile of butyric acid-treated Jurkat cells obtained by means of cDNA array. PMID:14500654

  10. The effect of fluid mechanical stress on cellular arachidonic acid metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintire, L. V.; Frangos, J. A.; Rhee, B. G.; Eskin, S. G.; Hall, E. R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of sublytic levels of mechanical perturations of cells on cell metabolism were investigated by analyzing the products of arachidonic acid (used as a marker metabolite) in blood platelets, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and cultured umbilical-vein endothelial cells after the suspensions of these cells were subjected to a shear stress in a modified viscometer. It is shown that the sublytic levels of mechanical stress stimulated the arachidonic acid metabolism in all these cell types. Possible biological implications of this stress-metabolism coupling are discussed.

  11. Numerical simulation of the human ear and the dynamic analysis of the middle ear sound transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Ma, J.; Huang, X.

    2013-06-01

    Based on the clinical CT of normal right ear, a 3-D ?nite element (FE) model of the human ear consisting of the external ear canal, middle ear(tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, ligaments, tendons), and inner ear (including semicircular canals, vestibular, spiral cochlear)was constructed in this paper. The complicated structures and inner boundary conditions of middle ear were described in this model. Model analysis and acoustic-structure-?uid coupled dynamic frequency response analysis were conducted on the model. The validity of this model was confirmed by comparing the results with published experimental data. The amplitudes and velocities of tympanic membrane and stapes footplate, sound pressure gain across the middle ear, and the cochlear input impedance were derived. Besides, it was concluded that the ear canal can amplify the sound signal in low frequencies.The modes of vibration of middle ear auditory ossicles, oval window and round window have been analysed. This model can well simulate the acoustic behavior with the interaction of external ear, middle ear and inner ear, which can supply more valuable theoretical support for development and improvement of hearing-aid and artificial inner ear.

  12. Prominent ears: Anthropometric study of the external ear of primary school children of Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Muteweye, Wilfred; Muguti, Godfrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prominent ear is the most common congenital ear deformity affecting 5% of children in the Western world and has profound psychosocial effects on the bearer. It is important to know the prevalence in the local population to have a better appreciation of the local burden of the abnormality as well as to know the parameters of ear morphology locally. These parameters can be useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of ear anomalies and may help reconstructive surgeons in reproducing an anatomically correct ear of an African/Zimbabwean child. Objectives To evaluate the frequency of prominent ears in black school going children in Zimbabwe and to establish morphometric properties of the ear. Design Prospective observational, cross sectional study. Setting Three Primary schools in Harare. Two in a high density area and one in a low density area. Materials and methods Three Primary schools in Harare were selected at random. The following measurements were taken: ear lengths, ear projection and face height using a sliding caliper. Three hundred and five healthy pupils of the age range 9–13 years of both sexes were included in the study, whilst children with congenital anomalies, ear tumours and history of ear trauma were excluded. Results The mean ear height across the cohort was 56.95 ± 5.00 (right ear) and 56.86 ± 4.92 (left ear). Ear projection was 19.52 ± 2.14 (right ear) and 19.59 ± 2.09 (left ear). Gender related differences were noted. Mean ear height was significantly higher in males (p-value = 0.000). Ear projection was higher in males compared to females. A total of 6.89% had prominent ears. Among males, 7.69% had prominent ears whilst 6.17% of females had prominent ears. Conclusion The prevalence of prominent ear among black African children in the studied population is comparable to that of Caucasians. The study provides a set of biometric data of auricular dimensions for normal black African children aged 9–13 years. PMID:26468372

  13. Listening to Nature's orchestra with peculiar ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Insects use hearing for the crucial tasks of communicating with conspecifics and avoiding predators. Although all are based on the same acoustic principles, the diversity of insect ears is staggering and instructive. For instance, a South African grasshopper demonstrates that hearing conspecific calls is possible over distances 1 km with ears that do not have tympana. Actually, these creatures have six pairs of ears that play different roles in behavior. In numerical contrast, praying mantises have just a single ear in the ventral midline. The ear is very effective at detecting ultrasonic bat cries. However, the bioacoustics of sound transduction by two tympana facing each other in a deep, narrow slit is a puzzle. Tachinid flies demonstrate that directional hearing at 5 kHz is possible with a pair of ears fused together to give a total size of 1 mm. The ears are under the fly's chin. Hawk moths have their ears built into their mouthparts and the tympanum is more like a hollow ball than the usual membrane. As an apt last example, cicada ears are actually part of the orchestra: their tympana function both in sound reception and sound production.

  14. The frog inner ear: picture perfect?

    E-print Network

    Mason, Matthew James; Segenhout, Johannes M.; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Quiñones, Patricia M.; van Dijk, Pim

    2015-01-29

    therefore believed to be reproductively mature. The inner ear of this species may therefore be 444 paedomorphic. 445 The inner ear of Xenopus laevis has been described, among others, by Paterson (1949, 1960), Wever 446 (1985) and Bever et al. (2003). Our... in order to establish whether these inner 480 ear differences represent sexual dimorphism, which has been observed in the middle ear of this 481 species (Mason et al., 2009). 482 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19...

  15. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  16. The discovery in the nervous system of an alternative route for arachidonic

    E-print Network

    Cravatt, Benjamin

    The discovery in the nervous system of an alternative route for arachidonic acid (AA) production in the nervous system but also a potentially safer way to reduce inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases way of sup pressing the inflammation that is characteristic of neurodegenerative disorders

  17. CHEMICAL NATURE AND IMMUNOTOXICOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ARACHIDONIC ACID DEGRADATION PRODUCTS FORMED BY EXPOSURE TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (O3) exposure in vivo has been reported to degrade arachidonic acid (AA) in the lungs of rodents. The O3-degraded AA products may play a role in the lung responses to this toxicant. In order to study the chemical nature and biological activity of O3-exposed AA, we exposed A...

  18. CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID OR EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID, BUT NOT ARACHIDONIC ACID,

    E-print Network

    Wurtman, Richard

    CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID OR EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID, BUT NOT ARACHIDONIC ACID circulating precursors: choline; a pyrimidine (e.g. uridine); and a poly- unsaturated fatty acid, with UMP plus the omega-3 fatty acid docosa- hexaenoic acid (given by gavage), produces substantial in

  19. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene variants affect response to fish oil supplementation by healthy African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the effects of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene (ALOX5) variants on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and changes in response to fish oil supplementation. We hypothesized that Sp1 variants in the ALOX5 promoter, which have previously been associated with cardiovascu...

  20. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the EAR” is a term used in the EAR to describe those items...

  1. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the EAR” is a term used in the EAR to describe those items...

  2. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the EAR” is a term used in the EAR to describe those items...

  3. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the EAR” is a term used in the EAR to describe those items...

  4. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the EAR” is a term used in the EAR to describe those items...

  5. Fear the EAR: Discovering and Mitigating Execution After Redirect Vulnerabilities

    E-print Network

    Kruegel, Christopher

    Fear the EAR: Discovering and Mitigating Execution After Redirect Vulnerabilities Adam Doupé, Bryce we call Execution After Redirect, or EAR. A web application de- veloper can introduce an EAR written in nine web frameworks are to EAR vulnerabilities. We then discuss the results from the EAR

  6. Ozone-induced alterations in arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured lung cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most sensitive cells to ozone (O/sub 3/) damage is the pulmonary endothelial cell which may mediate the response of the lung to injury by productions of the autacoid prostacyclin (PGl/sub 2/), a metabolite of arachidonic acid. Exposure of endothelial cell cultures to ozone produced a concentration dependent decreases in the synthesis of PGl/sub 2/. Release of /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid from endothelial cells was increased after two hours of 0.3 and 1.0 ppm O/sub 3/ exposure while incubation of cells with 20 ..mu..M and arachidonate (4 min) after exposure resulted in a decreased PGl/sub 2/ synthesis. Cells exposed to 1.0 ppm O/sub 3/ did not have a decreased PGl/sub 2/ production when incubated with 5 ..mu..M PGH/sub 2/ immediately after exposure. These results are consistent with an O/sub 3/-induced inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity. O/sub 3/ exposure (1.0 ppm) produced a rapid decrease in endothelial PGl/sub 2/ synthesis. The data suggest that cyclooxygenase was not inactivated by increased autooxidation due to metabolism of increased free arachidonate. PGl/sub 2/ synthesis returned to control amounts within 12 hours after ozone exposure similar to the recovery time of irreversibly inhibited cyclooxygenase suggesting that recovery was due to de novo synthesis of enzyme. Lipid peroxides and/or hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) may have caused the inhibition of cyclooxygenase. Incubation of cells with catalase (5 U/ml) protected against the O/sub 3/-induced depression in PGl/sub 2/ synthesis. Exogenously added H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ (greater than or equal to 75 ..mu..M) caused a stimulation of basal PGl/sub 2/ production but depressed arachidonate-stimulated synthesis. O/sub 3/ exposure (2 hr, 1.0 ppm) produced altered metabolism of arachidonate in other important lung cell types, e.g., a decreased PGl/sub 2/ synthesis in smooth muscle cultures. Exposure of lung macrophages to O/sub 3/ caused an increase in almost all arachidonate metabolites produced.

  7. Minocycline ameliorates prenatal valproic acid induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Treatment with minocycline significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, minocycline has also attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline should be explored further for its therapeutic benefits in autism. PMID:26551768

  8. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePLUS

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  9. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  10. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  11. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A...

  12. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the...

  13. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the...

  15. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the...

  17. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Patient ... Otitis media refers to inflammation of the middle ear. When infection occurs, the condition is called " acute ...

  18. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the...

  19. Measles virus-induced mononuclear leukocyte adherence inhibition: effect of some drugs influencing arachidonic acid metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Mayer, M

    1986-11-01

    Effect of some drugs influencing arachidonic acid metabolic pathways upon the measles virus-induced leukocyte adherence inhibition was investigated in multiple sclerosis patients and in the control group. The drugs used were natrium salicylate, ethanol, and phenidon(1-phenyl-3-pyrazolidon). Statistically significant differences were proved between multiple sclerosis patients and controls using phenidon, a drug inhibiting both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of the arachidonic acid metabolism. The results obtained provide suggestion on participation of arachidonic acid metabolism in the measles virus-induced leukocyte adherence inhibition phenomenon and in its alterations in multiple sclerosis. PMID:2881471

  20. A Case of Middle Ear Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Myung Joo; Song, Chan-Il

    2012-01-01

    Middle ear adenoma can be a rare cause of a middle ear mass. These benign tumors can have epithelial and/or neuroendocrine differentiation. In 1976, Hyams was the first to describe a series of these tumors. It is still thought that these tumors are indistinguishable in composition from each other. We report a case of middle ear adenoma, the clinical and pathologic findings of which illustrate the biological behavior of the middle ear. A 17-year-old male presented with a history of recurrent, bloody otorrhea and high-pitched tinnitus. We diagnosed him with congenital cholesteatoma and performed surgery to remove the entire tumor as well as the incus. However, on postoperative pathology examination, we finally diagnosed the tumor as middle-ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. In the two years following surgery, the patient's adenoma has not recurred, although long-term observation will be required. PMID:24653866

  1. Melanocyte-stimulating properties of arachidonic acid metabolites: possible role in postinflammatory pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Y; Maeda, K; Tagami, H

    1992-11-01

    Normal human epidermal melanocytes became swollen and more dendritic with an increase in the amount of tyrosinase and immunoreactive b-locus protein when they were cultured for 2 days with the following arachidonic acid metabolites: prostaglandin (PG) D2, leukotriene (LT) B4, LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, thromboxane (TX) B2 and 12-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE). The effect of LTC4 was particularly strong compared to that of PGE2, about which we have previously reported. On the other hand, PGE1, PGF2 alpha and 6-ketoPGF1 alpha did not show any significant stimulatory effect. These data suggest that arachidonate-derived chemical mediators, especially LTC4, may be responsible for the induction of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation of the skin. PMID:1292020

  2. Surgical Management of Ear Diseases in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Csomos, Rebecca; Bosscher, Georgia; Mans, Christoph; Hardie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Otitis externa and media are frequently diagnosed disorders in rabbits and are particularly common in lop-eared breeds because of the specific anatomy of the ear canal. Medical management for otitis externa and media often provides only a temporary improvement in clinical signs. Surgery by means of partial or total ear canal ablation (PECA or TECA) combined with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) represents a feasible approach that is well tolerated and provides a good clinical outcome. Short-term complications associated with PECA/TECA-LBO include facial nerve paralysis and vestibular disease. PMID:26611929

  3. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    PubMed Central

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-01-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology. PMID:3779167

  4. Effects of arachidonic acid on unitary calcium currents in rat sympathetic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liwang; Rittenhouse, Ann R

    2000-01-01

    We have characterized the actions of arachidonic acid (AA) on whole cell and unitary calcium (Ca2+) currents in rat neonatal superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons using barium (Ba2+) as the charge carrier. Whole cell currents were elicited by stepping the membrane potential from ?90 mV to +10 mV. Arachidonic acid (5 ?m) was introduced into the bath in the continued presence of 1 ?m (+)-202-791, an L-type Ca2+ channel agonist. Under these conditions, the peak current, comprised mainly of N-type current, and a slow, (+)-202-791-induced component of the tail current were inhibited by 67 ± 6 and 60 ± 10%, respectively, indicating that AA inhibits both N- and L-type currents. At a test potential of +30 mV, AA (5 ?m) decreased unitary L- and N-type Ca2+ channel open probability (Po) in cell-attached patches that contained a single channel. For both channels, the underlying causes of the decrease in Po were similar. Arachidonic acid caused an increase in the percentage of null sweeps and in the number of null sweeps that clustered together. In sweeps with activity, the average number of openings per sweep decreased, while first latency and mean closed time increased. Arachidonic acid had no significant effect on unitary current amplitude or mean open time. Our findings are the first description of the inhibition of unitary L- and N-type Ca2+ channel activity by AA and are consistent with both channels spending more time in their null mode and with increased dwell time in one or more closed states. PMID:10835042

  5. Second messenger function of arachidonic acid lipoxygenation products in human natural killer cell lysis?

    PubMed

    Jondal, M; Kullman, C; Rossi, P; Lindgren, J A

    1985-09-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells were tested in the presence of several fatty acid oxygenase inhibitors such as nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, 3-amino-1-m-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl-2-pyrazoline (BW 755C), and indomethacin. All drugs inhibited NK lysis at the post-target cell-binding level at concentrations that also suppressed lipoxygenation of arachidonic acid, suggesting that such reactivity may be required for effector cell triggering. NDGA gave a 50% NK cell inhibition in the range of 10-30 microM and also suppressed antibody-dependent and lectin-dependent systems. Further evidence of the involvement of arachidonic acid lipoxygenation was found as NK activity could be reconstituted to NDGA-suppressed effector cells with several metabolites such as LTB4, LTB4 analogues, and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids lipoxygenated at C-5, C-12, and C-15. Cyclic nucleotides such as cGMP and cAMP could also reconstitute activity with optimal effects at approximately 10(-8) M. The combined evidence is compatible with a model for triggering lysis in which lipoxygenation products have a second messenger function. Whether arachidonic acid lipoxygenation is necessary for effector cells at all different activation/differentiation stages and whether the lipoxygenation products activate guanylic cyclase, protein kinase C, or some other target molecule remain to be further investigated. PMID:2996125

  6. Targeted Chiral Analysis of Bioactive Arachidonic Acid Metabolites Using Liquid-Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    A complex structurally diverse series of eicosanoids arises from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The metabolic profile is further complicated by the enantioselectivity of eicosanoid formation and the variety of regioisomers that arise. In order to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in vitro or in vivo, targeted methods are advantageous in order to distinguish between the complex isomeric mixtures that can arise by different metabolic pathways. Over the last several years this targeted approach has become more popular, although there are still relatively few examples where chiral targeted approaches have been employed to directly analyze complex enantiomeric mixtures. To efficiently conduct targeted eicosanoid analyses, LC separations are coupled with collision induced dissociation (CID) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Product ion profiles are often diagnostic for particular regioisomers. The highest sensitivity that can be achieved involves the use of selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (SRM/MS); whereas the highest specificity is obtained with an SRM transitions between an intense parent ion, which contains the intact molecule (M) and a structurally significant product ion. This review article provides an overview of arachidonic acid metabolism and targeted chiral methods that have been utilized for the analysis of the structurally diverse eicosanoids that arise. PMID:24957514

  7. Stimulated arachidonate metabolism during foam cell transformation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with oxidized low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Yokode, M; Kita, T; Kikawa, Y; Ogorochi, T; Narumiya, S; Kawai, C

    1988-01-01

    Changes in arachidonate metabolism were examined in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with various types of lipoproteins. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) was incorporated by macrophages and stimulated macrophage prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 syntheses, respectively, 10.8- and 10.7-fold higher than by the control. Production of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a stable metabolite of prostacyclin, was also stimulated. No stimulation was found with native LDL, which was minimally incorporated by the cells. Acetylated LDL and beta-migrating very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL), though incorporated more efficiently than oxidized LDL, also had no stimulatory effect. When oxidized LDL was separated into the lipoprotein-lipid peroxide complex and free lipid peroxides, most of the stimulatory activity was found in the former fraction, indicating that stimulation of arachidonate metabolism in the cell is associated with uptake of the lipoprotein-lipid peroxide complex. These results suggest that peroxidative modification of LDL could contribute to the progression of atheroma by stimulating arachidonate metabolism during incorporation into macrophages. Images PMID:3125226

  8. Lipoxygenase-mediated pro-radical effect of melatonin via stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Radogna, F.; Sestili, P.; Martinelli, C.; Paolillo, M.; Paternoster, L.; Albertini, M.C.; Accorsi, A.; Gualandi, G.; Ghibelli, L.

    2009-07-15

    We have shown that melatonin immediately and transiently stimulates intracellular free radical production on a set of leukocytes, possibly as a consequence of calmodulin binding. We show here that melatonin-induced ROS are produced by lipoxygenase (LOX), since they are prevented by a set of LOX inhibitors, and are accompanied by increase of the 5-LOX product 5-HETE. LOX activation is accompanied by strong liberation of AA; inhibition of Ca{sup 2+}-independent, but not Ca{sup 2+}-dependent, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), prevents both melatonin-induced arachidonic acid and ROS production, whereas LOX inhibition only prevents ROS, indicating that PLA2 is upstream with respect to LOX, as occurs in many signaling pathways. Chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of melatonin-calmodulin interaction, inhibits both ROS and arachidonic acid production, thus possibly placing calmodulin at the origin of a melatonin-induced pro-radical pathway. Interestingly, it is known that Ca{sup 2+}-independent PLA2 binds to calmodulin: our results are compatible with PLA2 being liberated by melatonin from a steady-state calmodulin sequestration, thus initiating an arachidonate signal transduction. These results delineate a novel molecular pathway through which melatonin may participate to the inflammatory response.

  9. Mozart ear: diagnosis, treatment, and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Ken; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi; Saito, Tamotsu; Isogai, Noritaka; Mori, Hiromasa; Itani, Yoshihito

    2011-11-01

    Mozart ear is a congenital auricular deformity, which is mainly characterized by a bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle, a convexly protruded cavum conchae, and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus. It is said to be uncommon, and because no one has yet fully described neither the disease nor the treatment, the concept of Mozart ear has not been unified. This report describes a case of a 13-year-old girl presented with an unusual congenital deformity which showed the features of Mozart ear. It is an extremely rare deformity that only about 4 clinical cases have been reported in medical literature thereby a treatment method has not been fully discussed. For surgical correction of our cases, we excised deformed conchal cartilage, turned it over, regrafted, and maintained a cosmetically positive result. We also reviewed and described the origin, current concept, and treatment method of Mozart ear. PMID:21587051

  10. Ear Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... List of All Topics All Ear Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (???????) French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  11. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  12. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  13. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear...—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis media, mastoiditis, or cholesteatoma... of the substance 10 6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  17. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear...—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis media, mastoiditis, or cholesteatoma... of the substance 10 6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating...

  18. Short Papers___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Comparison and Combination of Ear and Face

    E-print Network

    Bowyer, Kevin W.

    ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Comparison and Combination of Ear and Face Images in Appearance-Based Biometrics Kyong Chang, Kevin W. Bowyer that the ear may have advantages over the face for biometric recognition. Our previous experiments with ear performance using ear images. We report results of similar experiments on larger data sets that are more

  19. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  20. Shaping Magnetic Fields to Direct Therapy to Ears

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    Shaping Magnetic Fields to Direct Therapy to Ears and Eyes B. Shapiro,1,2 S. Kulkarni,1 A. Nacev,1 delivery, ear, eye, nanotherapy, stem cells Abstract Magnetic fields have the potential to noninvasively ear and eye disease targets. Ear and eye targets are too deep and complex to be targeted by a single

  1. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  2. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  4. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear...—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis media, mastoiditis, or cholesteatoma... of the substance 10 6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  6. Shorter Tours by Nicer Ears Andras Sebo Jens Vygen

    E-print Network

    Schalekamp, Frans

    Shorter Tours by Nicer Ears Andr´as Sebo Jens Vygen reading notes by Frans Schalekamp The 7 5 -approximation algorithm for TSP is presented here as follows: we start with considering instances with ear of the ear decomposition are relaxed. We then sketch how an ear decomposition with the relaxed properties can

  7. Binaural versus better-ear listening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpaci, Jacob W.; Durlach, N. I.; Colburn, H. Steven

    2003-04-01

    Advantages of binaural over monaural hearing in noisy environments are reduced when the monaural stimulation is derived from the monaural signal with the better signal-to-noise ratio (better-ear listening). In the reported experiments, conducted in a soundproof room with two speakers and a custom-designed, noise-cancellation headset, speech intelligibility in the presence of interference was measured for both binaural and better-ear configurations. The headset, which incorporated two microphones (located at the two ears) and two insert earphones, was used to present binaural stimulation or better-ear (better-microphone) monaural stimulation. Although the results varied significantly with the locations of the target and interference sources, the advantage of binaural listening over better-ear listening was no more than a few dB. In addition to reporting the data obtained in these experiments, relations to previous work on better-ear listening and CROS hearing aids, as well as to current work on cochlear implants, are discussed. [Work supported by NIDCD (00100).

  8. STRUCTURAL REMODELING OF PROTEOGLYCANS UPON RETINOIC ACID-INDUCED DIFFERENTIATION OF NCCIT CELLS*

    PubMed Central

    Gasimli, Leyla; Stansfield, Hope E.; Nairn, Alison V.; Liu, Haiying; Paluh, Janet L.; Yang, Bo; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increasingly lineage restricted through differentiation. Alterations to the cellular proteoglycan composition and structure should accompany these changes to influence cell proliferation, delineation of tissues and acquisition of cell migration capabilities. Retinoic acid plays an important role in pre-patterning of the early embryo. Retinoic acid can be used in vitro to induce differentiation, causing pluripotent and multipotent cells to become increasingly lineage restricted. We examined retinoic acid-induced changes in the cellular proteoglycan composition of the well-characterized teratocarcinoma line NCCIT. Our analysis revealed changes in the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding core proteins, enzymes that are responsible for early and late linkage region biosynthesis, as well as enzymes for GAG chain extension and modification. Transcript levels for genes encoding core proteins used as backbones for polysaccharide synthesis revealed highly significant increases in expression of lumican and decorin, 1500-fold and 2800-fold, respectively. Similarly, glypican 3, glypican 5, versican and glypican 6 showed increases between 5 and 70-fold. Significant decreases in biglycan, serglycin, glypican 4, aggrecan, neurocan, CD74 and glypican 1 were observed. Disaccharide analysis of the glycans in heparin/heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate revealed retinoic acid-induced changes restricted to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycans. Our study provides the first detailed analysis of changes in the glycosaminoglycan profile of human pluripotent cells upon treatment with the retinoic acid morphogen. PMID:23053635

  9. The placebo response to citric acid-induced cough: pharmacodynamics and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Rostami-Hodjegan, A; Abdul-Manap, R; Wright, C E; Tucker, G T; Morice, A H

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of the response to placebo in a citric acid-induced cough challenge were investigated as part of a randomized, double-blind crossover trial to assess the antitussive effect of dextromethorphan. Baseline cough responses were established on two occasions in 22 healthy subjects. They received 60 ml placebo antitussive syrup and cough frequency following five inhalations of 10% citric acid over 5 min was measured at regular intervals up to 12 h. Response-time models of varying complexity were used to describe the placebo cough suppression data. The cough response to placebo was also compared to that of the untreated state. The placebo cough response was best characterized by a non-linear increase in cough suppression up to a maximum reduction of 1.6 coughs from baseline at 4-4.5 h, followed by a non-linear return to baseline. The cough response in the untreated state was not different from that of placebo (P=0.99). Females coughed more frequently than males (median number of coughs=10.5 vs. 9.0, respectively P<0.001; Mann-Whitney U test), and adaptation to the cough stimulus was significantly more rapid in females (P<0.025). Accordingly, in trials that use citric acid-induced cough, gender should be considered in study design, particularly in relation to the timing of measurements. PMID:11440560

  10. The involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in bile acid-induced hepatocellular injury.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Tetsuo; Kaminaga, Tomoyuki; Yasuda, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Hara, Hirokazu

    2014-03-01

    Secondary bile acids produced by enteric bacteria accumulate to high levels in the enterohepatic circulation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular injury. Relative hydrophobicity has been suggested to be an important determinant of the biological properties of these compounds, although the mechanism by which bile acids induce pathogenesis is not fully understood. On the other hand, endoplasmic reticulum stress has been shown to be involved in the induction and development of various pathogenic conditions. In this report, we demonstrated that the intensities of cytotoxicity and endoplasmic reticulum stress in HepG2 cells triggered by the bile acids tested were largely dependent on their hydrophobicity. The activation of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation by treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid showed the contribution of apoptosis to cytotoxicity. Increases in intracellular calcium levels and the generation of reactive oxygen species stimulated by treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid contributed to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Bile acids also induced transforming growth factor-?, a potent profibrogenic factor, which is known to induce hepatocyte apoptosis and ultimately liver fibrosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that bile acids induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, which in turn stimulated apoptosis in HepG2 cells, in a hydrophobicity-dependent manner. PMID:24688223

  11. The involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in bile acid-induced hepatocellular injury

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Tetsuo; Kaminaga, Tomoyuki; Yasuda, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Hara, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Secondary bile acids produced by enteric bacteria accumulate to high levels in the enterohepatic circulation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular injury. Relative hydrophobicity has been suggested to be an important determinant of the biological properties of these compounds, although the mechanism by which bile acids induce pathogenesis is not fully understood. On the other hand, endoplasmic reticulum stress has been shown to be involved in the induction and development of various pathogenic conditions. In this report, we demonstrated that the intensities of cytotoxicity and endoplasmic reticulum stress in HepG2 cells triggered by the bile acids tested were largely dependent on their hydrophobicity. The activation of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation by treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid showed the contribution of apoptosis to cytotoxicity. Increases in intracellular calcium levels and the generation of reactive oxygen species stimulated by treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid contributed to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Bile acids also induced transforming growth factor-?, a potent profibrogenic factor, which is known to induce hepatocyte apoptosis and ultimately liver fibrosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that bile acids induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, which in turn stimulated apoptosis in HepG2 cells, in a hydrophobicity-dependent manner. PMID:24688223

  12. Acid-induced hyperalgesia and anxio-depressive comorbidity in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Shao, Yen-Wen; Yen, Chen-Tung; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2014-05-28

    Fibromyalgia is a prevalent disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain (CWP) and complex comorbid symptoms. A CWP model is developed through repeated unilateral intramuscular injections of acid saline resulting in bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia in rats. The present study aims to evaluate whether both anxious and depressive comorbidities exist in this acid-induced pain model, similarly to patients with CWP syndromes. The anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the open field and elevated plus maze tests, and depression-like behaviors were measured by the forced swimming, sucrose consumption, and sucrose preference tests. The pain group receiving acidic saline displayed significantly lower paw withdrawal thresholds for 4weeks than animals in the vehicle group after repetitive intramuscular injections. The pain group showed a significantly shorter duration of exploring the central zone of the open field and the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared to the vehicle group. The pain group had a significantly lower preference for and consumption of the hedonic sucrose. Moreover, rats with chronic pain showed significantly longer immobility than the vehicle group in the forced swimming test. The results indicate that psychiatric behaviors are exacerbated in the CWP model. This study provides evidence for the validity of the acid-induced pain model analogous to patients with CWP syndromes. PMID:24726391

  13. Polyunsaturated Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Geranylgeranoic Acid Induces Unfolded Protein Response in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iwao, Chieko; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The acyclic diterpenoid acid geranylgeranoic acid (GGA) has been reported to induce autophagic cell death in several human hepatoma-derived cell lines; however, the molecular mechanism for this remains unknown. In the present study, several diterpenoids were examined for ability to induce XBP1 splicing and/or lipotoxicity for human hepatoma cell lines. Here we show that three groups of diterpenoids emerged: 1) GGA, 2,3-dihydro GGA and 9-cis retinoic acid induce cell death and XBP1 splicing; 2) all-trans retinoic acid induces XBP1 splicing but little cell death; and 3) phytanic acid, phytenic acid and geranylgeraniol induce neither cell death nor XBP1 splicing. GGA-induced ER stress/ unfolded protein response (UPR) and its lipotoxicity were both blocked by co-treatment with oleic acid. The blocking activity of oleic acid for GGA-induced XBP1 splicing was not attenuated by methylation of oleic acid. These findings strongly suggest that GGA at micromolar concentrations induces the so-called lipid-induced ER stress response/UPR, which is oleate-suppressive, and shows its lipotoxicity in human hepatoma cells. PMID:26186544

  14. The timing of acid-induced increase in saliva secretion in transplanted submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Liu, X J; Li, M; Su, J Z; Xie, Z; Yu, G Y

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the timing of acid-induced increase in saliva secretion and to investigate the possibility of parasympathetic reinnervation of transplanted submandibular glands (SMGs). Citric acid stimulation-induced changes in secretion of transplanted SMGs were evaluated in 27 patients who underwent SMG transplantation for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS); (99m)Tc scintigraphy and Schirmer tests were done at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after transplantation. Acetylcholinesterase staining was conducted to confirm the presence of parasympathetic reinnervation in three SMGs at 6 and 9 months after transplantation. Schirmer tests showed significantly increased secretion of the transplanted SMGs after acid stimulation at 6 and 9 months, but not at 1 and 3 months. On (99m)Tc scintigraphy, no decline was detected on the dynamic time-activity curve after acid stimulation at 1 and 3 months, but a decline was detected in nine glands at 6 months and in 19 glands at 9 months. No decline was observed in the remaining eight glands at 9 months after transplantation. The histology findings were consistent with scintigraphy results. In conclusion, acid-induced increase in saliva secretion occurs at ?6 months after SMG transplantation, and parasympathetic reinnervation of the transplanted SMG might occur. PMID:25697065

  15. Prolonged Radiant Exposure of the Middle Ear during Transcanal Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shah, Parth V; Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Dedmon, Matthew M; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Cohen, Michael S; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides a high-resolution, wide-field view of the middle ear compared with the conventional operating microscope, reducing the need for a postauricular incision or mastoidectomy. Our group has shown in cadaveric human temporal bone studies that radiant energy from the endoscope tip can quickly elevate temperatures of the tympanic cavity. Elevated temperatures of the middle ear are associated with acute auditory brainstem response shifts in animal models. In EES, proposed methods to decrease middle ear temperature include frequent removal of the endoscope and the use of suction to rapidly dissipate heat; however, the routine application of such cooling techniques remains unknown. Herein, we aim to quantify the duration that the tympanic cavity is typically exposed to the endoscope during routine endoscopic middle ear surgery. We find that the tympanic cavity is exposed to the endoscope without a cooling mechanism for a prolonged period of time. PMID:25779471

  16. Bovine chromosomal regions affecting rheological traits in acid-induced skim milk gels.

    PubMed

    Glantz, M; Gustavsson, F; Bertelsen, H P; Stålhammar, H; Lindmark-Månsson, H; Paulsson, M; Bendixen, C; Gregersen, V R

    2015-02-01

    The production of fermented milk products has increased worldwide during the last decade and is expected to continue to increase during the coming decade. The quality of these products may be optimized through breeding practices; however, the relations between cow genetics and technological properties of acid milk gels are not fully known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify chromosomal regions affecting acid-induced coagulation properties and possible candidate genes. Skim milk samples from 377 Swedish Red cows were rheologically analyzed for acid-induced coagulation properties using low-amplitude oscillation measurements. The resulting traits, including gel strength, coagulation time, and yield stress, were used to conduct a genome-wide association study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified using the BovineHD SNPChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA), resulting in almost 621,000 segregating markers. The genome was scanned for putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions, haplotypes based on highly associated SNP were inferred, and the additive genetic effects of haplotypes within each QTL region were analyzed using mixed models. A total of 8 genomic regions were identified, with large effects of the significant haplotype explaining between 4.8 and 9.8% of the phenotypic variance of the studied traits. One major QTL was identified to overlap between gel strength and yield stress, the QTL identified with the most significant SNP closest to the gene coding for ?-casein (CSN3). In addition, a chromosome-wide significant region affecting yield stress on BTA 11 was identified to be colocated with PAEP, coding for ?-lactoglobulin. Furthermore, the coagulation properties of the genetic variants within the 2 genes were compared with the coagulation properties identified by the patterns of the haplotypes within the regions, and it was discovered that the haplotypes were more diverse and in one case slightly better at explaining the phenotypic variance. Besides these significant QTL comprising the 2 milk proteins, 3 additional genes are proposed as possible candidates, namely RAB22A, CDH13, and STAT1, and all have previously been found to be expressed in the mammary gland. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to map QTL regions for acid-induced coagulation properties. PMID:25529417

  17. Passive and active middle ear implants

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102

  18. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  19. Arachidonic acid-dependent carbon-eight volatile synthesis from wounded liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Kihara, Hirotomo; Tanaka, Maya; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Horibata, Akira; Yamada, Atsushi; Kita, Sayaka; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kajikawa, Masataka; Fukuzawa, Hideya; Kohchi, Takayuki; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    Eight-carbon (C8) volatiles, such as 1-octen-3-ol, octan-3-one, and octan-3-ol, are ubiquitously found among fungi and bryophytes. In this study, it was found that the thalli of the common liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a model plant species, emitted high amounts of C8 volatiles mainly consisting of (R)-1-octen-3-ol and octan-3-one upon mechanical wounding. The induction of emission took place within 40min. In intact thalli, 1-octen-3-yl acetate was the predominant C8 volatile while tissue disruption resulted in conversion of the acetate to 1-octen-3-ol. This conversion was carried out by an esterase showing stereospecificity to (R)-1-octen-3-yl acetate. From the transgenic line of M. polymorpha (des6(KO)) lacking arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, formation of C8 volatiles was only minimally observed, which indicated that arachidonic and/or eicosapentaenoic acids were essential to form C8 volatiles in M. polymorpha. When des6(KO) thalli were exposed to the vapor of 1-octen-3-ol, they absorbed the alcohol and converted it into 1-octen-3-yl acetate and octan-3-one. Therefore, this implied that 1-octen-3-ol was the primary C8 product formed from arachidonic acid, and further metabolism involving acetylation and oxidoreduction occurred to diversify the C8 products. Octan-3-one was only minimally formed from completely disrupted thalli, while it was formed as the most abundant product in partially disrupted thalli. Therefore, it is assumed that the remaining intact tissues were involved in the conversion of 1-octen-3-ol to octan-3-one in the partially disrupted thalli. The conversion was partly promoted by addition of NAD(P)H into the completely disrupted tissues, suggesting an NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase was involved in the conversion. PMID:25174554

  20. Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced photosensitization: current clinical status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Stuart L.; Golub, Allyn L.; Shulman, D. Geoffrey

    1995-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced photosensitization (ALA PDT) via endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) synthesis has been reported as efficacious, using topical formulations, in the treatment of a variety of dermatologic diseases including superficial basal cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and actinic (solar) keratoses. Application of ALA PDT to the detection and treatment of both malignant and non-malignant diseases of internal organs has recently been reported. Local internal application of ALA has been used for the detection, via PpIX fluorescence, of pathological conditions of the human urinary bladder and for selective endometrial ablation in animal model systems. Systemic, oral administration of ALA has been used for ALA PDT of superficial head and neck cancer and of colorectal cancer. This paper reviews the current clinical status of ALA PDT.

  1. Precise individualized armature for ear reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenhouse, Raymond J.; Chen, Xiaoming

    1991-04-01

    The cosmetic result of an ear restored surgically or via prosthetics is dependent on the surgeon''s ability to carve a precise cartilage armature at the time of surgery or the prosthetist''s ability to sculpt in wax an exact duplicate of the patient''s " missing" ear. Introducing CAD/CAM technology into the process benefits the esthetic outcome of these procedures. By utilizing serial section information derived from CAT MRI or moulage techniques a mirrorimage of the patient''s " donor" ear is generated. The resulting earform data is then used for the design of a cartilage armature produced by multi-axis milling or to produce by stereolithography a model which serves as the basis for a prosthesis.

  2. High intensity anthropogenic sound damages fish ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Robert D.; Fewtrell, Jane; Popper, Arthur N.

    2003-01-01

    Marine petroleum exploration involves the repetitive use of high-energy noise sources, air-guns, that produce a short, sharp, low-frequency sound. Despite reports of behavioral responses of fishes and marine mammals to such noise, it is not known whether exposure to air-guns has the potential to damage the ears of aquatic vertebrates. It is shown here that the ears of fish exposed to an operating air-gun sustained extensive damage to their sensory epithelia that was apparent as ablated hair cells. The damage was regionally severe, with no evidence of repair or replacement of damaged sensory cells up to 58 days after air-gun exposure.

  3. Arabinogalactan- and dextran-induced ear inflammation in mice: differential inhibition by H1-antihistamines, 5-HT-serotonin antagonists and lipoxygenase blockers.

    PubMed

    van Wauwe, J P; Goossens, J G

    1989-08-01

    Intravenous injection of arabinogalactan or dextran together with pontamine sky-blue dye into mice increased vascular permeability and led to marked blueing of the ears. Arabinogalactan caused a rapidly progressing ear blueing (maximal coloration 20-30 min after injection). This response was suppressed by pretreating the animals with the histamine H1-antihistamines levocabastine and loratadine. In contrast, dextran induced a slowly evolving ear inflammation (maximal coloration 60-90 min after injection), which was blocked by the 5-HT-serotonin antagonists cinanserin, metergoline and ritanserin. Furthermore, the dextran reaction was inhibited by the lipoxygenase (LO)/cyclooxygenase (CO) inhibitors BW540C, BW755C and phenidone and by the specific 5-LO inhibitor AA-861. Both arabinogalactan and dextran responses were inhibited by aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor, and the mixed H1/5-HT antagonists astemizole and azatadine. The inflammogenic activity of the polysaccharides was not affected by administration of the CO inhibitors indomethacin and suprofen, the thromboxane synthetase inhibitor dazoxiben, the H2-antihistamines cimetidine and ranitidine, the anticholinergics isopropamide or the PAF-antagonist L-652, 731. These data indicate the existence of distinctive endogenous molecules that mediate the pinnal extravasation reaction to both polysaccharides: histamine for arabinogalactan, serotonin and lipoxygenase-derived arachidonic acid metabolites for dextran. PMID:2476925

  4. Is the central arachidonic acid cascade system involved in the development of acute-phase response in rabbits?

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, A; Murakami, N; Watanabe, T

    1988-01-01

    1. In the present study, endogenous pyrogen (EP), prostaglandin E2 or arachidonic acid was injected into the cerebral ventricle to investigate whether central arachidonic acid metabolites are involved in the development of the acute-phase response. The central effects of a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, and of a lipoxygenase inhibitor, nordihydroguairetic acid (NDGA), on the acute-phase response induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of EP were also examined. 2. The ventricular injection of EP decreased the plasma concentrations of iron and zinc, while increasing those of copper and fibrinogen and the circulating leucocyte count. However, ventricular injection of prostaglandin E2 affected neither of them, indicating that prostaglandin E2 does not contribute to the acute-phase response production by itself. 3. Both the ventricular injections of indomethacin and NDGA had no effect on the changes in the plasma concentrations of iron, copper and fibrinogen which were induced by ventricular injection of EP. In addition, when arachidonic acid was administered into the cerebral ventricle, the changes in the plasma levels of iron, copper and fibrinogen were not induced. 4. In contrast, EP-induced hypozincaemia was observed upon pre-treatment with NDGA, but not upon pre-treatment with indomethacin. However, plasma zinc increased after the ventricular injection of arachidonic acid. Ventricular injection of EP alone and of EP with NDGA increased the number of circulating leucocytes 8 and 24 h after the ventricular injection, while ventricular injections of arachidonic acid, and of EP with administration of indomethacin induced leucocytosis 8 h after injections. 5. These results suggest that arachidonic acid metabolites do not participate in the genesis of the acute-phase response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3137331

  5. DIBROMOACETIC ACID-INDUCED ELEVATIONS IN CIRCULATING ESTRADIOL: EFFECTS IN BOTH CYCLING AND OVARIECTOMIZED/STEROID-PRIMED FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RTD-03-031
    Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations in Circulating Estradiol: Effects in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized/Steroid-primed Female Rats. Reproductive Toxicology (in press).

    Abstract

    Oral exposures to high concentrations of th...

  6. DIBROMOACETIC ACID-INDUCED ELEVATIONS OF ESTRADIOL IN THE CYCLING AND OVARIECTOMOZED/ESTRADIOL-IMPLANTED FEMALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations of Estradiol in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized / Estradiol-implanted Female Rats

    ABSTRACT
    Haloacetic acids are one of the principal classes of disinfection by-products generated by the chlorination of mun...

  7. Evaluation of bioequivalency and toxicological effects of three sources of arachidonic acid (ARA) in domestic piglets.

    PubMed

    Tyburczy, Cynthia; Brenna, Margaret E; DeMari, Joseph A; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Blank, Bryant S; Valentine, Helen; McDonough, Sean P; Banavara, Dattatreya; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A; Brenna, J Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are routinely added to infant formula to support growth and development. We evaluated the bioequivalence and safety of three ARA-rich oils for potential use in infant formula using the neonatal pig model. The primary outcome for bioequivalence was brain accretion of ARA and DHA. Days 3-22 of age, domestic pigs were fed one of three formulas, each containing ARA at ?0.64% and DHA at ?0.34% total fatty acids (FA). Control diet ARA was provided by ARASCO and all diets had DHA from DHASCO (Martek Biosciences Corp., Columbia, MD). The experimental diets a1 and a2 provided ARA from Refined Arachidonic acid-rich Oil (RAO; Cargill, Inc., Wuhan, China) and SUNTGA40S (Nissui, Nippon Suisan Kaisha, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), respectively. Formula intake and growth were similar across all diets, and ARA was bioequivalent across treatments in the brain, retina, heart, liver and day 21 RBC. DHA levels in the brain, retina and heart were unaffected by diet. Liver sections, clinical chemistry, and hematological parameters were normal. We conclude that RAO and SUNTGA40S, when added to formula to supply ?0.64% ARA are safe and nutritionally bioequivalent to ARASCO in domestic piglets. PMID:21722692

  8. Endogenous biosynthesis of arachidonic acid epoxides in humans: Increased formation in pregnancy-induced hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Catella, F.; Lawson, J.A.; Fitzgerald, D.J.; FitzGerald, G.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Arachidonic acid is metabolized by means of P450 isoenzyme(s) to form epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and their corresponding dihydroxy derivatives (DHETs). In the present study, we established the presence in human urine of 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EETs and their corresponding DHETs by developing quantitative assays and using negative ion, chemical ionization GC/MS and octadeuterated internal standards. Urinary excretion of 8,9- and 11,12-DHET increased in healthy pregnant women compared with nonpregnant female volunteers. By contrast, excretion of 11,12-DHET and 14,15-DHET, but not the 8,9-DHET regioisomer, increased even further in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension. Intravenous administration of (3H)14,15-EET to three dogs markedly increased its DHET in plasma. The terminal half-life ranged from 7.9-12.3 min and the volume of distribution (3.5-5.3 liters) suggested limited distribution outside the plasma compartment. Negligible radioactivity was detected in urine; this fact infers that under physiological circumstances, urinary DHETs largely derive from the kidney. That P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid are formed in humans supports the hypothesis that these metabolites contribute to the physiological response to normal pregnancy and the pathophysiology of pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  9. Omega-3 PUFAs Lower the Propensity for Arachidonic Acid Cascade Overreactions

    PubMed Central

    Lands, Bill

    2015-01-01

    A productive view of the benefits from omega-3 (n-3) nutrients is that the dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) linoleic acid has a very narrow therapeutic window which is widened by n-3 nutrients. The benefit from moderate physiological actions of the arachidonic acid cascade can easily shift to harm from excessive pathophysiological actions. Recognizing the factors that predispose the cascade to an unwanted overactivity gives a rational approach for arranging beneficial interactions between the n-3 and n-6 essential nutrients that are initial components of the cascade. Much detailed evidence for harmful cascade actions was collected by pharmaceutical companies as they developed drugs to decrease those actions. A remaining challenge is to understand the factors that predispose the cascade toward unwanted outcomes and create the need for therapeutic interventions. Such understanding involves recognizing the similar dynamics for dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients in forming the immediate precursors of the cascade plus the more vigorous actions of the n-6 precursor, arachidonic acid, in forming potent mediators that amplify unwanted cascade outcomes. Tools have been developed to aid deliberate day-to-day quantitative management of the propensity for cascade overactivity in ways that can decrease the need for drug treatments. PMID:26301244

  10. 15-Lipoxygenase products of arachidonate play a role in proliferation of transformed erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Postoak, D; Nystuen, L; King, L; Ueno, M; Beckman, B S

    1990-12-01

    The role of specific products of the lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism has been investigated in the Friend erythroleukemia cell line, a model system for erythroid cell differentiation. When triggered with agents such as hexamethylene-bis-acetamide, these cells mature as normal erythroid cells. 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) was identified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and by radioimmunoassay as the principal lipoxygenase metabolite produced by Friend cells. Its production was significantly lower (903 +/- 73 pg/ml) in stationary-phase cells compared with logarithmic-phase cells (1,496 +/- 24 pg/ml). In addition, inhibitors of both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways (phenidone, BW 755C, caffeic acid, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and BW 4AC) significantly blocked DNA synthesis (P less than 0.05), whereas neither specific inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway (aspirin or sodium meclofenate) blocked DNA synthesis. The addition of 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid as well as 15-HETE to Friend cells produced an increase in DNA synthesis as assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation in differentiating cells but not in proliferating cells. These data support a role for 15-lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism in maintaining DNA synthesis. PMID:2124416

  11. Inhibitors of alternative pathways of arachidonate metabolism differentially affect fever in mice.

    PubMed

    Kozak, W; Archuleta, I; Mayfield, K P; Kozak, A; Rudolph, K; Kluger, M J

    1998-10-01

    Inhibitors of cyclooxygenases prevent fever. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that selective and dual inhibitors of the other enzyme systems of arachidonic acid oxygenation (i.e., lipoxygenase and epoxygenase) affect the time course or magnitude of fever in mice. Swiss Webster mice kept at 30 degreesC ambient temperature were implanted with biotelemeters to monitor body temperature. Fever was induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide at doses from 10 micrograms/kg to 2.5 mg/kg. Phenidone (20-30 mg/kg ip), a dual lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibitor, prevented fever in these mice, but esculetin (1-10 mg/kg ip), a selective inhibitor of lipoxygenases, did not affect fever. Intramuscular injection of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (10-20 mg/kg), a dual lipoxygenase and epoxygenase inhibitor, as well as SKF-525A (5 mg/kg ip) and clotrimazole (20 mg/kg im), inhibitors of the cytochrome P-450/epoxygenase pathway, augmented fever in mice. Indomethacin (5 mg/kg ip), an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, suppressed the exacerbation of fever due to clotrimazole, suggesting that the epoxygenase inhibitor-induced potentiation of fever in mice is a prostaglandin-mediated effect. From this study, we hypothesize that the cytochrome P-450/epoxygenase branch of the arachidonate cascade is involved in antipyresis and in controlling the upper limit of fever. PMID:9756531

  12. Ear biometric recognition using local texture descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzaoui, Amir; Hadid, Abdenour; Boukrouche, Abdelhani

    2014-09-01

    Automated personal identification using the shape of the human ear is emerging as an appealing modality in biometric and forensic domains. This is mainly due to the fact that the ear pattern can provide rich and stable information to differentiate and recognize people. In the literature, there are many approaches and descriptors that achieve relatively good results in constrained environments. The recognition performance tends, however, to significantly decrease under illumination variation, pose variation, and partial occlusion. In this work, we investigate the use of local texture descriptors, namely local binary patterns, local phase quantization, and binarized statistical image features for robust human identification from two-dimensional ear imaging. In contrast to global image descriptors which compute features directly from the entire image, local descriptors representing the features in small local image patches have proven to be more effective in real-world conditions. Our extensive experimental results on the benchmarks IIT Delhi-1, IIT Delhi-2, and USTB ear databases show that local texture features in general and BSIF in particular provide a significant performance improvement compared to the state-of-the-art.

  13. Mule Ear Drapery in Jewel Cave

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Jewel Cave is currently the 3rd most extensive cave network in the world. It is believed to have formed completely underwater, thus leading to the extensive coating of calcite crystals. In the center of this image, a cave formation known as mule-ear drapery can be seen....

  14. Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fues, Marianne Cole

    2009-01-01

    Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the speed and…

  15. Managing Caterpillars in Sweet Corn Ears

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    Managing Caterpillars in Sweet Corn Ears Rick Foster Department of Entomology Purdue University #12;Three Main Caterpillar Pests and One New Guy · European corn borer · Fall armyworm · Corn earworm · Western bean cutworm #12;Important Points to Remember · Sweet corn is a small island in a sea of field

  16. Carnosic Acid Induces Apoptosis Through Reactive Oxygen Species-mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induction in Human Renal Carcinoma Caki Cells

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyoung-jin; Jung, Kyong-Jin; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Carnosic acid, which is one of extract components of rosemary, has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer effects. However, the anti-cancer effect of carnosic acid in human renal carcinoma cells is unknown. Methods: Flow cytometry analysis was used to examine the effects of carnosic acid on apoptosis, and Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-ase activity assay kit was used to investigate the involvement of caspase activation. To determine protein expression of apoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related proteins, we used Western blotting. Intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using the fluorescent probes 2’, 7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA). Results: Carnosic acid induced sub-diploid DNA content, sub-G1, population and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and activated caspase-3. A pan-caspase inhibitor, a benzyloxycarbonylvalyl-alanyl-aspartyl fluoromethyl ketone, markedly reduced apoptosis in carnosic acid-treated cells. Carnosic acid promoted intracellular ROS production, and pretreatment with the ROS scavengers (N-acetyl-L-cysteine and glutathione ethyl ester) inhibited carnosic acid-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, carnosic acid also induced expression of ER stress marker proteins, including activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Down-regulation of ATF4 and CHOP by small interfering RNA (siRNA) markedly reduced carnosic acid-induced sub-G1 population and PARP cleavage. In addition, carnosic acid induced apoptosis in human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-361 and human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-HEP1 cells, but not in normal human skin fibroblast cells and normal mouse kidney epithelial TMCK-1 cells. Conclusion: Carnosic acid induced apoptosis through production of ROS and induction of ER stress in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. PMID:25337586

  17. 15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ENC are subject to the EAR. See sections 740.17...4)(ii) of the EAR. (5) Certain commodities produced by any plant or major component of a plant located outside the United...2(b)(3) of the EAR. (b) The...

  18. 15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ENC are subject to the EAR. See sections 740.17...4)(ii) of the EAR. (5) Certain commodities produced by any plant or major component of a plant located outside the United...2(b)(3) of the EAR. (b) The...

  19. 15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ENC are subject to the EAR. See sections 740.17...4)(ii) of the EAR. (5) Certain commodities produced by any plant or major component of a plant located outside the United...2(b)(3) of the EAR. (b) The...

  20. 15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ENC are subject to the EAR. See sections 740.17...4)(ii) of the EAR. (5) Certain commodities produced by any plant or major component of a plant located outside the United...2(b)(3) of the EAR. (b) The...

  1. 15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ENC are subject to the EAR. See sections 740.17...4)(ii) of the EAR. (5) Certain commodities produced by any plant or major component of a plant located outside the United...2(b)(3) of the EAR. (b) The...

  2. History of Studies on Mammalian Middle Ear Evolution: A

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Jack

    History of Studies on Mammalian Middle Ear Evolution: A Comparative Morphological and Developmental for Developmental Biology, RIKEN, Kobe, Japan The mammalian middle ear represents one of the most fundamental middle ear was derived from elements of the jaw joint of nonmammalian amniotes. Fossils of mammalian

  3. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  4. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  5. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  6. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  7. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  8. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  9. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  10. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  11. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  12. Understanding Inner Ear Development with Gene Expression Profiling

    E-print Network

    Corey, David P.

    Understanding Inner Ear Development with Gene Expression Profiling Zheng-Yi Chen,1,2 David P. Corey, Maryland 20815 ABSTRACT: Understanding the development of the inner ear requires knowing the spatial-tissue comparisons will identify genes unique to the inner ear, which will expe- dite the identification of new

  13. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  14. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  15. A Survey on Ear Biometrics AYMAN ABAZA, WVHTC Foundation

    E-print Network

    Ross, Arun Abraham

    22 A Survey on Ear Biometrics AYMAN ABAZA, WVHTC Foundation ARUN ROSS, West Virginia University Recognizing people by their ear has recently received significant attention in the literature. Several reasons account for this trend: first, ear recognition does not suffer from some problems associated with other

  16. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  17. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  18. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  19. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  20. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  1. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  2. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  3. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  4. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  5. Ear Problems Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee

    E-print Network

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Ear Problems Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Reviewed 02/08/2012 Page 1 of 1 Otitis Media Otitis Media is an infection of the middle ear behind the eardrum. Most infections occur after does not equalize air pressure properly. Symptoms of otitis media include ear pain, fever, fullness

  6. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

  7. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

  8. Performance analysis of the Ormia ochracea's coupled ears Murat Akcakayaa

    E-print Network

    Nehorai, Arye

    Performance analysis of the Ormia ochracea's coupled ears Murat Akcakayaa and Arye Nehoraib to locate a cricket's mating call despite the small distance between its ears compared with the wavelength. This phenomenon has been explained by the mechanical coupling between the ears. In this paper, it is first shown

  9. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

  10. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

  11. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

  12. Ear deformity in children following high ear-piercing: current practice, consent issues and legislation.

    PubMed

    Jervis, P N; Clifton, N J; Woolford, T J

    2001-07-01

    In this presentation we examine the practice of high ear-piercing in children, the issue of informed consent and current legislation. We sampled current practice and consent policy by visiting nine establishments in Sheffield providing this service. There were two high street department stores, two fashion accessory outlets and five body-piercing studios. Enquiries were made as to the technique used, knowledge of complications, customer counselling and consent policy. A photograph of an ear with a cosmetic deformity following high ear-piercing was shown and awareness of this possible outcome was noted. Two ear-piercing techniques were identified, either a spring-loaded gun firing a blunt stud or the use of a body-piercing needle. The fashion accessory outlets were prepared to pierce any part of the ear using a spring-loaded gun in children under 16 years of age. There was a general lack of knowledge about possible serious complications. Two of the body piercers would not perform high ear-piercing on clients under the age of 16 years. The body piercers use a disposable needle and were of the opinion that using a spring-loaded gun shatters the cartilage and increases the risk of infection. The best technique is open to debate and it may be that the perceived unsavoury environment of the body-piercing studio represents a safer option than the more respectable or cheaper alternatives. The practice of body piercing in the UK remains uncontrolled. PMID:11485579

  13. Plasma oxylipin profiling identifies polyunsaturated vicinal diols as responsive to arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake in growing piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dose-responsiveness of plasma oxylipins to incremental dietary intake of arachidonic (20:4n-6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3; DHA) acid was determined in piglets. Piglets randomly received one of six formulas (n=8 per group) from day 3 to 27 postnatally. Diets contained varying ARA and DHA l...

  14. IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MOSS PHYSCOMITRELLA PATENS DELTA5-DESATURASE GENE INVOLVED IN ARACHIDONIC AND EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The moss Physcomitrella patens contains high levels of arachidonic acid and lesser amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid. In general, these C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids are synthesized from linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, respectively, by a series of reactions catalyzed by a delta6-desaturase, an ...

  15. Arachidonic acid (AA) is thought to serve as an intercellular messenger in many parts of the nervous system (Attwell et

    E-print Network

    Huettner, James E.

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is thought to serve as an intercellular messenger in many parts glutamate receptors (Dumuis et al. 1990). Exposure to cis-unsaturated fatty acids, including AA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been shown to modulate ionic currents in neurons as well as in other cell types

  16. Increased neuroinflammatory and arachidonic acid cascade markers, and reduced synaptic proteins, in brain of HIV-1 transgenic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Correction to Rao J S, Kim H W, Kellom M, Greenstein D, Chen M, Kraft A D, Harry G J, Rapoport S I, Basselin M. Increased neuroinflammatory and arachidonic acid cascade markers, and reduced synaptic proteins, in brain of HIV-1 transgenic rats. Journal of Neuroinflammation 8:101.

  17. Acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity alters cardiac cytochrome P450 expression and arachidonic acid metabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zordoky, Beshay N.M.; Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; Aboutabl, Mona E.

    2010-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anti-neoplastic antibiotic used to treat a variety of malignancies; however, its use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Moreover, there is a strong correlation between cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated arachidonic acid metabolites and the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, in the current study, we have investigated the effect of acute DOX toxicity on the expression of several CYP enzymes and their associated arachidonic acid metabolites in the heart of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute DOX toxicity was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg of the drug. Our results showed that DOX treatment for 24 h caused a significant induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2C11, CYP2J3, CYP4A1, CYP4A3, CYP4F1, CYP4F4, and EPHX2 gene expression in the heart of DOX-treated rats as compared to the control. Similarly, there was a significant induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2C11, CYP2J3, CYP4A, and sEH proteins after 24 h of DOX administration. In the heart microsomes, acute DOX toxicity significantly increased the formation of 20-HETE which is consistent with the induction of the major CYP omega-hydroxylases: CYP4A1, CYP4A3, CYP4F1, and CYP4F4. On the other hand, the formation of 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) was significantly reduced, whereas the formation of their corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids was significantly increased. The decrease in the cardioprotective EETs can be attributed to the increase of sEH activity parallel to the induction of the EPHX2 gene expression in the heart of DOX-treated rats. In conclusion, acute DOX toxicity alters the expression of several CYP and sEH enzymes with a consequent alteration in arachidonic acid metabolism. These results may represent a novel mechanism by which this drug causes progressive cardiotoxicity.

  18. Treatment of Prominent Ears and Otoplasty: A Contemporary Review.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Sachin S; Koch, Cody A; Murakami, Craig

    2015-12-01

    Prominent ears affect approximately 5% of the population and can have a significant psychological impact on patients. A wide variety of otoplasty techniques have been described, all sharing the goal of re-creating the normal appearance of the ear and achieving symmetry between the 2 sides. Recent trends in otoplasty techniques have consistently moved toward less invasive options, ranging from nonsurgical newborn ear molding to cartilage-sparing surgical techniques and even incisionless, office-based procedures. Herein, we review anatomy of the external ear, patient evaluation, the evolution of nonsurgical and surgical otoplasty techniques, otoplasty outcomes, and future trends for treatment of prominent ears. PMID:26158729

  19. Effect of galactose on acid induced molten globule state of Soybean Agglutinin: Biophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Parvez; Naseem, Farha; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the formation of molten globule-like unfolding intermediate Soybean Agglutinin (SBA) in acidic pH range has been established with the help of acrylamide quenching, intrinsic fluorescence, ANS fluorescence measurement, far UV CD and dynamic light scattering measurement. A marked increase in ANS fluorescence was observed at pH 2.2. Ksv of acrylamide quenching was found to be higher at pH 2.2 than that of native SBA at pH 7. Far UV CD spectra of pH induced state suggest that SBA shows significant retention of secondary structure closure to native. Hydrodynamic radius of SBA at pH 2.2 was found be more as compared to native state and also in other pH induced states. Further we checked the effect of galactose on the molten globule state of SBA. This study suggests that SBA exist as molten globule at pH 2.2 and this study will help in acid induced molten globule state of other proteins.

  20. Oleic acid-induced lung injury in rabbits: effect of fibrinogen depletion with Arvin

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, M.F.; Doerschuk, C.M.; Brumwell, M.L.; Belzberg, A.; Hogg, J.C.

    1988-03-01

    The role of fibrinogen in the evolution of the increased permeability after oleic acid-induced lung injury was studied in New Zealand White rabbits. Animals depleted of fibrinogen by treatment with Malayan pit viper venom were compared with untreated rabbits immediately and at 1 and 24 h after injury. The increased permeability to albumin and elevated extravascular lung water (EVLW) associated with lung injury returned to control values by 24 h in untreated animals. Fibrinogen-depleted animals had a higher mortality (10/25 vs. 2/17, P less than 0.02) and showed a greater immediate increase in permeability to albumin that returned to control values at 1 and 24 h after injury, as well as trends toward elevated blood-free dry lung weight and larger increases in EVLW that persisted for 24 h. These findings indicate that fibrinogen-related proteins play an important role in controlling the microvascular injury that is produced by oleic acid. However, when these proteins are depleted, other mechanisms partially control the leak at later stages of the repair process.

  1. Acid-induced changes in DOC quality in an experimental whole-lake manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, W.F.; Schindler, D.W.; Page, S.J.; Stainton, M.P.

    1998-10-01

    Fluorescence analyses of archived water samples were used to typify dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quality in experimentally acidified lakes and reference lakes at the Experimental Lakes Area, in northwestern Ontario. Carbon-specific DOC fluorescence (CSF) during peak acidification was 40--50% of that for a high-DOC reference lake and similar to a low-DOC reference lake. Reference lakes showed similar but smaller decreases in CSF during several years of prolonged drought in the late 1980s. During the 1990s, recovery from acidification resulted in increased CSF, whereas reference lakes remained unchanged during the same time period. In addition to causing decreased [DOC], acidification causes changes in fluorescence-peak geometry that indicate a switch in DOC quality from allochthonous to autochthonous-like during acidification. The acid-induced change in DOC quality was likely due to increased chemical oxidation or precipitation of the UV-absorbent aromatic portions of allochthonous DOC molecules, leaving more UV-transparent aliphatic chains. The change in the nature of DOC following acidification and drought may have an important role in physical, biological, and chemical processes within these lakes. With recovery from acidification, DOC quality has also recovered.

  2. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent. PMID:26381667

  3. The effect of inhaled and oral dextromethorphan on citric acid induced cough in man.

    PubMed

    Grattan, T J; Marshall, A E; Higgins, K S; Morice, A H

    1995-03-01

    1. Dextromethorphan is a widely used antitussive agent which is a non-narcotic codeine analogue. We have investigated whether inhaled administration of dextromethorphan provides antitussive activity in a citric acid induced cough model. 2. Twenty normal subjects underwent repeated cough challenge with 5% citric acid. Subjects were studied on six occasions. Study medication consisted of oral dextromethorphan 30 mg or oral matched placebo or 1, 3 and 30 mg inhaled dextromethorphan or matched inhaled placebo. Cough challenge was administered 10 min after study medication and hourly thereafter up to 250 min. 3. No significant differences were seen between baseline cough responses. Oral dextromethorphan (30 mg) produced a mean percentage reduction in cough of 38% (P < 0.002), which remained significant at 250 min. Inhaled dextromethorphan had no clinically significant effect although activity at later time points was not excluded. The antitussive effect of oral dextromethorphan is confirmed with prolonged inhibition of induced cough. It is possible that dextromethorphan or its active metabolites act centrally to inhibit the cough reflex. PMID:7619666

  4. Phosphatidate Phosphatase Activity Plays Key Role in Protection against Fatty Acid-induced Toxicity in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Fakas, Stylianos; Qiu, Yixuan; Dixon, Joseph L.; Han, Gil-Soo; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Garbarino, Jeanne; Sturley, Stephen L.; Carman, George M.

    2011-01-01

    The PAH1-encoded phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a pivotal enzyme that produces diacylglycerol for the synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) and simultaneously controls the level of PA used for phospholipid synthesis. Quantitative lipid analysis showed that the pah1? mutation caused a reduction in TAG mass and an elevation in the mass of phospholipids and free fatty acids, changes that were more pronounced in the stationary phase. The levels of unsaturated fatty acids in the pah1? mutant were unaltered, although the ratio of palmitoleic acid to oleic acid was increased with a similar change in the fatty acid composition of phospholipids. The pah1? mutant exhibited classic hallmarks of apoptosis in stationary phase and a marked reduction in the quantity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Cells lacking PA phosphatase were sensitive to exogenous fatty acids in the order of toxicity palmitoleic acid > oleic acid > palmitic acid. In contrast, the growth of wild type cells was not inhibited by fatty acid supplementation. In addition, wild type cells supplemented with palmitoleic acid exhibited an induction in PA phosphatase activity and an increase in TAG synthesis. Deletion of the DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase, which counteracts PA phosphatase in controlling PA content, suppressed the defect in lipid droplet formation in the pah1? mutant. However, the sensitivity of the pah1? mutant to palmitoleic acid was not rescued by the dgk1? mutation. Overall, these findings indicate a key role of PA phosphatase in TAG synthesis for protection against fatty acid-induced toxicity. PMID:21708942

  5. Function and Regulation of Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene-I

    PubMed Central

    Matsumiya, Tomoh; Stafforini, Diana M.

    2011-01-01

    Antiviral innate immunity is triggered by sensing viral nucleic acids. RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I) is an intracellular molecule that responds to viral nucleic acids and activates downstream signaling, resulting in the induction of members of the type I interferon (IFN) family, which are regarded among the most important effectors of the innate immune system. Although RIG-I is expressed ubiquitously in the cytoplasm, its levels are subject to transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. RIG-I belongs to the IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) family, but certain cells regulate its expression through IFN-independent mechanisms. Several lines of evidence indicate that deregulated RIG-I signaling is associated with autoimmune disorders. Further studies suggest that RIG-I has functions in addition to those directly related to its role in RNA sensing and host defense. We have much to learn and discover regarding this interesting cytoplasmic sensor so that we can capitalize on its properties for the treatment of viral infections, immune disorders, cancer, and perhaps other conditions. PMID:21175414

  6. Catalase Overexpression Reduces Lactic Acid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Derek A.; Suir, Erwin; Duong, Giang-Huong; de Hulster, Erik; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial production of lactic acid with the current pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains requires aeration to allow for respiratory generation of ATP to facilitate growth and, even under nongrowing conditions, cellular maintenance. In the current study, we observed an inhibition of aerobic growth in the presence of lactic acid. Unexpectedly, the cyb2? reference strain, used to avoid aerobic consumption of lactic acid, had a specific growth rate of 0.25 h?1 in anaerobic batch cultures containing lactic acid but only 0.16 h?1 in identical aerobic cultures. Measurements of aerobic cultures of S. cerevisiae showed that the addition of lactic acid to the growth medium resulted in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To reduce the accumulation of lactic acid-induced ROS, cytosolic catalase (CTT1) was overexpressed by replacing the native promoter with the strong constitutive TPI1 promoter. Increased activity of catalase was confirmed and later correlated with decreased levels of ROS and increased specific growth rates in the presence of high lactic acid concentrations. The increased fitness of this genetically modified strain demonstrates the successful attenuation of additional stress that is derived from aerobic metabolism and may provide the basis for enhanced (micro)aerobic production of organic acids in S. cerevisiae. PMID:19251894

  7. Ulcer healing activity of Mumijo aqueous extract against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokhi, Nader; Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Gastric ulcer is an important clinical problem, chiefly due to extensive use of some drugs. The aim was to assess the activity of Mumijo extract (which is used in traditional medicine) against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of Mumijo was prepared. Animals were randomly (n = 10) divided into four groups: Control, sham-operated group (received 0.2 ml of acetic acid to induce gastric ulcer), Mumijo (100 mg/kg/daily) were given for 4 days postacetic acid administration, and ranitidine group (20 mg/kg). The assessed parameters were pH and pepsin levels (by Anson method) of gastric contents and gastric histopathology. Ranitidine was used as reference anti-ulcer drug. Results: The extract (100 mg/kg/daily, p.o.) inhibited acid acetic-induced gastric ulceration by elevating its pH versus sham group (P < 0.01) and decreasing the pepsin levels compared to standard drug, ranitidine (P < 0.05). The histopathology data showed that the treatment with Mumijo extract had a significant protection against all mucosal damages. Conclusion: Mumijo extract has potent antiulcer activity. Its anti-ulcer property probably acts via a reduction in gastric acid secretion and pepsin levels. The obtained results support the use of this herbal material in folk medicine. PMID:25709338

  8. Acid-induced autophagy protects human lung cancer cells from apoptosis by activating ER stress.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen-Yue; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Li, Qi; Chen, Ling-Xiu; Ran, Dan-Hua

    2015-12-10

    An acidic tumor microenvironment exists widely in solid tumors. However, the detailed mechanism of cell survival under acidic stress remains unclear. The aim of this study is to clarify whether acid-induced autophagy exists and to determine the function and mechanism of autophagy in lung cancer cells. We have found that acute low pH stimulated autophagy by increasing LC3-positive punctate vesicles, increasing LC3 II expression levels and reducing p62 protein levels. Additionally, autophagy was inhibited by the addition of Baf or knockdown of Beclin 1, and cell apoptosis was increased markedly. In mouse tumors, the expression of cleaved caspase3 and p62 was enhanced by oral treatment with sodium bicarbonate, which can raise the intratumoral pH. Furthermore, the protein levels of ER stress markers, including p-PERK, p-eIF2?, CHOP, XBP-1s and GRP78, were also increased in response to acidic pH. The antioxidant NAC, which reduces ROS accumulation, alleviated acid-mediated ER stress and autophagy, and knocking down GRP78 reduced autophagy activation under acidic conditions, which suggests that autophagy was induced by acidic pH through ER stress. Taken together, these results indicate that the acidic microenvironment in non-small cell lung cancer cells promotes autophagy by increasing ROS-ER stress, which serves as a survival adaption in this setting. PMID:26559141

  9. The saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, induces anxiety-like behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Morgan L.; Joesting, Jennifer J.; Lawson, Marcus A.; Chiu, Gabriel S.; Blevins, Neil A.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Excess fat in the diet can impact neuropsychiatric functions by negatively affecting cognition, mood and anxiety. We sought to show that the free fatty acid (FFA), palmitic acid, can cause adverse biobehaviors in mice that lasts beyond an acute elevation in plasma FFAs. Methods Mice were administered palmitic acid or vehicle as a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Biobehaviors were profiled 2 and 24 hrs after palmitic acid treatment. Quantification of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT) and their major metabolites was performed in cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. FFA concentration was determined in plasma. Relative fold change in mRNA expression of unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated genes was determined in brain regions. Results In a dose-dependent fashion, palmitic acid rapidly reduced mouse locomotor activity by a mechanism that did not rely on TLR4, MyD88, IL-1, IL-6 or TNF? but was dependent on fatty acid chain length. Twenty-four hrs after palmitic acid administration mice exhibited anxiety-like behavior without impairment in locomotion, food intake, depressive-like behavior or spatial memory. Additionally, the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA was increased by 33% in the amygdala 24 hrs after palmitic acid treatment. Conclusions Palmitic acid induces anxiety-like behavior in mice while increasing amygdala-based serotonin metabolism. These effects occur at a time point when plasma FFA levels are no longer elevated. PMID:25016520

  10. Estimation of outer-middle ear transmission using DPOAEs and fractional-order modeling of human middle ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibolhosseini, Maryam

    Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. Hence, the characteristics of the outer and middle ear affect sound transmission to/from the inner ear. The role of the middle and outer ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea, and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal. OAEs are used to evaluate the health and function of the cochlea; however, they are also affected by outer and middle ear characteristics. To better assess cochlear health using OAEs, it is critical to quantify the impact of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission. The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate outer-middle ear transmission using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). In addition, the role of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission was investigated by developing a physical/mathematical model, which employed fractional-order lumped elements to include the viscoelastic characteristics of biological tissues. Impedance estimations from wideband refectance measurements were used for parameter fitting of the model. The model was validated comparing its estimates of the outer-middle ear sound transmission with those given by DPOAEs. The outer-middle ear transmission by the model was defined as the sum of forward and reverse outer-middle ear transmissions. To estimate the reverse transmission by the model, the probe-microphone impedance was calculated through estimating the Thevenin-equivalent circuit of the probe-microphone. The Thevenin-equivalent circuit was calculated using measurements in a number of test cavities. Such modeling enhances our understanding of the roles of different parts of the outer and middle ear and how they work together to determine their function. In addition, the model would be potentially helpful in diagnosing pathologies of cochlear or middle ear origin.

  11. Multiple follicular cysts of the ear canal in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gatineau, Matthieu; Lussier, Bertrand; Alexander, Kate

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old, 18-kg, neutered male standard schnauzer was presented for evaluation of recurrent otitis externa with para-aural swelling and fistulation of the right external ear canal of 6 months' duration. Otoscopic examination was impossible because of the severe stenosis of the ear canal. Right para-aural ultrasound examination and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of a mass-like lesion were performed. Cytology was suggestive of a follicular cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe ear canal stenosis with a heterogeneous mass in the horizontal portion of the ear canal and associated otitis media. Total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was chronic otitis externa associated with multiple follicular cysts confined to the ear canal. Surgical treatment proved curative. This is the first report of multiple follicular cysts originating from the ear canal in a dog. PMID:20194366

  12. Differential effect of arachidonic acid on the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor/effector system in rat prostatic epithelium during sexual maturation.

    PubMed

    Carmena, M J; Hueso, C; Solano, R M; Prieto, J C

    1992-01-01

    The effects of alterations in the membrane lipid environment on vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding and VIP-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation have been analyzed by arachidonic acid treatment of prostatic epithelial cells from rats at puberty and maturity, two critical developmental periods with characteristic lipidic and androgenic statuses. Treating cells with 0.1 mM arachidonic acid for 15 min at 37 degrees C increased the affinity of VIP receptors and the potency of the neuropeptide (up to five times) in the formation of cyclic AMP at maturity, but not at puberty. The average plasma membrane fluidity (as measured by fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene) remained unmodified after arachidonic acid treatment of cells. The modifications observed in mature rats were specific for the VIP receptor/effector system, since cyclic AMP stimulation by isoproterenol or forskolin was not affected by cell treatment with arachidonic acid. These results are compatible with the existence of a particular lipidic microdomain surrounding the VIP receptor in the cell membrane that would be altered by exposure to arachidonic acid (either directly or through conversion of arachidonic acid to its metabolites, as suggested by experiments on inhibition of the arachidonic acid cascade). This would make it possible for the activation of protein kinase C to phosphorylate VIP receptors in cells from mature rats, but not in those from pubertal animals with a very different membrane lipid composition (as suggested by the corresponding values of membrane fluidity and transition temperature). PMID:1337377

  13. Eicosanoids Derived From Arachidonic Acid and Their Family Prostaglandins and Cyclooxygenase in Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Yui, Kunio; Imataka, George; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Ohara, Naoki; Naito, Yukiko

    2015-11-26

    Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived lipid mediators are called eicosanoids. Eicosanoids have emerged as key regulators of a wide variety of physiological responses and pathological processes, and control important cellular processes. AA can be converted into biologically active compounds by metabolism by cyclooxygenases (COX). Beneficial effect of COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib add-on therapy has been reported in early stage of schizophrenia. Moreover, add-on treatment of celecoxib attenuated refractory depression and bipolar depression. Further, the COX/prostaglandin E pathway play an important role in synaptic plasticity and may be included in pathophysiology in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this regard, plasma transferrin, which is an iron mediator related to eicosanoid signaling, may be related to social impairment of ASD. COX-2 is typically induced by inflammatory stimuli in the majority of tissues, and the only isoform responsible for propagating the inflammatory response. Thus, COX-2 inhibitors considered as the best target for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26521945

  14. Neutrophil chemotaxis and arachidonic acid metabolism are not linked: evidence from metal ion probe studies

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.R.; Turner, R.A.; Smith, D.M.; Johnson, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    Heavy metal ions can inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism protect against ionophore cytotoxicity (ibid) and inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis. In this study they used Au/sup 3 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ as probes of the interrelationships among AA metabolism, ionophore-mediated cytotoxicity, and chemotaxis. Phospholipid deacylation was measured in ionophore-treated cells prelabeled with /sup 3/H-AA. Eicosanoid release from ionophore-treated cells was monitored by radioimmunoassay. Cytoprotection was quantitated as ability to exclude trypan blue. Chemotaxis toward f-met-leu-phe was measured by leading front analysis. The results imply that metal ions attenuate ionophore cytotoxicity by blocking phospholipid deacylation and eicosanoid release. In contrast to previous reports, no correlation between AA metabolism and chemotaxis was demonstrated, suggesting that these 2 processes are not linked.

  15. On the reaction of wheat lipoxygenase with arachidonic acid and its oxygenated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Heydeck, D; Wiesner, R; Kühn, H; Schewe, T

    1991-01-01

    Lipoxygenase was purified from wheat kernels by means of ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel chromatography on Sephadex G-200 and anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50. Arachidonic acid was mainly converted by the wheat lipoxygenase to 5D-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (5D8-HPETE) with other HPETE isomers including 8-HPETE being minor products. At higher concentrations of lipoxygenase, multiple oxygenation products such as 5,15-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5,15-diHETE) and, to a lower extent, 8,15-diHETE and lipoxin isomers were detected after reduction of the hydroperoxy derivatives primarily formed. Similar results were obtained with 5D8- or 15L8-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid as substrate. Moreover, evidence was obtained for leukotriene A4 synthase activity of the wheat lipoxygenase. PMID:1907133

  16. Analysis of OH Bolted Ear Connection

    SciTech Connect

    Wands, Bob; /Fermilab

    1987-12-30

    The D0 endcap calorimeter outer hadronic (OH) modules play a major structural role in the calorimeter assembly. The disrete modules, once connected together, form a ring within which other massive calorimetry will reside. It has been proposed that the connection of the OH at the downstream end be accomplished by extending the downstream endplates in the radial direction to form 'ears', and then through-bolting between adjacent ears as shown in Fig. 1. A single 2 1/4 in. dia. bolt is used, and previous calculations have determined that the design load on this joint should be 130,000 lbs tension. The high load and serious consequences of failure make this a critical component in the calorimeter assembly. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the stresses in the connection and other mechanical characteristics which determine joint performance.

  17. An Ear-Worn Vital Signs Monitor.

    PubMed

    He, David Da; Winokur, Eric S; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a wearable vital signs monitor at the ear. The monitor measures the electrocardiogram (ECG), ballistocardiogram (BCG), and photoplethysmogram (PPG) to obtain pre-ejection period (PEP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and pulse transit time (PTT). The ear is demonstrated as a natural anchoring point for the integrated sensing of physiological signals. All three signals measured can be used to obtain heart rate (HR). Combining the ECG and BCG allows for the estimation of the PEP, while combining the BCG and PPG allows for the measurement of PTT. Additionally, the J-wave amplitude of the BCG is correlated with the SV and, when combined with HR, yields CO. Results from a clinical human study on 13 subjects demonstrate this proof-of-concept device. PMID:26208264

  18. High intensity anthropogenic sound damages fish ears.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Robert D; Fewtrell, Jane; Popper, Arthur N

    2003-01-01

    Marine petroleum exploration involves the repetitive use of high-energy noise sources, air-guns, that produce a short, sharp, low-frequency sound. Despite reports of behavioral responses of fishes and marine mammals to such noise, it is not known whether exposure to air-guns has the potential to damage the ears of aquatic vertebrates. It is shown here that the ears of fish exposed to an operating air-gun sustained extensive damage to their sensory epithelia that was apparent as ablated hair cells. The damage was regionally severe, with no evidence of repair or replacement of damaged sensory cells up to 58 days after air-gun exposure. PMID:12558299

  19. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

  20. In vitro and in vivo activities of arachidonic acid against Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium.

    PubMed

    El Ridi, Rashika; Aboueldahab, Marwa; Tallima, Hatem; Salah, Mohamed; Mahana, Noha; Fawzi, Samia; Mohamed, Shadia H; Fahmy, Omar M

    2010-08-01

    The development of arachidonic acid (ARA) for treatment of schistosomiasis is an entirely novel approach based on a breakthrough discovery in schistosome biology revealing that activation of parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) by unsaturated fatty acids, such as ARA, induces exposure of parasite surface membrane antigens to antibody binding and eventual attrition of developing schistosomula and adult worms. Here, we demonstrate that 5 mM ARA leads to irreversible killing of ex vivo 1-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-week-old Schistosoma mansoni and 9-, 10-, and 12-week-old Schistosoma haematobium worms within 3 to 4 h, depending on the parasite age, even when the worms were maintained in up to 50% fetal calf serum. ARA-mediated worm attrition was prevented by nSMase inhibitors, such as CaCl(2) and GW4869. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that ARA-mediated worm killing was associated with spine destruction, membrane blebbing, and disorganization of the apical membrane structure. ARA-mediated S. mansoni and S. haematobium worm attrition was reproduced in vivo in a series of 6 independent experiments using BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice, indicating that ARA in a pure form (Sigma) or included in infant formula (Nestle) consistently led to 40 to 80% decrease in the total worm burden. Arachidonic acid is already marketed for human use in the United States and Canada for proper development of newborns and muscle growth of athletes; thus, ARA has potential as a safe and cost-effective addition to antischistosomal therapy. PMID:20479203

  1. Imaging upregulated brain arachidonic acid metabolism in HIV-1 transgenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Basselin, Mireille; Ramadan, Epolia; Igarashi, Miki; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Kraft, Andrew D; Harry, G Jean; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated infection involves the entry of virus-bearing monocytes into the brain, followed by microglial activation, neuroinflammation, and upregulated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. The HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, a noninfectious HIV-1 model, shows neurologic and behavioral abnormalities after 5 months of age. We hypothesized that brain AA metabolism would be elevated in older HIV-1 Tg rats in vivo. Arachidonic acid incorporation from the plasma into the brain of unanesthetized 7-to-9-month-old rats was imaged using quantitative autoradiography, after [1-14C]AA infusion. Brain phospholipase (PLA2) activities and eicosanoid concentrations were measured, and enzymes were localized by immunostaining. AA incorporation coefficients k* and rates Jin, measures of AA metabolism, were significantly higher in 69 of 81 brain regions in HIV-1 Tg than in control rats, as were activities of cytosolic (c)PLA2-IV, secretory (s)PLA2, and calcium independent (i)PLA2-VI, as well as prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 concentrations. Immunostaining of somatosensory cortex showed elevated cPLA2-IV, sPLA2-IIA, and cyclooxygenase-2 in neurons. Brain AA incorporation and other markers of AA metabolism are upregulated in HIV-1 Tg rats, in which neurologic changes and neuroinflammation have been reported. Positron emission tomography with [1-11C]AA could be used to test whether brain AA metabolism is upregulated in HIV-1-infected patients, in relation to cognitive and behavioral disturbances. PMID:20664612

  2. Hydrogen sulfide-induced dual vascular effect involves arachidonic acid cascade in rat mesenteric arterial bed.

    PubMed

    d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Coletta, Ciro; Mitidieri, Emma; Rossi, Antonietta; Vellecco, Valentina; Pinto, Aldo; Cirino, Giuseppe; Sorrentino, Raffaella

    2011-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a novel gaseous transmitter, is considered a physiological regulator of vascular homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests H(2)S as an endothelium-hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) candidate. To address this issue, we evaluated the vascular effect of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), an H(2)S donor, on the rat mesenteric arterial bed. NaHS concentration-response curve was performed on preconstricted mesenteric arterial bed. To assess the contribution of EDHF, we performed a pharmacologic dissection using indomethacin, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), or apamin and charybdotoxin as cyclooxygenase, nitric-oxide synthase, and calcium-dependent potassium channel inhibitors, respectively. In another set of experiments, we used 4-(4-octadecylphenyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid, baicalein, or proadifen as phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 inhibitors, respectively. Finally, an immunofluorescence study was performed to support the involvement of PLA(2) in mesenteric artery challenged by NaHS. NaHS promoted a dual vascular effect (i.e., vasoconstriction and vasodilation). l-NAME or baicalein administration affected neither NaHS-mediated vasodilation nor vasoconstriction, whereas apamin and charybdotoxin significantly inhibited NaHS-induced relaxation. Pretreatment with PLA(2) inhibitor abolished both the contracting and the relaxant effect, whereas P450 cytochrome blocker significantly reduced NaHS-mediated relaxation. The immunofluorescence study showed that NaHS caused a migration of cytosolic PLA(2) close to the nucleus, which implicates activation of this enzyme. Our data indicate that H(2)S could activate PLA(2), which in turn releases arachidonic acid leading, initially, to vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation mediated by cytochrome P450-derived metabolites. Because EDHF has been presumed to be a cytochrome P450 derivative of the arachidonic acid, our results suggest that H(2)S acts through EHDF release. PMID:21228064

  3. Arachidonic acid metabolites do not mediate toluene diisocyanate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, T.; Thompson, J.E.; Sheppard, D.

    1988-05-01

    Arachidonic acid metabolites have previously been demonstrated to mediate the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in guinea pigs and dogs after exposure to ozone. Guinea pigs were treated with indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), U-60,257 (piriprost, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor), or BW775c (a lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and exposed to air or 3 ppm TDI. Airway responsiveness to acetylcholine aerosol was examined 2 h after exposure. In control animals, the provocative concentration of acetylcholine which caused a 200% increase in pulmonary resistance over baseline (PC200) was significantly less (p less than 0.05) after exposure to TDI (8.6 +/- 2.0 mg/ml, geometric mean + geometric SE, n = 10) than after exposure to air (23.9 + 2.5 mg/ml, n = 14). The airway responsiveness to acetylcholine in animals treated with indomethacin or piriprost and exposed to TDI was not different from that of control animals exposed to TDI. Treatment with BW755c enhanced the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in animals exposed to TDI without altering the PC200 of animals exposed to air. The PC200 of animals treated with BW755c and exposed to TDI (2.3 + 0.8 mg/ml, n = 8) was significantly lower than the PC200 of control animals exposed to TDI (p less than 0.025). These results suggest that products of arachidonic acid metabolism are not responsible for TDI-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs. BW755c, however, appears to potentiate the TDI-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to acetylcholine by an as yet unidentified mechanism.

  4. Rapid Stimulation of 5-Lipoxygenase Activity in Potato by the Fungal Elicitor Arachidonic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Bostock, Richard M.; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Choi, Doil; Ricker, Karin E.; Ward, Bernard L.

    1992-01-01

    The activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) in aged potato tuber discs increased by almost 2-fold following treatment of the discs with the fungal elicitor arachidonic acid (AA). Enzyme activity increased above that in untreated discs within 30 min after AA treatment, peaked at 1 to 3 h, and returned to near control levels by 6 h. The majority of the activity was detected in a soluble fraction (105,000g supernatant), but a minor portion was also associated with a particulate fraction enriched in microsomal membranes (105,000g pellet); both activities were similarly induced. 5-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid was the principal product following incubation of these extracts with AA. Antibodies to soybean LOX strongly reacted with a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 95-kD present in both soluble and particulate fractions whose abundance generally corresponded with LOX activity in extracts. LOX activity was not enhanced by treatment of the discs with nonelicitor fatty acids or by branched ?-glucans from the mycelium of Phytophthora infestans. Prior treatment of the discs with abscisic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, or n-propyl gallate, all of which have been shown to suppress AA induction of the hypersensitive response, inhibited the AA-induced increment in LOX activity. Cycloheximide pretreatment, which abolishes AA elicitor activity for other responses such as phytoalexin induction, did not inhibit LOX activity in water- or elicitor-treated discs but enhanced activity similar to that observed by AA treatment. The elicitor-induced increase in 5-LOX activity preceded or temporally paralleled the induction of other studied responses to AA, including the accumulation of mRNAs for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase reported here. The results are discussed in relation to the proposed role of the 5-LOX in signal-response coupling of arachidonate elicitation of the hypersensitive response. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:16653144

  5. The mast cells of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Sleeckx, J P; Shea, J J; Peremans, J M

    1976-01-01

    The presence of mast cells in the subepithelial connective tissue of the human endolymphatic sac has, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, been described. A hypothesis has been put forward in which these cells, which are known to contain histamin, heparin and serotonin, play an important role in the physiologic functions of the endolymphatic sac as well as in some pathologic states of the inner ear. PMID:1023741

  6. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods. PMID:26024226

  7. Ear Recognition from One Sample Per Person

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods. PMID:26024226

  8. Morphology of the seagull's inner ear.

    PubMed

    Counter, S A; Tsao, P

    1986-01-01

    The morphology of the seagull ear was investigated and found to be generally similar to that of other Aves. Several specific outer middle and inner ear features were found to be sufficiently different as to be remarkable. Most notably, the dual membranes of the external auditory meatus: one, a collecting (and possibly amplifying and reflecting) parabolic membrane chamber situated immediately anterior to the slightly deeper tympanic membrane. The convex tympanic membrane attaches a cartilagenous extracolumella and a thick osseous columella, which is less thin and fragile than that observed in domestic fowl of comparable body size. The columella footplate and round window are completely covered with a second middle ear membrane which apparently serves as an H2O seal and hydrostatic pressure matcher. The short, hard seagull cochlea houses an elaborate basilar papilla which contains thousands of short and tall hair cells, each with a systematic arrangement of stereocilia bundles. In the seagull, the length of the basilar papilla and the length, width, and number of stereocilia, features which affect the transduction process and frequency resolution, are different from those reported for certain other Aves. PMID:3962648

  9. Predicting skin deficits through surface area measurements in ear reconstruction and adult ear surface area norms.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Memet; Sevim, Kamuran Zeynep; Irmak, Fatih; Yazar, Sevgi Kurt; Ye?ilada, Ay?in Karasoy; Kar?ida??, Semra Hacikerim; Tatlidede, Hamit Soner

    2013-07-01

    Ear reconstruction is one of the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery practice. Many studies and techniques have been described in the literature for carving a well-pronounced framework. However, just as important as the cartilage framework is the ample amount of delicate skin coverage of the framework. In this report, we introduce an innovative method of measuring the skin surface area of the auricle from a three-dimensional template created from the healthy ear.The study group consisted of 60 adult Turkish individuals who were randomly selected (30 men and 30 women). The participant ages ranged from 18 to 45 years (mean, 31.5 years), and they had no history of trauma or congenital anomalies. The template is created by dividing the ear into aesthetic subunits and using ImageJ software to estimate the necessary amount of total skin surface area required.Reconstruction of the auricle is a complicated process that requires experience and patience to provide the auricular details. We believe this estimate will shorten the learning curve for residents and surgeons interested in ear reconstruction and will help surgeons obtain adequate skin to drape over the well-sculpted cartilage frameworks by providing a reference list of total ear skin surface area measurements for Turkish men and women. PMID:23851770

  10. Do Swiftlets have an ear for echolocation? The functional morphology of Swiftlets' middle ears.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Henri A; Gea, Stefan; Maas, Steve; Bout, Ron G; Dirckx, Joris J J; Decraemer, Willem F; Povel, G David E

    2007-03-01

    The Oilbird and many Swiftlet species are unique among birds for their ability to echolocate. Echolocaters may benefit from improved hearing sensitivity. Therefore, morphological adaptations to echolocation might be present in echolocating birds' middle ears. We studied the functional morphology of the tympano-ossicular chain of seven specimens of four echolocating Swiftlet species and one specimen each of five non-echolocating species. Three dimensional (3D) reconstructions were made from micro-Computer-Tomographic (muCT) scans. The reconstructions were used in functional morphological analyses and model calculations. A two dimensional (2D) rigid rod model with fixed rotational axes was developed to study footplate output-amplitudes and to describe how changes in the arrangement of the tympano-ossicular chain affect its function. A 3D finite element model was used to predict ossicular-chain movement and to investigate the justification of the 2D approach. No morphological adaptations towards echolocation were found in the middle-ear lever system or in the mass impedance of the middle ear. A wide range of middle-ear configurations result in maximum output-amplitudes and all investigated species are congruent with these predicted best configurations. Echolocation is unlikely to depend on adaptations in the middle ear tympano-ossicular chain. PMID:17229537

  11. A case of valproic acid-induced acute pancreatitis in tuberous sclerosis coexisting with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Capolongo, Giovanna; Zacchia, Miriam; Pollastro, Rosa Maria; Radice, Leonardo; Anastasio, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TCS) is a genetic disorder with a variable clinical presentation. It is commonly characterized by seizures, mental retardation and cutaneous angiofibromas. Renal manifestations frequently include angiomyolipomas and cysts which lead to chronic kidney disease. We report a case of valproic acid-induced acute pancreatitis in a dialysis patient affected by TCS. The case demonstrates the importance of assessing antiepileptic drug treatment in dialysis patients. PMID:22322816

  12. HIF-1? expression as a protective strategy of HepG2 cells against fatty acid-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Wonbaek; Noh, Kyung Hee; Ahn, Jae Hee; Yu, Ji Hee; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Sin Gon; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, Hyo Joon; Kim, Nan Hee

    2014-06-01

    Free fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity via increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatocyte apoptosis is a key pathological mechanism of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) in this process has been suggested, but direct evidence is lacking. Here, we used HepG2 cells as a model to study whether HIF-1? can reduce palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity and ER stress. In HepG2 cells treated with 500?µM palmitic acid, HIF-1? expression increased transiently, the decline was associated with increased cleaved caspase-3 expression. Overexpression and knockdown of HIF-1? decreased and exacerbated, respectively, palmitic acid-induced lipoapoptosis. The overexpression also blunted upregulation of the ER stress markers, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and chaperone immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (Bip), while the knockdown increased the level of CHOP. In line with this, CHOP promoter activity decreased following HIF-1? binding to the CHOP promoter hypoxia response element. These results indicate that hepatocyte lipotoxicity is associated with decreased HIF-1? expression. It also suggests that upregulation of HIF-1? can be a possible strategy to reduce lipotoxicity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:24402912

  13. Uric acid induces fat accumulation via generation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and SREBP-1c activation in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yea-Jin; Shin, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Hack Sun; Park, Joo-Won; Jo, Inho; Oh, Eok-Soo; Lee, Kang-Yo; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Johnson, Richard J; Kang, Duk-Hee

    2014-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently one of the most common types of chronic liver injury. Elevated serum uric acid is a strong predictor of the development of fatty liver as well as metabolic syndrome. Here we demonstrate that uric acid induces triglyceride accumulation by SREBP-1c activation via induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hepatocytes. Uric acid-induced ER stress resulted in an increase of glucose-regulated protein (GRP78/94), splicing of the X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1), the phosphorylation of protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2? (eIF-2?) in cultured hepatocytes. Uric acid promoted hepatic lipogenesis through overexpression of the lipogenic enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) via activation of SREBP-1c, which was blocked by probenecid, an organic anion transport blocker in HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes. A blocker of ER stress, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), and an inhibitor of SREBP-1c, metformin, blocked hepatic fat accumulation, suggesting that uric acid promoted fat synthesis in hepatocytes via ER stress-induced activation of SREBP-1c. Uric acid-induced activation of NADPH oxidase preceded ER stress, which further induced mitochondrial ROS production in hepatocytes. These studies provide new insights into the mechanisms by which uric acid stimulates fat accumulation in the liver. PMID:25111690

  14. Lysophosphatidic acid induces vasodilation mediated by LPA1 receptors, phospholipase C, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Ruisanchez, Éva; Dancs, Péter; Kerék, Margit; Németh, Tamás; Faragó, Bernadett; Balogh, Andrea; Patil, Renukadevi; Jennings, Brett L.; Liliom, Károly; Malik, Kafait U.; Smrcka, Alan V.; Tigyi, Gabor; Benyó, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been implicated as a mediator of several cardiovascular functions, but its potential involvement in the control of vascular tone is obscure. Here, we show that both LPA (18:1) and VPC31143 (a synthetic agonist of LPA1–3 receptors) relax intact mouse thoracic aorta with similar Emax values (53.9 and 51.9% of phenylephrine-induced precontraction), although the EC50 of LPA- and VPC31143-induced vasorelaxations were different (400 vs. 15 nM, respectively). Mechanical removal of the endothelium or genetic deletion of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) not only diminished vasorelaxation by LPA or VPC31143 but converted it to vasoconstriction. Freshly isolated mouse aortic endothelial cells expressed LPA1, LPA2, LPA4 and LPA5 transcripts. The LPA1,3 antagonist Ki16425, the LPA1 antagonist AM095, and the genetic deletion of LPA1, but not that of LPA2, abolished LPA-induced vasorelaxation. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3 kinase–protein kinase B/Akt pathway by wortmannin or MK-2206 failed to influence the effect of LPA. However, pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) by U73122 or edelfosine, but not genetic deletion of PLC?, abolished LPA-induced vasorelaxation and indicated that a PLC enzyme, other than PLC?, mediates the response. In summary, the present study identifies LPA as an endothelium-dependent vasodilator substance acting via LPA1, PLC, and eNOS.—Ruisanchez, É., Dancs, P., Kerék, M., Németh, T., Faragó, B., Balogh, A., Patil, R., Jennings, B. L., Liliom, K., Malik, K. U., Smrcka, A. V., Tigyi, G., Benyó, Z. Lysophosphatidic acid induces vasodilation mediated by LPA1 receptors, phospholipase C, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. PMID:24249637

  15. Oleanolic acid induces relaxation and calcium-independent release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, R; Stankevicius, E; Herrera, M D; Østergaard, L; Andersen, M R; Ruiz-Gutierrez, V; Simonsen, U

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The present study investigated the mechanisms by which oleanolic acid, a component of olive oil, increases release of nitric oxide (NO). Experimental approach: Measurements of isometric tension, NO concentration, or endothelial cell calcium were made in rat isolated mesenteric arteries. Immunoblotting for endothelial NOS (eNOS) and Akt kinase were performed in primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Key results: Oleanolic acid (3–30??M) evoked endothelium-dependent relaxations in noradrenaline-contracted rat superior and small mesenteric arteries. In rat superior mesenteric arteries, oleanolic acid induced simultaneous increases in NO concentration and relaxation, and these responses were inhibited by an inhibitor of NOS, asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine (300??M) and by the NO scavenger, oxyhaemoglobin (10??M). Oleanolic acid-evoked NO increases were not reduced in Ca2+-free solution and in the presence of an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase, thapsigargin (1??M). Oleanolic acid evoked relaxation without changes in endothelial cell calcium, but decreased smooth muscle calcium in arterial segments. Oleanolic acid failed to increase calcium in HUVECs, but increased time-dependently phosphorylation of Akt kinase at Serine473 (Akt-Ser473) and eNOS at Serine1177 (eNOS-Ser1177), which was attenuated by inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3-kinase. Conclusions and implications: This study provides direct evidence that a component of olive oil, oleanolic acid, activated endothelium-dependent release of NO and decreased smooth muscle cell calcium followed by relaxation. The oleanolic acid-evoked endothelium-derived NO release was independent of endothelial cell calcium and involved phosphoinositide-3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of Akt-Ser473 followed by phosphorylation of eNOS-Ser1177. PMID:18622409

  16. Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity. PMID:21949380

  17. Helicobacter pylori impedes acid-induced tightening of gastric epithelial junctions

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Elizabeth A.; Vagin, Olga; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Sachs, George

    2013-01-01

    Gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori is the most common cause of ulcer disease and gastric cancer. The mechanism of progression from gastritis and inflammation to ulcers and cancer in a fraction of those infected is not definitively known. Significant acidity is unique to the gastric environment and is required for ulcer development. The interplay between gastric acidity and H. pylori pathogenesis is important in progression to advanced disease. The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of acid on gastric epithelial integrity and cytokine release and how H. pylori infection alters these responses. Human gastric epithelial (HGE-20) cells were grown on porous inserts, and survival, barrier function, and cytokine release were studied at various apical pH levels in the presence and absence of H. pylori. With apical acidity, gastric epithelial cells demonstrate increased barrier function, as evidenced by increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and decreased paracellular permeability. This effect is reduced in the presence of wild-type, but not urease knockout, H. pylori. The epithelial inflammatory response is also modulated by acidity and H. pylori infection. Without H. pylori, epithelial IL-8 release decreases in acid, while IL-6 release increases. In the presence of H. pylori, acidic pH diminishes the magnitude of the previously reported increase in IL-8 and IL-6 release. H. pylori interferes with the gastric epithelial response to acid, contributing to altered barrier function and inflammatory response. H. pylori diminishes acid-induced tightening of cell junctions in a urease-dependent manner, suggesting that local pH elevation promotes barrier compromise and progression to mucosal damage. PMID:23989011

  18. Sham Control Methods Used in Ear-Acupuncture/Ear-Acupressure Randomized Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Yang, Angela Weihong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ear-acupuncture/ear-acupressure (EAP) has been used for a range of health conditions with numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating its efficacy and safety. However, the design of sham interventions in these RCTs varied significantly. This study systematically reviewed RCTs on EAP for all clinical conditions involving a number of sham EAPs as a control intervention. The review is guided by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0 and investigated the types and differences of sham EAP interventions. Four electronic English databases (The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL®) and two Chinese databases (CQVIP, CNKI) were searched in December 2012 and 55 published RCTs comparing real and sham EAP for any clinical condition were included. Characteristics of participants, real and sham interventions, and outcomes were extracted. Four types of sham methods were identified. Among the 55 RCTs, 25 studies involved treatment on nonspecific ear acupoints as the sham method; seven studies used nonacupoints on the ear; nine studies selected placebo needles or placebo ear-acupressure on the same ear acupoints for the real treatment; 10 studies employed pseudo-intervention; and five studies combined two of the above methods to be the sham control. Other factors of treatment such as number of points, treatment duration, and frequency also varied greatly. Risk of bias assessment suggests that 32 RCTs were “high risk” in terms of participants blinding, and 45 RCTs were “high risk” in terms of personnel blinding. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to the high clinical heterogeneity across included studies. No relationship was found between the sham designs and efficacy outcomes, or between the sham types and dropout rate. No solid conclusion of which design is the most appropriate sham control of EAP could be drawn in this review. PMID:24138333

  19. Effect of Arachidonic Acid on the Rate of Oxygen Consumption in Isolated Cardiomyocytes from Intact Rats and Animals with Ischemic or Diabetic Injury to the Heart.

    PubMed

    Egorova, M V; Kutsykova, T V; Afanas'ev, S A; Popov, S V

    2015-12-01

    We studied the rate of oxygen consumption by isolated cardiomyocytes from intact rats and animals with experimental myocardial infarction or streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. The measurements were performed in standard incubation medium under various conditions of oxygenation and after addition of arachidonic acid (20 ?mol/liter). Under normoxic conditions, arachidonic acid improves respiration of cardiomyocytes from intact animals, but reduces this parameter in cells isolated from animals with pathologies. The intensity of O2 consumption by cardiomyocytes from intact rats and animals with pathologies was shown to decrease during hypoxia. Addition of arachidonic acid aggravated inhibition of respiration for cardiomyocytes from intact rats and specimens with myocardial infarction, but had no effect in diabetes mellitus. The effect of arachidonic acid on oxygen consumption rate is probably mediated by a nonspecific mechanism realized at the mitochondrial level. PMID:26639470

  20. Effect of p-bromophenacyl bromide, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2, on arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin synthesis by the guinea-pig uterus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, S; Poyser, N L; Wilson, N H

    1977-01-01

    The synthesis of prostaglandins F2alpha and E2 by guinea-pig uterine homogenates was inhibited by p-bromophenacyl bromide (PBPAB), an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. 2 Metabolism of prostaglandin F2alpha by uterine homogenates was undetectable; this was not affected by PBPAB. 3 There was no significant difference between the amounts of arachidonic acid released from uterine homogenates on days 7 and 1k of the oestrous cycle. Small amounts of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid were detected in the homogenates. 4 The release of arachidonic acid from uterine homogenates was greatly inhibited by PBPAB. 5 Addition of exogenous arachidonic acid to uterine homogenates did not overcome the inhibition of uterine prostaglandin F2alpha synthesis produced by PBPAB. 6 It is concluded that PBPAB inhibits both the release of arachidonic acid from the guinea-pig uterus and its subsequent conversion into prostaglandins. PMID:836991

  1. On hearing with more than one ear: lessons from evolution

    PubMed Central

    Schnupp, Jan W H; Carr, Catherine E

    2011-01-01

    Although ears capable of detecting airborne sound have arisen repeatedly and independently in different species, most animals that are capable of hearing have a pair of ears. We review the advantages that arise from having two ears and discuss recent research on the similarities and differences in the binaural processing strategies adopted by birds and mammals. We also ask how these different adaptations for binaural and spatial hearing might inform and inspire the development of techniques for future auditory prosthetic devices. PMID:19471267

  2. Robust Multi biometric Recognition Using Face and Ear Images

    E-print Network

    Boodoo, Nazmeen Bibi

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the use of ear as a biometric for authentication and shows experimental results obtained on a newly created dataset of 420 images. Images are passed to a quality module in order to reduce False Rejection Rate. The Principal Component Analysis (eigen ear) approach was used, obtaining 90.7 percent recognition rate. Improvement in recognition results is obtained when ear biometric is fused with face biometric. The fusion is done at decision level, achieving a recognition rate of 96 percent.

  3. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors and the control of levels of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 by arachidonic acid in the bovine uterus

    PubMed Central

    Sheldrick, E. Linda R.; Derecka, Kamila; Marshall, Elaine; Chin, Evonne C.; Hodges, Louise; Wathes, D. Claire; Abayasekara, D. Robert E.; Flint, Anthony P. F.

    2007-01-01

    Arachidonic acid is a potential paracrine agent released by the uterine endometrial epithelium to induce PTGS2 [PG (prostaglandin)-endoperoxide synthase 2] in the stroma. In the present study, bovine endometrial stromal cells were used to determine whether PTGS2 is induced by arachidonic acid in stromal cells, and to investigate the potential role of PPARs (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors) in this effect. Arachidonic acid increased PTGS2 levels up to 7.5-fold within 6 h. The cells expressed PPAR? and PPAR? (also known as PPAR?) (but not PPAR?). PTGS2 protein level was increased by PPAR agonists, including polyunsaturated fatty acids, synthetic PPAR ligands, PGA1 and NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) with a time course resembling that of arachidonic acid. Use of agonists and antagonists indicated PPAR? (but not PPAR? or PPAR?) was responsible for PTGS2 induction. PTGS2 induction by arachidonic acid did not require PG synthesis. PTGS2 levels were increased by the PKC (protein kinase C) activators 4?-PMA and PGF2?, and the effects of arachidonic acid, NSAIDs, synthetic PPAR ligands and 4?-PMA were blocked by PKC inhibitors. This is consistent with PPAR phosphorylation by PKC. Induction of PTGS2 protein by 4?-PMA in the absence of a PPAR ligand was decreased by the NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B) inhibitors MG132 and parthenolide, suggesting that PKC acted through NF-?B in addition to PPAR phosphorylation. Use of NF-?B inhibitors allowed the action of arachidonic acid as a PPAR agonist to be dissociated from an effect through PKC. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that arachidonic acid acts via PPAR? to increase PTGS2 levels in bovine endometrial stromal cells. PMID:17516915

  4. Computed Tomography Staging of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel; Ghonim, Mohamed Rashad; Ashraf, Bassem

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To establish computed tomography (CT) staging of middle ear cholesteatoma and assess its impact on the selection of the surgical procedure. Material/Methods Prospective study was conducted on 61 consecutive patients (mean age 26.8 years) with middle ear cholesteatoma. CT scan of the temporal bone and surgery were performed in all patients. CT staging classified cholesteatoma according to its location in the tympanic cavity (T); extension into the mastoid (M); and associated complications (C). Cholesteatoma was staged as stage I (T1, T2), stage II (T3, M1, M2, C1), and stage III (C2). Results The overall sensitivity of CT staging of cholesteatoma compared to surgery was 88% with excellent agreement and correlation between CT findings and intra-operative findings (K=0.863, r=0.86, P=0.001). There was excellent agreement and correlation of CT staging with surgical findings for T location (K=0.811, r=0.89, P=0.001), good for M extension (K=0.734, r=0.88, P=0.001), and excellent for associated C complications (K=1.00, r=1.0, P=0.001). Atticotympanotomy was carried out in stage I (n=14), intact canal wall surgery was performed in stage II (n=38), and canal wall down surgery was done in stage III (n=5) and stage II (n=4). Conclusions We established CT staging of middle ear cholesteatoma that helps surgeons to select an appropriate surgery. PMID:26171086

  5. Historical development of active middle ear implants.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Matthew L; Pelosi, Stanley; Haynes, David S

    2014-12-01

    Active middle ear implants (AMEIs) are sophisticated technologies designed to overcome many of the shortcomings of conventional hearing aids, including feedback, distortion, and occlusion effect. Three AMEIs are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for implantation in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. In this article, the history of AMEI technologies is reviewed, individual component development is outlined, past and current implant systems are described, and design and implementation successes and dead ends are highlighted. Past and ongoing challenges facing AMEI development are reviewed. PMID:25282038

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of the mammalian inner ear

    E-print Network

    Szalai, Robert; Homer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A simple nonlinear transmission-line model of the cochlea with longitudinal coupling is introduced that can reproduce Basilar membrane response and neural tuning in the chinchilla. It is found that the middle ear has little effect on cochlear resonances, and hence conclude that the theory of coherent reflections is not applicable to the model. The model also provides an explanation of the emergence of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs). It is argued that SOAEs arise from Hopf bifurcations of the transmission-line model and not from localized instabilities. The paper shows that emissions can become chaotic, intermittent and fragile to perturbations.

  7. The effects of fibrin tissue adhesive on the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Katzke, D; Pusalkar, A; Steinbach, E

    1983-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of fibrin glue ('Tissucol', Immuno Pty. Ltd.) in the middle and inner ear. Small amounts of the adhesive were used in 36 operations performed on 18 rabbits. The light microscopic examination of these ears four, eight and 12 weeks after surgery showed that the adhesive was well tolerated and that it did not have any toxic effect on the middle ear or membranous labyrinth. The fibrin tissue adhesive can therefore safely be used to facilitate reconstructive middle-ear surgery and, with the aid of fascia, also for the closure of labyrinthine fistulae; or to achieve a definite seal of oval window niche after stapes surgery. PMID:6600776

  8. 2-Hydroxy Arachidonic Acid: A New Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Daniel H.; Fiol-deRoque, Maria A.; Noguera-Salvà, Maria A.; Terés, Silvia; Campana, Federica; Piotto, Stefano; Castro, José A.; Mohaibes, Raheem J.; Escribá, Pablo V.; Busquets, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a family of COX1 and COX2 inhibitors used to reduce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators. In addition, inflammation often leads to a harmful generation of nitric oxide. Efforts are being done in discovering safer NSAIDs molecules capable of inhibiting the synthesis of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators and nitric oxide to reduce the side effects associated with long term therapies. Methodology/Principal Findings The analogue of arachidonic acid (AA), 2-hydroxy-arachidonic acid (2OAA), was designed to inhibit the activities of COX1 and COX2 and it was predicted to have similar binding energies as AA for the catalytic sites of COX1 and COX2. The interaction of AA and 2OAA with COX1 and COX2 was investigated calculating the free energy of binding and the Fukui function. Toxicity was determined in mouse microglial BV-2 cells. COX1 and COX2 (PGH2 production) activities were measured in vitro. COX1 and COX2 expression in human macrophage-like U937 cells were carried out by Western blot, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR analysis. NO production (Griess method) and iNOS (Western blot) were determined in mouse microglial BV-2 cells. The comparative efficacy of 2OAA, ibuprofen and cortisone in lowering TNF-? serum levels was determined in C57BL6/J mice challenged with LPS. We show that the presence of the –OH group reduces the likelihood of 2OAA being subjected to H* abstraction in COX, without altering significantly the free energy of binding. The 2OAA inhibited COX1 and COX2 activities and the expression of COX2 in human U937 derived macrophages challenged with LPS. In addition, 2OAA inhibited iNOS expression and the production of NO in BV-2 microglial cells. Finally, oral administration of 2OAA decreased the plasma TNF-? levels in vivo. Conclusion/Significance These findings demonstrate the potential of 2OAA as a NSAID. PMID:24015204

  9. Interactions between the Influenza A Virus RNA Polymerase Components and Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene I

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weizhong; Chen, Hongjun; Sutton, Troy; Obadan, Adebimpe

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influenza A virus genome possesses eight negative-strand RNA segments in the form of viral ribonucleoprotein particles (vRNPs) in association with the three viral RNA polymerase subunits (PB2, PB1, and PA) and the nucleoprotein (NP). Through interactions with multiple host factors, the RNP subunits play vital roles in replication, host adaptation, interspecies transmission, and pathogenicity. In order to gain insight into the potential roles of RNP subunits in the modulation of the host's innate immune response, the interactions of each RNP subunit with retinoic acid-inducible gene I protein (RIG-I) from mammalian and avian species were investigated. Studies using coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFc), and colocalization using confocal microscopy provided direct evidence for the RNA-independent binding of PB2, PB1, and PA with RIG-I from various hosts (human, swine, mouse, and duck). In contrast, the binding of NP with RIG-I was found to be RNA dependent. Expression of the viral NS1 protein, which interacts with RIG-I, did not interfere with the association of RNA polymerase subunits with RIG-I. The association of each individual virus polymerase component with RIG-I failed to significantly affect the interferon (IFN) induction elicited by RIG-I and 5? triphosphate (5?ppp) RNA in reporter assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and IRF3 phosphorylation tests. Taken together, these findings indicate that viral RNA polymerase components PB2, PB1, and PA directly target RIG-I, but the exact biological significance of these interactions in the replication and pathogenicity of influenza A virus needs to be further clarified. IMPORTANCE RIG-I is an important RNA sensor to elicit the innate immune response in mammals and some bird species (such as duck) upon influenza A virus infection. Although the 5?-triphosphate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) panhandle structure at the end of viral genome RNA is responsible for the binding and subsequent activation of RIG-I, this structure is supposedly wrapped by RNA polymerase complex (PB2, PB1, and PA), which may interfere with the induction of RIG-I signaling pathway. In the present study, PB2, PB1, and PA were found to individually interact with RIG-Is from multiple mammalian and avian species in an RNA-independent manner, without significantly affecting the generation of IFN. The data suggest that although RIG-I binding by RNA polymerase complex is conserved in different species, it does not appear to play crucial role in the modulation of IFN in vitro. PMID:24942585

  10. Research Article Histopathologic Changes of the Inner ear in Rhesus Monkeys

    E-print Network

    Research Article Histopathologic Changes of the Inner ear in Rhesus Monkeys After Intratympanic. We investigated histopathologic changes of the inner ear associated with intratympanic gentamicin for four treatment groups: normal (three ears), ITG-only (two ears), MVP-only (two ears), and ITG + MVP

  11. Empirical Evaluation of Advanced Ear Biometrics Ping Yan Kevin W. Bowyer

    E-print Network

    Bowyer, Kevin W.

    Empirical Evaluation of Advanced Ear Biometrics Ping Yan Kevin W. Bowyer Department of Computer experimental inves- tigation of ear biometrics to date. Approaches consid- ered include a PCA ("eigen-ear the robustness and variability of ear biometrics, ear symmetry is also in- vestigated. In our experiments around

  12. Enhanced visualization of inner ear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Kucharski, Tomasz; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Bruzgielewicz, Antoni

    2004-07-01

    Recently surgery requires extensive support from imaging technologies in order to increase effectiveness and safety of operations. One of important tasks is to enhance visualisation of quasi-phase (transparent) 3d structures. Those structures are characterized by very low contrast. It makes differentiation of tissues in field of view very difficult. For that reason the surgeon may be extremly uncertain during operation. This problem is connected with supporting operations of inner ear during which physician has to perform cuts at specific places of quasi-transparent velums. Conventionally during such operations medical doctor views the operating field through stereoscopic microscope. In the paper we propose a 3D visualisation system based on Helmet Mounted Display. Two CCD cameras placed at the output of microscope perform acquisition of stereo pairs of images. The images are processed in real-time with the goal of enhancement of quasi-phased structures. The main task is to create algorithm that is not sensitive to changes in intensity distribution. The disadvantages of existing algorithms is their lack of adaptation to occuring reflexes and shadows in field of view. The processed images from both left and right channels are overlaid on the actual images exported and displayed at LCD's of Helmet Mounted Display. A physician observes by HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) a stereoscopic operating scene with indication of the places of special interest. The authors present the hardware ,procedures applied and initial results of inner ear structure visualisation. Several problems connected with processing of stereo-pair images are discussed.

  13. Customized tissue engineering for ear reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Staudenmaier, Rainer; Hoang, Nguyen The; Mandlik, Veronika; Schurr, Christian; Burghartz, Marc; Hauber, Katharina; Meier, Gerhard; Kadegge, Günter; Blunk, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) of cartilage for reconstructive surgery has proven to be a promising option for obtaining tissue for 3D structures that results in minimal donor site morbidity. Technological advances in this area are important since many defects can only be treated with customized implants. Most TE strategies rely on the use of resorbable 3D scaffolds to guide the growing tissue, with each tissue requiring a specific scaffold that has precisely defined properties depending on the physiological environment. Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies allow the fabrication of scaffolds of various geometric complexities from a variety of materials and as composites, while even allowing the inner architecture of the object to be varied in a defined manner at any given location. Scaffolds can be manufactured using RP techniques directly from computer aided design (CAD) data sources, e.g. via an STL file. The combination of TE and RP serves as the basis for the production of customized implants, for example the cartilage ear framework, and provides new perspectives for autologous ear reconstruction. PMID:20442566

  14. Cauliflower Ear and Skin Infections among Wrestlers in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, Ramin; Mansournai, Mohammad Ali; Nourian, Roh Allah; Wallace, W. Angus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the magnitude of the selected sports medicine problems (i.e. cauliflower ear and skin infections) among wrestlers in Tehran. A number of 411 wrestlers were randomly selected from wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. The participants were interviewed using a specially designed and validated questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants (44%) had “cauliflower ears”. Only 23% of these participants had received any kind of treatment for their acute ear haematomas that are known to result in “cauliflower ears”. The prevalence of reported hearing loss among participants with cauliflower ears (11.5%, 95%CI: 6.9 to 16.2) was significantly more than this prevalence among those participants without cauliflower ears (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.1 to 3.5) (p < 0.05). More than half of the participants (52%) had skin infection diagnosed by a physician during the previous year. This study has identified evidence of an increase in hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. There has been an outbreak of ringworm and there is a significant potential for an outbreak of impetigo among wrestlers in Tehran. Key points Skin infections are prevalent among wrestlers in Tehran. Commonly wrestlers in Tehran continue to carry out wrestling training while affected by skin infections. Cauliflower ear ”is common among wrestlers in Tehran. More research is needed to investigate hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. PMID:24198702

  15. Epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid inhibit vasopressin response in toad bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Schlondorff, D.; Petty, E.; Oates, J.A.; Jacoby, M.; Levine, S.D. Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN )

    1987-09-01

    In addition to cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways, the kidney can also metabolize arachidonic acid by a NADPH-dependent cytochrome P-450 enzyme to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs); furthermore, 5,6-EET has been shown to alter electrolyte transport across isolated renal tubules. The authors examined the effects of three ({sup 14}C-labeled)-EETs (5,6-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET) on osmotic water flow across toad urinary bladder. All three EETs reversibly inhibited vasopressin-stimulated osmotic water flow with 5,6- and 11,12-EET being the most potent. The effects appeared to be independent of prostaglandins EETs inhibited the water flow response to forskolin but not the response to adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) or 8-BrcAMP, consistent with an effect on cAMP generation. To determine whether these effects were due to the EETs or to products of their metabolism, they examined the effects of their vicinal diol hydrolysis products, the dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. Nonenzymatic conversion of labeled 5,6-EET to its vicinal diol occurred rapidly in the buffer, whereas 11,12-EET was hydrolyzed in a saturable manner only when incubated in the presence of bladder tissue. The dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids formed inhibited water flow in a manner paralleling that of the EETs. The data support the hypothesis that EETs and their physiologically active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid metabolites inhibit vasopressin-stimulated water flow predominantly via inhibition of adenylate cyclase.

  16. The effect of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNB) on colonocyte arachidonic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stratton, M D; Sexe, R; Peterson, B; Kaminski, D L; Li, A P; Longo, W E

    1996-02-01

    In previous studies we found that luminal perfusion of the isolated left colon of the rabbit with the hapten, trinitrobenzene, resulted in the production of an acute inflammatory process associated with alterations in eicosanoid metabolism. As the colitis was attenuated by cyclooxygenase inhibitors it is possible that the inflammation was mediated by arachidonic acid metabolites. In the present study it was intended to evaluate the effect of trinitrobenzene on eicosanoid metabolism in transformed human colonic cells by exposing Caco-2++ cells to various doses of trinitrobenzene. Cell injury was evaluated by measuring lactate dehydrogenase levels and cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activity was evaluated by measuring prostanoid and leukotriene production. In separate experiments resting and trinitrobenzene stimulated cells were treated with indomethacin and dexamethasone. Trinitrobenzene produced increased prostaglandin E2 and 6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha++ and increased lactate dehydrogenase levels. Leukotriene B4 was significantly increased compared to control values at the highest TNB concentration administered. Indomethacin inhibited the lactate dehydrogenase and prostanoid changes, suggesting that the inflammatory changes produced were mediated by the prostanoids. Dexamethasone administered for 1 hr prior to trinitrobenzene decreased the 6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha but did not alter trinitrobenzene produced changes in lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. Exposure of Caco-2 cells to dexamethasone for 24 hr decreased the trinitrobenzene produced lactate dehydrogenase and eicosanoid changes. The results suggest that trinitrobenzene produces an acute injury to Caco-2 cells that may be mediated by the cyclooxygenase enzymes. PMID:8598672

  17. Pharmacological manipulation of arachidonic acid-epoxygenase results in divergent effects on renal damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Stier, Charles T.; Chander, Praveen N.; Manthati, Vijay L.; Falck, John R.; Carroll, Mairéad A.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney damage is markedly accelerated by high-salt (HS) intake in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are epoxygenase products of arachidonic acid which possess vasodepressor, natriuretic, and anti-inflammatory activities. We examined whether up-regulation (clofibrate) or inhibition [N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (MS-PPOH)] of epoxygenase would alter systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or renal pathology in SHRSP on HS intake (1% NaCl drinking solution). Three weeks of treatment with clofibrate induced renal cortical protein expression of CYP2C23 and increased urinary excretion of EETs compared with vehicle-treated SHRSP. SBP and urinary protein excretion (UPE) were significantly lowered with clofibrate treatment. Kidneys from vehicle-treated SHRSP, which were on HS intake for 3 weeks, demonstrated focal lesions of vascular fibrinoid degeneration, which were markedly attenuated with clofibrate treatment. In contrast, 2 weeks of treatment with the selective epoxygenase inhibitor, MS-PPOH, increased UPE without significantly altering neither urinary EET levels nor SBP. Kidneys from vehicle-treated SHRSP, which were on HS intake for 11 days, demonstrated occasional mild damage whereas kidneys from MS-PPOH-treated rats exhibited widespread malignant nephrosclerosis. These results suggest that pharmacological manipulation of epoxygenase results in divergent effects on renal damage and that interventions to increase EET levels may provide therapeutic strategies for treating salt-sensitive hypertension and renal damage. PMID:25177296

  18. Arachidonic acid-rich oil production by Mortierella alpina with different gas distributors.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhi-Kui; Ji, Xiao-Jun; Shang, Jing-Sheng; Zhang, Ai-Hui; Ren, Lu-Jing; Huang, He

    2014-06-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil production by Mortierella alpina is a high oxygen demand and shear-sensitive process. In the aerobic fermentation process, oxygen supply is usually a limiting factor owing to the low solubility of oxygen in the fermentation broth. Two kinds of perforated ring gas distributors and a novel microporous ceramic membrane gas distributor were designed and applied to improve oxygen supply. With the decrease of the orifice diameter of perforated ring gas distributors, dry cell weight (DCW), lipids concentration, and ARA content in total fatty acid increased from 17.86 g/L, 7.08 g/L, and 28.08 % to 25.67 g/L, 11.94 g/L, and 36.99 %, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of different dissolved oxygen (DO) on ARA-rich oil production with membrane gas distributor was also studied. The maximum DCW, lipid concentration, and ARA content using membrane gas distributor with DO controlled at 40 % reached 29.67 g/L, 16.74 g/L, and 49.53 %, respectively. The ARA titer increased from 1.99 to 8.29 g/L using the membrane gas distributor to substitute the perforated ring gas distributor. In the further experiment, a novel tubular titanium metal membrane gas distributor was successfully applied in a 7,000 L bioreactor and the results demonstrated that membrane gas distributor was industrially practical. PMID:24374968

  19. Effect of heavy metal ions on neutrophil arachidonic acid metabolism and chemotaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.; Turner, S.R.; Johnson, J.A.; Turner, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Heavy metal ions can inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, protect against ionophore cytotoxicity (ibid) and inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis. In this study they used Au/sup +3/, Zn/sup +2/, Cr/sup +3/, Mn/sup +2/, and Cu/sup +2/ as probes of the interrelationships among AA metabolism, ionophore-mediated cytotoxicity, and chemotaxis. Phospholipid deacylation was measured in ionophore-treated cells prelabeled with /sup 3/H-AA. Eicosanoid release from ionophore-treated cells was monitored both qualitatively by thin-layer chromatography of /sup 3/H-AA metabolities and quantitatively by radioimmunoassay. Cytoprotection was quantitated as ability to exclude trypan blue. Chemotaxis toward f-Met-Leu-Phe was measured by leading front analysis. The results imply that metal ions attenuate ionophore cytotoxicity by blocking phospholipid deacylation and eicosanoid production. In contrast to previous reports, the data obtained using Au/sup +3/ and Cu/sup +2/ demonstrates no correlation between AA metabolism and chemotaxis, suggesting that these 2 processes are not linked.

  20. Calcium-dependent phospholipid catabolism and arachidonic acid mobilization in cerebral minces

    SciTech Connect

    Damron, D.S.; Dorman, R.V. )

    1990-06-01

    Cerebral minces were used to investigate the role of calcium influx on trauma-induced alterations of brain lipid metabolism. Cerebral phospholipids, nonpolar lipids, and free fatty acids were radiolabeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid. Tissue incubation stimulated the time-dependent catabolism of choline and inositol glycerophospholipids, and resulted in the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)free fatty acids. These effects were attenuated in Ca{sup 2}{sup +}-free incubations, and when EGTA or verapamil were present. The inhibition of calcium influx also reduced the labeling of diglycerides, whereas ethanolamine and serine glycerophospholipids were not affected by incubation or treatments. Replacing Ca{sup 2}{sup +} with other cations also attenuated the incubation-dependent alterations in lipid metabolism. However, only cadmium was able to compete with calcium and reduce the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)free fatty acids. It appeared that about half of the observed phospholipid catabolism was dependent on Ca{sup 2}{sup +} influx and that at least 80% of the ({sup 3}H)free fatty acid accumulation required calcium.

  1. Arachidonic acid attenuates learning and memory dysfunction induced by repeated isoflurane anesthesia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunjiang; Wang, Qingwei; Li, Lanlan; Liu, Yun; Diao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of arachidonic acid (ARA) on learning and memory dysfunction in rats exposed to repeated isoflurane anesthesia and the underlying mechanisms. Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham control group, isoflurane group, low dose ARA + isoflurane group, moderate dose ARA + isoflurane group, high dose ARA + isoflurane group. The Morris water maze test was performed to assess learning and memory function and the hippocampus tissues were obtained for biochemical analysis. The results showed that administration of ARA improved learning and memory deficit induced by repeated isofluane anesthesia in Morris water maze test and in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, ARA increased the activities of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the levels of acetycholine (Ach) and ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA), whereas decreased the activity of acetylcholine esterase (AchE), the content of glutamate (Glu) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the radio of Glu/GABA. Meanwhile, ARA elevated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibited the activity of caspase-3. In conclusion, ARA has potential therapeutic value in alleviating isoflurane-induced learning and memory impairment. The mechanism might be involved in regulating the cholinergic and Glu/GABA regulatory system, decreasing oxidative damage and inhibiting cell apoptosis. PMID:26550146

  2. Identification and localization of an arachidonic acid-sensitive potassium channel in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Bernd H A; Sakai, Yoshihisa; Harvey, Margaret C; Duzhyy, Dmytro E

    2004-07-14

    Receptor cells of the auditory and vestibular end organs of vertebrates acquire various types of potassium channels during development. Their expression and kinetics can differ along the tonotopic axis as well as in different cell types of the sensory epithelium. These variations can play a crucial role in modulating sensory transduction and cochlear tuning. Whole-cell tight-seal recordings of isolated hair cells revealed the presence of an arachidonic acid-sensitive A-type channel in the short (outer) hair cells of the chicken cochlea. This polyunsaturated fatty acid blocked the A-current, thereby increasing the amplitude and duration of the voltage response in these cells. We identified the gene encoding this channel as belonging to a member of the Shal subfamily, Kv4.2. Expression of the recombinant channel shows half-activation and inactivation potentials shifted to more positive values relative to native channels, suggesting that the native channel is coexpressed with an accessory subunit. RT-PCR revealed that transcription begins early in development, whereas in situ hybridization showed mRNA expression limited to the intermediate and short hair cells located in specific regions of the adult cochlea. Additional localization, using immunofluorescent staining, revealed clustering in apical-lateral regions of the receptor cell as well as in the cochlear ganglion. These experiments provide evidence that in addition to membrane proteins modulating excitation in these receptor cells, fatty acids contribute to the coding of auditory stimuli via these channels. PMID:15254081

  3. Arachidonate 5 Lipoxygenase Expression in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Promotes Invasion via MMP-9 Induction

    PubMed Central

    Kummer, Nicolas T.; Nowicki, Theodore S; Azzi, Jean Paul; Reyes, Ismael; Iacob, Codrin; Xie, Suqing; Swati, Ismatun; Suslina, Nina; Schantz, Stimson; Tiwari, Raj K.; Geliebter, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) expression and activity has been implicated in tumor pathogenesis, yet its role in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has not been characterized. ALOX5 protein and mRNA were upregulated in PTC compared to matched, normal thyroid tissue, and ALOX5 expression correlated with invasive tumor histopathology. Evidence suggests that PTC invasion is mediated through the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that can degrade and remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM). A correlation between MMP-9 and ALOX5 protein expression was established by immunohistochemical analysis of PTC and normal thyroid tissues using a tissue array. Transfection of ALOX5 into a PTC cell line (BCPAP) increased MMP-9 secretion and cell invasion across an ECM barrier. The ALOX5 product, 5(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid also increased MMP-9 protein expression by BCPAP in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors of MMP-9 and ALOX5 reversed ALOX5-enhanced invasion. Here we describe a new role for ALOX5 as a mediator of invasion via MMP-9 induction; this ALOX5/MMP9 pathway represents a new avenue in the search for functional biomarkers and/or potential therapeutic targets for aggressive PTC. PMID:22253131

  4. LPIAT1 regulates arachidonic acid content in phosphatidylinositol and is required for cortical lamination in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Inoue, Takao; Sasaki, Junko; Kubo, Takuya; Matsuda, Shinji; Nakasaki, Yasuko; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Tanaka, Fumiharu; Udagawa, Osamu; Kono, Nozomu; Itoh, Toshiki; Ogiso, Hideo; Taguchi, Ryo; Arita, Makoto; Sasaki, Takehiko; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Dietary arachidonic acid (AA) has roles in growth, neuronal development, and cognitive function in infants. AA is remarkably enriched in phosphatidylinositol (PI), an important constituent of biological membranes in mammals; however, the physiological significance of AA-containing PI remains unknown. In an RNA interference–based genetic screen using Caenorhabditis elegans, we recently cloned mboa-7 as an acyltransferase that selectively incorporates AA into PI. Here we show that lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase 1 (LPIAT1, also known as MBOAT7), the closest mammalian homologue, plays a crucial role in brain development in mice. Lpiat1?/? mice show almost no LPIAT activity with arachidonoyl-CoA as an acyl donor and show reduced AA contents in PI and PI phosphates. Lpiat1?/? mice die within a month and show atrophy of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals disordered cortical lamination and delayed neuronal migration in the cortex of E18.5 Lpiat1?/? mice. LPIAT1 deficiency also causes disordered neuronal processes in the cortex and reduced neurite outgrowth in vitro. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AA-containing PI/PI phosphates play an important role in normal cortical lamination during brain development in mice. PMID:23097495

  5. Role of arachidonic acid metabolites in hypoxic contractions of isolated porcine pulmonary artery and vein.

    PubMed

    Miller, D S; Yaghi, A; Hamilton, J T; Paterson, N A

    1989-03-01

    Recently it has been proposed that hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is mediated by local release of sulfidopeptide leukotriene products of the lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. In the present study the response to reduced oxygen supply of isolated porcine lobar pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein spiral strips has been studied. Contractions of the pulmonary artery (mean maximum tension 66.9 +/- 13.0 mg, n = 10) required an increase in baseline tone of the preparation followed by exposure to anoxia (mean bath PO2 O +/- 3 mm Hg), whereas contractions of the pulmonary vein (mean maximum tension 75.2 +/- 13.3 mg, n = 10) could be elicited in response to hypoxia alone (mean bath PO2 40 +/- 4 mm Hg). Indomethacin (5.6 microM), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, attenuated the arterial contraction, but the mechanism may have been independent of the cyclooxygenase pathway since phenidone, an inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways, had no effect. Inhibition by FPL 55712, a leukotriene end-organ antagonist, was achieved only at a high concentration (20 microM). In the case of the pulmonary vein, both indomethacin and phenidone inhibited the contractile response, whereas FPL 55712 had no effect. Contractile responses to reduced oxygen supply can be induced in isolated porcine pulmonary artery and vein strips, but probably are not mediated by leukotrienes. PMID:2707182

  6. Epidermal growth factor modulates intracellular arachidonic acid levels in MA-10 cultured Leydig tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Majercik, M H; Puett, D

    1991-03-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) acts on various cell types, including the mouse Leydig tumor cell line MA-10, where it has been shown to stimulate steroidogenesis, apparently in a cAMP-independent manner. In the process of examining other possible signaling pathways for EGF in these cells, we found rapid changes in the intracellular concentration of arachidonic acid (AA) following addition of EGF. For example, a significant increase in AA was detected 1 min after incubating the cells with EGF, with the maximal effect observed at an EGF concentration of 10 ng/ml. In addition, exogenous AA increased steroidogenesis, and the steroidogenesis enhanced by AA and EGF was reduced by lipoxygenase inhibitors, suggesting a possible role of an AA metabolite(s) in promoting steroidogenesis. Consistent with this hypothesis is our observation that several exogenous lipoxygenase metabolites were capable of enhancing progesterone production. The EGF-stimulated steroidogenesis was also inhibited by two phospholipase A2 inhibitors, again confirming a probable role of AA or a metabolite in this process. Therefore, AA appears to be an important intracellular mediator responsible, at least in part, for some of the acute metabolic effects mediated by EGF in MA-10 cells. PMID:1851114

  7. Breast milk from women living near Lake Malawi is high in docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, E Yakes; Mangani, C; Ashorn, P; Harris, W S; Maleta, K; Dewey, K G

    2015-04-01

    Adequate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake is critical during the fetal and infant periods. We quantified fatty acid content of breast milk (n=718) and plasma from six month old infants (n=412) in southern Malawi, and in usipa (n=3), a small dried fish from Lake Malawi. Compared to global norms, Malawian breast milk fatty acid content (% of total fatty acids) was well above average levels of arachidonic acid [ARA] (0.69% vs. 0.47%) and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] (0.73% vs. 0.32%). Average Malawian infant plasma ARA (7.5%) and DHA (3.8%) levels were comparable to those reported in infants consuming breast milk with similar fatty acid content. The amounts (mg) of DHA, EPA and ARA provided by a 3 oz (85 g) portion of dried usipa (1439, 659 and 360, respectively) are considerably higher than those for dried salmon. Usipa may be an important source of LCPUFA for populations in this region. PMID:25601798

  8. Arachidonic acid supplementation enhances in vitro skeletal muscle cell growth via a COX-2-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Markworth, James F; Cameron-Smith, David

    2013-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the metabolic precursor to a diverse range of downstream bioactive lipid mediators. A positive or negative influence of individual eicosanoid species [e.g., prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes, and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids] has been implicated in skeletal muscle cell growth and development. The collective role of AA-derived metabolites in physiological states of skeletal muscle growth/atrophy remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine the direct effect of free AA supplementation and subsequent eicosanoid biosynthesis on skeletal myocyte growth in vitro. C2C12 (mouse) skeletal myocytes induced to differentiate with supplemental AA exhibited dose-dependent increases in the size, myonuclear content, and protein accretion of developing myotubes, independent of changes in cell density or the rate/extent of myogenic differentiation. Nonselective (indomethacin) or cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)-selective (NS-398) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs blunted basal myogenesis, an effect that was amplified in the presence of supplemental free AA substrate. The stimulatory effects of AA persisted in preexisting myotubes via a COX-2-dependent (NS-389-sensitive) pathway, specifically implying dependency on downstream PG biosynthesis. AA-stimulated growth was associated with markedly increased secretion of PGF(2?) and PGE(2); however, incubation of myocytes with PG-rich conditioned medium failed to mimic the effects of direct AA supplementation. In vitro AA supplementation stimulates PG release and skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy via a COX-2-dependent pathway. PMID:23076795

  9. Arachidonic acid-dependent gene regulation during preadipocyte differentiation controls adipocyte potential[S

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulou, Evanthia; Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Jean-Alphonse, Frederic; Grimaldi, Giulia; Parker, Malcolm G.; Hanyaloglu, Aylin C.; Christian, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a major PUFA that has been implicated in the regulation of adipogenesis. We examined the effect of a short exposure to AA at different stages of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. AA caused the upregulation of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4/aP2) following 24 h of differentiation. This was mediated by the prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), as inhibition of cyclooxygenases or PGF2? receptor signaling counteracted the AA-mediated aP2 induction. In addition, calcium, protein kinase C, and ERK are all key elements of the pathway through which AA induces the expression of aP2. We also show that treatment with AA during the first 24 h of differentiation upregulates the expression of the transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) via the same pathway. Finally, treatment with AA for 24 h at the beginning of the adipocyte differentiation is sufficient to inhibit the late stages of adipogenesis through a Fra-1-dependent pathway, as Fra-1 knockdown rescued adipogenesis. Our data show that AA is able to program the differentiation potential of preadipocytes by regulating gene expression at the early stages of adipogenesis. PMID:25325755

  10. Effects of sea buckthorn procyanidins on healing of acetic acid-induced lesions in the rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Xie, Bijun; Pan, Siyi; Liu, Liang; Wang, Yadong; Chen, Chudi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sea buckthorn procyanidins (SBPC) on healing of acetic acid-induced lesions in the rat stomach and its possible mechanism. The sea buckthorn procyanidins (SBPC) were extracted with 60% alcohol/H2O from sea buckthorn bark and purified by macropore adsorption resin column, with a purity of >96%. The chemical character of SBPC was analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). Chronic gastric ulceration was induced by injecting acetic acid into the subserosa of stomach. Different concentrations of SBPC were orally administrated to gastric ulcers rats. After treatment 7d and 14d, rats were sacrificed respectively. The healing of the acetic acid induced ulcerations was measured by ulcer index (UI). The level of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in plasma was determined; the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) around ulcer was detected by immunohistochemical method. SBPC was found to reduce the size of the ulcers at day 7 and 14 in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the control, the UI of SBPC group was significantly lower (p< 0.01) and the level of EGF in the plasma of SBPC group increased significantly (p< 0.01), meanwhile the expression of EGFR and PCNA around ulcer in high-dose SBPC stomach were enhanced (p< 0.05). The results implied that SBPC plays an important role in healing of acetic acid-induced gastric lesions possibly by the acceleration of the mucosal repair. PMID:17392110

  11. 496. Phys. Lett A., (2006) A.G.Ramm, The shape of the ear canal The shape of the ear canal #+

    E-print Network

    2006-01-01

    496. Phys. Lett A., (2006) A.G.Ramm, The shape of the ear canal 1 #12; The shape of the ear canal@math.ksu.edu Abstract It is proved that the measurement of the acoustic pressure on the ear membrane allows one to determine the shape of the ear canal uniquely. 1 Introduction Consider a bounded domain D # R n , n = 3

  12. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  13. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  14. Alternative Ear-Canal Measures Related to Absorbance

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Stephen T.; Stenfelt, Stefan; Schairer, Kim S.

    2013-01-01

    Several alternative ear-canal measures are similar to absorbance in their requirement for prior determination of a Thévenin-equivalent sound source. Examples are (1) sound intensity level (SIL), (2) forward-pressure level (FPL), (3) time-domain ear-canal reflectance (TDR), and (4) cochlear reflectance (CR). These four related measures are similar to absorbance in their utilization of wide-band stimuli and their focus on recording ear-canal sound pressure. The related measures differ from absorbance in how the ear-canal pressure is analyzed and in the type of information that is extracted from the recorded response. SIL and FPL have both been shown to be better as measures of sound level in the ear canal compared to sound pressure level (SPL) because they reduced calibration errors due to standing waves in studies of behavioral thresholds and otoacoustic emissions. TDR may be used to estimate ear-canal geometry and may have the potential to assess middle-ear pathology. CR reveals information about the inner ear that is similar to what is provided by other types of otoacoustic emissions and may have theoretical advantages that strengthen its interpretation. PMID:23900185

  15. Inner ear contribution to bone conduction hearing in the human.

    PubMed

    Stenfelt, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Bone conduction (BC) hearing relies on sound vibration transmission in the skull bone. Several clinical findings indicate that in the human, the skull vibration of the inner ear dominates the response for BC sound. Two phenomena transform the vibrations of the skull surrounding the inner ear to an excitation of the basilar membrane, (1) inertia of the inner ear fluid and (2) compression and expansion of the inner ear space. The relative importance of these two contributors were investigated using an impedance lumped element model. By dividing the motion of the inner ear boundary in common and differential motion it was found that the common motion dominated at frequencies below 7 kHz but above this frequency differential motion was greatest. When these motions were used to excite the model it was found that for the normal ear, the fluid inertia response was up to 20 dB greater than the compression response. This changed in the pathological ear where, for example, otosclerosis of the stapes depressed the fluid inertia response and improved the compression response so that inner ear compression dominated BC hearing at frequencies above 400 Hz. The model was also able to predict experimental and clinical findings of BC sensitivity in the literature, for example the so called Carhart notch in otosclerosis, increased BC sensitivity in superior semicircular canal dehiscence, and altered BC sensitivity following a vestibular fenestration and RW atresia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25528492

  16. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  17. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  18. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  19. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  20. CT of adenomas of the middle ear and mastoid cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Van Thong Ho; Rao, V.J.; Mikaelian, D.O.

    1996-03-01

    A case of mixed type adenoma of the middle ear and mastoid is presented in which CT showed complete opacification of the middle ear and mastoid air cells with bulging of the tympanic membrane but without ossicular or bony destruction. 7 refs., 1 figs.

  1. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  2. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MIDDLE-EAR VIBRATIONS IN RATS

    E-print Network

    Funnell, W. Robert J.

    . Animal models have been shown to be valuable tools in auditory research, including studies of middle in the hearing process. There is still much about the ear that remains to be understood, and with a better of hearing disorders. The middle-ear consists of the eardrum, or tympanic membrane (TM), and three tiny bones

  3. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

  4. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

  5. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

  6. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

  7. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

  8. Positional cloning and characterization of the Rotten Ear (Rte) gene in Zea mays

    E-print Network

    Tabi, Ma Zara Emilia Marañon

    2011-01-01

    for the Formation of Maize Ears. Plant Cell 23, 1756-1771.plant, meaning that instead it produces two distinct inflorescence structures, the tassel and ear,Ear phenotypes in rte-2 (B; mild allele) and in rte-1 plants (

  9. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional Past Issues / ... A feeling of fullness or fluid in the ear Ringing in your ears (called tinnitus) Causes Aging ...

  10. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

  11. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

  12. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

  13. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

  14. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

  15. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

  17. 78 FR 76741 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL) AGENCY: Bureau...the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by: Requiring exporters to file an Automated...record for all exports subject to the EAR involving a party or parties to the...

  18. 78 FR 55664 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL) AGENCY: Bureau...the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by: requiring exporters to file an Automated...record for all exports subject to the EAR involving a party or parties to the...

  19. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  1. 77 FR 22191 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ...the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number...the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by establishing a new Export Control Classification...and makes corresponding changes to the EAR. The ECCN 0Y521 series will be used...

  2. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

  3. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

  5. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

  6. 22 CFR 120.42 - Subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 120.42 Section 120.42 Foreign Relations...Subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). Items “subject to the EAR” are those items listed on the Commerce...

  7. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  9. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

  10. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  12. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

  13. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer...

  14. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

  15. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  18. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer...

  19. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

  20. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

  1. NADPH oxidase NOX5-S and nuclear factor ?B1 mediate acid-induced microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 expression in Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoxu; Li, Dan; Resnick, Murray B; Wands, Jack; Cao, Weibiao

    2013-05-01

    The mechanisms of progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not known. Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandin E? (PGE?) has been shown to be important in esophageal tumorigenesis. We have shown that COX-2 mediates acid-induced PGE? production. The prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) responsible for acid-induced PGE2 production in BE, however, is not known. We found that microsomal PGES1 (mPGES1), mPGES2, and cytosolic PGES (cPGES) were present in FLO EA cells. Pulsed acid treatment significantly increased mPGES1 mRNA and protein levels but had little or no effect on mPGES2 or cPGES mRNA. Knockdown of mPGES1 by mPGES1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked acid-induced increase in PGE2 production and thymidine incorporation. Knockdown of NADPH oxidase, NOX5-S, a variant lacking calcium-binding domains, by NOX5 siRNA significantly inhibited acid-induced increase in mPGES1 expression, thymidine incorporation, and PGE2 production. Overexpression of NOX5-S significantly increased the luciferase activity in FLO cells transfected with a nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in vivo activation reporter plasmid pNF-?B-Luc. Knockdown of NF-?B1 p50 by p50 siRNA significantly decreased acid-induced increase in mPGES1 expression, thymidine incorporation, and PGE? production. Two novel NF-?B binding elements, GGAGTCTCCC and CGGGACACCC, were identified in the mPGES1 gene promoter. We conclude that mPGES1 mediates acid-induced increase in PGE? production and cell proliferation. Acid-induced mPGES1 expression depends on activation of NOX5-S and NF-?B1 p50. Microsomal PGES1 may be a potential target to prevent or treat EA. PMID:23439561

  2. Korean red ginseng ameliorates acute 3-nitropropionic acid-induced cochlear damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunjie; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Young Chul; Park, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Youn Ju; Lim, Hye Jin; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP), a mitochondrial toxin, has been reported to induce an acute cochlear damage. Korean red ginseng (KRG) is known to have protective effects from some types of hearing loss. This study aimed to observe the protective effect of KRG in an ototoxic animal model using 3-NP intratympanic injection. BALB/c mice were classified into 5 groups (n=15) and dose-dependent toxic effects after intratympanic injection with 3-NP (300-5000 mM) on the left ear were investigated to determine the appropriate toxicity level of 3-NP. For observation of the protective effects of KRG, 23 mice were grouped into 3-NP (500 mM, n=12) and KRG+3-NP groups (300 mg/kg KRG for 7 days before 500 mM 3-NP administration, n=11). Auditory brain response (ABR) and cochlear morphological evaluations were performed before and after drug administration. The ABR thresholds in the 800-5000 mM groups exceeded the maximum recording limit at 16 and 32 kHz 1 day after 3-NP administration. The ABR threshold in the 500 mM 3-NP+KRG group was significantly lower than that in the 500 mM 3-NP group from post 1 week to 1 month. The mean type II fibrocyte counts significantly differed between the control and 3-NP groups and between the 3-NP and 3-NP+KRG groups. Spiral ganglion cell degeneration in the 3-NP group was more severe than that in the 3-NP+KRG group. This animal model exhibited a dose-dependent hearing loss with histological changes. KRG administration ameliorated the deterioration of hearing by 3-NP. PMID:23164932

  3. Segmentation algorithms for ear image data towards biomechanical studies.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana; Gentil, Fernanda; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the segmentation, i.e. the identification, of ear structures in video-otoscopy, computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) image data, has gained significant importance in the medical imaging area, particularly those in CT and MR imaging. Segmentation is the fundamental step of any automated technique for supporting the medical diagnosis and, in particular, in biomechanics studies, for building realistic geometric models of ear structures. In this paper, a review of the algorithms used in ear segmentation is presented. The review includes an introduction to the usually biomechanical modelling approaches and also to the common imaging modalities. Afterwards, several segmentation algorithms for ear image data are described, and their specificities and difficulties as well as their advantages and disadvantages are identified and analysed using experimental examples. Finally, the conclusions are presented as well as a discussion about possible trends for future research concerning the ear segmentation. PMID:22994296

  4. [Local drug therapy for inner ear hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Liebau, A; Plontke, S K

    2015-06-01

    The indications for local drug therapy of inner ear hearing loss include sudden sensorineural hearing loss, Menière's disease, autoimmune-associated hearing loss, ototoxicity as a side effect of other therapies, acute acoustic trauma and improvement of the safety and performance of cochlear implants. Various drugs are currently being used and tested for local treatment of inner ear hearing loss, including glucocorticoids, growth factors, apoptosis inhibitors, antioxidants, TNF-? inhibitors and antibodies. To further a better understanding of pharmacokinetics and the development of rational pharmacotherapy of the inner ear, the"liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination" (LADME) principle can be applied to local therapy of the inner ear. Local application strategies can be differentiated into intratympanic applications to the middle ear cavity and direct intralabyrinthine or intracochlear applications. PMID:25008276

  5. Inner ear symptoms and disease: Pathophysiological understanding and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Ciuman, Raphael R.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, huge advances have taken place in understanding of inner ear pathophysiology causing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Advances in understanding comprise biochemical and physiological research of stimulus perception and conduction, inner ear homeostasis, and hereditary diseases with underlying genetics. This review describes and tabulates the various causes of inner ear disease and defines inner ear and non-inner ear causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The aim of this review was to comprehensively breakdown this field of otorhinolaryngology for specialists and non-specialists and to discuss current therapeutic options in distinct diseases and promising research for future therapies, especially pharmaceutic, genetic, or stem cell therapy. PMID:24362017

  6. Day care ear surgery: our experience of 4 years.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mubarak M; Parab, Sapna R

    2012-09-01

    Day care surgery is gaining wide popularity not only in the West, but also in our country. We present our experience of 4 years of day care surgery in otological practice. To identify the scope of day care ear surgery in our rural setup and to determine the rate of complications, if any, of day care ear surgery. A prospective study of major ear cases operated in M.I.M.E.R. Medical College and Sushrut ENT Hospital was carried out from January 2005 to December 2008 with a minimum follow up of 2 years. In the period from 2005 to 2008, a total of 527 major ear cases were operated. There was re-admission of 5 operated patients (0.94%). The acceptance of day care ear surgery is enormous in our rural setup due to its obvious advantages. PMID:23998036

  7. Analysis of Earing in Deep Drawn Cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretz, Holger; Aegerter, Johannes; Engler, Olaf

    2010-06-01

    The cup-drawing of a strongly anisotropic sheet metal is simulated using a commercial finite element software along with a user material subroutine. In order to accurately describe the plastic anisotropy of the material the well-known recent yield function `Yld2004-18p' is extended. Regarding the experimental characterization of the considered material the occurrence of dynamic strain aging lead to an oscillating signal of the width change of the tensile samples, which prevented a reliable determination of plastic strain ratios (r-values). Thus, an improved measurement concept was developed that leads to a very robust and reproducible determination of r-values. Furthermore, a novel plane-strain tensile test sample is presented which is used for the characterization of the plastic anisotropy in biaxial loading states. A quantitative comparison with measured earing profiles of deep drawn cups illustrates the predictive capabilities of the numerical simulation.

  8. Analysis of Earing in Deep Drawn Cups

    SciTech Connect

    Aretz, Holger; Aegerter, Johannes; Engler, Olaf

    2010-06-15

    The cup-drawing of a strongly anisotropic sheet metal is simulated using a commercial finite element software along with a user material subroutine. In order to accurately describe the plastic anisotropy of the material the well-known recent yield function 'Yld2004-18p' is extended. Regarding the experimental characterization of the considered material the occurrence of dynamic strain aging lead to an oscillating signal of the width change of the tensile samples, which prevented a reliable determination of plastic strain ratios (r-values). Thus, an improved measurement concept was developed that leads to a very robust and reproducible determination of r-values. Furthermore, a novel plane-strain tensile test sample is presented which is used for the characterization of the plastic anisotropy in biaxial loading states. A quantitative comparison with measured earing profiles of deep drawn cups illustrates the predictive capabilities of the numerical simulation.

  9. Mechanics of the exceptional anuran ear

    PubMed Central

    Segenhout, Johannes M.; van Dijk, Pim

    2008-01-01

    The anuran ear is frequently used for studying fundamental properties of vertebrate auditory systems. This is due to its unique anatomical features, most prominently the lack of a basilar membrane and the presence of two dedicated acoustic end organs, the basilar papilla and the amphibian papilla. Our current anatomical and functional knowledge implies that three distinct regions can be identified within these two organs. The basilar papilla functions as a single auditory filter. The low-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla is an electrically tuned, tonotopically organized auditory end organ. The high-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla is mechanically tuned and tonotopically organized, and it emits spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. This high-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla shows a remarkable, functional resemblance to the mammalian cochlea. PMID:18386018

  10. "Play It by Ear"--Teachers' Responses to Ear-Playing Tasks during One-to-One Instrumental Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings from the Ear-Playing Project in relation to the teaching strategies that 15 instrumental teachers adopted during one-to-one instrumental lessons whilst helping their students to copy music by ear from a recording. Overall, the teachers used a variety of strategies including singing and humming along with or without the…

  11. Allicin Alleviates Inflammation of Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid-Induced Rats and Suppresses P38 and JNK Pathways in Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Lun, Weijian; Zhao, Xinmei; Lei, Shan; Guo, Yandong; Ma, Jiayi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Allicin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and proapoptotic properties. Aims. To evaluate the effects and investigate the mechanism of allicin on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis, specifically with mesalazine or sulfasalazine. Methods. 80 rats were divided equally into 8 groups: control; trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid; allicin prevention; allicin; mesalazine; sulfasalazine; allicin + sulfasalazine, and mesalazine + allicin. Systemic and colonic inflammation parameters were analysed. In addition, protein and culture medium of Caco-2 cells treated with various concentrations of IL-1? or allicin were collected for investigation of IL-8, NF-?B p65 P38, ERK, and JNK. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used for parametric and nonparametric tests, respectively. Results. Allicin reduced the body weight loss of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced rats, histological score, serum TNF-? and IL-1? levels, and colon IL-1? mRNA level and induced serum IL-4 level, particularly in combination with mesalazine. In addition, 1?ng/mL IL-1? stimulated the P38, ERK, and JNK pathways, whereas pretreatment with allicin depressed this phenomenon, except for the ERK pathway. Conclusions. The inflammation induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid is mitigated significantly by allicin treatment, particularly combined with mesalazine. Allicin inhibits the P38 and JNK pathways and the expression of NF-?B which explained the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of allicin. PMID:25729217

  12. Allicin alleviates inflammation of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced rats and suppresses P38 and JNK pathways in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Lun, Weijian; Zhao, Xinmei; Lei, Shan; Guo, Yandong; Ma, Jiayi; Zhi, Fachao

    2015-01-01

    Background. Allicin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and proapoptotic properties. Aims. To evaluate the effects and investigate the mechanism of allicin on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis, specifically with mesalazine or sulfasalazine. Methods. 80 rats were divided equally into 8 groups: control; trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid; allicin prevention; allicin; mesalazine; sulfasalazine; allicin + sulfasalazine, and mesalazine + allicin. Systemic and colonic inflammation parameters were analysed. In addition, protein and culture medium of Caco-2 cells treated with various concentrations of IL-1? or allicin were collected for investigation of IL-8, NF-?B p65 P38, ERK, and JNK. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used for parametric and nonparametric tests, respectively. Results. Allicin reduced the body weight loss of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced rats, histological score, serum TNF-? and IL-1? levels, and colon IL-1? mRNA level and induced serum IL-4 level, particularly in combination with mesalazine. In addition, 1?ng/mL IL-1? stimulated the P38, ERK, and JNK pathways, whereas pretreatment with allicin depressed this phenomenon, except for the ERK pathway. Conclusions. The inflammation induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid is mitigated significantly by allicin treatment, particularly combined with mesalazine. Allicin inhibits the P38 and JNK pathways and the expression of NF-?B which explained the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of allicin. PMID:25729217

  13. Protective effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mannasaheb, Basheerahmed A.A.; Kulkarni, Preeti V.; Sangreskopp, Mashood Ahmed; Savant, Chetan; Mohan, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Natural plants always provide core compounds for new drug development. In the present life and food style, inflammatory bowel disease has become common and needs a lead compound for its drug development. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats based on its traditional anti-inflammatory use. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with A. americana leaf extract in the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. daily for 7 days. On 8th day, 2 ml of 4% v/v acetic acid in saline was instilled into rats’ rectum. Prednisolone was used as standard drug and it was administered on the day of acetic acid instillation and continued for 3 days. Extract treatment was continued till 11th day. Body weight, ulcer score, colonic muscle contraction, antioxidant activity and histopathology were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Parametric one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's posttest. Results: A. americana have retained total body weight significantly (P < 0.01) and decreased colon weight/length ratio. Extract have shown a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in ulcer scores, myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidase activity. Further, extract have shown significant improvement in colonic muscle contraction, histopathology of colon etc., which is comparable with standard drug. Conclusion: A. americana possess protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

  14. Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.; Shea, D.; Schachern, P.; Paparella, M.M.; Carpenter, A.M.

    1981-08-01

    A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middle ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops.

  15. Arachidonic acid-derived signaling lipids and functions in impaired healing.

    PubMed

    Dhall, Sandeep; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan Shanaka; Karim, Zubair A; Castro, Anthony; Vemana, Hari Priya; Khasawneh, Fadi T; Chalfant, Charles E; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    Very little is known about lipid function during wound healing, and much less during impaired healing. Such understanding will help identify what roles lipid signaling plays in the development of impaired/chronic wounds. We took a lipidomics approach to study the alterations in lipid profile in the LIGHT(-/-) mouse model of impaired healing which has characteristics that resemble those of impaired/chronic wounds in humans, including high levels of oxidative stress, excess inflammation, increased extracellular matrix degradation and blood vessels with fibrin cuffs. The latter suggests excess coagulation and potentially increased platelet aggregation. We show here that in these impaired wounds there is an imbalance in the arachidonic acid (AA) derived eicosonoids that mediate or modulate inflammatory reactions and platelet aggregation. In the LIGHT(-/-) impaired wounds there is a significant increase in enzymatically derived breakdown products of AA. We found that early after injury there was a significant increase in the eicosanoids 11-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyeicosa-tetranoic acid, and the proinflammatory leukotrienes (LTD4 and LTE) and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGF2? ). Some of these eicosanoids also promote platelet aggregation. This led us to examine the levels of other eicosanoids known to be involved in the latter process. We found that thromboxane (TXA2 /B2 ), and prostacyclins 6kPGF1? are elevated shortly after wounding and in some cases during healing. To determine whether they have an impact in platelet aggregation and hemostasis, we tested LIGHT(-/-) mouse wounds for these two parameters and found that, indeed, platelet aggregation and hemostasis are enhanced in these mice when compared with the control C57BL/6 mice. Understanding lipid signaling in impaired wounds can potentially lead to development of new therapeutics or in using existing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents to help correct the course of healing. PMID:26135854

  16. Effects of an antistroke agent MCl-186 on cerebral arachidonate cascade.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Egawa, M

    1994-12-01

    Activation of the cerebral arachidonate (AA) cascade is one of the major causes of edema and tissue injury in cerebral ischemia, particularly after reperfusion. The cascade produces toxic oxygen radicals responsible for peroxidative neurodegeneration and synthesizes, the potent edematous inducer, leukotrienes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of MCl-186 (3-methyl-1-phenyl-pyrazolin-5-one), a radical scavenger and antioxidant which has beneficial anti-ischemic actions, on the cerebral AA cascade. Postischemic treatment with MCl-186 (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg i.v.) significantly inhibited the aggravation of cortical edema seen 60 min after recirculation following 30 min of ischemia in gerbils. An antilipoxygenase agent, FPL-55712 (7-[3-(4-acetyl-3-hydroxy-2-propylphenoxy)-2- hydroxypropoxy]-4-oxo-8-propyl-4H-1-benzopyran-2-carboxylic acid, monosodium salt; 10 mg/kg i.v.) or AA-861 ((2,3,5-trimethyl-6-(12-hydroxy-5,10-dodecadiynyl)-1,4-benzoquinon e; 60 mg/kg i.p.) was also effective in this model; however, indomethacin (4 mg/kg i.p.), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, was ineffective. Concomitant treatment with MCl-186 (0.1-3.0 mg/kg i.v.) remarkably inhibited the swelling observed 24 hr after cortical infusion of AA (80 micrograms) in rats. Similarly, antilipoxygenase agents clearly inhibited the AA-induced edema. Furthermore, postischemic treatment with MCl-186 (0.3-3.0 mg/kg i.v.) inhibited the facilitation of cerebral leukotriene synthesis seen 15 min after recirculation following 30 min of ischemia in gerbils. These findings suggest that the site of action of MCl-186 as an anti-ischemic agent may be closely associated with the cerebral AA cascade, especially the lipoxygenase system, activated by ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:7996477

  17. Production of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids by the marine oomycete Halophytophthora.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ka-Lai; Lin, Han-Jia; Lin, Hung-Yun; Huang, Yu-Fen; Chen, Yi-Min

    2015-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids with more than one double bond in the chemical structure. Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 (n-6)) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 22:5 (n-3)) are common PUFAs with beneficial health effects. Marine fish and meat are the main sources of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in human's diet, respectively. In particular, there is a general decline in fish catch, implicating the need for an alternative source of omega-3 fatty acids. Previous studies have examined the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids including ARA and EPA by various microorganisms, including microalgae, fungi, and thraustochytrids. In this study, the production of ARA and EPA by 10 isolates of four estuarine Halophytophthora species (Halophytophthora avicenniae, Halophytophthora polymorphica, Halophytophthora vesicula, and Halophytophthora spinosa var. spinosa) cultured from fallen mangrove leaves in Taiwan was examined. The yield of ARA ranged from 0.004 to 0.052 g/L with the highest yield of ARA obtained from H. spinosa var. spinosa IMB162, but no or a very low level of EPA was produced by IMB162. For EPA production by Halophytophthora spp., the yield ranged from 0 to 0.047 g/L. Percentage of ARA in total fatty acid ranged between 7.16 and 25.02%. One-way ANOVA analysis using Tukey Test (p???0.05) suggested that there is significant difference in the percentage of EPA in total fatty acid produced by the isolates, which ranged from 0.01 to 18.42%. BODIPY 505/515 fluorescent staining suggests that lipid bodies were evenly distributed in the mycelia of Halophytophthora species. PMID:25119161

  18. Arachidonic acid metabolism by bovine placental tissue during the last month of pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoedemaker, M.; Weston, P.G.; Wagner, W.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Conversion of tritiated arachidonic acid (AA) into metabolites of the cyclo- and lipoxygenase pathways by bovine fetal placental tissue (200 mg) and fetal plus maternal placental tissue (400 mg) of Days 255, 265, 275 of gestation and at parturition (n = 5) during a 30 min incubation was measured using reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. Fetal placental tissue produced 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin E2 (PGEM) as the major metabolite, the synthesis of which increased from Day 265 to Day 275 and parturition by 150% and 475%, respectively. In tissues collected at parturition, PGE2 synthesis was also detected. On Day 275 and at parturition fetal placental tissue synthesized the metabolite 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT), and throughout the experimental period the lipoxygenase product 15-HETE was detected with synthesis rates increasing over time of gestation. In addition, an unidentified metabolite was regularly found in the radiochromatograms which eluted at 1 h and 1 min (U101), between HHT and 15-HETE. The synthesis of this metabolite decreased as pregnancy progressed. Furthermore, various other polar and nonpolar metabolites pooled under the heading UNID were eluted, the production of which increased over time of gestation. The presence of maternal placental tissue did not influence the synthesis of PGEM, 15-HETE and U101, but the production of HHT was decreased when maternal tissue was present. Also, as pregnancy progressed, maternal placental tissue seemed to contribute to the pool of unidentified metabolites. In conclusion, fetal placental tissue seems to be the major source of the AA metabolites when compared with maternal placental tissue, and AA metabolism by bovine placental tissue is markedly increased throughout the last month of pregnancy, suggesting a role for AA metabolites in mechanisms controlling parturition.

  19. Inability of murine peritoneal macrophages to convert linoleic acid into arachidonic acid. Evidence of chain elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Chapkin, R.S.; Somers, S.D.; Erickson, K.L.

    1988-04-01

    Various murine macrophage populations synthesize and secrete large amounts of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) derived eicosanoids (cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase products). These metabolites are known to possess a wide variety of functions with regard to the initiation and regulation of inflammation and tumorigenesis. Because the dietary intake of 20:4n-6 is usually low, tissues are largely dependent upon dietary linoleic acid (18:2n-6) as an initial unsaturated precursor for the biosynthesis of 20:4n-6. The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether resident or responsive murine macrophages possess desaturase and elongase activities capable of in vitro conversion of 18:2n-6 into 20:4n-6. Peritoneal exudate macrophages were purified by adherence and incubated in serum-free medium containing fatty acid-free BSA with (1-14C) 18:2n-6. Approximately 90 to 98% of the (14C)18:2n-6 at 4 and 16 h was recovered in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The metabolism of (14C)18:2n-6 was determined after transesterification and separation of the 14C-fatty acid methyl esters by argentation TLC, reverse phase HPLC, and electron impact gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Resident and responsive macrophages lacked the capacity to transform (14C)18:2n-6 into 20:4n-6. In addition, prelabeled macrophages incubated with soluble, calcium ionophore A23187 or phorbol myristate, or particulate, zymosan, membrane perturbing agents also lacked delta 6 desaturase activity. All macrophages tested were capable of elongating (14C)18:2n-6 into (14C)20:2n-6. These observations suggest that 20:4n-6, present in macrophage phospholipids, is biosynthesized elsewhere and transported to the macrophage for esterification into the phospholipids. In addition, these findings demonstrate that elongase activity is present in both the resident and responsive peritoneal macrophage.

  20. Phospholipase-A2 action and arachidonic acid metabolism in calcium-mediated parathyroid hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Bourdeau, A; Souberbielle, J C; Bonnet, P; Herviaux, P; Sachs, C; Lieberherr, M

    1992-03-01

    The involvement of arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites in the control of PTH secretion by porcine parathyroid cells was investigated. Increasing the extracellular calcium concentration from 0.5 to 2 mM increased free [3H]AA release and decreased PTH secretion from labeled parathyroid cells as a function of time (1-30 min). Free [3H]AA in the medium was significantly increased (+153 +/- 6%) after 5 min, while PTH secretion was significantly decreased (-75 +/- 7%) only after 15 min, suggesting a link between the two. [3H]AA release was associated with a decrease in [3H]AA incorporated into phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylcholine, suggesting that these phospholipids are the major source of AA. Exogenous phospholipase-A2 (PL-A2; 1-500 mU/ml) and AA (5-40 microM) inhibited PTH secretion in a dose-dependent manner. PTH secretion inhibited by 2 mM Ca2+ was restored by two PL-A2 inhibitors, indomethacin (30 microM) and mepacrine (50 microM). The cyclooxygenase pathway inhibitor ibuprofen (20 microM) did not restore PTH secretion of affect high Ca(2+)-, AA-, or PL-A2-inhibited PTH secretion. Two inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway (LO), phenidone (1 microM) and baicalein (0.1 microM), a relatively selective 12-LO inhibitor, blunted high Ca(2+)-induced inhibition of PTH secretion (+101 +/- 10% and +105 +/- 6%, respectively), but nordihydroguaiaretic acid, which inhibits the 5-LO pathway, did not restore PTH secretion inhibited by high Ca2+, AA, or PL-A2. These results suggested that AA and agents that cause its liberation inhibit PTH secretion. AA may act via the 12-LO, but not via the 5-LO or cyclooxygenase, pathway. Thus, 12-LO products may be second messengers in parathyroid cells. PMID:1537295

  1. Extracts from Tribulus species may modulate platelet adhesion by interfering with arachidonic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The present work was designed to study the effects of crude extracts from Tribulus pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus on selected biological functions of human blood platelets in vitro. Platelet suspensions were pre-incubated with extracts from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus, at the final concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 50?µg/ml. Then, for platelet activation thrombin, was used. The effects of crude extracts from T. pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus on adhesion of blood platelets to collagen were determined by method according to Tuszynski and Murphy. Arachidonic acid metabolism was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In these studies we also compared the action of tested crude plant extracts with the effects of the polyphenolic fraction isolated from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus, which has antiplatelet and antioxidative properties. The performed assays demonstrated that the tested crude extract from T. pterocarpus and the phenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus might influence the platelet functions in vitro. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of this tested extract and its phenolic fraction on adhesion of resting platelets and thrombin - stimulated platelets to collagen was found. We also observed that the crude extract from T. pterocarpus, like the polyphenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus reduced TBARS production in blood platelets. In the comparative studies, the tested crude extract from T. pterocarpus was not found to be more effective antiplatelet factor, than the polyphenolic fraction from this plant. The results obtained suggest that T. pterocarpus may be a promising source of natural compounds, valuable in the prevention of the enhanced activity of blood platelets in numerous cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24512189

  2. Effects of sexually dimorphic growth hormone secretory patterns on arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes in rodent heart.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Furong; Yu, Xuming; He, Chunyan; Ouyang, Xiufang; Wu, Jinhua; Li, Jie; Zhang, Junjie; Duan, Xuejiao; Wan, Yu; Yue, Jiang

    2015-12-15

    The arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzymes are the potential therapeutic targets of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). As sex differences have been shown in the risk and outcome of CVDs, we investigated the regulation of heart AA metabolizing enzymes (COXs, LOXs, and CYPs) by sex-dependent growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns. The pulsatile (masculine) GH secretion at a physiological concentration decreased CYP1A1 and CYP2J3 mRNA levels more efficiently in the H9c2 cells compared with the constant (feminine) GH secretion; however, CYP1B1 mRNA levels were higher following the pulsatile GH secretion. Sex differences in CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2J11 mRNA levels were observed in both the wild-type and GHR deficient mice. No sex differences in the mRNA levels of COXs, LOXs, or CYP2E1 were observed in the wild-type mice. The constant GH infusion induced heart CYP1A1 and CYP2J11, and decreased CYP1B1 in the male C57/B6 mice constantly infused with GH (0.4?g/h, 7days). The activity of rat Cyp2j3 promoter was inhibited by the STAT5B protein, but was activated by C/EBP? (CEBPA). Compared with the constant GH administration, the levels of the nuclear phosphorylated STAT5B protein and its binding to the rat Cyp2j3 promoter were higher following the pulsatile GH administration. The constant GH infusion decreased the binding of the nuclear phosphorylated STAT5B protein to the mouse Cyp2j11 promoter. The data suggest the sexually dimorphic transcription of heart AA metabolizing enzymes, which might alter the risk and outcome of CVDs. GHR-STAT5B signal transduction pathway may be involved in the sex difference in heart CYP2J levels. PMID:26493931

  3. Prenatal Ultrasound Screening for External Ear Abnormality in the Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Ran, Suzhen; Yang, Zhengchun; Lin, Yun; Tang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the best time of examination and section chosen of routine prenatal ultrasound screening for external ear abnormalities and evaluate the feasibility of examining the fetal external ear with ultrasonography. Methods. From July 2010 until August 2011, 42118 pregnant women with single fetus during 16–40 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in the study. Fetal auricles and external auditory canal in the second trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by routine color Doppler ultrasound screening and systematic screening. Ultrasound images of fetal external ears were obtained on transverse-incline view at cervical vertebra level and mandible level and on parasagittal view and coronal view at external ear level. Results. Five fetuses had anomalous ears including bilateral malformed auricles with malformed external auditory canal, unilateral deformed external ear, and unilateral microtia. The detection rate of both auricles was negatively correlated with gestational age. Of the 5843 fetuses undergoing a routine ultrasound screening, 5797 (99.21%) had bilateral auricles. Of the 4955 fetuses following systematic screening, all fetuses (100%) had bilateral auricles. The best time for fetal auricles observation with ultrasonography is 20–24 weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions. Detection of external ear abnormalities may assist in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:25050343

  4. Fetal ear measurements in the prenatal detection of trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Gill, P; Vanhook, J; Fitzsimmons, J; Pascoe-Mason, J; Fantel, A

    1994-08-01

    Although prominent fetal nuchal folds, short long bones, echogenic bowel, and renal pelviectasis have been shown to be associated with trisomy 21, none has acceptable diagnostic efficacy. Diminished fetal ear lengths measured by ultrasound have recently been reported as yet another potential morphological marker for the prenatal detection of trisomy 21. To investigate this further, we measured ear lengths and widths of normal (n = 107) and trisomy 21 (n = 25) second-trimester formalin-preserved fetuses. The normal ear growth characteristics are described and compared with those of trisomy 21 fetuses. The normal fetal ear shape, not unlike that of the neonates, manifested a marked variation. When the ear lengths and widths were regressed against gestational age, the slopes of the regression lines for the two groups were found to be different (P < 0.001). However, despite the statistically significant difference between the ear sizes of normal and trisomy 21 fetuses, the wide range of normal variation seen at each gestational age means that the fetal ear measurements are not diagnostically helpful. PMID:7991515

  5. Human fetal inner ear involvement in congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The mechanisms of pathogenesis of CMV-related SNHL are still unclear. The aim is to study congenital CMV-related damage in the fetal inner ear, in order to better understand the underlying pathophysiology behind CMV-SNHL. Results We studied inner ears and brains of 20 human fetuses, all at 21 week gestational age, with a high viral load in the amniotic fluid, with and without ultrasound (US) brain abnormalities. We evaluated histological brain damage, inner ear infection, local inflammatory response and tissue viral load. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CMV was positive in 14/20 brains (70%) and in the inner ears of 9/20 fetuses (45%). In the cases with inner ear infection, the marginal cell layer of the stria vascularis was always infected, followed by infection in the Reissner’s membrane. The highest tissue viral load was observed in the inner ear with infected Organ of Corti. Vestibular labyrinth showed CMV infection of sensory cells in the utricle and in the crista ampullaris. US cerebral anomalies were detected in 6 cases, and in all those cases, the inner ear was always involved. In the other 14 cases with normal brain scan, histological brain damage was present in 8 fetuses and 3 of them presented inner ear infection. Conclusions CMV-infection of the marginal cell layer of the stria vascularis may alter potassium and ion circulation, dissipating the endocochlear potential with consequent SNHL. Although abnormal cerebral US is highly predictive of brain and inner ear damage, normal US findings cannot exclude them either. PMID:24252374

  6. Multifrequency multicomponent tympanometry in normal and otosclerotic ears.

    PubMed

    Miani, C; Bergamin, A M; Barotti, A; Isola, M

    2000-01-01

    A multifrequency multicomponent admittance meter was used to evaluate 70 ears of patients affected by fenestral otosclerosis (Os ears), monolateral (16 cases) or bilateral (27 cases). The 16 contralateral ears of the patients with monolateral otosclerosis who presented a pure-tone air-bone gap less than 10 dB were evaluated separately (Cos ears). A group of 48 ears belonging to 24 otologically normal subjects (N ears), with hearing thresholds better than or equal to 10dB HL in the frequencies between 250 and 8000 Hz served as a control group. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the acoustic admittance characteristics of the three groups of ears, with particular regard to the parameters represented by the resonance frequency (RF), the acoustic conductance value (G) at RF and the individual interaural differences in these two parameters in the N and Cos groups. The degree to which fenestral otosclerosis can influence variations of RF and the correlation between the value of RF and conductive hearing loss in patients with clinically confirmed pictures and in the controlateral ears in the cases where the disease was clinically unilateral were also investigated. The study reveals statistically significant differences between the RF means in the N group (1085 +/- 244Hz) vs the Os group (1264 +/- 320 Hz) (p < 0.001) and between the G means in the N group (5.33 +/- 1.72 mmhos) vs the Os group (4.46 +/- 2.54 mmhos) (p = 0.04) and N group vs Cos group (3.42 +/- 2.27 mmhos) (p < 0.001). No correlation was found between the value of RF and conductive hearing loss. This study also shows how prognostic value may also be attributed to conductance at middle-ear pressure balancement: extremely low values for this parameter at RF are indicative of initial otosclerotic involvement of the oval window. PMID:11195942

  7. 3D Ear Identification Based on Sparse Representation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person’s identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm. PMID:24740247

  8. 3D ear identification based on sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm. PMID:24740247

  9. Interference of arachidonic acid and its metabolites with TNF-alpha release by ochratoxin A from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Al-Anati, L; Katz, N; Petzinger, E

    2005-03-30

    We investigated the role of arachidonic acid and its metabolites on the ochratoxin A (OTA) provoked release of proinflammatory and apoptotic cytokine TNF-alpha from blood-free perfused rat liver. OTA induced TNF-alpha release dose- and time-dependently yielding 2600 pg TNF-alpha/ml at 2.5 micromol/l after 90 min without significant release of LDH and lactate. Aristolochic acid, 50 micromol/l, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, and 10 micromol/l of exogenous arachidonic acid decreased TNF-alpha below normal level. Indomethacin, 10 micromol/l, a potent inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway, almost doubled TNF-alpha concentrations in the perfusion solution to reach 5500 pg/ml at 90 min. On the other hand, inhibition of lipoxgenase (LPX) by 30 micromol/l nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) pathway by 100 micromol/l of metyrapone decreased TNF-alpha below normal levels as well. Concurrent administration of two blockers (COX inhibitor with LPX inhibitor, or COX inhibitor with CYP-450 inhibitor, or LPX inhibitor with CYP-450 inhibitor) blocked TNF-alpha release below normal levels. In addition, 10 micromol/l caffeic acid phenylethyl ester, a NF-(kappa)B inhibitor, blocked OTA mediated TNF-alpha release. In conclusion, arachidonic acid and its cyclooxygenase metabolites are suppressors of OTA mediated TNF-alpha release from liver, whereas LPX and CYP-450-metabolites have the opposite effect. OTA-induced TNF-alpha release is likely to occur via the NF-(kappa)B transcription factor pathway in perfused rat liver. PMID:15695019

  10. Xuebijing injection improves the respiratory function in rabbits with oleic acid-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting IL-6 expression and promoting IL-10 expression at the protein and mRNA levels

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YUXIA; JI, MINGLI; WANG, LEI; CHEN, LIPING; LI, JING

    2014-01-01

    Xuebijing injection is a complex herbal medicine, and clinical and experimental studies have shown that it has a significant effect on acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. However, the majority of studies regarding Xuebijing injection have focused on serum inflammatory factors, and few studies have been carried out from the perspective of the protein and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, 60 healthy rabbits of mixed gender were randomly assigned to a normal control group (CG), oleic acid group (model group; MG) and oleic acid + Xuebijing injection group (treatment group; TG). Rabbits of the CG were treated with normal saline through the ear vein, rabbits of the MG were injected with oleic acid (0.4 ml/kg) and rabbits of the TG received 0.4 ml/kg oleic acid + 10 ml/kg Xuebijing injection. Blood samples were collected from the common carotid artery of all rabbits of all groups 1 h after the ear vein was injected with the corresponding reagent, and was used to measure the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and of carbon dioxide (PaCO2). The activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was tested, and the protein and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were determined. Rabbits of the MG exhibited evident respiratory dysfunction (PaO2 and PaCO2 were low), histopathological lung damage and overactive inflammatory responses (the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased at the protein and mRNA levels). Following the administration of the Xuebijing injection, the inflammatory response of the rabbits was significantly reduced. Xuebijing injection raised PaO2 and PaCO2, weakened the activity of MPO in the lung tissue, downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and further increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These results demonstrated that Xuebijing injection improved the respiratory function of rabbits with acute oleic acid-induced lung injury by inhibiting IL-6 expression and promoting IL-10 expression. PMID:25289065

  11. Subgridding method for FDTD modeling in the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecky, Rudolf; Persson, Mikael

    2004-04-01

    A detailed dosimetry in the inner ear is performed using the FDTD algorithm with a subgridding method. A head model is exposed to a mobile phone radiation and the electromagnetic field in the region of the inner ear is computed with increased numerical resolution by factor of 3, 5 and 7. Results show that increase of the numerical resolution without increase of the geometrical resolution does not give more detailed SAR distribution in the inner ear. Therefore a new model of the cochlea with increasing the geometrical resolution from 1 mm to 1/7 mm and dosimetry in this model is presented.

  12. Neonatal Hairy Ear Pinnae and Gestational Diabetes: Just a Coincidence?

    PubMed

    Valerio, Enrico; Riello, Laura; Chirico, Michela; Semenzato, Rossella; Cutrone, Mario

    2015-11-01

    A newborn girl of 36 weeks gestation was noted to have several anomalies, including bilateral low ear attachment with ear pinnae hypertrichosis, left preauricular pit, micrognathia, short lingual frenulum, and short neck. Pregnancy history revealed poorly controlled maternal gestational diabetes (GD). Localized hypertrichosis of the ear pinnae may represent a potential marker of GD and thereby alert physicians to suspect other potentially GD-associated conditions such as macrosomia, asphyxia, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, polycythemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and congenital anomalies, particularly those involving the central nervous system. PMID:26391439

  13. Tumors and tumorlike lesions of dog and cat ears.

    PubMed

    Sula, Mee Ja M

    2012-11-01

    Bacterial and fungal otitis constitutes most ear disease in companion animals. However, a wide spectrum of infectious and noninfectious disease processes involve the structures of the ear and are of primary diagnostic consideration in cases of recurrent otitis or those refractive to traditional treatments. This article discusses several common to reasonably rare neoplastic and nonneoplastic space-occupying lesions of the external, middle, and internal ear. Although some conditions present as unique entities, many present similar to or concurrent with otitis, and should be considered in cases of clinically unresponsive otitis. PMID:23122175

  14. Writing for the Ear: Strengthening Oral Style in Manuscript Speeches

    E-print Network

    Bruss, Kristine S.

    2012-04-01

    stream_size 18120 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Bruss Writing for the Ear author final.pdf.txt stream_source_info Bruss Writing for the Ear author final.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset...=UTF-8 Bruss, Kristine S. “Writing for the Ear: Strengthening Oral Style in Manuscript Speeches.” Communication Teacher 26 (2012): 76-81. Publisher’s official version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17404622.2011.644308. Open Access version...

  15. Evolution of Gravity Receptors in the Ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, Arthur N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The general status of a grant to investigate the origins and evolution of two hair cell types in the ears of a teleost fish, Astronotus ocellatus (the oscar), is presented. First, it was demonstrated that the cells in the rostral end of the saccule of the , Carassius auratus, are type 1-like, while those at the caudal end are type 2 cells. It was demonstrated that the dichotomy of hair cell types found in the utricle of the oscar is also found in the goldfish. Second, the lateral line system of the oscar was examined using gentamicin sulphate, an ototocix drug that destroys type 1- like hair cells but does not appear to damage type 2 hair cells. It was demonstrated that the hair cells found in neuromasts of lateral line canal organs were totally destroyed within 1 day of treatment, while the hair cells in free neuromasts were undamaged after 12 days of treatment. Third, it was demonstrated that the calyx, the specialized nerve ending, is not unique to amniotes and that it is present at least in the cristae of semicirular canals in goldfish. These results have demonstrated that: (1) there are multiple hair cell types in the vestibular endorgans of the ear of fishes, (2) these hair cell types are very similar to those found in the mammalian vestibular endorgans, (3) the nerve calyx is also present in fishes, and (4) multiple hair cell types and the calyx have evolved far earlier in the course of vertebrate evolution than heretofore thought. Understanding the structure of the vestibular endorgans has important implications for being able to understand how these organs respond to gravistatic, acceleration and acoustic input. The vestibular endorgans of fishes may provide an ideal system in which to analyze functional differences in hair cells. Not only are the two hair cell types similar to those found in mammals, they are located in very discrete regions in each endorgan. Thus, it is relatively easy to gain access to cells of one or the other type. The presence of two cell types in the lateral line have equally significant implications for studies of the vestibular system.

  16. Groovy flow patterns in the fish ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotas, Charlotte W.; Rogers, Peter H.; Yoda, Minami

    2007-11-01

    The dense, bony otoliths contained in the fish ear oscillate with respect to their surrounding tissue and endolymph in the presence of sound waves. How an otolith actually transduces this acoustically induced fluid motion into the hair cell displacements that the fish ``hears'' is not fully understood, however. The fluid flow created by the oscillation of the irregularly shaped otolith has both steady and unsteady components. Since most of the hair cells are next to a grooved area on the otolith, the sulcus, the otolith was modeled as a grooved spheroid oscillating in a quiescent Newtonian fluid. Particle-image velocimetry and pathline visualizations for the steady streaming flows within the groove are presented for oscillation at 0 --90 with respect to the body axis of symmetry Re=2?f,^2/?=O(10-10^2), and ?=s/L 0.025-0.05. Here, ? is the fluid kinematic viscosity, L is a typical length based on the spheroid, and f and s are the oscillation frequency and amplitude, respectively. Results for bodies oscillated by multiple frequencies f1 and f2 along the same direction imply that the velocity fields are the superposition of those due to the component frequencies for small values of ?.

  17. Why Internally Coupled Ears (ICE) Work Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2014-03-01

    Many vertebrates, such as frogs and lizards, have an air-filled cavity between left and right eardrum, i.e., internally coupled ears (ICE). Depending on source direction, internal time (iTD) and level (iLD) difference as experienced by the animal's auditory system may greatly exceed [C. Vossen et al., JASA 128 (2010) 909-918] the external, or interaural, time and level difference (ITD and ILD). Sensory processing only encodes iTD and iLD. We present an extension of ICE theory so as to elucidate the underlying physics. First, the membrane properties of the eardrum explain why for low frequencies iTD dominates whereas iLD does so for higher frequencies. Second, the plateau of iTD = ? ITD for constant 1 < ? < 5 and variable input frequency

  18. Green laser light activates the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Gentiana I.; Balster, Sven; Zhang, Kaiyin; Lim, Hubert H.; Reich, Uta; Massow, Ole; Lubatschowski, Holger; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Guenter

    2009-07-01

    The hearing performance with conventional hearing aids and cochlear implants is dramatically reduced in noisy environments and for sounds more complex than speech (e. g. music), partially due to the lack of localized sensorineural activation across different frequency regions with these devices. Laser light can be focused in a controlled manner and may provide more localized activation of the inner ear, the cochlea. We sought to assess whether visible light with parameters that could induce an optoacoustic effect (532 nm, 10-ns pulses) would activate the cochlea. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded preoperatively in anesthetized guinea pigs to confirm normal hearing. After opening the bulla, a 50-?m core-diameter optical fiber was positioned in the round window niche and directed toward the basilar membrane. Optically induced ABRs (OABRs), similar in shape to those of acoustic stimulation, were elicited with single pulses. The OABR peaks increased with energy level (0.6 to 23 ?J/pulse) and remained consistent even after 30 minutes of continuous stimulation at 13 ?J, indicating minimal or no stimulation-induced damage within the cochlea. Our findings demonstrate that visible light can effectively and reliably activate the cochlea without any apparent damage. Further studies are in progress to investigate the frequency-specific nature and mechanism of green light cochlear activation.

  19. Temporomandibular joint ankylosis consequent to ear suppuration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajeev; Hota, Ashutosh; Sikka, Kapil; Thakar, Alok

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the complication of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis consequent to otitis media. The method applied is prospective case series and data collection done in tertiary referral centre from April 2012 to April 2013. Case description of three adolescent male patients with unilateral TMJ ankylosis consequent to ipsilateral chronic suppurative otitis media. Further literature review of TMJ ankylosis in relation to otitis media for evaluation for predisposing conditions. Surgical treatment by ipsilateral canal wall down mastoidectomy and concurrent TMJ gap arthroplasty. Surgical exposure confirmed ipsilateral bony ankylosis in all three. Two cases with long standing trismus had developed contralateral disuse fibrous ankylosis and required bilateral gap arthroplasty. Relief of trismus achieved in all three cases. Literature review indicated three similar cases secondary to otitis media. A universal feature among all previous case reports and the current case series was the age at onset of trismus, being at 10 years or less in all. TMJ ankylosis is a rare but potential complication of paediatric ear suppuration. Dehiscence along the tympanosquamosal fissure, tympanic plate and the foraminae of Huschke and Santorini in the paediatric population may predispose to extension of tympanic suppuration to the TMJ. PMID:24427727

  20. Arachidonate-regulated Ca(2+) influx in human airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michael A; Prakash, Y S; Pabelick, Christina M

    2014-07-01

    Plasma membrane Ca(2+) influx, especially store-operated Ca(2+) entry triggered by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release, is a key component of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) regulation in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Agonist-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in ASM that involve both influx and SR mechanisms have been previously demonstrated. In nonexcitable cells, [Ca(2+)]i oscillations involve Ca(2+) influx via arachidonic acid (AA) -stimulated channels, which show similarities to store-operated Ca(2+) entry, although their molecular identity remains undetermined. Little is known about AA-regulated Ca(2+) channels or their regulation in ASM. In enzymatically dissociated human ASM cells loaded with the Ca(2+) indicator, fura-2, AA (1-10 ?M) triggered [Ca(2+)]i oscillations that were inhibited by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). Other fatty acids, such as the diacylglycerol analog, 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-SN-glycerol, oleic acid, and palmitic acid (10 ?M each), failed to elicit similar [Ca(2+)]i responses. Preincubation with LaCl3 (1 ?M or 1 mM) inhibited AA-induced oscillations. Inhibition of receptor-operated channels (SKF96,365 [10 ?M]), lipoxygenase (zileuton [10 ?M]), or cyclooxygenase (indomethacin [10 ?M]) did not affect oscillation parameters. Inhibition of SR Ca(2+) release (ryanodine [10 ?M] or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor inhibitor, xestospongin C [1 ?M]) decreased [Ca(2+)]i oscillation frequency and amplitude. Small interfering RNA against caveolin-1, stromal interaction molecule 1, or Orai3 (20 nM each) reduced the frequency and amplitude of AA-induced [Ca(2+)]i oscillations. In ASM cells derived from individuals with asthma, AA increased oscillation amplitude, but not frequency. These results are highly suggestive of a novel AA-mediated Ca(2+)-regulatory mechanism in human ASM, reminiscent of agonist-induced oscillations. Given the role of AA in ASM intracellular signaling, especially with inflammation, AA-regulated Ca(2+) channels could potentially contribute to increased [Ca(2+)]i in diseases such asthma. PMID:24471656

  1. Regulation of the arachidonic acid mobilization in macrophages by combustion-derived particles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute exposure to elevated levels of environmental particulate matter (PM) is associated with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. These adverse health effects, e.g. culminating in respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, have been demonstrated by a multitude of epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms relevant for toxicity are not completely understood. Especially the role of particle-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress and inflammatory responses is of particular interest. In this in vitro study we examined the influence of particle-generated ROS on signalling pathways leading to activation of the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade. Incinerator fly ash particles (MAF02) were used as a model for real-life combustion-derived particulate matter. As macrophages, besides epithelial cells, are the major targets of particle actions in the lung murine RAW264.7 macrophages and primary human macrophages were investigated. Results The interaction of fly ash particles with macrophages induced both the generation of ROS and as part of the cellular inflammatory responses a dose- and time-dependent increase of free AA, prostaglandin E2/thromboxane B2 (PGE2/TXB2), and 8-isoprostane, a non-enzymatically formed oxidation product of AA. Additionally, increased phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) JNK1/2, p38 and ERK1/2 was observed, the latter of which was shown to be involved in MAF02-generated AA mobilization and phosphorylation of the cytosolic phospolipase A2. Using specific inhibitors for the different phospolipase A2 isoforms the MAF02-induced AA liberation was shown to be dependent on the cytosolic phospholipase A2, but not on the secretory and calcium-independent phospholipase A2. The initiation of the AA pathway due to MAF02 particle exposure was demonstrated to depend on the formation of ROS since the presence of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) prevented the MAF02-mediated enhancement of free AA, the subsequent conversion to PGE2/TXB2 via the induction of COX-2 and the ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 phosphorylation. Finally we showed that the particle-induced formation of ROS, liberation of AA and PGE2/TXB2 together with the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 proteins was decreased after pre-treatment of macrophages with the metal chelator deferoxamine mesylate (DFO). Conclusions These results indicate that one of the primary mechanism initiating inflammatory processes by incinerator fly ash particles seems to be the metal-mediated generation of ROS, which triggers via the MAPK cascade the activation of AA signalling pathway. PMID:21810225

  2. Arachidonic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon as Affected by Water Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Norambuena, Fernando; Morais, Sofia; Emery, James A.; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways. Three experimental diets were formulated to be identical, except for the ratio EPA/ARA, and fed to triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kept either at 10°C or 20°C. Results showed that fatty acid metabolic utilisation, and likely also their dietary requirements for optimal performance, can be affected by changes in their relative levels and by environmental temperature in Atlantic salmon. Thus, the increase in temperature, independently from dietary treatment, had a significant effect on the ?-oxidation of a fatty acid including EPA, as observed by the apparent in vivo enzyme activity and mRNA expression of ppar? -transcription factor in lipid metabolism, including ?-oxidation genes- and cpt1 -key enzyme responsible for the movement of LC-PUFA from the cytosol into the mitochondria for ?-oxidation-, were both increased at the higher water temperature. An interesting interaction was observed in the transcription and in vivo enzyme activity of ?5fad–time-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of EPA and ARA. Such, at lower temperature, the highest mRNA expression and enzyme activity was recorded in fish with limited supply of dietary EPA, whereas at higher temperature these were recorded in fish with limited ARA supply. In consideration that fish at higher water temperature recorded a significantly increased feed intake, these results clearly suggested that at high, sub-optimal water temperature, fish metabolism attempted to increment its overall ARA status -the most bioactive LC-PUFA participating in the inflammatory response- by modulating the metabolic fate of dietary ARA (expressed as % of net intake), reducing its ?-oxidation and favouring synthesis and deposition. This correlates also with results from other recent studies showing that both immune- and stress- responses in fish are up regulated in fish held at high temperatures. This is a novel and fundamental information that warrants industry and scientific attention, in consideration of the imminent increase in water temperatures, continuous expansion of aquaculture operations, resources utilisation in aquafeed and much needed seasonal/adaptive nutritional strategies. PMID:26599513

  3. High expression of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase and proinflammatory markers in human ischemic heart tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Magnusson, Lisa U.; Lundqvist, Annika; Asp, Julia; Synnergren, Jane; Johansson, Cecilia Thalen; Palmqvist, Lars; Jeppsson, Anders; Hulten, Lillemor Mattsson

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found a 17-fold upregulation of ALOX15 in the ischemic heart. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incubation of human muscle cells in hypoxia showed a 22-fold upregulation of ALOX15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We observed increased levels of proinflammatory markers in ischemic heart tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suggesting a link between ischemia and inflammation in ischemic heart biopsies. -- Abstract: A common feature of the ischemic heart and atherosclerotic plaques is the presence of hypoxia (insufficient levels of oxygen in the tissue). Hypoxia has pronounced effects on almost every aspect of cell physiology, and the nuclear transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) regulates adaptive responses to low concentrations of oxygen in mammalian cells. In our recent work, we observed that hypoxia increases the proinflammatory enzyme arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15B) in human carotid plaques. ALOX15 has recently been shown to be present in the human myocardium, but the effect of ischemia on its expression has not been investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that ischemia of the heart leads to increased expression of ALOX15, and found an almost 2-fold increase in HIF-1{alpha} mRNA expression and a 17-fold upregulation of ALOX15 mRNA expression in the ischemic heart biopsies from patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery compared with non ischemic heart tissue. To investigate the effect of low oxygen concentration on ALOX15 we incubated human vascular muscle cells in hypoxia and showed that expression of ALOX15 increased 22-fold compared with cells incubated in normoxic conditions. We also observed increased mRNA levels of proinflammatory markers in ischemic heart tissue compared with non-ischemic controls. In summary, we demonstrate increased ALOX15 in human ischemic heart biopsies. Furthermore we demonstrate that hypoxia increases ALOX15 in human muscle cells. Our results yield important insights into the underlying association between hypoxia and inflammation in the human ischemic heart disease.

  4. Individual variation and intraclass correlation in arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in chicken muscle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Chicken meat with reduced concentration of arachidonic acid (AA) and reduced ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids has potential health benefits because a reduction in AA intake dampens prostanoid signaling, and the proportion between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids is too high in our diet. Analyses for fatty acid determination are expensive, and finding the optimal number of analyses to give reliable results is a challenge. The objective of the present study was i) to analyse the intraclass correlation of different fatty acids in five meat samples, of one gram each, within the same chicken thigh, and ii) to study individual variations in the concentrations of a range of fatty acids and the ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid concentrations among fifteen chickens. Fifteen newly hatched broilers were fed a wheat-based diet containing 4% rapeseed oil and 1% linseed oil for three weeks. Five muscle samples from the mid location of the thigh of each chicken were analysed for fatty acid composition. The intraclass correlation (sample correlation within the same animal) was 0.85-0.98 for the ratios of total omega-6 to total omega-3 fatty acids and of AA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This indicates that when studying these fatty acid ratios, one sample of one gram per animal is sufficient. However, due to the high individual variation between chicken for these ratios, a relatively high number of animals (minimum 15) are required to obtain a sufficiently high power to reveal significant effects of experimental factors (e.g. feeding regimes). The present experiment resulted in meat with a favorable concentration ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. The AA concentration varied from 1.5 to 2.8 g/100 g total fatty acids in thigh muscle in the fifteen broilers, and the ratio between AA and EPA concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 3.9. These differences among the birds may be due to genetic variance that can be exploited by breeding for lower AA concentration and/or a more favorable AA/EPA ratio to produce meat with health benefits. PMID:20398309

  5. How minute sooglossid frogs hear without a middle ear.

    PubMed

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François

    2013-09-17

    Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215-225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction-mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world's smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear. PMID:24003145

  6. Tympanostomy Tubes: A Rational Clinical Treatment for Middle Ear Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Peter S.; Brown, Orval

    1990-01-01

    The use of tympanostomy tubes to treat middle ear disease including otitis media is discussed with sections on the eustachian tube; acute otitis media; persistent effusion; changes in the tympanic membrane; special populations; and complications. (DB)

  7. Functional measurements of ear pathology in patients and cadaveric preparations

    E-print Network

    Merchant, Gabrielle Ryan

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated the utility of reflectance (R), a measure of middle-ear mobility, in the differential diagnosis of pathologies responsible for conductive hearing loss (CHL). Current clinical practice cannot distinguish ...

  8. The ear as a location for wearable vital signs monitoring

    E-print Network

    He, David Da

    Obtaining vital signs non-invasively and in a wearable manner is essential for personal health monitoring. We propose the site behind the ear as a location for an integrated wearable vital signs monitor. This location is ...

  9. Energy extraction from the biologic battery in the inner ear

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Saurav

    Endocochlear potential (EP) is a battery-like electrochemical gradient found in and actively maintained by the inner ear [superscript 1, 2]. Here we demonstrate that the mammalian EP can be used as a power source for ...

  10. How minute sooglossid frogs hear without a middle ear

    PubMed Central

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215–225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction–mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world’s smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear. PMID:24003145

  11. Sonographic Measurement of Fetal Ear Length in Turkish Women with a Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Mucize Eriç; Uzun, I??l; Karahasano?lu, Ay?e; Aygün, Mehmet; Ak?n, Hale; Yaz?c?o?lu, Fehmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal fetal ear length is a feature of chromosomal disorders. Fetal ear length measurement is a simple measurement that can be obtained during ultrasonographic examinations. Aims: To develop a nomogram for fetal ear length measurements in our population and investigate the correlation between fetal ear length, gestational age, and other standard fetal biometric measurements. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Ear lengths of the fetuses were measured in normal singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age and fetal ear length in millimetres was analysed by simple linear regression. In addition, the correlation of fetal ear length measurements with biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length were evaluated.Ear length measurements were obtained from fetuses in 389 normal singleton pregnancies ranging between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results: A nomogram was developed by linear regression analysis of the parameters ear length and gestational age. Fetal ear length (mm) = y = (1.348 X gestational age)?12.265), where gestational ages is in weeks. A high correlation was found between fetal ear length and gestational age, and a significant correlation was also found between fetal ear length and the biparietal diameter (r=0.962; p<0.001). Similar correlations were found between fetal ear length and head circumference, and fetal ear length and femur length. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a nomogram for fetal ear length. The study also demonstrates the relationship between ear length and other biometric measurements. PMID:25667783

  12. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4500 Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  13. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  14. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  15. Hammock-on-Ears Decomposition: A Technique for the E cient Parallel Solution of Shortest

    E-print Network

    Waldmann, Uwe

    Hammock-on-Ears Decomposition: A Technique for the E cient Parallel Solution of Shortest Paths the sequential hammock decomposition technique intro- duced by G. Frederickson and the parallel ear decomposition technique, thus we call it the hammock-on-ears decomposition. We mention that hammock-on-ears decomposi

  16. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  17. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  19. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  20. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  1. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4500 Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  2. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  3. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4500 Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  7. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  8. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  9. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  10. Ear-Phone: A context-aware End-to-End Participatory Urban Noise Mapping System

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    Ear-Phone: A context-aware End-to-End Participatory Urban Noise Mapping System Rajib Rana1 Chun Tug-to-end participatory urban noise mapping system called Ear- Phone. Ear-Phone, for the first time, leverages Compressive samples obtained by crowdsourcing data collection. Ear-Phone, implemented on Nokia N95, N97 and HP i

  11. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4500 Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  13. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  15. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  16. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid you in determining the scope of the EAR. A flow chart describing these steps is contained in...

  17. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid you in determining the scope of the EAR. A flow chart describing these steps is contained in...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  20. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  1. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  2. ON A MATROID DEFINED BY EAR-DECOMPOSITIONS OF GRAPHS ZOLTAN SZIGETI *

    E-print Network

    Szigeti, Zoltán

    ON A MATROID DEFINED BY EAR-DECOMPOSITIONS OF GRAPHS ZOLT´AN SZIGETI * December 1, 1995 A-edge­connected graphs this value equals the minimum number (G) of even ears in ear­decompositions of G that G is 2-edge­ connected. Let G = (V, E) be an undirected, 2-edge­connected graph. An ear

  3. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4500 Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  6. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  7. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  8. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  10. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  11. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  12. Optimization of Blank Shape to Minimize Earing in Fully-Drawn

    E-print Network

    Grujicic, Mica

    Optimization of Blank Shape to Minimize Earing in Fully-Drawn OFHC Copper Cylindrical Cups M tometal OFHC copper blank to minimize the extent of earing in fully drawnminimize the extent of earing is Deep Drawing? What is Earing? Crystal Plasticity Model FEM Simulations Results and Discussion #12;Deep

  13. Temporal bone meningioma involving the middle ear: A case report

    PubMed Central

    RICCIARDIELLO, FILIPPO; FATTORE, LUCIA; LIGUORI, MARIA ESTER; OLIVA, FLAVIA; LUCE, AMALIA; ABATE, TERESA; CARAGLIA, MICHELE; PIANESE, ANNALISA; RAUCCI, ALDO FALCO

    2015-01-01

    Meningioma is a common intracranial tumor involving the meninges. The localization of this type of tumor is rarely extracranial due to its typically low invasive properties. Furthermore, invasion of the middle ear is exceptional. The present study reported a case of meningioma extending into the middle ear from the middle cranial fossa through the tegmen tympani. The clinical and pathological characteristics, as well as the outcome of the patient, were described. PMID:26622828

  14. SHIELD: an integrative gene expression database for inner ear research

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun; Scheffer, Déborah I.; Kwan, Kelvin Y.; Corey, David P.

    2015-01-01

    The inner ear is a highly specialized mechanosensitive organ responsible for hearing and balance. Its small size and difficulty in harvesting sufficient tissue has hindered the progress of molecular studies. The protein components of mechanotransduction, the molecular biology of inner ear development and the genetic causes of many hereditary hearing and balance disorders remain largely unknown. Inner-ear gene expression data will help illuminate each of these areas. For over a decade, our laboratories and others have generated extensive sets of gene expression data for different cell types in the inner ear using various sample preparation methods and high-throughput genome-wide approaches. To facilitate the study of genes in the inner ear by efficient presentation of the accumulated data and to foster collaboration among investigators, we have developed the Shared Harvard Inner Ear Laboratory Database (SHIELD), an integrated resource that seeks to compile, organize and analyse the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic knowledge of the inner ear. Five datasets are currently available. These datasets are combined in a relational database that integrates experimental data and annotations relevant to the inner ear. The SHIELD has a searchable web interface with two data retrieval options: viewing the gene pages online or downloading individual datasets as data tables. Each retrieved gene page shows the gene expression data and detailed gene information with hyperlinks to other online databases with up-to-date annotations. Downloadable data tables, for more convenient offline data analysis, are derived from publications and are current as of the time of publication. The SHIELD has made published and some unpublished data freely available to the public with the hope and expectation of accelerating discovery in the molecular biology of balance, hearing and deafness. Database URL: https://shield.hms.harvard.edu PMID:26209310

  15. Inner Ear Sensory Epithelia Development and Regulation in Zebrafish 

    E-print Network

    Sweet, Elly Mae

    2011-10-21

    EAR SENSORY EPITHELIA DEVELOPMENT AND REGULATION IN ZEBRAFISH A Dissertation by ELLY MAE SWEET Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR... OF PHILOSOPHY August 2010 Major Subject: Biology INNER EAR SENSORY EPITHELIA DEVELPOMENT AND REGULATION IN ZEBRAFISH A Dissertation by ELLY MAE SWEET Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  16. A genetic defect in hyomandibular furrow closure in the Japanese quail: the causes for ear-opening abnormality and formation of an ear tuft.

    PubMed

    Tsudzuki, M; Wakasugi, N

    1988-01-01

    The mutant ET (ear tuft) quail strain is characterized by an ear-opening abnormality frequently accompanied by ear tufts. The mutant ear opening is oval shaped with a fissure on its ventral margin, whereas the ear tufts project from the ventral end of the fissure or the posterior margin of the ear opening. The ear tufts are composed of a feathered peduncle. The size of the ear tufts and the ear-opening abnormality are variable. The incidence of the ear tufts and the ear-opening abnormality in the ET embryos at 15 days of incubation was 33% and 42%, respectively. Examination of early embryos revealed an incomplete closure of the hyomandibular furrow, the incidence of which was 91% in 5 day embryos. It appears that the hyomandibular furrow abnormality is the primary defect leading to the ear-opening and ear-tuft traits. Genetic analyses of hyomandibular furrow closure defect indicated it to be due to an autosomal recessive mutation. The proposed gene symbol is hfd. PMID:3392388

  17. Auditory Brainstem Circuits That Mediate the Middle Ear Muscle Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Sudeep; Windsor, Alanna Marie; Lee, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The middle ear muscle (MEM) reflex is one of two major descending systems to the auditory periphery. There are two middle ear muscles (MEMs): the stapedius and the tensor tympani. In man, the stapedius contracts in response to intense low frequency acoustic stimuli, exerting forces perpendicular to the stapes superstructure, increasing middle ear impedance and attenuating the intensity of sound energy reaching the inner ear (cochlea). The tensor tympani is believed to contract in response to self-generated noise (chewing, swallowing) and nonauditory stimuli. The MEM reflex pathways begin with sound presented to the ear. Transduction of sound occurs in the cochlea, resulting in an action potential that is transmitted along the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem (the first relay station for all ascending sound information originating in the ear). Unknown interneurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus project either directly or indirectly to MEM motoneurons located elsewhere in the brainstem. Motoneurons provide efferent innervation to the MEMs. Although the ascending and descending limbs of these reflex pathways have been well characterized, the identity of the reflex interneurons is not known, as are the source of modulatory inputs to these pathways. The aim of this article is to (a) provide an overview of MEM reflex anatomy and physiology, (b) present new data on MEM reflex anatomy and physiology from our laboratory and others, and (c) describe the clinical implications of our research. PMID:20870664

  18. Retinoid signaling in inner ear development: A "Goldilocks" phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Frenz, Dorothy A; Liu, Wei; Cvekl, Ales; Xie, Qing; Wassef, Lesley; Quadro, Loredana; Niederreither, Karen; Maconochie, Mark; Shanske, Alan

    2010-12-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a biologically active derivative of vitamin A that is indispensable for inner ear development. The normal function of RA is achieved only at optimal homeostatic concentrations, with an excess or deficiency in RA leading to inner ear dysmorphogenesis. We present an overview of the role of RA in the developing mammalian inner ear, discussing both how and when RA may act to critically control a program of inner ear development. Molecular mechanisms of otic teratogenicity involving two members of the fibroblast growth factor family, FGF3 and FGF10, and their downstream targets, Dlx5 and Dlx6, are examined under conditions of both RA excess and deficiency. We term the effect of too little or too much RA on FGF/Dlx signaling a Goldilocks phenomenon. We demonstrate that in each case (RA excess, RA deficiency), RA can directly affect FGF3/FGF10 signaling within the otic epithelium, leading to downregulated expression of these essential signaling molecules, which in turn, leads to diminution in Dlx5/Dlx6 expression. Non-cell autonomous affects of the otic epithelium subsequently occur, altering transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) expression in the neighboring periotic mesenchyme and serving as a putative explanation for RA-mediated otic capsule defects. We conclude that RA coordinates inner ear morphogenesis by controlling an FGF/Dlx signaling cascade, whose perturbation by deviations in local retinoid concentrations can lead to inner ear dysmorphogenesis. PMID:21108385

  19. Minnesota wolf ear lengths as possible indicators of taxonomic differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Genetic findings suggest that 2 types of wolves, Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and C. lycaon (Eastern Wolf), and/or their hybrids occupy Minnesota (MN), and this study examines adult wolf ear lengths as a possible distinguisher between these two. Photographic evidence suggested that the Eastern Wolf possesses proportionately longer ears than Gray Wolves. Ear lengths from 22 northwestern MN wolves from the early 1970s and 22 Alaskan wolves were used to represent Gray Wolves, and the greatest length of the sample (12.8 cm) was used as the least length to demarcate Eastern Wolf from Gray Wolf influence in the samples. Twenty-three percent of 112 adult wolves from Algonquin Park in eastern Ontario and 30% of 106 recent adult wolves in northeastern MN possessed ears >12.8 cm. The northeastern MN sample differed significantly from that of current and past northwestern MN wolves. Ear-lengths of wolves in the eastern half of the northeastern MN wolf population were significantly longer than those in the western half of that study area, even though the mean distance between the 2 areas was only 40 km, and the mean length of my 2004–2009 sample was significantly longer than that of 1999–2003. These findings support the hypothesis that Eastern Wolves tend to possess longer ears than do Gray Wolves and suggest a dynamic hybridization process is still underway in MN.

  20. Prevalence of middle ear disorders in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Lempert, B.L.; Hopkinson, N.T.; Keith, R.W.; Motl, M.L.; Horine, J.

    1981-06-01

    Results are presented from a study of the prevalence of middle and external ear disorders in coal miners who work underground. The study followed from an earlier NIOSH report (1976) that indicated a possibly large number of otoscopic abnormalities in this population of workers. Otoscopic examinations, pure tone air- and bone-conduction audiometry tests, and impedance tests were administered to 350 underground miners and 150 industrial workers not associated with mining. The study was conducted completely within a hospital otolaryngology/audiology clinic setting. Results of the investigation showed a highly similar prevalence of middle ear and ear canal abnormalities in the miner group and the control group (19 percent). Middle ear abnormalities observed in the miners were judged by the examining otolaryngologists to have preceded their experience in the mines and were not related solely to underground noise exposure or coal dust. Nearly half of the subjects who had an air-bone gap had no middle ear abnormality observable by otoscopic examination. There was substantial agreement between the finding of abnormal otoscopy and abnormal tympanometry. By itself, acoustic reflex was not useful in identifying middle ear disorders, since this reflex may be absent for other reasons, including presence of severe sensorineural hearing loss.