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Sample records for arachidonic acid-induced ear

  1. Profile of capsaicin-induced mouse ear oedema as neurogenic inflammatory model: comparison with arachidonic acid-induced ear oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, H.; Nagata, N.; Koshihara, Y.

    1993-01-01

    1. We have investigated the mechanism of capsaicin-induced mouse ear oedema compared with that of arachidonic acid (AA)-induced ear oedema, and evaluated the possible involvement of neuropeptides in the development of capsaicin-induced oedema. 2. Topical application of capsaicin (0.1-1.0 mg per ear) to the ear of mice produced immediate vasodilatation and erythema followed by the development of oedema which was maximal at 30 min after the treatment. This oedema was of shorter duration with less swelling than AA-induced oedema (2.0 mg per ear). 3. Capsaicin-induced ear oedema was unaffected when inhibitors of arachidonate metabolites including platelet activating factor (PAF) were administered before capsaicin (250 micrograms per ear) application, while these agents significantly prevented AA-induced oedema. Dexamethasone, histamine H1 and/or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) antagonists, and substance P (SP) antagonists were effective in inhibiting both models. Furthermore, a Ca(2+)-channel blocker and the capsaicin inhibitor, ruthenium red, were effective inhibitors of capsaicin oedema but had no effect on AA-induced oedema. 4. Phosphoramidon (50 micrograms kg-1, i.v.), an endopeptidase inhibitor, markedly (P < 0.001) enhanced only capsaicin-induced ear oedema, but bestatin (0.5 mg kg-1, i.v.), an aminopeptidase, failed to enhance oedema formation. 5. Neuropeptides (1-100 pmol per site) such as rat calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), SP, neurokinin A (NKA), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), which are released from capsaicin-sensitive neurones, caused ear oedema by intradermal injection. Furthermore, a synergistic effect of CGRP (10 fmol per site) and SP (10pmol per site) on oedema formation was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7508328

  2. Arachidonic acid induces a prolonged inhibition of glutamate uptake into glial cells.

    PubMed

    Barbour, B; Szatkowski, M; Ingledew, N; Attwell, D

    Activation of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors by neurotransmitter glutamate stimulates phospholipase A2 to release arachidonic acid. This second messenger facilitates long-term potentiation of glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus, possibly by blocking glutamate uptake. We have studied the effect of arachidonic acid on glutamate uptake into glial cells using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to monitor the uptake electrically. Micromolar levels of arachidonic acid inhibit glutamate uptake, mainly by reducing the maximum uptake rate with only small effects on the affinity for external glutamate and sodium. On removal of arachidonic acid a rapid (5 minutes) phase of partial recovery is followed by a maintained suppression of uptake lasting at least 20 minutes. Surprisingly, the action of arachidonic acid is unaffected by cyclo-oxygenase or lipoxygenase inhibitors suggesting that it inhibits uptake directly, possibly by increasing membrane fluidity. As blockade of phospholipase A2 prevents the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), inhibition of glutamate uptake by arachidonic acid may contribute to the increase of synaptic gain that occurs in LTP. During anoxia, release of arachidonic acid could severely compromise glutamate uptake and thus contribute to neuronal death. PMID:2512508

  3. Swelling-activated and arachidonic acid-induced currents are TREK-1 in rat bladder smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Fukasaku, Mitsuko; Kimura, Junko; Yamaguchi, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    Using the perforated patch voltage clamp, we investigated swelling-activated ionic channels (SACs) in rat urinary bladder smooth muscle cells. Hypo-osmotic (60%) bath solution increased a membrane current which was inhibited by the SAC inhibitor, gadolinium. The reversal potential of the hypotonicity-induced current shifted in the positive direction by increasing external K(+) concentration. The hypotonicity-induced current was inhibited by extracellular acidic pH, phorbol ester and forskolin. These pharmacological properties are identical to those of arachidonic acid-induced current present in these cells, suggesting the presence of TREK-1, a four-transmembrane two pore domain K(+) channel. Using RT-PCR we screened rat bladder smooth muscles and cerebellum for expression of TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK mRNAs. Only TREK-1 mRNA was expressed in the bladder, while all three were expressed in the cerebellum. We conclude that a mechanosensitive K(+) channel is present in rat bladder myocytes, which is activated by arachidonic acid and most likely is TREK-1. This K(+) channel may have an important role in the regulation of bladder smooth muscle tone during urine storage. PMID:26911303

  4. Activation of the central histaminergic system mediates arachidonic-acid-induced cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Altinbas, Burcin; Topuz, Bora Burak; İlhan, Tuncay; Yilmaz, Mustafa Sertac; Erdost, Hatice; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the involvement of the central histaminergic system in arachidonic acid (AA)-induced cardiovascular effects in normotensive rats using hemodynamic, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis studies. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered AA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μmol) induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and decreased heart rate in conscious normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of AA (0.5 μmol) also increased posterior hypothalamic extracellular histamine levels and produced strong COX-1 but not COX-2 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus of rats. Moreover, the cardiovascular effects and COX-1 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus induced by AA (0.5 μmol; i.c.v.) were almost completely blocked by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.) and partially blocked by the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (100 nmol; i.c.v.) and the H3-H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, these results indicate that centrally administered AA induces pressor and bradycardic responses in conscious rats. Moreover, we suggest that AA may activate histaminergic neurons and increase extracellular histamine levels, particularly in the posterior hypothalamus. Acting as a neurotransmitter, histamine is potentially involved in AA-induced cardiovascular effects under normotensive conditions. PMID:25065747

  5. Cross-talk between TLR4 and PPARγ pathways in the arachidonic acid-induced inflammatory response in pancreatic acini.

    PubMed

    Mateu, A; Ramudo, L; Manso, M A; De Dios, I

    2015-12-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is generally associated with inflammation in different settings. We assess the molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response exerted by AA on pancreatic acini as an approach to acute pancreatitis (AP). Celecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor), TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) and 15d-PGJ2 (PPARγ agonist) were used to ascertain the signaling pathways. In addition, we examine the effects of TAK-242 and 15d-PGJ2 on AP induced in rats by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction (BPDO). To carry out in vitro studies, acini were isolated from pancreas of control rats. Generation of PGE2 and TXB2, activation of pro-inflammatory pathways (MAPKs, NF-κB, and JAK/STAT3) and overexpression of CCL2 and P-selectin was found in AA-treated acini. In addition, AA up-regulated TLR4 and down-regulated PPARγ expression. Celecoxib prevented the up-regulation of CCL2 and P-selectin but did not show any effect on the AA-mediated changes in TLR4 and PPARγ expression. TAK-242, reduced the generation of AA metabolites and repressed both the cascade of pro-inflammatory events which led to CCL2 and P-selectin overexpression as well as the AA-induced PPARγ down-regulation. Thus, TLR4 acts as upstream activating pro-inflammatory and inhibiting anti-inflammatory pathways. 15d-PGJ2 down-regulated TLR4 expression and hence prevented the synthesis of AA metabolites and the inflammatory response mediated by them. Reciprocal negative cross-talk between TLR4 and PPARγ pathways is evidenced. In vivo experiments showed that TAK-242 and 15d-PGJ2 treatments reduced the inflammatory response in BPDO-induced AP. We conclude that through TLR4-dependent mechanisms, AA up-regulated CCL2 and P-selectin in pancreatic acini, partly mediated by the generation of PGE2 and TXB2, which activated pro-inflammatory pathways, but also directly by down-regulating PPARγ expression with anti-inflammatory activity. In vitro and in vivo studies support the role of TLR4 in AP and the use of TLR4 inhibitors and

  6. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  7. Exploring the arachidonic acid-induced structural changes in phagocyte NADPH oxidase p47(phox) and p67(phox) via thiol accessibility and SRCD spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bizouarn, Tania; Karimi, Gilda; Masoud, Rawand; Souabni, Hager; Machillot, Paul; Serfaty, Xavier; Wien, Frank; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Houée-Levin, Chantal; Baciou, Laura

    2016-08-01

    The NADPH oxidase is the sole enzymatic complex that produces, in a controlled way, superoxide anions. In phagocytes, it is constituted by the assembly of four cytosolic (p67(phox) , p47(phox) , p40(phox) and Rac) and two membrane (p22(phox) and Nox2) proteins. In response to pro-inflammatory mediators, the NADPH oxidase is activated. In cells, arachidonic acid (cis-AA), released by activated phospholipase A2, also plays a role in activation of the NADPH oxidase complex, but the mechanism of action of cis-AA is still a matter for debate. In cell-free systems, cis-AA is commonly used for activation. We have shown previously that trans-AA isomers were unable to activate the NADPH oxidase complex. Here, we aim to evaluate the structural changes in p47(phox) and p67(phox) induced by AA. The structural impact of both AA isomers on both cytosolic proteins was investigated by the accessibility of the thiol group and by circular dichroism in the far-UV for global folds. cis-AA induces secondary structure changes of p47(phox) and p67(phox) , while the trans isomer does not, suggesting that the changes observed are of importance for the activation process of these proteins. While five of the nine thiol groups in p67(phox) and all of them in p47(phox) have low access to the solvent when proteins are alone in solution, all of them become fully accessible when proteins are together. In conclusion, the secondary structures of p47(phox) and p67(phox) are both dependent on the presence of the partner protein in solution and on the presence of the activator molecule cis-AA. PMID:27284000

  8. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Pyeongwisan on LPS-Stimulated Murine Macrophages and Mouse Models of Acetic Acid-Induced Writhing Response and Xylene-Induced Ear Edema

    PubMed Central

    Oh, You-Chang; Jeong, Yun Hee; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ha, Jeong-Ho; Gu, Min Jung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Pyeongwisan (PW) is an herbal medication used in traditional East Asian medicine to treat anorexia, abdominal distension, borborygmus and diarrhea caused by gastric catarrh, atony and dilatation. However, its effects on inflammation-related diseases are unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of PW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in macrophages and on local inflammation in vivo. We investigated the biological effects of PW on the production of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokines and related products as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Additionally, we evaluated the analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the inhibitory activity on xylene-induced ear edema in mice. PW showed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In addition, PW strongly suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a NO synthesis enzyme, induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and inhibited NF-κB activation and MAPK phosphorylation. Also, PW suppressed TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine production in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophage cells. Furthermore, PW showed an analgesic effect on the writhing response and an inhibitory effect on mice ear edema. We demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects and inhibitory mechanism in macrophages as well as inhibitory activity of PW in vivo for the first time. Our results suggest the potential value of PW as an inflammatory therapeutic agent developed from a natural substance. PMID:25569097

  9. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Pierced Ears KidsHealth > For Kids > Pierced Ears Print A A ... cool, but infected ears do not! Getting Your Ears Pierced It's important to get your ears pierced ...

  10. Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Swimmer's Ear KidsHealth > For Kids > Swimmer's Ear Print A A ... How Do I Know if I Have Swimmer's Ear? Swimmer's ear may start with some itching, but ...

  11. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  12. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Ear Infections Overview How does the ear work? A tube called the eustachian (say: "you-stay-shee-an") tube connects the middle ear with the back of the nose. Normally this ...

  13. Cauliflower Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? Print A A A Text Size Have you ever seen someone whose ear looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have ...

  14. Ear Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear, where they make your eardrum vibrate. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones, called ossicles, in your middle ear. The vibrations travel to your inner ear, a snail-shaped ...

  15. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) Vinegar (acetic acid) ear drops People with chronic swimmer's ear may ... drop of alcohol with 1 drop of white vinegar and placing the mixture into the ears after ...

  16. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  17. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the ear: Baby oil Commercial drops Glycerin Mineral oil Water Another method is to wash out the ... cloth or paper tissue wrapped around your finger. Mineral oil can be used to moisturize the ear and ...

  18. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  19. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... the ear. CUTS ON THE OUTER EAR Apply direct pressure until the bleeding stops. Cover the injury ... Mosby; 2013:chap 143. Thomas SH, Goodloe JM. Foreign bodies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, ...

  20. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...

  1. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or ... who may remove the wax by: Repeating the irrigation attempts Suctioning the ear canal Using a small ...

  2. Ear barotrauma

    MedlinePlus

    Barotitis media; Barotrauma; Ear popping; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction ... The air pressure in the middle ear is most often the same as the air pressure outside of the body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ...

  3. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... affects the middle ear and is called otitis media. The tubes inside the ears become clogged with fluid and mucus. This can affect hearing, because sound cannot get through all that fluid. If your child isn't old enough to say "My ear ...

  4. Super Ears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students design, construct, and test "super ears" to investigate sound and hearing. Students work in groups of three and explore how the outer ear funnels sound waves to the inner ear and how human hearing compares to that of other animals. (NB)

  5. Elephant ear

    MedlinePlus

    Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with very large, arrow-shaped leaves. Poisoning may occur if you ... The harmful substances in elephant ear plants are: Oxalic acid ... plant Note: Leaves and stems are the most dangerous when eaten ...

  6. Ear Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... this condition. Try an over-the-counter decongestant medicine for a few days. Putting a warm heating pad on your ear may help relieve the pain. If the pain is intense or doesn't go away in 1 or 2 days, see your doctor. No 9. Do you have tooth pain on the same side as the ear ...

  7. Arachidonic acid stimulates TNFα production in Kupffer cells via a reactive oxygen species-pERK1/2-Egr1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cubero, Francisco Javier; Nieto, Natalia

    2012-07-15

    Kupffer cells are a key source of mediators of alcohol-induced liver damage such as reactive oxygen species, chemokines, growth factors, and eicosanoids. Since diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids are a requirement for the development of alcoholic liver disease, we hypothesized that polyunsaturated fatty acids could synergize with ethanol to promote Kupffer cell activation and TNFα production, hence, contributing to liver injury. Primary Kupffer cells from control and from ethanol-fed rats incubated with arachidonic acid showed similar proliferation rates than nontreated cells; however, arachidonic acid induced phenotypic changes, lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxides, and superoxide radical generation. Similar effects occurred in human Kupffer cells. These events were greater in Kupffer cells from ethanol-fed rats, and antioxidants and inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism prevented them. Arachidonic acid treatment increased NADPH oxidase activity. Inhibitors of NADPH oxidase and of arachidonic acid metabolism partially prevented the increase in oxidant stress. Upon arachidonic acid stimulation, there was a rapid and sustained increase in TNFα, which was greater in Kupffer cells from ethanol-fed rats than in Kupffer cells from control rats. Arachidonic acid induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of early growth response-1 (Egr1), and ethanol synergized with arachidonic acid to promote this effect. PD98059, a mitogen extracellular kinase 1/2 inhibitor, and curcumin, an Egr1 inhibitor, blocked the arachidonic acid-mediated upregulation of TNFα in Kupffer cells. This study unveils the mechanism whereby arachidonic acid and ethanol increase TNFα production in Kupffer cells, thus contributing to alcoholic liver disease. PMID:22538404

  8. Elephant ear

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in elephant ear plants are: Oxalic acid Asparagine, a protein found in this plant Note: ... days to a week if treated correctly. Rarely, oxalic acid may cause swelling severe enough to block the ...

  9. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... or a respiratory infection such as a cold. Swimming in unclean water can lead to swimmer's ear. ... very well after it has gotten wet. Avoid swimming in polluted water. Use earplugs when swimming. Try ...

  10. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... 31. Thorne CH. Otoplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  11. Ear Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  12. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Patient Health Information ... with a hearing loss. How Does the Healthy Ear Work? The ear has three main parts: the ...

  13. Better Ear Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Better Ear Health Better Ear Health Patient Health Information News ... often helpful to those with this condition. Swimmer’s Ear An infection of the outer ear structures caused ...

  14. How the Ear Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You How the Ear Works How the Ear Works Patient Health Information News media interested in ... public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . The ear has three main parts: the outer ear (including ...

  15. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  16. Ear defects.

    PubMed

    Shonka, David C; Park, Stephen S

    2009-08-01

    The projection and exposure of the auricle make it particularly susceptible to actinic injury and thus to cutaneous malignancies. Auricular reconstruction is challenging because of its unique surface anatomy and undulating topography. This article organizes auricular defects into different categories based on anatomic location and extent of tissue loss, including skin-only defects, small composite defects, full-thickness defects involving or sparing the upper third of the ear, and total auricular loss. The authors share an algorithm for repair of the array of auricular defects. PMID:19698921

  17. Ears and Altitude

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ears and Altitude Ears and Altitude Patient Health Information ... uncomfortable feeling of fullness or pressure. Why do ears pop? Normally, swallowing causes a little click or ...

  18. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Myringotomy; Tympanostomy; Ear tube surgery; Pressure equalization tubes; Ventilating tubes; Ear infection - tubes; Otitis - tubes ... trapped fluid can flow out of the middle ear. This prevents hearing loss and reduces the risk ...

  19. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Update Date 8/ ...

  20. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  1. Ear surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100016.htm Ear surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview This image demonstrates normal appearance of the ears in relation to the face. Update Date 10/ ...

  2. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  3. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  4. Ear Infections in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... shaped organ that converts sound vibrations from the middle ear into electrical signals. The auditory nerve carries these signals from the cochlea to the brain. Other nearby parts of the ear also can be involved in ...

  5. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    ... or wearing away of the bones of the middle ear, which help with hearing Paralysis of the face Inflammation around the brain ( epidural abscess ) or in the brain Damage to the part of the ear that helps with balance Hearing ...

  6. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  7. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and petrositis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  8. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Otitis media - acute; Infection - inner ear; Middle ear infection - acute ... Casselbrandt ML, Mandel EM. Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  9. Fusion of the ear bones

    MedlinePlus

    Fusion of the ear bones is the joining of the bones of the inner ear. These are the incus, malleus, and stapes bones. Related topics include: Chronic ear infection Otosclerosis Middle ear malformations

  10. Control of arachidonic acid release in chick muscle cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, G. H.; Padalino, M.; Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    Cultures from thigh muscles of 12 day old embryonic chicks are utilized to examine arachidonic release, prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The preparation of the cultures is described. It is observed that exogenous arachidonic acid is formed into photsphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, is released by a calcium ionosphere or phospholiphase simulator, and is the substrate for the biosynthesis of PG; the epidermal growth factor and PGF do not stimulate protein synthesis over the basal levels. The relationship between arachidonate release and melittin is studied. The data reveal that a change in intracellular calcium stimulates phospholiphase activity, arachidonate release, and PG synthesis in chick muscle culture.

  11. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zika & Pregnancy Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections and Ear ... medio y colocación de tubos de ventilación Why Surgery? Many kids get middle ear infections (known as ...

  12. Pathology of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

  13. DIFFERENCES IN ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLISM BY HUMAN MYELOMONCYTIC CELL LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The production of arachidonic acid metabolites by the HL60, ML3, and U937 human phagocyte cell lines were determined after incubation with interferongamma (IFNg; 500 U/ml) or vehicle for 4 days. ells were prelabeled with tritiated arachidonic acid for 4 hours, and media supernata...

  14. New uses of bioglycerin: production of arachidonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filamentous fungi of the genus Mortierella are known to produce arachidonic acid from glucose and M. alpina is currently used in industrial scale production of arachidonic acid in Japan. In anticipation of a large excess of co-product bioglycerin from the national biodiesel program, we would like ...

  15. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... the middle ear and the back of the nose and upper throat. ... down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are ...

  16. Ear canal cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Holt, J J

    1992-06-01

    Although cholesteatomas are more commonly found in the middle ear and the mastoid, the disease can occur in the external ear canal. All cases of ear canal cholesteatoma treated by the author were reviewed. There were nine ears in seven patients, who had an average age of 62 years. The lesions ranged in size from a few millimeters to extensive mastoid destruction. Smaller lesions can be managed by frequent cleaning as an office procedure. Larger lesions require surgery, either canaloplasty or mastoidectomy. The otolaryngologist should suspect this disease in the elderly. Microscopic examination of the ear with meticulous cleaning of all wax, especially in elderly patients, is most useful in detecting early disease. Frequent applications of mineral oil to the canal should be used in the management of the disease and to prevent recurrence. PMID:1376388

  17. Ear problems in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone

    2005-08-01

    Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane. PMID:16138712

  18. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eardrum, ear canal, ossicles, cochlea, or the vestibular nerve. Here's a look at the most common ... may cause permanent hearing loss or balance problems. Vestibular therapy may help kids with balance problems. And ...

  19. Middle Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  20. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  1. Arachidonic acid metabolism in endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wise, W C; Cook, J A; Halushka, P V

    1983-01-01

    The arachidonic acid metabolites thromboxane A2, a potent platelet aggregator, and prostacyclin, a potent vasodilator, are released early in endotoxin shock and may contribute to its pathologic sequelae. Plasma levels of thromboxane (Tx) A2 and prostacyclin were measured via radioimmunoassay of their stable metabolites immunoreactive (i) TxB2 and i6-keto-PGF1 alpha in tolerant and nontolerant rats after endotoxin. Long-Evans rats were made tolerant to endotoxin by four daily IV injections of S enteritidis (endotoxin) (0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mg/kg). In normal rats (N = 15) given LPS (IV, 15 mg/kg), only 11% survived at 24 h; in contrast, tolerant rats (N = 13) all survived even at a dose of 50 mg/kg. At 1 h, after endotoxin (15 mg/kg) IV, plasma i6-keto-PGF1 alpha in nontolerant rats was 1,005 +/- 149 pg/ml (N = 14) and continued to rise to 4,209 +/- 757 pg/ml (N = 5) (P less than 0.001) after 4 h. In tolerant rats, given endotoxin (15 mg/kg), plasma i6-keto-PGF1 alpha at 1 h was 800 +/- 203 pg/ml (N = 5) and was not significantly different (734 +/- 254 pg/ml) at 4 h. Plasma iTxB2 at both 1 and 4 h was significantly (P less than 0.01) lower in tolerant than nontolerant rats. Both iTxB2 and i6-keto-PGF1 alpha were significantly (P less than 0.01) lower in tolerant rats given 50 mg/kg IV endotoxin than nontolerant rats. Endotoxin-induced elevation in fibrin degradation products was significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) during endotoxin tolerance although there was no difference in the severity of thrombocytopenia. These composite observations demonstrate that endotoxin tolerance in the rat is associated with altered arachidonic acid metabolism. PMID:6410699

  2. ANALYSIS OF ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLITE AND PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolites of arachidonic acid ("eicosanoids") and platelet activating factor are important bioactive lipids that may be involved in the pathobiological alterations in animals induced by pollutant exposure. nalysis of these substances in biological tissue and fluids is important...

  3. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid-Induced Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Aline; Azar, Marina; Khoueiry, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Objective: Drug-induced thrombocytopenia is a common adverse effect reported in the literature. Typically patients present with a low platelet count with signs and symptoms ranging from bruising to bleeding, and major organ damage. Penicillin-induced thrombocytopenia previously reported in the literature is explained primarily through the hapten-dependent antibody process. The goal of this report is to present a case of an amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced thrombocytopenia. Case Presentation: A 23-year-old male presented to the emergency department with bruises on his arms and legs after completing a full course of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid of 625 mg twice a day for 5 days for tonsillitis. After several tests, the patient was diagnosed with thrombocytopenia induced by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The patient was treated with a corticosteroids taper regimen for 3 weeks. He was discharged after 3 days of inpatient treatment with instructions to avoid physical activity for 2 weeks. Two weeks post discharge, the follow-up showed that the platelet count had increased. Discussion: Penicillin-induced thrombocytopenia has been previously reported in the inpatient setting where bleeding was observed. However, the patient in this case report presented with bruises on his arms and legs. The diagnosis was made by the process of elimination; not all possible tests were conducted. The patient was prescribed corticosteroids that are not indicated for drug-induced thrombocytopenia. The Naranjo scale showed that this is a probable adverse event of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Conclusion: This is a unique case where amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was reported to be a probable cause of thrombocytopenia in an outpatient setting without signs of bleeding and without concomitant medications. PMID:25477568

  4. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. PMID:27259171

  5. D-2 dopamine receptor activation reduces free ( sup 3 H)arachidonate release induced by hypophysiotropic peptides in anterior pituitary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Canonico, P.L. )

    1989-09-01

    Dopamine reduces the stimulation of intracellular ({sup 3}H)arachidonate release produced by the two PRL-stimulating peptides angiotensin-II and TRH. This effect is concentration dependent and is mediated by stimulation of D-2 dopamine receptors. D-2 receptor agonists (bromocriptine, dihydroergocryptine, and dihydroergocristine) inhibit the release of fatty acid induced by angiotensin-II with a potency that parallels their ability to inhibit PRL release in vitro. Conversely, the selective D-2 receptor antagonist L-sulpiride completely prevents dopamine's effect, whereas SCH 23390 (a D-1 receptor antagonist) is ineffective. The inhibitory action of dopamine does not seem to be consequent to an action on the adenylate cyclase-cAMP system, as 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM) does not affect either basal or dopamine-inhibited ({sup 3}H)arachidonate release. However, a 24-h pertussis toxin pretreatment significantly reduces the action of dopamine on fatty acid release. Collectively, these results suggest that D-2 dopamine receptor-mediated inhibition of intracellular ({sup 3}H)arachidonate release requires the action of a GTP-binding protein, but is not a consequence of an inhibitory action on cAMP levels.

  6. The discovery and early structural studies of arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sarah A; Brash, Alan R; Murphy, Robert C

    2016-07-01

    Arachidonic acid and esterified arachidonate are ubiquitous components of every mammalian cell. This polyunsaturated fatty acid serves very important biochemical roles, including being the direct precursor of bioactive lipid mediators such as prostaglandin and leukotrienes. This 20 carbon fatty acid with four double bonds was first isolated and identified from mammalian tissues in 1909 by Percival Hartley. This was accomplished prior to the advent of chromatography or any spectroscopic methodology (MS, infrared, UV, or NMR). The name, arachidonic, was suggested in 1913 based on its relationship to the well-known arachidic acid (C20:0). It took until 1940 before the positions of the four double bonds were defined at 5,8,11,14 of the 20-carbon chain. Total synthesis was reported in 1961 and, finally, the configuration of the double bonds was confirmed as all-cis-5,8,11,14. By the 1930s, the relationship of arachidonic acid within the family of essential fatty acids helped cue an understanding of its structure and the biosynthetic pathway. Herein, we review the findings leading up to the discovery of arachidonic acid and the progress toward its complete structural elucidation. PMID:27142391

  7. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... you are going up or coming down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are changing ...

  8. Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved You are here Home » Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Diseases and Conditions Age-Related ... Do You Need a Hearing Test? Interactive Quiz Ear Infections in Children Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood ...

  9. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  10. Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) problems are common ... What ENT Problems Are Common in Children With Down Syndrome? External Ear Canal Stenosis Stenotic ear canals (narrow ...

  11. From Ear to Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  12. Reconstructive Middle Ear Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, R.R.F.; Ballagh, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Conductive hearing loss is a common cause of deafness and disability, particularly in children and young adults. This article presents a brief overview of the various methods currently available for reconstructing the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicular chain, including some comments as to their indications and limitations. Schematic diagrams showing these techniques illustrate the various types of repair described. PMID:21221356

  13. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drops, keeping water out of the ear, and pain relievers are the most common forms of treatment. External otitis may involve the entire canal, as ... does not allow fungus to grow as well. Treatment of boils depends on ... relievers, such as oxycodone with acetaminophen , can be given ...

  14. How to Use Ear Drops

    MedlinePlus

    How to Use Ear Drops(Having someone else give you the ear drops may make this procedure easier.) Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and ... facecloth and then dry your ear. Warm the drops to near body temperature by holding the container ...

  15. The contralateral ear in cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Sady Selaimen; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Letícia Petersen Schmidt

    2016-07-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma has been extensively studied. Theories of cholesteatoma pathogenesis involving previous tympanic membrane retraction are the most widely accepted, but the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma remains unstudied. This study aimed to investigate the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma, and to determine whether the characteristics of it differ according to patient age and cholesteatoma growth patterns. This study was cross sectional. We evaluated 356 patients with middle ear cholesteatoma in at least one ear, and no history of surgery, between August 2000 and March 2013. Otoendoscopy was conducted on both the affected and the contralateral ear. They were classified as normal, tympanic membrane perforation, moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction and cholesteatoma. The mean age of the patients was 32.77 years, and 53.1 % of the cohort were female. Only 34.8 % of the contralateral ears were normal. The most common abnormality was moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction (41.6 %). Cholesteatoma was identified in 16 %. Children exhibited a greater frequency of tympanic membrane retractions, whereas adults exhibited a greater frequency of cholesteatoma. All of the contralateral ears in the anterior epitympanic group were normal, but otherwise there were no differences in the contralateral ear when we compared the cholesteatoma growth patterns. We conclude that patients diagnosed with acquired cholesteatoma of one ear are significantly more likely to exhibit abnormalities of the contralateral ear. PMID:26223352

  16. EFFECTS OF PHOSGENE EXPOSURE ON LUNG ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosgene is a pulmonary toxicant that can produce lung edema, bronchoconstriction, and immune suppression following an acute exposure. he response of the lung to phosgene inhalation may be mediated through alternations in the metabolism of arachidonic acid to the biologically pot...

  17. Ear recognition: a complete system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaza, Ayman; Harrison, Mary Ann F.

    2013-05-01

    Ear Recognition has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current ear recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is still limited. This paper presents an efficient complete ear-based biometric system that can process five frames/sec; Hence it can be used for surveillance applications. The ear detection is achieved using Haar features arranged in a cascaded Adaboost classifier. The feature extraction is based on dividing the ear image into several blocks from which Local Binary Pattern feature distributions are extracted. These feature distributions are then fused at the feature level to represent the original ear texture in the classification stage. The contribution of this paper is three fold: (i) Applying a new technique for ear feature extraction, and studying various optimization parameters for that technique; (ii) Presenting a practical ear recognition system and a detailed analysis about error propagation in that system; (iii) Studying the occlusion effect of several ear parts. Detailed experiments show that the proposed ear recognition system achieved better performance (94:34%) compared to other shape-based systems as Scale-invariant feature transform (67:92%). The proposed approach can also handle efficiently hair occlusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can achieve about (78%) rank-1 identification, even in presence of 60% occlusion.

  18. The ear: Diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

  19. Dietary arachidonic acid dose-dependently increases the arachidonic acid concentration in human milk.

    PubMed

    Weseler, Antje R; Dirix, Chantal E H; Bruins, Maaike J; Hornstra, Gerard

    2008-11-01

    Lactation hampers normalization of the maternal arachidonic acid (AA) status, which is reduced after pregnancy and can further decline by the presently recommended increased consumption of (n-3) long-chain PUFA [(n-3) LCPUFA]. This may be unfavorable for breast-fed infants, because they also require an optimum supply of (n-6) LCPUFA. We therefore investigated the LCPUFA responses in nursing mothers upon increased consumption of AA and (n-3) LCPUFA. In a parallel, double-blind, controlled trial, lactating women received for 8 wk no extra LCPUFA (control group, n = 8), 200 (low AA group, n = 9), or 400 (high AA group, n = 8) mg/d AA in combination with (n-3) LCPUFA [320 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 80 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid, and 80 mg/d other (n-3) fatty acids], or this dose of (n-3) LCPUFA alone [DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid group, n = 8]. Relative concentrations of AA, DHA, and sums of (n-6) and (n-3) LCPUFA were measured in milk total lipids (TL) and erythrocyte phospholipids (PL) after 2 and 8 wk and changes were compared by ANCOVA. The combined consumption of AA and (n-3) LCPUFA caused dose-dependent elevations of AA and total (n-6) LCPUFA concentrations in milk TL and did not significantly affect the DHA and total (n-3) LCPUFA increases caused by (n-3) LCPUFA supplementation only. This latter treatment did not significantly affect breast milk AA and total (n-6) LCPUFA concentrations. AA and DHA concentrations in milk TL and their changes were strongly and positively correlated with their corresponding values in erythrocyte PL (r(2) = 0.27-0.50; P

  20. Wax blockage in the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the ... wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear ...

  1. Otoscopic exam of the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... intrument which is used to look into the ear canal. The ear speculum (a cone-shaped viewing piece of the otoscope) is slowly inserted into the ear canal while looking into the otoscope. The speculum ...

  2. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inflammation and/or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs ... or viral infection of the fluid of the middle ear, which causes production of fluid or pus. ...

  3. Depletion of arachidonic acid from GH3 cells. Effects on inositol phospholipid turnover and cellular activation.

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, D T; Macfarlane, D E; Spector, A A

    1987-01-01

    We have adapted rat pituitary GH3 cells to grow in delipidated culture medium. In response, esterfied linoleic acid and arachidonic acid become essentially undetectable, whereas eicosa-5,8,11-trienoic acid accumulates and oleic acid increases markedly. These changes occur in all phospholipid classes, but are particularly pronounced in inositol phospholipids, where the usual stearate/arachidonate profile is replaced with oleate/eicosatrienoate (n - 9) and stearate/eicosatrienoate (n - 9). Incubation of arachidonate-depleted cells with 10 microM-arachidonic acid for only 24 h results in extensive remodelling of phospholipid fatty acids, such that close-to-normal compositions and arachidonic acid content are achieved for the inositol phospholipids. In comparison studies with arachidonic acid-depleted or -repleted cells, it was found that the arachidonate content does not affect thyrotropin-releasing-hormone (TRH)-stimulated responses measured at long time points, including [32P]Pi labelling of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid, stimulation of protein phosphorylation, and basal or TRH-stimulated prolactin release. However, transient events such as stimulated breakdown of inositol phospholipids and an initial rise in diacylglycerol are enhanced by the presence of arachidonate. These results show that arachidonic acid itself is not required for operation of the phosphatidylinositol cycle and is not an obligatory intermediate in TRH-mediated GH3 cell activation. It is possible that any structural or functional role of arachidonic acid in these processes is largely met by replacement with eicosatrienoate (n - 9). However, since arachidonate in inositol phospholipids facilitates their hydrolysis upon stimulation by TRH, arachidonic acid apparently may have a specific role in the recognition of these lipids by phospholipase C. Images Fig. 4. PMID:3120699

  4. Outcomes in Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kiringoda, Ruwan; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides several advantages compared with traditional binocular microscopy, including a wide-field view, improved resolution with high magnification, and visual access to hidden corridors of the middle ear. Although binocular microscopic-assisted surgical techniques remain the gold standard for most otologists, EES is slowly emerging as a viable alternative for performing otologic surgery at several centers in the United States and abroad. In this review, we evaluate the current body of literature regarding EES outcomes, summarize our EES outcomes at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and compare these results with data for microscopic-assisted otologic surgery. PMID:27565392

  5. Proliferation-dependent changes in release of arachidonic acid from endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Whatley, R E; Satoh, K; Zimmerman, G A; McIntyre, T M; Prescott, S M

    1994-01-01

    Stimulation of endothelial cells resulted in release of arachidonic acid from phospholipids. The magnitude of this response decreased as the cells became confluent and the change coincided with a decrease in the percentage of cells in growth phases (G2+M); this was not a consequence of time in culture or a factor in the growth medium. Preconfluent cells released approximately 30% of arachidonic acid; confluent cells released only 6%. The decreasing release of arachidonic acid was demonstrated using metabolic labeling, mass measurements of arachidonic acid, and measurement of PGI2. The decrease was not due to a changing pool of arachidonic acid, and mass measurements showed no depletion of arachidonic acid. Release from each phospholipid and from each phospholipid class decreased with confluence. Conversion of confluent cells to the proliferative phenotype by mechanical wounding of the monolayer caused increased release of arachidonic acid. Potential mechanisms for these changes were investigated using assays of phospholipase activity. Phospholipase A2 activity changed in concert with the alteration in release, a consequence of changes in phosphorylation of the enzyme. The increased release of arachidonic acid from preconfluent, actively dividing cells may have important physiologic implications and may help elucidate mechanisms regulating release of arachidonic acid. Images PMID:7962534

  6. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  11. Taking Care of Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... your hands before touching your pierced ears. Applying rubbing alcohol also can help keep germs away. With an adult's help, soak a cotton ball in rubbing alcohol and apply it to both sides of the ...

  12. Keloid above the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Keloids are overgrowths of scar tissue that follow skin injuries. Keloids may appear after such minor trauma as ear piercing. Dark skinned individuals tend to form keloids more readily than lighter skinned individuals.

  13. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... you requested has moved to Ear Infections. Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ...

  14. Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  15. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the first 2 to 4 years of life for several reasons: Their eustachian tubes are shorter and more horizontal than those of adults, which lets bacteria and viruses find their way into the middle ear more ...

  16. What Is an Ear Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Is an Ear Infection? KidsHealth > For Kids > What ...

  17. Multiple Osteomas in Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongxin; Li, Qiuhuan; Gong, Shusheng; Liu, Honggang; Yu, Zilong; Zhang, Luo

    2012-01-01

    Since the first description of middle ear osteomas by Thomas in 1964, only few reports were published within the English literatures (Greinwalid et al., 1998; Shimizu et al., 2003; Cho et al., 2005; and Jang et al., 2009), and only one case of the multiple osteomas in middle ear was described by Kim et al., 2006, which arose from the promontory, lateral semicircular canal, and epitympanum. Here we describe a patient with multiple middle ear osteomas arising from the promontory, incus, Eustachian tube, and bony semicanal of tensor tympani muscle. This patient also contracted the chronic otitis media in the ipsilateral ear. The osteomas were successfully removed by performing type III tympanoplasty in one stage. PMID:22928138

  18. Modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by Rous sarcoma virus

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, K.; Aderem, A.; Hanafusa, H. )

    1989-07-01

    Arachidonic acid (C{sub 20:4}) metabolites were released constitutively from wild-type Rous sarcoma virus-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). {sup 3}H-labeled C{sub 20:4} and its metabolites were released from unstimulated and uninfected CEF only in response to stimuli such as serum, phorbol ester, or the calcium ionophore A23187. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis showed that the radioactivity released from ({sup 3}H)arachidonate-labeled transformed cells was contained in free arachidonate and in the cyclooxygenase products prostaglandin E{sub 2} and prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha; no lipoxygenase products were identified. The release of C{sub 20:4} and its metabolites from CEF infected with pp60{sup src} deletion mutants was correlated with serum-independent DNA synthesis and with the expression of the mRNA for 9E3, a gene expressed in Rous sarcoma virus-transformed cells which has homology with several mitogenic and inflammatory peptides. {sup 3}H-labeled C{sub 20:4} release was not correlated with p36 phosphorylation, which argues against a role for this protein as a phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitor. CEF infected with other oncogenic viruses encoding a tyrosine kinase also released C{sub 20:4}, as did CEF infected with viruses that contained mos and ras; however, infection with a crk-containing virus did not result in stimulation of {sup 3}H-labeled C{sub 20:4} release, suggesting that utilization of this signaling pathway is specific for particular transformation stimuli.

  19. The visible ear surgery simulator.

    PubMed

    Trier, Peter; Noe, Karsten Østergaard; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Mosegaard, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time computer simulation of surgical procedures in the ear, in which a surgeon drills into the temporal bone to gain access to the middle or inner ear. The purpose of this simulator is to support development of anatomical insight and training of drilling skills for both medical students and experienced otologists. The key contributions in this application are the visualization and interaction models in the context of ear surgical simulation. The visualization is based on an existing data set, "The Visible Ear", containing a unique volume depicting the inner ear in natural colours. The applied visualization is based on GPU ray casting, allowing high quality and flexible volume rendering using modern graphics card. In connection with the visualization model, different methods for optimizing the GPU ray casting procedure are presented, along with a method for combining polygon based graphics with volume rendering. In addition, different light models are presented that contribute to a realistic rendering of the different parts of the inner ear. To achieve a physically plausible drilling experience, a Phantom Omni force feedback device is utilized. The applied interaction model facilitates a realistic user experience of the response forces from the drilling tool. PMID:18391361

  20. Arachidonic acid enhances reproduction in Daphnia magna and mitigates changes in sex ratios induced by pyriproxyfen.

    PubMed

    Ginjupalli, Gautam K; Gerard, Patrick D; Baldwin, William S

    2015-03-01

    Arachidonic acid is 1 of only 2 unsaturated fatty acids retained in the ovaries of crustaceans and an inhibitor of HR97g, a nuclear receptor expressed in adult ovaries. The authors hypothesized that, as a key fatty acid, arachidonic acid may be associated with reproduction and potentially environmental sex determination in Daphnia. Reproduction assays with arachidonic acid indicate that it alters female:male sex ratios by increasing female production. This reproductive effect only occurred during a restricted Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata diet. Next, the authors tested whether enriching a poorer algal diet (Chlorella vulgaris) with arachidonic acid enhances overall reproduction and sex ratios. Arachidonic acid enrichment of a C. vulgaris diet also enhances fecundity at 1.0 µM and 4.0 µM by 30% to 40% in the presence and absence of pyriproxyfen. This indicates that arachidonic acid is crucial in reproduction regardless of environmental sex determination. Furthermore, the data indicate that P. subcapitata may provide a threshold concentration of arachidonic acid needed for reproduction. Diet-switch experiments from P. subcapitata to C. vulgaris mitigate some, but not all, of arachidonic acid's effects when compared with a C. vulgaris-only diet, suggesting that some arachidonic acid provided by P. subcapitata is retained. In summary, arachidonic acid supplementation increases reproduction and represses pyriproxyfen-induced environmental sex determination in D. magna in restricted diets. A diet rich in arachidonic acid may provide protection from some reproductive toxicants such as the juvenile hormone agonist pyriproxyfen. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:527-535. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25393616

  1. Altered arachidonic acid metabolism and platelet size in atopic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Audera, C.; Rocklin, R.; Vaillancourt, R.; Jakubowski, J.A.; Deykin, D.

    1988-03-01

    The release and metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid (AA) in physiologically activated platelets obtained from 11 atopic patients with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma was compared to that of sex- and age-matched nonatopic controls. Prelabeled (/sup 3/H)AA platelets were stimulated with thrombin or collagen and the amount of free (/sup 3/H)AA and radiolabeled metabolites released were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results obtained indicate that although the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)AA into platelet phospholipids and total release of /sup 3/H-radioactivity upon stimulation were comparable in the two groups, the percentage of /sup 3/H-radioactivity released from platelets as free AA was significantly lower (P less than 0.01) in the atopic group. The reduction in free (/sup 3/H)AA was accompanied by an increase (P less than 0.01) in the percentage of /sup 3/H-radioactivity released as cyclooxygenase products in atopic platelets (compared to nonatopic cells) after stimulation with 10 and 25 micrograms/ml collagen. The amount of platelet lipoxygenase product released was comparable between the two groups. Although the blood platelet counts were similar, the mean platelet volume was statistically higher (P less than 0.01) in the atopic group. These results indicate that arachidonic acid metabolism in atopic platelets is altered, the pathophysiological significance of which remains to be clarified.

  2. [Changes, induced by certain flavonoids, of the hypotensive effects of arachidonic acid].

    PubMed

    Damas, J; Mousty, J C; Lecomte, J

    1977-01-01

    In the rat, silybine and Z 12007, a derivative of rutoside, increase the vasodepressive activities of arachidonic acid, a prostaglandin precursor. They reduce the activity of PGE2. Quercetine also increases the hypotensive action of arachidonic acid. These three flavonoids are supposed to increase the prostaglandin biosynthesis. PMID:143326

  3. Measurement of the incorporation of orally administered arachidonic acid into tissue lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Kulmacz, R.J.; Sivarajan, M.; Lands, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of a stable isotope method to monitor the mixing of dietary arachidonic acid with endogenous arachidonic acid in tissue lipids was evaluated. Rats were fed octadeuterated arachidonic acid during a 20-day period, and the entry of the dietary acid into lipid esters of various tissues was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of their fatty acids. The rats were maintained on a fat-free diet from weaning until 63 days old to enhance the ratio of the dietary acid to endogenous arachidonate. Three separate forms of eicosatetraenoic acid in the tissue lipids could be distinguished by GC-MS: octadeuterated arachidonic acid (recent dietary origin), unlabeled arachidonic acid (maternal origin) and unlabeled 4,7,10,13-eicosatetraenoic acid (originating from palmitoleic acid). The total eicosatetraenoic acid in the tissue lipids contained about 90% arachidonate from recent dietary origin in lung, kidney, heart and fat, 70% in muscle and liver and 27% in brain. The n-7 isomer of eicosatetraenoic acid was estimated to make up 6% or less of the total eicosatetraenoic acid in lung, kidney, brain, muscle and heart tissue lipids, but it comprised around 15% of the total eicosatetraenoic acid in liver. The unlabeled arachidonic acid of maternal origin thus comprised only about 10% of the eicosatetraenoic acid in all tissues examined except muscle and brain, where it was 24% and 70% of the eicosatetraenoic acid, respectively.

  4. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  5. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  6. Ear disorders in scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Azizi, M H

    2011-01-01

    History of underwater diving dates back to antiquity. Breath-hold technique in diving was known to the ancient nations. However, deep diving progressed only in the early decades of the 19th century as the result of advancements in efficient underwater technologies which subsequently led to invention of sophisticated sets of scuba diving in the 20th century. Currently, diving is performed for various purposes including commercial, recreational, military, underwater construction, oil industry, underwater archeology and scientific assessment of marine life. By increasing popularity of underwater diving, dive-related medical conditions gradually became more evident and created a new challenge for the health care professionals, so that eventually, a specialty the so-called "diving medicine" was established. Most of the diving-associated disorders appear in the head and neck. The most common of all occupational disorders associated with diving are otologic diseases. External otitis has been reported as the most common otolaryngologic problem in underwater divers. Exostosis of the external ear canal may be formed in divers as the result of prolonged diving in cold waters. Other disorders of the ear and paranasal sinuses in underwater divers are caused by barometric pressure change (i.e., barotraumas), and to a lesser extent by decompression sickness. Barotrauma of the middle ear is the most prevalent barotrauma in divers. The inner ear barotraumas, though important, is less common. The present paper is a brief overview of diving-related ear disorders particularly in scuba divers. PMID:23022815

  7. Assessment of skin absorption and irritation potential of arachidonic acid and glyceryl arachidonate using in vitro diffusion cell techniques.

    PubMed

    Eppler, A R; Kraeling, M E K; Wickett, R R; Bronaugh, R L

    2007-11-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA), a precursor of pro-inflammatory mediators, and its glycerin ester, glyceryl arachidonate (GA), are reportedly used in cosmetic products. In vitro skin penetration of AA and GA and GA's ester hydrolysis was determined in flow-through diffusion cells. AA penetration with human and rat skin was 19.5% and 52.3% of the applied dose respectively, a substantial amount of which remained in the skin at 24h. Similar penetration results were obtained with GA in human skin. However, GA penetration through cultured skin (EpiDerm) was 51% of the applied dose, almost all of which appeared in the receptor fluid. At least 27.8% of GA penetrating skin was hydrolyzed to AA. In vitro methods were used to assess skin irritation in diffusion cells. Skin irritation of AA, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and Tween 80 was determined by changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin viability (3-(4,5-dimethylthiaxol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, MTT, formation), and cytokine release (IL-1alpha). SLS irritation was much less pronounced in an emulsion versus an aqueous vehicle. No significant irritation was observed in vitro from AA in an emulsion. This work predicts that AA would penetrate human skin in vivo and that it could be formed in skin from topically applied GA. PMID:17602815

  8. Antagonism by antipyretics of the hyperthermic effect of a prostaglandin precursor, sodium arachidonate, in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, W G; Cumby, H R

    1976-01-01

    1. Injection of sodium arachidonate (100-400 mug) into lateral cerebral ventricles of unanaesthetized cats caused shivering and rapid development of dose-related hyperthermic responses. Unless arachidonate is hyperthermogenic per se, this indicates that in vivo formation of prostaglandins, or perhaps an endoperoxide intermediate, can cause hyperthermia. 2. Tolerance gradually developed when arachidonate was administered repeatedly at intervals of 1-7 days. Examination of the brains of several tolerant animals revealed in each case marked enlargement of the lateral ventricles which apparently accounted for the diminished response to arachidonate. 3. Sodium salicylate (40, 160 mg/kg, i.v.) antagonized arachidonate but only after a 3-4 hr latent period. 4. Paracetamol (10, 40 mg/kg, i.v.) reduced the hyperthermic effect of arachidonate but a dose of 40 mg/kg antagonized centrally administered bacterial endotoxin more effectively than it did arachidonate. 5. Indomethacin (40 mug/kg, i.v.) significantly reduced arachidonate-induced hyperthermia in only one of two studies. This reduction was comparable to the hypothermic effect of indomethacin in afebrile animals and was attributed to a non-specific action on thermoregulatory function rather than to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Indomethacin antagonized endotoxin and leucocytic pyrogen to a greater degree than it did arachidonate. 6. Comparison of the relative effectiveness of the antipyretics in blocking hyperthermic responses to pyrogens and to sodium arachidonate indicates that, if prostaglandins do mediate pyrogen-induced fever, these antipyretics exert their primary at a step before prostaglandin synthesis. PMID:950606

  9. Development of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Tanya T

    2015-06-01

    The vertebrate inner ear is a sensory organ of exquisite design and sensitivity. It responds to sound, gravity and movement, serving both auditory (hearing) and vestibular (balance) functions. Almost all cell types of the inner ear, including sensory hair cells, sensory neurons, secretory cells and supporting cells, derive from the otic placode, one of the several ectodermal thickenings that arise around the edge of the anterior neural plate in the early embryo. The developmental patterning mechanisms that underlie formation of the inner ear from the otic placode are varied and complex, involving the reiterative use of familiar signalling pathways, together with roles for transcription factors, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix components. In this review, I have selected highlights that illustrate just a few of the many recent discoveries relating to the development of this fascinating organ system. PMID:25796080

  10. γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Induced Electrographic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Darken, Rachel S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. Citation: Cheung J, Lucey BP, Duntley SP, Darken RS. γ-hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):811-812. PMID:25024661

  11. [Sunitinib and zoledronic acid induced osteonecrosis of the jaw].

    PubMed

    Soós, Balázs; Vajta, László; Szalma, József

    2015-11-15

    The tendency for bisphosphonate and non-bisphosphonate (eg.: antiresorptive or anti-angiogenesis drugs) induced osteonecrosis is increasing. Treatment of these patients is a challenge both for dentists and for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Cooperation with the drug prescribing general medicine colleagues to prevent osteonecrosis is extremely important. Furthermore, prevention should include dental focus elimination, oral hygienic instructions and education, dental follow-up and, in case of manifest necrosis, referral to maxillofacial departments. Authors outline the difficulties of conservative and surgical treatment of a patient with sunitinib and zoledronic acid induced osteonecrosis. The patient became symptomless and the operated area healed entirely six and twelve months postoperatively. A long term success further follow-up is necessary to verify long-term success. PMID:26548471

  12. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  13. How to Prevent Painful Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159452.html How to Prevent Painful Swimmer's Ear Simple steps after a day in the water ... 2016 SATURDAY, June 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Swimmer's ear -- a common summertime problem among children -- is easy ...

  14. Infant Ear Infections Becoming Less Common

    MedlinePlus

    ... who is director of pediatric otolaryngology at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, in New ... Galveston; Joseph Bernstein, M.D., director, pediatric otolaryngology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York ...

  15. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

  16. The influence of mono- and divalent cations on the cardiac metabolism of arachidonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, M.T.; Malik, K.U. )

    1989-06-01

    Our previous study indicated that, in the isolated rabbit heart, perfusion with Ca2+ free Krebs Henseleit buffer (KHB) results in increased conversion of exogenous arachidonic acid to PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, probably as the result of increased availability of substrate to cyclooxygenase. Since perfusion with Ca2+ free buffer is known to cause alterations in the cardiac content of various mono- and divalent cations, the present study was performed to determine: (a) The relationship between the conversion of exogenous arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and cardiac content of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+; and (b) Whether enhanced arachidonic acid conversion to prostaglandins during Ca2+ free perfusion is due to reduced incorporation of this fatty acid into tissue lipids. Perfusion of the rabbit heart with Ca2+ free buffer produced a significant reduction in the tissue content of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. However, the production of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha from exogenous arachidonic acid was linearly correlated with tissue Mg2+. These observations, together with our finding that perfusion with Ca2+ free KHB reduced the incorporation of (3H) arachidonic acid into tissue lipids, suggests that Ca2+ free perfusion may, by reducing the activity of arachidonyl CoA synthetase (a Mg2+ dependent enzyme), decrease the acylation of arachidonic acid into lipids, thus increasing the availability of arachidonic acid to cyclooxygenase.

  17. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity and Ear, ... all children be regularly screened for snoring. Middle ear infections Acute otitis media (AOM) and chronic ear ...

  18. Reconstruction of middle ear malformations

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Malformations of the middle ear are classified as minor and major malformations. Minor malformations appear with regular external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and aerated middle ear space. The conducting hearing loss is due to fixation or interruption of the ossicular chain. The treatment is surgical, following the rules of ossiculoplasty and stapes surgery. In major malformations (congenital aural atresia) there is no external auditory canal and a deformed or missing pinna. The mastoid and the middle ear space may be underdevelopped, the ossicular chain is dysplastic. Surgical therapy is possible in patients with good aeration of the temporal bone, existing windows, a near normal positioned facial nerve and a mobile ossicular chain. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the pinna should proceed the reconstruction of the external auditory canal and middle ear. In cases of good prognosis unilateral aural atresia can be approached already in childhood. In patients with high risk of surgical failure, bone anchored hearing aids are the treatment of choice. Recent reports of implantable hearing devices may be discussed as an alternative treatment for selected patients. PMID:22073077

  19. Proteomics and the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Thalmann, Isolde

    2001-01-01

    The inner ear, one of the most complex organs, contains within its bony shell three sensory systems, the evolutionary oldest gravity receptor system, the three semicircular canals for the detection of angular acceleration, and the auditory system - unrivaled in sensitivity and frequency discrimination. All three systems are susceptible to a host of afflictions affecting the quality of life for all of us. In the first part of this review we present an introduction to the milestones of inner ear research to pave the way for understanding the complexities of a proteomics approach to the ear. Minute sensory structures, surrounded by large fluid spaces and a hard bony shell, pose extreme challenges to the ear researcher. In spite of these obstacles, a powerful preparatory technique was developed, whereby precisely defined microscopic tissue elements can be isolated and analyzed, while maintaining the biochemical state representative of the in vivo conditions. The second part consists of a discussion of proteomics as a tool in the elucidation of basic and pathologic mechanisms, diagnosis of disease, as well as treatment. Examples are the organ of Corti proteins OCP1 and OCP2, oncomodulin, a highly specific calcium-binding protein, and several disease entities, Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and perilymphatic fistula. PMID:11790893

  20. The caecilian ear: further observations.

    PubMed

    Wever, E G; Gans, C

    1976-10-01

    The structure of the ear is examined in two species of caecilians, Ichthyophis glutinosus and I. orthoplicatus, and the sensitivity to aerial sounds is assessed in terms of the electrical potentials of the cochlea. The results are in general agreement with previous reports on other caecilian species. PMID:1068485

  1. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  2. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  3. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  4. Immunologic Disorders of the Inner Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.

    1997-01-01

    Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  5. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A Text ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  6. The Effect of Ear Canal Pressure on Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions:. Comparison Between Human and Lizard Ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, P.; Manley, G. A.

    2009-02-01

    The center frequency, height and width of peaks in SOAE spectra depend on ear canal pressure. The width is interpreted as a measure of the inner ear source-signal-to-(e.g. thermal)-noise ratio. In humans, width increases with decreasing height. Apparently, ear canal pressure modifies the amplitude of the inner ear emission source signal. In lizards, the relation between peak width and height is not consistent. Here, middle ear transmission changes may account for many the observed amplitude effects.

  7. LDV measurement of bird ear vibrations to determine inner ear impedance and middle ear power flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G. G.; Pires, Felipe; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures in birds and mammals is affected by the fluids in the inner ear (IE) that are present behind the oval window. In this study, the aim was to gather knowledge of the acoustic impedance of the IE in the ostrich, to be able to determine the effect on vibrations and power flow in the single-ossicle bird middle ear for future studies. To determine the IE impedance, vibrations of the ossicle were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the acoustic regime, vibrations were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer and electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle. The impedance of the inner ear could be determined by means of a simple RLC model in series, which resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20.1012 Pa/m3, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652.106 Pa s2/m3, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57.109 Pa s/m. The measured impedance is found to be considerably smaller than what is found for the human IE.

  8. Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

    2008-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

  9. Sphingoid bases inhibit acid-induced demineralization of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van 't Hof, Wim; Bikker, Floris J; Nazmi, Kamran; Brand, Henk S; Sotres, Javier; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Veerman, Enno C I

    2015-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), the main constituent of dental enamel, is inherently susceptible to the etching and dissolving action of acids, resulting in tooth decay such as dental caries and dental erosion. Since the prevalence of erosive wear is gradually increasing, there is urgent need for agents that protect the enamel against erosive attacks. In the present study we studied in vitro the anti-erosive effects of a number of sphingolipids and sphingoid bases, which form the backbone of sphingolipids. Pretreatment of HAp discs with sphingosine, phytosphingosine (PHS), PHS phosphate and sphinganine significantly protected these against acid-induced demineralization by 80 ± 17%, 78 ± 17%, 78 ± 7% and 81 ± 8%, respectively (p < 0.001). On the other hand, sphingomyelin, acetyl PHS, octanoyl PHS and stearoyl PHS had no anti-erosive effects. Atomic force measurement revealed that HAp discs treated with PHS were almost completely and homogeneously covered by patches of PHS. This suggests that PHS and other sphingoid bases form layers on the surface of HAp, which act as diffusion barriers against H(+) ions. In principle, these anti-erosive properties make PHS and related sphingosines promising and attractive candidates as ingredients in oral care products. PMID:25300299

  10. EEG Recorded from the Ear: Characterizing the Ear-EEG Method

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Kaare B.; Kappel, Simon L.; Mandic, Danilo P.; Kidmose, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Auditory middle and late latency responses can be recorded reliably from ear-EEG.For sources close to the ear, ear-EEG has the same signal-to-noise-ratio as scalp.Ear-EEG is an excellent match for power spectrum-based analysis. A method for measuring electroencephalograms (EEG) from the outer ear, so-called ear-EEG, has recently been proposed. The method could potentially enable robust recording of EEG in natural environments. The objective of this study was to substantiate the ear-EEG method by using a larger population of subjects and several paradigms. For rigor, we considered simultaneous scalp and ear-EEG recordings with common reference. More precisely, 32 conventional scalp electrodes and 12 ear electrodes allowed a thorough comparison between conventional and ear electrodes, testing several different placements of references. The paradigms probed auditory onset response, mismatch negativity, auditory steady-state response and alpha power attenuation. By comparing event related potential (ERP) waveforms from the mismatch response paradigm, the signal measured from the ear electrodes was found to reflect the same cortical activity as that from nearby scalp electrodes. It was also found that referencing the ear-EEG electrodes to another within-ear electrode affects the time-domain recorded waveform (relative to scalp recordings), but not the timing of individual components. It was furthermore found that auditory steady-state responses and alpha-band modulation were measured reliably with the ear-EEG modality. Finally, our findings showed that the auditory mismatch response was difficult to monitor with the ear-EEG. We conclude that ear-EEG yields similar performance as conventional EEG for spectrogram-based analysis, similar timing of ERP components, and equal signal strength for sources close to the ear. Ear-EEG can reliably measure activity from regions of the cortex which are located close to the ears, especially in paradigms employing frequency

  11. EEG Recorded from the Ear: Characterizing the Ear-EEG Method.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Kaare B; Kappel, Simon L; Mandic, Danilo P; Kidmose, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Auditory middle and late latency responses can be recorded reliably from ear-EEG.For sources close to the ear, ear-EEG has the same signal-to-noise-ratio as scalp.Ear-EEG is an excellent match for power spectrum-based analysis. A method for measuring electroencephalograms (EEG) from the outer ear, so-called ear-EEG, has recently been proposed. The method could potentially enable robust recording of EEG in natural environments. The objective of this study was to substantiate the ear-EEG method by using a larger population of subjects and several paradigms. For rigor, we considered simultaneous scalp and ear-EEG recordings with common reference. More precisely, 32 conventional scalp electrodes and 12 ear electrodes allowed a thorough comparison between conventional and ear electrodes, testing several different placements of references. The paradigms probed auditory onset response, mismatch negativity, auditory steady-state response and alpha power attenuation. By comparing event related potential (ERP) waveforms from the mismatch response paradigm, the signal measured from the ear electrodes was found to reflect the same cortical activity as that from nearby scalp electrodes. It was also found that referencing the ear-EEG electrodes to another within-ear electrode affects the time-domain recorded waveform (relative to scalp recordings), but not the timing of individual components. It was furthermore found that auditory steady-state responses and alpha-band modulation were measured reliably with the ear-EEG modality. Finally, our findings showed that the auditory mismatch response was difficult to monitor with the ear-EEG. We conclude that ear-EEG yields similar performance as conventional EEG for spectrogram-based analysis, similar timing of ERP components, and equal signal strength for sources close to the ear. Ear-EEG can reliably measure activity from regions of the cortex which are located close to the ears, especially in paradigms employing frequency

  12. Peripheral mechanisms involved in the pressor and bradycardic effects of centrally administered arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cenk; Yalcin, Murat

    2008-06-01

    In the current study, we aimed to determine the cardiovascular effects of arachidonic acid and peripheral mechanisms mediated these effects in normotensive conscious rats. Studies were performed in male Sprague Dawley rats. Arachidonic acid was injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) at the doses of 75, 150 or 300 microg and it caused dose- and time-dependent increase in mean arterial pressure and decrease in heart rate in normal conditions. Maximal effects were observed 10 min after 150 and 300 microg dose of arachidonic acid and lasted within 30 min. In order to evaluate the role of main peripheral hormonal mechanisms in those cardiovascular effects, plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, vasopressin levels and renin activity were measured after arachidonic acid (150 microg; i.c.v.) injection. Centrally injected arachidonic acid increased plasma levels of all these hormones and renin activity. Intravenous pretreatments with prazosin (0.5 mg/kg), an alpha1 adrenoceptor antagonist, [beta-mercapto-beta,beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl1, O-Me-Tyr2-Arg8]-vasopressin (10 microg/kg), a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist, or saralasin (250 microg/kg), an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, partially blocked the pressor response to arachidonic acid (150 microg; i.c.v.) while combined administration of these three antagonists completely abolished the effect. Moreover, both individual and combined antagonist pretreatments fully blocked the bradycardic effect of arachidonic acid. In conclusion, our findings show that centrally administered arachidonic acid increases mean arterial pressure and decreases heart rate in normotensive conscious rats and the increases in plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, vasopressin levels and renin activity appear to mediate the cardiovascular effects of the drug. PMID:18571395

  13. Mucus glycoprotein secretion by duodenal mucosa in response to luminal arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Kosmala, M; Carter, S R; Konturek, S J; Slomiany, A; Slomiany, B L

    1986-12-10

    The effect of luminal application of arachidonic acid on the alkaline secretion, prostaglandin generation, and mucus glycoprotein output and composition was studied in proximal and distal duodenum of conscious dogs. Surgically prepared duodenal loops were instilled in vivo for up to 2 h with saline (control) followed by various concentrations (12.5-100 micrograms/ml) of arachidonic acid. The experiments were conducted with and without intravenous pretreatment with indomethacin. The recovered instillates were assayed for the content of prostaglandin and HCO3-, and used for the isolation of mucus glycoprotein. Exposure of duodenal mucosa to arachidonic acid led to concentration-dependent increase in the output of HCO3- and prostaglandin generation. In both cases this response was greater in the proximal duodenum. Pretreatment with indomethacin caused reduction in the basal HCO3- and prostaglandin output, and prevented the increments evoked by arachidonic acid. The proximal and distal duodenum displayed similar basal output and composition of mucus glycoprotein. Comparable increases in these glycoproteins were also obtained with arachidonic acid, the effect of which was abolished by indomethacin. Compared to basal conditions, mucus glycoproteins elaborated in response to arachidonic acid exhibited higher contents of associated lipids and covalently bound fatty acids, and contained less protein. The associated lipids of mucus glycoproteins elaborated in the presence of arachidonic acid showed enrichment in phospholipids and decrease in neutral lipids. The carbohydrate components in these glycoproteins also exhibited higher proportions of sialic acid and sulfate. The changes brought about by arachidonic acid were prevented by indomethacin pretreatment, and in both cases the glycoprotein composition returned to that obtained under basal conditions. The enrichment of mucus glycoprotein in lipids, sialic acid and sulfate in response to endogenous prostaglandin may be of

  14. Activation and regulation of arachidonic acid release in rabbit peritoneal neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, W.

    1988-01-01

    Arachidonic acid release in rabbit neutrophils can be enhanced by the addition of chemotactic fMet-Leu-Phe, platelet-activating factor, PAF, or the calcium ionophore A23187. Over 80% of the release ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid comes from phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol. The release is dose-dependent and increases with increasing concentration of the stimulus. The A23187-induced release increases with increasing time of the stimulation. ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid release, but not the rise in the concentration of intracellular calcium, is inhibited in pertussis toxin-treated neutrophils stimulated with PAF. The ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid released by A23187 is potentiated while that release by fMET-Leu-Phe or PAF is inhibited in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA, treated rabbit neutrophils. The protein kinase C inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine, H-7, has no effect on the potentiation by PMA of the A23187-induced release, it prevents the inhibition by PMA of the release produced by PAF or fMet-Leu-Phe. In addition, PMA increases arachidonic acid release in H-7-treated cells stimulated with fMet-Leu-Phe. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59022 increases the level of diacylglycerol in neutrophils stimulated with fMet-Leu-Phe. Furthermore, R59022 potentiates ({sup 3}H) arachidonic acid release produced by fMet-Leu-Phe. This potentiation is not inhibited by H-7, in fact, it is increased in H-7-treated neutrophils.

  15. The rabbit pulmonary cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid metabolic pathway: characterization and significance.

    PubMed Central

    Zeldin, D C; Plitman, J D; Kobayashi, J; Miller, R F; Snapper, J R; Falck, J R; Szarek, J L; Philpot, R M; Capdevila, J H

    1995-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 metabolizes arachidonic acid to several unique and biologically active compounds in rabbit liver and kidney. Microsomal fractions prepared from rabbit lung homogenates metabolized arachidonic acid through cytochrome P450 pathways, yielding cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and their hydration products, vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, mid-chain cis-trans conjugated dienols, and 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Inhibition studies using polyclonal antibodies prepared against purified CYP2B4 demonstrated 100% inhibition of arachidonic acid epoxide formation. Purified CYP2B4, reconstituted in the presence of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5, metabolized arachidonic acid, producing primarily EETs. EETs were detected in lung homogenate using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, providing evidence for the in vivo pulmonary cytochrome P450 epoxidation of arachidonic acid. Chiral analysis of these lung EETs demonstrated a preference for the 14(R),15(S)-, 11(S),12(R)-, and 8(S),9(R)-EET enantiomers. Both EETs and vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. At micromolar concentrations, methylated 5,6-EET and 8,9-EET significantly relaxed histamine-contracted guinea pig hilar bronchi in vitro. In contrast, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid caused contraction to near maximal tension. We conclude that CYP2B4, an abundant rabbit lung cytochrome P450 enzyme, is the primary constitutive pulmonary arachidonic acid epoxygenase and that these locally produced, biologically active eicosanoids may be involved in maintaining homeostasis within the lung. Images PMID:7738183

  16. In vitro release of arachidonic acid and in vivo responses to respirable fractions of cotton dust

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, T.A.; Edwards, J.H.; Al-Zubaidy, T.S.; Brown, R.C.; Poole, A.; Nicholls, P.J.

    1986-04-01

    It was considered that the fall in lung function seen after exposure to cotton dust may be attributable in part to the activity of arachidonic acid metabolites, such as leucotrienes as well as to the more established release of histamine by cotton dust. However, we found that cotton and barley dusts elicited poor release of arachidonic acid from an established macrophage like cell line compared with that observed with other organic dusts. In the experimental animal, pulmonary cellular responses to both cotton and barley dust were similar to those evoked by moldy hay and pigeon dropping dusts, although after multiple doses a more severe response was seen to cotton and barley. Since both moldy hay and pigeon droppings elicit a greater arachidonic acid release than cotton or barley, a role for arachidonic acid in inducing the cellular response is less likely than other factors. There are limitations to our conclusions using this system, i.e., the arachidonic acid may be released in a nonmetabolized form, although it is noted that the two dusts with the greatest arachidonic acid release produce their clinical responses in humans largely by hypersensitivity mechanisms.

  17. Vasopressin induces release of arachidonic acid from vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grillone, L.R.; Clark, M.A.; Heckman, G.; Schmidt, D.; Stassen, F.L.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-05-01

    Cultured smooth muscle cells (A-10), derived from rat thoracic aorta, have vascular (V/sub 1/) vasopressin receptors. They have previously shown that these receptors mediate phosphatidylinositol turnover, Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux, and inhibition of isoproterenol-induced increases in cAMP. Here they studied the effect of vasopressin on arachidonic acid metabolism of A-10 cells. Cells were incubated for 18-20 hr with (/sup 3/H)-arachidonic acid (80 Ci/mmol). Vasopressin stimulated release of arachidonic acid in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Significant release of arachidonic acid was observed after 4 min with 10/sup -9/ M vasopressin. Maximum release was reached 4 min after addition of 10/sup -7/ M vasopressin (1100 dpm/10/sup 6/ cells). About 800 dmp were released after 1 and 4 min with 10/sup -7/ M and 10/sup -8/ M vasopressin, respectively. The vasopressin-stimulated release of arachidonic acid was blocked by the specific V/sub 1//V/sub 2/ vasopressin antagonist d(CH2)5D-Tyr(Et)VAVP. These data indicate that vascular smooth muscle cells increase arachidonic acid release in response to vasopressin. This response is likely mediated by V/sub 1/ receptors.

  18. Pathogenesis of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2010-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is characterized by enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphological characteristics. To investigate the origin of the cholesteatoma cells, we analyzed spontaneously occurring cholesteatomas associated with a new transplantation model in Mongolian gerbils (gerbils). Cholesteatomas were induced in gerbils with a transplanted tympanic membrane by using the external auditory canal (EAC) ligation method. After the pars flaccida of the tympanic membranes were completely removed from male gerbils, corresponding portions of tympanic membranes of female gerbils were transplanted to the area of defect, and then we ligated the EAC (hybrid-model group). As a control group, the EAC of normal male and female gerbils was ligated without myringoplasty. In all ears of each group, the induced cholesteatomas were seen. In situ PCR was then performed to detect the mouse X chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (pgk-1) gene on the paraffin sections. One pgk-1 spot in the epithelial nuclei was detected in male cholesteatoma, and two pgk-1 spots were detected in female cholesteatoma, respectively. On the other hand, in the hybrid-model group, we detected not only one but also two pgk-1 spots in the epithelial nuclei of cholesteatoma. These results strengthened the evidence that the origin of epithelial cells in cholesteatoma is the tympanic membrane in this model, but not the residential middle ear epithelial cells or the skin of the EAC. PMID:20413684

  19. The War of Jenkins’ Ear

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

  20. The Essentiality of Arachidonic Acid in Infant Development

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Kevin B.; Ryan, Alan S.; Forsyth, Stewart; Gautier, Sheila; Salem, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) is an n-6 polyunsaturated 20-carbon fatty acid formed by the biosynthesis from linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6). This review considers the essential role that ARA plays in infant development. ARA is always present in human milk at a relatively fixed level and is accumulated in tissues throughout the body where it serves several important functions. Without the provision of preformed ARA in human milk or infant formula the growing infant cannot maintain ARA levels from synthetic pathways alone that are sufficient to meet metabolic demand. During late infancy and early childhood the amount of dietary ARA provided by solid foods is low. ARA serves as a precursor to leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes, collectively known as eicosanoids which are important for immunity and immune response. There is strong evidence based on animal and human studies that ARA is critical for infant growth, brain development, and health. These studies also demonstrate the importance of balancing the amounts of ARA and DHA as too much DHA may suppress the benefits provided by ARA. Both ARA and DHA have been added to infant formulas and follow-on formulas for more than two decades. The amounts and ratios of ARA and DHA needed in infant formula are discussed based on an in depth review of the available scientific evidence. PMID:27077882

  1. Ancestral genetic complexity of arachidonic acid metabolism in Metazoa.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Zou, Qiuqiong; Yu, Ting; Song, Cuikai; Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Shangwu; Ren, Zhenghua; Xu, Anlong

    2014-09-01

    Eicosanoids play an important role in inducing complex and crucial physiological processes in animals. Eicosanoid biosynthesis in animals is widely reported; however, eicosanoid production in invertebrate tissue is remarkably different to vertebrates and in certain respects remains elusive. We, for the first time, compared the orthologs involved in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in 14 species of invertebrates and 3 species of vertebrates. Based on parsimony, a complex AA-metabolic system may have existed in the common ancestor of the Metazoa, and then expanded and diversified through invertebrate lineages. A primary vertebrate-like AA-metabolic system via cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathways was further identified in the basal chordate, amphioxus. The expression profiling of AA-metabolic enzymes and lipidomic analysis of eicosanoid production in the tissues of amphioxus supported our supposition. Thus, we proposed that the ancestral complexity of AA-metabolic network diversified with the different lineages of invertebrates, adapting with the diversity of body plans and ecological opportunity, and arriving at the vertebrate-like pattern in the basal chordate, amphioxus. PMID:24801744

  2. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar levels in breast milk throughout the world, whereas the level of DHA is highly diet dependent. Autopsy studies show similar diet-dependent variation in brain DHA, whereas AA is little affected by intake. Early intake of DHA has been shown to affect visual development, but the effect of LCPUFA on neurodevelopment remains to be established. Few studies have found any functional difference between infants supplemented with DHA alone compared to DHA+AA, but some studies show neurodevelopmental advantages in breast-fed infants of mothers supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA alone. It also remains to be established whether the AA/DHA balance could affect allergic and inflammatory outcomes later in life. Disentangling effects of genetic variability and dietary intake on AA and DHA-status and on functional outcomes may be an important step in the process of determining whether AA-intake is of any physiological or clinical importance. However, based on the current evidence we hypothesize that dietary AA plays a minor role on growth and development relative to the impact of dietary DHA. PMID:25314584

  3. Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenases with reference to their selective inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Shozo . E-mail: yamamosh@kyoto-wu.ac.jp; Katsukawa, Michiko; Nakano, Ayumi; Hiraki, Emi; Nishimura, Kohji; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Yokota, Kazushige; Ueda, Natsuo

    2005-12-09

    Lipoxygenase is a dioxygenase recognizing a 1-cis,4-cis-pentadiene of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The enzyme oxygenates various carbon atoms of arachidonic acid as a substrate and produces 5-, 8-, 12- or 15-hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid with a conjugated diene chromophore. The enzyme is referred to as 5-, 8-, 12- or 15-lipoxygenase, respectively. Earlier we found two isoforms of 12-lipoxygenase, leukocyte- and platelet-type enzymes, which were distinguished by substrate specificity, catalytic activity, primary structure, gene intron size, and antigenicity. Recently, the epidermis-type enzyme was found as the third isoform. Attempts have been made to find isozyme-specific inhibitors of 12-lipoxygenase, and earlier we found hinokitol, a tropolone, as a potent inhibitor selective for the platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase. More recently, we tested various catechins of tea leaves and found that (-)-geotechnical gallate was a potent and selective inhibitor of human platelet 12-lipoxygenase with an IC{sub 5} of 0.14 {mu}M. The compound was much less active with 12-lipoxygenase of leukocyte-type, 15-, 8-, and 5-lipoxygenases, and cyclo oxygenases-1 and -2.

  4. Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2013-02-01

    Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

  5. Numerical simulation of the human ear and the dynamic analysis of the middle ear sound transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Ma, J.; Huang, X.

    2013-06-01

    Based on the clinical CT of normal right ear, a 3-D ?nite element (FE) model of the human ear consisting of the external ear canal, middle ear(tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, ligaments, tendons), and inner ear (including semicircular canals, vestibular, spiral cochlear)was constructed in this paper. The complicated structures and inner boundary conditions of middle ear were described in this model. Model analysis and acoustic-structure-?uid coupled dynamic frequency response analysis were conducted on the model. The validity of this model was confirmed by comparing the results with published experimental data. The amplitudes and velocities of tympanic membrane and stapes footplate, sound pressure gain across the middle ear, and the cochlear input impedance were derived. Besides, it was concluded that the ear canal can amplify the sound signal in low frequencies.The modes of vibration of middle ear auditory ossicles, oval window and round window have been analysed. This model can well simulate the acoustic behavior with the interaction of external ear, middle ear and inner ear, which can supply more valuable theoretical support for development and improvement of hearing-aid and artificial inner ear.

  6. Prominent ears: Anthropometric study of the external ear of primary school children of Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Muteweye, Wilfred; Muguti, Godfrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prominent ear is the most common congenital ear deformity affecting 5% of children in the Western world and has profound psychosocial effects on the bearer. It is important to know the prevalence in the local population to have a better appreciation of the local burden of the abnormality as well as to know the parameters of ear morphology locally. These parameters can be useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of ear anomalies and may help reconstructive surgeons in reproducing an anatomically correct ear of an African/Zimbabwean child. Objectives To evaluate the frequency of prominent ears in black school going children in Zimbabwe and to establish morphometric properties of the ear. Design Prospective observational, cross sectional study. Setting Three Primary schools in Harare. Two in a high density area and one in a low density area. Materials and methods Three Primary schools in Harare were selected at random. The following measurements were taken: ear lengths, ear projection and face height using a sliding caliper. Three hundred and five healthy pupils of the age range 9–13 years of both sexes were included in the study, whilst children with congenital anomalies, ear tumours and history of ear trauma were excluded. Results The mean ear height across the cohort was 56.95 ± 5.00 (right ear) and 56.86 ± 4.92 (left ear). Ear projection was 19.52 ± 2.14 (right ear) and 19.59 ± 2.09 (left ear). Gender related differences were noted. Mean ear height was significantly higher in males (p-value = 0.000). Ear projection was higher in males compared to females. A total of 6.89% had prominent ears. Among males, 7.69% had prominent ears whilst 6.17% of females had prominent ears. Conclusion The prevalence of prominent ear among black African children in the studied population is comparable to that of Caucasians. The study provides a set of biometric data of auricular dimensions for normal black African children aged 9–13 years. PMID:26468372

  7. Kinetic investigation of human 5-lipoxygenase with arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Monica; Kumar, Ramakrishnan B; Balagunaseelan, Navisraj; Hamberg, Mats; Jegerschöld, Caroline; Rådmark, Olof; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes

    2016-08-01

    Human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is responsible for the formation of leukotriene (LT)A4, a pivotal intermediate in the biosynthesis of the leukotrienes, a family of proinflammatory lipid mediators. 5-LOX has thus gained attention as a potential drug target. However, details of the kinetic mechanism of 5-LOX are still obscure. In this Letter, we investigated the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 5-LOX with its physiological substrate, arachidonic acid (AA). The observed KIE is 20±4 on kcat and 17±2 on kcat/KM at 25°C indicating a non-classical reaction mechanism. The observed rates show slight temperature dependence at ambient temperatures ranging from 4 to 35°C. Also, we observed low Arrhenius prefactor ratio (AH/AD=0.21) and a small change in activation energy (Ea(D)-Ea(H)=3.6J/mol) which suggests that 5-LOX catalysis involves tunneling as a mechanism of H-transfer. The measured KIE for 5-LOX involves a change in regioselectivity in response to deuteration at position C7, resulting in H-abstraction form C10 and formation of 8-HETE. The viscosity experiments influence the (H)kcat, but not (D)kcat. However the overall kcat/KM is not affected for labeled or unlabeled AA, suggesting that either the product release or conformational rearrangement might be involved in dictating kinetics of 5-LOX at saturating conditions. Investigation of available crystal structures suggests the role of active site residues (F421, Q363 and L368) in regulating the donor-acceptor distances, thus affecting H-transfer as well as regiospecificity. In summary, our study shows that that the H-abstraction is the rate limiting step for 5-LOX and that the observed KIE of 5-LOX is masked by a change in regioselectivity. PMID:27363940

  8. Arachidonic acid metabolism in silica-stimulated bovine alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Englen, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro production of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in adherent bovine alveolar macrophages (BAM) incubated with silica was investigated. BAM were pre-labelled with {sup 3}H-AA, and lipid metabolites released into the culture medium were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was simultaneously assayed to provide an indication of cell injury. Increasing doses of silica selectively stimulated the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of AA metabolism, while cyclooxygenase metabolite output was suppressed. LDH release increased in a linear, dose-dependent fashion over the range of silica doses used. Moreover, within 15 min following addition of a high silica dose, a shift to the production of 5-lipoxygenase metabolites occurred, accompanied by a reduction in cyclooxygenase products. This rapid alteration in AA metabolism preceded cell injury. To examine the relationship between cytotoxicity and AA metabolite release by BAM exposed to silicas with different cytotoxic and fibrogenic activities, BAM were exposed to different doses of DQ-12, Minusil-5, and Sigma silicas, and carbonyl iron beads. The median effective dose (ED{sub 50}) of each particulate to stimulate the release of AA metabolites and LDH was calculated. The ED{sub 50} values for DQ-12, Minusil-5, and Sigma silica showed that the relative cytotoxicities of the different silicas for BAM corresponded to the relative potencies of the silicas to elicit 5-lipoxygenase metabolites from BAM. These results indicate that the cytotoxic, and presumed fibrogenic potential, of a silica is correlated with the potency to stimulate the release of leukotrienes from AM.

  9. Lipoxygenation of arachidonic acid by subcellular preparations from murine keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ziboh, V.A.; Casebolt, T.L.; Marcelo, C.L.; Voorhees, J.J.

    1984-10-01

    In these studies, we examined the possibility that cell-free preparations from murine keratinocytes possess 5-lipoxygenase activity in addition to the well-established cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid (AA) in these cells. Our data demonstrated that the high-speed (105,000 g) supernatant preparations of the murine keratinocytes metabolized (14C)AA into labeled lipoxygenase products. Portions of these radioactive metabolites cochromatographed and comigrated with 12-HETE (a marker for 12-lipoxygenase pathway) and with authentic LTB4 (a marker for 5-lipoxygenase pathway) on silicic acid column chromatography and by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) in two solvent systems respectively. Identity of the novel 14C which comigrated with LTB4 on both TLC and column chromatography was verified further by cochromatography of the free acid with authentic LTB4 on a reverse phase (RP) and the methyl esters on a straight phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Incubation of the cell-free preparations with (14C)AA in the presence of ETYA, NDGA (inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways) as well as with 15-HETE (an inhibitor of lipoxygenase pathway) resulted in decreased formation of (14C) 12-HETE and the (14C)LTB4-like metabolite. On the contrary, incubations of the cell-free extracts with (14C) AA in the presence of indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) resulted in increased biosynthesis of the labeled lipoxygenase metabolites. These data indicate the existence of enzymes in soluble fraction of murine keratinocyte which can catalyze the transformation of (14C) AA into products of both the 12- and 5-lipoxygenase pathways.

  10. Role of Arachidonic Acid in Promoting Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Munkhbayar, Semchin; Jang, Sunhyae; Cho, A-Ri; Choi, Soon-Jin; Shin, Chang Yup; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, Kyu Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (AA) is an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in all mammalian cell membranes, and involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell survival, angiogenesis, and mitogenesis. The dermal papilla, composed of specialized fibroblasts located in the bulb of the hair follicle, contributes to the control of hair growth and the hair cycle. Objective This study investigated the effect of AA on hair growth by using in vivo and in vitro models. Methods The effect of AA on human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) and hair shaft elongation was evaluated by MTT assay and hair follicle organ culture, respectively. The expression of various growth and survival factors in hDPCs were investigated by western blot or immunohistochemistry. The ability of AA to induce and prolong anagen phase in C57BL/6 mice was analyzed. Results AA was found to enhance the viability of hDPCs and promote the expression of several factors responsible for hair growth, including fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) and FGF-10. Western blotting identified the role of AA in the phosphorylation of various transcription factors (ERK, CREB, and AKT) and increased expression of Bcl-2 in hDPCs. In addition, AA significantly promoted hair shaft elongation, with increased proliferation of matrix keratinocytes, during ex vivo hair follicle culture. It was also found to promote hair growth by induction and prolongation of anagen phase in telogen-stage C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion This study concludes that AA plays a role in promoting hair growth by increasing the expression of growth factors in hDPCs and enhancing follicle proliferation and survival. PMID:26848219

  11. Listening to Nature's orchestra with peculiar ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Insects use hearing for the crucial tasks of communicating with conspecifics and avoiding predators. Although all are based on the same acoustic principles, the diversity of insect ears is staggering and instructive. For instance, a South African grasshopper demonstrates that hearing conspecific calls is possible over distances 1 km with ears that do not have tympana. Actually, these creatures have six pairs of ears that play different roles in behavior. In numerical contrast, praying mantises have just a single ear in the ventral midline. The ear is very effective at detecting ultrasonic bat cries. However, the bioacoustics of sound transduction by two tympana facing each other in a deep, narrow slit is a puzzle. Tachinid flies demonstrate that directional hearing at 5 kHz is possible with a pair of ears fused together to give a total size of 1 mm. The ears are under the fly's chin. Hawk moths have their ears built into their mouthparts and the tympanum is more like a hollow ball than the usual membrane. As an apt last example, cicada ears are actually part of the orchestra: their tympana function both in sound reception and sound production.

  12. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  13. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  14. Unexpected depletion of plasma arachidonate and total protein in cats fed a low arachidonic acid diet due to peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, Amy; Mitsuhashi, Yuka; Bigley, Karen; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    An opportunity to investigate a low-arachidonic acid (AA) feline diet possibly related to elevated peroxide value (PV) during storage on plasma phospholipid (PL) and reproductive tissue fatty acid (FA) profiles presented itself in the present study. Cats (nine animals per group) had been fed one of three dry extruded, complete and balanced diets for 300 d before spaying. The diets contained adequate AA (0.3 g/kg), similar concentration of antioxidants and were stored at ambient temperature, but differed in FA composition. The diets were designated as follows: diet A (high linoleic acid), diet B (high γ-linolenic acid) and diet C (adequate linoleic acid). Diet samples that were obtained the week before spaying revealed an elevated PV of diet A v. diets B and C (135 v. 5.80 and 2.12 meq/kg fat, respectively). Records revealed decreased food consumption of diet A cats beginning at 240 d but without weight loss; thus an opportunity presented to investigate diet PV effects. Total plasma protein and PL-AA concentrations in group A were significantly decreased at 140 and 300 d. Uterine and ovarian tissues collected at surgery revealed modest decrements of AA. Diet A was below minimum standards at 0.015 % (minimum 0.02 %), probably due to oxidation. The time at which diet A became unacceptable may have occurred between 60 and 140 d because plasma PL-AA was within our normal colony range (approximately 4-7 % relative) after 56 d of feeding. High-linoleic acid-containing diets may be more likely to be oxidised requiring additional antioxidants. The findings suggest that reduced plasma protein in combination with plasma AA concentrations may serve as biomarkers of diet peroxidation in cats before feed refusal, weight loss or tissue depletion. PMID:22005409

  15. Inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel currents by arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, P

    2000-06-01

    Chloride permeation through the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel is inhibited by a number of different classes of organic anions which are able to enter and block the channel pore from its cytoplasmic end. Here I show, using patch clamp recording from CFTR-transfected baby hamster kidney cell lines, that the cis-unsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid also inhibits CFTR Cl- currents when applied to the cytoplasmic face of excised membrane patches. This inhibition was of a relatively high affinity compared with other known CFTR inhibitors, with an apparent Kd of 6.5 +/- 0.9 microM. However, in contrast with known CFTR pore blockers, inhibition by arachidonic acid was only very weakly voltage dependent, and was insensitive to the extracellular Cl- concentration. Arachidonic acid-mediated inhibition of CFTR Cl- currents was not abrogated by inhibitors of lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases or cytochrome P450, suggesting that arachidonic acid itself, rather than some metabolite, directly affects CFTR. Similar inhibition of CFTR Cl- currents was seen with other fatty acids, with the rank order of potency linoleic > or = arachidonic > or = oleic > elaidic > or = palmitic > or = myristic. These results identify fatty acids as novel high affinity modulators of the CFTR Cl- channel. PMID:10914639

  16. Effects of the oestrous cycle on the metabolism of arachidonic acid in rat isolated lung.

    PubMed Central

    Bakhle, Y S; Zakrzewski, J T

    1982-01-01

    1. The metabolism of exogenous arachidonic acid perfused through the pulmonary circulation was investigated in lungs taken from rats at different stages of the oestrous cycle. 2. Following perfusion with [14C]arachidonic acid there was more radioactivity associated with cyclo-oxygenase products in general at pro-oestrus than at any other stage of the cycle. 3. Production of 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha and hence of prostacyclin (PGI2) was also highest at pro-oestrus. 4. Production of thromboxane B2 was highest at pro-oestrus although it was never greater than PGI2 production at any stage. 5. Radioactivity retained in lung tissue was mostly present in phospholipid and free fatty acid fractions with the distribution at pro-oestrus being different from the other stages. 6. Following perfusion with [14C]oleic acid (which is not a substrate for cyclooxygenase), variations in the distribution of label in radioactivity in lung were also observed. However, these were not related to the stages of the oestrous cycle in the same way as those associated with arachidonic acid. 7. We conclude that both pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism in lung--oxidation via cyclo-oxygenase and incorporation into phospholipid - are affected by the progress of the oestrous cycle. 8. Altered arachidonate metabolism appeared to be associated chiefly with pro-oestrus and may be linked to those hormones involved in this stage of the oestrous cycle. PMID:6809935

  17. Chrysophanic Acid Induces Necrosis but not Necroptosis in Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Caki-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chrysophanic acid, also known as chrysophanol, has a number of biological activities. It enhances memory and learning abilities, raises superoxide dismutase activity, and has anti-cancer effects in several model systems. According to previous reports, chrysophanic acid-induced cell death shares features of necrotic cell death. However, the molecular and cellular processes underlying chrysophanic acid-induced cell death remain poorly understood. Methods: Chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was monitored by cell viability assay and Annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) staining of renal cell carcinoma Caki-2 cells. The induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by chrysophanic acid and the suppression of ROS by anti-oxidants were evaluated by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining. The expression and phosphorylation of proteins that are involved in apoptosis and necroptosis were detected by immunoblotting. Results: The extent of chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was concentration and time dependent, and dead cells mainly appeared in the PI-positive population, which is a major feature of necrosis, upon fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was associated with the generation of intracellular ROS, and this effect was reversed by pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine. Chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was not associated with changes in apoptotic or necroptotic marker proteins. Conclusions: The cell death induced by chrysophanic acid resembled neither apoptotic nor necroptotic cell death in human renal cell carcinoma Caki-2 cells. PMID:27390736

  18. Ear canal hyperostosis--surfer's ear. An improved surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Seftel, D M

    1977-01-01

    The increased populatiry of surfing has produced a marked augmentation in the incidence of ear canal exostosis. However, when it becomes moderately severe, I prefer to call it "hyperostosis." Exposure to cold ocean water for many years can be an important etiologic factor in hyperostosis. There is a serious risk, and a high incidence of tympanic membrane perforations during the removal of large external canal hyperostosis. This injury can be prevented by placing a sheet of Silastic against the tympanic membrane beforehand. I describe the method. Serious degrees of hyperostosis, causing transient hearing loss and otitis externa, are increasingly common in coastal towns, where cold-water surfing is a popular year-around sport. PMID:831701

  19. The alpha 1-adrenergic transduction system in hamster brown adipocytes. Release of arachidonic acid accompanies activation of phospholipase C.

    PubMed Central

    Schimmel, R J

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of brown adipocytes identified an increased breakdown of phosphoinositides after selective alpha 1-adrenergic-receptor activation. The present paper reports that this response, elicited with phenylephrine in the presence of propranolol and measured as the accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates, is accompanied by increased release of [3H]arachidonic acid from cells prelabelled with [3H]arachidonic acid. Differences between stimulated arachidonic acid release and formation of inositol phosphates included a requirement for extracellular Ca2+ for stimulated release of arachidonic acid but not for the formation of inositol phosphates and the preferential inhibition of inositol phosphate formation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The release of arachidonic acid in response to phenylephrine was associated with an accumulation of [3H]arachidonic acid-labelled diacylglycerol, and this response was not dependent on extracellular Ca2+ but was partially prevented by treatment with the phorbol ester. The release of arachidonic acid was also stimulated by melittin, which increases the activity of phospholipase A2, by ionophore A23187, by lipolytic stimulation with forskolin and by exogenous phospholipase C. The arachidonic acid response to phospholipase C was completely blocked by RHC 80267, an inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipase, but this inhibitor had no effect on release stimulated with melittin or A23187 and inhibited phenylephrine-stimulated release by only 40%. The arachidonate response to forskolin was additive with the responses to either phenylephrine or exogenous phospholipase C. These data indicate that brown adipocytes are capable of releasing arachidonic acid from neutral lipids via triacylglycerol lipolysis, and from phospholipids via phospholipase A2 or by the sequential activities of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol lipase. Our findings also suggest that the action of phenylephrine to promote the liberation of arachidonic acid utilizes both

  20. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  1. Is Attention Shared Between the Ears?1

    PubMed Central

    Shiffrin, Richard M.; Pisoni, David B.; Castaneda-Mendez, Kicab

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the locus of attention during selective listening for speech-like stimuli. Can processing be differentially allocated to the two ears? Two conditions were used. The simultaneous condition involved one of four randomly chosen stop-consonants being presented to one of the ears chosen at random. The sequential condition involved two intervals; in the first S listened to the right ear; in the second S listened to the left ear. One of the four consonants was presented to an attended ear during one of these intervals. Experiment I used no distracting stimuli. Experiment II utilized a distracting consonant not confusable with any of the four target consonants. This distractor was always presented to any ear not containing a target. In both experiments, simultaneous and sequential performance were essentially identical, despite the need for attention sharing between the two ears during the simultaneous condition. We conclude that selective attention does not occur during perceptual processing of speech sounds presented to the two ears. We suggest that attentive effects arise in short-term memory following processing. PMID:23226838

  2. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  3. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  4. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Brors, Dominik; Altmeyer, Peter; Mann, Benno; Bechara, Falk G

    2008-01-01

    Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation. PMID:18261212

  5. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  6. Middle ear malformations in identical twins.

    PubMed

    Kidowaki, Naoko; Kamitani, Toru; Nakamura, Takashi; Taki, Masakatsu; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hisa, Yasuo

    2014-06-01

    The majority of the congenital anomalies of middle ear are solitary and a non-hereditary. We report cases of identical twins with congenital incudo-stapedial disconnection. Case 1 was an 8-year-old girl. Hearing impairment was identified at the age of three. She was referred to our university hospital in April 2005. Pure-tone audiogram showed conductive hearing impairments. Computed tomography (CT) revealed the incudo-stapedial disconnections in both ears. The exploratory tympanotomies on the right and left ears were performed in May and July 2005, respectively. The surgical findings showed absence of the long process and presence of the lenticular process of the incus in both ears. After the reconstructions of ossicular chain, the hearing of both ears improved. Case 2 was an 11-year-old girl. The hearing impairment of the right ear was identified in May 2008. She was referred to our university hospital three months later. Pure-tone audiogram showed the conductive hearing impairment in the right ear. CT revealed the incudo-stapedial disconnection in the right ear. The surgery showed the same findings as those of case 1. Anomalies of both cases suggest that the lenticular process of the incus and the stapes originate from a common primordium. PMID:24355584

  7. Fatty acid remodeling by LPCAT3 enriches arachidonate in phospholipid membranes and regulates triglyceride transport

    PubMed Central

    Hashidate-Yoshida, Tomomi; Harayama, Takeshi; Hishikawa, Daisuke; Morimoto, Ryo; Hamano, Fumie; Tokuoka, Suzumi M; Eto, Miki; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Yanobu-Takanashi, Rieko; Mukumoto, Yoshiko; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Okamura, Tadashi; Kita, Yoshihiro; Shindou, Hideo; Shimizu, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in phospholipids affect the physical properties of membranes, but it is unclear which biological processes are influenced by their regulation. For example, the functions of membrane arachidonate that are independent of a precursor role for eicosanoid synthesis remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the lack of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) leads to drastic reductions in membrane arachidonate levels, and that LPCAT3-deficient mice are neonatally lethal due to an extensive triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation and dysfunction in enterocytes. We found that high levels of PUFAs in membranes enable TGs to locally cluster in high density, and that this clustering promotes efficient TG transfer. We propose a model of local arachidonate enrichment by LPCAT3 to generate a distinct pool of TG in membranes, which is required for normal directionality of TG transfer and lipoprotein assembly in the liver and enterocytes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06328.001 PMID:25898003

  8. The stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets by hydrodynamic stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajagopalan, Sridhar; Mcintire, Larry V.; Hall, Elizabeth R.; Wu, Kenneth K.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of stimulating human platelets by thrombin and by hydrodynamic stresses on the platelets' arachidonic acid metabolism were investigated using (1-C-14)-arachidonic acid label and a specially designed viscometer that ensured laminar shear flow with a nearly uniform shear rate throughout the flow region. It was found that platelets activated by thrombin formed principally thromboxane A2, 12-hydroxy 5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid and 12-hydroxy 5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE). On the other hand, platelets activated by shear, formed only 12-HETE (although arachidonic acid metabolism was stimulated); no cyclooxygenase metabolites were detected. Results indicate that platelets may greatly increase their 12-HETE production when activated by passage through a high-stress region of the circulation, such as an atherosclerotic stenosis.

  9. Fatty acid remodeling by LPCAT3 enriches arachidonate in phospholipid membranes and regulates triglyceride transport.

    PubMed

    Hashidate-Yoshida, Tomomi; Harayama, Takeshi; Hishikawa, Daisuke; Morimoto, Ryo; Hamano, Fumie; Tokuoka, Suzumi M; Eto, Miki; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Yanobu-Takanashi, Rieko; Mukumoto, Yoshiko; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Okamura, Tadashi; Kita, Yoshihiro; Shindou, Hideo; Shimizu, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in phospholipids affect the physical properties of membranes, but it is unclear which biological processes are influenced by their regulation. For example, the functions of membrane arachidonate that are independent of a precursor role for eicosanoid synthesis remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the lack of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) leads to drastic reductions in membrane arachidonate levels, and that LPCAT3-deficient mice are neonatally lethal due to an extensive triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation and dysfunction in enterocytes. We found that high levels of PUFAs in membranes enable TGs to locally cluster in high density, and that this clustering promotes efficient TG transfer. We propose a model of local arachidonate enrichment by LPCAT3 to generate a distinct pool of TG in membranes, which is required for normal directionality of TG transfer and lipoprotein assembly in the liver and enterocytes. PMID:25898003

  10. Molecular mechanism of arachidonic acid inhibition of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-Jun; Linsdell, Paul

    2007-06-01

    Arachidonic acid inhibits the activity of a number of different Cl- channels, however its molecular mechanism of action is not known. Here we show that inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels by arachidonic acid is weakened following mutagenesis of two positively charged pore-lining amino acids. Charge-neutralizing mutants K95Q and R303Q both increased the Kd for inhibition from approximately 3.5 microM in wild type to approximately 17 microM. At both sites, the effects of mutagenesis were dependent of the charge of the substituted side chain. We suggest that arachidonic acid interacts electrostatically with positively charged amino acid side chains in the cytoplasmic vestibule of the CFTR channel pore to block Cl- permeation. PMID:17397825

  11. Changes in arachidonic acid metabolism in UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, T.; Walter, J.F.; Printz, M.P.

    1983-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in the skin of hairless mice exposed to UVA, PUVA, UVB, and UVC irradiation. The main products of arachidonic acid in the epidermis were hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), PGE2, and PGD2. Dermis displayed a lower lipoxygenase activity (expressed as HETE production) than the epidermis and showed no detectable cyclooxygenase activity, i.e., no prostaglandin production. The main changes observed in UV-induced inflammatory reactions were as follows. 1. A 5-fold increase in dermal HETE production in PUVA-treated animals and a 29% reduction in epidermal HETE formation after UVC treatment. 2. A marked decrease of PGD2 and a marked increase of PGE2 formation due to alterations of PGH2 metabolism in the UVB-treated group; however, cyclooxygenase activity was unchanged. These changes in arachidonic acid metabolism in the skin may be of pathophysiologic importance in UV-induced inflammatory reaction.

  12. Protein kinase C, arachidonate metabolism, and tracheal smooth muscle - effects of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.; Baraban, J.; Menkes, H.

    1986-03-01

    Cooling causes airway obstruction in asthma. Contractions of airway smooth muscle may be produced through the phosphatidylinositol cycle and the activation of protein kinase C. Protein kinase C can be activated directly with phorbol esters. The authors studied the effects of temperature on responses to phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) in guinea pig tracheal rings bathed in Krebs-Henseleit solution. At 37/sup 0/C, 1 ..mu..M PDA relaxed the tissue (tension fell 0.60 +/- S.E. 0.04 g). At 27/sub 0/C, 1 ..mu..M PDA contracted the tissue (tension rose 0.050 +/- 0.05 g). In comparison, near maximum contractions produced by 4 ..mu..M carbachol were 2.00 +/- 0.09 g at 37/sub 0/C and 1.90 +/- 0.09 g at 27/sup 0/C. Butler-Gralla et al. showed that phorbol esters may stimulate the release of arachidonic acid from cultured cells. In order to determine whether arachidonate metabolites play a role in responses observed in guinea pig trachea, the authors used indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), FPL 55712 (a leukotriene receptor antagonist) and Na arachidonate. At 37/sup 0/C, 3 ..mu..M indomethacin pretreatment abolished relaxationby 1 uM PDA. At 27/sup 0/C, 10 uM FPL 55712 pretreatment abolished contractions by 1 ..mu..M PDA. Like PDA, 1 ..mu..M Na arachidonate produced relaxation at 37/sup 0/C and contraction at 27/sup 0/C. The authors conclude that the effects of PDA at different temperatures parallel the effects of Na arachidonate. These results suggest that the effects of PDA in the guinea pig trachea are related to the release of endogenous arachidonic acid and that the cyclooxygenase pathway predominates at high temperature and the lipoxygenase pathway predominates at low temperature.

  13. Arachidonic acid activation of a new family of K+ channels in cultured rat neuronal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D; Sladek, C D; Aguado-Velasco, C; Mathiasen, J R

    1995-01-01

    1. The presence and properties of K+ channels activated by arachidonic acid were studied in neuronal cells cultured from the mesencephalic and hypothalamic areas of rat brain. 2. Arachidonic acid produced a concentration-dependent (5-50 microM) and reversible activation of whole-cell currents. 3. In excised membrane patches, arachidonic acid applied to the cytoplasmic or extracellular side of the membrane caused opening of three types of channels whose current-voltage relationships were slightly outwardly rectifying, inwardly rectifying and linear, and whose single channel slope conductances at +60 mV were 143, 45 and 52 pS, respectively. 4. All three currents were K+ selective and blocked by 2 mM Ba2+ but not by other K+ channel blockers such as tetraethylammonium chloride, 4-aminopyridine and quinidine. The outwardly and inwardly rectifying currents were slightly voltage dependent with higher channel activity at more depolarized potentials. 5. Arachidonic acid activated the K+ channels in cells treated with cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid), indicating that arachidonic acid itself can directly activate the channels. Alcohol and methyl ester derivatives of arachidonic acid failed to activate the K+ channels, indicating that the charged carboxyl group is important for activation. 6. Certain unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids), but not saturated fatty acids (myristic, palmitic, stearic acids), also reversibly activated all three types of K+ channel. 7. All three K+ channels were activated by pressure applied to the membrane (i.e. channels were stretch sensitive) with a half-maximal pressure of approximately 18 mmHg. The K+ channels were not blocked by 100 microM GdCl3. 8. A decrease in intracellular pH (over the range 5.6-7.2) caused a reversible, pH-dependent increase in channel activity whether the channel was initially activated by arachidonic acid or stretch. 9. Glutamate

  14. The effect of fluid mechanical stress on cellular arachidonic acid metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintire, L. V.; Frangos, J. A.; Rhee, B. G.; Eskin, S. G.; Hall, E. R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of sublytic levels of mechanical perturations of cells on cell metabolism were investigated by analyzing the products of arachidonic acid (used as a marker metabolite) in blood platelets, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and cultured umbilical-vein endothelial cells after the suspensions of these cells were subjected to a shear stress in a modified viscometer. It is shown that the sublytic levels of mechanical stress stimulated the arachidonic acid metabolism in all these cell types. Possible biological implications of this stress-metabolism coupling are discussed.

  15. Understanding fly-ear inspired directional microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Xuming; Yu, Miao

    2009-03-01

    In this article, the equivalent two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) model for the hypersensitive ear of fly Ormia ocharacea is revisited. It is found that in addition to the mechanical coupling between the ears, the key to the remarkable directional hearing ability of the fly is the proper contributions of the rocking mode and bending mode of the ear structure. This can serve as the basis for the development of fly-ear inspired directional microphones. New insights are also provided to establish the connection between the mechanics of the fly ear and the prior biological experiments, which reveals that the fly ear is a nature-designed optimal structure that might have evolved to best perform its localization task at 5 kHz. Based on this understanding, a new design of the fly-ear inspired directional microphone is presented and a corresponding normalized continuum mechanics model is derived. Parametric studies are carried out to study the influence of the identified non-dimensional parameters on the microphone performance. Directional microphones are developed to verify the understanding and concept. This study provides a theoretical guidance to develop miniature bio-inspired directional microphones, and can impact many fronts that require miniature directional microphones.

  16. Apigenin inhibits platelet adhesion and thrombus formation and synergizes with aspirin in the suppression of the arachidonic acid pathway.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Núñez, L; Lozano, M L; Palomo, M; Martínez, C; Vicente, V; Castillo, J; Benavente-García, O; Diaz-Ricart, M; Escolar, G; Rivera, J

    2008-05-14

    Previous studies using washed platelets demonstrated that certain flavonoids inhibit platelet function through several mechanisms including blockade of TxA(2) receptors (TPs). We aimed to analyze the binding capacity of flavonoids to TPs in platelet rich plasma (PRP), investigated their effect in flowing blood, and evaluated the ability of apigenin to improve the efficacy of aspirin in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. The binding of flavonoids to TPs in PRP was explored using binding assays and the TP antagonist [ (3)H]SQ29548. Effects of flavonoids on platelet adhesion were assessed using arterial subendothelium with annular plate perfusion chambers, and global evaluation of apigenin on high-shear-dependent platelet function was determined by the PFA-100. To evaluate the ability of apigenin to potentiate the effect of aspirin, arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation was measured prior to and after consumption of subaggregatory doses of aspirin in the presence or absence of apigenin. Binding assays revealed that apigenin was an efficient competitor of [ (3)H]SQ29548 binding to PRP ( K i = 155.3 +/- 65.4 microM), and perfusion studies showed that apigenin, genistein, and catechin significantly diminished thrombus formation when compared to control (26.2 +/- 3.8, 33.1 +/- 5.2, and 26.2 +/- 5.2 vs 76.6 +/- 2.6%, respectively; p < 0.05). Apigenin, similarly to the TP antagonist SQ29548, significantly prolonged collagen epinephrine-induced PFA-100 closure time in comparison to the control and, when added to platelets that had been exposed in vivo to aspirin, potentiated its inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. The inhibitory effect of some flavonoids in the presence of plasma, particularly apigenin, might in part rely on TxA(2) receptor antagonism. There is a clear increase in the ex vivo antiplatelet effect of aspirin in the presence of apigenin, which encourages the idea of the combined use of aspirin and certain flavonoids in patients in which

  17. Amyloid Plaque-Associated Oxidative Degradation of Uniformly Radiolabeled Arachidonic Acid.

    PubMed

    Furman, Ran; Murray, Ian V J; Schall, Hayley E; Liu, Qiwei; Ghiwot, Yonatan; Axelsen, Paul H

    2016-03-16

    Oxidative stress is a frequently observed feature of Alzheimer's disease, but its pathological significance is not understood. To explore the relationship between oxidative stress and amyloid plaques, uniformly radiolabeled arachidonate was introduced into transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease via intracerebroventricular injection. Uniform labeling with carbon-14 is used here for the first time, and made possible meaningful quantification of arachidonate oxidative degradation products. The injected arachidonate entered a fatty acid pool that was subject to oxidative degradation in both transgenic and wild-type animals. However, the extent of its degradation was markedly greater in the hippocampus of transgenic animals where amyloid plaques were abundant. In human Alzheimer's brain, plaque-associated proteins were post-translationally modified by hydroxynonenal, a well-known oxidative degradation product of arachidonate. These results suggest that several recurring themes in Alzheimer's pathogenesis, amyloid β proteins, transition metal ions, oxidative stress, and apolipoprotein isoforms, may be involved in a common mechanism that has the potential to explain both neuronal loss and fibril formation in this disease. PMID:26800372

  18. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene variants affect response to fish oil supplementation by healthy African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the effects of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene (ALOX5) variants on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and changes in response to fish oil supplementation. We hypothesized that Sp1 variants in the ALOX5 promoter, which have previously been associated with cardiovascu...

  19. Dexamethasone blocks arachidonate biosynthesis in isolated hepatocytes and cultured hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, C.A.; de Alaniz, M.J.; Brenner, R.R.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of dexamethasone on the incorporation and conversion of (1-14C)eicosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid to arachidonic acid in isolated hepatocytes and in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells was studied. In both kinds of cells, no changes in the exogenous acid incorporation were found when the hormone was added to the incubation media at 0.1 or 0.2 mM concentration, while the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid was significantly depressed. The effect on the biosynthesis was faster in isolated normal liver cells (60 min) than in tumoral cells (120 min) and reached an inhibition of ca. 50% after 3 hr of treatment. The addition of cycloheximide (10(-6) M) also caused a marked decrease in the biosynthesis of this polyunsaturated fatty acid, but when dexamethasone was added to the media simultaneously with cycloheximide, a synergistic action was not observed. The results obtained show that protein synthesis would be involved in the modulation of the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid by glucocorticoids. The changes in the delta 5 desaturation of labeled 20:3 omega 6 to arachidonic acid correlated with changes in the fatty acid composition in isolated cells.

  20. Selective acceleration of arachidonic acid reincorporation into brain membrane phospholipid following transient ischemia in awake gerbil.

    PubMed

    Rabin, O; Chang, M C; Grange, E; Bell, J; Rapoport, S I; Deutsch, J; Purdon, A D

    1998-01-01

    Awake gerbils were subjected to 5 min of forebrain ischemia by clamping the carotid arteries for 5 min and then allowing recirculation. Radiolabeled arachidonic or palmitic acid was infused intravenously for 5 min at the start of recirculation, after which the brains were prepared for quantitative autoradiography or chemical analysis. Dilution of specific activity of the acyl-CoA pool was independently determined for these fatty acids in control gerbils and following 5 min of ischemia and 5 min of reperfusion. Using a quantitative method for measuring regional in vivo fatty acid incorporation into and turnover within brain phospholipids and determining unlabeled concentrations of acyl-CoAs following recirculation, it was shown that reperfusion after 5 min of ischemia was accompanied by a threefold increase compared with the control in the rate of reincorporation of unlabeled arachidonate that had been released during ischemia, whereas reincorporation of released palmitate was not different from the control. Selective and accelerated reincorporation of arachidonate into brain phospholipids shortly after ischemia may ameliorate specific deleterious effects of arachidonate and its metabolites on brain membranes. PMID:9422378

  1. Ozone-induced alterations in arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured lung cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most sensitive cells to ozone (O/sub 3/) damage is the pulmonary endothelial cell which may mediate the response of the lung to injury by productions of the autacoid prostacyclin (PGl/sub 2/), a metabolite of arachidonic acid. Exposure of endothelial cell cultures to ozone produced a concentration dependent decreases in the synthesis of PGl/sub 2/. Release of /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid from endothelial cells was increased after two hours of 0.3 and 1.0 ppm O/sub 3/ exposure while incubation of cells with 20 ..mu..M and arachidonate (4 min) after exposure resulted in a decreased PGl/sub 2/ synthesis. Cells exposed to 1.0 ppm O/sub 3/ did not have a decreased PGl/sub 2/ production when incubated with 5 ..mu..M PGH/sub 2/ immediately after exposure. These results are consistent with an O/sub 3/-induced inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity. O/sub 3/ exposure (1.0 ppm) produced a rapid decrease in endothelial PGl/sub 2/ synthesis. The data suggest that cyclooxygenase was not inactivated by increased autooxidation due to metabolism of increased free arachidonate. PGl/sub 2/ synthesis returned to control amounts within 12 hours after ozone exposure similar to the recovery time of irreversibly inhibited cyclooxygenase suggesting that recovery was due to de novo synthesis of enzyme. Lipid peroxides and/or hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) may have caused the inhibition of cyclooxygenase. Incubation of cells with catalase (5 U/ml) protected against the O/sub 3/-induced depression in PGl/sub 2/ synthesis. Exogenously added H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ (greater than or equal to 75 ..mu..M) caused a stimulation of basal PGl/sub 2/ production but depressed arachidonate-stimulated synthesis. O/sub 3/ exposure (2 hr, 1.0 ppm) produced altered metabolism of arachidonate in other important lung cell types, e.g., a decreased PGl/sub 2/ synthesis in smooth muscle cultures. Exposure of lung macrophages to O/sub 3/ caused an increase in almost all arachidonate metabolites produced.

  2. Ear Infections in Autistic and Normal Children. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantareas, M. Mary; Homatidis, Soula

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the frequency of ear infections, ear tube drainage, and deafness for 51 autistic children (ages 2-18) indicated that autistic children had a greater incidence of ear infections than matched normal peers and lower functioning children had an earlier onset of ear infections than higher functioning autistic peers. (Author)

  3. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  6. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  7. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  8. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear...—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis media, mastoiditis, or cholesteatoma... of the substance 10 6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating...

  9. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  10. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  11. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  13. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  14. An analysis of the acoustic input impedance of the ear.

    PubMed

    Withnell, Robert H; Gowdy, Lauren E

    2013-10-01

    Ear canal acoustics was examined using a one-dimensional lossy transmission line with a distributed load impedance to model the ear. The acoustic input impedance of the ear was derived from sound pressure measurements in the ear canal of healthy human ears. A nonlinear least squares fit of the model to data generated estimates for ear canal radius, ear canal length, and quantified the resistance that would produce transmission losses. Derivation of ear canal radius has application to quantifying the impedance mismatch at the eardrum between the ear canal and the middle ear. The length of the ear canal was found, in general, to be longer than the length derived from the one-quarter wavelength standing wave frequency, consistent with the middle ear being mass-controlled at the standing wave frequency. Viscothermal losses in the ear canal, in some cases, may exceed that attributable to a smooth rigid wall. Resistance in the middle ear was found to contribute significantly to the total resistance. In effect, this analysis "reverse engineers" physical parameters of the ear from sound pressure measurements in the ear canal. PMID:23917695

  15. Valproic acid-induced pancreatitis in a 15-year-old boy with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Veri, Kadi; Uibo, Oivi; Talvik, Inga; Talvik, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced acute pancreatitis is a rare condition in childhood, and information about the incidence of valproic acid-induced acute pancreatitis in the pediatric population is scarce. In this clinical case, we report a first documented pediatric case of valproic acid-induced pancreatitis in Estonia. A 15-year-old boy with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy developed acute pancreatitis after 2-month therapy with valproic acid. The symptoms of pancreatitis subsided within 1 week after the discontinuation of treatment with valproic acid. Acute pancreatitis should be suspected in any pediatric patient with gastrointestinal symptoms during valproate treatment. PMID:24823930

  16. Middle Ear Adenoma: Case Report and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Vrugt, B.; Huber, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Despite modern radiological workup, surgeons can still be surprised by intraoperative findings or by the pathologist's report. Materials & Methods. We describe the case of a 52-year-old male who was referred to our clinic with a single sided conductive hearing loss. He ultimately underwent middle ear exploration and excision of a middle ear tumour followed by second look and ossiculoplasty a year later. Results. Though preoperative CT and MRI scanning were suggestive of a congenital cholesteatoma, the pathologist's report diagnosed a middle ear adenoma. Discussion. Middle ear glandular tumors are extremely rare and, despite numerous histological techniques, continue to defy satisfactory classification. Most surgeons advocate surgical excision though evidence of the tumour's natural course and risk of recurrence is lacking. PMID:25045567

  17. Directional Sensitivity of the Human Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, John D.; Bazley, Martin

    1985-01-01

    Presents a classroom experiment that demonstrates the directional sensitivity of the human ear. Outlines the activity's procedures and provides a diagrammatical view of the experimental arrangement. Also included is an analysis of the expected results. (ML)

  18. Predictions of middle-ear and passive cochlear mechanics using a finite element model of the pediatric ear.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelin; Keefe, Douglas H; Gan, Rong Z

    2016-04-01

    A finite element (FE) model was developed based on histological sections of a temporal bone of a 4-year-old child to simulate middle-ear and cochlear function in ears with normal hearing and otitis media. This pediatric model of the normal ear, consisting of an ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea, was first validated with published energy absorbance (EA) measurements in young children with normal ears. The model was used to simulate EA in an ear with middle-ear effusion, whose results were compared to clinical EA measurements. The spiral cochlea component of the model was constructed under the assumption that the mechanics were passive. The FE model predicted middle-ear transfer functions between the ear canal and cochlea. Effects of ear structure and mechanical properties of soft tissues were compared in model predictions for the pediatric and adult ears. EA responses are predicted to differ between adult and pediatric ears due to differences in the stiffness and damping of soft tissues within the ear, and any residual geometrical differences between the adult ear and pediatric ear at age 4 years. The results have significance for predicting effects of otitis media in children. PMID:27106321

  19. Intraoperative 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Rachel; Nossek, Erez; Shimony, Nir; Raz, Michal; Ram, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a case of primary CNS lymphoma located in the floor of the fourth ventricle that showed intense fluorescence after preoperative administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid. The authors believe that this is the first demonstration of a 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence pattern in primary CNS lymphoma. PMID:24138204

  20. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory


    MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have demonstrated the hepatocarcinogenicity of DCA in rodents when administered in dri...

  1. GPR109A (PUMA-G/HM74A) mediates nicotinic acid-induced flushing.

    PubMed

    Benyó, Zoltán; Gille, Andreas; Kero, Jukka; Csiky, Marion; Suchánková, Marie Catherine; Nüsing, Rolf M; Moers, Alexandra; Pfeffer, Klaus; Offermanns, Stefan

    2005-12-01

    Nicotinic acid (niacin) has long been used as an antidyslipidemic drug. Its special profile of actions, especially the rise in HDL-cholesterol levels induced by nicotinic acid, is unique among the currently available pharmacological tools to treat lipid disorders. Recently, a G-protein-coupled receptor, termed GPR109A (HM74A in humans, PUMA-G in mice), was described and shown to mediate the nicotinic acid-induced antilipolytic effects in adipocytes. One of the major problems of the pharmacotherapeutical use of nicotinic acid is a strong flushing response. This side effect, although harmless, strongly affects patient compliance. In the present study, we show that mice lacking PUMA-G did not show nicotinic acid-induced flushing. In addition, flushing in response to nicotinic acid was also abrogated in the absence of cyclooxygenase type 1, and mice lacking prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptors had reduced flushing responses. The mouse orthologue of GPR109A, PUMA-G, is highly expressed in macrophages and other immune cells, and transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into irradiated PUMA-G-deficient mice restored the nicotinic acid-induced flushing response. Our data clearly indicate that GPR109A mediates nicotinic acid-induced flushing and that this effect involves release of PGE(2) and PGD(2), most likely from immune cells of the skin. PMID:16322797

  2. Comparison of ear tattoo, ear notching and microtattoo in rats undergoing cardiovascular telemetry.

    PubMed

    Kasanen, I H E; Voipio, H-M; Leskinen, H; Luodonpää, M; Nevalainen, T O

    2011-07-01

    Individual and permanent identification of experimental animals is a common and often essential research practice. There is little information available on the short-term effects of these procedures on the animals. In this study, seven rats were implanted with telemetric devices. The effects of three different identification methods (ear tattoo, ear notching and microtattoo) were compared. Cardiovascular data were collected for 24 h after the procedures. Time periods of 0-1, 1-4, 4-16 h (dark) and 16-24 h after the procedure were analysed separately. The most pronounced differences in measured parameters were observed during the first hour after the procedures were performed. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher (P < 0.012) following the ear tattoo than the microtattoo procedure by a difference of approximately 5 mmHg. Heart rate (HR) was significantly elevated (P < 0.001) after ear tattoo compared with both ear notching (Δ = 31 beats per minute [bpm]) and microtattoo (Δ = 44 bpm). During the 1-4 h period and the following dark period, the MAP was highest in the ear notching group, but no differences were observed in the HRs. During the following dark period (4-16 h) and the next day (16-24 h) differences in MAP and HR were minor. In conclusion, microtattoo appears to cause the mildest changes in HR and blood pressure. Based on these results, ear tattoo and ear notching should be replaced by microtattoo whenever possible. PMID:21504993

  3. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. PMID:26104342

  4. Luteolin prevents uric acid-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ying; Shi, Xuhui; Shuai, Xuanyu; Xu, Yuemei; Liu, Yun; Liang, Xiubin; Wei, Dong; Su, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Elevated uric acid causes direct injury to pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we examined the effects of luteolin, an important antioxidant, on uric acid-induced β-cell dysfunction. We first evaluated the effect of luteolin on nitric oxide (NO) formation in uric acid-stimulated Min6 cells using the Griess method. Next, we performed transient transfection and reporter assays to measure transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Western blotting assays were also performed to assess the effect of luteolin on the expression of MafA and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in uric acid-treated cells. Finally, we evaluated the effect of luteolin on uric acid-induced inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in Min6 cells and freshly isolated mouse pancreatic islets. We found that luteolin significantly inhibited uric acid-induced NO production, which was well correlated with reduced expression of iNOS mRNA and protein. Furthermore, decreased activity of NF-κB was implicated in inhibition by luteolin of increased iNOS expression induced by uric acid. Besides, luteolin significantly increased MafA expression in Min6 cells exposed to uric acid, which was reversed by overexpression of iNOS. Moreover, luteolin prevented uric acid-induced inhibition of GSIS in both Min6 cells and mouse islets. In conclusion, luteolin protects pancreatic β-cells from uric acid-induced dysfunction and may confer benefit on the protection of pancreatic β-cells in hyperuricemia-associated diabetes. PMID:25050113

  5. Infrared tympanic temperature and ear canal morphology.

    PubMed

    Daanen, H A M

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the oesophageal temperature (Tes), taken as the reference for core temperature. Also, the oral and rectal temperatures were monitored. A three-dimensional print of the ear canal was made to determine the ear canal morphology. The core temperature of the subjects was increased by at least 1 degrees C during the experiment in order to investigate the dynamics of the core temperature assessment. Two devices were used to determine the IRTT: the Braun Thermoscan PRO 1 and the predecessor of the Braun IRT3020 (code name IRT3000P). Both IRTT-devices underestimated the core temperature, as measured by Tes, by 0.38 degrees C on average. The difference DeltaT between IRTT and Tes was related to ear canal morphology. The circumference of the ear canal at the distal bend in the ear canal and the visibility of the tympanum were the most important parameters. About 22% of the variance in DeltaT was explained by ear canal morphology for the steady state resting period. Wide ear canals and good visibility of the tympanic membrane were related to a smaller DeltaT. A good visibility of the tympanic membrane was generally found in the absence of cerumen. The IRT3000P showed better results than the PRO 1 (DeltaT: -0.31 +/- 0.27 degrees C and -0.44 +/- 0.30 degrees C respectively). Also, the IRT3000P was less dependent on ear canal morphology. The dynamic response of the measured core temperatures was determined by the decrease or rise in core temperature after the heating period was ended. The oesophageal temperature dropped by 0.22 degrees C. The IRTT and oral temperature showed an identical increase of 0.19 degrees C. The slow reacting rectal temperature had an after rise of 0.49 degrees C. PMID

  6. Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Firenzuoli, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology. PMID:18227925

  7. Passive and active middle ear implants

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102

  8. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  9. Virtual endoscopy of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Neri, E; Caramella, D; Panconi, M; Berrettini, S; Sellari Franceschini, S; Forli, F; Bartolozzi, C

    2001-01-01

    Virtual endoscopy is a computer-generated simulation of fiberoptic endoscopy, and its application to the study of the middle ear has been recently proposed. The need to represent the middle ear anatomy by means of virtual endoscopy arose from the increased interest of otolarygologists in transtympanic endoscopy. In fact, this imaging method allows the visualization of middle ear anatomy with high detail, but it is evasive and is essentially used for surgical guidance. Virtual endoscopy provides similar perspectives of the tympanic cavity but does not require the tympanic perforation. In the study of the middle ear, specific attention is given to the retroperitoneum. This region contains elevations of the medial wall (pyramidal eminence and ridge, styloid eminence and ridge, subiculum, ponticulus) and depressions (sinus tympani, posterior sinus tympani, facial sinus, fossula of Grivot, oval window fossula), which can be effectively displayed by virtual endoscopy. Virtual endoscopy is foreseen as a useful tool in preoperative management of patients who are candidates for middle ear surgery, since it can predict with high detail the patient's specific anatomy by imaging perspectives familiar to otosurgeons. PMID:11194916

  10. Arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin synthesis in a macrophage-like cell line exposed to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C; Poole, A

    1984-10-01

    A macrophage-like cell line (P388D1) has been treated with asbestos and the release of arachidonic acid and its metabolites has been studied using two methods. In the first monolayer cultures of the cells were labelled with tritiated arachidonic acid and the release of label into the medium was quantified: secondly the synthesis and release of prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha were followed using radioimmune assay. Crocidolite asbestos caused the greatest release of tritium while the medium from chrysotile-treated cultures contained more of both prostaglandins. Both of the fibrous dusts were significantly more active in both test systems than were the two 'inert' materials--titanium dioxide and milled sample of crocidolite. It is suggested that these phenomena are due to the effect of mineral dusts on phospholipase activity and that differences in this activity are associated with differences in the pathogenicity of various mineral dusts. PMID:6098173

  11. The role of arachidonic acid metabolism in virus-induced alveolar macrophage dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Laegreid, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) recovered from virus-infected lungs have decreased phagocytic, respiratory burst and bactericidal activities. The studies described below investigated the role of eicosanoids in virus induced AM bactericidal dysfunction. The spectrum of eicosanoid metabolites which bovine AM are capable of producing was determined. Cultured AM were exposed to {sup 3}H-arachidonate for 1 hour, stimulated for 4 hours with A23187, phorbol myristate acetate or zymosan and the supernatants extracted and analyzed by HPLC. All stimuli tested caused the release of these cyclooxygenase metabolites: thromboxane B{sub 2}, PGF{sub 2}, PGE{sub 2}, PGD{sub 2} and HHT. The effect of this enhanced release of arachidonate metabolites on the ability of AM to kill bacteria was evaluated. Preincubation with cyclooxygenase inhibitors or dual cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors resulted in partial reversal of the virus-induced bactericidal deficit in PI3 infected AM.

  12. Expression analysis for genes involved in arachidonic acid biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68

    PubMed Central

    Samadlouie, Hamid-Reza; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh; Alavi, Seyed-Mehdi; Varastegani, Boshra

    2014-01-01

    The time courses for production of fungal biomass, lipid, phenolic and arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as expression of the genes involved in biosynthesis of ARA and lipid were examined in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68. A significant increase in the arachidonic acid content in lipids that coincided with reduced levels of lipid was obtained. Reduced gene expression occurred presumably due to the steady reduction of carbon and nitrogen resources. However, these energy resources were inefficiently compensated by the breakdown of the accumulated lipids that in turn, induced up-regulated expression of the candidate genes. The results further indicated that the expression of the GLELO encoding gene is a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of ARA in the early growth phase. PMID:25242926

  13. Effects of arachidonic acid on unitary calcium currents in rat sympathetic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liwang; Rittenhouse, Ann R

    2000-01-01

    We have characterized the actions of arachidonic acid (AA) on whole cell and unitary calcium (Ca2+) currents in rat neonatal superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons using barium (Ba2+) as the charge carrier. Whole cell currents were elicited by stepping the membrane potential from −90 mV to +10 mV. Arachidonic acid (5 μm) was introduced into the bath in the continued presence of 1 μm (+)-202-791, an L-type Ca2+ channel agonist. Under these conditions, the peak current, comprised mainly of N-type current, and a slow, (+)-202-791-induced component of the tail current were inhibited by 67 ± 6 and 60 ± 10%, respectively, indicating that AA inhibits both N- and L-type currents. At a test potential of +30 mV, AA (5 μm) decreased unitary L- and N-type Ca2+ channel open probability (Po) in cell-attached patches that contained a single channel. For both channels, the underlying causes of the decrease in Po were similar. Arachidonic acid caused an increase in the percentage of null sweeps and in the number of null sweeps that clustered together. In sweeps with activity, the average number of openings per sweep decreased, while first latency and mean closed time increased. Arachidonic acid had no significant effect on unitary current amplitude or mean open time. Our findings are the first description of the inhibition of unitary L- and N-type Ca2+ channel activity by AA and are consistent with both channels spending more time in their null mode and with increased dwell time in one or more closed states. PMID:10835042

  14. Immunohistochemical Localization of Key Arachidonic Acid Metabolism Enzymes during Fracture Healing in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsuan-Ni; O’Connor, J. Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the localization of critical enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism during the initial and regenerative phases of mouse femur fracture healing. Previous studies found that loss of cyclooxygenase-2 activity impairs fracture healing while loss of 5-lipoxygenase activity accelerates healing. These diametric results show that arachidonic acid metabolism has an essential function during fracture healing. To better understand the function of arachidonic acid metabolism during fracture healing, expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase -2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) was localized by immunohistochemistry in time-staged fracture callus specimens. All four enzymes were detected in leukocytes present in the bone marrow and attending inflammatory response that accompanied the fracture. In the tissues surrounding the fracture site, the proportion of leukocytes expressing COX-1, COX-2, or LTA4H decreased while those expressing 5-LO remained high at 4 and 7 days after fracture. This may indicate an inflammation resolution function for 5-LO during fracture healing. Only COX-1 was consistently detected in fracture callus osteoblasts during the later stages of healing (day 14 after fracture). In contrast, callus chondrocytes expressed all four enzymes, though 5-LO appeared to be preferentially expressed in newly differentiated chondrocytes. Most interestingly, osteoclasts consistently and strongly expressed COX-2. In addition to bone surfaces and the growth plate, COX-2 expressing osteoclasts were localized at the chondro-osseous junction of the fracture callus. These observations suggest that arachidonic acid mediated signaling from callus chondrocytes or from callus osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction regulate fracture healing. PMID:24516658

  15. Precise individualized armature for ear reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenhouse, Raymond J.; Chen, Xiaoming

    1991-04-01

    The cosmetic result of an ear restored surgically or via prosthetics is dependent on the surgeon''s ability to carve a precise cartilage armature at the time of surgery or the prosthetist''s ability to sculpt in wax an exact duplicate of the patient''s " missing" ear. Introducing CAD/CAM technology into the process benefits the esthetic outcome of these procedures. By utilizing serial section information derived from CAT MRI or moulage techniques a mirrorimage of the patient''s " donor" ear is generated. The resulting earform data is then used for the design of a cartilage armature produced by multi-axis milling or to produce by stereolithography a model which serves as the basis for a prosthesis.

  16. [Bone Conduction and Active Middle Ear Implants].

    PubMed

    Volkenstein, S; Thomas, J P; Dazert, S

    2016-05-01

    The majority of patients with moderate to severe hearing loss can be supplied with conventional hearing aids depending on severity and cause for hearing loss in a satisfying way. However, some patients either do not benefit enough from conventional hearing aids or cannot wear them due to inflammatory reactions and chronic infections of the external auditory canal or due to anatomical reasons. For these patients there are fully- and semi-implantable middle ear and bone conduction implants available. These devices either directly stimulate the skull (bone conduction devices), middle ear structures (active middle ear implants) or the cochlea itself (direct acoustic stimulation). Patients who failed surgical hearing rehabilitation or do not benefit from conventional hearing aids may achieve a significant better speech understanding and tremendous improvement in quality of life by implantable hearing devices with careful attention to the audiological and anatomical indication criteria. PMID:27135430

  17. Effects of chronic ethanol administration and withdrawal on incorporation of arachidonate into membrane phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Sun, G Y; Kelleher, J A; Sun, A Y

    1985-01-01

    A plasma membrane fraction isolated from cerebral cortex of control and ethanol-treated rats was used to study the effects of chronic ethanol administration on uptake of arachidonate by membrane phospholipids. Upon incubation of the membranes with [(14)C] arachidonic acid in the presence of ATP, Mg(2+), and CoA, radioactivity was incorporated into all of the phospholipids, although a large proportion of the label was found in phosphatidylinositols (PI, 60%) and phosphatidylcholines (PC, 20%). Rats given ethanol (8-10 g/kg body wt) via intubation in the form of a liquid diet for 4 weeks showed an increase (17-20%) in arachidonate incorporation into PI and PC as compared to phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylserines (PS). A similar increase in uptake activity was observed at 2 or 24 h upon withdrawal of ethanol, but uptake activity returned readily to that of control level by 72 h. The method described in this study is a sensitive and reliable procedure for monitoring the arachidonoyl turnover activity in neural membranes with respect to chronic ethanol induction and withdrawal. PMID:20492952

  18. Stimulated arachidonate metabolism during foam cell transformation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with oxidized low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Yokode, M; Kita, T; Kikawa, Y; Ogorochi, T; Narumiya, S; Kawai, C

    1988-01-01

    Changes in arachidonate metabolism were examined in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with various types of lipoproteins. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) was incorporated by macrophages and stimulated macrophage prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 syntheses, respectively, 10.8- and 10.7-fold higher than by the control. Production of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a stable metabolite of prostacyclin, was also stimulated. No stimulation was found with native LDL, which was minimally incorporated by the cells. Acetylated LDL and beta-migrating very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL), though incorporated more efficiently than oxidized LDL, also had no stimulatory effect. When oxidized LDL was separated into the lipoprotein-lipid peroxide complex and free lipid peroxides, most of the stimulatory activity was found in the former fraction, indicating that stimulation of arachidonate metabolism in the cell is associated with uptake of the lipoprotein-lipid peroxide complex. These results suggest that peroxidative modification of LDL could contribute to the progression of atheroma by stimulating arachidonate metabolism during incorporation into macrophages. Images PMID:3125226

  19. Lipoxygenase-mediated pro-radical effect of melatonin via stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Radogna, F.; Sestili, P.; Martinelli, C.; Paolillo, M.; Paternoster, L.; Albertini, M.C.; Accorsi, A.; Gualandi, G.; Ghibelli, L.

    2009-07-15

    We have shown that melatonin immediately and transiently stimulates intracellular free radical production on a set of leukocytes, possibly as a consequence of calmodulin binding. We show here that melatonin-induced ROS are produced by lipoxygenase (LOX), since they are prevented by a set of LOX inhibitors, and are accompanied by increase of the 5-LOX product 5-HETE. LOX activation is accompanied by strong liberation of AA; inhibition of Ca{sup 2+}-independent, but not Ca{sup 2+}-dependent, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), prevents both melatonin-induced arachidonic acid and ROS production, whereas LOX inhibition only prevents ROS, indicating that PLA2 is upstream with respect to LOX, as occurs in many signaling pathways. Chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of melatonin-calmodulin interaction, inhibits both ROS and arachidonic acid production, thus possibly placing calmodulin at the origin of a melatonin-induced pro-radical pathway. Interestingly, it is known that Ca{sup 2+}-independent PLA2 binds to calmodulin: our results are compatible with PLA2 being liberated by melatonin from a steady-state calmodulin sequestration, thus initiating an arachidonate signal transduction. These results delineate a novel molecular pathway through which melatonin may participate to the inflammatory response.

  20. Inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism decreases tumor cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase expression.

    PubMed

    Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Monthanapisut, Paopanga; Saensuk, Theeranuch

    2010-11-01

    Head and neck cancers are known to synthesize arachidonic acid metabolites. Interfering with arachidonic acid metabolism may inhibit growth and invasiveness of cancer cells. In this study we investigate effects of sulindac (the non-selective COX inhibitor), aspirin (the irreversible, preferential COX-1 inhibitor), NS-398 (the selective COX-2 inhibitor), NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid, the selective LOX inhibitor) and ETYA (5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, the COX and LOX inhibitor) on cell viability, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, and in vitro invasion of cancer cells derived from primary and metastatic head and neck, and colon cancers. The inhibitors of COX and/or LOX could inhibit cell proliferation, MMP activity and invasion in head and neck and colon cancer cells. However, the inhibitory effect was obviously observed in colon cancer cells. Inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism caused a decrease in cancer cell motility, which partially explained by the inhibition of MMPs. Therefore, COX and LOX pathways play important roles in head and neck cancer cell growth. PMID:20654727

  1. Factors Affecting the Elicitation of Sesquiterpenoid Phytoalexin Accumulation by Eicosapentaenoic and Arachidonic Acids in Potato 1

    PubMed Central

    Bostock, Richard M.; Laine, Roger A.; Kuć, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids in extracts of Phytophthora infestans mycelium were identified as the most active elicitors of sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin accumulation in potato tuber slices. These fatty acids were found free or esterified in all fractions with elicitor activity including cell wall preparations. Yeast lipase released a major portion of eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids from lyophilized mycelium. Concentration response curves comparing the elicitor activity of the polyunsaturated fatty acids to a cell-free sonicate of P. infestans mycelium indicated that the elicitor activity of the sonicated mycelium exceeded that which would be obtained by the amount of eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids (free and esterified) present in the mycelium. Upon acid hydrolysis of lyophilized mycelium, elicitor activity was obtained only from the fatty acid fraction. However, the fatty acids accounted for only 21% of the activity of the unhydrolyzed mycelium and the residue did not enhance their activity. Centrifugation of the hydrolysate, obtained from lyophilized mycelium treated with 2n NaOH, 1 molarity NaBH4 at 100°C, yielded a supernatant fraction with little or no elicitor activity. Addition of this material to the fatty acids restored the activity to that which was present in the unhydrolyzed mycelium. The results indicate that the elicitor activity of the unsaturated fatty acids is enhanced by heat and base-stable factors in the mycelium. PMID:16662691

  2. [Complications Resulting from Taking Ear Impressions].

    PubMed

    Sugiuchi, Tomoko; Kodera, Kazuoki; Zusho, Hiroyuki; Asano, Yoshikazu; Kanesada, Keiko; Hayashida, Mitsuhiro; Kanaya, Koichiro; Tokumaru, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    In 2012, we carried out a study in a large sample to understand the secondary injuries caused during the taking ear impressions for hearing aids. This study is a follow-up of previous research conducted in 1986 (285 medical institutions) and 1999 (98 medical institutions). We posted a questionnaire survey to the otolaryngology departments of 3,257 medical institutions. The response rate to the questionnaire was 62.9% (2,050 of the 3,257 institutions), and the results indicated that 301 of the 2050 institutions (14.7%) had experience with secondary injuries, with a total of 460 cases reported. In 342 of the 460 cases (74.3%), the secondary injuries occurred at hearing-aid dealerships, followed by 67 cases (14.6%) at affiliated medical institutions, and 51 cases (11.1%) in other locations, including other medical institutions, rehabilitation counseling centers, and educational institutions. The most common type of secondary injury (298 cases, 64.8%) was caused by the presence of foreign bodies in the ear, which in turn was a result of complications occurring during the removal of residual ear impression material. Of these 298 cases, 32 required excision of the foreign bodies and surgical intervention under general anesthesia. The remaining 10 cases exhibited isolated tympanic membrane perforation without foreign body-related complications. Furthermore, 146 cases (31.7%) developed bleeding and otitis externa following removal of the ear impression, and there were reports of cases with bleeding that required long-term outpatient care and treatment. Therefore, since retention of a foreign body in the ear and tympanic membrane perforation can occur even in patients without a history of surgery or prior otologic history, adjustment of hearing aids requires prior otorhinolaryngological examination. Furthermore, because of the risk of secondary injury when taking ear impressions, this procedure must be performed with caution under the guidance of an otolaryngologist. PMID

  3. Dysmorphism of the middle ear: case report.

    PubMed

    Solero, P; Ferrara, M; Musto, R; Pira, A; Di Lisi, D

    2005-10-01

    Although there are numerous publications in the literature describing the wide range of diagnosis, classifications and treatment of malformations of the hearing apparatus, even more variations can be found in clinical practice. Indeed, each individual case is unique as far as concerns pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment. The case reported herein describes a 12-year-old boy affected by cranio-facial dysmorphism and monolateral conductive hearing loss in the right ear: followed from radiological diagnosis--carried out to study a malformation of the ear pinna--to surgical treatment. PMID:16602328

  4. Dysmorphism of the middle ear: case report

    PubMed Central

    Solero, P; Ferrara, M; Musto, R; Pira, A; Di Lisi, D

    2005-01-01

    Summary Although there are numerous publications in the literature describing the wide range of diagnosis, classifications and treatment of malformations of the hearing apparatus, even more variations can be found in clinical practice. Indeed, each individual case is unique as far as concerns pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment. The case reported herein describes a 12-year-old boy affected by cranio-facial dysmorphism and monolateral conductive hearing loss in the right ear: followed from radiological diagnosis – carried out to study a malformation of the ear pinna – to surgical treatment. PMID:16602328

  5. High intensity anthropogenic sound damages fish ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Robert D.; Fewtrell, Jane; Popper, Arthur N.

    2003-01-01

    Marine petroleum exploration involves the repetitive use of high-energy noise sources, air-guns, that produce a short, sharp, low-frequency sound. Despite reports of behavioral responses of fishes and marine mammals to such noise, it is not known whether exposure to air-guns has the potential to damage the ears of aquatic vertebrates. It is shown here that the ears of fish exposed to an operating air-gun sustained extensive damage to their sensory epithelia that was apparent as ablated hair cells. The damage was regionally severe, with no evidence of repair or replacement of damaged sensory cells up to 58 days after air-gun exposure.

  6. Middle ear cholesteatoma in 11 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Lombardo, Rocco; Giudice, Chiara; Banco, Barbara; Mortellaro, Carlo M.

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a rare condition in dogs with chronic otitis. Otorrhea, otodinia, and pain on temporomandibular joint palpation are the most common clinical signs. Neurological abnormalities are often detectable. Computed tomography reveals the presence of an expansive and invasive unvascularized lesion involving the tympanic cavity and the bulla, with little or no contrast enhancement after administration of contrast mediu. Video-otoscopy may detect pearly growth or white/yellowish scales in the middle ear cavity. Surgery is the only therapy but is associated with a high risk of recurrence. PMID:22131579

  7. Acinetobacter and similar organisms in ear infections.

    PubMed

    Dadswell, J V

    1976-08-01

    Fifty-seven strains of acinetobacter-like organisms were isolated over a period of 26 months from the ears of 55 patients with acute or chronic otitis media, or otitis externa, and one strain was isolated in a survey of 50 normal ears. After comparison with eight reference strains, 32 of the isolates were identified as Acinetobacter anitratus, 22 as Acinetobacter Iwoffii, three as Moraxella spp. and one as Achromobacter sp. Analysis of the clinical findings suggests that although most of these organisms played little part in the disease process, a few strains were probably pathogenic in this situation. PMID:957420

  8. Stimulation of phospholipid hydrolysis and arachidonic acid mobilization in human uterine decidua cells by phorbol ester.

    PubMed Central

    Schrey, M P; Read, A M; Steer, P J

    1987-01-01

    Vasopressin and oxytocin both stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation in isolated uterine decidua cells. Pretreatment of cells with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) prevented this agonist-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. TPA (0.1 microM) alone had no effect on basal inositol phosphate accumulation, but stimulated phosphoinositide deacylation, as indicated by a 2-fold increase in lysophosphatidylinositol and glycerophosphoinositol. TPA also stimulated a dose-related release of arachidonic acid from decidua-cell phospholipid [phosphatidylcholine (PC) much greater than phosphatidylinositol (PI) greater than phosphatidylethanolamine]. The phorbol ester 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) at 0.1 microM had no effect on arachidonic acid mobilization. The TPA-stimulated increase in arachidonic acid release was apparent by 2 1/2 min (116% of control), maximal after 20 min (283% of control), and remained around this value (306% of control) after 120 min incubation. TPA also stimulated significant increases in 1,2-diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol production at 20 and 120 min. Although the temporal increases in arachidonic acid and monoacylglycerol accumulation in the presence of TPA continued up to 120 min, that of 1,2-diacylglycerol declined after 20 min. In decidua cells prelabelled with [3H]choline, TPA also stimulated a significant decrease in radiolabelled PC after 20 min, which was accompanied by an increased release of water-soluble metabolites into the medium. Most of the radioactivity in the extracellular pool was associated with choline, whereas the main cellular water-soluble metabolite was phosphorylcholine. TPA stimulated extracellular choline accumulation to 183% and 351% of basal release after 5 and 20 min respectively and cellular phosphorylcholine production to 136% of basal values after 20 min. These results are consistent with a model in which protein kinase C activation by TPA leads to arachidonic acid mobilization

  9. Acid-induced exchange of the imino proton in G.C pairs.

    PubMed Central

    Nonin, S; Leroy, J L; Gueron, M

    1996-01-01

    Acid-induced catalysis of imino proton exchange in G.C pairs of DNA duplexes is surprisingly fast, being nearly as fast as for the isolated nucleoside, despite base-pair dissociation constants in the range of 10(-5) at neutral or basic pH. It is also observed in terminal G.C pairs of duplexes and in base pairs of drug-DNA complexes. We have measured imino proton exchange in deoxyguanosine and in the duplex (ATATAGATCTATAT) as a function of pH. We show that acid-induced exchange can be assigned to proton transfer from N7-protonated guanosine to cytidine in the open state of the pair. This is faster than transfer from neutral guanosine (the process of intrinsic catalysis previously characterized at neutral ph) due to the lower imino proton pK of the protonated form, 7.2 instead of 9.4. Other interpretations are excluded by a study of exchange catalysis by formiate and cytidine as exchange catalysts. The cross-over pH between the regimes of pH-independent and acid-induced exchange rates is more basic in the case of base pairs than in the mononucleoside, suggestive of an increase by one to two decades in the dissociation constant of the base pair upon N7 protonation of G. Acid-induced catalysis is much weaker in A.T base pairs, as expected in view of the low pK for protonation of thymidine. PMID:8604298

  10. Results of bone conduction following surgery for chronic ear disease.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, E; Seppä, J

    1997-01-01

    Preoperative and postoperative bone conduction thresholds were compared in 181 chronic ears operated on over a 5-year period between 1990 to 1994. In the majority (92%) of cases the bone conduction thresholds remained unchanged (+/-10 dB). Nine ears (5%) showed better thresholds after surgery, with improvements ranging from 11 dB to 25 dB. This improvement was especially noted in ears with severe tympanic pathology. One ear with a large labyrinthine fistula became totally deaf after surgery. In 5 ears (3%) bone-conduction thresholds deteriorated, but remained measurable at all frequencies tested. In these latter cases this impairment ranged from 11 dB to 27 dB. Cholesteatomatous ears having intact ossicular chains were found to be at the highest risk of inner ear damage when "canal wall-down" mastoidectomies were performed. Methods for prevention of sensorineural hearing loss following chronic ear surgery are discussed. PMID:9332894

  11. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000220.htm Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor To ... enable JavaScript. Your child is being evaluated for ear tube insertion. This is the placement of tubes ...

  12. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing ... learning important speech and language skills. Types of hearing loss Conductive hearing loss is a form of hearing ...

  13. Protective effect of hispidulin on kainic acid-induced seizures and neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu Yu; Lu, Cheng Wei; Wang, Su Jane; Huang, Shu Kuei

    2015-05-15

    Hispidulin is a flavonoid compound which is an active ingredient in a number of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, and it has been reported to inhibit glutamate release. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hispidulin protects against seizures induced by kainic acid, a glutamate analog with excitotoxic properties. The results indicated that intraperitoneally administering hispidulin (10 or 50mg/kg) to rats 30 min before intraperitoneally injecting kainic acid (15 mg/kg) increased seizure latency and decreased seizure score. In addition, hispidulin substantially attenuated kainic acid-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death, and this protective effect was accompanied by the suppression of microglial activation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus. Moreover, hispidulin reduced kainic acid-induced c-Fos expression and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the hippocampus. These data suggest that hispidulin has considerable antiepileptic, neuroprotective, and antiinflammatory effects on kainic acid-induced seizures in rats. PMID:25746462

  14. Houttuyniae Herba Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Neurotoxicity via Calcium Response Modulation in the Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Jeong, Hyun Uk; Hong, Sung In; Oh, Myung Sook

    2015-12-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological disorder characterized by the repeated occurrence of electrical activity known as seizures. This activity induces increased intracellular calcium, which ultimately leads to neuronal damage. Houttuyniae Herba, the aerial part of Houttuynia cordata, has various pharmacological effects and is widely used as a traditional herb. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of Houttuyniae Herba water extract on kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity. Kainic acid directly acts on calcium release, resulting in seizure behavior, neuronal damage, and cognitive impairment. In a rat primary hippocampal culture system, Houttuyniae Herba water extract significantly protected neuronal cells from kainic acid toxicity. In a seizure model where mice received intracerebellar kainic acid injections, Houttuyniae Herba water extract treatment resulted in a lower seizure stage score, ameliorated cognitive impairment, protected neuronal cells against kainic acid-induced toxicity, and suppressed neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus. In addition, Houttuyniae Herba water extract regulated increases in the intracellular calcium level, its related downstream pathways (reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial dysfunction), and calcium/calmodulin complex kinase type II immunoreactivity in the mouse hippocampus, which resulted from calcium influx stimulation induced by kainic acid. These results demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of Houttuyniae Herba water extract through inhibition of calcium generation in a kainic acid-induced epileptic model. PMID:26366753

  15. Minocycline ameliorates prenatal valproic acid induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Treatment with minocycline significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, minocycline has also attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline should be explored further for its therapeutic benefits in autism. PMID:26551768

  16. Endoscopic Management of Middle Ear and Temporal Bone Lesions.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Brandon; Nogueira, João Flávio

    2016-10-01

    Tantamount to the management of temporal bone neoplasms is the ability to visualize the pathology and its relationship with the numerous critical structures housed therein. Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery provides the surgeon with an unparalleled view of the entire middle ear. This article presents the latest information on the usefulness of transcanal endoscopic ear surgery in the management of middle ear and temporal bone neoplasms. PMID:27468636

  17. The Role of Immittance Audiometry in Detecting Middle Ear Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, John T.

    1981-01-01

    Immittance audiometry is an objective technique which evaluates middle ear function by three procedures: static immittance, tympanometry, and the measurement of acoustic reflex threshold sensitivity. This article discusses the technique's ability to identify middle ear effusion, the single leading ear disease in children. A comparison of immittance screening and traditional pure tone audiometry was conducted on 311 school aged children. The results of this study reveal the superiority of immittance audiometry in detecting middle ear pathology. PMID:21289666

  18. How to Prevent Painful Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Children's Health Ear Infections Water Safety (Recreational) About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For ...

  19. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePlus

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  20. Ear biometric recognition using local texture descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzaoui, Amir; Hadid, Abdenour; Boukrouche, Abdelhani

    2014-09-01

    Automated personal identification using the shape of the human ear is emerging as an appealing modality in biometric and forensic domains. This is mainly due to the fact that the ear pattern can provide rich and stable information to differentiate and recognize people. In the literature, there are many approaches and descriptors that achieve relatively good results in constrained environments. The recognition performance tends, however, to significantly decrease under illumination variation, pose variation, and partial occlusion. In this work, we investigate the use of local texture descriptors, namely local binary patterns, local phase quantization, and binarized statistical image features for robust human identification from two-dimensional ear imaging. In contrast to global image descriptors which compute features directly from the entire image, local descriptors representing the features in small local image patches have proven to be more effective in real-world conditions. Our extensive experimental results on the benchmarks IIT Delhi-1, IIT Delhi-2, and USTB ear databases show that local texture features in general and BSIF in particular provide a significant performance improvement compared to the state-of-the-art.

  1. Evolution: Fossil Ears and Underwater Sonar.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Olivier

    2016-08-22

    A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability. PMID:27554653

  2. Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fues, Marianne Cole

    2009-01-01

    Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the speed and…

  3. Ear Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) ... moyenne - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Japanese (日本語) Middle Ear Infection 中耳炎 - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual ...

  4. The formation and management of middle ear granulation tissue in chronic ear disease.

    PubMed

    Roland, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    Granulation tissue is an important pathogenic feature of all types of chronic ear disease, and it can be controlled and treated with good aural toilet, appropriate antibiotic therapy, topical steroids, and chemical cautery or surgical debridement. PMID:14986396

  5. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  6. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  7. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  8. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  9. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  10. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  11. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  12. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  13. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  14. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  15. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  16. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  17. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  18. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  19. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  20. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  1. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  2. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  3. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  4. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  5. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Ear Care in Coastal Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Keerthan; Kanthila, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ear as an organ is necessary for the perception of sound and body balance. Ear infection, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and excessive use of mobile phone for listening to music at high volume all can reduce hearing. No earlier study was available in the costal Karnataka population, regarding the practice of ear care. The study objective was to ascertain the level of knowledge of the community regarding ear care, to find out whether some of the common conditions affecting hearing are known and to find out the common practices involved in maintaining ear hygiene. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 subjects in two tertiary care hospitals by convenient sampling, using self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice across the age groups, religion & education background were studied. Results Across different education groups, 66.7%-90% did not know that ‘cold’ can cause ear infection and 46.7%-75.0% did not know that diabetes and hypertension can reduce hearing. When there is ear pain or discharge, people put ear drops available at home in 48.3%-75.0% across 3 age groups; 58.5%-61.5% across 3 religions and 44.8%-67.9% across 5 education groups. No statistically significant difference was found in the practice of pouring oil into ears across religions. A total of 58.6%-100% daily clean inside the ear and 70-100% use cotton buds. Conclusion General perception of the people is that ear is necessary only for hearing. Majority did not know that nasal infection can affect the ear and that DM and hypertension can cause hearing loss. When there is ear pain and discharge, most of the adults put drops that are available at home. Pouring oil into the ears and cleaning inside the ear canals is routinely practiced in costal Karnataka. PMID:26816922

  6. Better-ear glimpsing in hearing-impaired listeners

    PubMed Central

    Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R.; Kidd, Gerald; Iyer, Nandini; Brungart, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    When competing speech sounds are spatially separated, listeners can make use of the ear with the better target-to-masker ratio. Recent studies showed that listeners with normal hearing are able to efficiently make use of this “better-ear,” even when it alternates between left and right ears at different times in different frequency bands, which may contribute to the ability to listen in spatialized speech mixtures. In the present study, better-ear glimpsing in listeners with bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, who perform poorly in spatialized speech mixtures, was investigated. The results suggest that this deficit is not related to better-ear glimpsing. PMID:25698053

  7. Treatment of Prominent Ears and Otoplasty: A Contemporary Review.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Sachin S; Koch, Cody A; Murakami, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Prominent ears affect approximately 5% of the population and can have a significant psychological impact on patients. A wide variety of otoplasty techniques have been described, all sharing the goal of re-creating the normal appearance of the ear and achieving symmetry between the 2 sides. Recent trends in otoplasty techniques have consistently moved toward less invasive options, ranging from nonsurgical newborn ear molding to cartilage-sparing surgical techniques and even incisionless, office-based procedures. Herein, we review anatomy of the external ear, patient evaluation, the evolution of nonsurgical and surgical otoplasty techniques, otoplasty outcomes, and future trends for treatment of prominent ears. PMID:26158729

  8. Protein kinase C is involved in stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.; Daniel, L.W.; Waite, M.

    1986-05-01

    The authors used 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) to directly stimulate protein kinase C (PKC) in order to examine the role of PKC in transduction of biological signals that increase metabolism of arachidonic acid. Release of radioactive arachidonic acid and prostaglandins from TPA-stimulated MDCK cells is inhibited by either of two PKC inhibitors: 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)piperazine and 1-octadecyl-2-methoxy-glycero-3-phosphocholine (ALP). ALP is unable to inhibit cyclooxygenase when added into an in vitro assay for this enzyme. Furthermore, TPA induces de novo synthesis of cyclooxygenase in MDCK cells but ALP fails to prevent this effect of TPA. Thus, cyclooxygenase activity appears to be independent of PKC and TPA can still induce de novo synthesis of cyclooxygenase even in the presence of the PKC inhibitor ALP. Also, ALP has no effect on the release of arachidonic acid which occurs upon addition of the calcium ionophore A23187 to MDCK cells suggesting that there are multiple mechanisms to mobilize arachidonic acid. Their data indicate that activation of PKC by TPA leads to increased release of arachidonic acid through regulation of phospholipase(s) by PKC.

  9. Arachidonic acid-dependent carbon-eight volatile synthesis from wounded liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Kihara, Hirotomo; Tanaka, Maya; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Horibata, Akira; Yamada, Atsushi; Kita, Sayaka; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kajikawa, Masataka; Fukuzawa, Hideya; Kohchi, Takayuki; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    Eight-carbon (C8) volatiles, such as 1-octen-3-ol, octan-3-one, and octan-3-ol, are ubiquitously found among fungi and bryophytes. In this study, it was found that the thalli of the common liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a model plant species, emitted high amounts of C8 volatiles mainly consisting of (R)-1-octen-3-ol and octan-3-one upon mechanical wounding. The induction of emission took place within 40min. In intact thalli, 1-octen-3-yl acetate was the predominant C8 volatile while tissue disruption resulted in conversion of the acetate to 1-octen-3-ol. This conversion was carried out by an esterase showing stereospecificity to (R)-1-octen-3-yl acetate. From the transgenic line of M. polymorpha (des6(KO)) lacking arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, formation of C8 volatiles was only minimally observed, which indicated that arachidonic and/or eicosapentaenoic acids were essential to form C8 volatiles in M. polymorpha. When des6(KO) thalli were exposed to the vapor of 1-octen-3-ol, they absorbed the alcohol and converted it into 1-octen-3-yl acetate and octan-3-one. Therefore, this implied that 1-octen-3-ol was the primary C8 product formed from arachidonic acid, and further metabolism involving acetylation and oxidoreduction occurred to diversify the C8 products. Octan-3-one was only minimally formed from completely disrupted thalli, while it was formed as the most abundant product in partially disrupted thalli. Therefore, it is assumed that the remaining intact tissues were involved in the conversion of 1-octen-3-ol to octan-3-one in the partially disrupted thalli. The conversion was partly promoted by addition of NAD(P)H into the completely disrupted tissues, suggesting an NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase was involved in the conversion. PMID:25174554

  10. Estimation of outer-middle ear transmission using DPOAEs and fractional-order modeling of human middle ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibolhosseini, Maryam

    Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. Hence, the characteristics of the outer and middle ear affect sound transmission to/from the inner ear. The role of the middle and outer ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea, and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal. OAEs are used to evaluate the health and function of the cochlea; however, they are also affected by outer and middle ear characteristics. To better assess cochlear health using OAEs, it is critical to quantify the impact of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission. The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate outer-middle ear transmission using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). In addition, the role of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission was investigated by developing a physical/mathematical model, which employed fractional-order lumped elements to include the viscoelastic characteristics of biological tissues. Impedance estimations from wideband refectance measurements were used for parameter fitting of the model. The model was validated comparing its estimates of the outer-middle ear sound transmission with those given by DPOAEs. The outer-middle ear transmission by the model was defined as the sum of forward and reverse outer-middle ear transmissions. To estimate the reverse transmission by the model, the probe-microphone impedance was calculated through estimating the Thevenin-equivalent circuit of the probe-microphone. The Thevenin-equivalent circuit was calculated using measurements in a number of test cavities. Such modeling enhances our understanding of the roles of different parts of the outer and middle ear and how they work together to determine their function. In addition, the model would be potentially helpful in diagnosing pathologies of

  11. Photoreactivation of ultraviolet radiation-induced release of arachidonic acid from marsupial cells.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E W; Applegate, L A; Ley, R D

    1991-11-01

    Exposure of an established marsupial cell line, PtK2 (Potorous tridactylus), to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from an FS-40 sunlamp (280-400 nm) resulted in a fluence-dependent release of radiolabeled arachidonic acid (AA) from cell membranes. Post-UVR, but not pre-UVR, exposure to photoreactivating light reversed UVR-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA and suppressed the UVR-induced release of AA. These data indicate that DNA damage contributes to the release of AA from membrane phospholipids. PMID:1665911

  12. Subarachnoid space: middle ear pathways and recurrent meningitis.

    PubMed

    Barcz, D V; Wood, R P; Stears, J; Jafek, B W; Shields, M

    1985-03-01

    Congenital bony abnormalities of the inner ear may result in a communication between the middle ear and the subarachnoid space. Patients with this anomaly often present with recurrent meningitis associated with acute otitis media or with middle ear fluid. This article presents three cases of recurrent meningitis with open middle ear--subarachnoid space connections. The first two cases involve a cerebrospinal fluid leak into the middle ear via the oval window, both patients having a Mondini-type of inner ear deformity. The pathway in the third case opened into the middle ear along the horizontal portion of the facial nerve. Computed tomography (CT) scanning with metrizamide and differential density calculations helped to identify the abnormal pathway and to confirm that the leak has been closed postoperatively. Use of the CT scanner in these cases can be helpful in planning the surgical closure and in postoperative follow-up. PMID:4039111

  13. Effect of anesthetic gas on middle ear fluid.

    PubMed

    Tom, L W; Tsao, F; Marsh, R R; Kessler, A; Konkle, D F

    1994-07-01

    Tympanometry was performed before (preoperative) and after (intraoperative) the administration of inhalation anesthesia including nitrous oxide and halothane on 109 children undergoing myringotomy with pressure equalization tube insertion. A total of 213 preoperative tympanograms were compared with their intraoperative counterparts and the presence or absence of middle ear effusion at myringotomy. When preoperative tympanograms were consistent with pneumatized middle ears, intraoperative findings demonstrated a mean middle ear pressure increase of +147 daPa. When preoperative tympanometry suggested middle ear effusion, less than 1% demonstrated intraoperative tympanometric changes and/or findings at surgery that would support anesthesia clearing middle ear effusion. Preoperative tympanometric data were poor predictors of the presence or absence of effusion at myringotomy. The relationship between inhalation anesthetics (i.e., nitrous oxide and halothane) and middle ear fluids, and the reliability of tympanometry to predict middle ear effusion are discussed. PMID:8022245

  14. Structures that Contribute to Middle-Ear Admittance in Chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, John J.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Songer, Jocelyn E.

    2009-01-01

    We describe measurements of middle-ear input admittance in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) before and after various manipulations that define the contributions of different middle-ear components to function. The chinchilla’s middle-ear air spaces have a large effect on the low-frequency compliance of the middle ear, and removing the influences of these spaces reveals a highly admittant tympanic membrane and ossicular chain. Measurements of the admittance of the air spaces reveal that the high-degree of segmentation of these spaces has only a small effect on the admittance. Draining the cochlea further increases the middle-ear admittance at low frequencies and removes a low-frequency (less than 300 Hz) level dependence in the admittance. Spontaneous or sound-driven contractions of the middle-ear muscles in deeply anesthetized animals were associated with significant changes in middle-ear admittance. PMID:16944166

  15. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal.

    PubMed

    Binnetoglu, Adem; Baglam, Tekin; Tokuc, Gulnur; Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  16. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal

    PubMed Central

    Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  17. An Ear-Worn Vital Signs Monitor.

    PubMed

    He, David Da; Winokur, Eric S; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a wearable vital signs monitor at the ear. The monitor measures the electrocardiogram (ECG), ballistocardiogram (BCG), and photoplethysmogram (PPG) to obtain pre-ejection period (PEP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and pulse transit time (PTT). The ear is demonstrated as a natural anchoring point for the integrated sensing of physiological signals. All three signals measured can be used to obtain heart rate (HR). Combining the ECG and BCG allows for the estimation of the PEP, while combining the BCG and PPG allows for the measurement of PTT. Additionally, the J-wave amplitude of the BCG is correlated with the SV and, when combined with HR, yields CO. Results from a clinical human study on 13 subjects demonstrate this proof-of-concept device. PMID:26208264

  18. The inner ear and the neurologist

    PubMed Central

    Agrup, Charlotte; Gleeson, Michael; Rudge, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Inner ear disorders are common and patients with vestibular failure often present to a neurology clinic because of their dizziness, gait unsteadiness and oscillopsia. Vestibular disorders can be divided into peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Most of the peripheral vestibular disorders have a clinical diagnosis, and a thorough history and examination will often provide a clear direction as to the diagnosis. Correct diagnosis allows treatment for many of the peripheral and central vestibular disorders. As inner ear damage is generally irreversible, early diagnosis allowing prompt treatment is important. The aim of this review is to discuss some audiovestibular conditions that may well appear in a neurology clinic, and to discuss some recent advances within the audiovestibular field that may be of interest to neurologists. Some of the most common audiovestibular conditions will be discussed along side more uncommon conditions. PMID:17229743

  19. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

  20. Benfotiamine attenuates nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Sharma, Ramica; Singh, Manjeet

    2008-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative, in nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 4 weeks) and uric acid (150 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 3 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of thoracic aorta. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion generation. The administration of nicotine and uric acid produced VED by impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine and uric acid produced oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with benfotiamine (70 mg kg(-1)day(-1), p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1)day(-1) p.o., a standard agent) markedly prevented nicotine and uric acid-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Thus, it may be concluded that benfotiamine reduces the oxidative stress and consequently improves the integrity of vascular endothelium and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent nicotine and uric acid-induced experimental VED. PMID:18951979

  1. Morphology of the seagull's inner ear.

    PubMed

    Counter, S A; Tsao, P

    1986-01-01

    The morphology of the seagull ear was investigated and found to be generally similar to that of other Aves. Several specific outer middle and inner ear features were found to be sufficiently different as to be remarkable. Most notably, the dual membranes of the external auditory meatus: one, a collecting (and possibly amplifying and reflecting) parabolic membrane chamber situated immediately anterior to the slightly deeper tympanic membrane. The convex tympanic membrane attaches a cartilagenous extracolumella and a thick osseous columella, which is less thin and fragile than that observed in domestic fowl of comparable body size. The columella footplate and round window are completely covered with a second middle ear membrane which apparently serves as an H2O seal and hydrostatic pressure matcher. The short, hard seagull cochlea houses an elaborate basilar papilla which contains thousands of short and tall hair cells, each with a systematic arrangement of stereocilia bundles. In the seagull, the length of the basilar papilla and the length, width, and number of stereocilia, features which affect the transduction process and frequency resolution, are different from those reported for certain other Aves. PMID:3962648

  2. The glue ear 'epidemic': a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Alderson, David

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the historical context of the dramatic rise in surgery for glue ear in the mid-20th century, and questions the published assertion that this represented a manufactured 'epidemic'. In examining historical sources, the reader's theoretical viewpoint greatly influences their conclusions: the sustained rise in treatment for glue ear may be seen as the advance of science in a golden age or the resistance of insular professionals to reason in the light of new scientific study methods. Current views on the practice of medicine, consumerism, science and standardisation, rationing and the nature of 'truth' all affect the way that we see this period. Technological advances clearly allowed better diagnosis and more effective treatment, but these did not appear to drive an 'epidemic', rather they were developed to meet the pre-existing challenges of otological practice. The proposition that an 'epidemic' was created does not appear to have any solid grounding. Society's perception of what constitutes disease and what needs treatment may have evolved, but the prevalence of other important diseases changed dramatically over this time period, and a real change in the epidemiology of glue ear cannot be dismissed. In defining the case for and against surgical treatment, a solely positivist, quantitative worldview cannot give us a complete picture of benefit and risk to individuals, families and society at large. PMID:21653931

  3. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods. PMID:26024226

  4. Ear Recognition from One Sample Per Person

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods. PMID:26024226

  5. Analytical model of internally coupled ears.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Christine; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; van Hemmen, J Leo

    2010-08-01

    Lizards and many birds possess a specialized hearing mechanism: internally coupled ears where the tympanic membranes connect through a large mouth cavity so that the vibrations of the tympanic membranes influence each other. This coupling enhances the phase differences and creates amplitude differences in the tympanic membrane vibrations. Both cues show strong directionality. The work presented herein sets out the derivation of a three dimensional analytical model of internally coupled ears that allows for calculation of a complete vibration profile of the membranes. The analytical model additionally provides the opportunity to incorporate the effect of the asymmetrically attached columella, which leads to the activation of higher membrane vibration modes. Incorporating this effect, the analytical model can explain measurements taken from the tympanic membrane of a living lizard, for example, data demonstrating an asymmetrical spatial pattern of membrane vibration. As the analytical calculations show, the internally coupled ears increase the directional response, appearing in large directional internal amplitude differences (iAD) and in large internal time differences (iTD). Numerical simulations of the eigenfunctions in an exemplary, realistically reconstructed mouth cavity further estimate the effects of its complex geometry. PMID:20707461

  6. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being <7 weeks of age. Morphologic examination of all acute cases revealed that the hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. PMID:27034341

  7. Rabbit's ear in cold acclimation studied on the change in ear temperature.

    PubMed

    Harada, E; Kanno, T

    1975-03-01

    The role of the rabbit's ear in cold acclimation was studied by varying the temperature of a climatic room in the range from -10 to +30 degrees C; The skin temperature in a nonanesthetized rabbit's ear showed a characteristic response to changes in ambient temperatures; plotting the ear temperature against the ambient temperature yielded an S-shaped curve. The mean ambient temperature corresponding to the inflection point on the S-shaped curve shifted significantly from about 13 degrees C to about 8 degrees C after cold acclimated of a group fed for 7 wk at -10 degrees C. The shift of the S-shaped curve after cold acclimation may not be due to the change in the norepinephrine sensitivity of the vascular beds of the ear: the effect of norepinephrine on the pressure-flow curve in the isolated rabbit's ear was almost unchanged between the control and the cold-acclimated groups. It is proposed that the shift of the inflection point gives a qualitative index of the acclimated state of the rabbit at a particular temperature. PMID:1150550

  8. Predicting skin deficits through surface area measurements in ear reconstruction and adult ear surface area norms.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Memet; Sevim, Kamuran Zeynep; Irmak, Fatih; Yazar, Sevgi Kurt; Yeşilada, Ayşin Karasoy; Karşidağğ, Semra Hacikerim; Tatlidede, Hamit Soner

    2013-07-01

    Ear reconstruction is one of the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery practice. Many studies and techniques have been described in the literature for carving a well-pronounced framework. However, just as important as the cartilage framework is the ample amount of delicate skin coverage of the framework. In this report, we introduce an innovative method of measuring the skin surface area of the auricle from a three-dimensional template created from the healthy ear.The study group consisted of 60 adult Turkish individuals who were randomly selected (30 men and 30 women). The participant ages ranged from 18 to 45 years (mean, 31.5 years), and they had no history of trauma or congenital anomalies. The template is created by dividing the ear into aesthetic subunits and using ImageJ software to estimate the necessary amount of total skin surface area required.Reconstruction of the auricle is a complicated process that requires experience and patience to provide the auricular details. We believe this estimate will shorten the learning curve for residents and surgeons interested in ear reconstruction and will help surgeons obtain adequate skin to drape over the well-sculpted cartilage frameworks by providing a reference list of total ear skin surface area measurements for Turkish men and women. PMID:23851770

  9. Do Swiftlets have an ear for echolocation? The functional morphology of Swiftlets' middle ears.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Henri A; Gea, Stefan; Maas, Steve; Bout, Ron G; Dirckx, Joris J J; Decraemer, Willem F; Povel, G David E

    2007-03-01

    The Oilbird and many Swiftlet species are unique among birds for their ability to echolocate. Echolocaters may benefit from improved hearing sensitivity. Therefore, morphological adaptations to echolocation might be present in echolocating birds' middle ears. We studied the functional morphology of the tympano-ossicular chain of seven specimens of four echolocating Swiftlet species and one specimen each of five non-echolocating species. Three dimensional (3D) reconstructions were made from micro-Computer-Tomographic (muCT) scans. The reconstructions were used in functional morphological analyses and model calculations. A two dimensional (2D) rigid rod model with fixed rotational axes was developed to study footplate output-amplitudes and to describe how changes in the arrangement of the tympano-ossicular chain affect its function. A 3D finite element model was used to predict ossicular-chain movement and to investigate the justification of the 2D approach. No morphological adaptations towards echolocation were found in the middle-ear lever system or in the mass impedance of the middle ear. A wide range of middle-ear configurations result in maximum output-amplitudes and all investigated species are congruent with these predicted best configurations. Echolocation is unlikely to depend on adaptations in the middle ear tympano-ossicular chain. PMID:17229537

  10. Omega-3 PUFAs Lower the Propensity for Arachidonic Acid Cascade Overreactions

    PubMed Central

    Lands, Bill

    2015-01-01

    A productive view of the benefits from omega-3 (n-3) nutrients is that the dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) linoleic acid has a very narrow therapeutic window which is widened by n-3 nutrients. The benefit from moderate physiological actions of the arachidonic acid cascade can easily shift to harm from excessive pathophysiological actions. Recognizing the factors that predispose the cascade to an unwanted overactivity gives a rational approach for arranging beneficial interactions between the n-3 and n-6 essential nutrients that are initial components of the cascade. Much detailed evidence for harmful cascade actions was collected by pharmaceutical companies as they developed drugs to decrease those actions. A remaining challenge is to understand the factors that predispose the cascade toward unwanted outcomes and create the need for therapeutic interventions. Such understanding involves recognizing the similar dynamics for dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients in forming the immediate precursors of the cascade plus the more vigorous actions of the n-6 precursor, arachidonic acid, in forming potent mediators that amplify unwanted cascade outcomes. Tools have been developed to aid deliberate day-to-day quantitative management of the propensity for cascade overactivity in ways that can decrease the need for drug treatments. PMID:26301244

  11. Equine tracheal epithelial membrane strips - An alternate method for examining epithelial cell arachidonic acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.R.; Derksen, F.J.; Robinson, N.E.; Peter-Golden, M.L. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor )

    1990-02-26

    Arachidonic acid metabolism by tracheal epithelium can be studied using enzymatically dispersed cell suspensions or cell cultures. Both techniques require considerable tissue disruption and manipulation and may not accurately represent in vivo activity. The authors have developed an alternate method for obtaining strips of equine tracheal epithelium without enzymatic digestion. In the horse, a prominent elastic lamina supports the tracheal epithelium. By physical splitting this lamina, they obtained strips ({le}12 x 1.5 cm) of pseudostratified columnar epithelium attached to a layer of elastic tissue 30-100 {mu}m thick. Epithelial strips (1.2 x 0.5 cm) were attached to plexiglass rods and incubated with ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid in M199 medium (0.5 {mu}Ci/ml) for 24 hours at 37C. The strips incorporated 36{+-}4% (mean {+-} SEM) of the total radioactivity and released 8.0{+-}1.2% of incorporated radioactivity when stimulated by 5.0 {mu}M calcium ionophore A23187. The extracted supernatant was processed using HPLC, resulting in peaks of radioactivity that co-eluted with authentic PGE{sub 2}, PGF{sub 2}{alpha}, and 12-HETE standards. The greatest activity corresponded to the PGE{sub 2} and PGF{sub 2}{alpha} standards, which is a similar pattern to that reported for cultured human tracheal epithelium.

  12. Evaluation of Bioequivalency and Toxicological Effects of Three Sources of Arachidonic Acid (ARA) in Domestic Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Tyburczy, Cynthia; Brenna, Margaret E.; DeMari, Joseph A.; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Blank, Bryant S.; Valentine, Helen; McDonough, Sean P.; Banavara, Dattatreya; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are routinely added to infant formula to support growth and development. We evaluated the bioequivalence and safety of three ARA-rich oils for potential use in infant formula using the neonatal pig model. The primary outcome for bioequivalence was brain accretion of ARA and DHA. Days 3 to 22 of age, domestic pigs fed one of three formulas, each containing ARA at ~0.64% and DHA at ~0.34% total fatty acids (FA). Control diet ARA was provided by ARASCO® and all diets had DHA from DHASCO® (Martek Biosciences Corp., Columbia, MD). The experimental diets a1 and a2 provided ARA from Refined Arachidonic acid-rich Oil (RAO; Cargill, Inc., Wuhan, China) and SUNTGA40S (Nissui, Nippon Suisan Kaisha, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), respectively. Formula intake and growth were similar across all diets, and ARA was bioequivalent across treatments in the brain, retina, heart, liver and day 21 RBC. DHA levels in the brain, retina and heart were unaffected by diet. Liver sections, clinical chemistry, and hematological parameters were normal. We conclude that RAO and SUNTGA40S, when added to formula to supply ~0.64% ARA are safe and nutritionally bioequivalent to ARASCO in domestic piglets. PMID:21722692

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein (gp120) induction of monocyte arachidonic acid metabolites and interleukin 1.

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, L M; Corcoran, M L; Pyle, S W; Arthur, L O; Harel-Bellan, A; Farrar, W L

    1989-01-01

    This study reports on the direct effect of the envelope glycoprotein (gp120) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on human monocyte function. Addition of preparations of purified gp120 from the HIV-1 to human monocytes resulted in the production of interleukin 1 (IL-1) and arachidonic acid metabolites from the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. Quantification of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-1 revealed an increase in both mediators with 50 ng of gp120 per ml and an increase of 12- and 30- to 40-fold with 200-400 ng of gp120 per ml, respectively. Unlike native gp120, the recombinant nonglycosylated gp120 fragments PB1-RF and PB1-IIIB, as well as one of the core structural proteins of HIV-1, p24, did not increase arachidonic acid metabolism or IL-1 activity. Cytofluorometric analysis revealed that gp120 blocked the binding of OKT4A to the CD4 on monocytes, whereas OKT4 binding was unaffected. Involvement of the CD4 in signal transduction was further demonstrated by the ability of OKT4 and OKT4A monoclonal antibodies to increase monocyte PGE2, IL-1 activity, and nanogram amounts of IL-1 beta. PMID:2536171

  14. Arachidonic acid metabolism in the platelets and neutrophils of diabetic rabbit and human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    An alteration of arachidonic acid metabolism to prostaglandins and leukotrienes from platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes respectively is evident in subjects with diabetes mellitus. There is evidence of altered platelet/vascular wall interactions in diabetes mellitus and evidence that polymorphonuclear leukocytes influence the vascular walls. Theories on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis include both blood cells. Platelet hypersensitivity is evident in those platelets from the alloxan-induced diabetic rabbit either suspended in plasma or buffer. Arachidonic acid- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, release of /sup 14/serotonin, and T x B/sub 2/ and 12-HETE production is enhanced when responses of diabetic platelets are compared to control platelets. Control rabbit neutrophils produce more LTB/sub 4/, LTB/sub 4/ isomers and 5-HETE than diabetic rabbits neutrophils. Decreased synthesis from diabetic rabbit neutrophils is not explained by increased catabolism of LTB/sub 4/, reesterification of 5-HETE, or increased eicosanoid formation. These experiments demonstrate both platelet and neutrophil dysfunction in diabetic subjects. Because of the involvement of these cells in regulating circulatory homeostatis, abnormal behavior could aggravate the atherosclerotic process. Platelet and neutrophil dysfunctions are noted before macroscopic vascular lesions are apparent suggesting an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  15. Endoscopic Ear Surgery: Critical Review of Anatomy and Physiology of Normal and Reconstructive Middle Ear.

    PubMed

    Udagatti, Vithal D; Dinesh Kumar, Rajendran

    2016-06-01

    Middle ear anatomy is complex hence it is difficult to study the microscopic vibration of tympanic membrane and ossicles. The basic research has been done in few centres. Our experience is based on clinical data. The lack of quantitative understanding of structural and functional relationship in the mechanical response of the normal and reconstructed middle ear is major factor in poor hearing results after surgery (Merchant et al. in J Laryngol Otol 112:715-731, 1998). The vibration pattern of tympanic membrane changes with different frequencies. It depends upon shape, position and tension of tympanic membrane. Sometimes reconstructed tympanic membrane loses its shape and tension and thus its vibratory response (Pusalkar and Steinbach in Transplants and implants in otology II, 1992). Then what should be the shape, position, tension of the tympanic membrane and the ossicles. In order to have a serviceable hearing, dry and safe ear, there is a necessity of answering all these queries by us. PMID:27340629

  16. Properties of acid-induced currents in mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Ergonul, Zuhal; Yang, Lei; Palmer, Lawrence G

    2016-05-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are cation channels that are activated by protons (H(+)). They are expressed in neurons throughout the nervous system and may play important roles in several neurologic disorders including inflammation, cerebral ischemia, seizures, neurodegeneration, anxiety, depression, and migraine. ASICs generally produce transient currents that desensitize in response to a decrease in extracellular pH Under certain conditions, the inactivation of ASICs can be incomplete and allow them to produce sustained currents. Here, we characterize the properties of both transient and sustained acid-induced currents in cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. At pH levels between 7.3 and 7.1 they include "window currents" through ASICs. With stronger acid signals sustained currents are maintained in the absence of extracellular Na(+) or the presence of the ASIC blockers amiloride and Psalmotoxin-1(PcTx1). These sustained responses may have several different origins in these cells, including acid-induced stimulation of inward Cl(-) currents, block of outward K(+) currents, and augmentation of inward H(+) currents, properties that distinguish these novel sustained currents from the well-characterized transient currents. PMID:27173673

  17. Icariin, a major constituent from Epimedium brevicornum, attenuates ibotenic acid-induced excitotoxicity in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zong, Nan; Li, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Shi, Jingshan; Jin, Feng; Gong, Qihai

    2016-10-15

    Excitotoxicity is one of the most extensively studied causes of neuronal death and plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Icariin is a flavonoid component of a traditional Chinese medicine reported to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of icariin against learning and memory impairment induced by excitotoxicity. Here, we demonstrated that rats receiving intracerebroventricular injection of excitatory neurotoxin ibotenic acid exhibited impaired learning and memory. Oral administration of icariin at doses of 20 and 40mg/kg rescued behavioral performance and protected against neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus by suppressing ibotenic acid induced pro-apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blott of hippocampal specimens revealed that icariin up-regulated the expression of calbindin-D28k protein following ibotenic acid administration. Additionally, icariin inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family phosphorylation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, implicating the MAPK signaling and NF-κB signaling pathways were involved in the mechanism underlying icariin-mediated neuroprotection against ibotenic acid-induced excitotoxicity. These data suggested that icariin could be a potential agent for treatment of excitotoxicity-related diseases, including AD. PMID:27368415

  18. Polyunsaturated Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Geranylgeranoic Acid Induces Unfolded Protein Response in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iwao, Chieko; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The acyclic diterpenoid acid geranylgeranoic acid (GGA) has been reported to induce autophagic cell death in several human hepatoma-derived cell lines; however, the molecular mechanism for this remains unknown. In the present study, several diterpenoids were examined for ability to induce XBP1 splicing and/or lipotoxicity for human hepatoma cell lines. Here we show that three groups of diterpenoids emerged: 1) GGA, 2,3-dihydro GGA and 9-cis retinoic acid induce cell death and XBP1 splicing; 2) all-trans retinoic acid induces XBP1 splicing but little cell death; and 3) phytanic acid, phytenic acid and geranylgeraniol induce neither cell death nor XBP1 splicing. GGA-induced ER stress/ unfolded protein response (UPR) and its lipotoxicity were both blocked by co-treatment with oleic acid. The blocking activity of oleic acid for GGA-induced XBP1 splicing was not attenuated by methylation of oleic acid. These findings strongly suggest that GGA at micromolar concentrations induces the so-called lipid-induced ER stress response/UPR, which is oleate-suppressive, and shows its lipotoxicity in human hepatoma cells. PMID:26186544

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin C on lithocholic acid-induced cholestatic liver injury in Gulo(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Su Jong; Bae, Seyeon; Kang, Jae Seung; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Yoon Jun; Lee, Wang Jae; Kim, Chung Yong; Lee, Hyo-Suk

    2015-09-01

    Prevention and restoration of hepatic fibrosis from chronic liver injury is essential for the treatment of patients with chronic liver diseases. Vitamin C is known to have hepatoprotective effects, but their underlying mechanisms are unclear, especially those associated with hepatic fibrosis. Here, we analyzed the impact of vitamin C on bile acid induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro and lithocholic acid (LCA)-induced liver injury in vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice, which cannot synthesize vitamin C similarly to humans. When Huh-BAT cells were treated with bile acid, apoptosis was induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress-related JNK activation but vitamin C attenuated bile acid-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro. In our in vivo experiments, LCA feeding increased plasma marker of cholestasis and resulted in more extensive liver damage and hepatic fibrosis by more prominent apoptotic cell death and recruiting more intrahepatic inflammatory CD11b(+) cells in the liver of vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice compared to wild type mice which have minimal hepatic fibrosis. However, when vitamin C was supplemented to vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice, hepatic fibrosis was significantly attenuated in the liver of vitamin C-sufficient Gulo(-/-) mice like in wild type mice and this hepatoprotective effect of vitamin C was thought to be associated with both decreased hepatic apoptosis and necrosis. These results suggested that vitamin C had hepatoprotective effect against cholestatic liver injury. PMID:26057690

  20. Acid-induced hyperalgesia and anxio-depressive comorbidity in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Shao, Yen-Wen; Yen, Chen-Tung; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2014-05-28

    Fibromyalgia is a prevalent disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain (CWP) and complex comorbid symptoms. A CWP model is developed through repeated unilateral intramuscular injections of acid saline resulting in bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia in rats. The present study aims to evaluate whether both anxious and depressive comorbidities exist in this acid-induced pain model, similarly to patients with CWP syndromes. The anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the open field and elevated plus maze tests, and depression-like behaviors were measured by the forced swimming, sucrose consumption, and sucrose preference tests. The pain group receiving acidic saline displayed significantly lower paw withdrawal thresholds for 4weeks than animals in the vehicle group after repetitive intramuscular injections. The pain group showed a significantly shorter duration of exploring the central zone of the open field and the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared to the vehicle group. The pain group had a significantly lower preference for and consumption of the hedonic sucrose. Moreover, rats with chronic pain showed significantly longer immobility than the vehicle group in the forced swimming test. The results indicate that psychiatric behaviors are exacerbated in the CWP model. This study provides evidence for the validity of the acid-induced pain model analogous to patients with CWP syndromes. PMID:24726391

  1. Expression in the human brain of retinoic acid induced 1, a protein associated with neurobehavioural disorders.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Stoney, Patrick N; Shearer, Kirsty D; Sementilli, Angelo; Nanescu, Sonia E; Sementilli, Pietro; McCaffery, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Retinoic acid induced 1 (RAI1) is a protein of uncertain mechanism of action which nevertheless has been the focus of attention because it is a major contributing factor in several human developmental disorders including Smith-Magenis and Potocki-Lupski syndromes. Further, RAI1 may be linked to adult neural disorders with developmental origins such as schizophrenia and autism. The protein has been extensively examined in the rodent but very little is known about its distribution in the human central nervous system. This study demonstrated the presence of RAI1 transcript in multiple regions of the human brain. The cellular expression of RAI1 protein in the human brain was found to be similar to that described in the mouse, with high levels in neurons, but not glia, of the dentate gyrus and cornus ammonis of the hippocampus. In the cerebellum, a second region of high expression, RAI1 was present in Purkinje cells, but not granule cells. RAI1 was also found in neurons of the occipital cortex. The expression of this retinoic acid-induced protein matched well in the hippocampus with expression of the retinoic acid receptors. The subcellular distribution of human neuronal RAI1 indicated its presence in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Overall, human RAI1 protein was found to be a highly expressed neuronal protein whose distribution matches well with its role in cognitive and motor skills. PMID:24519454

  2. Exogenous Ghrelin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Gałązka, Krystyna; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Gil, Krzysztof; Olszanecki, Rafał; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that ghrelin reduces colonic inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and dextran sodium sulfate. In the present study we determined the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Rectal administration of 3% acetic acid solution led to induction of colitis in all animals. Damage of the colonic wall was accompanied by an increase in mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Moreover, induction of colitis led to a reduction in colonic blood flow and DNA synthesis. Administration of ghrelin after induction of colitis led to faster regeneration of the colonic wall and reduction in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase. In addition, treatment with ghrelin improved mucosal DNA synthesis and blood flow. Our study disclosed that ghrelin exhibits a strong anti-inflammatory and healing effect in acetic acid-induced colitis. Our current observation in association with previous findings that ghrelin exhibits curative effect in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis suggest that therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the colon is universal and independent of the primary cause of colitis. PMID:27598133

  3. Salicylic acid induces mitochondrial injury by inhibiting ferrochelatase heme biosynthesis activity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vipul; Liu, Shujie; Ando, Hideki; Ishii, Ryohei; Tateno, Shumpei; Kaneko, Yuki; Yugami, Masato; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Nureki, Osamu; Handa, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Salicylic acid is a classic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Although salicylic acid also induces mitochondrial injury, the mechanism of its antimitochondrial activity is not well understood. In this study, by using a one-step affinity purification scheme with salicylic acid-immobilized beads, ferrochelatase (FECH), a homodimeric enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis in mitochondria, was identified as a new molecular target of salicylic acid. Moreover, the cocrystal structure of the FECH-salicylic acid complex was determined. Structural and biochemical studies showed that salicylic acid binds to the dimer interface of FECH in two possible orientations and inhibits its enzymatic activity. Mutational analysis confirmed that Trp301 and Leu311, hydrophobic amino acid residues located at the dimer interface, are directly involved in salicylic acid binding. On a gel filtration column, salicylic acid caused a shift in the elution profile of FECH, indicating that its conformational change is induced by salicylic acid binding. In cultured human cells, salicylic acid treatment or FECH knockdown inhibited heme synthesis, whereas salicylic acid did not exert its inhibitory effect in FECH knockdown cells. Concordantly, salicylic acid treatment or FECH knockdown inhibited heme synthesis in zebrafish embryos. Strikingly, the salicylic acid-induced effect in zebrafish was partially rescued by FECH overexpression. Taken together, these findings illustrate that FECH is responsible for salicylic acid-induced inhibition of heme synthesis, which may contribute to its antimitochondrial and anti-inflammatory function. This study establishes a novel aspect of the complex pharmacological effects of salicylic acid. PMID:24043703

  4. STRUCTURAL REMODELING OF PROTEOGLYCANS UPON RETINOIC ACID-INDUCED DIFFERENTIATION OF NCCIT CELLS*

    PubMed Central

    Gasimli, Leyla; Stansfield, Hope E.; Nairn, Alison V.; Liu, Haiying; Paluh, Janet L.; Yang, Bo; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increasingly lineage restricted through differentiation. Alterations to the cellular proteoglycan composition and structure should accompany these changes to influence cell proliferation, delineation of tissues and acquisition of cell migration capabilities. Retinoic acid plays an important role in pre-patterning of the early embryo. Retinoic acid can be used in vitro to induce differentiation, causing pluripotent and multipotent cells to become increasingly lineage restricted. We examined retinoic acid-induced changes in the cellular proteoglycan composition of the well-characterized teratocarcinoma line NCCIT. Our analysis revealed changes in the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding core proteins, enzymes that are responsible for early and late linkage region biosynthesis, as well as enzymes for GAG chain extension and modification. Transcript levels for genes encoding core proteins used as backbones for polysaccharide synthesis revealed highly significant increases in expression of lumican and decorin, 1500-fold and 2800-fold, respectively. Similarly, glypican 3, glypican 5, versican and glypican 6 showed increases between 5 and 70-fold. Significant decreases in biglycan, serglycin, glypican 4, aggrecan, neurocan, CD74 and glypican 1 were observed. Disaccharide analysis of the glycans in heparin/heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate revealed retinoic acid-induced changes restricted to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycans. Our study provides the first detailed analysis of changes in the glycosaminoglycan profile of human pluripotent cells upon treatment with the retinoic acid morphogen. PMID:23053635

  5. Structural remodeling of proteoglycans upon retinoic acid-induced differentiation of NCCIT cells.

    PubMed

    Gasimli, Leyla; Stansfield, Hope E; Nairn, Alison V; Liu, Haiying; Paluh, Janet L; Yang, Bo; Dordick, Jonathan S; Moremen, Kelley W; Linhardt, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increasingly lineage restricted through differentiation. Alterations to the cellular proteoglycan composition and structure should accompany these changes to influence cell proliferation, delineation of tissues and acquisition of cell migration capabilities. Retinoic acid plays an important role in pre-patterning of the early embryo. Retinoic acid can be used in vitro to induce differentiation, causing pluripotent and multipotent cells to become increasingly lineage restricted. We examined retinoic acid-induced changes in the cellular proteoglycan composition of the well-characterized teratocarcinoma line NCCIT. Our analysis revealed changes in the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding core proteins, enzymes that are responsible for early and late linkage region biosynthesis, as well as enzymes for GAG chain extension and modification. Transcript levels for genes encoding core proteins used as backbones for polysaccharide synthesis revealed highly significant increases in expression of lumican and decorin, 1,500-fold and 2,800-fold, respectively. Similarly, glypican 3, glypican 5, versican and glypican 6 showed increases between 5 and 70-fold. Significant decreases in biglycan, serglycin, glypican 4, aggrecan, neurocan, CD74 and glypican 1 were observed. Disaccharide analysis of the glycans in heparin/heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate revealed retinoic acid-induced changes restricted to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycans. Our study provides the first detailed analysis of changes in the glycosaminoglycan profile of human pluripotent cells upon treatment with the retinoic acid morphogen. PMID:23053635

  6. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Konturek, Peter; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa. PMID:26798415

  7. Ear Cubes for local controlled drug delivery to the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, M; Sircoglou, J; Gnansia, D; Tourrel, G; Willart, J-F; Danede, F; Lacante, E; Vincent, C; Siepmann, F; Siepmann, J

    2016-07-25

    A new type of advanced drug delivery systems is proposed: Miniaturized implants, which can be placed into tiny holes drilled into (or close to) the oval window. They consist of two parts: 1) A cylinder, which is inserted into the hole crossing the oval window. The cylinder (being longer than the depth of the hole) is partly located within the inner ear and surrounded by perilymph. This provides direct access to the target site, and at the same time assures implant fixation. 2) A cuboid, which is located in the middle ear, serving as a drug reservoir. One side of the cuboid is in direct contact with the oval window. Drug release into the cochlea occurs by diffusion through the cylindrical part of the Ear Cubes and by diffusion from the cuboid into and through the oval window. High precision molds were used to prepare two differently sized Ear Cubes by injection molding. The miniaturized implants were based on silicone and loaded with different amounts of dexamethasone (10 to 30 % w/w). The systems were thoroughly characterized before and upon exposure to artificial perilymph at 37°C. Importantly, drug release can effectively be controlled and sustained during long time periods (up to several years). Furthermore, the implants did not swell or erode to a noteworthy extent during the observation period. Drug diffusion through the polymeric matrix, together with limited dexamethasone solubility effects, seem to control the resulting drug release kinetics, which can roughly be estimated using mathematical equations derived from Fick's second law. Importantly, the proposed Ear Cubes are likely to provide much more reliable local long term drug delivery to the inner ear compared to liquid or semi-solid dosage forms administered into the middle ear, due to a more secured fixation. Furthermore, they require less invasive surgeries and can accommodate higher drug amounts compared to intracochlear implants. Thus, they offer the potential to open up new horizons for innovative

  8. Effects of trimetazidine in ethanol- and acetic acid-induced colitis: oxidant/anti-oxidant status.

    PubMed

    Girgin; Karaoglu; Tüzün; Erkus; Ozütemiz; Dinçer; Batur; Tanyalçin

    1999-11-01

    There is overwhelming evidence in favour of a significant role of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in man and in experimental animal models. This study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effects of pretreatment with trimetazidine (TMZ) on the oxidant-anti-oxidant balance in ethanol- and acetic acid-induced colonic damage in rats. TMZ was chosen because of its various cytoprotective features (preserving cellular ATP levels, limiting intracellular acidosis and limiting inorganic phosphate, Na(+) and Ca(2+) accumulation) and anti-oxy characteristics which were previously reported. A total of 80 rats were randomized into eight major groups each consisting of 10 animals. Animals in groups 1, 2 and 3 served as models of ethanol-induced colitis (0.25 ml of 30% (v/v) ethanol), while group 4 served as their control. Animals in groups 5, 6 and 7 served as models of acetic acid-induced colitis (1 ml of 4% (v/v) acetic acid), while group 8 served as their control. TMZ was administered 5 mg/kg by intrarectal (i.r.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes to groups 1, 2, 5 and 6. Intraperitoneal administration of TMZ was used in order to evaluate its systemic effect while i.r. administration was used to determine its local effect. After decapitation, colon mucosa samples were obtained and evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities as markers for inflammation, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as markers for oxidant stress and reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels as markers for anti-oxidant status were determined. Acute colitis was observed in macroscopic and microscopic evaluation in ethanol- and acetic acid-administered groups compared with controls (P = 0.000). The macroscopic and microscopic scores in colitis groups were correlated with MPO activities (r = 0.5365, P = 0.000 and r = 0.5499, P = 0.000, respectively). MDA

  9. Chinchilla middle-ear admittance and sound power: High-frequency estimates and effects of inner-ear modifications

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of YTM, the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. YTM appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of YTM decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ∼0.1 below 3.5 kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5 kHz, and nearly 1 above 16 kHz. PMID:23039439

  10. Computer-integrated finite element modeling of human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Sun, Q; Gan, R Z; Chang, K-H; Dormer, K J

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to produce an improved finite element (FE) model of the human middle ear and to compare the model with human data. We began with a systematic and accurate geometric modeling technique for reconstructing the middle ear from serial sections of a freshly frozen temporal bone. A geometric model of a human middle ear was constructed in a computer-aided design (CAD) environment with particular attention to geometry and microanatomy. Using the geometric model, a working FE model of the human middle ear was created using previously published material properties of middle ear components. This working FE model was finalized by a cross-calibration technique, comparing its predicted stapes footplate displacements with laser Doppler interferometry measurements from fresh temporal bones. The final FE model was shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of the human middle ear. PMID:14595544

  11. Acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity alters cardiac cytochrome P450 expression and arachidonic acid metabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zordoky, Beshay N.M.; Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; Aboutabl, Mona E.

    2010-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anti-neoplastic antibiotic used to treat a variety of malignancies; however, its use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Moreover, there is a strong correlation between cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated arachidonic acid metabolites and the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, in the current study, we have investigated the effect of acute DOX toxicity on the expression of several CYP enzymes and their associated arachidonic acid metabolites in the heart of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute DOX toxicity was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg of the drug. Our results showed that DOX treatment for 24 h caused a significant induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2C11, CYP2J3, CYP4A1, CYP4A3, CYP4F1, CYP4F4, and EPHX2 gene expression in the heart of DOX-treated rats as compared to the control. Similarly, there was a significant induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2C11, CYP2J3, CYP4A, and sEH proteins after 24 h of DOX administration. In the heart microsomes, acute DOX toxicity significantly increased the formation of 20-HETE which is consistent with the induction of the major CYP omega-hydroxylases: CYP4A1, CYP4A3, CYP4F1, and CYP4F4. On the other hand, the formation of 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) was significantly reduced, whereas the formation of their corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids was significantly increased. The decrease in the cardioprotective EETs can be attributed to the increase of sEH activity parallel to the induction of the EPHX2 gene expression in the heart of DOX-treated rats. In conclusion, acute DOX toxicity alters the expression of several CYP and sEH enzymes with a consequent alteration in arachidonic acid metabolism. These results may represent a novel mechanism by which this drug causes progressive cardiotoxicity.

  12. Computed Tomography Staging of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel; Ghonim, Mohamed Rashad; Ashraf, Bassem

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To establish computed tomography (CT) staging of middle ear cholesteatoma and assess its impact on the selection of the surgical procedure. Material/Methods Prospective study was conducted on 61 consecutive patients (mean age 26.8 years) with middle ear cholesteatoma. CT scan of the temporal bone and surgery were performed in all patients. CT staging classified cholesteatoma according to its location in the tympanic cavity (T); extension into the mastoid (M); and associated complications (C). Cholesteatoma was staged as stage I (T1, T2), stage II (T3, M1, M2, C1), and stage III (C2). Results The overall sensitivity of CT staging of cholesteatoma compared to surgery was 88% with excellent agreement and correlation between CT findings and intra-operative findings (K=0.863, r=0.86, P=0.001). There was excellent agreement and correlation of CT staging with surgical findings for T location (K=0.811, r=0.89, P=0.001), good for M extension (K=0.734, r=0.88, P=0.001), and excellent for associated C complications (K=1.00, r=1.0, P=0.001). Atticotympanotomy was carried out in stage I (n=14), intact canal wall surgery was performed in stage II (n=38), and canal wall down surgery was done in stage III (n=5) and stage II (n=4). Conclusions We established CT staging of middle ear cholesteatoma that helps surgeons to select an appropriate surgery. PMID:26171086

  13. The effects of fibrin tissue adhesive on the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Katzke, D; Pusalkar, A; Steinbach, E

    1983-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of fibrin glue ('Tissucol', Immuno Pty. Ltd.) in the middle and inner ear. Small amounts of the adhesive were used in 36 operations performed on 18 rabbits. The light microscopic examination of these ears four, eight and 12 weeks after surgery showed that the adhesive was well tolerated and that it did not have any toxic effect on the middle ear or membranous labyrinth. The fibrin tissue adhesive can therefore safely be used to facilitate reconstructive middle-ear surgery and, with the aid of fascia, also for the closure of labyrinthine fistulae; or to achieve a definite seal of oval window niche after stapes surgery. PMID:6600776

  14. Neuroendocrine Adenoma of the Middle Ear: A Rare Histopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    McGinness, Sam; Coleman, Hedley; Varikatt, Winny; da Cruz, Melville

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours occur throughout the body but are rare in the head and neck region and particularly rare in the middle ear. Clinical findings are often nonspecific and therefore pose a diagnostic challenge. Furthermore, the nomenclature of neuroendocrine tumours of the middle ear is historically controversial. Herein a case is presented of a middle ear adenoma in a 33-year-old patient who presented with otalgia, hearing loss, and facial nerve palsy. A brief discussion is included regarding the histopathological features of middle ear adenomas and seeks to clarify the correct nomenclature for these tumours. PMID:27429819

  15. Fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors for gunshot localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Currano, Luke; Gee, Danny; Yang, Benjamin; Yu, Miao

    2009-05-01

    The supersensitive ears of the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea have inspired researchers to develop bio-inspired directional microphone for sound localization. Although the fly ear is optimized for localizing the narrow-band calling song of crickets at 5 kHz, experiments and simulation have shown that it can amplify directional cues for a wide frequency range. In this article, a theoretical investigation is presented to study the use of fly-ear inspired directional microphones for gunshot localization. Using an equivalent 2-DOF model of the fly ear, the time responses of the fly ear structure to a typical shock wave are obtained and the associated time delay is estimated by using cross-correlation. Both near-field and far-field scenarios are considered. The simulation shows that the fly ear can greatly amplify the time delay by ~20 times, which indicates that with an interaural distance of only 1.2 mm the fly ear is able to generate a time delay comparable to that obtained by a conventional microphone pair with a separation as large as 24 mm. Since the parameters of the fly ear structure can also be tuned for muzzle blast and other impulse stimulus, fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors offers great potential for developing portable gunshot localization systems.

  16. EARS, MARS combined radio observations - 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomezzoli, Giancarlo

    2014-02-01

    The Lyrid meteor shower was generated on 21-22 April 2014 by the passage of the Earth through the path of the debris of the comet C/1861 G1 (Thatcher). The Camelopardalids meteor shower was generated on 23-24 May 2014 by the passage of the Earth through the path of the debris of the comet 209P/Linear. The EurAstro Radio Station (EARS) and the Malta Astro Radio Station (MARS) were operated in parallel for two combined radio observation campaigns. The campaigns revealed that further combined radio observation campaigns are necessary to solve the problem of estimating the number of lost radio meteor echoes.

  17. Morphometric study of the external and middle ear anatomy in sheep: a possible model for ear experiments.

    PubMed

    Seibel, Valter Alberto Ayres; Lavinsky, Luiz; De Oliveira, José Alfredo Preto

    2006-09-01

    Sheep are a potentially useful model for otologic surgical training and experimentation, currently limited by the scarcity of morphological comparisons between the structure of the ear in sheep and in humans. A detailed morphometric study of the ear in sheep was carried out using computed tomography. Measurements made with AutoCAD Release 14 were compared with measurements for the human ear reported in the literature. In general, ear structures in sheep are two-thirds the size of those in humans. The important anatomical similarities found in this study between the ear in sheep and in humans suggest that sheep may be a useful model for surgical training and experimentation in some middle ear procedures. PMID:16287111

  18. Effects of thyroid hormone status on metabolic pathways of arachidonic acid in mice and humans: A targeted metabolomic approach.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xuan; Sa, Rina; Ye, Cheng; Zhang, Duo; Zhang, Shengjie; Xia, Hongfeng; Wang, Yu-cheng; Jiang, Jingjing; Yin, Huiyong; Ying, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of cardiovascular diseases are frequently found in patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. However, it is unknown whether arachidonic acid metabolites, the potent mediators in cardiovascular system, are involved in cardiovascular disorders caused by hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. To answer this question, serum levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in human subjects with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and mice with hypothyroidism or thyroid hormone treatment were determined by a mass spectrometry-based method. Over ten arachidonic acid metabolites belonging to three catalytic pathways: cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450, were quantified simultaneously and displayed characteristic profiles under different thyroid hormone status. The level of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a cytochrome P450 metabolite, was positively correlated with thyroid hormone level and possibly contributed to the elevated blood pressured in hyperthyroidism. The increased prostanoid (PG) I2 and decreased PGE2 levels in hypothyroid patients might serve to alleviate atherosclerosis associated with dyslipidemia. The elevated level of thromboxane (TX) A2, as indicated by TXB2, in hyperthyroid patients and mice treated with thyroid hormone might bring about pulmonary hypertension frequently found in hyperthyroid patients. In conclusion, our prospective study revealed that arachidonic acid metabolites were differentially affected by thyroid hormone status. Certain metabolites may be involved in cardiovascular disorders associated with thyroid diseases. PMID:25841349

  19. On the ability of prostaglandin E1, and arachidonic acid to modulate experimentally induced oedema in the rat paw.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, A J; Nelson, D J; Sugrue, M F

    1975-01-01

    1 Prostaglandins E1 and E2 but not prostaglandin F2alpha, arachidonic acid or linolenic acid, produced slight oedema when injected into the rat hindpaw. 2 Prostaglandin E1 potentiated hindpaw oedema produced by carrageenan, kaolin, bradykinin and trypsin but not that produced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), histamine, dextran B or compound 48/80. Carrageenan- and bradykinin-induced paw oedemas were also potentiated by prostaglandin E2. Arachidonic acid potentiated responses to carrageenan and kaolin but not responses to bradykinin, trypsin, 5-HT, histamine, dextran B or compound 48/80. Linolenic acid did not potentiate hindpaw oedema induced by carrageenan. 3 Potentiation of carrageenan-induced oedema by prostaglandin E1 was not diminished by pretreatment with indomethacin, hydrocortisone or cyproheptadine. However, arachidonic acid potentiation of carrageenan oedema was reduced by pretreatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs but not by anti-inflammatory steroids or by paracetamol. 4 The enhancement of the response to carrageenan and kaolin by prostaglandins E1, E2 and arachidonic acid is discussed in terms of kinin mediation. PMID:1182349

  20. IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MOSS PHYSCOMITRELLA PATENS DELTA5-DESATURASE GENE INVOLVED IN ARACHIDONIC AND EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The moss Physcomitrella patens contains high levels of arachidonic acid and lesser amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid. In general, these C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids are synthesized from linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, respectively, by a series of reactions catalyzed by a delta6-desaturase, an ...

  1. Mechanism for release of arachidonic acid during guinea pig platelet aggregation: a role for the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor RHC 80267

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, D.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of the release of arachidonic acid from phospholipids after the stimulation of guinea pig platelets with collagen, thrombin and platelet activating factor (PAF) was studied. RHC 80267, a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, and indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, were used. Various in vitro assays for enzymes involved in arachidonic acid release and metabolism were conducted. Platelet aggregation and simultaneous release of ADP from platelets were monitored using a Chrono-log Lumiaggregometer. Platelets were labeled with (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid to facilitate sensitive determination of small changes in platelet phospholipids during platelet aggregation. In the present investigation it is shown that collagen, thrombin and PAF increased phospholipase C activity. It was also discovered that cyclooxygenase products were responsible for further stimulation (a positive feed-back) of phospholipase C activity, while diacylglycerol provided a negative feed-back control over receptor-stimulated phospholipase C activity and inhibited ADP release. The guinea pig platelet is an ideal model to study phospholipase C-diacylglycerol lipase pathway for the release of arachidonic acid from platelet phospholipids because it does not have any phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity. It was observed that cyclooxygenase products were responsible for collagen-induced guinea pig platelet aggregation. Indomethacin completely inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, was less effective against thrombin, and had no effect on PAF-induced platelet aggregation. On the other hand, RHC 80267 was a powerful inhibitor of aggregation and ADP release induced by all three of these potent aggregating agents.

  2. Involvement of Nitric Oxide on Calcium Mobilization and Arachidonic Acid Pathway Activation during Platelet Aggregation with different aggregating agonists.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debipriya; Mazumder, Sahana; Kumar Sinha, Asru

    2016-03-01

    Platelet aggregation by different aggregating agonists is essential in the normal blood coagulation process, the excess of which caused acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In all cases, the activation of arachidonic acid by cycloxygenase was needed for the synthesis of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) but the mechanism of arachidonic acid release in platelets remains obscure. Studies were conducted to determine the role of nitric oxide (NO), if any, on the release of arachidonic acid in platelets. The cytosolic Ca(2+) was visualized and quantitated by fluorescent spectroscopy by using QUIN-2. NO was measured by methemoglobin method. Arachidonic acid was determined by HPLC. TXA2 was measured as ThromboxaneB2 (TXB2) by ELISA. Treatment of platelets in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with different aggregating agents resulted in the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) which inhibited the production of NO synthesis and increased TXA2 synthesis. Furthermore, the treatment of washed PRP with different platelet aggregating agents resulted in the increase of [Ca(2+)] in nM ranges. In contrast, the pre-treatment of washed PRP with aspirin increased platelet NO level and inhibited the Ca(2+) mobilization and TXA2 synthesis. These results indicated that the aggregation of platelets by different aggregating agonists was caused by the cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization due to the inhibition of NOS. PMID:27127451

  3. Plasma oxylipin profiling identifies polyunsaturated vicinal diols as responsive to arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake in growing piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dose-responsiveness of plasma oxylipins to incremental dietary intake of arachidonic (20:4n-6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3; DHA) acid was determined in piglets. Piglets randomly received one of six formulas (n=8 per group) from day 3 to 27 postnatally. Diets contained varying ARA and DHA l...

  4. Altered Arachidonate Distribution in Macrophages from Caveolin-1 Null Mice Leading to Reduced Eicosanoid Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Astudillo, Alma M.; Pérez-Chacón, Gema; Meana, Clara; Balgoma, David; Pol, Albert; del Pozo, Miguel A.; Balboa, María A.; Balsinde, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    In this work we have studied the effect of caveolin-1 deficiency on the mechanisms that regulate free arachidonic acid (AA) availability. The results presented here demonstrate that macrophages from caveolin-1-deficient mice exhibit elevated fatty acid incorporation and remodeling and a constitutively increased CoA-independent transacylase activity. Mass spectrometry-based lipidomic analyses reveal stable alterations in the profile of AA distribution among phospholipids, manifested by reduced levels of AA in choline glycerophospholipids but elevated levels in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and phosphatidylinositol. Furthermore, macrophages from caveolin-1 null mice show decreased AA mobilization and prostaglandin E2 and LTB4 production upon cell stimulation. Collectively, these results provide insight into the role of caveolin-1 in AA homeostasis and suggest an important role for this protein in the eicosanoid biosynthetic response. PMID:21852231

  5. Arachidonic acid stimulates formation of a novel complex containing nucleolin and RhoA.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Melissa C; Williams, Jason; Johnson, Katina; Olden, Kenneth; Roberts, John D

    2011-02-18

    Arachidonic acid (AA) stimulates cell adhesion through a p38 mitogen activated protein kinase-mediated RhoA signaling pathway. Here we report that a proteomic screen following AA-treatment identified nucleolin, a multifunctional nucleolar protein, in a complex with the GTPase, RhoA, that also included the Rho kinase, ROCK. AA-stimulated cell adhesion was inhibited by expression of nucleolin-targeted shRNA and formation of the multiprotein complex was blocked by expression of dominant-negative RhoA. AA-treatment also induced ROCK-dependent serine phosphorylation of nucleolin and translocation of nucleolin from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it appeared to co-localize with RhoA. These data suggest the existence of a new signaling pathway through which the location and post-translational state of nucleolin are modulated. PMID:21281639

  6. Arachidonic acid metabolism in polymorphonuclear cells in headaches. A methodologic study.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Y D; Seim, A; Stovner, L J; Mack, M; Bjerve, K S; Sjaastad, O

    1988-09-01

    Prostaglandins and leukotrienes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various types of headache, mainly because some, but not all, cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors are effective in their treatment. We have therefore investigated whether a pathologically changed turnover of arachidonic acid (AA)-containing phospholipids can be seen in headache patients, using isolated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) from healthy controls and patients with chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH) and cluster headache. PMNs from healthy controls incorporated 55% of the added (1-14C)AA into total lipids, and 0.5% +/- 0.14% of this radioactivity was found in the phosphatidylserine (PS) fraction. PMNs from a cluster headache and a CPH patient showed 300% and 900% increase in PS labeling from AA, respectively. No other phospholipids showed any difference between controls and patients. The results are discussed in connection with membrane signal transduction via the PS-dependent protein kinase C. PMID:3143481

  7. Blood-brain barrier and brain fatty acid uptake: Role of arachidonic acid and PGE2.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    How do fatty acids enter the brain and what role, if any, do membrane and cytosolic fatty acid binding proteins have on facilitating this process? This is a fundamental question that many lipid neurochemists will freely admit they cannot answer in any kind of definitive manner. A study by Dalvi and colleagues in this issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry now adds to our knowledge in this field. Among other important observations, their experiments demonstrate that a physiological level of arachidonic acid (ARA), that could be associated with many different physiological and pathophysiological states, increases permeability in a model of the human blood brain barrier (BBB) in the absence of cytokines. This last point is very important as it suggests increases in BBB permeability may occur in situations other than those associated with increases in tumor necrosis factor a (TNFα) and interleukin1b (IL1β), giving additional options for developing drugs impacting BBB permeability. PMID:26383055

  8. Neutrophil chemotaxis and arachidonic acid metabolism are not linked: evidence from metal ion probe studies

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.R.; Turner, R.A.; Smith, D.M.; Johnson, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    Heavy metal ions can inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism protect against ionophore cytotoxicity (ibid) and inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis. In this study they used Au/sup 3 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ as probes of the interrelationships among AA metabolism, ionophore-mediated cytotoxicity, and chemotaxis. Phospholipid deacylation was measured in ionophore-treated cells prelabeled with /sup 3/H-AA. Eicosanoid release from ionophore-treated cells was monitored by radioimmunoassay. Cytoprotection was quantitated as ability to exclude trypan blue. Chemotaxis toward f-met-leu-phe was measured by leading front analysis. The results imply that metal ions attenuate ionophore cytotoxicity by blocking phospholipid deacylation and eicosanoid release. In contrast to previous reports, no correlation between AA metabolism and chemotaxis was demonstrated, suggesting that these 2 processes are not linked.

  9. Roles for nitric oxide and arachidonic acid in the induction of heterosynaptic cerebellar LTD.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, T; Hartell, N A

    2001-01-22

    In cerebellar slices conjunctive pairing of parallel fibre (PF) stimulation with depolarization of Purkinje cells (PCs) induces a long-term depression (LTD) of PF synaptic transmission that spreads to unpaired PF inputs to the same cell. Inhibitors of NO synthase (7-nitro-indazole), soluble guanylate cyclase (ODQ) and PKG (KT5823) all prevented depression at each of two independent PF pathways to a single PC. Inhibition of NOS also unmasked a platelet activating factor (PAF)-mediated synaptic potentiation of possible presynaptic origin. LTD was also prevented by the phospholipase A2 inhibitor OBAA but was rescued by co-perfusion with arachidonic acid. We conclude that NO and diffusible products of phospholipase A2 metabolism are potential mediators of the spread of cerebellar plasticity at the single cell level. PMID:11201073

  10. Eicosanoids Derived From Arachidonic Acid and Their Family Prostaglandins and Cyclooxygenase in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Kunio; Imataka, George; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Ohara, Naoki; Naito, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived lipid mediators are called eicosanoids. Eicosanoids have emerged as key regulators of a wide variety of physiological responses and pathological processes, and control important cellular processes. AA can be converted into biologically active compounds by metabolism by cyclooxygenases (COX). Beneficial effect of COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib add-on therapy has been reported in early stage of schizophrenia. Moreover, add-on treatment of celecoxib attenuated refractory depression and bipolar depression. Further, the COX/prostaglandin E pathway play an important role in synaptic plasticity and may be included in pathophysiology in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this regard, plasma transferrin, which is an iron mediator related to eicosanoid signaling, may be related to social impairment of ASD. COX-2 is typically induced by inflammatory stimuli in the majority of tissues, and the only isoform responsible for propagating the inflammatory response. Thus, COX-2 inhibitors considered as the best target for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26521945

  11. The Synthesis and In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of Fluorinated Arachidonic Acid: Implications for Imaging Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pichika, Rama; Taha, Ameer Y.; Gao, Fei; Kotta, Kishore; Cheon, Yewon; Chang, Lisa; Kiesewetter, Dale; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Eckelman, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is found in high concentrations in brain phospholipids and is released as a second messenger during neurotransmission and much more so during neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity. Upregulated brain AA metabolism associated with neuroinflammation has been imaged in rodents using [1-14C]AA and with PET in Alzheimer disease patients using [1-11C]AA. Radiotracer brain AA uptake is independent of cerebral blood flow, making it an ideal tracer despite altered brain functional activity. However, the 20.4-min radioactive half-life of 11C-AA and challenges of routinely synthesizing 11C fatty acids limit their translational utility as PET biomarkers. Methods As a first step to develop a clinically useful 18F-fluoroarachidonic acid (18F-FAA) with a long radioactive half-life of 109.8 min, we report here a high-yield stereoselective synthetic method of non-radioactive 20-19F-FAA. We tested its in vivo pharmacokinetics by infusing purified nonradioactive 19F-FAA intravenously for 5 min at 2 doses in unanesthetized mice and measured its plasma and brain distribution using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Incorporation coefficients of injected 19F-FAA into brain phospholipids (ratio of brain 19F-FAA concentration to plasma input function) were 3- to 29-fold higher for choline glycerophospholipid and phosphatidylinositol than for ethanolamine glycerophospholipid and phosphatidylserine at each of the 2 tested doses. The selectivities and values of incorporation coefficients were comparable to those reported after [1-14C]AA (the natural arachidonate) infusion in mice. Conclusion These results suggest that it would be worthwhile to translate our stereoselective synthetic method for 19F-FAA to synthesize positron-emitting 18F-FAA for human brain AA metabolism in neuroinflammatory disorders such as Alzheimer disease. PMID:22851635

  12. Cyclooxygenase dependency of the renovascular actions of cytochrome P450-derived arachidonate metabolites.

    PubMed

    Carroll, M A; Garcia, M P; Falck, J R; McGiff, J C

    1992-01-01

    The renovascular effects of cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonic acid (P450-AA) metabolites synthesized by rat and rabbit kidneys were studied in the rabbit isolated kidney under conditions of constant flow and examined for their dependency on cyclooxygenase relative to their expression of vasoactivity. Kidneys were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution, and perfusion pressure was raised to levels of 90 to 110 mm Hg with the addition of 2 to 3 microM phenylephrine to the perfusate. Close arterial injection of 1 to 20 micrograms of 5,6-, 8,9- and 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) dose-dependently decreased perfusion pressure. The 5,6-EET was the most potent and the only epoxide dependent on cyclooxygenase for expression of vasoactivity, being inhibited by indomethacin (2.8 microM). In contrast, 14,15-EET resulted in dose-dependent increases in perfusion pressure. The vasodilator effects of the omega- and omega-1 oxidation products, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and the stereoisomers of 19-HETE, were also inhibited by indomethacin. Furthermore, the renal vasodilator responses to 5,6-EET were not inhibited by either superoxide dismutase (10 U) or catalase (40 U) and, therefore, were unrelated to the formation of oxygen radicals generated during transformation of the epoxide by cyclooxygenase. As 5,6-EET and 19- and 20-HETE are synthesized by the renal tubules and can affect movement of salt and water, expression of vasoactivity by P450-dependent arachidonic acid metabolites, and after release from a nephron segment, may represent a mechanism that couples altered renal tubular function to appropriate changes in local blood flow. PMID:1731035

  13. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Arachidonic Acid against Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium▿

    PubMed Central

    El Ridi, Rashika; Aboueldahab, Marwa; Tallima, Hatem; Salah, Mohamed; Mahana, Noha; Fawzi, Samia; Mohamed, Shadia H.; Fahmy, Omar M.

    2010-01-01

    The development of arachidonic acid (ARA) for treatment of schistosomiasis is an entirely novel approach based on a breakthrough discovery in schistosome biology revealing that activation of parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) by unsaturated fatty acids, such as ARA, induces exposure of parasite surface membrane antigens to antibody binding and eventual attrition of developing schistosomula and adult worms. Here, we demonstrate that 5 mM ARA leads to irreversible killing of ex vivo 1-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-week-old Schistosoma mansoni and 9-, 10-, and 12-week-old Schistosoma haematobium worms within 3 to 4 h, depending on the parasite age, even when the worms were maintained in up to 50% fetal calf serum. ARA-mediated worm attrition was prevented by nSMase inhibitors, such as CaCl2 and GW4869. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that ARA-mediated worm killing was associated with spine destruction, membrane blebbing, and disorganization of the apical membrane structure. ARA-mediated S. mansoni and S. haematobium worm attrition was reproduced in vivo in a series of 6 independent experiments using BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice, indicating that ARA in a pure form (Sigma) or included in infant formula (Nestle) consistently led to 40 to 80% decrease in the total worm burden. Arachidonic acid is already marketed for human use in the United States and Canada for proper development of newborns and muscle growth of athletes; thus, ARA has potential as a safe and cost-effective addition to antischistosomal therapy. PMID:20479203

  14. Phosphate limitation promotes unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis by microalgae Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaomin; Jiao, Kailin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Xiaoyi; Chang, Jingyu; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Sun, Yong; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are highly appreciated on their nutritive value for human health and aquaculture. P. purpureum, one of the red microalgae acknowledged as a promising accumulator of ARA, was chosen as the target algae in the present research. Effects of sodium bicarbonate (0.04-1.2 g/L), temperature (25, 30 and 33 °C) and phosphate (0.00-0.14 g/L) on biomass yield, total fatty acids (TFA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) accumulation were investigated systemically. NaHCO3 dose of 0.8 g/L and moderate temperature of 30 °C were preferred. In addition, TFA and ARA production were significantly enhanced by an appropriate concentration of phosphate, and the highest TFA yield of 666.38 mg/L and ARA yield of 159.74 mg/L were obtained at a phosphate concentration of 0.035 g/L. Interestingly, with phosphate concentration continuing to fall, UFA/TFA and ARA/EPA ratios were increased accordingly, suggesting that phosphate limitation promoted unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis. Low concentration of phosphate may be favored to increase the enzymatic activities of ∆6-desaturase, which played a key role in catalyzing the conversion of C16:0 to C18:2, and thus the selectivity of UFA increased. Meanwhile, the increase of ARA selectivity could be attributed to ω6 pathway promotion and ∆17-desaturase activity inhibition with phosphate limitation. Phosphate limitation strategy enhanced unsaturated fatty acids and ARA biosynthesis in P. purpureum, and can be applied in commercial scale manufacturing and commercialization of ARA. PMID:27004948

  15. Rapid Stimulation of 5-Lipoxygenase Activity in Potato by the Fungal Elicitor Arachidonic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Bostock, Richard M.; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Choi, Doil; Ricker, Karin E.; Ward, Bernard L.

    1992-01-01

    The activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) in aged potato tuber discs increased by almost 2-fold following treatment of the discs with the fungal elicitor arachidonic acid (AA). Enzyme activity increased above that in untreated discs within 30 min after AA treatment, peaked at 1 to 3 h, and returned to near control levels by 6 h. The majority of the activity was detected in a soluble fraction (105,000g supernatant), but a minor portion was also associated with a particulate fraction enriched in microsomal membranes (105,000g pellet); both activities were similarly induced. 5-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid was the principal product following incubation of these extracts with AA. Antibodies to soybean LOX strongly reacted with a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 95-kD present in both soluble and particulate fractions whose abundance generally corresponded with LOX activity in extracts. LOX activity was not enhanced by treatment of the discs with nonelicitor fatty acids or by branched β-glucans from the mycelium of Phytophthora infestans. Prior treatment of the discs with abscisic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, or n-propyl gallate, all of which have been shown to suppress AA induction of the hypersensitive response, inhibited the AA-induced increment in LOX activity. Cycloheximide pretreatment, which abolishes AA elicitor activity for other responses such as phytoalexin induction, did not inhibit LOX activity in water- or elicitor-treated discs but enhanced activity similar to that observed by AA treatment. The elicitor-induced increase in 5-LOX activity preceded or temporally paralleled the induction of other studied responses to AA, including the accumulation of mRNAs for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase reported here. The results are discussed in relation to the proposed role of the 5-LOX in signal-response coupling of arachidonate elicitation of the hypersensitive response. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID

  16. OX1 orexin/hypocretin receptor signaling through arachidonic acid and endocannabinoid release.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Pauli M; Jäntti, Maria H; Kukkonen, Jyrki P

    2012-08-01

    We showed previously that OX(1) orexin receptor stimulation produced a strong (3)H overflow response from [(3)H]arachidonic acid (AA)-labeled cells. Here we addressed this issue with a novel set of tools and methods, to distinguish the enzyme pathways responsible for this response. CHO-K1 cells heterologously expressing human OX(1) receptors were used as a model system. By using selective pharmacological inhibitors, we showed that, in orexin-A-stimulated cells, the AA-derived radioactivity was released as two distinct components, i.e., free AA and the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). Two orexin-activated enzymatic cascades are responsible for this response: cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) and diacylglycerol lipase; the former cascade is responsible for part of the AA release, whereas the latter is responsible for all of the 2-AG release and part of the AA release. Essentially only diacylglycerol released by phospholipase C but not by phospholipase D was implicated as a substrate for 2-AG production, although both phospholipases were strongly activated. The 2-AG released acted as a potent paracrine messenger through cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in an artificial cell-cell communication assay that was developed. The cPLA(2) cascade, in contrast, was involved in the activation of orexin receptor-operated Ca(2+) influx. 2-AG was also released upon OX(1) receptor stimulation in recombinant HEK-293 and neuro-2a cells. The results directly show, for the first time, that orexin receptors are able to generate potent endocannabinoid signals in addition to arachidonic acid signals, which may explain the proposed orexin-cannabinoid interactions (e.g., in neurons). PMID:22550093

  17. Absorption and lymphatic transport of exogenous and endogenous arachidonic and linoleic acid in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, A.; Landin, B.; Jensen, E.; Akesson, B.

    1987-06-01

    (/sup 3/H)Arachidonic (20:4) and (/sup 14/C)linoleic acid (18:2) were fed to thoracic duct-cannulated rats in test meals of either tracers alone, cream, Intralipid, pure arachidonic acid, or pure linoleic acid. Less (/sup 3/H)20:4 than (/sup 14/C)18:2 was recovered in chyle during the first 5 h. After cream feeding, the proportion of radioactivity found in phospholipids was high and increased during the first 3 h. After the meal 61 +/- 6% of the /sup 3/H and 57 +/- 10% of the /sup 14/C was in phosphatidylcholine, and 11 +/- 3% of the /sup 3/H and 3.0 +/- 4% of the /sup 14/C was in phosphatidylethanolamine. Changing the fat vehicle to Intralipid or pure 18:2 decreased the proportion of label in the phospholipds and increased the /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C radioactivity in the triacylglycerol fraction, the distribution of /sup 14/C radioactivity in the triacylglycerol fraction, the distribution of /sup 14/C being influenced more than that of /sup 3/H. After feeding the tracers in 200 ..mu..l of pure 20:4, >90% of both isotopes was in triacylglycerol. During fasting, triacylglycerol transported 56% (0.7 ..mu..mol/h), phosphatidylethanolamine transported 10% (0.1 ..mu..mol/h) of the 20:4 mass. After cream or Intralipid feeding, the output of 20:4-containing phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine increased 2.1- to 2.8-fold, whereas the transport of 20:4 with triacylglycerol remained constant. Phospholipids thus became the predominant transport form for 20:4. After feeding 200 ..mu..l of 20:4, the intestine produced, however, 20:4-rich triacylglycerols that transported 80% of the chyle 20:4.

  18. Arachidonic acid metabolites do not mediate toluene diisocyanate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, T.; Thompson, J.E.; Sheppard, D.

    1988-05-01

    Arachidonic acid metabolites have previously been demonstrated to mediate the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in guinea pigs and dogs after exposure to ozone. Guinea pigs were treated with indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), U-60,257 (piriprost, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor), or BW775c (a lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and exposed to air or 3 ppm TDI. Airway responsiveness to acetylcholine aerosol was examined 2 h after exposure. In control animals, the provocative concentration of acetylcholine which caused a 200% increase in pulmonary resistance over baseline (PC200) was significantly less (p less than 0.05) after exposure to TDI (8.6 +/- 2.0 mg/ml, geometric mean + geometric SE, n = 10) than after exposure to air (23.9 + 2.5 mg/ml, n = 14). The airway responsiveness to acetylcholine in animals treated with indomethacin or piriprost and exposed to TDI was not different from that of control animals exposed to TDI. Treatment with BW755c enhanced the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in animals exposed to TDI without altering the PC200 of animals exposed to air. The PC200 of animals treated with BW755c and exposed to TDI (2.3 + 0.8 mg/ml, n = 8) was significantly lower than the PC200 of control animals exposed to TDI (p less than 0.025). These results suggest that products of arachidonic acid metabolism are not responsible for TDI-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs. BW755c, however, appears to potentiate the TDI-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to acetylcholine by an as yet unidentified mechanism.

  19. Co-compartmentalization of MAP kinases and cytosolic phospholipase A2 at cytoplasmic arachidonate-rich lipid bodies.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, W.; Bozza, P. T.; Tzizik, D. M.; Gray, J. P.; Cassara, J.; Dvorak, A. M.; Weller, P. F.

    1998-01-01

    Lipid bodies are inducible lipid domains abundantly present in leukocytes engaged in inflammation. They are rich in esterified arachidonate and are also potential sites for eicosanoid-forming enzyme localization. It is therefore of interest to know whether arachidonate-releasing cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) localizes at lipid bodies. Here, we present evidence that cPLA2 and its activating protein kinases, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, co-localize at lipid bodies. U937 cells express high levels of cPLA2 and contain numerous cytoplasmic lipid bodies. Using double-labeling immunocytochemistry we demonstrated punctate cytoplasmic localizations of both cPLA2 and MAP kinases in U937 cells that were perfectly concordant with fluorescent fatty-acid-labeled lipid bodies. The co-localization of cPLA2 and MAP kinases at lipid bodies was confirmed by subcellular fractionation and immunoblot. Lipid body fractions free of cytosol and other organelles contained significant amounts of [14C]arachidonate-labeled phosphatidylcholine and cPLA2 enzymatic activities. Immunoblotting with specific antibodies identified cPLA2 as well as MAP kinases, including ERK1, ERK2, p85, and p38, in lipid bodies. The co-compartmentalization within arachidonate-rich lipid bodies of cPLA2 and its potentially activating protein kinases suggests that lipid bodies may be structurally distinct intracellular sites active in extracellular ligand-induced arachidonate release and eicosanoid formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9502418

  20. The increased level of COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Morel, Agnieszka; Miller, Elzbieta; Bijak, Michal; Saluk, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Platelet activation is increasingly postulated as a possible component of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially due to the increased risk of cardiovascular events in MS. Arachidonic acid cascade metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key pathway of platelet activation. The aim of our study was to investigate the COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SP MS) patients. The blood samples were obtained from 50 patients (man n = 22; female n = 28), suffering from SP MS, diagnosed according to the revised McDonald criteria. Platelet aggregation was measured in platelet-rich plasma after arachidonic acid stimulation. The level of COX activity and thromboxane B2 concentration were determined by ELISA method. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the level of malondialdehyde. The results were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. We found that blood platelets obtained from SP MS patients were more sensitive to arachidonic acid and their response measured as platelet aggregation was stronger (about 14 %) relative to control. We also observed a significantly increased activity of COX (about 40 %) and synthesis of thromboxane B2 (about 113 %). The generation of malondialdehyde as a marker of lipid peroxidation was about 10 % higher in SP MS than in control. Cyclooxygenase-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism is significantly increased in blood platelets of patients with SP MS. Future clinical studies are required to recommend the use of low-dose aspirin, and possibly other COX inhibitors in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in MS. PMID:27507559

  1. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-11-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic

  2. Valproic Acid-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis with Pseudocyst Formation: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sukanta; Khamrui, Sujan; Kataria, Mohnish; Biswas, Jayanta; Saha, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Valproic acid is the most widely used anti-epilep-tic drug in children, and it is probably the most frequent cause of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. Outcomes for patients with valproic acid-associated pancreatitis vary from full recovery after discontinuation of the drug to severe acute pancreatitis and death. Here, we present a case of valproic acid-induced severe acute pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation in a 10-year-old girl with cerebral palsy and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. There was no resolution of the pseudocyst after discontinuation of valproic acid. The patient became symptomatic with a progressive increase in the size of the pseudocyst. She was successfully treated with cystogastrostomy and was well at 12-month follow-up. PMID:26366333

  3. A stochastic model featuring acid-induced gaps during tumor progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athni Hiremath, Sandesh; Surulescu, Christina

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we propose a phenomenological model for the formation of an interstitial gap between the tumor and the stroma. The gap is mainly filled with acid produced by the progressing edge of the tumor front. Our setting extends existing models for acid-induced tumor invasion models to incorporate several features of local invasion like formation of gaps, spikes, buds, islands, and cavities. These behaviors are obtained mainly due to the random dynamics at the intracellular level, the go-or-grow-or-recede dynamics on the population scale, together with the nonlinear coupling between the microscopic (intracellular) and macroscopic (population) levels. The wellposedness of the model is proved using the semigroup technique and 1D and 2D numerical simulations are performed to illustrate model predictions and draw conclusions based on the observed behavior.

  4. CA3 Synaptic Silencing Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Seizures and Hippocampal Network Oscillations123

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lily M. Y.; Wintzer, Marie E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epilepsy is a neurological disorder defined by the presence of seizure activity, manifest both behaviorally and as abnormal activity in neuronal networks. An established model to study the disorder in rodents is the systemic injection of kainic acid, an excitatory neurotoxin that at low doses quickly induces behavioral and electrophysiological seizures. Although the CA3 region of the hippocampus has been suggested to be crucial for kainic acid-induced seizure, because of its strong expression of kainate glutamate receptors and its high degree of recurrent connectivity, the precise role of excitatory transmission in CA3 in the generation of seizure and the accompanying increase in neuronal oscillations remains largely untested. Here we use transgenic mice in which CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic transmission can be inducibly silenced in the adult to demonstrate CA3 excitatory output is required for both the generation of epileptiform oscillatory activity and the progression of behavioral seizures. PMID:27022627

  5. Valproic Acid-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis with Pseudocyst Formation: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Khamrui, Sujan; Kataria, Mohnish; Biswas, Jayanta; Saha, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid is the most widely used anti-epilep­tic drug in children, and it is probably the most frequent cause of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. Outcomes for patients with valproic acid-associated pancreatitis vary from full recovery after discontinuation of the drug to severe acute pancreatitis and death. Here, we present a case of valproic acid-induced severe acute pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation in a 10-year-old girl with cerebral palsy and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. There was no resolution of the pseudocyst after discontinuation of valproic acid. The patient became symptomatic with a progressive increase in the size of the pseudocyst. She was successfully treated with cystogastrostomy and was well at 12-month follow-up. PMID:26366333

  6. Study of dynamic process of acetic acid induced-whitening in epithelial tissues at cellular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao T.; Qu, Jianan Y.; Cheung, Tak Hong; Yim, So Fan; Wong, Yick Fu

    2005-06-01

    Acetic acid, inducing transient whitening (acetowhitening) when applied to epithelial tissues, is a commonly used contrast agent for detecting early cervical cancer. The goals of this research are to investigate the temporal characteristics of acetowhitening process in cervical epithelial tissue at cellular level and develop a clear understanding of the diagnostic information carried in the acetowhitening signal. A system measuring time-resolved reflectance was built to study the rising and decay processes of acetowhitening signal from the monolayered cell cultures of normal and cancerous cervical squamous cells. It is found that the dynamic processes of acetowhitening in normal and cancerous cells are significantly different. The results of this study provide insight valuable to further understand the acetowhitening process in epithelial cells and to encourage the development of an objective procedure to detect the early cervical cancers based on quantitative monitoring of the dynamic process of acetowhitening

  7. Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced photosensitization: current clinical status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Stuart L.; Golub, Allyn L.; Shulman, D. Geoffrey

    1995-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced photosensitization (ALA PDT) via endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) synthesis has been reported as efficacious, using topical formulations, in the treatment of a variety of dermatologic diseases including superficial basal cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and actinic (solar) keratoses. Application of ALA PDT to the detection and treatment of both malignant and non-malignant diseases of internal organs has recently been reported. Local internal application of ALA has been used for the detection, via PpIX fluorescence, of pathological conditions of the human urinary bladder and for selective endometrial ablation in animal model systems. Systemic, oral administration of ALA has been used for ALA PDT of superficial head and neck cancer and of colorectal cancer. This paper reviews the current clinical status of ALA PDT.

  8. Sp8 regulates inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyeyoung A; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Harland, Richard M

    2014-04-29

    A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to regulate limb and brain development. Two different loss-of-function approaches using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and morpholino oligonucleotides confirmed that the ecl mutant phenotype is caused by down-regulation of sp8. Depletion of sp8 resulted in otic dysmorphogenesis, such as uncompartmentalized and enlarged otic vesicles, epithelial dilation with abnormal sensory end organs. When overexpressed, sp8 was sufficient to induce ectopic otic vesicles possessing sensory hair cells, neurofilament innervation in a thickened sensory epithelium, and otoconia, all of which are found in the endogenous otic vesicle. We propose that sp8 is an important factor for initiation and elaboration of inner ear development. PMID:24722637

  9. Esophageal Submucosal Injection of Capsaicin but Not Acid Induces Symptoms in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert H; Korsapati, Hariprasad; Bhalla, Vikas; Varki, Nissi; Mittal, Ravinder K

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) is a candidate for mediating acid-induced symptoms in the esophagus. We conducted studies to determine if the presence of acid in the mucosa/submucosa and direct activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin elicited symptoms in normal healthy subjects. We also studied the presence of TRPV1 receptors in the esophagus. Methods Unsedated endoscopy was performed on healthy subjects with no symptoms. Using a sclerotherapy needle, normal saline (pH 2.0–7.5) was injected into the mucosa/submucosa, 5 cm above the Z line. In a separate group of healthy subjects, injection of capsaicin and vehicle was also studied. Quality of symptoms was reported using the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and symptom intensity using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Immunohistochemistry was performed on 8 surgical esophagus specimens using TRPV1 antibody. Results Acid injection either did not elicit or elicited mild symptoms in subjects at all pH solutions. Capsaicin but not the vehicle elicited severe heartburn/chest pain in all subjects. Mean VAS for capsaicin was 91 ± 3 and symptoms lasted for 25 ± 1 minutes. Immunohistochemistry revealed a linear TRPV1 staining pattern between the epithelial layer and the submucosa that extended into the papillae. Eighty-five percent of papillae stained positive for TRPV1 with a mean 1.1 positive papillae per high-powered field. Conclusions The mechanism of acid-induced heartburn and chest pain is not the simple interaction of hydrogen ions with afferents located in the esophageal mucosa and submucosa. TRPV1 receptors are present in the lamina propria and their activation induces heartburn and chest pain. PMID:26932896

  10. Proteomic Investigation into Betulinic Acid-Induced Apoptosis of Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tao; Pang, Qiuying; Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Aiqin; Luo, Shaman; Wang, Yang; Yan, Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that exhibits anticancer functions in human cancer cells. This study provides evidence that betulinic acid is highly effective against the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by inducing dose- and time-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic process was further investigated using a proteomics approach to reveal protein expression changes in HeLa cells following betulinic acid treatment. Proteomic analysis revealed that there were six up- and thirty down-regulated proteins in betulinic acid-induced HeLa cells, and these proteins were then subjected to functional pathway analysis using multiple analysis software. UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decarboxylating, chain A Horf6-a novel human peroxidase enzyme that involved in redox process, was found to be down-regulated during the apoptosis process of the oxidative stress response pathway. Consistent with our results at the protein level, an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed in betulinic acid-treated cells. The proteins glucose-regulated protein and cargo-selection protein TIP47, which are involved in the endoplasmic reticulum pathway, were up-regulated by betulinic acid treatment. Meanwhile, 14-3-3 family proteins, including 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε, were down-regulated in response to betulinic acid treatment, which is consistent with the decrease in expression of the target genes 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε. Furthermore, it was found that the antiapoptotic bcl-2 gene was down-regulated while the proapoptotic bax gene was up-regulated after betulinic acid treatment in HeLa cells. These results suggest that betulinic acid induces apoptosis of HeLa cells by triggering both the endoplasmic reticulum pathway and the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. PMID:25148076

  11. Probing the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome for biological function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The senses of hearing and balance depend upon mechanoreception, a process that originates in the inner ear and shares features across species. Amphibians have been widely used for physiological studies of mechanotransduction by sensory hair cells. In contrast, much less is known of the genetic basis of auditory and vestibular function in this class of animals. Among amphibians, the genus Xenopus is a well-characterized genetic and developmental model that offers unique opportunities for inner ear research because of the amphibian capacity for tissue and organ regeneration. For these reasons, we implemented a functional genomics approach as a means to undertake a large-scale analysis of the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome through microarray analysis. Results Microarray analysis uncovered genes within the X. laevis inner ear transcriptome associated with inner ear function and impairment in other organisms, thereby supporting the inclusion of Xenopus in cross-species genetic studies of the inner ear. The use of gene categories (inner ear tissue; deafness; ion channels; ion transporters; transcription factors) facilitated the assignment of functional significance to probe set identifiers. We enhanced the biological relevance of our microarray data by using a variety of curation approaches to increase the annotation of the Affymetrix GeneChip® Xenopus laevis Genome array. In addition, annotation analysis revealed the prevalence of inner ear transcripts represented by probe set identifiers that lack functional characterization. Conclusions We identified an abundance of targets for genetic analysis of auditory and vestibular function. The orthologues to human genes with known inner ear function and the highly expressed transcripts that lack annotation are particularly interesting candidates for future analyses. We used informatics approaches to impart biologically relevant information to the Xenopus inner ear transcriptome, thereby addressing the

  12. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  13. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  14. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  15. CT of adenomas of the middle ear and mastoid cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Van Thong Ho; Rao, V.J.; Mikaelian, D.O.

    1996-03-01

    A case of mixed type adenoma of the middle ear and mastoid is presented in which CT showed complete opacification of the middle ear and mastoid air cells with bulging of the tympanic membrane but without ossicular or bony destruction. 7 refs., 1 figs.

  16. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  17. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  18. [Significance of the ear in the determination of age].

    PubMed

    Röhm, E; Adam, E

    1986-01-01

    The morphology of human ear conch is said to be rather individual, but a perfect person-identification by this mean is not possible. It is demonstrated by photographs-made in a 15 years' interval-that ear conch and auricular area can be typically marked by proceeding age and specific diseases. PMID:3741048

  19. [Adaptability of sweet corn ears to a frozen process].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Matheus, Alejandra O; Martínez, Norelkys Maribel; de Bertorelli, Ligia O; De Venanzi, Frank

    2004-12-01

    The effects of frozen condition on the quality of three sweet corn ears (2038, 2010, 2004) and the pattern (Bonanza), were evaluated. Biometrics characteristics like ear size, ear diameter, row and kernel deep were measured as well as chemical and physical measurement in fresh and frozen states. The corn ears were frozen at -95 degrees C by 7 minutes. The yield and stability of the frozen ears were evaluated at 45 and 90 days of frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The average commercial yield as frozen corn ear for all the hybrids was 54.2%. The industry has a similar value range of 48% to 54%. The ear size average was 21.57 cm, row number was 15, ear diameter 45.54 mm and the kernel corn deep was 8.57 mm. All these measurements were found not different from commercial values found for the industry. All corn samples evaluated showed good stability despites the frozen processing and storage. Hybrid 2038 ranked higher in quality. PMID:15969270

  20. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  1. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  2. Alternative Ear-Canal Measures Related to Absorbance

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Stephen T.; Stenfelt, Stefan; Schairer, Kim S.

    2013-01-01

    Several alternative ear-canal measures are similar to absorbance in their requirement for prior determination of a Thévenin-equivalent sound source. Examples are (1) sound intensity level (SIL), (2) forward-pressure level (FPL), (3) time-domain ear-canal reflectance (TDR), and (4) cochlear reflectance (CR). These four related measures are similar to absorbance in their utilization of wide-band stimuli and their focus on recording ear-canal sound pressure. The related measures differ from absorbance in how the ear-canal pressure is analyzed and in the type of information that is extracted from the recorded response. SIL and FPL have both been shown to be better as measures of sound level in the ear canal compared to sound pressure level (SPL) because they reduced calibration errors due to standing waves in studies of behavioral thresholds and otoacoustic emissions. TDR may be used to estimate ear-canal geometry and may have the potential to assess middle-ear pathology. CR reveals information about the inner ear that is similar to what is provided by other types of otoacoustic emissions and may have theoretical advantages that strengthen its interpretation. PMID:23900185

  3. Replantation of an avulsed ear, using a single arterial anastamosis.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, G; Bhatti, K; Masood, S

    2008-01-01

    Avulsion of the ear is relatively uncommon and replantation a technical challenge. A case in which an avulsed ear was successfully replanted using a single arterial anastamosis is described. The surgical difficulties encountered, the pharmaceutical approach to postoperative care and the problems which resulted from the lack of venous drainage are discussed. PMID:18061545

  4. Dichotic listening ear preference after childhood cerebral lesions.

    PubMed

    Woods, B T

    1984-01-01

    Patients with unilateral (right or left) nonprogressive cerebral lesions acquired in infancy (before age one) or childhood (ages one to fifteen) were given a dichotic listening test. The two groups of patients with the childhood lesions showed the pattern of ear preference typically seen after hemispheric lesions in adults; loss of right ear preference after left hemisphere (LH) lesions, and enhanced right ear preference after right hemisphere (RH) lesions. The two groups of patients with the very early lesions failed to show any consistent ear preference or to differ from one another in ear preference. It is postulated that this lack of a consistent lesion effect following very early lateralized brain lesions is due to the greater degree of functional reorganization that takes place after such lesions. PMID:6462424

  5. Alpha adrenoceptors in the rabbit ear thermoregulatory microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Koman, L A; Smith, B P; Gordon, E S; Smith, T L

    1998-03-01

    The rabbit ear microcirculation was analyzed in a chronic unanesthetized model to evaluate alpha adrenergic microvascular control in a thermoregulatory end organ. This model allowed direct measurement of microcirculatory responses without the effects of anesthetics or inflammatory responses induced by acute surgical intervention. The ipsilateral facial artery was catheterized for drug injections into the experimental ear. Microvascular diameter changes following stimulation or blockade of adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes were observed directly through a chronic microvascular chamber implanted in the rabbit ear. Vascular alpha1- and alpha2-ARs appear to be distributed differently across the arterioles and AVAs of the rabbit ear. Both alpha1- and alpha2-ARs appear to contribute to vasoconstriction of AVAs in the conscious rabbit ear. In contrast, alpha1-AR's (vs alpha2-ARs) appear to predominate in adrenergically mediated sympathetic vasoconstriction of arterioles. PMID:9521886

  6. Ear Infection and Hearing Loss Amongst Headphone Users

    PubMed Central

    Mazlan, R.; Saim, L.; Thomas, A.; Said, R.; Liyab, B.

    2002-01-01

    The use of headphone has been thought to cause infection in the ear canal and contribute to hearing loss. In this study, we examined 136 Customer Service Representative from Celcom (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. who use headphone throughout their working hours. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ear canal infection and other related diseases of the ear, nose and throat. Their hearing thresholds were also determined using the Amplaid 309 Clinical Audiometer. We found no incidence of infection of the external ear canal amongst the subjects. There were 4 cases of chronic middle ear infection and 4 cases of impacted wax. Hearing impairment was found in 25 subjects (21.2%). However, there was no significant association between hearing loss and the exposure to sound from headphone usage because the high frequencies were not predominantly affected. There was also no association between hearing loss and duration of service. PMID:22844220

  7. Audiometric Predictions Using SFOAE and Middle-Ear Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, John C.; Keefe, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective The goals of the study are to determine how well stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) identify hearing loss, classify hearing loss as mild or moderate-severe, and correlate with pure-tone thresholds in a population of adults with normal middle-ear function. Other goals are to determine if middle-ear function as assessed by wideband acoustic transfer function (ATF) measurements in the ear canal account for the variability in normal thresholds, and if the inclusion of ATFs improves the ability of SFOAEs to identify hearing loss and predict pure-tone thresholds. Design The total suppressed SFOAE signal and its corresponding noise were recorded in 85 ears (22 normal ears and 63 ears with sensorineural hearing loss) at octave frequencies from 0.5 – 8 kHz using a nonlinear residual method. SFOAEs were recorded a second time in three impaired ears to assess repeatability. Ambient-pressure ATFs were obtained in all but one of these 85 ears, and were also obtained from an additional 31 normal-hearing subjects in whom SFOAE data were not obtained. Pure-tone air-and bone-conduction thresholds and 226-Hz tympanograms were obtained on all subjects. Normal tympanometry and the absence of air-bone gaps were used to screen subjects for normal middle-ear function. Clinical decision theory was used to assess the performance of SFOAE and ATF predictors in classifying ears as normal or impaired, and linear regression analysis was used to test the ability of SFOAE and ATF variables to predict the air-conduction audiogram. Results The ability of SFOAEs to classify ears as normal or hearing impaired was significant at all test frequencies. The ability of SFOAEs to classify impaired ears as either mild or moderate-severe was significant at test frequencies from 0.5 to 4 kHz. SFOAEs were present in cases of severe hearing loss. SFOAEs were also significantly correlated with air-conduction thresholds from 0.5 to 8 kHz. The best performance occurred using the SFOAE

  8. Inner ear symptoms and disease: Pathophysiological understanding and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Ciuman, Raphael R.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, huge advances have taken place in understanding of inner ear pathophysiology causing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Advances in understanding comprise biochemical and physiological research of stimulus perception and conduction, inner ear homeostasis, and hereditary diseases with underlying genetics. This review describes and tabulates the various causes of inner ear disease and defines inner ear and non-inner ear causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The aim of this review was to comprehensively breakdown this field of otorhinolaryngology for specialists and non-specialists and to discuss current therapeutic options in distinct diseases and promising research for future therapies, especially pharmaceutic, genetic, or stem cell therapy. PMID:24362017

  9. Chronic discharging ear in a child: are we missing something?

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mainak; Ghatak, Soumya; Biswas, Gautam

    2013-08-01

    Chronic discharging ear, mostly due to middle or external ear infection, is one of the leading causes for seeking healthcare among the paediatric population in a developing country. However, a long-standing forgotten middle ear foreign body forms a rare cause for such presentation demanding a high index of suspicion from the clinicians. Most of them are iatrogenic or accidental, and are removed by conventional permeatal approach; need for tympanotomy is rarely documented in the recent literature. We report the first case where a large stone was introduced into the middle ear through a pre-existing tympanic membrane perforation by the child himself, and only the second documentation of removal of a middle ear foreign body by tympanotomy in a child. PMID:24145273

  10. "Play It by Ear"--Teachers' Responses to Ear-Playing Tasks during One-to-One Instrumental Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings from the Ear-Playing Project in relation to the teaching strategies that 15 instrumental teachers adopted during one-to-one instrumental lessons whilst helping their students to copy music by ear from a recording. Overall, the teachers used a variety of strategies including singing and humming along with or without the…

  11. Relapsing Polychondritis: Inflamed Joints and Ears

    PubMed Central

    Melikoğlu, Meltem Alkan; Şenel, Kazım

    2015-01-01

    Background: Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an episodic and progressive inflammatory disease of the cartilaginous structures, including elastic cartilage of the ear and nose, hyaline cartilage of the peripheral joints, fibrocartilage at axial sites, and cartilage of the tracheo-bronchial tree. The spectrum of its presentations may vary from intermittent mild episodes of chondritis to occasional organ involvement or even life-threatening manifestations. Case Report: We presented a 64 year-old male patient with bilaterally knee arthritis and discoloration of pinna. Conclusion: There is lack of awareness about this disease due to its rarity. With this case presentation, our goal was to draw attention to this disease, which could be delayed for the diagnosis. PMID:25759785

  12. Mechanics of the exceptional anuran ear

    PubMed Central

    Segenhout, Johannes M.; van Dijk, Pim

    2008-01-01

    The anuran ear is frequently used for studying fundamental properties of vertebrate auditory systems. This is due to its unique anatomical features, most prominently the lack of a basilar membrane and the presence of two dedicated acoustic end organs, the basilar papilla and the amphibian papilla. Our current anatomical and functional knowledge implies that three distinct regions can be identified within these two organs. The basilar papilla functions as a single auditory filter. The low-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla is an electrically tuned, tonotopically organized auditory end organ. The high-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla is mechanically tuned and tonotopically organized, and it emits spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. This high-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla shows a remarkable, functional resemblance to the mammalian cochlea. PMID:18386018

  13. Fish ears are sensitive to sex change

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Stefan P.W.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2008-01-01

    Many reef fishes change sex during their life. The testing of life-history theory and effective fisheries management therefore relies on our ability to detect when this fundamental transition occurs. This study experimentally illustrates the potential to glean such information from the otolithic bodies of the inner-ear apparatus in the sex-changing fish Parapercis cylindrica. It will now be possible to reconstruct the complete, often complex life history of hermaphroditic individuals from hatching through to terminal reproductive status. The validation of sex-change associated otolith growth also illustrates the potential for sex-specific sensory displacement. It is possible that sex-changing fishes alter otolith composition, and thus sensory-range specificity, to optimize life history in accordance with their new reproductive mode. PMID:19033133

  14. DIBROMOACETIC ACID-INDUCED ELEVATIONS IN CIRCULATING ESTRADIOL: EFFECTS IN BOTH CYCLING AND OVARIECTOMIZED/STEROID-PRIMED FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RTD-03-031
    Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations in Circulating Estradiol: Effects in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized/Steroid-primed Female Rats. Reproductive Toxicology (in press).

    Abstract

    Oral exposures to high concentrations of th...

  15. DIBROMOACETIC ACID-INDUCED ELEVATIONS OF ESTRADIOL IN THE CYCLING AND OVARIECTOMOZED/ESTRADIOL-IMPLANTED FEMALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations of Estradiol in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized / Estradiol-implanted Female Rats

    ABSTRACT
    Haloacetic acids are one of the principal classes of disinfection by-products generated by the chlorination of mun...

  16. Beyond the middle ear: endoscopic surgical anatomy and approaches to inner ear and lateral skull base.

    PubMed

    Presutti, Livio; Nogueira, João Flávio; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Marchioni, Daniele

    2013-04-01

    Currently, the main application of endoscopic surgery relies on the middle ear cholesteatoma surgical treatment. However, in the natural evolution of the technique there are the steps toward of lateral skull base surgery and treatment of pathologic conditions of pertous bone. The endoscopic approaches to lateral skull base are (1) a transcanal exclusively endoscopic approach or (2) combined approaches (microscopic endoscope-assisted), including transotic, infralabyrinthine, and suprameatal translabyrinthine. PMID:23566905

  17. Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.; Shea, D.; Schachern, P.; Paparella, M.M.; Carpenter, A.M.

    1981-08-01

    A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middle ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops.

  18. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett’s esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA. PMID:26901778

  19. Carnosic Acid Induces Apoptosis Through Reactive Oxygen Species-mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induction in Human Renal Carcinoma Caki Cells

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyoung-jin; Jung, Kyong-Jin; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Carnosic acid, which is one of extract components of rosemary, has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer effects. However, the anti-cancer effect of carnosic acid in human renal carcinoma cells is unknown. Methods: Flow cytometry analysis was used to examine the effects of carnosic acid on apoptosis, and Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-ase activity assay kit was used to investigate the involvement of caspase activation. To determine protein expression of apoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related proteins, we used Western blotting. Intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using the fluorescent probes 2’, 7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA). Results: Carnosic acid induced sub-diploid DNA content, sub-G1, population and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and activated caspase-3. A pan-caspase inhibitor, a benzyloxycarbonylvalyl-alanyl-aspartyl fluoromethyl ketone, markedly reduced apoptosis in carnosic acid-treated cells. Carnosic acid promoted intracellular ROS production, and pretreatment with the ROS scavengers (N-acetyl-L-cysteine and glutathione ethyl ester) inhibited carnosic acid-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, carnosic acid also induced expression of ER stress marker proteins, including activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Down-regulation of ATF4 and CHOP by small interfering RNA (siRNA) markedly reduced carnosic acid-induced sub-G1 population and PARP cleavage. In addition, carnosic acid induced apoptosis in human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-361 and human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-HEP1 cells, but not in normal human skin fibroblast cells and normal mouse kidney epithelial TMCK-1 cells. Conclusion: Carnosic acid induced apoptosis through production of ROS and induction of ER stress in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. PMID:25337586

  20. Multiple copies of a bile acid-inducible gene in Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708.

    PubMed Central

    Gopal-Srivastava, R; Mallonee, D H; White, W B; Hylemon, P B

    1990-01-01

    Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708 is an anaerobic intestinal bacterium which possesses inducible bile acid 7-dehydroxylation activity. Several new polypeptides are produced in this strain following induction with cholic acid. Genes coding for two copies of a bile acid-inducible 27,000-dalton polypeptide (baiA1 and baiA2) have been previously cloned and sequenced. We now report on a gene coding for a third copy of this 27,000-dalton polypeptide (baiA3). The baiA3 gene has been cloned in lambda DASH on an 11.2-kilobase DNA fragment from a partial Sau3A digest of the Eubacterium DNA. DNA sequence analysis of the baiA3 gene revealed 100% homology with the baiA1 gene within the coding region of the 27,000-dalton polypeptides. The baiA2 gene shares 81% sequence identity with the other two genes at the nucleotide level. The flanking nucleotide sequences associated with the baiA1 and baiA3 genes are identical for 930 bases in the 5' direction from the initiation codon and for at least 325 bases in the 3' direction from the stop codon, including the putative promoter regions for the genes. An additional open reading frame (occupying from 621 to 648 bases, depending on the correct start codon) was found in the identical 5' regions associated with the baiA1 and baiA3 clones. The 5' sequence 930 bases upstream from the baiA1 and baiA3 genes was totally divergent. The baiA2 gene, which is part of a large bile acid-inducible operon, showed no homology with the other two genes either in the 5' or 3' direction from the polypeptide coding region, except for a 15-base-pair presumed ribosome-binding site in the 5' region. These studies strongly suggest that a gene duplication (baiA1 and baiA3) has occurred and is stably maintained in this bacterium. Images PMID:2376563

  1. 2-Hydroxy Arachidonic Acid: A New Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Daniel H.; Fiol-deRoque, Maria A.; Noguera-Salvà, Maria A.; Terés, Silvia; Campana, Federica; Piotto, Stefano; Castro, José A.; Mohaibes, Raheem J.; Escribá, Pablo V.; Busquets, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a family of COX1 and COX2 inhibitors used to reduce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators. In addition, inflammation often leads to a harmful generation of nitric oxide. Efforts are being done in discovering safer NSAIDs molecules capable of inhibiting the synthesis of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators and nitric oxide to reduce the side effects associated with long term therapies. Methodology/Principal Findings The analogue of arachidonic acid (AA), 2-hydroxy-arachidonic acid (2OAA), was designed to inhibit the activities of COX1 and COX2 and it was predicted to have similar binding energies as AA for the catalytic sites of COX1 and COX2. The interaction of AA and 2OAA with COX1 and COX2 was investigated calculating the free energy of binding and the Fukui function. Toxicity was determined in mouse microglial BV-2 cells. COX1 and COX2 (PGH2 production) activities were measured in vitro. COX1 and COX2 expression in human macrophage-like U937 cells were carried out by Western blot, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR analysis. NO production (Griess method) and iNOS (Western blot) were determined in mouse microglial BV-2 cells. The comparative efficacy of 2OAA, ibuprofen and cortisone in lowering TNF-α serum levels was determined in C57BL6/J mice challenged with LPS. We show that the presence of the –OH group reduces the likelihood of 2OAA being subjected to H* abstraction in COX, without altering significantly the free energy of binding. The 2OAA inhibited COX1 and COX2 activities and the expression of COX2 in human U937 derived macrophages challenged with LPS. In addition, 2OAA inhibited iNOS expression and the production of NO in BV-2 microglial cells. Finally, oral administration of 2OAA decreased the plasma TNF-α levels in vivo. Conclusion/Significance These findings demonstrate the potential of 2OAA as a NSAID. PMID:24015204

  2. Astrocyte arachidonate and palmitate uptake and metabolism is differentially modulated by dibutyryl-cAMP treatment.

    PubMed

    Seeger, D R; Murphy, C C; Murphy, E J

    2016-07-01

    Astrocytes play a vital role in brain lipid metabolism; however the impact of the phenotypic shift in astrocytes to a reactive state on arachidonic acid metabolism is unknown. Therefore, we determined the impact of dibutyryl-cAMP (dBcAMP) treatment on radiolabeled arachidonic acid ([1-(14)C]20:4n-6) and palmitic acid ([1-(14)C]16:0) uptake and metabolism in primary cultured murine cortical astrocytes. In dBcAMP treated astrocytes, total [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 uptake was increased 1.9-fold compared to control, while total [1-(14)C]16:0 uptake was unaffected. Gene expression of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (Acsl), acyl-CoA hydrolase (Acot7), fatty acid binding protein(s) (Fabp) and alpha-synuclein (Snca) were determined using qRT-PCR. dBcAMP treatment increased expression of Acsl3 (4.8-fold) and Acsl4 (1.3-fold), which preferentially use [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 and are highly expressed in astrocytes, consistent with the increase in [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 uptake. However, expression of Fabp5 and Fabp7 were significantly reduced by 25% and 45%, respectively. Acot7 (20%) was also reduced, suggesting dBcAMP treatment favors acyl-CoA formation. dBcAMP treatment enhanced [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 (2.2-fold) and [1-(14)C]16:0 (1.6-fold) esterification into total phospholipids, but the greater esterification of [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 is consistent with the observed uptake through increased Acsl, but not Fabp expression. Although total [1-(14)C]16:0 uptake was not affected, there was a dramatic decrease in [1-(14)C]16:0 in the free fatty acid pool as esterification into the phospholipid pool was increased, which is consistent with the increase in Acsl3 and Acsl4 expression. In summary, our data demonstrates that dBcAMP treatment increases [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 uptake in astrocytes and this increase appears to be due to increased expression of Acsl3 and Acsl4 coupled with a reduction in Acot7 expression. PMID:27255639

  3. Zwislocki's model of the middle ear re-visited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withnell, Robert H.; Fields, Taylor N.

    2015-12-01

    Zwislocki's circuit model of the middle ear [11] has been used, in original or modified form, in subsequent studies modeling the ear [4, 6]. The model includes two eardrum modes of vibration, a shunt for flexible coupling between the incus and stapes, and a single tuned oscillator for ossicular vibration. The contribution of each of these mechanisms was examined by fitting a model of the ear to acoustic input impedance data from healthy human ears. The circuit elements for a non-ossicular eardrum vibration and a flexible coupling between the incus and stapes were found to be detrimental or non-essential for the model-fit-to-data. A single mode of eardrum vibration for sound transmission to the middle ear is consistent with the eardrum acting as an impedance-matching device, with pars-tensa eardrum vibration coupled to the ossicles [1]. A single-tuned oscillator was insufficient to account for the bandwidth of the ear. The frequency response of the ear suggests multiple resonant modes of ossicular vibration.

  4. Comparison of Tympanoplasty Results in Dry and Wet Ears

    PubMed Central

    Naderpour, Masoud; Shahidi, Nikzad; Hemmatjoo, Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tympanoplasty is the standard and well established procedure for closure of tympanic membrane perforations .This paper compares the results of tympanoplasty in terms of hearing improvement and graft incorporation in patients with chronic perforation of the tympanic membrane between two groups with and without active drainage at the time of surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty referring patients to specialty and subspecialty clinics between the age 15 to 60 years-old were selected. All patients suffered from Chronic Otitis Media and they were categorized into two groups: a) those with wet ears and b) those with dry ears. Tympanoplasty surgery was performed through the use of embedding technique of temporalis fascia graft and in medial position (Medial Graft Technique). Finally, the data about the level of hearing improvement and the repair of tympanic membrane were analyzed. Results: Although there was hearing improvement in both groups - with wet or dry ear - no statistically significant difference was observed between two groups. Following the surgery, tympanic membrane in two patients with wet ear and one with dry ear was not repaired, however according to the statistical analysis this difference was not significant. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that in contrast to the common perception that tympanoplasty results in the patients with wet ear is poorer than those with dry ear, there was little difference in the results of the operations performed on two groups. PMID:27429950

  5. Surgical and Technical Modalities for Hearing Restoration in Ear Malformations.

    PubMed

    Dazert, Stefan; Thomas, Jan Peter; Volkenstein, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Malformations of the external and middle ear often go along with an aesthetic and functional handicap. Independent of additional aesthetic procedures, a successful functional hearing restoration leads to a tremendous gain in quality of life for affected patients. The introduction of implantable hearing systems (bone conduction and middle ear devices) offers new therapeutic options in this field. We focus on functional rehabilitation of patients with malformations, either by surgical reconstruction or the use of different implantable hearing devices, depending on the disease itself and the severity of malformation as well as hearing impairment. Patients with an open ear canal and minor malformations are good candidates for surgical hearing restoration of middle ear structures with passive titanium or autologous implants. In cases with complete fibrous or bony atresia of the ear canal, the most promising functional outcome and gain in quality of life can be expected with an active middle ear implant or a bone conduction device combined with a surgical aesthetic rehabilitation in a single or multi-step procedure. Although the surgical procedure for bone conduction devices is straightforward and safe, more sophisticated operations for active middle ear implants (e.g., Vibrant Soundbridge, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) provide an improved speech discrimination in noise and the ability of sound localization compared with bone conduction devices where the stimulation reaches both cochleae. PMID:26667632

  6. Decrease in Middle Ear Resonance Frequency During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dag, Emine Kutlu; Gulumser, Cagri; Erbek, Seyra

    2016-04-20

    Many physiological changes occur during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to reveal whether there is a change in middle ear resonance frequency during pregnancy. A prospective case-control study was designed at a tertiary referral center. The study included 46 pregnant women at the third trimester (27-40 weeks) and 43 nonpregnant voluntary women. All the study subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry and multifrequency tympanometry. Pure-tone hearing levels at frequencies of 250 to 8000 Hz and resonance frequency values were compared between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Impact of age, side of the tested ear, and weight gained in pregnancy on resonance frequency were evaluated. Air conduction threshold values at frequencies of 250 Hz and 500 Hz were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the control group (P<0.001). Middle ear resonance frequency values of both ears in pregnant women were found to be significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant relation of middle ear resonance frequency values to age or side of the tested ear in both groups (P>0.05). A negative correlation between weight gained in pregnancy and middle ear resonance frequency values was determined for the left ear (correlation coefficient for left ears: -0.348, P=0.018). The results of this study suggest that resonance frequency may be decreased during the pregnancy. More comprehensive studies in which many pregnant women followed regularly before and after pregnancy are needed to have more certain links. PMID:27588163

  7. Decrease in Middle Ear Resonance Frequency During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dag, Emine Kutlu; Gulumser, Cagri; Erbek, Seyra

    2016-01-01

    Many physiological changes occur during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to reveal whether there is a change in middle ear resonance frequency during pregnancy. A prospective case-control study was designed at a tertiary referral center. The study included 46 pregnant women at the third trimester (27-40 weeks) and 43 nonpregnant voluntary women. All the study subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry and multifrequency tympanometry. Pure-tone hearing levels at frequencies of 250 to 8000 Hz and resonance frequency values were compared between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Impact of age, side of the tested ear, and weight gained in pregnancy on resonance frequency were evaluated. Air conduction threshold values at frequencies of 250 Hz and 500 Hz were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the control group (P<0.001). Middle ear resonance frequency values of both ears in pregnant women were found to be significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant relation of middle ear resonance frequency values to age or side of the tested ear in both groups (P>0.05). A negative correlation between weight gained in pregnancy and middle ear resonance frequency values was determined for the left ear (correlation coefficient for left ears: –0.348, P=0.018). The results of this study suggest that resonance frequency may be decreased during the pregnancy. More comprehensive studies in which many pregnant women followed regularly before and after pregnancy are needed to have more certain links. PMID:27588163

  8. 3D ear identification based on sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm. PMID:24740247

  9. Human fetal inner ear involvement in congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The mechanisms of pathogenesis of CMV-related SNHL are still unclear. The aim is to study congenital CMV-related damage in the fetal inner ear, in order to better understand the underlying pathophysiology behind CMV-SNHL. Results We studied inner ears and brains of 20 human fetuses, all at 21 week gestational age, with a high viral load in the amniotic fluid, with and without ultrasound (US) brain abnormalities. We evaluated histological brain damage, inner ear infection, local inflammatory response and tissue viral load. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CMV was positive in 14/20 brains (70%) and in the inner ears of 9/20 fetuses (45%). In the cases with inner ear infection, the marginal cell layer of the stria vascularis was always infected, followed by infection in the Reissner’s membrane. The highest tissue viral load was observed in the inner ear with infected Organ of Corti. Vestibular labyrinth showed CMV infection of sensory cells in the utricle and in the crista ampullaris. US cerebral anomalies were detected in 6 cases, and in all those cases, the inner ear was always involved. In the other 14 cases with normal brain scan, histological brain damage was present in 8 fetuses and 3 of them presented inner ear infection. Conclusions CMV-infection of the marginal cell layer of the stria vascularis may alter potassium and ion circulation, dissipating the endocochlear potential with consequent SNHL. Although abnormal cerebral US is highly predictive of brain and inner ear damage, normal US findings cannot exclude them either. PMID:24252374

  10. Effect of alpha Ni3S2 on arachidonic acid metabolites in cultured human lung cells (L132 cell line).

    PubMed

    Shirali, P; Teissier, E; Marez, T; Hildebrand, H F; Haguenoer, J M

    1994-04-01

    Our previous investigations have shown evidence of an interaction between alpha Ni3S2 and membranous and cellular lipids of lung cells with a significant increase in the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid pool. The present work is designed to follow the metabolic fate of arachidonic acid in alpha Ni3S2-exposed human embryonic pulmonary epithelial cells (L132) in culture (50 microM alpha Ni3S2 for 3 days). The metabolites of arachidonic acid were assessed by HPLC determination coupled with UV or electrochemical detection. We determined malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), leukotrienes (LT) and reduced glutathione (GSH). In exposed cells we observed a significant increase of MDA, which is a breakdown product of lipid peroxidation. In addition, we noted significant increases of 5-HETE and 15-HETE in L132 cells resulting from the enzymatic reduction of 5-HPETE and 15-HPETE respectively. There was also a simultaneous decrease of GSH--confirmed by a strong decrease of GSH in exposed cells with respect to controls. 5-HPETE is furthermore converted to epoxides such as leukotriene A4 and we also quantified in exposed cells a significant increase of its subsequent catabolites LTB4, LTC4 and LTE4. These investigations show clearly that exposure of L132 cells to alpha Ni3S2 enhances lipid peroxidation based upon direct measurements of MDA and other metabolites of arachidonic acid. This lipid peroxidation is an autocatalytic free-radical process and could be responsible for DNA damage. PMID:8149492

  11. 3D visualization of middle ear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Schmitt, Thomas

    1998-06-01

    The achievement of volume geometry data from middle ear structures and surrounding components performs a necessary supposition for the finite element simulation of the vibrational and transfer characteristics of the ossicular chain. So far those models base on generalized figures and size data from anatomy textbooks or particular manual and one- or two-dimensional distance measurements of single ossicles, mostly obtained by light microscopy, respectively. Therefore the goal of this study is to create a procedure for complete three-dimensional imaging of real middle ear structures (tympanic membrane, ossicles, ligaments) in vitro or even in vivo. The main problems are their microscopic size with relevant structures from 10 micrometer to 5 mm, representing various tissue properties (bone, soft tissue). Additionally, these structures are surrounded by the temporal bone, the most solid bone of the human body. Generally there exist several established diagnostic tools for medical imaging that could be used for geometry data acquisition, e.g., X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Basically they image different tissue parameters, either bony structures (ossicles), or soft tissue (tympanic membrane, ligaments). But considering this application those standard techniques allow low spatial resolution only, usually in the 0.5 - 1mm range, at least in one spatial direction. Thus particular structures of the middle ear region could even be missed completely because of their spatial location. In vitro there is a way out by collecting three complete data sets, each distinguished by 90 degree rotation of a cube-shaped temporal bone specimen. That allows high-resolution imaging in three orthogonal planes, which essentially supports the three-dimensional interpolation of the unknown elements, starting from the regularly set elements of the cubic grid with an edge extension given by the original two-dimensional matrix. A different approach represents the

  12. Oleic acid-induced lung injury in rabbits: effect of fibrinogen depletion with Arvin

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, M.F.; Doerschuk, C.M.; Brumwell, M.L.; Belzberg, A.; Hogg, J.C.

    1988-03-01

    The role of fibrinogen in the evolution of the increased permeability after oleic acid-induced lung injury was studied in New Zealand White rabbits. Animals depleted of fibrinogen by treatment with Malayan pit viper venom were compared with untreated rabbits immediately and at 1 and 24 h after injury. The increased permeability to albumin and elevated extravascular lung water (EVLW) associated with lung injury returned to control values by 24 h in untreated animals. Fibrinogen-depleted animals had a higher mortality (10/25 vs. 2/17, P less than 0.02) and showed a greater immediate increase in permeability to albumin that returned to control values at 1 and 24 h after injury, as well as trends toward elevated blood-free dry lung weight and larger increases in EVLW that persisted for 24 h. These findings indicate that fibrinogen-related proteins play an important role in controlling the microvascular injury that is produced by oleic acid. However, when these proteins are depleted, other mechanisms partially control the leak at later stages of the repair process.

  13. Saturated phosphatidic acids mediate saturated fatty acid-induced vascular calcification and lipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Masashi; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Keenan, Audrey L; Okamura, Kayo; Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel; Offermanns, Stefan; Ntambi, James M; Kuro-O, Makoto; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates that saturated fatty acid-induced (SFA-induced) lipotoxicity contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie SFA-induced lipotoxicity remain unclear. Here, we have shown that repression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) enzymes, which regulate the intracellular balance of SFAs and unsaturated FAs, and the subsequent accumulation of SFAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), are characteristic events in the development of vascular calcification. We evaluated whether SMC-specific inhibition of SCD and the resulting SFA accumulation plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification and generated mice with SMC-specific deletion of both Scd1 and Scd2. Mice lacking both SCD1 and SCD2 in SMCs displayed severe vascular calcification with increased ER stress. Moreover, we employed shRNA library screening and radiolabeling approaches, as well as in vitro and in vivo lipidomic analysis, and determined that fully saturated phosphatidic acids such as 1,2-distearoyl-PA (18:0/18:0-PA) mediate SFA-induced lipotoxicity and vascular calcification. Together, these results identify a key lipogenic pathway in SMCs that mediates vascular calcification. PMID:26517697

  14. Protective effect of Dillenia indica L. on acetic acid induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Somani, S J; Badgujar, L B; Sutariya, B K; Saraf, M N

    2014-09-01

    The inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic, immune mediated and chronic inflammation of the intestine. The study aimed to elucidate the ameliorative effect of methanolic extract of Dillenia indica (DIME), hexane fraction (HFDI) and chloroform fraction (CFDI) of Dillenia indica in acetic acid induced experimental colitis in mice. Macroscopic score, colon weight, colonic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 7 days. Intra-rectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced macroscopic score, colon weight, colonic MPO, MDA, and TNF-alpha level. It caused significant decreased level of CAT, SOD and GSH. DIME (800 mg/kg), HFDI (200 mg/kg) and CFDI (200 mg/kg) treatment exhibited significant effect in lowering macroscopic score, colon weight, MPO, MDA, TNF-alpha levels and elevation of CAT, GSH and SOD levels. The results suggest that D. indica has ameliorating effects on experimental colitis by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators like TNF-alpha production. PMID:25241587

  15. Quinolinic acid induces cell apoptosis in PC12 cells through HIF-1-dependent RTP801 activation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojia; Yang, Kaiyong; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yongjin

    2016-04-01

    Neurological disease comprises a series of disorders featuring brain dysfunction and neuronal cell death. Among the factors contributing to neuronal death, excitotoxicity induced by excitatory amino acids, such as glutamate, plays a critical role. However, the mechanisms about how the excitatory amino acids induce neuronal death remain elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of HIF-1α (hypoxia inducible factor-1α) and RTP801 in cell apoptosis induced by quinolinic acid (QUIN), a glutamatergic agonist, in PC12 cells. We found that QUIN at 5 μM increased the expression of HIF-1α significantly with a peak at 24 h. After the treatment with QUIN (5-20 μM) for 24 h, the cells exhibited decreased viability and cell apoptosis with a concomitant increased expression of apoptosis related proteins. QUIN treatment also induced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and RTP801 up-regulation in a HIF-1α-dependent manner that were inhibited by 2-methoxyestradiol, a HIF-1α inhibitor. Importantly, HIF-1 or RTP801 invalidation by siRNA rescued the cell apoptosis induced by QUIN or cobalt chloride, a chemical inducer of HIF-1. Taken together, these findings support the concept that neurotoxicity induced by QUIN is associated with HIF-1-dependent RTP801 activation and provide insight into the potential of RTP801 inhibitor in treatment of neurological disorders. PMID:26738727

  16. Acid-induced changes in DOC quality in an experimental whole-lake manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, W.F.; Schindler, D.W.; Page, S.J.; Stainton, M.P.

    1998-10-01

    Fluorescence analyses of archived water samples were used to typify dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quality in experimentally acidified lakes and reference lakes at the Experimental Lakes Area, in northwestern Ontario. Carbon-specific DOC fluorescence (CSF) during peak acidification was 40--50% of that for a high-DOC reference lake and similar to a low-DOC reference lake. Reference lakes showed similar but smaller decreases in CSF during several years of prolonged drought in the late 1980s. During the 1990s, recovery from acidification resulted in increased CSF, whereas reference lakes remained unchanged during the same time period. In addition to causing decreased [DOC], acidification causes changes in fluorescence-peak geometry that indicate a switch in DOC quality from allochthonous to autochthonous-like during acidification. The acid-induced change in DOC quality was likely due to increased chemical oxidation or precipitation of the UV-absorbent aromatic portions of allochthonous DOC molecules, leaving more UV-transparent aliphatic chains. The change in the nature of DOC following acidification and drought may have an important role in physical, biological, and chemical processes within these lakes. With recovery from acidification, DOC quality has also recovered.

  17. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent. PMID:26381667

  18. The 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin biosynthesis in benign and malignant cells of the skin.

    PubMed

    Lang, K; Bolsen, K; Stahl, W; Ruzicka, T; Sies, H; Lehmann, P; Fritsch, C

    2001-12-01

    In fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy of neoplastic tissues 5-aminolevulinic acid is used to synthesize endogenous porphyrins as photosensitizers. The efficacy of neoplastic tissues to fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy is thought to be dependent on the total level of intralesional formed porphyrins. The available profiles of porphyrin metabolites in normal and in neoplastic cell lines after administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid vary considerably. Thus, this is the first in-vitro study which compares the porphyrin biosynthesis in normal skin cells (HaCaT, fibroblasts) with melanoma cells (Bro, SKMel-23, SKMel-28). After incubation with 1 mM 5-aminolevulinic acid, kinetics of porphyrin levels and metabolites were determined in the cells and the corresponding supernatants. Exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid induced porphyrin formation in all cells with maximum values after an incubation period of 16-36 h. Increase of porphyrin levels varied from 10- to 80-fold (SKMel-28>HaCaT>fibroblasts>SKMel-23>Bro) with minimum 1.5 times higher levels of porphyrins in the supernatants than in the cells. In cells and supernatants protoporphyrin and coproporphyrin were the predominantly formed porphyrin metabolites. Metastatic melanoma cells (SKMel-23, SKMel-28) accumulated much higher porphyrin levels than primary melanoma cells (Bro). In conclusion, by optimizing the treatment modalities, especially the light source, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) could become a treatment alternative of melanoma metastases in progressive disease. PMID:11748002

  19. PDIA3 Knockdown Exacerbates Free Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatocyte Steatosis and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chao-hui; Xu, Cheng-fu; Xu, Lei; Li, You-ming; Chen, Wei-xing

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as one of the most common chronic liver disease over the past decades. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays a pivotal role during the development of NAFLD. This study aims to analyze the potential role of protein disulfide isomerase A3 precursor (PDIA3), one of the ER chaperones, in free fatty acid-induced cell model of NAFLD. Human liver L02 cell line was treated with sodium palmitate for 24 hours, which developed severe intracellular lipid accumulation. The increased protein level of PDIA3 was detected via immunoblotting analysis in the fat loaded cell models of NAFLD. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PDIA3 in L02 cells not only increased the cellular lipid accumulation, but also exacerbated hepatocytes apoptosis induced by sodium palmitate. Further investigation revealed that knockdown of PDIA3 up-regulated protein expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), a key enzyme involved in fatty acid synthesis. PDIA3 knockdown also up-regulated key molecules of ERS pathway, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phospho-PKR-like ER kinase (p-PERK), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Our results suggested that ER chaperone PDIA3 plays a pivotal role in FFA-induced hepatocyte steatosis and apoptosis. PMID:26214517

  20. Ulcer healing activity of Mumijo aqueous extract against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokhi, Nader; Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Gastric ulcer is an important clinical problem, chiefly due to extensive use of some drugs. The aim was to assess the activity of Mumijo extract (which is used in traditional medicine) against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of Mumijo was prepared. Animals were randomly (n = 10) divided into four groups: Control, sham-operated group (received 0.2 ml of acetic acid to induce gastric ulcer), Mumijo (100 mg/kg/daily) were given for 4 days postacetic acid administration, and ranitidine group (20 mg/kg). The assessed parameters were pH and pepsin levels (by Anson method) of gastric contents and gastric histopathology. Ranitidine was used as reference anti-ulcer drug. Results: The extract (100 mg/kg/daily, p.o.) inhibited acid acetic-induced gastric ulceration by elevating its pH versus sham group (P < 0.01) and decreasing the pepsin levels compared to standard drug, ranitidine (P < 0.05). The histopathology data showed that the treatment with Mumijo extract had a significant protection against all mucosal damages. Conclusion: Mumijo extract has potent antiulcer activity. Its anti-ulcer property probably acts via a reduction in gastric acid secretion and pepsin levels. The obtained results support the use of this herbal material in folk medicine. PMID:25709338

  1. The saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, induces anxiety-like behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Morgan L.; Joesting, Jennifer J.; Lawson, Marcus A.; Chiu, Gabriel S.; Blevins, Neil A.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Excess fat in the diet can impact neuropsychiatric functions by negatively affecting cognition, mood and anxiety. We sought to show that the free fatty acid (FFA), palmitic acid, can cause adverse biobehaviors in mice that lasts beyond an acute elevation in plasma FFAs. Methods Mice were administered palmitic acid or vehicle as a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Biobehaviors were profiled 2 and 24 hrs after palmitic acid treatment. Quantification of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT) and their major metabolites was performed in cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. FFA concentration was determined in plasma. Relative fold change in mRNA expression of unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated genes was determined in brain regions. Results In a dose-dependent fashion, palmitic acid rapidly reduced mouse locomotor activity by a mechanism that did not rely on TLR4, MyD88, IL-1, IL-6 or TNFα but was dependent on fatty acid chain length. Twenty-four hrs after palmitic acid administration mice exhibited anxiety-like behavior without impairment in locomotion, food intake, depressive-like behavior or spatial memory. Additionally, the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA was increased by 33% in the amygdala 24 hrs after palmitic acid treatment. Conclusions Palmitic acid induces anxiety-like behavior in mice while increasing amygdala-based serotonin metabolism. These effects occur at a time point when plasma FFA levels are no longer elevated. PMID:25016520

  2. Effect of galactose on acid induced molten globule state of Soybean Agglutinin: Biophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Parvez; Naseem, Farha; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the formation of molten globule-like unfolding intermediate Soybean Agglutinin (SBA) in acidic pH range has been established with the help of acrylamide quenching, intrinsic fluorescence, ANS fluorescence measurement, far UV CD and dynamic light scattering measurement. A marked increase in ANS fluorescence was observed at pH 2.2. Ksv of acrylamide quenching was found to be higher at pH 2.2 than that of native SBA at pH 7. Far UV CD spectra of pH induced state suggest that SBA shows significant retention of secondary structure closure to native. Hydrodynamic radius of SBA at pH 2.2 was found be more as compared to native state and also in other pH induced states. Further we checked the effect of galactose on the molten globule state of SBA. This study suggests that SBA exist as molten globule at pH 2.2 and this study will help in acid induced molten globule state of other proteins.

  3. Tauroursodeoxycholate improves 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced experimental acute ulcerative colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; He, Jiao; Suo, Yuan; Zheng, Zongwei; Wang, Jingjing; Lv, Le; Huo, Chuanchuan; Wang, Ziye; Li, Jing; Sun, Wenji; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-07-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic nonspecific inflammatory disease of unknown cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of tauroursodeoxycholate in 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis in mice. After the induction of colitis for 24h, the mice were administrated orally with tauroursodeoxycholate (20, 40 and 60mg/kg) and sulfasalazine (500mg/kg) by gavage for 7 consecutive days. The inhibition effects were evaluated by the body of weight change, survival rate, macroscopical and histological evaluations. Besides, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, interleukin (IL)-1β, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in colon tissue were also determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with different doses of tauroursodeoxycholate (20, 40 and 60mg/kg) significantly improved the body weight change, decreased the macroscopic and histopathological scores. Compared with the model group, the accumulation of MPO activity, the colonic tissue levels of IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α were significantly reduced in the tauroursodeoxycholate treated groups. Moreover, tauroursodeoxycholate assuaged the symptoms of colitis. These results suggested that tauroursodeoxycholate has an anti-inflammatory effect in TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. PMID:27179450

  4. Acid-induced autophagy protects human lung cancer cells from apoptosis by activating ER stress.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen-Yue; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Li, Qi; Chen, Ling-Xiu; Ran, Dan-Hua

    2015-12-10

    An acidic tumor microenvironment exists widely in solid tumors. However, the detailed mechanism of cell survival under acidic stress remains unclear. The aim of this study is to clarify whether acid-induced autophagy exists and to determine the function and mechanism of autophagy in lung cancer cells. We have found that acute low pH stimulated autophagy by increasing LC3-positive punctate vesicles, increasing LC3 II expression levels and reducing p62 protein levels. Additionally, autophagy was inhibited by the addition of Baf or knockdown of Beclin 1, and cell apoptosis was increased markedly. In mouse tumors, the expression of cleaved caspase3 and p62 was enhanced by oral treatment with sodium bicarbonate, which can raise the intratumoral pH. Furthermore, the protein levels of ER stress markers, including p-PERK, p-eIF2α, CHOP, XBP-1s and GRP78, were also increased in response to acidic pH. The antioxidant NAC, which reduces ROS accumulation, alleviated acid-mediated ER stress and autophagy, and knocking down GRP78 reduced autophagy activation under acidic conditions, which suggests that autophagy was induced by acidic pH through ER stress. Taken together, these results indicate that the acidic microenvironment in non-small cell lung cancer cells promotes autophagy by increasing ROS-ER stress, which serves as a survival adaption in this setting. PMID:26559141

  5. Red ear syndrome: literature review and a pediatric case report.

    PubMed

    Moitri, Misha O; Banglawala, Sarfaraz M; Archibald, Jason

    2015-03-01

    Red ear syndrome (RES) is characterized by recurrent unilateral or bilateral painful attacks of the external ear, accompanied by ear redness, burning, or warmth. Proposed etiologies of this rare condition include dysregulation of sympathetic outflow, upper cervical pathology, glossopharyngeal and trigeminal neuralgia, TMJ dysfunction, thalamic syndrome, and primary headache syndromes. Idiopathic cases also exist in the literature. Pediatric cases are particularly rare and more commonly associated with migraine. Given the various potential etiologies, no single treatment is effective in all cases. This paper summarizes the current understanding and management of RES, and describes a case of idiopathic pediatric RES. PMID:25583087

  6. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure adversely alters /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid metabolism in rat lungs, aortas and platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Lubawy, W.C.; Valentovic, M.A.; Atkinson, J.E.; Gairola, G.C.

    1983-08-08

    Male rats were exposed to freshly generated cigarette smoke once daily, 5 times a week for 10 weeks. Inhalation of smoke was verified by elevated carboxyhemoglobin in blood sampled immediately after smoke exposure and by increased lung aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity 24 hours after the last smoke exposure. Aortic rings isolated from smoke-exposed rats synthesized less prostacyclin (PGI2) from /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid than rings from sham rats. Platelets from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more thromboxane (TXA2) from /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid than platelets from room controls but not those from sham rats. Lung microsomes from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more TXA2 and had a lower PGI2/TXA2 ratio than lung microsomes from room controls and shams. It is concluded that chronic cigarette smoke exposure alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortas, platelets and lungs in a manner resulting in decreased PGI2 and increased TXA2, thereby creating a condition favoring platelet aggregation and a variety of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Characterization of the lysyl adducts of prostaglandin H-synthases that are derived from oxygenation of arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Boutaud, O; Brame, C J; Chaurand, P; Li, J; Rowlinson, S W; Crews, B C; Ji, C; Marnett, L J; Caprioli, R M; Roberts, L J; Oates, J A

    2001-06-12

    These investigations characterize the covalent binding of reactive products of prostaglandin H-synthases (PGHSs) to the enzyme and to other molecules. The intermediate product of oxygenation of arachidonic acid by the PGHSs, prostaglandin (PG) H2, undergoes rearrangement to the highly reactive gamma-keto aldehydes, levuglandin (LG) E2 and D2. We previously have demonstrated that LGE2 reacts with the epsilon-amine of lysine to form both the lysyl-levuglandin Shiff base and the pyrrole-derived lysyl-levuglandin lactam adducts. We now demonstrate that these lysyl-levuglandin adducts are formed on the PGHSs following the oxygenation of arachidonic acid; after reduction of the putative Schiff base, proteolytic digestion of the enzyme, and isolation of the adducted amino acid residues, these adducts were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The reactivity of the LGs is reflected by the finding that virtually all of the LG predicted to be formed from PGH2 can be accounted for as adducts of the PGH-synthase and that oxygenation of arachidonic acid by PGH-synthases also leads to the formation of adducts of other proteins present in the reaction solution. The reactivity of the PGH-synthase adducts themselves is demonstrated by the formation of intermolecular cross-links. PMID:11389610

  8. Serotonin stimulates phospholipase A sub 2 and the release of arachidonic acid in hippocampal neurons by a type 2 serotonin receptor that is independent of inositolphospholipid hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Felder, C.C.; Ma, A.L.; Axelrod, J.; Kanterman, R.Y. )

    1990-03-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) stimulated the release of arachidonic acid in hippocampal neurons cocultured with glial cells but not in glial cultures alone. Similar results were observed for the 5-HT-stimulated release of inositol phosphates. These results suggest a neural but not glial origin of both responses. Pharmacological studies suggested that release of arachidonic acid and inositol phosphates was mediated by a type 2 5-HTT (5-HT{sub 2}) receptor. 5-HT-stimulated release of arachidonic acid was also detected in cortical neurons, which contain high levels of 5-HT{sub 2} receptors, but not striatum, spinal cord, or cerebellar granule cells, which have very low levels or are devoid of 5-HT{sub 2} receptors. The phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate augmented the 5-HT-stimulated release of arachidonic acid but inhibited the 5-HT-stimulated release of inositol phosphates. 5-HT-stimulated release of arachidonic acid, but not inositol phosphates, was dependent on extracellular calcium. 5-HT stimulated the release of ({sup 3}H)lysophosphatidylcholine from ({sup 3}H)choline-labeled cells with no increase in the release of ({sup 3}H)choline or phospho({sup 3}H)choline. These data suggest that 5-HT stimulated the release of arachidonic acid in hippocampal neurons through the activation of phospholipase A{sub 2}, independent of the activation of phospholipase C.

  9. Serotonin stimulates phospholipase A2 and the release of arachidonic acid in hippocampal neurons by a type 2 serotonin receptor that is independent of inositolphospholipid hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Felder, C C; Kanterman, R Y; Ma, A L; Axelrod, J

    1990-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) stimulated the release of arachidonic acid in hippocampal neurons cocultured with glial cells but not in glial cultures alone. Similar results were observed for the 5-HT-stimulated release of inositol phosphates. These results suggest a neural but not glial origin of both responses. Pharmacological studies suggested that release of arachidonic acid and inositol phosphates was mediated by a type 2 5-HT (5-HT2) receptor. 5-HT-stimulated release of arachidonic acid was also detected in cortical neurons, which contain high levels of 5-HT2 receptors, but not striatum, spinal cord, or cerebellar granule cells, which have very low levels or are devoid of 5-HT2 receptors. The phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate augmented the 5-HT-stimulated release of arachidonic acid but inhibited the 5-HT-stimulated release of inositol phosphates. 5-HT-stimulated release of arachidonic acid, but not inositol phosphates, was dependent on extracellular calcium. 5-HT stimulated the release of [3H]lysophosphatidylcholine from [3H]choline-labeled cells with no increase in the release of [3H]choline or phospho[3H]choline. These data suggest that 5-HT stimulated the release of arachidonic acid in hippocampal neurons through the activation of phospholipase A2, independent of the activation of phospholipase C. PMID:2315313

  10. Middle ear mucosal regeneration with three-dimensionally tissue-engineered autologous middle ear cell sheets in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Yamato, Masayuki; Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Hiromi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Okano, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    The likelihood of recurrent retraction and adhesion of newly formed tympanic membrane is high when middle ear mucosa is extensively lost during cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media surgery. If rapid postoperative regeneration of the mucosa on the exposed bone surface can be achieved, prevention of recurrent eardrum adhesion and cholesteatoma formation, for which there has been no definitive treatment, can be expected. Suture-less transplantation of tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets was examined immediately after the operation of otitis media surgery in order to quickly regenerate middle ear mucosa lost during surgery in a rabbit model. Transplantable middle ear mucosal cell sheets with a three-dimensional tissue architecture very similar to native middle ear mucosa were fabricated from middle ear mucosal tissue fragments obtained in an autologous manner from middle ear bulla on temperature-responsive culture surfaces. Immediately after the mucosa was resected from middle ear bone bulla inner cavity, mucosal cell sheets were grafted at the resected site. Both bone hyperplasia and granulation tissue formation were inhibited and early mucosal regeneration was observed in the cell sheet-grafted group, compared with the control group in which only mucosal removal was carried out and the bone surface exposed. This result indicates that tissue engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after the surgical operation on otitis media and future clinical application is expected. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23894137

  11. Two Ears Are Not Always Better than One: Mandatory Vowel Fusion Across Spectrally Mismatched Ears in Hearing-Impaired Listeners.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Lina A J; Eggleston, Jessica L; Walker, Emily P; Oh, Yonghee

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss and auditory prostheses can alter auditory processing by inducing large pitch mismatches and broad pitch fusion between the two ears. Similar to integration of incongruent inputs in other sensory modalities, the mismatched, fused pitches are often averaged across ears for simple stimuli. Here, we measured parallel effects on complex stimulus integration using a new technique based on vowel classification in five bilateral hearing aid users and eight bimodal cochlear implant users. Continua between five pairs of synthetic vowels were created by varying the first formant spectral peak while keeping the second formant constant. Comparison of binaural and monaural vowel classification functions for each vowel pair continuum enabled visualization of the following frequency-dependent integration trends: (1) similar monaural and binaural functions, (2) ear dominance, (3) binaural averaging, and (4) binaural interference. Hearing aid users showed all trends, while bimodal cochlear implant users showed mostly ear dominance or interference. Interaural pitch mismatches, frequency ranges of binaural pitch fusion, and the relative weightings of pitch averaging across ears were also measured using tone and/or electrode stimulation. The presence of both large interaural pitch mismatches and broad pitch fusion was not sufficient to predict vowel integration trends such as binaural averaging or interference. The way that pitch averaging was weighted between ears also appears to be important for determining binaural vowel integration trends. Abnormally broad spectral fusion and the associated phoneme fusion across mismatched ears may underlie binaural speech perception interference observed in hearing aid and cochlear implant users. PMID:27220769

  12. Systematic Analysis Reveals that Cancer Mutations Converge on Deregulated Metabolism of Arachidonate and Xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Francesco; Schulze, Almut; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-07-19

    Mutations are the basis of the clonal evolution of most cancers. Nevertheless, a systematic analysis of whether mutations are selected in cancer because they lead to the deregulation of specific biological processes independent of the type of cancer is still lacking. In this study, we correlated the genome and transcriptome of 1,082 tumors. We found that nine commonly mutated genes correlated with substantial changes in gene expression, which primarily converged on metabolism. Further network analyses circumscribed the convergence to a network of reactions, termed AraX, that involves the glutathione- and oxygen-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid and xenobiotics. In an independent cohort of 4,462 samples, all nine mutated genes were consistently correlated with the deregulation of AraX. Among all of the metabolic pathways, AraX deregulation represented the strongest predictor of patient survival. These findings suggest that oncogenic mutations drive a selection process that converges on the deregulation of the AraX network. PMID:27396332

  13. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene polymorphism is associated with Alzheimer's disease and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Šerý, Omar; Hlinecká, Lýdia; Povová, Jana; Bonczek, Ondřej; Zeman, Tomáš; Janout, Vladimír; Ambroz, Petr; Khan, Naim A; Balcar, Vladimir J

    2016-03-15

    Dementias of old age, in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD), pose a growing threat to the longevity and quality of life of individuals as well as whole societies world-wide. The risk factors are both genetic and environmental (life-style) and there is an overlap with similar factors predisposing to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Using a case-control genetic approach, we have identified a SNP (rs10507391) in ALOX5 gene, previously associated with an increased risk of stroke, as a novel genetic risk factor for AD. ALOX5 gene encodes a 5'-lipoxygenase (5'-LO) activating protein (FLAP), a crucial component of the arachidonic acid/leukotriene inflammatory cascade. A-allele of rs4769874 polymorphism increases the risk of AD 1.41-fold (p<0.0001), while AA genotype does so 1.79-fold (p<0.0001). In addition, GG genotype of rs4769874 polymorphism is associated with a modest increase in body mass index (BMI). We discuss potential biochemical mechanisms linking the SNP to AD and suggest possible preventive pharmacotherapies some of which are based on commonly available natural products. Finally, we set the newly identified AD risk factors into a broader context of similar CVD risk factors to generate a more comprehensive picture of interacting genetics and life-style habits potentially leading to the deteriorating mental health in the old age. PMID:26944113

  14. The effect of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNB) on colonocyte arachidonic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stratton, M D; Sexe, R; Peterson, B; Kaminski, D L; Li, A P; Longo, W E

    1996-02-01

    In previous studies we found that luminal perfusion of the isolated left colon of the rabbit with the hapten, trinitrobenzene, resulted in the production of an acute inflammatory process associated with alterations in eicosanoid metabolism. As the colitis was attenuated by cyclooxygenase inhibitors it is possible that the inflammation was mediated by arachidonic acid metabolites. In the present study it was intended to evaluate the effect of trinitrobenzene on eicosanoid metabolism in transformed human colonic cells by exposing Caco-2++ cells to various doses of trinitrobenzene. Cell injury was evaluated by measuring lactate dehydrogenase levels and cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activity was evaluated by measuring prostanoid and leukotriene production. In separate experiments resting and trinitrobenzene stimulated cells were treated with indomethacin and dexamethasone. Trinitrobenzene produced increased prostaglandin E2 and 6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha++ and increased lactate dehydrogenase levels. Leukotriene B4 was significantly increased compared to control values at the highest TNB concentration administered. Indomethacin inhibited the lactate dehydrogenase and prostanoid changes, suggesting that the inflammatory changes produced were mediated by the prostanoids. Dexamethasone administered for 1 hr prior to trinitrobenzene decreased the 6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha but did not alter trinitrobenzene produced changes in lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. Exposure of Caco-2 cells to dexamethasone for 24 hr decreased the trinitrobenzene produced lactate dehydrogenase and eicosanoid changes. The results suggest that trinitrobenzene produces an acute injury to Caco-2 cells that may be mediated by the cyclooxygenase enzymes. PMID:8598672

  15. Accumulation of arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylinositol at the outer edge of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hiraide, Takanori; Ikegami, Koji; Sakaguchi, Takanori; Morita, Yoshifumi; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Waki, Michihiko; Sugiyama, Eiji; Shinriki, Satoru; Takeda, Makoto; Shibasaki, Yasushi; Miyazaki, Shinichiro; Kikuchi, Hirotoshi; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Inoue, Masahiro; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Konno, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer cells show specific alterations in phospholipid metabolism that contribute to tumour progression in several types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. Questions still remain as to what lipids characterize the outer edge of cancer tissues and whether those cancer outer edge-specific lipid compositions emerge autonomously in cancer cells. Cancer tissue-originated spheroids (CTOSs) that are composed of pure primary cancer cells have been developed. In this study, we aimed to seek out the cancer cell-autonomous acquisition of cancer outer edge-characterizing lipids in colorectal cancer by analysing phospholipids in CTOSs derived from colorectal cancer patients with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). A signal at m/z 885.5 in negative ion mode was detected specifically at the surface regions. The signal was identified as an arachidonic acid (AA)-containing phosphatidylinositol (PI), PI(18:0/20:4), by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Quantitative analysis revealed that the amount of PI(18:0/20:4) in the surface region of CTOSs was two-fold higher than that in the medial region. Finally, PI(18:0/20:4) was enriched at the cancer cells/stromal interface in colorectal cancer patients. These data imply a possible importance of AA-containing PI for colorectal cancer progression, and suggest cells expressing AA-containing PI as potential targets for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:27435310

  16. Myogenic and metabolic feedback in cerebral autoregulation: Putative involvement of arachidonic acid-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Berg, Ronan M G

    2016-07-01

    The present paper presents a mechanistic model of cerebral autoregulation, in which the dual effects of the arachidonic acid metabolites 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) on vascular smooth muscle mediate the cerebrovascular adjustments to a change in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). 20-HETE signalling in vascular smooth muscle mediates myogenic feedback to changes in vessel wall stretch, which may be modulated by metabolic feedback through EETs released from astrocytes and endothelial cells in response to changes in brain tissue oxygen tension. The metabolic feedback pathway is much faster than 20-HETE-dependent myogenic feedback, and the former thus initiates the cerebral autoregulatory response, while myogenic feedback comprises a relatively slower mechanism that functions to set the basal cerebrovascular tone. Therefore, assessments of dynamic cerebral autoregulation, which may provide information on the response time of the cerebrovasculature, may specifically be used to yield information on metabolic feedback mechanisms, while data based on assessments of static cerebral autoregulation represent the integrated functionality of myogenic and metabolic feedback. PMID:27241246

  17. Arachidonic acid impairs hypothalamic leptin signaling and hepatic energy homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Licai; Yu, Yinghua; Zhang, Qingsheng; Szabo, Alexander; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the consumption of a diet high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with the development of leptin resistance and obesity. We aim to examine the central effect of n-6 PUFA, arachidonic acid (ARA) on leptin sensitivity and leptin-regulated hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. We found that intracerebroventricular injection of ARA (25 nmol/day) for 2.5 days reversed the effect of central leptin on hypothalamic JAK2, pSTAT3, pAkt, and pFOXO1 protein levels, which was concomitant with a pro-inflammatory response in the hypothalamus. ARA also attenuated the effect of central leptin on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by reversing the mRNA expression of the genes involved in gluconeogenesis (G6Pase, PEPCK), glucose transportation (GLUT2), lipogenesis (FAS, SCD1), and cholesterol synthesis (HMG-CoA reductase). These results indicate that an increased exposure to central n-6 PUFA induces central cellular leptin resistance with concomitant defective JAK2-STAT3 and PI3K-Akt signaling. PMID:25986657

  18. Effect of long-term administration of arachidonic acid on n-3 fatty acid deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Harauma, Akiko; Tomita, Makiko; Muto, Daiki; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-04-01

    The effect of long-term oral administration of arachidonic acid (ARA, 240 mg/kg/day) on brain function was assessed for mice maintained on an n-3 fatty acid adequate or deficient diet. The administration of ARA for 13 weeks resulted in an elevation of spontaneous motor activity, or the tendency thereof, in both the n-3 fatty acid adequate and deficient groups. However, the n-3 fatty acid deficient mice that were administered with ARA revealed marked deterioration in motor function in a motor coordination test. In the experiment to investigate changes over time, the motor activity of the ARA-administered group continued to increase mildly in n-3 deficient mice, although that of the control group showed a decrease involving habituation for both diet groups from the second week. The fatty acid composition of the brain at the end of the behavioral experiments indicated an increase in the levels of ARA and other n-6 fatty acids, as well as a decrease in the levels of docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that long-term administration of ARA causes an increase of futile spontaneous motor activity and the diminution of motor function by aggravation of n-3 fatty acid deficiency. PMID:25650363

  19. 90-Day feeding and genotoxicity studies on a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil.

    PubMed

    Casterton, P L; Curry, L L; Lina, B A R; Wolterbeek, A P M; Kruger, C L

    2009-10-01

    The safety of a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil (RAO) was evaluated for reverse mutation, chromosome aberration and gene mutation, and in a 90-day Wistar rat feeding study with in utero exposure. The results of the genotoxicity assays were all negative. The in utero phase of the 90-day study involved dietary exposure to 0.5%, 1.5% and 5% RAO and two controls diets, a standard feed low-fat diet and a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% corn oil. This exposure covered four-weeks prior to mating, through mating, gestation and lactation until offspring (F(1)) weaning. A subsequent 90-day feeding study in the F(1) rats evaluated the same test and control diets. Statistically significant effects were seen for selected histopathology, clinical chemistry and organ weight endpoints; however, other than increased absolute and relative monocytes seen in both sexes of high-dose rats, the observations were not attributed to treatment for one or more reasons. Based on these findings, no adverse treatment-related effects for RAO were seen at up to 5% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average RAO intake of 3170 mg/kg bwt/day. These and similar findings for other refined ARA-rich oils establish a strong body of evidence for the safety of this RAO. PMID:19576260

  20. Oral gold compound auranofin triggers arachidonate release and cyclooxygenase metabolism in the alveolar macrophage

    SciTech Connect

    Peters-Golden, M.; Shelly, C.

    1988-12-01

    We examined the effect of in vitro incubation with the oral gold compound auranofin (AF) on arachidonic acid (AA) release and metabolism by rat alveolar macrophages (AMs). AF stimulated dose- and time-dependent release of /sup 14/C-AA from prelabeled AMs, which reached 4.7 +/- 0.3% (mean +/- SEM) of incorporated radioactivity at 10 micrograms/ml for 90 min, as compared to 0.5 +/- 0.1% release following control incubation for 90 min (p less than 0.001). Similar dose- and time-dependent synthesis of thromboxane (Tx) A2 (measured as TxB2) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 was demonstrated by radioimmunoassay of medium from unlabeled cultures, reaching 18-fold and 9-fold, respectively, of the control values at 10 micrograms/ml AF for 90 min (p less than 0.001 for both). AF-induced TxB2 and PGE2 synthesis was inhibited by indomethacin as well as by pretreatment with methylprednisolone. No increase in the synthesis of immunoreactive leukotrienes (LT) B4 or C4 was noted at any dose or time of AF. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of /sup 14/C-eicosanoids synthesized by prelabeled AMs confirmed that AF induced the release of free AA and its metabolism to cyclooxygenase, but not 5-lipoxygenase, metabolites. The ability of AF to trigger macrophage AA metabolism may be relevant to the exacerbation of certain inflammatory processes which sometimes accompany gold therapy.

  1. Effects of arachidonic acid on ATP-sensitive K+ current in murine colonic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae Yeoul; Yeum, Cheol Ho; Park, Yoo Whan; Jang, In Youb; Kong, In Deok; Sim, Jae Hoon; So, Insuk; Kim, Ki Whan; You, Ho Jin

    2002-09-01

    The effects of arachidonic acid (AA) and the mechanism through which it modulates ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) currents were examined in single smooth muscle cells of murine proximal colon. In the current-clamping mode, AA and glibenclamide induced depolarization of membrane potential. Using 0.1 mM ATP and 140 mM K+ solution in the pipette and 90 mM K+ in the bath solution at a -80 mV of holding potential, pinacidil activated the glibenclamide-sensitive inward current. The potential of these currents was reversed to near the equilibrium potential of K+ by 60 mM K+ in the bath solution. AA inhibited K(ATP) currents in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibition was not changed when 1 mM GDPbetaS was present in the pipette. Chelerythrine, protein kinase C inhibitor, did not block the AA effects. Superoxide dismutase and metabolic inhibitors (indomethacin and nordihydroguaiacretic acid) of AA did not affect the AA-induced inhibition. Eicosatetraynoic acid, a nonmetabolizable analogue of AA, inhibited the K(ATP) currents. These results suggest that AA-induced inhibition of K(ATP) currents is not mediated by G-protein or protein kinase C activation. The inhibitory action is likely to be a possible mechanism of AA-induced membrane depolarization. PMID:12396031

  2. Alterations in murine macrophage arachidonic acid metabolism following ingestion of nonviable Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, J E; Massof, S E; Peters, S P

    1992-01-01

    The effect of ingestion of heat-killed Histoplasma capsulatum yeast cells on the metabolism of arachidonic acid (20:4) to prostenoids and leukotrienes was examined in murine peritoneal macrophages (M phi s). H. capsulatum-containing M phi s exhibited a metabolite profile similar to that of zymosan-challenged phagocytes; however, there were differences with respect to the relative and total amounts of products produced. While proteose peptone-elicited M phi s exposed to H. capsulatum released quantitatively less prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 than zymosan-treated M phi s, they metabolized a greater percentage of total product to prostenoids. In addition, whereas in vitro priming with gamma interferon increased both the PGE2 and leukotriene C4 contents of zymosan-stimulated M phi supernatants, similarly primed M phi s challenged with H. capsulatum selectively increased only PGE2 production. The immunosuppressive effect of a relative excess of prostenoids in H. capsulatum-containing M phi s may contribute to the overall disturbance in cell-mediated immunity characteristic of disseminated histoplasmosis. PMID:1319400

  3. Associations between a fatty acid desaturase gene polymorphism and blood arachidonic acid compositions in Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Sayaka; Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Iwamoto, Sadahiko; Ishijima, Akiko; Minezaki, Takayuki; Baba, Mamiko; Kontai, Yoshiko; Horikawa, Chika; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kawabata, Terue

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether the single nucleotide polymorphism rs174547 (T/C) of the fatty acid desaturase-1 gene, FADS1, is associated with changes in erythrocyte membrane and plasma phospholipid (PL) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) composition in elderly Japanese participants (n=124; 65 years or older; self-feeding and oral intake). The rs174547 C-allele carriers had significantly lower arachidonic acid (ARA; n-6 PUFA) and higher linoleic acid (LA, n-6 PUFA precursor) levels in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL (15% and 6% ARA reduction, respectively, per C-allele), suggesting a low LA to ARA conversion rate in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL of C-allele carriers. α-linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA precursor) levels were higher in the plasma PL of C-allele carriers, whereas levels of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were unchanged in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL. Thus, rs174547 genotypes were significantly associated with different ARA compositions of the blood of elderly Japanese. PMID:26869086

  4. Prenatal arachidonic acid exposure and selected immune-related variables in childhood.

    PubMed

    Dirix, Chantal E H; Hogervorst, Janneke G F; Rump, Patrick; Hendriks, Johannes J E; Bruins, Maaike; Hornstra, Gerard

    2009-08-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is considered essential in fetal development and some of its metabolites are thought to be important mediators of the immune responses. Therefore, we studied whether prenatal exposure to AA is associated with some immune-related clinical conditions and plasma markers in childhood. In 280 children aged 7 years, atopy, lung function and plasma inflammation markers were measured and their relationships with early AA exposure were studied by linear and logistic regression analyses. AA exposure was deduced from AA concentrations in plasma phospholipids of the mothers collected at several time points during pregnancy and at delivery, and in umbilical cord plasma and arterial and venous wall phospholipids. In unadjusted regression analyses, significant positive associations were observed between maternal AA concentrations at 16 and 32 weeks of pregnancy (proxies for fetal AA exposure) and peak expiratory flow decline after maximal physical exercise and plasma fibrinogen concentrations of their children, respectively. However, after correction for relevant covariables, only trends remained. A significant negative relationship was observed between AA concentrations in cord plasma (reflecting prenatal AA exposure) and the average daily amplitude of peak expiratory flow at rest, which lost significance after appropriate adjustment. Because of these few, weak and inconsistent relationships, a major impact of early-life exposure to AA on atopy, lung function and selected plasma inflammation markers of children at 7 years of age seems unlikely. PMID:19173768

  5. Identification and localization of an arachidonic acid-sensitive potassium channel in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Bernd H A; Sakai, Yoshihisa; Harvey, Margaret C; Duzhyy, Dmytro E

    2004-07-14

    Receptor cells of the auditory and vestibular end organs of vertebrates acquire various types of potassium channels during development. Their expression and kinetics can differ along the tonotopic axis as well as in different cell types of the sensory epithelium. These variations can play a crucial role in modulating sensory transduction and cochlear tuning. Whole-cell tight-seal recordings of isolated hair cells revealed the presence of an arachidonic acid-sensitive A-type channel in the short (outer) hair cells of the chicken cochlea. This polyunsaturated fatty acid blocked the A-current, thereby increasing the amplitude and duration of the voltage response in these cells. We identified the gene encoding this channel as belonging to a member of the Shal subfamily, Kv4.2. Expression of the recombinant channel shows half-activation and inactivation potentials shifted to more positive values relative to native channels, suggesting that the native channel is coexpressed with an accessory subunit. RT-PCR revealed that transcription begins early in development, whereas in situ hybridization showed mRNA expression limited to the intermediate and short hair cells located in specific regions of the adult cochlea. Additional localization, using immunofluorescent staining, revealed clustering in apical-lateral regions of the receptor cell as well as in the cochlear ganglion. These experiments provide evidence that in addition to membrane proteins modulating excitation in these receptor cells, fatty acids contribute to the coding of auditory stimuli via these channels. PMID:15254081

  6. Effects of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers on Metabolism of Arachidonic Acid via CYP2C8.

    PubMed

    Senda, Asuna; Mukai, Yuji; Toda, Takaki; Hayakawa, Toru; Yamashita, Miki; Eliasson, Erik; Rane, Anders; Inotsume, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) via cytochrome enzymes such as CYP 2C9, 2C8 and 2J2. EETs play a role in cardioprotection and regulation of blood pressure. Recently, adverse reactions such as sudden heart attack and fatal myocardial infarction were reported among patients taking angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). As some ARBs have affinity for these CYP enzymes, metabolic inhibition of AA by ARBs is a possible cause for the increase in cardiovascular events. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the inhibitory effects of ARBs on the formation of EETs and further metabolites, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), from AA via CYP2C8. In incubations with recombinant CYP2C8 in vitro, the inhibitory effects were compared by measuring EETs and DHETs by HPLC-MS/MS. Inhibition of AA metabolism by ARBs was detected in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of losartan (42.7 µM), telmisartan (49.5 µM), irbesartan (55.6 µM), olmesartan (66.2 µM), candesartan (108 µM), and valsartan (279 µM). Losartan, telmisartan and irbesartan, which reportedly accumulate in the liver and kidneys, have stronger inhibitory effects than other ARBs. The lower concentration of EETs leads to less protective action on the cardiovascular system and a higher incidence of adverse effects such as sudden heart attack and myocardial infarction in patients taking ARBs. PMID:26632190

  7. The Arachidonic Acid Metabolome Serves as a Conserved Regulator of Cholesterol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Demetz, Egon; Schroll, Andrea; Auer, Kristina; Heim, Christiane; Patsch, Josef R.; Eller, Philipp; Theurl, Markus; Theurl, Igor; Theurl, Milan; Seifert, Markus; Lener, Daniela; Stanzl, Ursula; Haschka, David; Asshoff, Malte; Dichtl, Stefanie; Nairz, Manfred; Huber, Eva; Stadlinger, Martin; Moschen, Alexander R.; Li, Xiaorong; Pallweber, Petra; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stojakovic, Tatjana; März, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E.; Garlaschelli, Katia; Uboldi, Patrizia; Catapano, Alberico L.; Stellaard, Frans; Rudling, Mats; Kuba, Keiji; Imai, Yumiko; Arita, Makoto; Schuetz, John D.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Tietge, Uwe J.F.; Trauner, Michael; Norata, Giuseppe D.; Claudel, Thierry; Hicks, Andrew A.; Weiss, Guenter; Tancevski, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cholesterol metabolism is closely interrelated with cardiovascular disease in humans. Dietary supplementation with omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic acid (AA) was shown to favorably affect plasma LDL-C and HDL-C. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. By combining data from a GWAS screening in >100,000 individuals of European ancestry, mediator lipidomics, and functional validation studies in mice, we identify the AA metabolome as an important regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Pharmacological modulation of AA metabolism by aspirin induced hepatic generation of leukotrienes (LTs) and lipoxins (LXs), thereby increasing hepatic expression of the bile salt export pump Abcb11. Induction of Abcb11 translated in enhanced reverse cholesterol transport, one key function of HDL. Further characterization of the bioactive AA-derivatives identified LX mimetics to lower plasma LDL-C. Our results define the AA metabolome as conserved regulator of cholesterol metabolism, and identify AA derivatives as promising therapeutics to treat cardiovascular disease in humans. PMID:25444678

  8. Arachidonic Acid Enhances Reproduction in Daphnia magna and Mitigates Changes in Sex Ratios Induced by Pyriproxyfen

    PubMed Central

    Ginjupalli, Gautam K.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Baldwin, William S.

    2016-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of only two unsaturated fatty acids retained in the ovaries of crustaceans, and an inhibitor of HR97g, a nuclear receptor expressed in adult ovaries. We hypothesized that as a key fatty acid, AA may be associated with reproduction and potentially environmental sex determination in Daphnia. Reproduction assays with AA indicate that it alters female/male sex ratios by increasing female production. This reproductive effect only occurred during a restricted P. subcapitata diet. Next, we tested whether enriching a poorer algal diet (C. vulgaris) with AA enhances overall reproduction and sex ratios. AA enrichment of a C. vulgaris diet also enhances fecundity at 1.0 and 4.0μM by 30–40% in the presence and absence of pyriproxyfen. This indicates that AA is crucial in reproduction regardless of environmental sex determination. Furthermore, our data indicates that P. subcapitata may provide a threshold concentration of AA needed for reproduction. Diet switch experiments from P. subcapitata to C. vulgaris mitigate some but not all of AA’s effects when compared to a C. vulgaris only diet, suggesting that some AA provided by P. subcapitata is retained. In summary, AA supplementation increases reproduction and represses pyriproxyfen-induced environmental sex determination in D. magna in restricted diets. A diet rich in AA may provide protection from some reproductive toxicants such as the juvenile hormone agonist, pyriproxyfen. PMID:25393616

  9. Calcium dependency of arachidonic acid incorporation into cellular phospholipids of different cell types.

    PubMed

    Daniele, J J; Fidelio, G D; Bianco, I D

    1999-07-01

    Ca2+ -independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) is involved in the incorporation of arachidonic acid (AA) into resting macrophages by the generation of the lysophospholipid acceptor. The role of iPLA2 in AA remodeling in different cells was evaluated by studying the Ca2+ dependency of AA uptake from the medium, the incorporation into cellular phospholipids, and the effect of the iPLA2 inhibitor bromoenol lactone on these events. Uptake and esterification of AA into phospholipids were not affected by Ca2+ depletion in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and rat fibroblasts. The uptake was Ca2+ independent in chick embryo glial cells, but the incorporation into phospholipids was partially dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Both events were fully dependent on extra and intracellular Ca2+ in human platelets. In human polymorphonuclear neutrophils, the kinetics of incorporation in several isospecies of phospholipids was not affected by the absence of Ca2+ at short times (<30 min). The involvement of iPLA2 in the incorporation of AA from the medium was confirmed by the selective inhibition of this enzyme with bromoenol lactone, which reduced < or =50% of the incorporation of AA into phospholipids of human neutrophils. These data provide evidence that suggests iPLA2 plays a major role in regulating AA turnover in different cell types. PMID:10480488

  10. Inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism and its implication on cell proliferation and tumour-angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, C A C; Missailidis, S

    2009-06-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites have recently generated a heightened interest due to growing evidence of their significant role in cancer biology. Thus, inhibitors of the AA cascade, first and foremost COX inhibitors, which have originally been of interest in the treatment of inflammatory conditions and certain types of cardiovascular disease, are now attracting attention as an arsenal against cancer. An increasing number of investigations support their role in cancer chemoprevention, although the precise molecular mechanisms that link levels of AA, and its metabolites, with cancer progression have still to be elucidated. This article provides an overview of the AA cascade and focuses on the roles of its inhibitors and their implication in cancer treatment. In particular, emphasis is placed on the inhibition of cell proliferation and neo-angiogenesis through inhibition of the enzymes COX-2, 5-LOX and CYP450. Downstream effects of inhibition of AA metabolites are analysed and the molecular mechanisms of action of a selected number of inhibitors of catalytic pathways reviewed. Lastly, the benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids and their mechanisms of action leading to reduced cancer risk and impeded cancer cell growth are mentioned. Finally, a proposal is put forward, suggesting a novel and integrated approach in viewing the molecular mechanisms and complex interactions responsible for the involvement of AA metabolites in carcinogenesis and the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and tumour prevention. PMID:19239926

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of chronic aspirin on brain arachidonic acid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Basselin, Mireille; Ramadan, Epolia; Chen, Mei; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2011-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators derived from arachidonic acid (AA) modulate peripheral inflammation and its resolution. Aspirin (ASA) is a unique non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which switches AA metabolism from prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) and thromboxane B₂ (TXB₂) to lipoxin A₄ (LXA₄) and 15-epi-LXA₄. However, it is unknown whether chronic therapeutic doses of ASA are anti-inflammatory in the brain. We hypothesized that ASA would dampen increases in brain concentrations of AA metabolites in a rat model of neuroinflammation, produced by a 6-day intracerebroventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In rats infused with LPS (0.5 ng/h) and given ASA-free water to drink, concentrations in high-energy microwaved brain of PGE₂, TXB₂ and leukotriene B₄ (LTB₄) were elevated. In rats infused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, 6 weeks of treatment with a low (10 mg/kg/day) or high (100 mg/kg/day) ASA dose in drinking water decreased brain PGE₂, but increased LTB₄, LXA₄ and 15-epi-LXA₄ concentrations. Both doses attenuated the LPS effects on PGE₂, and TXB₂. The increments in LXA₄ and 15-epi-LXA₄ caused by high-dose ASA were significantly greater in LPS-infused rats. The ability of ASA to increase anti-inflammatory LXA₄ and 15-epi-LXA₄ and reduce pro-inflammatory PGE₂ and TXB₂ suggests considering aspirin further for treating clinical neuroinflammation. PMID:20981485

  12. Accumulation of arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylinositol at the outer edge of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hiraide, Takanori; Ikegami, Koji; Sakaguchi, Takanori; Morita, Yoshifumi; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Waki, Michihiko; Sugiyama, Eiji; Shinriki, Satoru; Takeda, Makoto; Shibasaki, Yasushi; Miyazaki, Shinichiro; Kikuchi, Hirotoshi; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Inoue, Masahiro; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Konno, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer cells show specific alterations in phospholipid metabolism that contribute to tumour progression in several types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. Questions still remain as to what lipids characterize the outer edge of cancer tissues and whether those cancer outer edge-specific lipid compositions emerge autonomously in cancer cells. Cancer tissue-originated spheroids (CTOSs) that are composed of pure primary cancer cells have been developed. In this study, we aimed to seek out the cancer cell-autonomous acquisition of cancer outer edge-characterizing lipids in colorectal cancer by analysing phospholipids in CTOSs derived from colorectal cancer patients with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). A signal at m/z 885.5 in negative ion mode was detected specifically at the surface regions. The signal was identified as an arachidonic acid (AA)-containing phosphatidylinositol (PI), PI(18:0/20:4), by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Quantitative analysis revealed that the amount of PI(18:0/20:4) in the surface region of CTOSs was two-fold higher than that in the medial region. Finally, PI(18:0/20:4) was enriched at the cancer cells/stromal interface in colorectal cancer patients. These data imply a possible importance of AA-containing PI for colorectal cancer progression, and suggest cells expressing AA-containing PI as potential targets for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:27435310

  13. Effect of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids on acute lung injury induced by hypochlorous acid

    PubMed Central

    Wahn, H; Ruenauver, N; Hammerschmidt, S

    2002-01-01

    Background: Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the main oxidant of activated polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) and generated by myeloperoxidase during respiratory burst. This study investigates the effects of HOCl on pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and vascular permeability and characterises the influence of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on the observed effects. Methods: HOCl (500, 1000, 2000 nmol/min) was continuously infused into the perfusate (Krebs-Henseleit buffer solution, KHB). AA or EPA in subthreshold doses (both 2 nmol/min) or buffer were simultaneously infused using a separate port. PAP, pulmonary venous pressure (PVP), ventilation pressure, and lung weight gain were continuously recorded. The capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,c) was calculated before and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after starting the HOCl infusion. Results: HOCl application resulted in a dose dependent increase in PAP and Kf,c. The onset of these changes was inversely related to the HOCl dose used. The combined infusion of AA with HOCl resulted in a significant additional rise in pressure and oedema formation which forced premature termination of all experiments. The combination of EPA with HOCl did not result in an enhancement of the HOCl induced rise in pressure and oedema formation. Conclusions: Changes in the pulmonary microvasculature caused by HOCl are differently influenced by ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated free fatty acids, suggesting a link between neutrophil derived oxidative stress and pulmonary eicosanoid metabolism. PMID:12454302

  14. Improving arachidonic acid fermentation by Mortierella alpina through multistage temperature and aeration rate control in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min-Jie; Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zhu, Li; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2016-05-18

    Effective production of arachidonic acid (ARA) using Mortierella alpina was conducted in a 30-L airlift bioreactor. Varying the aeration rate and temperature significantly influenced cell morphology, cell growth, and ARA production, while the optimal aeration rate and temperature for cell growth and product formation were quite different. As a result, a two-stage aeration rate control strategy was constructed based on monitoring of cell morphology and ARA production under various aeration rate control levels (0.6-1.8 vvm). Using this strategy, ARA yield reached 4.7 g/L, an increase of 38.2% compared with the control (constant aeration rate control at 1.0 vvm). Dynamic temperature-control strategy was implemented based on the fermentation performance at various temperatures (13-28°C), with ARA level in total cellular lipid increased by 37.1% comparing to a constant-temperature control (25°C). On that basis, the combinatorial fermentation strategy of two-stage aeration rate control and dynamic temperature control was applied and ARA production achieved the highest level of 5.8 g/L. PMID:26038800

  15. Arachidonate 5 Lipoxygenase Expression in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Promotes Invasion via MMP-9 Induction

    PubMed Central

    Kummer, Nicolas T.; Nowicki, Theodore S; Azzi, Jean Paul; Reyes, Ismael; Iacob, Codrin; Xie, Suqing; Swati, Ismatun; Suslina, Nina; Schantz, Stimson; Tiwari, Raj K.; Geliebter, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) expression and activity has been implicated in tumor pathogenesis, yet its role in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has not been characterized. ALOX5 protein and mRNA were upregulated in PTC compared to matched, normal thyroid tissue, and ALOX5 expression correlated with invasive tumor histopathology. Evidence suggests that PTC invasion is mediated through the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that can degrade and remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM). A correlation between MMP-9 and ALOX5 protein expression was established by immunohistochemical analysis of PTC and normal thyroid tissues using a tissue array. Transfection of ALOX5 into a PTC cell line (BCPAP) increased MMP-9 secretion and cell invasion across an ECM barrier. The ALOX5 product, 5(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid also increased MMP-9 protein expression by BCPAP in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors of MMP-9 and ALOX5 reversed ALOX5-enhanced invasion. Here we describe a new role for ALOX5 as a mediator of invasion via MMP-9 induction; this ALOX5/MMP9 pathway represents a new avenue in the search for functional biomarkers and/or potential therapeutic targets for aggressive PTC. PMID:22253131

  16. IMAGING BRAIN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION AND METABOLISM VIA ARACHIDONIC AND DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Basselin, Mireille; Ramadan, Epolia; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2012-01-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), important second messengers in brain, are released from membrane phospholipid following receptor-mediated activation of specific phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes. We developed an in vivo method in rodents using quantitative autoradiography to image PUFA incorporation into brain from plasma, and showed that their incorporation rates equal their rates of metabolic consumption by brain. Thus, quantitative imaging of unesterified plasma AA or DHA incorporation into brain can be used as a biomarker of brain PUFA metabolism and neurotransmission. We have employed our method to image and quantify effects of mood stabilizers on brain AA/DHA incorporation during neurotransmission by muscarinic M1,3,5, serotonergic 5-HT2A/2C, dopaminergic D2-like (D2, D3, D4) or glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, and effects of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, of selective serotonin and dopamine reuptake transporter inhibitors, of neuroinflammation (HIV-1 and lipopolysaccharide) and excitotoxicity, and in genetically modified rodents. The method has been extended for the use with positron emission tomography (PET), and can be employed to determine how human brain AA/DHA signaling and consumption are influenced by diet, aging, disease and genetics. PMID:22178644

  17. Metabolic fate of arachidonic acid in hepatocytes of continuously endotoxemic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez de Turco, E B; Spitzer, J A

    1988-01-01

    The present experiments were designed to characterize the kinetics of [1-14C]arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism as a function of time in hepatocytes obtained from rats infused continuously for 30 h with a nonlethal dose of Escherichia coli endotoxin (ET). Chronic endotoxemia greatly reduces the ability of hepatocytes to utilize [1-14C]AA, which is reflected from the earliest times of incubation in very low labeling of intermediates in the biosynthetic pathways of glycerolipids (phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol) and slower removal of [1-14C]AA from the free fatty acid pool as compared with saline-infused rats. At later times of incubation, the labeling of phospholipids (especially phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol [PI]), but not of triacylglycerides is decreased. Analysis of fatty acid composition of individual phospholipids from cells of ET-infused rats reveals that the content of AA is significantly reduced only in PI. Hence an impairment in activation/acylation enzymatic mechanisms could affect the turnover of metabolically active phospholipid pools, i.e., PI, involved in signal transmission processes, and result in increased availability of 20:4 for eicosanoid synthesis, contributing to cellular metabolic perturbations in endotoxicosis. PMID:3125225

  18. Release of arachidonic acid from oligodendrocytes by terminal complement proteins, C5b-C9

    SciTech Connect

    Shirazi, Y.; Imagawa, D.K.; Shin, M.L.

    1986-03-01

    Activation of C5b-C9 on monocytes, macrophages, platelets and neutrophils induces membrane lipid hydrolysis and generates arachidonic acid (AA) and its oxygenated derivatives. Additionally, activation of C5b-C9 and myelin lipid hydrolysis has been observed in demyelination. The authors have investigated the modulatory effect of C5b-9 on membrane lipid hydrolysis of oligodendrocytes (OLG), the myelin producing cells in the central nervous system. Antibody-sensitized rat OLG, prelabeled with /sup 14/C AA were treated with excess C6-deficient rabbit serum reconstituted with limiting doses of C6. Qualitative analysis of the supernatants by HPLC revealed the presence of both cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase products. Prostaglandin E/sub 2/, leukotriene (LT) E/sub 4/, LTB/sub 4/ and free AA were the major radiolabeled products. The kinetics and dose response of LTB/sub 4/ release with respect to the cytolytic dose of C5b-9 were quantitated by radioimmunoassay. LTB/sub 4/ release approached maximum in 1 hr and higher amounts were detected with fewer C5b-9 channels. Addition of C8 to OLG bearing C5b-7 intermediates induced maximum LTB/sub 4/ release without further enhancement by C9 in contrast to the absolute requirement of C9 in mediator release from rat neutrophils. Thus, the requirement of C5b-8 or C5b-9 in mediator release appears to be cell-type dependent.

  19. Epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid inhibit vasopressin response in toad bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Schlondorff, D.; Petty, E.; Oates, J.A.; Jacoby, M.; Levine, S.D. Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN )

    1987-09-01

    In addition to cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways, the kidney can also metabolize arachidonic acid by a NADPH-dependent cytochrome P-450 enzyme to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs); furthermore, 5,6-EET has been shown to alter electrolyte transport across isolated renal tubules. The authors examined the effects of three ({sup 14}C-labeled)-EETs (5,6-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET) on osmotic water flow across toad urinary bladder. All three EETs reversibly inhibited vasopressin-stimulated osmotic water flow with 5,6- and 11,12-EET being the most potent. The effects appeared to be independent of prostaglandins EETs inhibited the water flow response to forskolin but not the response to adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) or 8-BrcAMP, consistent with an effect on cAMP generation. To determine whether these effects were due to the EETs or to products of their metabolism, they examined the effects of their vicinal diol hydrolysis products, the dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. Nonenzymatic conversion of labeled 5,6-EET to its vicinal diol occurred rapidly in the buffer, whereas 11,12-EET was hydrolyzed in a saturable manner only when incubated in the presence of bladder tissue. The dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids formed inhibited water flow in a manner paralleling that of the EETs. The data support the hypothesis that EETs and their physiologically active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid metabolites inhibit vasopressin-stimulated water flow predominantly via inhibition of adenylate cyclase.

  20. Effect of heavy metal ions on neutrophil arachidonic acid metabolism and chemotaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.; Turner, S.R.; Johnson, J.A.; Turner, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Heavy metal ions can inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, protect against ionophore cytotoxicity (ibid) and inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis. In this study they used Au/sup +3/, Zn/sup +2/, Cr/sup +3/, Mn/sup +2/, and Cu/sup +2/ as probes of the interrelationships among AA metabolism, ionophore-mediated cytotoxicity, and chemotaxis. Phospholipid deacylation was measured in ionophore-treated cells prelabeled with /sup 3/H-AA. Eicosanoid release from ionophore-treated cells was monitored both qualitatively by thin-layer chromatography of /sup 3/H-AA metabolities and quantitatively by radioimmunoassay. Cytoprotection was quantitated as ability to exclude trypan blue. Chemotaxis toward f-Met-Leu-Phe was measured by leading front analysis. The results imply that metal ions attenuate ionophore cytotoxicity by blocking phospholipid deacylation and eicosanoid production. In contrast to previous reports, the data obtained using Au/sup +3/ and Cu/sup +2/ demonstrates no correlation between AA metabolism and chemotaxis, suggesting that these 2 processes are not linked.

  1. Production of human milk fat analogue containing docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids.

    PubMed

    Turan, Dilek; Sahin Yeşilçubuk, Neşe; Akoh, Casimir C

    2012-05-01

    Human milk fat (HMF) analogue containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) at sn-1,3 positions and palmitic acid (PA) at sn-2 position was produced. Novozym 435 lipase was used to produce palmitic acid-enriched hazelnut oil (EHO). EHO was then used to produce the final structured lipid (SL) through interesterification reactions using Lipozyme RM IM. Reaction variables for 3 h reactions were temperature, substrate mole ratio, and ARASCO/DHASCO (A:D) ratio. After statistical analysis of DHA, ARA, total PA, and PA content at sn-2 position, a large-scale production was performed at 60 °C, 3:2 A:D ratio, and 1:0.1 substrate mole ratio. For the SL, those results were determined as 57.3 ± 0.4%, 2.7 ± 0.0%, 2.4 ± 0.1%, and 66.1 ± 2.2%, respectively. Tocopherol contents were 84, 19, 85, and 23 μg/g oil for α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol. Melting range of SL was narrower than that of EHO. Oxidative stability index (OSI) value of SL (0.80 h) was similar to that of EHO (0.88 h). This SL can be used in infant formulas to provide the benefits of ARA and DHA. PMID:22497589

  2. Age-related changes in retinoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid modulation in nuclear lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gaveglio, Virginia L; Pascual, Ana C; Giusto, Norma M; Pasquaré, Susana J

    2016-08-15

    The aim of this work was to study how age-related changes could modify several enzymatic activities that regulate lipid mediator levels in nuclei from rat cerebellum and how these changes are modulated by all-trans retinoic acid (RA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA). The higher phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity and lower diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) activity observed in aged animals compared with adults could augment diacylglycerol (DAG) availability in the former. Additionally, monoacylglycerol (MAG) availability could be high due to an increase in lysophosphatidate phosphohydrolase (LPAPase) activity and a decrease in monocylglycerol lipase activity. Interestingly, RA, DHA and AA were observed to modulate these enzymatic activities and this modulation was found to change in aged rats. In adult nuclei, whereas RA led to high DAG and MAG production through inhibition of their hydrolytic enzymes, DHA and AA promoted high MAG production by LPAPase and DAGL stimulation. In contrast, in aged nuclei RA caused high MAG generation whereas DHA and AA diminished it through LPAPase activity modulation. These results demonstrate that aging promotes a different nuclear lipid metabolism as well as a different type of non-genomic regulation by RA, DHA and AA, which could be involved in nuclear signaling events. PMID:27355428

  3. What is the relationship between gestational age and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels?

    PubMed

    Baack, Michelle L; Puumala, Susan E; Messier, Stephen E; Pritchett, Deborah K; Harris, William S

    2015-09-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are increasingly transferred from mother to fetus late in pregnancy. Infants born before this transfer is complete are at risk for deficiency. This study determines the relationship between gestational age (GA) and circulating LCPUFA levels to better understand the unique needs of premature infants born at various GAs. Whole blood was collected within the first 7 days of life from 60 preterm (≤34 weeks GA) and 30 term infants (≥38 weeks GA) and FA levels were analyzed. Since concurrent intravenous lipid emulsion can skew composition data, blood LCPUFA concentrations were also measured. Levels were compared among groups, and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FA composition and GA. Preterm infants had significantly lower DHA and ARA levels than term peers, and whether assessed as concentrations or compositions, both directly correlated with GA (p<0.0001). Moreover, FA comparisons suggest that premature infants have impaired synthesis of LCPUFAs from precursors and may require preformed DHA and ARA. This study confirms that essential FA status is strongly related to GA, and that those babies born the earliest are at the greatest risk of LCPUFA deficiency. PMID:26205427

  4. Photosensitivity of the isolated pigment epithelium and arachidonic acid metabolism: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pautler, E L

    1994-09-01

    The administration of 0.1-0.5% of ethanol produces a slow increase in the transepithelial potential (TEP) of about 2 mV in the bovine pigment epithelium (RPE) under ordinary room lighting. However, virtually no response could be observed when ethanol was administered in the dark. Because of this apparent light sensitivity, the ethanol induced response (EIR) was investigated to determine its spectral response characteristics, temporal interaction with light, and the effects of a variety of metabolic inhibitors as well as pertussis and cholera toxins. The spectral response curve peaked at 520 nm with a narrow half width. The EIR was found to be inhibited by pertussis toxin but not cholera toxin. Inhibition of either phospholipase A2 or lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase resulted in a marked inhibition of the EIR. The incubating solutions of the apical surface of bovine and cultured chick embryo RPE were analyzed by RP-HPLC under conditions of weak white light and darkness. Two peaks in the chromatogram were observed to vary with these conditions and the presence of nordihydroguaiaretic acid simulated the effects of darkness. The RP-HPLC studies did not involve the employment of ethanol. Two different experimental procedures revealed the photosensitivity of the isolated RPE to weak light and suggest that light initiates or promotes arachidonic acid metabolism. A possible regulatory effect of retinoids was also indicated. PMID:7805400

  5. Assessment of the arachidonic acid content in foods commonly consumed in the American diet.

    PubMed

    Taber, L; Chiu, C H; Whelan, J

    1998-12-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is an extremely important fatty acid involved in cell regulation. When provided in the diet, it is cogently incorporated in membrane phospholipids and enhances eicosanoid biosynthesis in vivo and in vitro; however, controversy exists as to the levels of AA in food and in the diet. This study determined the amount of AA in cooked and raw portions of beef (rib eye), chicken (breast and thigh), eggs, pork (loin), turkey (breast), and tuna; it compared these results to values published in Agriculture Handbook No. 8 (HB-8). The cooked portions were prepared as described in HB-8. With the exception of chicken thigh and tuna, the levels of AA (w/w) in the selected foods analyzed were significantly higher, in general, than those values published in HB-8. The greatest differences were observed in beef (raw and cooked), turkey breast (raw and cooked), and pork (cooked) where AA levels were twice that of the values in HB-8. In contrast, the AA and n-3 fatty acid contents in tuna were almost half the HB-8 values. The present data indicate that HB-8 tends to underreport the amounts of AA in a number of foods commonly consumed in the American diet, and new initiatives should be considered to validate and update the current database for fatty acid composition of foods. PMID:9930399

  6. Evolution of Gravity Receptors in the Ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, Arthur N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The general status of a grant to investigate the origins and evolution of two hair cell types in the ears of a teleost fish, Astronotus ocellatus (the oscar), is presented. First, it was demonstrated that the cells in the rostral end of the saccule of the , Carassius auratus, are type 1-like, while those at the caudal end are type 2 cells. It was demonstrated that the dichotomy of hair cell types found in the utricle of the oscar is also found in the goldfish. Second, the lateral line system of the oscar was examined using gentamicin sulphate, an ototocix drug that destroys type 1- like hair cells but does not appear to damage type 2 hair cells. It was demonstrated that the hair cells found in neuromasts of lateral line canal organs were totally destroyed within 1 day of treatment, while the hair cells in free neuromasts were undamaged after 12 days of treatment. Third, it was demonstrated that the calyx, the specialized nerve ending, is not unique to amniotes and that it is present at least in the cristae of semicirular canals in goldfish. These results have demonstrated that: (1) there are multiple hair cell types in the vestibular endorgans of the ear of fishes, (2) these hair cell types are very similar to those found in the mammalian vestibular endorgans, (3) the nerve calyx is also present in fishes, and (4) multiple hair cell types and the calyx have evolved far earlier in the course of vertebrate evolution than heretofore thought. Understanding the structure of the vestibular endorgans has important implications for being able to understand how these organs respond to gravistatic, acceleration and acoustic input. The vestibular endorgans of fishes may provide an ideal system in which to analyze functional differences in hair cells. Not only are the two hair cell types similar to those found in mammals, they are located in very discrete regions in each endorgan. Thus, it is relatively easy to gain access to cells of one or the other type. The presence of two

  7. EARS : Repositioning data management near data acquisition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinquin, Jean-Marc; Sorribas, Jordi; Diviacco, Paolo; Vandenberghe, Thomas; Munoz, Raquel; Garcia, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    The EU FP7 Projects Eurofleets and Eurofleets2 are an European wide alliance of marine research centers that aim to share their research vessels, to improve information sharing on planned, current and completed cruises, on details of ocean-going research vessels and specialized equipment, and to durably improve cost-effectiveness of cruises. Within this context logging of information on how, when and where anything happens on board of the vessel is crucial information for data users in a later stage. This forms a primordial step in the process of data quality control as it could assist in the understanding of anomalies and unexpected trends recorded in the acquired data sets. In this way completeness of the metadata is improved as it is recorded accurately at the origin of the measurement. The collection of this crucial information has been done in very different ways, using different procedures, formats and pieces of software in the context of the European Research Fleet. At the time that the Eurofleets project started, every institution and country had adopted different strategies and approaches, which complicated the task of users that need to log general purpose information and events on-board whenever they access a different platform loosing the opportunity to produce this valuable metadata on-board. Among the many goals the Eurofleets project has, a very important task is the development of an "event log software" called EARS (Eurofleets Automatic Reporting System) that enables scientists and operators to record what happens during a survey. EARS will allow users to fill, in a standardized way, the gap existing at the moment in metadata description that only very seldom links data with its history. Events generated automatically by acquisition instruments will also be handled, enhancing the granularity and precision of the event annotation. The adoption of a common procedure to log survey events and a common terminology to describe them is crucial to provide

  8. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  9. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  10. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  11. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  12. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  13. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  14. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  15. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid you in determining the scope of the EAR. A flow chart describing these steps is contained in...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  17. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  18. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  19. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  20. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  1. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  2. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  3. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  5. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  8. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  10. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  11. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  13. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid you in determining the scope of the EAR. A flow chart describing these steps is contained in...

  14. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  16. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  17. [Aural polyp in chronic inflammatory middle ear disease].

    PubMed

    López Aguado, D; López Campos, D; Pérez Piñero, B; Campos Bañales, M E

    2003-03-01

    240 patients with chronic otitis media (COM) were studied: 166 ears termed as non cholesteatomatous otitis media and 74 with cholesteatoma. In 38 ears an aural polyp was found with no evidence of cholesteatoma in 19 ears (11.4%) whereas a cholesteatoma was present in the remaining 19 ears. The histology of the polyp and the characteristics of the chronic process were matched: a) The aural polyp is an infrequent complication in COM. b) After histological analysis was found to present two different pictures: The inflammatory reaction polyp, present in non cholesteatomatous COM; and the polyp with granulation tissue and foreign body reaction (keratina) usually found in cholesteatomatous COM. c) The finding of granulation tissue reaction and keratina in an aural polyp is a good predictor for the presence of a cholesteatoma. PMID:12825338

  18. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Below are some questions you may want to ask your child's health care provider to help you ... What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what to ask your doctor

  19. Revision Stapedectomy in a Female Patient with Inner Ear Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Tirth R.; Moberly, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We describe an unusual case of surgical management of congenital mixed hearing loss in a female patient with inner ear malformation. This report outlines the role of temporal bone imaging and previous surgical history in evaluating a patient's risk of perilymph gusher during stapes surgery. Methods. A 68-year-old female patient with a history of profound bilateral mixed hearing loss due to ossicular and cochlear malformation presented to our otology clinic. She had undergone multiple unsuccessful previous ear surgeries. Computed tomography revealed bilateral inner ear malformations. She elected to proceed with revision stapedectomy. Results. The patient received modest benefit to hearing, and no operative complications occurred. Conclusions. Although stapedectomy has been shown to improve hearing in patients with stapes fixation, there is risk of perilymph gusher in patients with inner ear abnormalities. Evaluation and counseling of the risk of gusher during stapes surgery should be done on a case-by-case basis. PMID:27144044

  20. A rabbit ear model for cold stress testing.

    PubMed

    Smith, T L; Gordon, S; Holden, M B; Smith, B P; Russell, G B; Koman, L A

    1994-01-01

    A rabbit ear model resembling the human digit was studied to determine the vascular response of the rabbit ear to a cold stress. Following moderate cooling (10 minutes at 5 degrees - 8 degrees C), auricular blood flow and cutaneous perfusion were reduced. This decrease was reversed by 30 minutes of warming. The response in the rabbit ear to cold stress is similar to that of normal human digits. The similarities between the control of the circulation in human digits and rabbit ears may result from the similarities in digital and auricular vascular receptors and receptor subtypes. Verification of the rabbit model provides an experimental method for obtaining important data regarding digital pathophysiology and the treatment of cold intolerance. Further study with this model will provide clinically relevant information regarding the pathophysiology of digital thermoregulatory abnormalities. PMID:7830538

  1. Ear projection and the posterior auricular muscle insertion.

    PubMed

    Guyuron, B; DeLuca, L

    1997-08-01

    Prominent ears is a common congenital anomaly affecting approximately 5 percent of the general population. The etiology has been attributed to three basic deformities in the ear structure: valgus of the concha with a cranioauricular angle greater than 40 degrees, underfolding of the anthelix, and rarely, hypertrophy of the concha. It is believed that by virtue of its insertion onto the ponticulus, the cranial surface of the concha, the posterior auricular muscle may function to pull the auricle back toward the head. A proximally (anteromedially) displaced insertion site would decrease the length of the effective momentum of the muscle, leading to protrusion of the auricle. This study was conducted to determine if indeed a relationship between the posterior muscle insertion site and ear projection could be established clinically by measuring these parameters intraoperatively in patients presenting for otoplasty and in patients without prominent ears who required conchal cartilage grafts for other procedures. PMID:9252616

  2. Barotrauma of the ears and sinuses after scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Becker, G D; Parell, G J

    2001-05-01

    The pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and currently available management of barotrauma affecting the ears and sinuses after scuba diving are reviewed, along with medical standards for resuming scuba diving after barotrauma has resolved. PMID:11407445

  3. How minute sooglossid frogs hear without a middle ear

    PubMed Central

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215–225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction–mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world’s smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear. PMID:24003145

  4. Green laser light activates the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Gentiana I.; Balster, Sven; Zhang, Kaiyin; Lim, Hubert H.; Reich, Uta; Massow, Ole; Lubatschowski, Holger; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Guenter

    2009-07-01

    The hearing performance with conventional hearing aids and cochlear implants is dramatically reduced in noisy environments and for sounds more complex than speech (e. g. music), partially due to the lack of localized sensorineural activation across different frequency regions with these devices. Laser light can be focused in a controlled manner and may provide more localized activation of the inner ear, the cochlea. We sought to assess whether visible light with parameters that could induce an optoacoustic effect (532 nm, 10-ns pulses) would activate the cochlea. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded preoperatively in anesthetized guinea pigs to confirm normal hearing. After opening the bulla, a 50-μm core-diameter optical fiber was positioned in the round window niche and directed toward the basilar membrane. Optically induced ABRs (OABRs), similar in shape to those of acoustic stimulation, were elicited with single pulses. The OABR peaks increased with energy level (0.6 to 23 μJ/pulse) and remained consistent even after 30 minutes of continuous stimulation at 13 μJ, indicating minimal or no stimulation-induced damage within the cochlea. Our findings demonstrate that visible light can effectively and reliably activate the cochlea without any apparent damage. Further studies are in progress to investigate the frequency-specific nature and mechanism of green light cochlear activation.

  5. Why Internally Coupled Ears (ICE) Work Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2014-03-01

    Many vertebrates, such as frogs and lizards, have an air-filled cavity between left and right eardrum, i.e., internally coupled ears (ICE). Depending on source direction, internal time (iTD) and level (iLD) difference as experienced by the animal's auditory system may greatly exceed [C. Vossen et al., JASA 128 (2010) 909-918] the external, or interaural, time and level difference (ITD and ILD). Sensory processing only encodes iTD and iLD. We present an extension of ICE theory so as to elucidate the underlying physics. First, the membrane properties of the eardrum explain why for low frequencies iTD dominates whereas iLD does so for higher frequencies. Second, the plateau of iTD = γ ITD for constant 1 < γ < 5 and variable input frequency <ν∘ follows; e.g., for the Tockay gecko ν∘ ~ 1 . 5 kHz. Third, we use a sectorial instead of circular membrane to quantify the effect of the extracolumella embedded in the tympanum and connecting with the cochlea. The main parameters can be adjusted so that the model is species independent. Work done in collaboration with A.P. Vedurmudi and J. Goulet; partially supported by BCCN-Munich.

  6. Tricellular Tight Junctions in the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are structures that seal the space between the epithelial cell sheets. In the inner ear, the barrier function of TJs is indispensable for the separation of the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces, which is essential for the generation and maintenance of the endocochlear potential (EP). TJs are formed by the intercellular binding of membrane proteins, known as claudins, and mutations in these proteins cause deafness in humans and mice. Within the epithelial cell sheet, however, a bound structure is present at the site where the corners of three cells meet (tricellular tight junctions (tTJs)), and the maintenance of the barrier function at this location cannot be explained by the claudins alone. Tricellulin and the angulin family of proteins (angulin-1/LSR, angulin-2/ILDR1, and angulin-3/ILDR2) have been identified as tTJ-associated proteins. Tricellulin and ILDR1 are localized at the tTJ and alterations in these proteins have been reported to be involved in deafness. In this review, we will present the current state of knowledge for tTJs. PMID:27195292

  7. Tricellular Tight Junctions in the Inner Ear.

    PubMed

    Kitajiri, Shin-Ichiro; Katsuno, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are structures that seal the space between the epithelial cell sheets. In the inner ear, the barrier function of TJs is indispensable for the separation of the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces, which is essential for the generation and maintenance of the endocochlear potential (EP). TJs are formed by the intercellular binding of membrane proteins, known as claudins, and mutations in these proteins cause deafness in humans and mice. Within the epithelial cell sheet, however, a bound structure is present at the site where the corners of three cells meet (tricellular tight junctions (tTJs)), and the maintenance of the barrier function at this location cannot be explained by the claudins alone. Tricellulin and the angulin family of proteins (angulin-1/LSR, angulin-2/ILDR1, and angulin-3/ILDR2) have been identified as tTJ-associated proteins. Tricellulin and ILDR1 are localized at the tTJ and alterations in these proteins have been reported to be involved in deafness. In this review, we will present the current state of knowledge for tTJs. PMID:27195292

  8. Blackbody for metrological control of ear thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E.

    2013-09-01

    Body temperature is an important parameter in medical practice, and most of health diagnoses are made based upon measured temperature values. Non-contact measurements are attractive to both patients and physicians, and ear thermometers (ET) are part of the set of infrared thermometers for medical applications. ETs sense the tympanic membrane temperature which best represents body temperature. They take advantage of the natural high effective emissivity cavity that is formed as radiation source. To calibrate or to check the performance of ETs, we designed a high-emissivity spherical cavity as a blackbody source which can be placed in a dry block oven. Although the blackbody cavity can have any shape, we decided to build it spherical because its effective emissivity can be easily calculated in a closed form. The cavity is made of Aluminum to take advantage of its high thermal conductivity while its inner side is covered with a black paint to increase the cavity effective emissivity. Based on paint emissivity measurements and the geometrical shape, we calculated that the cavity has an effective emissivity higher than 0.999. Blackbody temperature is measured with a calibrated contact thermometer placed inside the bottom wall of the cavity. We present the design of the cavity, the experimental setup, and results of three commercial ETs compared with this cavity.

  9. Ear keloids: a review and update of treatment options

    PubMed Central

    SOBEC, RALUCA; DOBREANU, CODRIN; FODOR, LUCIAN; ŞOMCUTEAN, ANA; ŢICHIL, IOANA; COSGAREA, MARCEL

    2013-01-01

    Ear keloids are among the most challenging plastic surgery conditions and may have significant psychosocial impact for the patient. Their aesthetic considerations are serious and despite a variety of treatment options, they often proved to be recurrent. This paper reviews the management options of ear keloids available in literature up to date. Multiple therapeutic options are discussed, such as: surgical treatment, corticosteroid injections, laser therapy, cryotherapy, radiotherapy, pressure therapy, therapy with antitumor or immunosuppressive agents. PMID:26527968

  10. SHIELD: an integrative gene expression database for inner ear research.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Scheffer, Déborah I; Kwan, Kelvin Y; Corey, David P

    2015-01-01

    The inner ear is a highly specialized mechanosensitive organ responsible for hearing and balance. Its small size and difficulty in harvesting sufficient tissue has hindered the progress of molecular studies. The protein components of mechanotransduction, the molecular biology of inner ear development and the genetic causes of many hereditary hearing and balance disorders remain largely unknown. Inner-ear gene expression data will help illuminate each of these areas. For over a decade, our laboratories and others have generated extensive sets of gene expression data for different cell types in the inner ear using various sample preparation methods and high-throughput genome-wide approaches. To facilitate the study of genes in the inner ear by efficient presentation of the accumulated data and to foster collaboration among investigators, we have developed the Shared Harvard Inner Ear Laboratory Database (SHIELD), an integrated resource that seeks to compile, organize and analyse the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic knowledge of the inner ear. Five datasets are currently available. These datasets are combined in a relational database that integrates experimental data and annotations relevant to the inner ear. The SHIELD has a searchable web interface with two data retrieval options: viewing the gene pages online or downloading individual datasets as data tables. Each retrieved gene page shows the gene expression data and detailed gene information with hyperlinks to other online databases with up-to-date annotations. Downloadable data tables, for more convenient offline data analysis, are derived from publications and are current as of the time of publication. The SHIELD has made published and some unpublished data freely available to the public with the hope and expectation of accelerating discovery in the molecular biology of balance, hearing and deafness. PMID:26209310

  11. SHIELD: an integrative gene expression database for inner ear research

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun; Scheffer, Déborah I.; Kwan, Kelvin Y.; Corey, David P.

    2015-01-01

    The inner ear is a highly specialized mechanosensitive organ responsible for hearing and balance. Its small size and difficulty in harvesting sufficient tissue has hindered the progress of molecular studies. The protein components of mechanotransduction, the molecular biology of inner ear development and the genetic causes of many hereditary hearing and balance disorders remain largely unknown. Inner-ear gene expression data will help illuminate each of these areas. For over a decade, our laboratories and others have generated extensive sets of gene expression data for different cell types in the inner ear using various sample preparation methods and high-throughput genome-wide approaches. To facilitate the study of genes in the inner ear by efficient presentation of the accumulated data and to foster collaboration among investigators, we have developed the Shared Harvard Inner Ear Laboratory Database (SHIELD), an integrated resource that seeks to compile, organize and analyse the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic knowledge of the inner ear. Five datasets are currently available. These datasets are combined in a relational database that integrates experimental data and annotations relevant to the inner ear. The SHIELD has a searchable web interface with two data retrieval options: viewing the gene pages online or downloading individual datasets as data tables. Each retrieved gene page shows the gene expression data and detailed gene information with hyperlinks to other online databases with up-to-date annotations. Downloadable data tables, for more convenient offline data analysis, are derived from publications and are current as of the time of publication. The SHIELD has made published and some unpublished data freely available to the public with the hope and expectation of accelerating discovery in the molecular biology of balance, hearing and deafness. Database URL: https://shield.hms.harvard.edu PMID:26209310

  12. Temporal bone meningioma involving the middle ear: A case report

    PubMed Central

    RICCIARDIELLO, FILIPPO; FATTORE, LUCIA; LIGUORI, MARIA ESTER; OLIVA, FLAVIA; LUCE, AMALIA; ABATE, TERESA; CARAGLIA, MICHELE; PIANESE, ANNALISA; RAUCCI, ALDO FALCO

    2015-01-01

    Meningioma is a common intracranial tumor involving the meninges. The localization of this type of tumor is rarely extracranial due to its typically low invasive properties. Furthermore, invasion of the middle ear is exceptional. The present study reported a case of meningioma extending into the middle ear from the middle cranial fossa through the tegmen tympani. The clinical and pathological characteristics, as well as the outcome of the patient, were described. PMID:26622828

  13. Tachykinin inhibition of acid-induced gastric hyperaemia in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, A.; Jocic, M.; Herzeg, G.; Holzer, P.

    1996-01-01

    1. Primary afferent neurones releasing the vasodilator, calcitonin gene-related peptide, mediate the gastric hyperaemic response to acid back-diffusion. The tachykinins neurokinin A (NKA) and substance P (SP) are located in the same neurones and are co-released with calcitonin gene-related peptide. In this study we investigated the effect and possible role of tachykinins in the acid-evoked gastric vasodilatation in urethane-anaesthetized rats. 2. Gastric acid back-diffusion, induced by perfusing the stomach with 15% ethanol in the presence of 0.05 M HCl, increased gastric mucosal blood flow by 60-90%, as determined by the hydrogen clearance technique. NKA and SP (0.14-3.78 nmol min-1 kg-1, infused intra-aortically) inhibited the gastric mucosal hyperaemic response to acid back-diffusion in a dose-dependent manner, an effect that was accompanied by aggravation of ethanol/acid-induced macroscopic haemorrhagic lesions. 3. The inhibitory effect of NKA (1.26 nmol min-1 kg-1) on the acid-induced gastric mucosal vasodilatation was prevented by the tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonists, MEN 10,627 (200 nmol kg-1) but left unaltered by the NK1 receptor antagonist, SR 140,333 (300 nmol kg-1) and the mast-cell stabilizer, ketotifen (4.6 mumol kg-1). 4. Under basal conditions, with 0.05 M HCl being perfused through the stomach, NKA (1.26 nmol min-1 kg-1) reduced gastric mucosal blood flow by about 25%, an effect that was abolished by SR 140,333 but not MEN 10,627 or ketotifen. 5. SR 140,333, MEN 10,627 or ketotifen had no significant effect on basal gastric mucosal blood flow nor did they modify the gastric mucosal hyperaemic reaction to acid back-diffusion. 6. The effect of NKA (1.26 nmol min-1 kg-1) in causing vasoconstriction and inhibiting the vasodilator response to acid back-diffusion was also seen when blood flow in the left gastric artery was measured with the ultrasonic transit time shift technique. 7. Arginine vasopressin (AVP, 0.1 nmol min-1 kg-1) induced gastric

  14. Lysophosphatidic acid induces vasodilation mediated by LPA1 receptors, phospholipase C, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Ruisanchez, Éva; Dancs, Péter; Kerék, Margit; Németh, Tamás; Faragó, Bernadett; Balogh, Andrea; Patil, Renukadevi; Jennings, Brett L.; Liliom, Károly; Malik, Kafait U.; Smrcka, Alan V.; Tigyi, Gabor; Benyó, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been implicated as a mediator of several cardiovascular functions, but its potential involvement in the control of vascular tone is obscure. Here, we show that both LPA (18:1) and VPC31143 (a synthetic agonist of LPA1–3 receptors) relax intact mouse thoracic aorta with similar Emax values (53.9 and 51.9% of phenylephrine-induced precontraction), although the EC50 of LPA- and VPC31143-induced vasorelaxations were different (400 vs. 15 nM, respectively). Mechanical removal of the endothelium or genetic deletion of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) not only diminished vasorelaxation by LPA or VPC31143 but converted it to vasoconstriction. Freshly isolated mouse aortic endothelial cells expressed LPA1, LPA2, LPA4 and LPA5 transcripts. The LPA1,3 antagonist Ki16425, the LPA1 antagonist AM095, and the genetic deletion of LPA1, but not that of LPA2, abolished LPA-induced vasorelaxation. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3 kinase–protein kinase B/Akt pathway by wortmannin or MK-2206 failed to influence the effect of LPA. However, pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) by U73122 or edelfosine, but not genetic deletion of PLCε, abolished LPA-induced vasorelaxation and indicated that a PLC enzyme, other than PLCε, mediates the response. In summary, the present study identifies LPA as an endothelium-dependent vasodilator substance acting via LPA1, PLC, and eNOS.—Ruisanchez, É., Dancs, P., Kerék, M., Németh, T., Faragó, B., Balogh, A., Patil, R., Jennings, B. L., Liliom, K., Malik, K. U., Smrcka, A. V., Tigyi, G., Benyó, Z. Lysophosphatidic acid induces vasodilation mediated by LPA1 receptors, phospholipase C, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. PMID:24249637

  15. Decreased apoptosis during CAR-mediated hepatoprotection against lithocholic acid-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Beilke, Lisa D; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Olson, Erik R; Besselsen, David G; Klaassen, Curtis D; Dvorak, Katerina; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2009-07-10

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that is regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Activation of CAR can protect the liver against bile acid-induced toxicity and it may have a role in cell death via apoptosis by altering expression of Bcl-2 family proteins such as myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). Our aim was to determine if activation of CAR reduces hepatocellular apoptosis during cholestasis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection. CAR(+/+) (WT) and CAR(-/-) (CAR-null) mice were pre-treated with compounds known to activate CAR prior to induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA). Pre-treatment with the CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and TCPOBOP (TC), as well as the non-CAR activator pregnenolone 16alpha-carbontrile (PCN), protected against LCA-induced liver injury in WT mice, whereas liver injury was more extensive without CAR (CAR-null). Unexpectedly, expression of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L) was not increased in hepatoprotected mice. Compared to unprotected groups, apoptosis was decreased in hepatoprotected mice as evidenced by the absence of cleaved caspase 3 (cCasp3). In contrast to the cytoplasmic localization in the injured livers (LCA and oltipraz), Mcl-1 protein was localized in the nucleus of hepatoprotected livers to potentially promote cell survival. This study demonstrates that although apoptosis is reduced in hepatoprotected mice pre-treated with CAR and non-CAR activators; hepatoprotection is not directly a result of CAR-induced Mcl-1 expression. PMID:19433268

  16. The cumulus cell layer protects the bovine maturing oocyte against fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lolicato, Francesca; Brouwers, Jos F; de Lest, Chris H A van; Wubbolts, Richard; Aardema, Hilde; Priore, Paola; Roelen, Bernard A J; Helms, J Bernd; Gadella, Bart M

    2015-01-01

    Mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue during metabolic stress increases the amount of free fatty acids in blood and follicular fluid and is associated with impaired female fertility. In a previous report, we described the effects of the three predominant fatty acids in follicular fluid (saturated palmitate and stearate and unsaturated oleate) on oocyte maturation and quality. In the current study, the effects of elevated fatty acid levels on cumulus cells were investigated. In a dose-dependent manner, the three fatty acids induced lipid storage in cumulus cells accompanied by an enhanced immune labeling of perilipin-2, a marker for lipid droplets. Lipidomic analysis confirmed incorporation of the administered fatty acids into triglyceride, resulting in a 3- to 6-fold increase of triglyceride content. In addition, palmitate selectively induced ceramide formation, which has been implicated in apoptosis. Indeed, of the three fatty acids tested, palmitate induced reactive oxygen species formation, caspase 3 activation, and mitochondria deterioration, leading to degeneration of the cumulus cell layers. This effect could be mimicked by addition of the ceramide-C2 analog and could be inhibited by the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin-B1. Interfering with the intactness of the cumulus cell layers, either by mechanical force or by palmitate treatment, resulted in enhanced uptake of lipids in the oocyte and increased radical formation. Our results show that cumulus cells act as a barrier, protecting oocytes from in vitro induced lipotoxic effects. We suggest that this protective function of the cumulus cell layers is important for the developmental competence of the oocyte. The relevance of our findings for assisted reproduction technologies is discussed. PMID:25297544

  17. Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity. PMID:21949380

  18. Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-10-01

    Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity. PMID:21949380

  19. Bile Acid-Induced Necrosis in Primary Human Hepatocytes and in Patients with Obstructive Cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Dorko, Kenneth; Antoine, Daniel J.; Clarke, Joanna I.; Gholami, Parviz; Li, Feng; Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson; Fan, Fang; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Park, B. Kevin; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Olyaee, Mojtaba; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. PMID:25636263

  20. Role of ion transporters in the bile acid-induced esophageal injury.

    PubMed

    Laczkó, Dorottya; Rosztóczy, András; Birkás, Klaudia; Katona, Máté; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Tiszlavicz, László; Róka, Richárd; Wittmann, Tibor; Hegyi, Péter; Venglovecz, Viktória

    2016-07-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is considered to be the most severe complication of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), in which the prolonged, repetitive episodes of combined acidic and biliary reflux result in the replacement of the squamous esophageal lining by columnar epithelium. Therefore, the acid-extruding mechanisms of esophageal epithelial cells (EECs) may play an important role in the defense. Our aim was to identify the presence of acid/base transporters on EECs and to investigate the effect of bile acids on their expressions and functions. Human EEC lines (CP-A and CP-D) were acutely exposed to bile acid cocktail (BAC) and the changes in intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were measured by microfluorometry. mRNA and protein expression of ion transporters was investigated by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. We have identified the presence of a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporter (NBC), and a Cl(-)-dependent HCO3 (-) secretory mechanism in CP-A and CP-D cells. Acute administration of BAC stimulated HCO3 (-) secretion in both cell lines and the NHE activity in CP-D cells by an inositol triphosphate-dependent calcium release. Chronic administration of BAC to EECs increased the expression of ion transporters compared with nontreated cells. A similar expression pattern was observed in biopsy samples from BE compared with normal epithelium. We have shown that acute administration of bile acids differently alters ion transport mechanisms of EECs, whereas chronic exposure to bile acids increases the expression of acid/base transporters. We speculate that these adaptive processes of EECs represent an important mucosal defense against the bile acid-induced epithelial injury. PMID:27198194