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1

Tachyphylaxis in 12-0-Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate and Arachidonic Acid-Induced Ear Edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

12-0-Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) applied to mouse ears rapidly induces an edema which is maximal by 6 hr but has substantially waned by 24 hr. (This is in contrast to many inflammatory agents that cause a prolonged edema lasting many days.) Reapplication of TPA at 16-24 hr will not provoke a second edematous response although increased erythema is evident. Arachidonic acid

John M. Young; Bonnie M. Wagner; Doreen A. Spires

1983-01-01

2

Intravenous anesthetic propofol suppresses prostaglandin E2 and cysteinyl leukotriene production and reduces edema formation in arachidonic acid-induced ear inflammation.  

PubMed

Abstract Propofol is an intravenous drug widely used for anesthesia and sedation. Previously, propofol was shown to inhibit cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activities. Because these enzyme-inhibiting effects have only been demonstrated in vitro, this study sought to ascertain whether similar effects might also be observed in vivo. In the current studies, effects of propofol were tested in a murine model of arachidonic acid-induced ear inflammation. Specifically, propofol - as a pre-treatment -- was intraperitoneally and then topical application of arachidonic acid was performed. After 1?h, tissue biopsies were collected and tested for the presence of edema and for levels of inflammatory mediators. The results indicated that the administration of propofol significantly suppressed ear edema formation, tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and tissue production of both prostaglandin E2 and cysteinyl leukotrienes. From the data, it can be concluded that propofol could exert anti-COX and anti-5-LOX activities in an in vivo model and that these activities in turn could have, at least in part, suppressed arachidonic acid-induced edema formation in the ear. PMID:25046027

Inada, Takefumi; Hirota, Kiichi; Shingu, Koh

2014-07-21

3

The Mouse Ear Inflammatory Response to Topical Arachidonic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of arachidonic acid (AA) (0.1–4 mg) to the ears of mice produces immediate vasodilatation and erythema (5 min) followed by the abrupt development of edema which is maximal at 40–60 min. The onset of edema coincides with extravasation of protein and leukocytes. After 1 h, the edema begins to wane rapidly and the inflammatory cells leave the tissue so

John M. Young; Doreen A. Spires; Charles J. Bedord; Bonnie Wagner; Stephen J. Ballaron; Lawrence M. de Young

1984-01-01

4

Prostaglandin and Leukotriene Synthesis in Mouse Ears Inflamed by Arachidonic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topical application of arachidonic acid on mouse ears induces the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 and leukotrienes C4 and D4. The increased tissue levels of these products are quantitated by radioimmunoassay. The identity of the leukotrienes was confirmed by immunoreactivity of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography fractions corresponding to authentic standards. Synthesis of the arachidonic acid metabolites precedes or is coincident with

Evan E. Opas; Robert J. Bonney; John L. Humes

1985-01-01

5

Activation of the central histaminergic system mediates arachidonic-acid-induced cardiovascular effects.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explain the involvement of the central histaminergic system in arachidonic acid (AA)-induced cardiovascular effects in normotensive rats using hemodynamic, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis studies. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered AA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 ?mol) induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and decreased heart rate in conscious normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of AA (0.5 ?mol) also increased posterior hypothalamic extracellular histamine levels and produced strong COX-1 but not COX-2 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus of rats. Moreover, the cardiovascular effects and COX-1 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus induced by AA (0.5 ?mol; i.c.v.) were almost completely blocked by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.) and partially blocked by the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (100 nmol; i.c.v.) and the H3-H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, these results indicate that centrally administered AA induces pressor and bradycardic responses in conscious rats. Moreover, we suggest that AA may activate histaminergic neurons and increase extracellular histamine levels, particularly in the posterior hypothalamus. Acting as a neurotransmitter, histamine is potentially involved in AA-induced cardiovascular effects under normotensive conditions. PMID:25065747

Altinbas, Burcin; Topuz, Bora Burak; ?lhan, Tuncay; Yilmaz, Mustafa Sertac; Erdost, Hatice; Yalcin, Murat

2014-08-01

6

Arachidonic acid induces brain endothelial cell apoptosis via p38-MAPK and intracellular calcium signaling.  

PubMed

Arachidonic acid (AA), a bioactive fatty acid whose levels increase during neuroinflammation, contributes to cerebral vascular damage and dysfunction. However, the mode of injury and underlying signaling mechanisms remain unknown. Challenge of primary human brain endothelial cells (HBECs) with AA activated a stress response resulting in caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and disruption of monolayer integrity. AA also induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release consistent with activation of intrinsic apoptosis. HBEC stimulation with AA resulted in sustained p38-MAPK activation and subsequent phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase activated protein-2 (MAPKAP-2) kinase and heat shock protein-27 (Hsp27). Conversely, other unsaturated and saturated fatty acids had no effect. Pharmacological and RNA interference-mediated p38? or p38? suppression abrogated AA signaling to caspase-3 and Hsp27, suggesting involvement of both p38 isoforms in AA-induced HBEC apoptosis. Hsp27 silencing also blocked caspase-3 activation. AA stimulated intracellular calcium release, which was attenuated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor antagonists. Blockade of intracellular calcium release decreased caspase-3 activation, but had no effect on AA-induced p38-MAPK activation. However, inhibition of p38-MAPK or blockade of intracellular calcium mobilization abrogated AA-induced cytochrome c release. AA-induced caspase-3 activation was abrogated by pharmacological inhibition of lipooxygenases. These findings support a previously unrecognized signaling cooperation between p38-MAPK/MAPKAP-2/Hsp27 and intracellular calcium release in AA-induced HBEC apoptosis and suggest its relevance to neurological disorders associated with vascular inflammation. PMID:24802256

Evans, Justin; Ko, YooSeung; Mata, Wilmer; Saquib, Muhammad; Eldridge, Joel; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron; Leaver, H Anne; Wang, Shukun; Rizzo, Maria Teresa

2015-03-01

7

Electroacupuncture at ST36-ST37 and at Ear Ameliorates Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Sprouting in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizure Rats  

PubMed Central

Our previous study showed that mossy fiber sprouting can occur in the hippocampus region in rats 6?wk after kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure, and this mossy fiber sprouting can facilitate epileptogenesis. Transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), which is similar to cervical VNS, can reduce the occurrence of epileptic seizure in intractable epilepsy patients. Greater parasympathetic nerve activity can be caused by 2?Hz electroacupuncture (EA). Therefore, we investigated the effect of 2?Hz EA at ST-36-ST37 and at the ear on mossy fiber sprouting in kainic-treated Sprague-Dawley rats. The results indicated that applying 2?Hz EA at ST36-ST37 and at the ear for 3?d per week over 6 consecutive weeks can ameliorate mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus region of rats. These results indicated that applying 2?Hz EA at ST36-ST37 and at the ear might be beneficial for the treatment and prevention of epilepsy in humans. PMID:25045697

Lin, Yi-Wen; Liu, Hsu-Jan; Lin, Wan-Jung

2014-01-01

8

Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Pyeongwisan on LPS-Stimulated Murine Macrophages and Mouse Models of Acetic Acid-Induced Writhing Response and Xylene-Induced Ear Edema  

PubMed Central

Pyeongwisan (PW) is an herbal medication used in traditional East Asian medicine to treat anorexia, abdominal distension, borborygmus and diarrhea caused by gastric catarrh, atony and dilatation. However, its effects on inflammation-related diseases are unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of PW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in macrophages and on local inflammation in vivo. We investigated the biological effects of PW on the production of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokines and related products as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Additionally, we evaluated the analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the inhibitory activity on xylene-induced ear edema in mice. PW showed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?). In addition, PW strongly suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a NO synthesis enzyme, induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and inhibited NF-?B activation and MAPK phosphorylation. Also, PW suppressed TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? cytokine production in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophage cells. Furthermore, PW showed an analgesic effect on the writhing response and an inhibitory effect on mice ear edema. We demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects and inhibitory mechanism in macrophages as well as inhibitory activity of PW in vivo for the first time. Our results suggest the potential value of PW as an inflammatory therapeutic agent developed from a natural substance. PMID:25569097

Oh, You-Chang; Jeong, Yun Hee; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ha, Jeong-Ho; Gu, Min Jung; Ma, Jin Yeul

2015-01-01

9

Ear emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

Ear emergencies include objects in the ear canal and ruptured eardrums. ... Children often put objects into their ears. These objects can be hard to remove. The ear canal is a tube of solid bone that is lined with thin, sensitive ...

10

Ear Tubes  

MedlinePLUS

Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/ ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

11

Mechanism of arachidonic acid action on syntaxin-Munc18.  

PubMed

Syntaxin and Munc18 are, in tandem, essential for exocytosis in all eukaryotes. Recently, it was shown that Munc18 inhibition of neuronal syntaxin 1 can be overcome by arachidonic acid, indicating that this common second messenger acts to disrupt the syntaxin-Munc18 interaction. Here, we show that arachidonic acid can stimulate syntaxin 1 alone, indicating that it is syntaxin 1 that undergoes a structural change in the syntaxin 1-Munc18 complex. Arachidonic acid is incapable of dissociating Munc18 from syntaxin 1 and, crucially, Munc18 remains associated with syntaxin 1 after arachidonic-acid-induced syntaxin 1 binding to synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP25). We also show that the same principle operates in the case of the ubiquitous syntaxin 3 isoform, highlighting the conserved nature of the mechanism of arachidonic acid action. Neuronal soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) can be isolated from brain membranes in a complex with endogenous Munc18, consistent with a proposed function of Munc18 in vesicle docking and fusion. PMID:17363971

Connell, Emma; Darios, Frédéric; Broersen, Kerensa; Gatsby, Naomi; Peak-Chew, Sew-Yeu; Rickman, Colin; Davletov, Bazbek

2007-04-01

12

Lipid-derived signals that discriminate wound- and pathogen-responsive isoprenoid pathways in plants: methyl jasmonate and the fungal elicitor arachidonic acid induce different 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase genes and antimicrobial isoprenoids in Solanum tuberosum L.  

PubMed Central

Induction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR; EC 1.1.1.34) is essential for the synthesis of steroid derivatives and sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins in solanaceous plants following mechanical injury or pathogen infection. Gene-specific probes corresponding to different HMGR genes (hmg1 and hmg2) were used to study HMGR expression in potato tissue following treatment with methyl jasmonate, a lipoxygenase product of linolenic acid, or arachidonic acid, an elicitor present in the lipids of the potato late blight fungus Phytophthora infestans. Treatment of potato discs (2.2 cm in diameter) with low concentrations (0.45-45 nmol per disc surface) of methyl jasmonate nearly doubled the wound-induced accumulation of hmg1 transcripts and steroid-glycoalkaloid (SGA) accumulation, reduced the abundance of hmg2 transcripts, and did not induce phytoalexins. High concentrations of methyl jasmonate (2-4.5 mol per disc surface) suppressed hmg1 mRNA and SGA accumulation but did not affect hmg2 mRNA abundance or induce phytoalexins. In contrast, arachidonate treatment strongly suppressed hmg1 and strongly induced hmg2 mRNA in a concentration-dependent manner. There was a corresponding suppression of SGA accumulation and an induction of sesquiterpene phytoalexin accumulation by this elicitor. Lipoxygenase inhibitors reduced the wound-induced accumulation of hmg1 transcripts and suppressed SGA levels, effects that were overcome by exogenous methyl jasmonate (45 nmol per disc surface). The results (i) suggest that methyl jasmonate can function as a signal for hmg1 expression and SGA induction following wounding and (ii) indicate that the arachidonate- and jasmonate-response pathways are distinct in relation to HMGR gene expression and isoprenoid product accumulation. The results also are consistent with placement of the HMGR activities encoded by hmg1 and hmg2 within discrete steroid and sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic channels. Images PMID:11607466

Choi, D; Bostock, R M; Avdiushko, S; Hildebrand, D F

1994-01-01

13

Your Ears  

MedlinePLUS

... you can hear and process sounds. The Outer Ear: Catch the Wave The outer ear is called ... gross. It's gross and useful. Continue The Middle Ear: Good Vibrations After sound waves enter the outer ...

14

Ear examination  

MedlinePLUS

An ear examination is when a health care provider looks inside your ear using an instrument called an otoscope. ... the head tilted toward the shoulder opposite the ear being examined. The health care provider will gently ...

15

Ear Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... most common illness in infants and young children. Tinnitus, a roaring in your ears, can be the ... problems in your inner ear; its symptoms include tinnitus and dizziness. Ear barotrauma is an injury to ...

16

Ear Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Perichondritis Dermatitis of the Ear Canal Ear Tumors Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders > Outer ...

17

Ear Pieces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

DiJulio, Betsy

2011-01-01

18

Ear wax  

MedlinePLUS

The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. The wax usually makes ... Wax can build up and block the ear canal. Wax blockage is one of the most common ...

19

Elephant ear  

MedlinePLUS

Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with very large, arrow-shaped leaves. Poisoning may occur ... Elephant ear grows naturally in tropical and subtropical areas, but is easily found in northern climates as ...

20

Ear barotrauma  

MedlinePLUS

Barotitis media; Barotrauma; Ear popping; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction ... The air pressure in the middle ear is most often the same as the air pressure outside of the body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ...

21

Super Ears.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students design, construct, and test "super ears" to investigate sound and hearing. Students work in groups of three and explore how the outer ear funnels sound waves to the inner ear and how human hearing compares to that of other animals. (NB)

Thompson, Stan

1995-01-01

22

Ear Biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of biometrics based upon ear features is introduced for use in the development of passive identification systems.\\u000a The availability of the proposed biometric is shown both theoretically in terms of the uniqueness and measurability over time\\u000a of the ear, and in practice through the implementation of a computer vision based system. Each subject’s ear is modeled as

Mark Burge; Wilhelm Burger

23

Ear Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... if the fluid doesn’t go away on its own? If the fluid stays for more than a few months, your doctor may want to check your child's hearing. Your doctor may recommend ear tubes (also called tympanostomy tubes) to drain the fluid. Ear tubes ...

24

Follicular-Keratogenic Properties of Fatty Acids in the External Ear Canal of the Rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The follicular-keratogenic properties of several fatty acids were investigated by application in the external ear canal of the rabbit. Laurinic acid and oleic acid induced marked, and caprinic acid moderate inflammation and follicular keratosis. Myristinic, palmitinic and stearinic acid induced no distinct alterations. The histologic picture of the induced alterations is described. Statistical analysis of the values, obtained by quantification

P. Kanaar

1971-01-01

25

Effects of NSAIDs on the Inner Ear: Possible Involvement in Cochlear Protection  

PubMed Central

Cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, two important enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, are major targets of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Recent investigations suggest that arachidonic cascades and their metabolites may be involved in maintaining inner ear functions. The excessive use of aspirin may cause tinnitus in humans and impairment of the outer hair cell functions in experimental animals. On the other hand, NSAIDs reportedly exhibit protective effects against various kinds of inner ear disorder. The present review summarizes the effects of NSAIDs on cochlear pathophysiology. NSAIDs are a useful ameliorative adjunct in the management of inner ear disorders.

Hoshino, Tomofumi; Tabuchi, Keiji; Hara, Akira

2010-01-01

26

Ear Infections in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is ... can I get more information? What is an ear infection? An ear infection is an inflammation of ...

27

Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animal’s reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

28

Swimmer's ear  

MedlinePLUS

Guss J, Ruckenstein MJ. Infections of the external ear. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010:chap 137. ...

29

Right Ear/Left Ear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (4th on the page), learners conduct a series of tests to find out which of their ears is more dominant. In other words, do they prefer to use their right or left ear to complete tasks? Learners work in pairs and observe each other doing simple tasks like listening to a whisper, listening to a mystery object in a box, and listening through a wall. Learners collect data to draw conclusions about their partner's "earedness."

2012-06-26

30

Better Ear Health  

MedlinePLUS

Better Ear Health Better Ear Health Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/ ... often helpful to those with this condition. Swimmer?s Ear An infection of the outer ear structures caused ...

31

Ear Plastic Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

32

Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Swimmer's Ear (Otitis Externa) KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Ear Infections > Swimmer's ... Treatment When to Call the Doctor About Swimmer's Ear Otitis externa — commonly known as swimmer's ear — is ...

33

Ear Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spindly cells in the inner ear, called "hair" cells, are critical for both hearing and balance. Now, in a boon for research, neuro-scientists Jeffrey Corwin and Zhenqing Hu at the University of Virginia School of Medicine have finally grown and multiplied these cells in the lab.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2008-05-06

34

Ear Training  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using these websites, you can practice your ear training skills. There are links for intervals, chords, and short melodic segments. First, you should go to this website to practice intervals. Intervals Begin with the first option (simple intervals up). After mastering this, move to simple intervals down. As you become more advanced, continue down the line of interval options. They will become more difficult as you ...

2009-09-15

35

Travel Inside the Ear  

MedlinePLUS

... Travel Inside the Ear Video Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach your ear, you know you've heard a soft sound ... loud sound. The sound passes through the outer ear and is funneled into the middle ear, where ...

36

Flying and Your Child's Ears  

MedlinePLUS

... Checkups: What to Expect Flying and Your Child's Ears KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Your Kid's Eyes, Ears, ... Tips for Easing Ear Pain Flying's Effects on Ears Many of us have felt that weird ear- ...

37

Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... 3 years old. A Close Look at the Ear To understand how ear infections develop, let's review ... leading to an ear infection. Continue About Middle Ear Infections Inflammation in the middle ear area is ...

38

Modulation of mouse ear edema by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors and other pharmacologic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibitors of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and other pharmacologic agents were evaluated against ear edema produced in mice by tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) or AA. Drugs were administered orally and topically either 30 min prior to AA or 30 min after TPA, except for steroids which were administered 2.5–3 hr prior to AA. Several cyclooxygenase (CO) inhibitors including indomethacin, aspirin, piroxicam

Richard P. Carlson; O'Neill-Davis Lynn; Joseph Chang; Alan J. Lewis

1985-01-01

39

Arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured mouse keratinocytes  

SciTech Connect

The authors attempted to characterize the general features of arachidonate metabolism in cultured mouse keratinocytes. The cells labeled with (/sup 3/H)arachidonate were stimulated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), ionophore A23187, and fetal bovine serum (FBS). Common to the three substances, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine almost equally served as sources of arachidonate liberated by the action of phospholipase A2. The stimulation of phospholipase A2 action was observed in the order of A23187 greater than FBS greater than TPA. When stimulated by TPA or A23187, the radioactivity released into the extracellular medium was mostly found in prostaglandin (PG) E2. Formation of other PGs and hydroxyeicosatetraenoate (HETE) was extremely limited. In the case of stimulation by FBS, however, the released radioactivity was mainly associated with non-converted arachidonate. FBS also inhibited the TPA- and A23187-induced conversion of arachidonate to PGE2. Phospholipid degradation induced by the three stimulators was similarly dependent on extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. The stimulation by FBS and A23187 was suppressed by calmodulin antagonists, though the effect of A23187 was much more sensitive to the antagonists when compared to that of FBS. The authors observed more than additive effects of the three stimulators when tested together.

Kondoh, H.; Sato, Y.; Kanoh, H.

1985-07-01

40

Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil) or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day). Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model. PMID:25436198

Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Sanat, Faizah; Hui, Gan Eng; Wahab, Shahrin Iskandar; Ahmad, Zuraini

2014-01-01

41

Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle  

SciTech Connect

Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

1983-04-01

42

?-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Induced Electrographic Seizures  

PubMed Central

We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. Citation: Cheung J, Lucey BP, Duntley SP, Darken RS. ?-hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):811-812. PMID:25024661

Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Darken, Rachel S.

2014-01-01

43

Ear drainage culture  

MedlinePLUS

... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

44

Ear infection - chronic  

MedlinePLUS

Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Kerschner JE. Otitis media. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders ...

45

Fusion of the ear bones  

MedlinePLUS

Fusion of the ear bones is the joining of the bones of the inner ear. These are the incus, malleus, and stapes bones. Related topics include: Chronic ear infection Otosclerosis Middle ear malformations

46

Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... the drugs. When a medication damages the inner ear — the part of the ear responsible for receiving/sending sounds and controlling balance — it's called ototoxicity or "ear poisoning." The degree of damage to the ear ...

47

Whale and Human Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do whale ears look like? You might be surprised! These two versions of this diagram -- one with the anatomical parts labeled and one that students can label themselves -- compare the anatomy of a whale ear to that of a human ear. From Marine Biology: Environment, Diversity, and Ecology by David Lerman

2003-09-26

48

Prostaglandin synthase 1 gene disruption in mice reduces arachidonic acid-induced inflammation and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2) are key enzymes in prostaglandin biosynthesis and the target enzymes for the widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. To study the physiological roles of the individual isoforms, we have disrupted the mouse Ptgs1 gene encoding COX-1. Homozygous Ptgs1 mutant mice survive well, have no gastric pathology, and show less indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration than wild-type

Robert Langenbach; Scott G. Morham; Howard F. Tiano; Charles D. Loftin; Burhan I. Ghanayem; Patricia C. Chulada; Joel F. Mahler; Christopher A. Lee; Eugenia H. Goulding; Kimberly D. Kluckman; H. S. Kim; Oliver Smithies

1995-01-01

49

Role of Lipoxygenase Metabolites of Arachidonic Acid in Enhanced Pulmonary Artery Contractions of Female Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure and vascular resistance. In women the incidence is 4 fold greater than that in men. Studies suggest sustained vasoconstriction is a factor in increased vascular resistance. Possible vasoconstrictor mediators include arachidonic acid-derived lipoxygenase metabolites. Our studies in rabbits showed enhanced endothelium-dependent contractions to arachidonic acid in pulmonary arteries from females compared to males. Because treatment with a non-specific lipoxygenase inhibitor reduced contractions in females but not males, the present study identified which lipoxygenase isoform contributes to sex-specific pulmonary artery vasoconstriction. 15- and 5- but not 12-lipoxygenase protein expression was greater in females. Basal and A23187-stimulated release of 15-, 5- and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from females and males was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Only 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthesis was greater in females compared to males under both basal and stimulated conditions. Vascular contractions to 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid were enhanced in females compared to males (maximal contraction; 44 ± 6% vs 25 ± 3%). The specific 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor PD146176 (12 ?mol/L) decreased arachidonic acid-induced contractions in females (maximal contraction; 93 ± 4% vs 57 ± 10%). If male pulmonary arteries were incubated with estrogen (1 ?mol/L, 18 hrs), protein expression of 15-lipoxygenase, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production increased. Mechanisms to explain the increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension in women are not known. Results suggest the 15-lipoxygenase pathway is different between females and males and is regulated by estrogen. Understanding this novel sex-specific mechanism may provide insight into the increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension in females. PMID:21300669

Pfister, Sandra L.

2011-01-01

50

Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Associated Conditions » Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, nose, and ... Are Common in Children With Down Syndrome? External Ear Canal Stenosis Stenotic ear canals (narrow ear canals) ...

51

Pathology of the Ear  

PubMed Central

The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

2011-01-01

52

Control of arachidonic acid release in chick muscle cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cultures from thigh muscles of 12 day old embryonic chicks are utilized to examine arachidonic release, prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The preparation of the cultures is described. It is observed that exogenous arachidonic acid is formed into photsphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, is released by a calcium ionosphere or phospholiphase simulator, and is the substrate for the biosynthesis of PG; the epidermal growth factor and PGF do not stimulate protein synthesis over the basal levels. The relationship between arachidonate release and melittin is studied. The data reveal that a change in intracellular calcium stimulates phospholiphase activity, arachidonate release, and PG synthesis in chick muscle culture.

Templeton, G. H.; Padalino, M.; Wright, W.

1985-01-01

53

Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED)  

MedlinePLUS

... VEDA” to receive a 15% discount. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease What is autoimmunity? How is it connected ... reaction. The immune system can attack just the ear, attack the ear and some other body part ...

54

Ear - blocked at high altitudes  

MedlinePLUS

High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction -high altitude ... opens the Eustachian tube, which connects the middle ear to the nose. These movements allow the pressure ...

55

Taking Care of Your Ears  

MedlinePLUS

... Body Works Main Page Taking Care of Your Ears KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Healthy > Being Good to My ... you clean it out. Taking Care of Pierced Ears Pierced ears may look pretty, but you need ...

56

Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness DefaultPage Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Diseases and Conditions Age-Related ... Processing Disorder Do You Need a Hearing Test? Ear Infections in Children Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts (EVA) Hearing ...

57

What Is an Ear Infection?  

MedlinePLUS

... the Body Works Main Page What Is an Ear Infection? KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > I Feel Sick! > ... pain and a fever . What Is a Middle Ear Infection? Middle ear infections are one of the ...

58

DIFFERENCES IN ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLISM BY HUMAN MYELOMONCYTIC CELL LINES  

EPA Science Inventory

The production of arachidonic acid metabolites by the HL60, ML3, and U937 human phagocyte cell lines were determined after incubation with interferongamma (IFNg; 500 U/ml) or vehicle for 4 days. ells were prelabeled with tritiated arachidonic acid for 4 hours, and media supernata...

59

Middle-ear myoclonus.  

PubMed

Tinnitus produced by repetitive contraction of the middle-ear muscles is a rare condition. We present an interesting case of bilateral middle-ear myoclonus causing incapacitating tinnitus in a patient with multiple sclerosis. Otological examination demonstrated rhythmic involuntary movement of the tympanic membrane. These movements correlated with a rhythmic 'rushing wind' noise perceived by the patient. Oropharyngeal examination showed no evidence of palatal myoclonus. Impedance audiometry confirmed rhythmic change in the middle-ear volume. Medical management was unsuccessful. The patient's tinnitus was subsequently cured with bilateral sectioning of the tensor tympani and stapedial tendons. PMID:10829111

Zipfel, T E; Kaza, S R; Greene, J S

2000-03-01

60

Luteolin prevents uric acid-induced pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction.  

PubMed

Elevated uric acid causes direct injury to pancreatic ?-cells. In this study, we examined the effects of luteolin, an important antioxidant, on uric acid-induced ?-cell dysfunction. We first evaluated the effect of luteolin on nitric oxide (NO) formation in uric acid-stimulated Min6 cells using the Griess method. Next, we performed transient transfection and reporter assays to measure transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-?B. Western blotting assays were also performed to assess the effect of luteolin on the expression of MafA and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in uric acid-treated cells. Finally, we evaluated the effect of luteolin on uric acid-induced inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in Min6 cells and freshly isolated mouse pancreatic islets. We found that luteolin significantly inhibited uric acid-induced NO production, which was well correlated with reduced expression of iNOS mRNA and protein. Furthermore, decreased activity of NF-?B was implicated in inhibition by luteolin of increased iNOS expression induced by uric acid. Besides, luteolin significantly increased MafA expression in Min6 cells exposed to uric acid, which was reversed by overexpression of iNOS. Moreover, luteolin prevented uric acid-induced inhibition of GSIS in both Min6 cells and mouse islets. In conclusion, luteolin protects pancreatic ?-cells from uric acid-induced dysfunction and may confer benefit on the protection of pancreatic ?-cells in hyperuricemia-associated diabetes. PMID:25050113

Ding, Ying; Shi, Xuhui; Shuai, Xuanyu; Xu, Yuemei; Liu, Yun; Liang, Xiubin; Wei, Dong; Su, Dongming

2014-07-01

61

Luteolin prevents uric acid-induced pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Abstract Elevated uric acid causes direct injury to pancreatic ?-cells. In this study, we examined the effects of luteolin, an important antioxidant, on uric acid-induced ?-cell dysfunction. We first evaluated the effect of luteolin on nitric oxide (NO) formation in uric acid-stimulated Min6 cells using the Griess method. Next, we performed transient transfection and reporter assays to measure transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-?B. Western blotting assays were also performed to assess the effect of luteolin on the expression of MafA and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in uric acid-treated cells. Finally, we evaluated the effect of luteolin on uric acid-induced inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in Min6 cells and freshly isolated mouse pancreatic islets. We found that luteolin significantly inhibited uric acid-induced NO production, which was well correlated with reduced expression of iNOS mRNA and protein. Furthermore, decreased activity of NF-?B was implicated in inhibition by luteolin of increased iNOS expression induced by uric acid. Besides, luteolin significantly increased MafA expression in Min6 cells exposed to uric acid, which was reversed by overexpression of iNOS. Moreover, luteolin prevented uric acid-induced inhibition of GSIS in both Min6 cells and mouse islets. In conclusion, luteolin protects pancreatic ?-cells from uric acid-induced dysfunction and may confer benefit on the protection of pancreatic ?-cells in hyperuricemia-associated diabetes. PMID:25050113

Ding, Ying; Shi, Xuhui; Shuai, Xuanyu; Xu, Yuemei; Liu, Yun; Liang, Xiubin; Wei, Dong; Su, Dongming

2014-01-01

62

Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis) Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What Is External Otitis? What Are the Signs and Symptoms of ...

63

Ear Injuries (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... head, sports injuries, and even listening to loud music can cause ear damage, which can affect hearing ... But for kids and teens, listening to loud music (at concerts, in the car, through headphones) is ...

64

How the Ear Works  

MedlinePLUS

... car horn, etc.). Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly ... without prior written permission. More Resources About: General Otolaryngology Otology/Neurotology Ears Related Links Link: A Quick ...

65

[Biosynthesis of arachidonic acid by micromycetes (review)].  

PubMed

Arachidonic acid (ARA, 5,8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid) is widely used in medicine, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, dietary nutrition, agriculture, and other fields. Microbiological production of ARA is of increased interest since the natural sources (pig liver, adrenal glands, and egg-yolk) cannot satisfy its growing requirements. Mechanisms for ARA biosynthesis as well as the regulation of enzymes involved in this process are considered. Review summarizes literature data concerning individual stages of microbiological ARA production, methods for screening of active strains-producers, physiological regulation of ARA synthesis in micromycetes (the effect of growth phase, medium composition, pH, temperature, and aeration), and effective technologies of fermentation and the product recovery. Information on the whole biotechnological process from strain selection to the ARA yield improvement and purification of the end product is presented. PMID:22808734

Dediukhina, É G; Chistiakova, T I; Va?nshte?n, M B

2011-01-01

66

Acid-Induced Gelation of Enzymatically Modified, Preheated Whey Proteins  

E-print Network

Acid-Induced Gelation of Enzymatically Modified, Preheated Whey Proteins AHMED S. EISSA AND SAAD A, North Carolina 27695-7905 Low-pH whey protein gels are formulated using a sequential protocol of heat in the gel microstructure and linear viscoelastic properties. INTRODUCTION Whey proteins have become

Khan, Saad A.

67

ANALYSIS OF ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLITE AND PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Metabolites of arachidonic acid ("eicosanoids") and platelet activating factor are important bioactive lipids that may be involved in the pathobiological alterations in animals induced by pollutant exposure. nalysis of these substances in biological tissue and fluids is important...

68

Digital ear scanner : measuring the compliance of the ear  

E-print Network

This paper seeks to resolve the biggest problem with hearing aids, their physical fit. By digitally scanning the ear canal and taking the dynamics of the ear into account the performance and comfort of a hearing aid can ...

Hernandez-Stewart, Daniel

2010-01-01

69

Foreign object in ear (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... get stuck in the ear canal. It is important to remove the object since infection is most likely to occur. In most cases, a doctor will need to use special instruments to examine the ear and safely remove ...

70

Sports injuries of the ear.  

PubMed

The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries. PMID:20468791

Wagner, G A

1972-07-01

71

From Ear to Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

Kimura, Doreen

2011-01-01

72

Mimicking the human ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prosthetic device, called a cochlear implant, can be implanted in the inner ear and can restore partial hearing to profoundly deaf people. Some individuals with implants can now communicate without lip-reading or signing, and some can communicate over the telephone. The success of cochlear implants can be attributed to the combined efforts of scientists from various disciplines including bioengineering,

P. C. Loizou

1998-01-01

73

The red ear syndrome  

PubMed Central

Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332

2013-01-01

74

Protecting Your Ears  

MedlinePLUS

... hearing. That’s because the sheer force of the sound vibrations may damage tiny cells inside your ear. And once they’re damaged, that’s it — they can’t be fixed. The effects of noise add up over a lifetime , which ...

75

Ear Biometrics in Computer Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of biometrics based upon ear features is introduced for use in the development of passive identification systems. The viability of the proposed biometric is shown both theoretically in terms of the uniqueness and measurability over time of the ear, and in practice through the implementation of a computer vision based system. Each subject's ear is modeled as an

Mark Burge; Wilhelm Burger

2000-01-01

76

Ear recognition: a complete system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ear Recognition has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current ear recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is still limited. This paper presents an efficient complete ear-based biometric system that can process five frames/sec; Hence it can be used for surveillance applications. The ear detection is achieved using Haar features arranged in a cascaded Adaboost classifier. The feature extraction is based on dividing the ear image into several blocks from which Local Binary Pattern feature distributions are extracted. These feature distributions are then fused at the feature level to represent the original ear texture in the classification stage. The contribution of this paper is three fold: (i) Applying a new technique for ear feature extraction, and studying various optimization parameters for that technique; (ii) Presenting a practical ear recognition system and a detailed analysis about error propagation in that system; (iii) Studying the occlusion effect of several ear parts. Detailed experiments show that the proposed ear recognition system achieved better performance (94:34%) compared to other shape-based systems as Scale-invariant feature transform (67:92%). The proposed approach can also handle efficiently hair occlusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can achieve about (78%) rank-1 identification, even in presence of 60% occlusion.

Abaza, Ayman; Harrison, Mary Ann F.

2013-05-01

77

Human Ear Recognition in 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human ear is a new class of relatively stable biometrics that has drawn researchers' attention recently. In this paper, we propose a complete human recognition system using 3D ear biometrics. The system consists of 3D ear detection, 3D ear identification, and 3D ear verification. For ear detection, we propose a new approach which uses a single reference 3D ear shape

Hui Chen; Bir Bhanu

2007-01-01

78

Arachidonic acid pools of rat kidney cell nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have assessed that nuclear lipids from rat kidney cells are not only membrane components, but they are also found within\\u000a the nucleus. The most abundant nuclear and endonuclear lipids have a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (n-6 series:\\u000a arachidonic > linoleic), mainly esterified to PtdCho. Nuclear most abundant molecular species are 16:0–20:4, 16:0–18:2, 18:0–20:4,\\u000a 18:0–18:2, and 16:0–18:1. Arachidonic acid is

Sabina M. Maté; Juan P. Layerenza; Ana Ves-Losada

2010-01-01

79

Prostaglandin Endoperoxides. Novel Transformations of Arachidonic Acid in Human Platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arachidonic acid incubated with human platelets was converted into three compounds, 12L-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, 12L-hydroxy-5,8,-10-heptadecatrienoic acid, and the hemiacetal derivative of 8-(1-hydroxy-3-oxopropyl)-9,12L-dihydroxy-5,10-heptadecadienoic acid. The formation of the two latter compounds from arachidonic acid proceeded by pathways involving the enzyme, fatty acid cyclo-oxygenase, in the initial step and with the prostaglandin endoperoxide, PGG2, as an intermediate. The first mentioned compound was formed

Mats Hamberg; Bengt Samuelsson

1974-01-01

80

Metabolism of arachidonic acid by canine polymorphonuclear leukocytes synthesis of lipoxygenase and omega-oxidized metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes and metabolites of arachidonic acid, especially lipoxygenase products, have been reported to contribute to myocardial damage after coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. While canine models of myocardial ischemia were used in many of these studies, very little is known about arachidonic acid metabolism by canine PMNs. Moreover, it is unclear whether arachidonic acid metabolites released by

Mark Rosolowsky; J. R. Falck; William B. Campbell

1996-01-01

81

Middle ear effusion in children.  

PubMed

The middle ear function of over 100 school children has been observed for more than seven years with the aid of an electroacoustic impedance instrument. The technique readily demonstrates middle ear abnormalities. A few children may have middle ear malfunction for considerable periods without this being detected by those responsible for their health care. The presence of fluid in the middle ear is not necessarily an indication for treatment. The concept of acoustic impedance screening is advocated with suitable safeguards to prevent over-referral. PMID:1011325

Brooks, D N

1976-12-01

82

The ear: Diagnostic imaging  

SciTech Connect

This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

1986-01-01

83

Save Your Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game depicts a woman going through her day, faced with various loud sounds. In each situation, she has the choice of how to deal with the loud sound: Ear Plugs, Turn It Down, Move Away, or Do Nothing. You only have 3 of each choice available, symbolized by cards on screen. Your goal is to reach the end of the game with undamaged hearing and one set of earplugs, so you can enjoy an awesome rock concert. After each decision, you find out whether your hearing was damaged and if you made the best choice.

2012-06-26

84

EFFECTS OF PHOSGENE EXPOSURE ON LUNG ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLISM  

EPA Science Inventory

Phosgene is a pulmonary toxicant that can produce lung edema, bronchoconstriction, and immune suppression following an acute exposure. he response of the lung to phosgene inhalation may be mediated through alternations in the metabolism of arachidonic acid to the biologically pot...

85

A study of the novel anti-inflammatory agent florifenine topical anti-inflammatory activity and influence on arachidonic acid metabolism and neutrophil functions.  

PubMed

We have evaluated the effects of the novel anti-inflammatory agent florifenine, 2-(1-Pyrrolidinyl)ethyl N-[7-(trifluoromethyl)-4-quinolyl]anthranilate, on topical inflammation in mice, free radical-mediated reactions, arachidonic acid metabolism and some neutrophil functions. Topical administration of florifenine produced dose-related anti-inflammatory activity in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear oedema and with a lower potency, in the response induced by arachidonic acid (AA). Florifenine also inhibited neutrophil migration and PGE2 content in the inflammed ears. In human whole blood, florifenine was a potent and selective inhibitor of TXB2 generation. This anti-inflammatory agent did not exert antioxidant effects but inhibited elastase release in human neutrophils without affecting superoxide anion generation. Florifenine administration to mice dose-dependently inhibited leukocyte migration and PGE2 levels in the air pouch inflammation induced by zymosan. These results demonstrate the topical anti-inflammatory activity of florifenine and provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms involved in the inhibitory effects of this agent on inflammatory responses. PMID:7609784

Bustos, G; Ferrándiz, M L; Sanz, M J; Payá, M; Alcaraz, M J

1995-03-01

86

21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

2014-04-01

87

21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

2010-04-01

88

Wax blockage in the ear (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the ... wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear ...

89

Otoscopic exam of the ear (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... intrument which is used to look into the ear canal. The ear speculum (a cone-shaped viewing piece of the otoscope) is slowly inserted into the ear canal while looking into the otoscope. The speculum ...

90

21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

2012-04-01

91

21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

2013-04-01

92

How to Use Ear Drops Properly  

MedlinePLUS

How to Use Ear Drops Properly (Having someone else give you the ear drops may make this procedure easier.) 1 Wash your hands ... with soap and water. 2 Gently clean your ear with a damp facecloth and then dry your ...

93

21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

2011-04-01

94

21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the external ear. (b) Classification. Class...

2013-04-01

95

21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the external ear. (b) Classification. Class...

2010-04-01

96

21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the external ear. (b) Classification. Class...

2014-04-01

97

Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury  

SciTech Connect

The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

Ono, Koichi [Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan)] [Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Koizumi, Tomonobu, E-mail: tomonobu@shinshu-u.ac.jp [First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan)] [First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki [First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan)] [First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Nakagawa, Rikimaru [Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan)] [Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Obata, Toru [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of DNA Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of DNA Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

2009-10-16

98

Pressure difference receiving ears.  

PubMed

Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources. We suggest that some of the mechanisms of directional hearing evolved in Nature may serve as inspiration for technical improvements. PMID:18364558

Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Naesbye

2008-03-01

99

Early events of the exogenously provided L-Carnitine in murine macrophages, T- and B-lymphocytes: modulation of prostaglandin E1 and E2 production in response to arachidonic acid.  

PubMed

L-carnitine is an essential energy-providing compound to the cell since it transports long chain fatty acids through the mitochondrial membrane and delivers them to the beta-oxidation pathway for catabolism and/or entrance to biosynthetic pathways. Some of the early events taking place in immune cells after L-carnitine inoculation in vitro are defined in this report. Using arachidonic acid as a fatty acid source, we determined the utilization rate of L-carnitine by murine T-, B-lymphocytes and macrophages within two hours of cell culture, its effect on prostaglandin E1 and E2 production and the levels of beta-hydroxy-butyrate. The results show that although all immune cells consume a small portion of L-carnitine, beta-hydroxy-butyrate decreases upon addition of arachidonic acid and/or L-carnitine indicating that active biosynthetic pathways are induced. L-carnitine is shown to increase the arachidonic acid-induced production of prostaglandins E1 and E2 in macrophages, while their secretion from T- and B-lymphocytes is decreased. These findings indicate the L-carnitine may very rapidly alter the activation state of immune cells and lead to the development of various reactions, beneficial or not to the organism. PMID:12873717

Athanassakis, Irene; Dionyssopoulou, Eva; Papanikou, Sunny; Evangeliou, Athanassios; Vassiliadis, Simon

2003-06-01

100

21-aminosteroid and 2-(aminomethyl)chromans inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced lipid peroxidation and permeability enhancement in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers  

E-print Network

Audus, K.L., Guillot, F.L., and Braughler, J.M. (1991) Evidence for 21-aminosteroid association with the hydrophobic domains in brain microvessel endothelial cells. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 11, 361-371. PMID: 1797623. Publisher’s official version...: Audus, K.L., Guillot, F.L., and Braughler, J.M. (1991) Evidence for 21-aminosteroid association with the hydrophobic domains in brain microvessel endothelial cells. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 11, 361-371. PMID: 1797623 Keywords: 21-aminosteroids...

Shi, Fenglin; Cavitt, Jennifer; Audus, Kenneth L.

1995-09-01

101

Inner and outer ear anatomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sounds are actually waves from vibrations. The outer ear catches these waves and funnels them down into the inner ear. The waves reach the eardrum and in turn make the eardrum vibrate. Three small bones receive these vibrations next, then a snail shell-shaped structure called the cochlea. The cochlea is filled with liquid, and this liquid stimulates hairs inside the inner ear. The hairs transmit the signal to the auditory nerve where the signal is taken to the brain and processed as sound.

Zina Deretsky (National Science Foundation; )

2006-10-23

102

Arachidonic acid in aquaculture feeds: current status and future opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of arachidonic acid (20:4n?6, ARA) in fish nutrition has tended to be overlooked in preference to eicosapentaenoic (20:5n?3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (22:6n?3, DHA), probably due to the predominance of the latter two HUFA in fish tissues. However, despite the abundance of EPA and DHA in fish tissues, the importance of ARA as the primary eicosanoid precursor has

J. Gordon Bell; John R. Sargent

2003-01-01

103

Bioconversion of arachidonic acid in human pregnant uterine cervix.  

PubMed

The in vitro conversion of [14C]arachidonic acid by endocervical mucosa and cervical tissue specimens obtained in first trimester (9-12 w) and term pregnant patients (37-39 w) was studied in whole-cell homogenates. All radiolabelled products of the arachidonic acid cascade were extracted, purified and separated utilizing silicic acid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and reversed phase partition chromatography and identified with radio-gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectometry. Both types of tissue produced PGF2 alpha and PGE2, as well as TxB2. In cervical tissue specimens there was a significant increase in the production of all these three prostaglandins as the pregnancy progressed, whereas no such difference was seen in homogenates of endocervical mucosa. In both endocervical mucosa and cervical tissue specimens there was a highly significant increase in the production of a so-far unknown compound(s), in samples from term patients as compared with samples from first-trimester patients. The possible participation of this metabolite of [14C]arachidonic acid in the regulation of cervical ripening is discussed. PMID:4013692

Christensen, N J; Belfrage, P; Bygdeman, M; Floberg, J; Miszuhashi, N; Gréen, K

1985-01-01

104

Middle-Ear Pressure Under Basal Conditions  

E-print Network

Middle-Ear Pressure Under Basal Conditions Leif Hergils, MD, Bengt Magnuson, MD, PhD \\s=b\\Spontaneous pressure changes in the middle ear were measured under bas- al conditions in ten subjects with healthy ears. Results showed that the pressure in the majority of ears remained slightly above the atmo- spheric

Allen, Jont

105

Otoacoustic Emissions from a Nonvertebrate Ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otoacoustic emissions are produced by the inner ear of vertebrates and result from the active and nonlinear processing of input sound by sensory hair cells. We recorded pronounced distortion-product otoacoustic emissions from the ear of the grasshopper, and these emissions proved remarkably similar to those described for the mammalian ear. This is despite the fact that the grasshopper ear is

M. Kössl; G. S. Boyan

1998-01-01

106

Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing  

MedlinePLUS

... Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Developmental Disabilities Ear, Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Fever Genitals & Urinary Tract Head, Neck & Nervous System Obesity Skin Treatments View all Injuries & Emergencies Sports Injuries Vaccine Preventable Diseases Diphtheria Haemophilus ...

107

Wonder Ears: Identification of Identical Twins from Ear Images Hossein Nejati  

E-print Network

Wonder Ears: Identification of Identical Twins from Ear Images Hossein Nejati , Li Zhang ,Terence explored automatic ear recognition for identical twin identification. Ear image recognition has been stud (performed manually). We here explore the possibility of automatic twin identification from their ear images

Sim, Terence

108

Responses of the Inner Ear toResponses of the Inner Ear to InfrasoundInfrasound  

E-print Network

Responses of the Inner Ear toResponses of the Inner Ear to InfrasoundInfrasound Alec N. Salt, Ph this TalkTake-Home Messages from this Talk · The ear is sensitive and responds to low frequency sounds Noise Floor Electrical recording from the guinea pig earElectrical recording from the guinea pig ear

Salt, Alec N.

109

Radiotherapy-induced ear toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their particular functional consequences, radiotherapy-induced ear injuries remain under-evaluated and under-reported. These reactions may have acute or late character, may affect all structures of the hearing organ, and result in conductive, sensorineural or mixed hearing loss. Up to 40% of patients have acute middle ear side effects during radical irradiation including acoustic structures and about one-third of patients develop

Barbara A Jereczek-Fossa; Andrzej Zarowski; Franco Milani; Roberto Orecchia

2003-01-01

110

Evolution of the Amphibian Ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Most amphibians have within their ears the substrate to hear efficiently underwater, underground, and in air, a talent few\\u000a if any other vertebrates can lay claim to. They have achieved this by being very conservative in the nature of novel addition\\u000a s and specialized adaptations to their ears. Indeed, regressive events appear to be just as common as progressive trends

Michael Smotherman; Peter Narins

111

In Vitro hydrolysis of fungal oils: Distribution of arachidonic acid-containing triacylglycerol molecular species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four commercially prepared arachidonic acidrich oils from the fungus Mortierella alpina were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. The levels of arachidonic acid and the distribution\\u000a of triacylglycerol (TG) molecular species varied significantly among these oils. The major arachidonate-containing TG species\\u000a were AAA, LAA, DAA, OAA, PAA, SAA, OLA, PGA, PLA, POA, and SOA where the abbreviations A,

Jim-Wen Liu; Emil G. Bobik; Yung-Sheng Huang

1998-01-01

112

Sulfuric acid-induced corrosion of aluminum surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The sulfuric acid-induced corrosion of smooth (2 nm average roughness) aluminum surfaces has been studied in real times using an in situ Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectrometer and a quartz crystal microbalance. Submicron thick, 35 to 55 weight percent (5 to 12 molal), sulfuric acid films were formed on room temperature metal surfaces by the reaction of gas-phase SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O vapor in a flowing gas system at a total pressure of {approximately}200 Torr. The deposition of the acid films and subsequent changes in their chemical composition resulting from corrosion of the aluminum substrate could be monitored using characteristic infrared absorption features. The corrosion process always significantly perturbed the spectral signature of the films from that which was observed on inert gold surfaces. Using changes in spectral features that are linked to the production of Al{sup 3+} as indicators of corrosion, the authors conclude the rate of corrosion of the metal is strongly enhanced by both higher relative humidities and increased rates of sulfuric acid deposition.

Dai, Q.; Freedman, A.; Robinson, G.N. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

1995-12-01

113

Sphingoid bases inhibit acid-induced demineralization of hydroxyapatite.  

PubMed

Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), the main constituent of dental enamel, is inherently susceptible to the etching and dissolving action of acids, resulting in tooth decay such as dental caries and dental erosion. Since the prevalence of erosive wear is gradually increasing, there is urgent need for agents that protect the enamel against erosive attacks. In the present study we studied in vitro the anti-erosive effects of a number of sphingolipids and sphingoid bases, which form the backbone of sphingolipids. Pretreatment of HAp discs with sphingosine, phytosphingosine (PHS), PHS phosphate and sphinganine significantly protected these against acid-induced demineralization by 80 ± 17%, 78 ± 17%, 78 ± 7% and 81 ± 8%, respectively (p < 0.001). On the other hand, sphingomyelin, acetyl PHS, octanoyl PHS and stearoyl PHS had no anti-erosive effects. Atomic force measurement revealed that HAp discs treated with PHS were almost completely and homogeneously covered by patches of PHS. This suggests that PHS and other sphingoid bases form layers on the surface of HAp, which act as diffusion barriers against H(+) ions. In principle, these anti-erosive properties make PHS and related sphingosines promising and attractive candidates as ingredients in oral care products. PMID:25300299

Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van 't Hof, Wim; Bikker, Floris J; Nazmi, Kamran; Brand, Henk S; Sotres, Javier; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Veerman, Enno C I

2015-01-01

114

Unsaturated fatty acids induce non-canonical autophagy.  

PubMed

To obtain mechanistic insights into the cross talk between lipolysis and autophagy, two key metabolic responses to starvation, we screened the autophagy-inducing potential of a panel of fatty acids in human cancer cells. Both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids such as palmitate and oleate, respectively, triggered autophagy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms differed. Oleate, but not palmitate, stimulated an autophagic response that required an intact Golgi apparatus. Conversely, autophagy triggered by palmitate, but not oleate, required AMPK, PKR and JNK1 and involved the activation of the BECN1/PIK3C3 lipid kinase complex. Accordingly, the downregulation of BECN1 and PIK3C3 abolished palmitate-induced, but not oleate-induced, autophagy in human cancer cells. Moreover, Becn1(+/-) mice as well as yeast cells and nematodes lacking the ortholog of human BECN1 mounted an autophagic response to oleate, but not palmitate. Thus, unsaturated fatty acids induce a non-canonical, phylogenetically conserved, autophagic response that in mammalian cells relies on the Golgi apparatus. PMID:25586377

Niso-Santano, Mireia; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Pietrocola, Federico; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Mariño, Guillermo; Cianfanelli, Valentina; Ben-Younès, Amena; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Markaki, Maria; Sica, Valentina; Izzo, Valentina; Chaba, Kariman; Bauvy, Chantal; Dupont, Nicolas; Kepp, Oliver; Rockenfeller, Patrick; Wolinski, Heimo; Madeo, Frank; Lavandero, Sergio; Codogno, Patrice; Harper, Francis; Pierron, Gérard; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Cecconi, Francesco; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

2015-04-15

115

Ear problems and injuries in athletes.  

PubMed

The ear is an unique organ--the principal structure involved in both hearing and balance. Although not common, problems with the ear may be encountered in specific sporting populations. Common conditions affecting the ear in the athlete include otitis externa, an infection of the external ear; external auditory canal exostoses, or abnormal bony growths in the canal; and otitis media, an infection of the middle ear. Given its position on the head, the ear is subject to trauma, often resulting in an auricular hematoma. Divers, due to pressure changes on descent and ascent, are subject to both ear barotrauma and ear decompression sickness. This article will discuss recognition, treatment, and prevention of these conditions affecting the ear in the athlete. PMID:24412886

Cassaday, Kacie; Vazquez, Gerardo; Wright, Justin M

2014-01-01

116

3D printed bionic ears.  

PubMed

The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

2013-06-12

117

3D Printed Bionic Ears  

PubMed Central

The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

2013-01-01

118

Management of middle ear myoclonus.  

PubMed

Tinnitus produced by synchronous repetitive contraction of the middle ear muscles (middle ear myoclonus) is a rare condition. We present six cases of middle ear myoclonus in whom different management regimes were successful. In two patients, the tinnitus was controlled by conservative measures. In one patient, whose tinnitus was associated with blepharospasm, significant improvement occurred following botulinum toxin injection into the ipsilateral orbicularis oculi. Three patients were cured by tympanotomy with stapedial and tensor tympani tendon section. The aetiology of this type of myoclonus remains unclear. The diagnosis is based on the history of involuntary and rhythmic clicking or buzzing tinnitus which is invariably unilateral. The primary differential diagnosis is palatal myoclonus whilst other local aural pathologies must be excluded by careful clinical assessment. Surgical section of these muscles via tympanotomy brings guaranteed relief when conservative measures fail. PMID:8035114

Badia, L; Parikh, A; Brookes, G B

1994-05-01

119

Tuning in the bullfrog ear.  

PubMed Central

When electrical resonances were observed in acoustic sensory cells of lower vertebrates, the hearing research community was presented with the exciting possibility that tuning in the ears of those animals might be explained directly in terms of familiar molecular devices. It is reported here that in the frog sacculus, where electrical resonances have been observed in isolated hair cells, the effects of those resonances are completely obscured in the tuning properties of the sacculus in the intact ear. This observation has important implications not only for students of the ear, but for reductionist biologists in general. All of the dynamic properties of a system of connected, bidirectional processes are consequences of all of those processes at once; in such a system, the properties of an experimentally isolated subsystem may be totally obscured in the operation of the system as a whole. PMID:3258166

Lewis, E R

1988-01-01

120

MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION  

EPA Science Inventory

MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have demonstrated the hepatocarcinogenicity of DCA in rodents when administered in dri...

121

Classification and diagnosis of ear malformations  

PubMed Central

In the ENT region 50% of the malformations affect the ear. Malformations of the outer and middle ear are predominantly unilateral (ca. 70-90%) and mostly involve the right ear. Inner ear malformations can be unilateral or bilateral. The incidence of ear malformations is approximately 1 in 3800 newborns. Ear malformations may be genetic (associated with syndromes or not, with family history, spontaneous mutations) or acquired in nature. Malformations can affect the outer ear (pinna and external auditory canal, EAC), middle ear and inner ear, not infrequently in combination. Formal classification is advisable in order to be able to predict the prognosis and compare treatment schedules. Various classifications have been proposed: pinna and EAC malformations according to Weerda [1], middle ear malformations according to Kösling [2], and inner ear malformations according to Jackler [3], [4], to Marangos [5] and to Sennaroglu [6]. Additionally, we describe Altmann’s classification of atresia auris congenita [7] and the Siegert-Mayer-Weerda score [8] for EAC and middle ear malformations, systems of great practicability that are in widespread clinical use. The diagnostic steps include clinical examination, audiological testing, genetic analysis and, especially, CT and MRI. These imaging methods are most usefully employed in combination. Precise description of the malformations by means of CT and MRI is indispensable for the planning and successful outcome of operative ear reconstruction and rehabilitation procedures, including cochlear implantation. PMID:22073081

Bartel-Friedrich, Sylva; Wulke, Cornelia

2008-01-01

122

Polychlorinated biphenyls induce arachidonic acid release in human platelets in a tamoxifen sensitive manner via  

E-print Network

" Polychlorinated biphenyls induce arachidonic acid release in human platelets in a tamoxifen: Polychlorinated biphenyls Arachidonic acid Phospholipase A2 Platelets Cyclooxygenase Lipoxygenase Abbreviations-a) activation in human platelets. Ortho-substituted PCBs induced a time and dose-dependent release

Gelb, Michael

123

Arachidonic Acid Enhances Turnover of the Dermal Skeleton: Studies on Zebrafish Scales  

PubMed Central

In fish nutrition, the ratio between omega-3 and omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids influences skeletal development. Supplementation of fish oils with vegetable oils increases the content of omega-6 fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid in the diet. Arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenases to prostaglandin E2, an eicosanoid with effects on bone formation and remodeling. To elucidate effects of poly-unsaturated fatty acids on developing and existing skeletal tissues, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed (micro-) diets low and high in arachidonic acid content. Elasmoid scales, dermal skeletal plates, are ideal to study skeletal metabolism in zebrafish and were exploited in the present study. The fatty acid profile resulting from a high arachidonic acid diet induced mild but significant increase in matrix resorption in ontogenetic scales of adult zebrafish. Arachidonic acid affected scale regeneration (following removal of ontogenetic scales): mineral deposition was altered and both gene expression and enzymatic matrix metalloproteinase activity changed towards enhanced osteoclastic activity. Arachidonic acid also clearly stimulates matrix metalloproteinase activity in vitro, which implies that resorptive effects of arachidonic acid are mediated by matrix metalloproteinases. The gene expression profile further suggests that arachidonic acid increases maturation rate of the regenerating scale; in other words, enhances turnover. The zebrafish scale is an excellent model to study how and which fatty acids affect skeletal formation. PMID:24586706

de Vrieze, Erik; Moren, Mari; Metz, Juriaan R.; Flik, Gert; Lie, Kai Kristoffer

2014-01-01

124

Arachidonic acid enhances turnover of the dermal skeleton: studies on zebrafish scales.  

PubMed

In fish nutrition, the ratio between omega-3 and omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids influences skeletal development. Supplementation of fish oils with vegetable oils increases the content of omega-6 fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid in the diet. Arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenases to prostaglandin E2, an eicosanoid with effects on bone formation and remodeling. To elucidate effects of poly-unsaturated fatty acids on developing and existing skeletal tissues, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed (micro-) diets low and high in arachidonic acid content. Elasmoid scales, dermal skeletal plates, are ideal to study skeletal metabolism in zebrafish and were exploited in the present study. The fatty acid profile resulting from a high arachidonic acid diet induced mild but significant increase in matrix resorption in ontogenetic scales of adult zebrafish. Arachidonic acid affected scale regeneration (following removal of ontogenetic scales): mineral deposition was altered and both gene expression and enzymatic matrix metalloproteinase activity changed towards enhanced osteoclastic activity. Arachidonic acid also clearly stimulates matrix metalloproteinase activity in vitro, which implies that resorptive effects of arachidonic acid are mediated by matrix metalloproteinases. The gene expression profile further suggests that arachidonic acid increases maturation rate of the regenerating scale; in other words, enhances turnover. The zebrafish scale is an excellent model to study how and which fatty acids affect skeletal formation. PMID:24586706

de Vrieze, Erik; Moren, Mari; Metz, Juriaan R; Flik, Gert; Lie, Kai Kristoffer

2014-01-01

125

Arachidonic Acid Is Preferentially Metabolized by Cyclooxygenase2 to Prostacyclin and Prostaglandin E2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two cyclooxygenase isoforms, cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, both metabolize arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, which is subsequently processed by downstream enzymes to the various prostanoids. In the present study, we asked if the two isoforms differ in the profile of prostanoids that ultimately arise from their action on arachidonic acid. Resident peritoneal macro- phages contained only cyclooxygenase-1 and synthe- sized

Thomas G. Brock; Robert W. McNish; Marc Peters-Golden

1999-01-01

126

Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... A Text Size What's in this article? Why Surgery? About Otitis Media Infection Symptoms and Diagnosis Treatment Tympanostomy Tube Surgery After Surgery Why Surgery? Many kids get middle ear infections (known as otitis media, or OM), usually when they're between 6 ...

127

Physiological functioning of the ear and masking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

1984-01-01

128

Neurosensory Development in the Zebrafish Inner Ear  

E-print Network

The vertebrate inner ear is a complex structure responsible for hearing and balance. The inner ear houses sensory epithelia composed of mechanosensory hair cells and non-sensory support cells. Hair cells synapse with neurons of the VIIIth cranial...

Vemaraju, Shruti

2012-02-14

129

21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid...

2011-04-01

130

21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid...

2012-04-01

131

Oxygenation products of arachidonic acid: third messengers for insulin release.  

PubMed

Although an association between membrane phospholipid turnover and exocytotic hormone release has long been recognized, a causal relationship has not been firmly established. Recent studies suggest that glucose (and probably other insulin secretagogues) activates phospholipases and thereby releases membrane-bound arachidonic acid (AA). AA is then converted through islet 12-lipoxygenase to mediators or modulators of insulin release (tentatively identified as peroxides and epoxides of arachidonate). These products may be critical links in stimulus-secretion coupling, since blockade of either AA release or lipoxygenation abrogates insulin release induced by glucose and many other (but not all) stimuli. Cogeneration of prostaglandins from AA through the cyclooxygenase pathway may directly or indirectly modulate the formation and/or effect of lipoxygenase products. A critical role for lipoxygenase products (and possibly metabolites of AA synthesized by other pathways, such as P-450-dependent monooxygenases) may extend to many secretory cells in addition to pancreatic beta cells. The phasic release of AA described in many cells could explain the biphasic pattern of insulin release induced by glucose. Since some phospholipases and lipoxygenases are Ca++ activated, the release of AA in conjunction with its oxygenation appears to be a concerted system generating "third messengers" for hormone release. PMID:6432880

Metz, S A; Fujimoto, W Y; Robertson, R P

1984-09-01

132

Ear recognition based on Gabor features and KFDA.  

PubMed

We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the same size. For its eminent characteristics in spatial local feature extraction and orientation selection, Gabor filter based ear feature extraction is presented in this paper. Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA) is then applied for dimension reduction of the high-dimensional Gabor features. Finally distance based classifier is applied for ear recognition. Experimental results of ear recognition on two datasets (USTB and UND datasets) and the performance of the ear authentication system show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:24778595

Yuan, Li; Mu, Zhichun

2014-01-01

133

Effects of Middle-Ear Disorders on Power Reflectance Measured in Cadaveric Ear Canals  

E-print Network

Effects of Middle-Ear Disorders on Power Reflectance Measured in Cadaveric Ear Canals Susan E. Voss,1 Gabrielle R. Merchant,2 and Nicholas J. Horton3 Objective: Reflectance measured in the ear canal offers a noninvasive method to monitor the acoustic properties of the middle ear, and few systematic

Allen, Jont

134

Ear Modeling and Sound Signal Processing Ear modeling can significantly improve sound signal processing and  

E-print Network

Ear Modeling and Sound Signal Processing Jack Xin Abstract Ear modeling can significantly improve sound signal processing and the design of hearing devices. Ear models based on mechanics and neu- ral phenomenology of the inner ear (cochlea) form a class of nonlinear nonlocal dispersive partial differential

Xin, Jack

135

Frog eye, ear, and nostril  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can clearly see the frog's eye. There is an air opening near a black spot on the frog's skin. The opening to the frog's ear is covered by the round, tan membrane to the left in the picture. This membrane is called the tympanum.

Ren West (None; )

2006-08-07

136

Sound Reception Types of ears  

E-print Network

Perfect Ear · Wide frequency range (20 kHz) · Wide dynamic range (100 db) · Accurate frequency resolution information #12;Pressure detector · Membrane must be thin so that impedance is close to that of air · Larger cos )/ where A = the surface area of the membrane P = sound pressure L = the extra distance

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

137

The caecilian ear: further observations.  

PubMed

The structure of the ear is examined in two species of caecilians, Ichthyophis glutinosus and I. orthoplicatus, and the sensitivity to aerial sounds is assessed in terms of the electrical potentials of the cochlea. The results are in general agreement with previous reports on other caecilian species. PMID:1068485

Wever, E G; Gans, C

1976-10-01

138

Congenital atresia of the ear.  

PubMed

Congenital atresia of the ear requires prompt diagnosis and an early assessment of hearing. In bilateral atresia, aural rehabilitation should be started early in life to avoid late sequelae of speech problems. In unilateral atresia, the need is not urgent if the child hears normally in the other ear. Polytomography and audiometric testing are the two most important parts of the patient's evaluation. Precise audiometric testing may be difficult, or even impossible, in these children. The indications for surgery are presented. The risk of injuring an abnormally placed facial nerve remains a deterrent to many otologic surgeons who would otherwise operate on atresia. Surgery for correction of atresia was performed on 20 ears in 18 patients. A method of fascia graft overlay in conjunction with a center-hole skin graft was used. In 14 or 17 ears where an attempt was made at hearing rehabilitation the average preoperative air conduction threshold was 59 db and the average postoperative air conduction threshold was 24 db. Two unique cases are discussed in detail. One is a primary cholesteatoma in association with atresia, and the other is a finding of primitive and embryonic subepithelial tissue in the mastoid air cell system. PMID:355751

Jahrsdoerfer, R A

1978-09-01

139

Ear Biometrics in Human Identification A Dissertation  

E-print Network

Ear Biometrics in Human Identification A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School and Engineering Notre Dame, Indiana June 2006 #12;Ear Biometrics in Human Identification Abstract by Ping Yan the ear as a biometric and investigate its potential with both 2D and 3D data. Our work is the largest

Bowyer, Kevin W.

140

Designing Medical Devices for the Ear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to engineering, specifically to biomedical engineering and the engineering design process, through a short lecture and an associated hands-on activity in which they design their own medical devices for retrieving foreign bodies from the ear canal. Through the lesson, they learn the basics of ear anatomy and how ear infections occur and are treated. Besides antibiotic treatment, the most common treatment for chronic ear infections is the insertion of ear tubes to drain fluid from the middle ear space to relieve pressure on the ear drum. Medical devices for this procedure, a very common children's surgery, are limited, sometimes resulting in unnecessary complications from a simple procedure. Thus, biomedical engineers must think creatively to develop new solutions (that is, new and improved medical devices/instruments) for inserting ear tubes into the ear drum. The class learns the engineering design process from this ear tube example of a medical device design problem. In the associated activity, students explore biomedical engineering on their own by designing prototype medical devices to solve another ear problem commonly experienced by children: the lodging of a foreign body (such as a pebble, bead or popcorn kernel) in the ear canal. The activity concludes by teams sharing and verbally analyzing their devices.

Biomedical Engineering,

141

Syndromic Ear Anomalies and Renal Ultrasounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Although many pediatricians pursue renal ultrasonography when patients are noted to have external ear malformations, there is much confusion over which specific ear malformations do and do not require imaging. The objective of this study was to de- lineate characteristics of a child with external ear malfor- mations that suggest a greater risk of renal anomalies. We highlight several

Raymond Y. Wang; Dawn L. Earl; Robert O. Ruder; John M. Graham

2001-01-01

142

Immunologic Disorders of the Inner Ear.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.

1997-01-01

143

Normative inner ear volumetric measurements.  

PubMed

In the current study, we attempted to determine normative inner ear volumetric measurements generated from three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) images. In addition, we investigated a correlation between the axial length and the volume of the labyrinth and discussed clinical outcomes of this correlation. Amira 5.2.2 software was used to create three-dimensional isosurface images of the human labyrinth using two-dimensional CT images from 35 anatomically normal patients. With the three-dimensional labyrinths, complete dimensional analysis was performed to gain insight into both the volume and the greatest axial length of the inner ear. Paired t test and Pearson correlation were used. Our volume of the inner ear inquiry reported a mean volume of 221.5 with SD of 24.3 ?L (0.228 ?L for males and 0.218 ?L for females). The length showed a mean of 1.713 cm with SD of 0.064 cm (1.753 cm for males and 1.695 cm for females). The length was used to estimate the volume, and the estimates were within 10% of the measured volume 74.3% of the time. Normative volumetric measurements of the inner ear can be obtained by using three-dimensional CT Imaging by Amira 5.2.2 software. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the axial length of the labyrinth and the volume of the labyrinth. The axial length of the labyrinth could be used to estimate the volume of the labyrinth, which may be clinically important to estimate the concentration of the drug distributed in the inner ear. PMID:25490572

Teixido, Michael T; Kirkilas, Gary; Seymour, Peter; Sem, Kanik; Iaia, Alberto; Sabra, Omar; Isildak, Huseyin

2015-01-01

144

The Effect of Ear Canal Pressure on Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions:. Comparison Between Human and Lizard Ears  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The center frequency, height and width of peaks in SOAE spectra depend on ear canal pressure. The width is interpreted as a measure of the inner ear source-signal-to-(e.g. thermal)-noise ratio. In humans, width increases with decreasing height. Apparently, ear canal pressure modifies the amplitude of the inner ear emission source signal. In lizards, the relation between peak width and height is not consistent. Here, middle ear transmission changes may account for many the observed amplitude effects.

van Dijk, P.; Manley, G. A.

2009-02-01

145

Tranexamic acid induces kaolin intake stimulating a pathway involving tachykinin neurokinin 1 receptors in rats.  

PubMed

Tranexamic acid suppresses post-partum haemorrhage and idiopathic menorrhagia through its anti-fibrinolytic action. Although it is clinically useful, it is associated with high risks of side effects such as emesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying tranexamic acid-induced emesis is very important to explore appropriate anti-emetic drugs for the prevention and/or suppression of emesis. In this study, we examined the receptors involved in tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake in rats, which reflects the drug's clinical emetogenic potential in humans. Further, we examined the brain regions activated by administration of tranexamic acid and elucidated pivotal pathways of tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake. We examined the effects of ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist, domperidone, a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist, and aprepitant, a tachykinin neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, on tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake in rats. Then, we determined the brain regions that showed increased numbers of c-Fos immunoreactive cells. Finally, we examined the effects of an antagonist(s) that reduced tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake on the increase in c-Fos immunoreactive cells. Aprepitant significantly decreased tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake. However, neither ondansetron nor domperidone decreased kaolin intake. Tranexamic acid significantly increased c-Fos immunoreactive cells by approximately 5.5-fold and 22-fold in the area postrema and nucleus of solitary tract, respectively. Aprepitant decreased the number of c-Fos immunoreactive cells in both areas. Tranexamic acid induced kaolin intake possibly via stimulation of tachykinin NK1 receptors in rats. The tachykinin NK1 receptor could be targeted to prevent and/or suppress emesis in patients receiving tranexamic acid. PMID:24333477

Kakiuchi, Hitoshi; Kawarai-Shimamura, Asako; Kuwagata, Makiko; Orito, Kensuke

2014-01-15

146

Chemotactic peptide-induced arachidonic acid mobilization in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes prelabeled with tritiated arachidonic acid liberated radiolabeled products when exposed to the chemotactic peptide fMet-Leu-Phe. The effect was enhanced in the presence of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate or 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl glycerol; these agents activate phospholipid- and Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C. In contrast, arachidonic acid mobilization was suppressed by two compounds known to inhibit protein kinase C activity: polymyxin B and 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine. These results suggest that protein kinase C was involved in arachidonic acid mobilization in leukocytes stimulated with chemotactic peptide.

Galbraith, G.M.

1988-11-01

147

Inner Time and Inner Ear  

E-print Network

Sounds are information sequences that cannot exist outside of a time base and therefore cannot be analyzed inside an animal without an accurate internal clock. It is suggested that the clock may be hidden in the inner ear. It is shown that if a mechanism of counting of the electrical charge passing through the inner ear hair cells exists then the mechanism can be used both for the conversion of acceleration into velocity and as the inner clock, in the presence of a constant current. The causes of vertigo during rotation are discussed. It is shown that if a continuous inner time exists then sleeping is a mathematical necessity. It is indicated that both for visual and hearing inputs the recognition of an input signal is recognition of function(s) of two variables.

Rvachov, Michael

2012-01-01

148

Inner Time and Inner Ear  

E-print Network

Sounds are information sequences that cannot exist outside of a time base and therefore cannot be analyzed inside an animal without an accurate internal clock. It is suggested that the clock may be hidden in the inner ear. It is shown that if a mechanism of counting of the electrical charge passing through the inner ear hair cells exists then the mechanism can be used both for the conversion of acceleration into velocity and as the inner clock, in the presence of a constant current. The causes of vertigo during rotation are discussed. It is shown that if a continuous inner time exists then sleeping is a "mathematical necessity". It is indicated that both for visual and hearing inputs the recognition of an input signal is recognition of function(s) of two variables.

Michael Rvachov

2012-11-10

149

The War of Jenkins’ Ear  

PubMed Central

Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

2012-01-01

150

Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

2013-02-01

151

Ear protection against water-borne infection: an objective evaluation.  

PubMed

Eight different ear plug materials were tested, in 5 ears each, in artificial shallow underwater conditions for 30 minutes, in order to determine their efficacy in sealing the ear canals to avoid water-borne infections in ear canals and open middle ears. Most of the plugs tested would meet everyday requirements for protection, but the polymeric foam plugs, treated with petroleum jelly, and moldable plastic materials were most effective in protecting both the middle ear and the ear canal skin. PMID:3805874

Laitakari, K; Sorri, M; Pirilâ, T; Löppönen, H; Helisten, L

1986-12-01

152

Precursor role of arachidonic acid in release of slow reacting substance from rat basophilic leukemia cells.  

PubMed Central

The release of slow reacting substance (SRS) from rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-1) by the ionophore A23187 (5-10 mug/ml) was stimulated 5-fold by arachidonate and inhibited 78% by 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoate (an inhibitor of both fatty acid cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase). Linoleic acid and linolenic acid both inhibited SRS formation, whereas indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) had no effect. Radiolabel from [14C]- or [3H]arachidonate was incorporated into SRS as indicated by comigration of radioactivity and bioreactivity in several chromatographic systems after purification to apparent radiochemical homogeneity. The radiolabeled SRS was clearly separated chromatographically from other known arachidonate metabolites. Thus, SRS appears to be a previously undescribed product of arachidonic acid metabolism, probably formed through the lipoxygenase pathway. The ability to prepare purified, biosynthetically labeled, SRS should be of considerable help in further studies of its structure, biologic function, and catabolism. Images PMID:22078

Jakschik, B A; Falkenhein, S; Parker, C W

1977-01-01

153

Numerical simulation of the human ear and the dynamic analysis of the middle ear sound transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the clinical CT of normal right ear, a 3-D ?nite element (FE) model of the human ear consisting of the external ear canal, middle ear(tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, ligaments, tendons), and inner ear (including semicircular canals, vestibular, spiral cochlear)was constructed in this paper. The complicated structures and inner boundary conditions of middle ear were described in this model. Model analysis and acoustic-structure-?uid coupled dynamic frequency response analysis were conducted on the model. The validity of this model was confirmed by comparing the results with published experimental data. The amplitudes and velocities of tympanic membrane and stapes footplate, sound pressure gain across the middle ear, and the cochlear input impedance were derived. Besides, it was concluded that the ear canal can amplify the sound signal in low frequencies.The modes of vibration of middle ear auditory ossicles, oval window and round window have been analysed. This model can well simulate the acoustic behavior with the interaction of external ear, middle ear and inner ear, which can supply more valuable theoretical support for development and improvement of hearing-aid and artificial inner ear.

Yao, W.; Ma, J.; Huang, X.

2013-06-01

154

Effect of Culture Variables on Mycelial Arachidonic acid Production by Mortierella alpina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of culture conditions on biomass, lipid, and arachidonic acid production was investigated in the oleaginous fungus\\u000a Mortierella alpina CBS 528.72 under shake flask conditions. Several factors have been found to affect the biomass buildup and lipogenesis in\\u000a this fungus, complicated by the fact that different strains demonstrate varying optimization conditions. Growth, lipid accumulation,\\u000a and arachidonic acid production in the

A. Nisha; G. Venkateswaran

2011-01-01

155

Influence of fatty acid ethanolamides and ? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on cytokine and arachidonate release by mononuclear cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of arachidonic acid ethanolamide (anandamide), palmitoylethanolamide and ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-4, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, interferon-?, p55 and p75 TNF-? soluble receptors by stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well as [3H]arachidonic acid release by non-stimulated and N-formyl-Met–Leu–Phe (fMLP)-stimulated human monocytes were investigated. Anandamide was shown to diminish interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 production

Evguenii V Berdyshev; Elisabeth Boichot; Noëlla Germain; Nathalie Allain; Jean-Pierre Anger; Vincent Lagente

1997-01-01

156

Arachidonate has a positive effect on the electrogenic sodium-potassium pump in the mouse diaphragm.  

PubMed

Sodium arachidonate 5 X 10(-5) mol X l-1 shortened the time course of hyperpolarization caused by the electrogenic Na+-K+ pump in intact muscle fibres in the mouse diaphragm preincubated in a K+-free physiological solution. Contrary to experiments on membrane fragments, no inhibition of the ouabain-sensitive Na+-K+ ATPase was observed. It is unlikely that the arachidonate may be identical with the endogenous "ouabain-like" substance (Bidard et al. 1984). PMID:2440070

Vyskocil, P; Zemková, H; Teisinger, J; Vyskocil, F

1987-01-01

157

Release of arachidonic acid by NMDA-receptor activation in the rat hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hippocampal slices arachidonic acid released after NMDA post-synaptic receptor activation is thought to act as a retrograde trans-synaptic messenger which facilitates the pre-synaptic release of L-glutamate to be involved in the expression of long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP). We measured the mass amount of arachidonic acid released from hippocampal slices incubated under conditions which maintain the electrophysiological responsiveness of the

Luc Pellerin I; Leonhard S. Wolfe

1991-01-01

158

[Hypopharyngeal carcinoma and red ear drum].  

PubMed

A 46-year-old male patient with an unresectable hypopharyngeal carcinoma was treated with primary radio-chemotherapy. At follow-up, the patient presented with a red ear drum and combined hearing loss. Because of radiotherapy-induced tubal dysfunction, paracentesis was performed. Biopsy of the polypoid middle ear mucosa revealed petrous bone infiltration of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. MRI studies revealed paracarotideal tumor infiltration to the petrous bone and the middle ear arising from a cervical retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis. PMID:20963385

Bender, B; Widmann, G; Riechelmann, H; Schmutzhard, J

2011-04-01

159

In vitro release of arachidonic acid and in vivo responses to respirable fractions of cotton dust.  

PubMed Central

It was considered that the fall in lung function seen after exposure to cotton dust may be attributable in part to the activity of arachidonic acid metabolites, such as leucotrienes as well as to the more established release of histamine by cotton dust. However, we found that cotton and barley dusts elicited poor release of arachidonic acid from an established macrophage like cell line compared with that observed with other organic dusts. In the experimental animal, pulmonary cellular responses to both cotton and barley dust were similar to those evoked by moldy hay and pigeon dropping dusts, although after multiple doses a more severe response was seen to cotton and barley. Since both moldy hay and pigeon droppings elicit a greater arachidonic acid release than cotton or barley, a role for arachidonic acid in inducing the cellular response is less likely than other factors. There are limitations to our conclusions using this system, i.e., the arachidonic acid may be released in a nonmetabolized form, although it is noted that the two dusts with the greatest arachidonic acid release produce their clinical responses in humans largely by hypersensitivity mechanisms. PMID:3086080

Thomson, T A; Edwards, J H; Al-Zubaidy, T S; Brown, R C; Poole, A; Nicholls, P J

1986-01-01

160

Incorporation and metabolism of [14C]-arachidonic acid in guinea-pig lungs  

PubMed Central

1 Following infusion of [14C]-arachidonic acid into guinea-pig isolated lungs more than half the administered radioactivity was retained by the lung. 2 The majority of the retained radioactivity was present in the phospholipid fraction with lesser amounts in the neutral lipid and free fatty acid fractions. When fatty acid methyl esters of the phospholipid fraction were prepared, 80% of the radioactivity co-chromatographed with methyl arachidonate. 3 Transformation to cyclo-oxygenase products and subsequent emergence in lung effluent accounted for approximately 20% of infused radioactivity. 4 After pretreatment of lungs with [14C]-arachidonic acid, stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism with injections of partially purified slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A), bradykinin or antigen challenge released rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS) and prostaglandin-like substances (PGLS) but little radioactivity. Furthermore, repeated injections of SRS-A or bradykinin released similar amounts of RCS and PGLS but diminishing amounts of radioactivity. 5 These data indicated that exogenous arachidonic acid was taken up by the lung and incorporated into phospholipids. However, this newly incorporated arachidonic acid had not equilibrated with the pool activated by SRS-A, bradykinin and antigen challenge for conversion to cyclo-oxygenase products. PMID:519105

Jose, P.J.; Seale, J.P.

1979-01-01

161

DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID AND ARACHIDONIC ACID PREVENT ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID DEFICIENCY AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS  

PubMed Central

Objectives Essential fatty acids are important for growth, development, and physiologic function. Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are the precursors of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid, respectively, and have traditionally been considered the essential fatty acids. However, we hypothesized that docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid can function as the essential fatty acids. Methods Using a murine model of essential fatty acid deficiency and consequent hepatic steatosis, we provided mice with varying amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids to determine whether exclusive supplementation of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids could prevent essential fatty acid deficiency and inhibit or attenuate hepatic steatosis. Results Mice supplemented with docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids at 2.1% or 4.2% of their calories for 19 days had normal liver histology and no biochemical evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency, which persisted when observed after 9 weeks. Conclusion Supplementation of sufficient amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids alone without alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids meets essential fatty acid requirements and prevents hepatic steatosis in a murine model. PMID:22038210

Le, Hau D.; Meisel, Jonathan A.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Fallon, Erica M.; Gura, Kathleen M.; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R.; Puder, Mark

2012-01-01

162

Docosatetraenoic acid in endothelial cells: formation, retroconversion to arachidonic acid, and effect on prostacyclin production.  

PubMed

Cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells convert arachidonic acid to docosatetraenoic acid and also take up docosatetraenoic acid from the extracellular fluid. After a 24-h incubation with biosynthetically prepared [3H]docosatetraenoic acid, about 20% of the cellular fatty acid radioactivity was converted to arachidonic acid. Furthermore, in pulse-chase experiments, the decrease in phospholipid docosatetraenoic acid content was accompanied by an increase in arachidonic acid, providing additional evidence for retroconversion. These findings suggest that one possible function of docosatetraenoic acid in endothelial cells is to serve as a source of arachidonic acid. The endothelial cells can release docosatetraenoic acid when they are stimulated with ionophore A23187, but they do not form appreciable amounts of eicosanoids from docosatetraenoic acid. Enrichment of the endothelial cells with docosatetraenoic acid reduced their capacity to produce prostacyclin (PGI2) in response to ionophore A23187. This may be related to the fact that docosatetraenoic acid enrichment caused a 40% reduction in the arachidonic acid content of the inositol phosphoglycerides. In addition, less prostacyclin was formed when the enriched cells were incubated with arachidonic acid, suggesting that docosatetraenoic acid also may act as an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in endothelial cells. PMID:3080955

Mann, C J; Kaduce, T L; Figard, P H; Spector, A A

1986-02-01

163

Molecular Mechanisms of Inner Ear Development  

PubMed Central

The inner ear is a structurally complex vertebrate organ built to encode sound, motion, and orientation in space. Given its complexity, it is not surprising that inner ear dysfunction is a relatively common consequence of human genetic mutation. Studies in model organisms suggest that many genes currently known to be associated with human hearing impairment are active during embryogenesis. Hence, the study of inner ear development provides a rich context for understanding the functions of genes implicated in hearing loss. This chapter focuses on molecular mechanisms of inner ear development derived from studies of model organisms. PMID:22855724

Wu, Doris K.; Kelley, Matthew W.

2012-01-01

164

Fear the EAR: Discovering and Mitigating Execution After Redirect Vulnerabilities  

E-print Network

Fear the EAR: Discovering and Mitigating Execution After Redirect Vulnerabilities Adam Doupé, Bryce Execution After Redirect, or EAR. A web application de- veloper can introduce an EAR by calling a redirect web frameworks are to EAR vulnerabilities. We then discuss the results from the EAR challenge

California at Santa Barbara, University of

165

Otologics active middle ear implants.  

PubMed

This article describes outcomes for the Otologics active middle ear implant for the semi-implantable and fully implantable (Carina, Otologics LLC, Boulder, CO) devices. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are reported in detail for surgical and audiologic management. Results from the clinical trial demonstrated no change for unaided air and bone conduction thresholds and no significant change in monosyllabic word scores or sentences in noise. Experiments are reported for conductive and mixed types of hearing losses in animal and human cadaveric models. These devices are in their infancy, and further study is needed to better identify candidates and develop appropriate expectations. PMID:25301507

Jenkins, Herman A; Uhler, Kristin

2014-12-01

166

Bias-dependent amino-acid-induced conductance changes in short semi-metallic carbon nanotubes  

E-print Network

Bias-dependent amino-acid-induced conductance changes in short semi-metallic carbon nanotubes G the interaction between short semi-metallic carbon nanotubes and different amino acids using molecular dynamics different mechanisms of nanotube-conductance-change upon adsorption of amino acids: one due to the change

Pulfrey, David L.

167

Arachidonate-dependent oxygen consumption in Dictyostelium discoideum.  

PubMed

A central feature of the processes of aggregation and differentiation in the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum is the periodic excitatory cycle. Originally thought to involve primarily fluctuations in cyclic AMP levels, this excitatory cycle has since been shown to involve changes in several other second messengers including cyclic GMP, calcium and inositol trisphosphate. Previous work from this laboratory using specific inhibitors strongly suggested a role for eicosanoids in this stimulus-response process. Production of eicosanoids from fatty acid precursors is an oxygen-consuming process. In this paper, we report on oxygen consumption measurements in intact D. discoideum cells and in cell extracts. We demonstrate the existence of an azide-insensitive component of oxygen consumption which can be stimulated by the addition of arachidonate and other polyunsaturated fatty acids, and at least partially inhibited by meclofenamate and eicosatetraynoic acid, both of which block eicosanoid biosynthesis in higher organisms. These observations provide further evidence for the existence of an eicosanoid-metabolizing system in D. discoideum. PMID:3150977

Krill, D C; Town, C D

1988-08-01

168

Cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid metabolism in bovine corneal epithelium  

SciTech Connect

The presence of the cytochrom P450 system and its involvement in the metabolism of AA was studied in the corneal epithelium. This tissue contains cytochrome P450 as assessed directly by measurement of the carbon monoxide reduced spectrum (specific activity of 161 pmol/10 mg protein) and indirectly by measuring the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) - a cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme (11-39 pmol 3-OH benzopyrene/mg protein/10 min). When corneal epithelial microsomes were incubated with /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid, 30-50% of the total radioactivity was converted to two peaks, I and II. Further separation using high performance liquid chromatography has shown that each peak contains two metabolites, A,B and C,D. Metabolite formation was dependent on the addition of NADPH (1 mM) and inhibited by carbon monoxide and SKF-525A (100 ..mu..M) suggesting a cytochrome P450-dependent mechanism. Compound C (5-10 ..mu..M) inhibited the activity of corneal epithelial Na-K-ATPase by 30-60%, being 100-fold more potent than ouabain. Compound D (10-100 ng) induced a dose dependent relaxation of the rat caudal artery. Compound D also inhibited corneal Na-K-ATPase activity but less potently than compound C. These compounds may be important to transport processes of ocular epithelia and participate in the control of the ocular circulation and aqueous humor dynamics.

Masferrer, J.; Schwartzman, M.L.; Abraham, N.G.; Dunn, M.W.; McGiff, J.C.

1986-03-01

169

Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenases with reference to their selective inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

Lipoxygenase is a dioxygenase recognizing a 1-cis,4-cis-pentadiene of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The enzyme oxygenates various carbon atoms of arachidonic acid as a substrate and produces 5-, 8-, 12- or 15-hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid with a conjugated diene chromophore. The enzyme is referred to as 5-, 8-, 12- or 15-lipoxygenase, respectively. Earlier we found two isoforms of 12-lipoxygenase, leukocyte- and platelet-type enzymes, which were distinguished by substrate specificity, catalytic activity, primary structure, gene intron size, and antigenicity. Recently, the epidermis-type enzyme was found as the third isoform. Attempts have been made to find isozyme-specific inhibitors of 12-lipoxygenase, and earlier we found hinokitol, a tropolone, as a potent inhibitor selective for the platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase. More recently, we tested various catechins of tea leaves and found that (-)-geotechnical gallate was a potent and selective inhibitor of human platelet 12-lipoxygenase with an IC{sub 5} of 0.14 {mu}M. The compound was much less active with 12-lipoxygenase of leukocyte-type, 15-, 8-, and 5-lipoxygenases, and cyclo oxygenases-1 and -2.

Yamamoto, Shozo [Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Home Economics, Kyoto Women's University, Imakumano, Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto 605-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: yamamosh@kyoto-wu.ac.jp; Katsukawa, Michiko [Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Home Economics, Kyoto Women's University, Imakumano, Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto 605-8501 (Japan); Nakano, Ayumi [Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Home Economics, Kyoto Women's University, Imakumano, Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto 605-8501 (Japan); Hiraki, Emi [Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Home Economics, Kyoto Women's University, Imakumano, Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto 605-8501 (Japan); Nishimura, Kohji [Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Jisaka, Mitsuo [Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Yokota, Kazushige [Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Ueda, Natsuo [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)

2005-12-09

170

Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition: a commentary.  

PubMed

Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar levels in breast milk throughout the world, whereas the level of DHA is highly diet dependent. Autopsy studies show similar diet-dependent variation in brain DHA, whereas AA is little affected by intake. Early intake of DHA has been shown to affect visual development, but the effect of LCPUFA on neurodevelopment remains to be established. Few studies have found any functional difference between infants supplemented with DHA alone compared to DHA+AA, but some studies show neurodevelopmental advantages in breast-fed infants of mothers supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA alone. It also remains to be established whether the AA/DHA balance could affect allergic and inflammatory outcomes later in life. Disentangling effects of genetic variability and dietary intake on AA and DHA-status and on functional outcomes may be an important step in the process of determining whether AA-intake is of any physiological or clinical importance. However, based on the current evidence we hypothesize that dietary AA plays a minor role on growth and development relative to the impact of dietary DHA. PMID:25314584

Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

2015-01-01

171

Selenium inhibits 15-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid-induced intracellular adhesion molecule expression in aortic endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression and enhanced monocyte recruitment to the endothelium are critical steps in the early development of atherosclerosis. The 15-lipoxygenase 1 (15-LOX1) pathway can generate several proinflammatory eicosanoids that are known to enhance ICAM-1 expression within the vascular endothelium. Oxidative stress can exacerbate endothelial cell inflammatory responses by modifying arachidonic acid metabolism through the 15-LOX1

Lorraine M. Sordillo; Katie L. Streicher; Isis K. Mullarky; Jeffery C. Gandy; Wendy Trigona; Chris M. Corl

2008-01-01

172

Tumor Cell-derived 12(S)-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid Induces Microvascular Endothelial Cell Retraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous work demonstrated that the 12-1ipoxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid, 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE) in- duced a nondestructive and reversible retraction of cultured endothelial cells. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that tumor cells pro- duce 12(S)-HETE during their interactions with endothelial cells which in turn induces endothelial cell retraction. Coincubation of Lewis lung car- cinoma cells or

Kenneth V. Honn; Dean G. Tang; Irma Grossi; Zofia M. Duniec; Jozsef Timar; Colette Renaud; Marie Leithauser; Ian Blair; Carl R. Johnson; Clement A. Diglio; Victoria A. Kimler; John D. Taylor; Lawrence J. Marnett

173

Arachidonic acid: Occurrence in the reproductive tract of the male house cricket ( Acheta domesticus ) and field cricket ( Gryllus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive tissues from male house and field crickets were investigated for the presence of arachidonic acid. Arachidonic\\u000a acid was identified by retention behavior on 3 gas liquid chromatographic column systems—SE-30, OV 225, and Silar 10C—and\\u000a by gas liquid\\/positive ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Arachidonic acid constituted 0.3 and 1.2% of total fatty\\u000a acids in the house and field cricket, respectively.

R. E. Worthington; U. E. Brady; J. E. Thean; D. M. Wilson

1981-01-01

174

14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205...Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2011-01-01

175

Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Patient ... Otitis media refers to inflammation of the middle ear. When infection occurs, the condition is called " acute ...

176

15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the...

2012-01-01

177

14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305...Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2013-01-01

178

21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

179

14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205...Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2012-01-01

180

14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205...Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2010-01-01

181

14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105...First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2012-01-01

182

15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the...

2014-01-01

183

14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205...Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2013-01-01

184

14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305...Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2012-01-01

185

14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305...Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2010-01-01

186

15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the...

2013-01-01

187

15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the...

2010-01-01

188

15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the...

2011-01-01

189

14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105...First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2014-01-01

190

21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

191

14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305...Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2014-01-01

192

14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105...First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2013-01-01

193

14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305...Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2011-01-01

194

14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105...First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2011-01-01

195

14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105...First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2010-01-01

196

21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

197

14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205...Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2014-01-01

198

21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device...

2011-04-01

199

21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device...

2012-04-01

200

[Ear prostheses in burns of the external ear. Technical notes].  

PubMed

Ear reconstruction is best performed with autologous tissue. However, there are selected cases in which a prosthesis may be preferred. Some patients are unwilling to undertake multiple surgical procedures, others do not accept the chest wall scar. More importantly, in severe post burn cases, the scars in the periauricular region can truly compromise the outcome of an autologous reconstruction. In such cases, the authors perform a prosthetic reconstruction which is anchored to the cranial bone by means of osteointegrated titanium screws. The method described here has been modified compared to the original Bränemark system. A new microscrew design allows the implants to be inserted in a single surgical procedure. A magnetic anchoring system avoids cumbersome external rods, and the overall size of the masses emerging from the skin is significantly reduced. These improvements increase patient comfort and compliance. PMID:7574403

Signorini, M; Rafanelli, G; Pajardi, G; Stefani, A; Venini, G

1995-06-01

201

Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

Woody, Robert H.

2012-01-01

202

INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

203

The development of the vertebrate inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for balance and sound detection in vertebrates. It originates from a transient embryonic structure, the otic vesicle, that contains all of the information to develop autonomously into the mature inner ear. We review here the development of the otic vesicle, bringing together classical embryological experiments and recent genetic and molecular data.

Miguel Torres; Fernando Giráldez

1998-01-01

204

"Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)  

MedlinePLUS

Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

205

Heart arachidonic acid is uniquely sensitive to dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content in domestic piglets  

PubMed Central

This study determined the sensitivity of heart and brain arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to the dietary ARA level in a dose-response design with constant, high DHA in neonatal piglets. On day 3 of age, pigs were assigned to 1 of 6 dietary formulas varying in ARA/DHA as follows (% fatty acid, FA/FA): (A1) 0.1/1.0; (A2) 0.53/1.0; (A3-D3) 0.69/1.0; (A4) 1.1/1.0; (D2) 0.67/0.62; (D1) 0.66/0.33. At necropsy (day 28) higher levels of dietary ARA were associated with increased heart and liver ARA, while brain ARA remained unaffected. Dietary ARA had no effect on tissue DHA accretion. Heart was particularly sensitive, with pigs in the intermediate groups having different ARA (A2, 18.6 ± 0.7%; A3, 19.4 ± 1.0%) and a 0.17% increase in dietary ARA resulted in a 0.84% increase in heart ARA. Further investigations are warranted to determine the clinical significance of heart ARA status in developing neonates. PMID:21885269

Tyburczy, Cynthia; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Park, Woo Jung; Blank, Bryant S.; Bradford, Kathryn Lee; Zimmer, J. Paul; Butt, Christopher M.; Salem, Norman; Brenna, J. Thomas

2011-01-01

206

Gene therapy for the inner ear  

PubMed Central

Animal studies on inner ear development, repair and regeneration provide understanding of molecular pathways that can be harnessed for treating inner ear disease. Use of transgenic mouse technology, in particular, has contributed knowledge of genes that regulate development of hair cells and innervation, and of molecular players that can induce regeneration, but this technology is not applicable for human treatment, for practical and ethical reasons. Therefore other means for influencing gene expression in the inner ear are needed. We describe several gene vectors useful for inner ear gene therapy and the practical aspects of introducing these vectors into the ear. We then review the progress toward using gene transfer for therapies in both auditory and balance systems, and discuss the technological milestones needed to advance to clinical application of these methods. PMID:23265411

Fukui, Hideto; Raphael, Yehoash

2012-01-01

207

Numerical analysis of ossicular chain lesion of human ear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones, middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus, and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.

Liu, Yingxi; Li, Sheng; Sun, Xiuzhen

2009-04-01

208

An evolutionary perspective on middle ears.  

PubMed

The traditional view that a tympanic middle ear developed only once, when vertebrates made the transition from fish in water to land-living animals, has been shown to be incorrect. Middle ears with a tympanum connected by one or more ossicles to the cochlea developed very much later in evolutionary history and independently in many amniote vertebrate lineages - most now extinct. The mammalian middle ear is unique but it is not simply an "improved" single-ossicle middle ear. It is a radical and fortuitous new development that owes its origin more to changes in feeding patterns than to hearing. It happened to transmit higher-frequency sounds better than single-ossicle middle ears and enabled the evolution of the high upper-frequency hearing limits of most mammals. Parallel to the development of a tympanic middle ear in therian mammals, the brain increased in size and a secondary palate developed, resulting in the ancestral pressure-gradient middle ear being replaced by a purely pressure system. Sound localization then became almost completely dependent on neural computation and this was the most important factor driving up the upper frequency limits of early mammals. This paper presents an historical perspective on these remarkably simple and yet highly effective structures. PMID:19786082

Manley, Geoffrey A

2010-05-01

209

Human antimicrobial proteins in ear wax.  

PubMed

The external auditory canal is vulnerable to bacterial infections, but little is known about thechemical compositions of ear wax regarding antimicrobial peptides. We, therefore, studied the proteinconcentrations of ten well-known human antimicrobial peptides from ear wax.Twenty ear wax samples from healthy individuals were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine theprotein concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides hBD1-3, lactoferrin, LL-37, BPI, hSLPI and HNP1-3. All ten antimicrobial peptides are present in ear wax. Some of these proteins seem to be merelycell-bound in ear wax. Antimicrobial peptides in ear wax prevent bacteria and fungi from causing infections inthe external auditory canal. The role and importance of these proteins for the blind-ending ear externalcanal is discussed. If this local defence system fails, infections of the external auditory canal may result.The knowledge about the presence of antimicrobial peptides in cerumen may lead to new concepts ofthe local treatment of external auditory canal diseases in the future. PMID:21298458

Schwaab, M; Gurr, A; Neumann, A; Dazert, S; Minovi, A

2011-08-01

210

Heterologous expression of a tannic acid-inducible laccase3 of Cryphonectria parasitica in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A tannic acid-inducible and mycoviral-regulated laccase3 (lac3) from the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica has recently been identified, but further characterization was hampered because of the precipitation of protein products by tannic acid supplementation. The present study investigated the heterologous expression of the functional laccase3 using a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: Laccase activity in the culture broth of transformants

Jung-Mi Kim; Seung-Moon Park; Dae-Hyuk Kim

2010-01-01

211

The stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets by hydrodynamic stresses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of stimulating human platelets by thrombin and by hydrodynamic stresses on the platelets' arachidonic acid metabolism were investigated using (1-C-14)-arachidonic acid label and a specially designed viscometer that ensured laminar shear flow with a nearly uniform shear rate throughout the flow region. It was found that platelets activated by thrombin formed principally thromboxane A2, 12-hydroxy 5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid and 12-hydroxy 5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE). On the other hand, platelets activated by shear, formed only 12-HETE (although arachidonic acid metabolism was stimulated); no cyclooxygenase metabolites were detected. Results indicate that platelets may greatly increase their 12-HETE production when activated by passage through a high-stress region of the circulation, such as an atherosclerotic stenosis.

Rajagopalan, Sridhar; Mcintire, Larry V.; Hall, Elizabeth R.; Wu, Kenneth K.

1988-01-01

212

Action of topically applied arachidonic acid on the skin of patients with psoriasis.  

PubMed

Concentrations of arachidonic acid ranging from 0.1% to 2% were applied under occlusive dressings to psoriatic plaques in 45 patients. Alleviation of the clinical symptoms of psoriasis including complete clearing in some cases was obtained with the use of 0.5% to 2% arachidonic acid applied under occlusion every 24 to 48 hours five to seven times. Histologic examination showed polymorphonuclear leukocytes penetrating into the stratum corneum and formation of microabscesses or wide-spread accumulations of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the stratum corneum, with its eventual destruction. The parakeratotic horny layer became detached; this was followed by restoration of the granular layer and an apparently normal stratum corneum. While arachidonic acid metabolites can be proinflammatory and proproliferative, they may also be important in the healing process for psoriasis. PMID:3125794

Hebborn, P; Jablonska, S; Beutner, E H; Langner, A; Wolska, H

1988-03-01

213

The Ear Pages - Nobel Prize Educational Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1961 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded for the discovery of how sound is analyzed and communicated in the cochlea in the inner ear. Explore "The Ear Pages" and collect the snail shaped symbols of the cochlea to gain chances to answer a question correct in the quiz! (The cochlea works as a frequency/pitch analyzer in the inner ear.) You can choose between three levels of quizzes Â? beginner, advanced and expert. If you manage to get all the answers correct you will appear on the "High score of the week" list!

2009-01-01

214

Hearing: How Do Our Ears Work?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the anatomy of the ear and how the ears work as a sound sensor. Ear anatomy parts and structures are explained in detail, as well as how sound is transmitted mechanically and then electrically through them to the brain. Students use LEGO® robots with sound sensors to measure sound intensities, learning how the NXT brick (computer) converts the intensity of sound measured by the sensor input into a number that transmits to a screen. They build on their experiences from the previous activities and establish a rich understanding of the sound sensor and its relationship to the TaskBot's computer.

2014-09-18

215

The simultaneous quantification of cytochrome P450 dependent linoleate and arachidonate metabolites in urine by HPLC-MS\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the simultaneous quantification of urinary linoleic and arachidonic acid derived epoxides and diols, as well as the arachidonate omega hydroxylated prod- uct has been developed. The method employs negative mode electrospray ionization and HPLC with tandem mass spectroscopy for quantification. Odd chain length saturated epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids are used as analytical surro- gates resulting in

John W. Newman; Takaho Watanabe; Bruce D. Hammock

2002-01-01

216

Vasoconstrictor response to arachidonic acid in the isolated hind limb of the dog.  

PubMed Central

1 Arachidonic acid(AA) (25-200 mug/kg) produced a dose-related increase in perfusion pressure in dog isolated hind limbs perfused with either blood or a platelet-free perfusate. 2 Prostaglandin E2 produced vasodilation while prostaglandin F2 alpha produced no vascular change at these administered doses. 3 Phentolamine did not alter the arachidonic acid response, eliminating possible alpha-adrenoceptor mediation. 4 Aspirin and idomethacin blocked the vasoconstrictor response to AA. 5 This study indicates that a vasoactive intermediate in prostaglandin synthesis can be elaborated in the absence of platelets. PMID:837014

Fitzpatrick, T M; Johnson, M; Kot, P A; Ramwell, P W; Rose, J C

1977-01-01

217

The essentiality of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this review is to correlate the clinical finding that patients receiving parenteral nutrition with a fish oil-based lipid emulsion do not develop essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) with an experimental murine model, thus showing that arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are likely to be the essential fatty acids. Background Conventional belief is that linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) are the essential fatty acids (EFAs). We have shown that a fish oil-based lipid emulsion containing AA (omega-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, omega-3) and insignificant quantities of LA and ALA is efficacious in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD), a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The prospect of using a fish oil-based lipid emulsion as monotherapy has raised concerns of EFAD development, hindering its adoption into clinical practice. Design Data from patients in our institution who received PN with a fish oil-based lipid emulsion was reviewed for clinical and biochemical evidence of EFAD, defined as an elevated triene-tetraene ratio (Mead acid/AA >0.2). We also investigated the minimum amount of fish oil required to prevent EFAD in a murine model and determined whether DHA and AA alone can prevent EFAD. Results No patients receiving PN with a fish oil-based lipid emulsion in our institution have developed biochemical or clinical evidence of EFAD such as an elevated triene-tetraene ratio, growth retardation or dermatitis. This observation parallels our previously published animal studies, which demonstrated prevention of EFAD when thirteen percent of total calories were from fish oil. Moreover, current work in our laboratory shows that AA and DHA provision alone is sufficient to prevent biochemical and physiologic evidence of EFAD in a murine model. Conclusions When dosed appropriately, fish oil-based lipid emulsions contain sufficient EFAs to prevent EFAD. Furthermore, AA and DHA alone may be the true EFAs. PMID:19540099

Le, Hau D.; Meisel, Jonathan A.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Gura, Kathleen M.; Puder, Mark

2012-01-01

218

Purdue extensionGibberella Ear Rot Purdue extension  

E-print Network

1 Purdue extensionGibberella Ear Rot BP-77-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Gibberella Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu Photos by Charles Woloshuk Gibberella ear rot, or Gib ear rot, is caused by the fungus, Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum

Holland, Jeffrey

219

Short Papers___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Comparison and Combination of Ear and Face  

E-print Network

___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Comparison and Combination of Ear and Face Images in Appearance-Based Biometrics Kyong Chang, Kevin W. Bowyer that the ear may have advantages over the face for biometric recognition. Our previous experiments with ear performance using ear images. We report results of similar experiments on larger data sets that are more

Bowyer, Kevin W.

220

PURDUE EXTENSIONArrested Ear Development in Hybrid Corn PURDUE EXTENSION  

E-print Network

1 PURDUE EXTENSIONArrested Ear Development in Hybrid Corn BP-85-W PURDUE EXTENSION D I S E A S E S O F C O R N Arrested Ear Development in Hybrid Corn www.btny.purdue.edu Arrested ear develop- ment to the abnormal corn ear development caused by a number of stress factors, including the application of nonionic

Holland, Jeffrey

221

Purdue extensionDiplodia Ear Rot Purdue extension  

E-print Network

1 Purdue extensionDiplodia Ear Rot BP-75-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Diplodia Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu Diplodia ear rot, caused Diplodia ear rot. Hybrid susceptibility and weather also contribute to disease development. This bulletin

Holland, Jeffrey

222

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATION Imaging Microscopy of the Middle and Inner Ear  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATION Imaging Microscopy of the Middle and Inner Ear Part I: CT Microscopy JOHN I. This approach to the study of the inner ear avoids tissue destruction inherent in histological preparations. We-Liss, Inc. Key words: CT microscopy; temporal bone; middle ear; inner ear INTRODUCTION The temporal bone

Allen, Jont

223

Arachidonic acid depletion extends survival of cold-stored platelets by interfering with the [glycoprotein Ib? – 14-3-3?] association  

PubMed Central

Background Cold storage of platelets reduces bacterial growth and preserves their hemostatic properties better than current procedures do. However, storage at 0°C induces [14-3-3?-glycoprotein Ib?] association, 14-3-3? release from phospho-Bad, Bad activation and apoptosis. Design and Methods We investigated whether arachidonic acid, which also binds 14-3-3?, contributes to coldinduced apoptosis. Results Cold storage activated P38-mitogen-activated protein kinase and released arachidonic acid, which accumulated due to cold inactivation of cyclooxygenase-1/thromboxane synthase. Accumulated arachidonic acid released 14-3-3? from phospho-Bad and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, which are steps in the induction of apoptosis. Addition of arachidonic acid did the same and its depletion made platelets resistant to cold-induced apoptosis. Incubation with biotin-arachidonic acid revealed formation of an [arachidonic acid-14-3-3?-glycoprotein Ib?] complex. Indomethacin promoted complex formation by accumulating arachidonic acid and released 14-3-3? from cyclo-oxygenase-1. Arachidonic acid depletion prevented the cold-induced reduction of platelet survival in mice. Conclusions We conclude that cold storage induced apoptosis through an [arachidonic acid-14-3-3?-glycoprotein Ib?] complex, which released 14-3-3? from Bad in an arachidonic acid-dependent manner. Although arachidonic acid depletion reduced agonist-induced thromboxane A2 formation and aggregation, arachidonic acid repletion restored these functions, opening ways to reduce apoptosis during storage without compromising hemostatic functions post-transfusion. PMID:22371179

van der Wal, Dianne E.; Gitz, Eelo; Du, Vivian X.; Lo, Kimberly S.L.; Koekman, Cornelis A.; Versteeg, Sabine; Akkerman, Jan Willem N.

2012-01-01

224

EAR TO THE GROUND IN THIS ISSUE  

E-print Network

Dates 9 Lava eruption at Tolbachik volcano, Russia (credit: Benjamin Edwards) Update from the Division. Although there may be no immediate tangible benefit, visibility for EAR across the Foundation, as well

225

Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?  

MedlinePLUS

... noise (from music or other sources such as machinery or jet engines) can cause both temporary and ... by wearing ear protection when you're using machinery, like in metal shop at school. Also remember ...

226

DIBROMOACETIC ACID-INDUCED ELEVATIONS IN CIRCULATING ESTRADIOL: EFFECTS IN BOTH CYCLING AND OVARIECTOMIZED/STEROID-PRIMED FEMALE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

RTD-03-031 Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations in Circulating Estradiol: Effects in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized/Steroid-primed Female Rats. Reproductive Toxicology (in press). Abstract Oral exposures to high concentrations of th...

227

Finite element analysis of middle ear mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An essential component in the process of hearing is the transformation of sound from acoustic to mechanical vibration in the middle ear. In order to study this phenomenon, computational models have been introduced to model the behavior of the tympanic membrane and its interaction with the surrounding acoustical spaces. Using such a computational model, one gains an increased understanding of the relationship between its structure and performance, which may assist in preventive, diagnostic, and reconstructive medical applications. The goal of this present work is to expand the computational simulation capabilities of current eardrum models using modern finite element modeling techniques. A fully coupled structural acoustic model is presented using modern shell element technology. Anatomical geometries for the eardrum, acoustic spaces of the ear canal and middle ear cavity, and the ossicles are utilized via muCT imaging. A new computational algorithm is used to compute the frequency response of this model over a wide frequency range. This approach uses the matrix Pade-via-Lanczos algorithm to construct reduced-order models around chosen reference frequencies, which can be solved efficiently at many frequencies within a frequency window. An adaptive algorithm is introduced to span a given frequency range by introducing new reference frequencies as necessary. Results for the middle ear model, using this multifrequency algorithm, are presented for intact and modified middle ear anatomies. These modifications serve to demonstrate the utility of the computational approach in understanding the relationships between the morphological structure of the middle ear and its functionality.

Tuck-Lee, James Peter

2007-12-01

228

A Comparison of Acid-induced Cell Wall Loosening in Valonia ventricosa and in Oat Coleoptiles 1  

PubMed Central

The acid-induced loosening of cell walls of Valonia ventricosa has been compared to that of frozen-thawed oat coleoptiles. The two acid extension responses are similar in regard to the shape of the pH response curve and the increase in plastic compliance induced by acid treatment. In both systems the acid response can be inhibited by Ca2+ and in both the removal of the protons leads to a rapid termination of wall loosening. The two responses differ in several significant ways, however. The acid-induced extension of Valonia walls is more rapid than that of coleoptile walls, but of smaller total magnitude. Acid-induced loosening can occur in Valonia without the wall being under tension, but not in coleoptiles. The acid-induced extension of Valonia walls is not inhibited by 8 molar urea, whereas the response in oat coleoptiles is completely inhibited by this treatment. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) can cause wall loosening in Valonia comparable to that produced by low pH, whereas in coleoptiles EDTA causes a much smaller response. These results with Valonia are consistent with a mechanism of acid-induced wall loosening in which a central role is played by the displacement of Ca2+ from the wall, while the larger part of acid-induced wall loosening in oat coleoptiles appears to be via a different mechanism. PMID:16660834

Tepfer, Mark; Cleland, Robert E.

1979-01-01

229

Dexamethasone blocks arachidonate biosynthesis in isolated hepatocytes and cultured hepatoma cells  

SciTech Connect

The effect of dexamethasone on the incorporation and conversion of (1-14C)eicosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid to arachidonic acid in isolated hepatocytes and in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells was studied. In both kinds of cells, no changes in the exogenous acid incorporation were found when the hormone was added to the incubation media at 0.1 or 0.2 mM concentration, while the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid was significantly depressed. The effect on the biosynthesis was faster in isolated normal liver cells (60 min) than in tumoral cells (120 min) and reached an inhibition of ca. 50% after 3 hr of treatment. The addition of cycloheximide (10(-6) M) also caused a marked decrease in the biosynthesis of this polyunsaturated fatty acid, but when dexamethasone was added to the media simultaneously with cycloheximide, a synergistic action was not observed. The results obtained show that protein synthesis would be involved in the modulation of the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid by glucocorticoids. The changes in the delta 5 desaturation of labeled 20:3 omega 6 to arachidonic acid correlated with changes in the fatty acid composition in isolated cells.

Marra, C.A.; de Alaniz, M.J.; Brenner, R.R.

1986-03-01

230

Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene variants affect response to fish oil supplementation by healthy African Americans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: To determine the effects of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene (ALOX5) variants on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and changes in response to fish oil supplementation. We hypothesized that Sp1 variants in the ALOX5 promoter, which have previously been associated with cardiovascu...

231

Imaging Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's Disease with Radiolabeled Arachidonic Acid and PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation coefficients (K*) of arachidonic acid (AA) in the brain are increased in a rat model of neuroinflammation, as are other markers of AA metabolism. Data also indicate that neuro- inflammation contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the ba- sis of these observations, K* for AA was hypothesized to be elevated in patients with AD. Methods: A total of 8

Giuseppe Esposito; Giampiero Giovacchini; Jeih-San Liow; Abesh K. Bhattacharjee; Dede Greenstein; Mark Schapiro; Mark Hallett; Peter Herscovitch; William C. Eckelman; Richard E. Carson; Stanley I. Rapoport

2008-01-01

232

CHEMICAL NATURE AND IMMUNOTOXICOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ARACHIDONIC ACID DEGRADATION PRODUCTS FORMED BY EXPOSURE TO OZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozone (O3) exposure in vivo has been reported to degrade arachidonic acid (AA) in the lungs of rodents. The O3-degraded AA products may play a role in the lung responses to this toxicant. In order to study the chemical nature and biological activity of O3-exposed AA, we exposed A...

233

Inhibitory activity of natural occurring antioxidants on Thiyl radical-induced trans-arachidonic acid formation.  

PubMed

trans-Fatty acids in humans not only may be obtained exogenously from food intake but also could be generated endogenously in tissues. The endogenous generation of trans-fatty acids, especially in the cell membranes induced by radical stress, is an inevitable source for the living species. Thiyl radicals generated from thiols act as the catalyst for the cis-trans isomerization of fatty acids. Arachidonic acid (5c,8c,11c,14c-20:4) with only two of the four double bonds deriving from linoleic acid in the diet can be used to differentiate the exogenous or endogenous formation of double bonds. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effective compounds in preventing thiyl radical-induced trans-arachidonic acid formation during UV irradiation in vitro. The trans-arachidonic acids were found to be 75% after 30 min UV irradiation of all-cis-arachidonic acid. Myricetin, luteolin, and quercetin had the highest thiyl radical scavenging activities, whereas sesamol, gallic acid, and vitamins A, C, and E had the lowest. The structures of flavonoids with higher thiyl radical scavenging activities were a 3',4'-o-dihydroxyl group in the B ring and a 2,3-double bond combined with a 4-keto group in the C ring. These effective compounds found in the present work may be used as lead compounds for the potential inhibitors in the formation of trans-fatty acids in vivo. PMID:21291247

Hung, Wei-Lun; Ho, Chi-Tang; Hwang, Lucy Sun

2011-03-01

234

Cytochrome P-450Dependent Oxygenation of Arachidonic Acid to Hydroxyicosatetraenoic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arachidonic acid is oxidized by a NADPH-dependent oxygenase of rat liver microsomes to a number of oxygen-containing products, which can be resolved by HPLC. Several of these products have been purified and characterized. They exhibit an absorbance in the UV region of the spectrum that has a maximum at ≈ 235 nm, indicative of the presence of a conjugated diene

J. Capdevila; L. J. Marnett; N. Chacos; R. A. Prough; R. W. Estabrook

1982-01-01

235

Inhibition of the arachidonic acid metabolism blocks endothelial cell migration and induces apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Previous studies have demonstrated that inhibitors of the arachidonic acid metabolism block migration and sensitise human glioma cells to treatment inducing apoptosis. This paradigm may provide a new concept for anti-invasive treatment strategies targeting invasive glioma cells. However, the effect of such treatment on other cellular elements in glial tumours such as endothelial cells is unknown. In this study

J. Jantke; M. Ladehoff; F. Kürzel; S. Zapf; E. Kim; A. Giese

2004-01-01

236

Glucocorticoid in Inflammatory Proliferative Skin Disease Reduces Arachidonic and Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriasis is a prototype of several common, glucocorticoid responsive, inflammatory proliferative skin diseases. Within 28 hours, glucocorticoid reduced the increased concentration of free arachidonic acid in diseased tissue. This reduction was observed prior to visible improvement of disease and may be an important molecular mechanism for the therapeutic efficacy of glucocorticoids in psoriasis and similar inflammatory diseases.

Sven Hammarstrom; Mats Hamberg; Elizabeth A. Duell; Marek A. Stawiski; Thomas F. Anderson; John J. Voorhees

1977-01-01

237

How to See What Whales Hear Biomedical imaging reveals new insights into marine mammal ears  

E-print Network

abandoned external ears as a concession to better underwater mobility. Still, they do have ears buried basic ear components: an external ear flap, or pinna, is connected via an ear canal to the middle earHow to See What Whales Hear Biomedical imaging reveals new insights into marine mammal ears

238

Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor mediates arachidonic acid release in spinal cord neurons independent of inositol phospholipid turnover.  

PubMed

The alpha 1-adrenergic receptor has been shown to mediate the release of arachidonic acid in FRTL5 thyroid cells and MDCK kidney cells. In primary cultures of spinal cord cells, norepinephrine stimulated release of arachidonic acid (from neurons only) and turnover of inositol phospholipids (from neurons and glia) via alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. These two responses were dissociated by treatment with phorbol ester and pertussis toxin, which inhibited production of inositol phosphates with no appreciable effect on release of arachidonic acid. Extracellular calcium was required for release of arachidonic acid, but not for production of inositol phosphates. The calcium channel blockers nifedipine and verapamil inhibited release of arachidonic acid only. However, 8-(N,N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8), a compound that blocks intracellular calcium release, diminished production of inositol phosphates, but had little effect on release of arachidonic acid. These results suggest that alpha 1-adrenergic receptors couple to release of arachidonic acid in primary cultures of spinal cord cells by a mechanism independent of activation of phospholipase C, possibly via the activation of phospholipase A2. PMID:2156016

Kanterman, R Y; Felder, C C; Brenneman, D E; Ma, A L; Fitzgerald, S; Axelrod, J

1990-04-01

239

Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by peroxidation of arachidonate and restoration by vitamin E  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. HCV-infected hepatocytes are known to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which initiate lipid peroxidation, a reaction that converts polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonate, into reactive carbonyls that inactivate proteins. To study the effect of lipid peroxidation on HCV replication, we administered arachidonate to Huh7 cells that harbor an HCV replicon (Huh7-K2040 cells). After incubation in medium supplemented with arachidonate but deprived of lipid-soluble antioxidants, the cellular amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, increased markedly in Huh7-K2040 cells but not in parental Huh7 cells that do not harbor an HCV replicon. This increase was followed by a sharp reduction (>95%) in HCV RNA. Both of these events were prevented when cells were treated with vitamin E, a lipid-soluble antioxidant. After prolonged incubation of Huh7-K2040 cells with arachidonate in the absence of lipid-soluble antioxidants, the amount of MDA decreased after the reduction in the amount of HCV RNA. Thus, in the presence of arachidonate and in the absence of lipid-soluble antioxidants, HCV replication induces lipid peroxidation that reduces the amount of HCV RNA. Our results provide a mechanism for the previous observation that polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit HCV replication [Kapadia SB, Chisari FV (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:2561–2566], and they suggest that these agents may be effective in inhibiting HCV replication in vivo. PMID:18003907

Huang, Hua; Chen, Yan; Ye, Jin

2007-01-01

240

Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

2001-01-01

241

Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology. PMID:18227925

Firenzuoli, Fabio

2007-01-01

242

Passive and active middle ear implants  

PubMed Central

Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102

Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

2011-01-01

243

Aberrant Carotid Artery in the Middle Ear  

PubMed Central

Background: Carotid artery abnormality in the middle ear is a rare clinical condition. Recognition of the problems related with this abnormality is important since it may mimic vascular tumors. Any intervention with incomplete evaluation can be fatal. Case Report: A 23-year-old girl with carotid abnormality and sensorineural hearing loss, unsteadiness and tinnitus is presented. She was followed for 2 months elsewhere assuming that she had Meniere’s disease and had previously received some medication for otitis media with effusion. Conclusion: Tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone are very helpful for visualization of an aberrant carotid in the middle ear. Radiological presentations are the reduced caliber of the aberrant carotid, an absence of cranial opening of carotid canal, tubular coursing along the medial wall of the middle ear in continuity with the horizontal carotid canal, dehiscence of the lateral carotid plate and enlargement of the tympanic canalicus.

Yeti?er, Sertaç

2015-01-01

244

Precise individualized armature for ear reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmetic result of an ear restored surgically or via prosthetics is dependent on the surgeon''s ability to carve a precise cartilage armature at the time of surgery or the prosthetist''s ability to sculpt in wax an exact duplicate of the patient''s " missing" ear. Introducing CAD/CAM technology into the process benefits the esthetic outcome of these procedures. By utilizing serial section information derived from CAT MRI or moulage techniques a mirrorimage of the patient''s " donor" ear is generated. The resulting earform data is then used for the design of a cartilage armature produced by multi-axis milling or to produce by stereolithography a model which serves as the basis for a prosthesis.

Evenhouse, Raymond J.; Chen, Xiaoming

1991-04-01

245

Uric Acid Induces Renal Inflammation via Activating Tubular NF-?B Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is a pathologic feature of hyperuricemia in clinical settings. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, infiltration of T cells and macrophages were significantly increased in hyperuricemia mice kidneys. This infiltration of inflammatory cells was accompanied by an up-regulation of TNF-?, MCP-1 and RANTES expression. Further, infiltration was largely located in tubular interstitial spaces, suggesting a role for tubular cells in hyperuricemia-induced inflammation. In cultured tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E), uric acid, probably transported via urate transporter, induced TNF-?, MCP-1 and RANTES mRNA as well as RANTES protein expression. Culture media of NRK-52E cells incubated with uric acid showed a chemo-attractive ability to recruit macrophage. Moreover uric acid activated NF-?B signaling. The uric acid-induced up-regulation of RANTES was blocked by SN 50, a specific NF-?B inhibitor. Activation of NF-?B signaling was also observed in tubule of hyperuricemia mice. These results suggest that uric acid induces renal inflammation via activation of NF-?B signaling. PMID:22761883

Zhou, Yang; Fang, Li; Jiang, Lei; Wen, Ping; Cao, Hongdi; He, Weichun; Dai, Chunsun; Yang, Junwei

2012-01-01

246

Inhibition of Gibberellic Acid-induced Elongation in Avena Stem Segments by a Substituted Pyrimidine.  

PubMed

Avena stem segments, which respond with high amplitude, specificity, and sensitivity to gibberellic acid, were used to study the inhibition of gibberellin-induced elongation by the growth retardant alpha-cyclopropyl-alpha-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidine methanol (EL-531). It was found that EL-531 strongly inhibits gibberellic acid-induced elongation in this system at a concentration of 1 mm. From a double-reciprocal plot of elongation and gibberellic acid concentration, it seems that EL-531 and gibberellic acid do not compete reversibly for the same site of action. Also, because EL-531 effectively inhibits elongation in internodal tissue dissected away from the node and leaf sheath, it cannot be acting primarily by inhibiting the synthesis or transport of the leaf sheath factor(s). Because EL-531 causes lateral expansion of the stem segments as well as increased diameters of epidermal cells, in a manner very similar to the effects of colchicine, it is suggested that EL-531 inhibits gibberellic acid-induced elongation by somehow interfering with the orientation of the products of cell wall synthesis. PMID:16659267

Montague, M J

1975-08-01

247

Acid-induced hyperalgesia and anxio-depressive comorbidity in rats.  

PubMed

Fibromyalgia is a prevalent disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain (CWP) and complex comorbid symptoms. A CWP model is developed through repeated unilateral intramuscular injections of acid saline resulting in bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia in rats. The present study aims to evaluate whether both anxious and depressive comorbidities exist in this acid-induced pain model, similarly to patients with CWP syndromes. The anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the open field and elevated plus maze tests, and depression-like behaviors were measured by the forced swimming, sucrose consumption, and sucrose preference tests. The pain group receiving acidic saline displayed significantly lower paw withdrawal thresholds for 4weeks than animals in the vehicle group after repetitive intramuscular injections. The pain group showed a significantly shorter duration of exploring the central zone of the open field and the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared to the vehicle group. The pain group had a significantly lower preference for and consumption of the hedonic sucrose. Moreover, rats with chronic pain showed significantly longer immobility than the vehicle group in the forced swimming test. The results indicate that psychiatric behaviors are exacerbated in the CWP model. This study provides evidence for the validity of the acid-induced pain model analogous to patients with CWP syndromes. PMID:24726391

Liu, Yu-Ting; Shao, Yen-Wen; Yen, Chen-Tung; Shaw, Fu-Zen

2014-05-28

248

Expression in the human brain of retinoic acid induced 1, a protein associated with neurobehavioural disorders.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid induced 1 (RAI1) is a protein of uncertain mechanism of action which nevertheless has been the focus of attention because it is a major contributing factor in several human developmental disorders including Smith-Magenis and Potocki-Lupski syndromes. Further, RAI1 may be linked to adult neural disorders with developmental origins such as schizophrenia and autism. The protein has been extensively examined in the rodent but very little is known about its distribution in the human central nervous system. This study demonstrated the presence of RAI1 transcript in multiple regions of the human brain. The cellular expression of RAI1 protein in the human brain was found to be similar to that described in the mouse, with high levels in neurons, but not glia, of the dentate gyrus and cornus ammonis of the hippocampus. In the cerebellum, a second region of high expression, RAI1 was present in Purkinje cells, but not granule cells. RAI1 was also found in neurons of the occipital cortex. The expression of this retinoic acid-induced protein matched well in the hippocampus with expression of the retinoic acid receptors. The subcellular distribution of human neuronal RAI1 indicated its presence in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Overall, human RAI1 protein was found to be a highly expressed neuronal protein whose distribution matches well with its role in cognitive and motor skills. PMID:24519454

Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Stoney, Patrick N; Shearer, Kirsty D; Sementilli, Angelo; Nanescu, Sonia E; Sementilli, Pietro; McCaffery, Peter

2015-03-01

249

Middle ear cholesteatoma in 11 dogs  

PubMed Central

Middle ear cholesteatoma is a rare condition in dogs with chronic otitis. Otorrhea, otodinia, and pain on temporomandibular joint palpation are the most common clinical signs. Neurological abnormalities are often detectable. Computed tomography reveals the presence of an expansive and invasive unvascularized lesion involving the tympanic cavity and the bulla, with little or no contrast enhancement after administration of contrast mediu. Video-otoscopy may detect pearly growth or white/yellowish scales in the middle ear cavity. Surgery is the only therapy but is associated with a high risk of recurrence. PMID:22131579

Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Lombardo, Rocco; Giudice, Chiara; Banco, Barbara; Mortellaro, Carlo M.

2011-01-01

250

Growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) increases free arachidonate levels in the pituitary: a role for lipoxygenase products  

SciTech Connect

GRF, a specific stimulator of GH release, increased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner pituitary (/sup 3/H)-arachidonate levels in vitro. This effect was antagonized by 100 nM somatostatin. Exogenous arachidonate also stimulated GH release in vitro. Quinacrine, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, reduced both basal and GRF-stimulated free arachidonate levels as well as GH release. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin was ineffective, while BW755c, which also inhibits the lipoxygenase pathway, produced a further increase in the levels of the fatty acid stimulated by GRF and potently reduced GH release. These results provide additional evidence for the involvement of arachidonate metabolism in the hormone-releasing effect of GRF at the somatotroph. 14 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Canonico, P.L.; Speciale, C.; Sortino, M.A.; Cronin, M.J.; MacLeod, R.M.; Scapagnini, U.

1986-01-20

251

Acoustics of the human middle-ear air space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impedance of the middle-ear air space was measured on three human cadaver ears with complete mastoid air-cell systems. Below 500 Hz, the impedance is approximately compliance-like, and at higher frequencies (500-6000 Hz) the impedance magnitude has several (five to nine) extrema. Mechanisms for these extrema are identified and described through circuit models of the middle-ear air space. The measurements demonstrate that the middle-ear air space impedance can affect the middle-ear impedance at the tympanic membrane by as much as 10 dB at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. Thus, variations in the middle-ear air space impedance that result from variations in anatomy of the middle-ear air space can contribute to inter-ear variations in both impedance measurements and otoacoustic emissions, when measured at the tympanic membrane.

Stepp, Cara E.; Voss, Susan E.

2005-08-01

252

[An ear thermometer based on infrared thermopiles sensor].  

PubMed

According to the development of body temperature measurement mode, an ear thermometer with infrared thermopiles sensor is designed for body thermometry Compared with oral thermometer, the accuracy of ear thermometer is acceptable. PMID:24409789

Xie, Haiyuan; Qian, Mingli

2013-09-01

253

Reverse Engineering the Cetacean Ear to Extract Audiograms  

E-print Network

-acquisition hardware running custom MATLAB scripts was used to control the experiments. Inner ear preparations variedReverse Engineering the Cetacean Ear to Extract Audiograms Aleks Zosuls, Seth O. Newburg, Darlene R

254

Ear's electrical missing link found BY BRYN NELSON  

E-print Network

at the tips of the inner ear's unusual hair cells - a channel shared among humans, mice, fish and even fruit Rube Goldberg-like progression of sound through the human ear leads to a snail-like structure

Allen, Jont

255

Split-thickness skin graft in nonhelical ear reconstruction.  

PubMed

Defects of the nonhelical ear after skin cancer extirpation can be challenging. When other reconstructive options are not optimal, split-thickness grafting is an easy and effective technique for successful aesthetic and functional restoration of the ear. PMID:16970699

Hendi, Ali; Brodland, David G

2006-09-01

256

Apparent in vivo retroconversion of dietary arachidonic to linoleic acid in essential fatty acid-deficient rats.  

PubMed

Essential fatty acid-deficient rats were fed ethyl [U-14C]arachidonate (308 dpm/nmol) and when a decrease in the transepidermal water loss was seen, the epidermal sphingolipids, acylglucosylceramide and acylceramide were isolated. [14C]Linoleic acid (approx. 130 dpm/nmol) was present in both lipid classes, while the substrate was only detected in the former. These results intimate that in vivo retroconversion of arachidonic to linoleic acid can be induced in the rat. PMID:3092868

Hansen, H S; Jensen, B; von Wettstein-Knowles, P

1986-09-12

257

Effects of the arachidonate lipoxygenase inhibitor BW755C on traumatic and peritumoural brain oedema.  

PubMed

The abstract BW755C is a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. It inhibits synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes by inhibition in the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. Cold injury induced vasogenic oedema was produced in 18 cats. The animals were sacrificed at six and twenty-four hours. One group was treated with BW755C. Seventeen white rabbits bearing an experimental brain tumour VX-2 carcinoma were treated for five consecutive days from the eight day after tumour injection to the thirteenth day. Untreated tumour bearing rabbits were used as control. Brain water content was measured by specific gravity method. BW755C did not reduce the water content following cold injury. There was no effect upon peritumoural oedema. The use of this novel blocking agent with diffuse effects in the arachidonic cascade was not beneficial for the reduction or prevention of brain oedema. PMID:2128585

Ikeda, Y; Long, D M

1990-01-01

258

Expression analysis for genes involved in arachidonic acid biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68  

PubMed Central

The time courses for production of fungal biomass, lipid, phenolic and arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as expression of the genes involved in biosynthesis of ARA and lipid were examined in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68. A significant increase in the arachidonic acid content in lipids that coincided with reduced levels of lipid was obtained. Reduced gene expression occurred presumably due to the steady reduction of carbon and nitrogen resources. However, these energy resources were inefficiently compensated by the breakdown of the accumulated lipids that in turn, induced up-regulated expression of the candidate genes. The results further indicated that the expression of the GLELO encoding gene is a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of ARA in the early growth phase. PMID:25242926

Samadlouie, Hamid-Reza; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh; Alavi, Seyed-Mehdi; Varastegani, Boshra

2014-01-01

259

Metabolism of arachidonic acid in phorbol ester, interferon and dimethyl sulfoxide differentiation induced U937 cells  

SciTech Connect

U937, a human macrophage cell line can metabolize arachidonic acid to a prostaglandin E2-like substance, and an unidentified lipoxygenase product. This metabolism occurs at very low levels however since these cells have low lipase and fatty acid oxygenase activities. The investigated the appearance of these enzyme activities during differentiation induced by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), human gamma interferon (INF), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on days 1,3 and 5 of stimulation using /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid (/sup 3/H-AA). Culture supernatants were analyzed for free /sup 3/H-AA and /sup 3/H metabolites by radio-thin layer chromatography (/sup 3/H-MET). The increasing percentage of /sup 3/H-AA release suggests the appearance of phospholipase activity during differentiation.

Ou, D.W.; Wiederhold, M.D.

1986-03-05

260

The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa carries a secretable arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase  

PubMed Central

In mammals, lipoxygenases play key roles in inflammation by initiating the transformation of arachidonic acid into potent bioactive lipid mediators such as leukotrienes and lipoxins. In general, most bacteria are believed to lack lipoxygenases and their polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates. It is therefore of interest that an ORF (PA1169) with high homology to eukaryotic lipoxygenases was discovered by analysis of the whole-genome sequence of the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using TLC and liquid chromatography-UV-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-UV-MS-MS), we demonstrate that PA1169 encodes a bacterial lipoxygenase (LoxA) that converts arachidonic acid into 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). Although mammalian lipoxygenases are cytoplasmic enzymes, P. aeruginosa LoxA activity is secreted. Taken together, these results suggest a mechanism by which a pathogen-secreted lipoxygenase may modulate host defense and inflammation via alteration of the biosynthesis of local chemical mediators. PMID:14766977

Vance, Russell E.; Hong, Song; Gronert, Karsten; Serhan, Charles N.; Mekalanos, John J.

2004-01-01

261

Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic acid-induced small intestinal apoptosis, a hallmark of acetylsalicylic acid-induced enteropathy. PMID:22128216

Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

2011-01-01

262

Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic acid-induced small intestinal apoptosis, a hallmark of acetylsalicylic acid-induced enteropathy. PMID:22128216

Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

2011-11-01

263

Mutations affecting development of the zebrafish ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a large scale screen for genetic defects in zebrafish embryogenesis we identified mutations affecting several aspects of ear development, including: specification of the otic placode, growth of the otic vesicle (otocyst), otolith formation, morphogenesis of the semicircular canals and differentiation of the otic capsule. Here we report initial phenotypic and genetic characterization of 20 of these mutations defining 13

Jarema Malicki; Alexander F. Schier; Lilianna Solnica-Krezel; Derek L. Stemple; Stephan C. F. Neuhauss; Didier Y. R. Stainier; Salim Abdelilah; Zehava Rangini; Fried Zwartkruis; Wolfgang Driever

264

The Croton oil ear test revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

measurement the ear plugs were homogenized in physiological saline containing 0.1% of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The post 15,000 g supernatants of the homogenates (which contained more than 95% of the PA) were used for the assay [5]. PA units are expressed as nmoles of tetraguaiacol\\/min at 25~ Results and discussion

A. Tubaro; P. Dri; G. Delbello; C. Zilli; R. Della Loggia

1986-01-01

265

Force field feature extraction for ear biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective in defining feature space is to reduce the dimensionality of the original pattern space, whilst maintaining discriminatory power for classification. To meet this objec- tive in the context of ear biometrics a new force field transformation treats the image as an array of mutually attracting particles that act as the source of a Gaussian force field. Under-

David J. Hurley; Mark S. Nixon; John N. Carter

2005-01-01

266

Ca2+ Signaling in the Inner Ear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The inner ear contains delicate sensory receptors that have adapted to detect the minutest mechanical disturbances. Ca2+ ions are implicated in all steps of the transduction process, as well as in its regulation by an impressive ensemble of finely tuned feedback control mechanisms. Recent studies have unveiled some of the key players, but things do not sound quite right yet.

2007-04-01

267

Ear biometric recognition using local texture descriptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated personal identification using the shape of the human ear is emerging as an appealing modality in biometric and forensic domains. This is mainly due to the fact that the ear pattern can provide rich and stable information to differentiate and recognize people. In the literature, there are many approaches and descriptors that achieve relatively good results in constrained environments. The recognition performance tends, however, to significantly decrease under illumination variation, pose variation, and partial occlusion. In this work, we investigate the use of local texture descriptors, namely local binary patterns, local phase quantization, and binarized statistical image features for robust human identification from two-dimensional ear imaging. In contrast to global image descriptors which compute features directly from the entire image, local descriptors representing the features in small local image patches have proven to be more effective in real-world conditions. Our extensive experimental results on the benchmarks IIT Delhi-1, IIT Delhi-2, and USTB ear databases show that local texture features in general and BSIF in particular provide a significant performance improvement compared to the state-of-the-art.

Benzaoui, Amir; Hadid, Abdenour; Boukrouche, Abdelhani

2014-09-01

268

Cell fate specification in the inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

From its origin as a single ectodermal patch, the inner ear becomes a labyrinth of chambers housing six to eight sensory organs. Along the way, specific cell fates are realized. The secrets underlying these cell fate specifications are beginning to be revealed through the application of several molecular-genetic approaches. Recent paper describing such approaches have included gene expression studies in

Donna M Fekete

1996-01-01

269

november 2011 Dynamic Ear | Home Helper  

E-print Network

ResearchUC november 2011 Dynamic Ear | Home Helper Studying Surgical Stress Annual Report Edition cylinder of a pipe with ease. n UCReseaRch November 2011 Photo:DottieStover #12;Vol. 6, No. 1 UC Research Around Campus 10 Keeping Stress at a Distance Studying how experienced surgeons combat it 12 Report

Papautsky, Ian

270

Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the speed and…

Fues, Marianne Cole

2009-01-01

271

Do Your Ears Pop in Space?  

Microsoft Academic Search

R Mike Mullane is a US astronaut who has flown into space three times on the Space Shuttle. He resigned from NASA in 1990 and has since pursued a career as a professional speaker and author. Do Your Ears Pop in Space? is his third book, and is based on the simple idea of writing down the 500 questions he

Robert Lambourne

1997-01-01

272

38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear. 4.87 Section 4.87 Pensions, Bonuses...Auditory Acuity § 4.87 Schedule of ratings—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis...

2010-07-01

273

40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

2010-07-01

274

40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

2011-07-01

275

40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

2013-07-01

276

40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

2014-07-01

277

Ear Problems Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee  

E-print Network

Ear Problems Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Reviewed 02/08/2012 Page 1 of 1 Otitis Media Otitis Media is an infection of the middle ear behind the eardrum. Most infections occur after does not equalize air pressure properly. Symptoms of otitis media include ear pain, fever, fullness

278

15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Items subject to the EAR. 734.3 Section 734.3 Commerce...REGULATIONS § 734.3 Items subject to the EAR. (a) Except for items excluded in...the following items are subject to the EAR: (1) All items in the United...

2011-01-01

279

38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear. 4.87 Section 4.87 Pensions, Bonuses...Auditory Acuity § 4.87 Schedule of ratings—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis...

2013-07-01

280

40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

2012-07-01

281

15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Items subject to the EAR. 734.3 Section 734.3 Commerce...REGULATIONS § 734.3 Items subject to the EAR. (a) Except for items excluded in...the following items are subject to the EAR: (1) All items in the United...

2012-01-01

282

15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Items subject to the EAR. 734.3 Section 734.3 Commerce...REGULATIONS § 734.3 Items subject to the EAR. (a) Except for items excluded in...the following items are subject to the EAR: (1) All items in the United...

2013-01-01

283

38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear. 4.87 Section 4.87 Pensions, Bonuses...Auditory Acuity § 4.87 Schedule of ratings—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis...

2011-07-01

284

38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear. 4.87 Section 4.87 Pensions, Bonuses...Auditory Acuity § 4.87 Schedule of ratings—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis...

2014-07-01

285

15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Items subject to the EAR. 734.3 Section 734.3 Commerce...REGULATIONS § 734.3 Items subject to the EAR. (a) Except for items excluded in...the following items are subject to the EAR: (1) All items in the United...

2014-01-01

286

38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear. 4.87 Section 4.87 Pensions, Bonuses...Auditory Acuity § 4.87 Schedule of ratings—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis...

2012-07-01

287

History of Studies on Mammalian Middle Ear Evolution: A  

E-print Network

History of Studies on Mammalian Middle Ear Evolution: A Comparative Morphological and Developmental for Developmental Biology, RIKEN, Kobe, Japan The mammalian middle ear represents one of the most fundamental middle ear was derived from elements of the jaw joint of nonmammalian amniotes. Fossils of mammalian

Sullivan, Jack

288

Understanding Inner Ear Development with Gene Expression Profiling  

E-print Network

Understanding Inner Ear Development with Gene Expression Profiling Zheng-Yi Chen,1,2 David P. Corey, Maryland 20815 ABSTRACT: Understanding the development of the inner ear requires knowing the spatial-tissue comparisons will identify genes unique to the inner ear, which will expe- dite the identification of new

Corey, David P.

289

Ear growth, developmental stages and yield in winter wheat  

E-print Network

Ear growth, developmental stages and yield in winter wheat Jean-François LEDENT Volkmar STOY Helena in length (R,) of ear primordia was measured in collections of winter wheats (Triticum aestivum (L.) em or morphological characters. However, genotypes with faster growing ear primordia tended to have smaller cars

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot Purdue extension  

E-print Network

1 Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot BP-83-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Aspergillus Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu The fungus Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot, one of the most important diseases in corn. The fungus pro- duces a mycotoxin

Holland, Jeffrey

291

A Survey on Ear Biometrics AYMAN ABAZA, WVHTC Foundation  

E-print Network

22 A Survey on Ear Biometrics AYMAN ABAZA, WVHTC Foundation ARUN ROSS, West Virginia University Recognizing people by their ear has recently received significant attention in the literature. Several reasons account for this trend: first, ear recognition does not suffer from some problems associated with other

Ross, Arun Abraham

292

Otitis externa complicated with chloramphenicol ear drops-induced perichondritis.  

PubMed

Otitis externa is a common condition of the ear. It is manifested as narrowing of the lumen owing to the edematous swelling of the ear canal lining. Perichondritis may occur independently or as a complication of the otitis externa. We report a case of perichondritis after using a topical ear drop. Changing the medication provides immediate resolution of the condition. PMID:25606295

Mohamad, I; Johan, Kb; Hashim, Hz; Nik Othman, Na

2014-01-01

293

Endolymphatic hydrops in experimental caustic burns of the Ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caustic burns of the Ear may be accidental or rarely even intentional by quack doctors who use strong acids to deal with the granulations of the Ear. Accidental cases are usually met with in members of Gold Smith families who come in to contact with acids more often than others. After the ingress of the corrosive into the Ear, apart

T. Gopi Chand

1972-01-01

294

Towards Understanding the Symmetry of Human Ears: A Biometric Perspective  

E-print Network

of the external ear). The anatomy of the pinna depicting the individual components can be seen in Figure 1 prior to further processing. c) Ear edge segmentation/localization (Optional): Finding the external Fossa (9) Incisure Intertragica Fig. 1. External anatomy of the ear Fig. 2. Iannarelli measurement 3

Ross, Arun Abraham

295

Energy Reflectance and Tympanometry in Normal and Otosclerotic Ears  

E-print Network

of this study was to examine differences in the middle ear mechano-acoustical properties of normal ears and ears machine, the Virtual 310 equipped with a high-frequency option. Two of the parameters, static admittance and tympanometric width, were measured automatically at a standard 226 Hz frequency. The remaining two parameters

Allen, Jont

296

Ear and kidney syndromes: Molecular versus clinical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ear and kidney syndromes: Molecular versus clinical approach.The association between ear and kidney anomalies is not usually due to an insult to the embryo. In recent years, many essential development control genes that coordinate the assembly and function of kidney and ear have been discovered through the generation of animal mutants and have increased our understanding of the mechanisms of

HASSANE IZZEDINE; FREDERIC TANKERE; VINCENT LAUNAY-VACHER; GILBERT DERAY

2004-01-01

297

COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH INNER EAR MALFORMATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performing cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformation has always been a matter of dispute. This study was designed to analyze the operative findings, complications, and post- operative performance of patients with inner ear anomalies who underwent cochlear implantation. Six patients with inner ear malformations underwent implantation in our academic tertiary referral center from 1997 to 2002. The average

M. H. Khalessi; M. Motesaddi Zarandi; P. Borghei; S. Abdi

298

Optimum management of the discharging ear.  

PubMed

Discharge from the ear can be the result of many disease processes. The ear may discharge blood, pus, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or wax. Keratosis obturans, stenosis of the external meatus and benign tumours of the external meatus all lead to wax build-up, which may cause recurrent attacks of otitis externa. Malignant tumours, such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and tumours of ceruminous gland origin may also present with discharge. Tumours should be excluded by submitting all material removed from the external canal for histological examination. Single or multiple abscesses (known as furuncles) may occur in the hair follicles in the skin of the external acoustic meatus (EAM). Compulsive scratching, hearing aids and foreign bodies placed in the ear predispose to otitis externa, which is also often associated with infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and faecal organisms. Management may be with aluminium acetate 14%, topical antibiotic/steroid drops, a gauze wick soaked with icthammol 10% in glycerin or polymyxin B sulphate--neomycin sulphate--hydrocortisone acetate cream placed into the EAM and replaced every 24 to 48 hours, or systemic antibiotics according to severity. Malignant (necrotising) otitis externa causes progressive destruction of the temporal bone, and cranial nerve palsies (usually facial first). Treatment is limited debridement of infected bone, accompanied by intravenous aminoglycosides, and local antibiotic treatment and aural cleanout or oral ciprofloxacin. Middle ear conditions causing discharge include acute otitis media, infected grommets, traumatic perforations and chronic suppurative otitis media, as well as tumours of the ear canal skin and middle ear, radiation-induced otitis externa and osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone, tuberculosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, spontaneous or post-traumatic CSF leaks, Wegeners granulomatosis and immune deficiency states. Topical application of aminoglycoside antibiotics to the middle ear of laboratory animals such as rats, guinea pigs and chinchillas causes sensorineural hearing loss, an effect rarely seen clinically in humans. If the external acoustic meatus and tympanic membrane are obscured by discharge cotton buds, microsuction equipment or syringing are used to remove it. It is often useful to initiate treatment (usually with topical drops, wicks or an oral antibiotic) with a provisional diagnosis. A full examination and adequate visualisation of the tympanic membrane must eventually be performed, if necessary under anaesthesia, or else serious progressive conditions may be neglected. The most useful initial investigation is a swab sent for bacteriological assessment; other investigations are usually indicated by clinical findings and the provisional diagnosis. PMID:1372220

Ruddy, J; Bickerton, R C

1992-02-01

299

Opposite modulation of NMDA receptors by lysophospholipids and arachidonic acid: common features with mechanosensitivity  

PubMed Central

Two classes of amphiphilic compounds, lysophospholipids and arachidonic acid, have been suggested to produce opposite deformations of the lipid bilayer. We have found that their effects on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) responses are opposite, and resemble those of mechanical deformations of the plasma membrane.Lysophospholipids inhibited NMDA responses both in nucleated patches taken from cultured neurons and in cells expressing recombinant NMDA receptors. This inhibition was reversible, voltage independent and stronger at non-saturating doses of agonist. It was not linked to the charge of the polar head, and was not mimicked by lysophosphatidic acid or phosphatidylcholine. In outside-out patches, lysophospholipids reduced the open probability of NMDA-activated channels without changing their single-channel conductance.The inhibition produced by lysophospholipids occluded that produced by a mechanical compression induced by changes in osmotic or hydrostatic pressure.The potentiation of NMDA responses by arachidonic acid was observed both in native and recombinant receptors, including those in which the putative ‘fatty acid binding domain’ had been deleted. This suggests that, like lysophospholipids, arachidonic acid alters the NMDA receptor by insertion into the lipid bilayer.Recombinant receptors in which the cytoplasmic tails had been modified or deleted were still sensitive to mechanical deformation. A linkage to the cytoskeleton is therefore not required for NMDA receptor mechanosensitivity.The fact that the NMDA responses are depressed similarly by compression and lysophospholipids, and potentiated similarly by stretch and arachidonic acid supports the notion that the modulation of NMDA receptor activity by asymmetrical amphiphilic compounds involves pressure changes transmitted through the lipid bilayer. Compounds with a large hydrophilic head mimic the effects of a compression, and compounds with a small hydrophilic head mimic the effects of stretch. PMID:9806985

Casado, Mariano; Ascher, Philippe

1998-01-01

300

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Arachidonic Acid Complexes with COX-1 and COX-2  

PubMed Central

The cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes are responsible for the committed step in prostaglandin biosynthesis, the generation of prostaglandin H2. As a result, these enzymes are pharmacologically important targets for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin and newer COX-2 selective inhibitors. The cyclooxygenases are functional homodimers, and each subunit contains both a cyclooxygenase and a peroxidase active site. These enzymes are quite interesting mechanistically, as the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 requires two oxygenation and two cyclization reactions, resulting in the formation of five new chiral centers with nearly absolute regio- and stereochemical fidelity. We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the equilibrium behavior of both COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme isoforms with bound arachidonate. These simulations were compared with reference simulations of arachidonate in solution to explore the effect of enzyme on substrate conformation and positioning in the active site. The simulations suggest that the substrate has greater conformational freedom in the COX-2 active site, consistent with the larger COX-2 active site volume observed in X-ray crystal structures. The simulations reveal different conformational behavior for arachidonate in each subunit over the course of extended equilibrium MD simulations. The simulations also provide detailed information for several protein channels that might be important for oxygen and water transport to or from active sites, or for intermediate trafficking between the cyclooxygenase and peroxidase active sites. The detailed comparisons for COX-1 versus COX-2 active site structural fluctuations may also provide useful information for design of new isozyme-selective inhibitors. PMID:16519514

Furse, Kristina E.; Pratt, Derek A.; Porter, Ned A.; Lybrand, Terry P.

2008-01-01

301

Resistin expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is reduced by arachidonic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistin gene is expressed in adipocytes and encodes a protein proposed to link obesity and type 2 dia- betes. Increased plasma FFA is associated with insulin re- sistance. We examined the effect of separate FFAs on the expression of resistin mRNA in cultured murine 3T3-L1 ad- ipocytes. The FFAs tested did not increase resistin expres- sion, whereas both arachidonic

Fred Haugen; Naeem Zahid; Knut T. Dalen; Kristin Hollung; Hilde I. Nebb; Christian A. Drevon

2004-01-01

302

Effects of illumination and nitrogen starvation on accumulation of arachidonic acid by the microalga Parietochloris incisa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parietochloris incisa is a unicellular freshwater green alga capable of accumulating high amounts of the valuable long-chain polyunsaturated arachidonic\\u000a acid (AA) in triacylglycerols (TAG) of cytoplasmic oil bodies. To find the cultivation conditions providing maximum AA yield,\\u000a the effects of illumination and N-availability on the dry weight (DW), chlorophyll, carotenoid, and AA content were studied.\\u000a Under nitrogen starvation, TAG accounted

A. E. Solovchenko; M. N. Merzlyak; O. B. Chivkunova; I. V. Reshetnikova; I. Khozina-Goldberg; S. Didi-Cohen; Z. Cohen

2008-01-01

303

Availability of arachidonic acid in major phospholipids of mucosa and the stomach wall of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the availability of arachidonic acid in phosphatdidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine\\u000a (PE) of mucosa and the stomach wall of adult male Wistar rats fed a standard diet. There were significant differences in the\\u000a fatty acid composition of PC and PE between various parts of the stomach. The mucosa had the lowest level of

Sigurdur Oli Olafsson; Sigmundur Gudbjarnason

1996-01-01

304

Enzymatic acidolysis of an arachidonic acid single-cell oil with capric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of capric acid (CA) into arachidonic acid (AA) single-cell oil, using five commercial lipases, indicated that\\u000a lipase PS-30 from Pseudomonas sp. was most effective. The optimal conditions included an oil-to-CA mole ratio of 1?3, a temperature of 45°C, incubation\\u000a time of 24 h, 4% lipase from Pseudomonas sp., and a 2% (w\\/w) water content. Examination of positional distribution of

Fayez Hamam; Fereidoon Shahidi

2004-01-01

305

The Arachidonic Acid Cascade: Thromboxane A 2 Antagonism and Synthetase Inhibition in Experimental Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia depends on the factors that upset the balance between myocardial oxygen supply and\\u000a demand. Arachidonic acid accumulation in the ischemic myocardial tissue, its release and subsequent metabolisation into several\\u000a classes of eicosanoids and lipid peroxides occurs simultaneously with the development of myocardial ischemic injury. Eicosanoid\\u000a release in acute ischemia is primarily deleterious and enhances inflammatory-type

Shiva D. Seth; Uma Singh; Sandeep Seth

306

Immunohistochemical Localization of Key Arachidonic Acid Metabolism Enzymes during Fracture Healing in Mice  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the localization of critical enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism during the initial and regenerative phases of mouse femur fracture healing. Previous studies found that loss of cyclooxygenase-2 activity impairs fracture healing while loss of 5-lipoxygenase activity accelerates healing. These diametric results show that arachidonic acid metabolism has an essential function during fracture healing. To better understand the function of arachidonic acid metabolism during fracture healing, expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase -2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) was localized by immunohistochemistry in time-staged fracture callus specimens. All four enzymes were detected in leukocytes present in the bone marrow and attending inflammatory response that accompanied the fracture. In the tissues surrounding the fracture site, the proportion of leukocytes expressing COX-1, COX-2, or LTA4H decreased while those expressing 5-LO remained high at 4 and 7 days after fracture. This may indicate an inflammation resolution function for 5-LO during fracture healing. Only COX-1 was consistently detected in fracture callus osteoblasts during the later stages of healing (day 14 after fracture). In contrast, callus chondrocytes expressed all four enzymes, though 5-LO appeared to be preferentially expressed in newly differentiated chondrocytes. Most interestingly, osteoclasts consistently and strongly expressed COX-2. In addition to bone surfaces and the growth plate, COX-2 expressing osteoclasts were localized at the chondro-osseous junction of the fracture callus. These observations suggest that arachidonic acid mediated signaling from callus chondrocytes or from callus osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction regulate fracture healing. PMID:24516658

Lin, Hsuan-Ni; O’Connor, J. Patrick

2014-01-01

307

Arachidonic Acid Can Significantly Prevent Early Insulin Resistance Induced by a High-Fat Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To investigate whole-body metabolic disorder and hepatic glucose output (HGO) disturbance in rats with insulin resistance induced by a short-term high-fat diet, and the effect of arachidonic acid (AA). Methods: Twenty-four normal male Wistar rats (230–250 g) were randomly divided into 3 groups according to their weight and fed for 12 weeks: control group, n = 8, fed with

Mianyun Wu; Ximing Wang; Qiuhong Duan; Tao Lu

2007-01-01

308

Arachidonic acid released from striatal neurons by joint stimulation of ionotropic and metabotropic quisqualate receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASSOCIATIVE stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and quisqualate ionotropic receptors (Qj) induces long-term potentiation at particular glutamatergic synapses1-7. Release of arachidonic acid as a result of stimulation of NMDA receptors8has been proposed to play a part in the establishment of long-term potentiation9-11. But long-term plasticity events at some other glutamatergic synapses do not involve activation of NMDA receptors11-15. Here we

Aline Dumuis; Jean Philippe Pin; Kiyoshi Oomagari; Michèle Sebben; Joël Bockaert

1990-01-01

309

A pilot randomized controlled trial comparing bismuth iodine paraffin paste external ear pack and no ear pack after middle ear surgery.  

PubMed

To pilot a substantive randomized control trial comparing post-operative external ear canal pack with no ear pack after middle ear surgery, 32 adults undergoing primary posterior bony canal wall preserving middle ear surgery were randomized to have either a bismuth iodoform paraffin paste pack or no ear pack post-operatively. Outcome measures included clinician- and patient-recorded visual analogue scale scores for ear signs and symptoms at 3 weeks and 3 months and audiometric findings at 3 months post-operatively. There was no statistically significant inter-group difference in 3-week clinician and patient cumulative scores for ear signs and symptoms. There was also no significant difference in graft take rate, appearance of ear canals and audiometric results in either group at 3 months. No difference in ear symptoms, clinician findings or hearing was demonstrated between patients with a post-operative pack compared to those without a pack following middle ear surgery in this pilot study. PMID:24337896

Javed, Faisal; Whitwell, Russell; Hajioff, Daniel; Robinson, Philip; Rea, David; Macleod, Iain; White, Paul; Nunez, Desmond A

2015-03-01

310

The frog inner ear: picture perfect?  

PubMed

Many recent accounts of the frog peripheral auditory system have reproduced Wever's (1973) schematic cross-section of the ear of a leopard frog. We sought to investigate to what extent this diagram is an accurate and representative depiction of the anuran inner ear, using three-dimensional reconstructions made from serial sections of Rana pipiens, Eleutherodactylus limbatus and Xenopus laevis. In Rana, three discrete contact membranes were found to separate the posterior otic (=endolymphatic) labyrinth from the periotic (=perilymphatic) system: those of the amphibian and basilar recesses and the contact membrane of the saccule. The amphibian 'tegmentum vasculosum' was distinguishable as a thickened epithelial lining within a posterior recess of the superior saccular chamber. These features were also identified in Eleutherodactylus, but in this tiny frog the relative proportions of the semicircular canals and saccule resemble those of ranid tadpoles. There appeared to be a complete fluid pathway between the right and left periotic labyrinths in this species, crossing the cranial cavity. Xenopus lacks a tegmentum vasculosum and a contact membrane of the saccule; the Xenopus ear is further distinguished by a lateral passage separating stapes from periotic cistern and a more direct connection between periotic cistern and basilar recess. The basilar and lagenar recesses are conjoined in this species. Wever's diagram of the inner ear of Rana retains its value for diagrammatic purposes, but it is not anatomically accurate or representative of all frogs. Although Wever identified the contact membrane of the saccule, most recent studies of frog inner ear anatomy have overlooked both this and the amphibian tegmentum vasculosum. These structures deserve further attention. PMID:25630769

Mason, Matthew J; Segenhout, Johannes M; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Quiñones, Patricia M; van Dijk, Pim

2015-04-01

311

Lipoxygenase-mediated pro-radical effect of melatonin via stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

We have shown that melatonin immediately and transiently stimulates intracellular free radical production on a set of leukocytes, possibly as a consequence of calmodulin binding. We show here that melatonin-induced ROS are produced by lipoxygenase (LOX), since they are prevented by a set of LOX inhibitors, and are accompanied by increase of the 5-LOX product 5-HETE. LOX activation is accompanied by strong liberation of AA; inhibition of Ca{sup 2+}-independent, but not Ca{sup 2+}-dependent, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), prevents both melatonin-induced arachidonic acid and ROS production, whereas LOX inhibition only prevents ROS, indicating that PLA2 is upstream with respect to LOX, as occurs in many signaling pathways. Chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of melatonin-calmodulin interaction, inhibits both ROS and arachidonic acid production, thus possibly placing calmodulin at the origin of a melatonin-induced pro-radical pathway. Interestingly, it is known that Ca{sup 2+}-independent PLA2 binds to calmodulin: our results are compatible with PLA2 being liberated by melatonin from a steady-state calmodulin sequestration, thus initiating an arachidonate signal transduction. These results delineate a novel molecular pathway through which melatonin may participate to the inflammatory response.

Radogna, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, via Ricerca Scientifica, 1 00133 Roma (Italy); Sestili, P.; Martinelli, C.; Paolillo, M. [Istituto di Ricerca sull'Attivita Motoria (Italy); Paternoster, L.; Albertini, M.C.; Accorsi, A. [Istituto di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Urbino Carlo Bo (Italy); Gualandi, G. [DABAC, Universita della Tuscia (Italy); Ghibelli, L. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, via Ricerca Scientifica, 1 00133 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: ghibelli@uniroma2.it

2009-07-15

312

Strategies for Individual Phenotyping of Linoleic and Arachidonic Acid Metabolism Using an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test  

PubMed Central

The ability to restore homeostasis upon environmental challenges has been proposed as a measure for health. Metabolic profiling of plasma samples during the challenge response phase should offer a profound view on the flexibility of a phenotype to cope with daily stressors. Current data modeling approaches, however, struggle to extract biological descriptors from time-resolved metabolite profiles that are able to discriminate between different phenotypes. Thus, for the case of oxylipin responses in plasma upon an oral glucose tolerance test we developed a modeling approach that incorporates a priori biological pathway knowledge. The degradation pathways of arachidonic and linoleic acids were modeled using a regression model based on a pseudo-steady-state approximated model, resulting in a parameter A that summarizes the relative enzymatic activity in these pathways. Analysis of the phenotypic parameters As suggests that different phenotypes can be discriminated according to preferred relative activity of the arachidonic and linoleic pathway. Correlation analysis shows that there is little or no competition between the arachidonic and linoleic acid pathways, although they share the same enzymes. PMID:25786212

Saccenti, Edoardo; van Duynhoven, John; Jacobs, Doris M.; Smilde, Age K.; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.

2015-01-01

313

Targeted Chiral Analysis of Bioactive Arachidonic Acid Metabolites Using Liquid-Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A complex structurally diverse series of eicosanoids arises from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The metabolic profile is further complicated by the enantioselectivity of eicosanoid formation and the variety of regioisomers that arise. In order to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in vitro or in vivo, targeted methods are advantageous in order to distinguish between the complex isomeric mixtures that can arise by different metabolic pathways. Over the last several years this targeted approach has become more popular, although there are still relatively few examples where chiral targeted approaches have been employed to directly analyze complex enantiomeric mixtures. To efficiently conduct targeted eicosanoid analyses, LC separations are coupled with collision induced dissociation (CID) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Product ion profiles are often diagnostic for particular regioisomers. The highest sensitivity that can be achieved involves the use of selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (SRM/MS); whereas the highest specificity is obtained with an SRM transitions between an intense parent ion, which contains the intact molecule (M) and a structurally significant product ion. This review article provides an overview of arachidonic acid metabolism and targeted chiral methods that have been utilized for the analysis of the structurally diverse eicosanoids that arise. PMID:24957514

Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A.

2012-01-01

314

Stimulated arachidonate metabolism during foam cell transformation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with oxidized low density lipoprotein.  

PubMed Central

Changes in arachidonate metabolism were examined in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with various types of lipoproteins. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) was incorporated by macrophages and stimulated macrophage prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 syntheses, respectively, 10.8- and 10.7-fold higher than by the control. Production of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a stable metabolite of prostacyclin, was also stimulated. No stimulation was found with native LDL, which was minimally incorporated by the cells. Acetylated LDL and beta-migrating very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL), though incorporated more efficiently than oxidized LDL, also had no stimulatory effect. When oxidized LDL was separated into the lipoprotein-lipid peroxide complex and free lipid peroxides, most of the stimulatory activity was found in the former fraction, indicating that stimulation of arachidonate metabolism in the cell is associated with uptake of the lipoprotein-lipid peroxide complex. These results suggest that peroxidative modification of LDL could contribute to the progression of atheroma by stimulating arachidonate metabolism during incorporation into macrophages. Images PMID:3125226

Yokode, M; Kita, T; Kikawa, Y; Ogorochi, T; Narumiya, S; Kawai, C

1988-01-01

315

Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced photosensitization: current clinical status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced photosensitization (ALA PDT) via endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) synthesis has been reported as efficacious, using topical formulations, in the treatment of a variety of dermatologic diseases including superficial basal cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and actinic (solar) keratoses. Application of ALA PDT to the detection and treatment of both malignant and non-malignant diseases of internal organs has recently been reported. Local internal application of ALA has been used for the detection, via PpIX fluorescence, of pathological conditions of the human urinary bladder and for selective endometrial ablation in animal model systems. Systemic, oral administration of ALA has been used for ALA PDT of superficial head and neck cancer and of colorectal cancer. This paper reviews the current clinical status of ALA PDT.

Marcus, Stuart L.; Golub, Allyn L.; Shulman, D. Geoffrey

1995-03-01

316

Characterization of acid-induced molten globule like state of ficin.  

PubMed

Effect of pH on the conformational behaviour of ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine protease from the latex of Ficus carica was monitored by circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, ANS binding and hydrodynamic studies. The results obtained from near- and far-UV CD, intrinsic fluorescence and ANS binding studies demonstrate that ficin exhibits the characteristic properties of molten globule at acidic conditions between pH 1.4 and 2.0. Ficin at pH 1.4 retained about approximately 74% secondary structure with a substantial loss of tertiary structure. The acid-induced state was found to have a compact shape as measured by Stokes radius on size exclusion chromatography. PMID:19482042

Devaraj, K B; Kumar, Parigi Ramesh; Prakash, V

2009-10-01

317

Histamine and leukotrienes release in bronchoalveolar fluid during plicatic acid-induced bronchoconstriction.  

PubMed

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed before and 10 minutes after inhalation challenge with plicatic acid in five patients with red cedar asthma. There was a significant release of histamine and leukotriene E4 into the BAL fluid in all the patients after challenge. Inhalation challenge with methacholine in six patients with nonoccupational asthma and inhalation challenge with plicatic acid in two subjects without asthma did not result in the release of mediators in the BAL fluid. These studies provide direct evidence that plicatic acid-induced bronchoconstriction was accompanied by increased levels of histamine and leukotriene E4 release, whereas a nonimmunologic induction of bronchoconstriction did not induce such local mediator release. BAL may provide a useful means of studying the pathogenesis of occupational asthma caused by exposure to low-molecular-weight compounds. PMID:2478608

Chan-Yeung, M; Chan, H; Tse, K S; Salari, H; Lam, S

1989-11-01

318

Mechanisms of capsaicin- and lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog  

PubMed Central

Capsaicin activation of the pulmonary C fibre vanilloid receptor (VR1) evokes the pulmonary chemoreflex and reflex bronchoconstriction. Among potential endogenous ligands of C fibre afferents, lactic acid has been suggested as a promising candidate. We tested the hypotheses that (a) lactic acid behaves as a stimulant of C fibre receptors in the newborn dog to cause reflex bronchoconstriction, and (b) lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction via the same pulmonary C fibre receptor mechanism as capsaicin using the competitive capsaicin/VR1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. Right heart injection of lactic acid caused a significant increase (47 ± 8.0%) in lung resistance (RL) that was atropine sensitive (reduced by 75%; P < 0.05), consistent with reflex activation of muscarinic efferents by stimulation of C fibre afferents. Infusion of the competitive capsaicin antagonist capsazepine caused an 80% reduction (P < 0.01) in the control bronchoconstrictor response (41 ± 8.5% increase in RL) to right heart injections of capsaicin. The effects of capsazepine are consistent with reversible blockade of the VR1 receptor to abolish C fibre-mediated reflex bronchoconstriction. Lactic acid-evoked increases in RL were unaffected by VR1 blockade with capsazepine, consistent with a separate lactic acid-induced reflex mechanism. We conclude that (a) putative stimulation of C fibres with lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog, (b) capsazepine reversibly antagonizes reflex bronchoconstriction elicited by right heart injection of capsaicin, presumably by attenuating capsaicin-induced activation of the C fibre ‘capsaicin’ receptor (VR1), and (c) capsazepine resistance of lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction indicates that lactic acid evokes reflex bronchoconstriction by a separate mechanism, possibly via the acid-sensing ionic channel. PMID:10050022

Nault, M A; Vincent, S G; Fisher, J T

1999-01-01

319

Dietary fish oil potentiates bile acid-induced cholesterol secretion into bile in rats.  

PubMed

Recently we demonstrated that dietary fish oil (FO) causes changes in intrahepatic cholesterol transport and hypersecretion of cholesterol into bile in rats (J. Clin. Invest. 88: 943-951, 1991). We have now investigated in more detail the relationship between cholesterol and bile acid secretion in rats with chronic bile diversion fed purified diets supplemented (9% wt/wt) with either FO or corn oil (CO) for 2 weeks. Effects of FO on biliary cholesterol secretion (+ 400% as compared to CO after 14 days) were much more pronounced than previously observed in rats with intact enterohepatic circulation (+50%). Biliary bile acid (+30%) and phospholipid (+120%) secretion were increased to a much lesser extent than that of cholesterol resulting in the formation of bile supersaturated with cholesterol. The biliary cholesterol/bile acid molar ratio was 0.069 and 0.032 in FO- and CO-fed rats, respectively, at noon of day 14. This ratio increased to 0.108 in FO-fed rats at midnight, when bile acid output was maximal, but remained unchanged in CO-fed rats during the day-night cycle. Intravenous administration of taurochenodeoxycholic acid (15 mumol/kg) resulted in a 2-fold increase in bile acid output and a simultaneous 1.6-fold stimulation of cholesterol secretion in both groups, implying that administration of the bile acid induced the secretion of 2-3 times as much cholesterol in FO- than in CO-fed rats. Likewise, administration of bilirubin ditaurate (30 mumol/kg), an inhibitor of bile acid-induced biliary lipid secretion, reduced cholesterol output in both groups by about 50% while bile acid output remained unchanged. It is concluded that, in rats, dietary fish oil increases the disposition of cholesterol into bile by potentiating bile acid-dependent cholesterol secretion, presumably by facilitating the recruitment of bile-destined cholesterol. PMID:8169534

Smit, M J; Verkade, H J; Havinga, R; Vonk, R J; Scherphof, G L; In 't Veld, G; Kuipers, F

1994-02-01

320

The Ayurvedic drug, Ksheerabala, ameliorates quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in rat brain  

PubMed Central

One of the mechanisms of neurotoxicity is the induction of oxidative stress. There is hardly any cure for neurotoxicity in modern medicine, whereas many drugs in Ayurveda possess neuroprotective effects; however, there is no scientific validation for these drugs. Ksheerabala is an ayurvedic drug which is used to treat central nervous system disorders, arthritis, and insomnia. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of Ksheerabala on quinolinic acid-induced toxicity in rat brain. The optimal dose of Ksheerabala was found from a dose escalation study, wherein it was found that Ksheerabala showed maximum protection against quinolinic acid-induced neurotoxicity at a dose of 15 µL/100 g body weight/day, which was selected for further experiments. Four groups of female albino rats were maintained for 21 days as follows: 1. Control group, 2. Quinolinic acid (55 µg/100 g body weight), 3. Ksheerabala (15 µL/100 g body weight), 4. Ksheerabala (15 µL/100 g body weight) + Quinolinic acid (55 µg/100 g body weight). At the end of the experimental period, levels of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and activities of scavenging enzymes were analyzed. The results revealed that quinolinic acid intake caused enhanced lipid and protein peroxidation as evidenced by increased levels of peroxidation products such as malondialdehyde, hydroperoxide, conjugated dienes, and protein carbonyls. On the other hand, the activities of scavenging enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase as well as the concentration of glutathione were reduced. On coadminstration of Ksheerabala along with quinolinic acid, the levels of all the biochemical parameters were restored to near-normal levels, indicating the protective effect of the drug. These results were reinforced by histopathological studies. PMID:20532090

Swathy, S. S.; Indira, M.

2010-01-01

321

Protective effect of sanguinarine against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice.  

PubMed

The quaternary ammonium salt, sanguinarine (SANG), is of great practical and research interest because of its pronounced, widespread physiological effects, which promote anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory responses in experimental animals. Although SANG is originally shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties and it has been used to treat various inflammatory diseases, its effects on ulcerative colitis have not been previously explored. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of SANG on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Experimental animals received SANG (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven consecutive days after induction of colitis by intra-rectal acetic acid (5% v/v) administration. The colonic mucosal injury was assessed by clinical, macroscopic, biochemical and histopathological examinations. SANG treatment significantly decreased mortality rate, body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), wet colon weight, macroscopic and histological score when compared to acetic acid-induced controls. In addition, administration of SANG effectively inhibited p65 NF-?B protein expression and MPO activity accumulation. The levels of TNF-? and IL-6 in the serum and colon tissue of mice with experimental colitis were decreased by SANG in a concentration-dependent manner in response to p65 NF-?B. The possible mechanism of protection on experimental colitis was that SANG could be through attenuating early steps of inflammation as well as decreasing the expression of NF-?B and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokines production. PMID:23352506

Niu, Xiaofeng; Fan, Ting; Li, Weifeng; Huang, Huimin; Zhang, Yanmin; Xing, Wei

2013-03-15

322

Proteomic Investigation into Betulinic Acid-Induced Apoptosis of Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells  

PubMed Central

Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that exhibits anticancer functions in human cancer cells. This study provides evidence that betulinic acid is highly effective against the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by inducing dose- and time-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic process was further investigated using a proteomics approach to reveal protein expression changes in HeLa cells following betulinic acid treatment. Proteomic analysis revealed that there were six up- and thirty down-regulated proteins in betulinic acid-induced HeLa cells, and these proteins were then subjected to functional pathway analysis using multiple analysis software. UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decarboxylating, chain A Horf6-a novel human peroxidase enzyme that involved in redox process, was found to be down-regulated during the apoptosis process of the oxidative stress response pathway. Consistent with our results at the protein level, an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed in betulinic acid-treated cells. The proteins glucose-regulated protein and cargo-selection protein TIP47, which are involved in the endoplasmic reticulum pathway, were up-regulated by betulinic acid treatment. Meanwhile, 14-3-3 family proteins, including 14-3-3? and 14-3-3?, were down-regulated in response to betulinic acid treatment, which is consistent with the decrease in expression of the target genes 14-3-3? and 14-3-3?. Furthermore, it was found that the antiapoptotic bcl-2 gene was down-regulated while the proapoptotic bax gene was up-regulated after betulinic acid treatment in HeLa cells. These results suggest that betulinic acid induces apoptosis of HeLa cells by triggering both the endoplasmic reticulum pathway and the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. PMID:25148076

Xu, Tao; Pang, Qiuying; Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Aiqin; Luo, Shaman; Wang, Yang; Yan, Xiufeng

2014-01-01

323

Bile acids induce a cationic current, depolarizing pancreatic acinar cells and increasing the intracellular Na+ concentration.  

PubMed

Biliary disease is a major cause of acute pancreatitis. In this study we investigated the electrophysiological effects of bile acids on pancreatic acinar cells. In perforated patch clamp experiments we found that taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate depolarized pancreatic acinar cells. At low bile acid concentrations this occurred without rise in the cytosolic calcium concentration. Measurements of the intracellular Na(+) concentration with the fluorescent probe Sodium Green revealed a substantial increase upon application of the bile acid. We found that bile acids induce Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent components of the Na(+) concentration increase. The Ca(2+)-independent component was resolved in conditions when the cytosolic Ca(2+) level was buffered with a high concentration of the calcium chelator 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). The Ca(2+)-dependent component of intracellular Na(+) increase was clearly seen during stimulation with the calcium-releasing agonist acetylcholine. During acetylcholine-induced Ca(2+) oscillations the recovery of cytosolic Na(+) was much slower than the recovery of Ca(2+), creating a possibility for the summation of Na(+) transients. The bile-induced Ca(2+)-independent current was found to be carried primarily by Na(+) and K(+), with only small Ca(2+) and Cl(-) contributions. Measurable activation of such a cationic current could be produced by a very low concentration of taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (10 microm). This bile acid induced a cationic current even when applied in sodium- and bicarbonate-free solution. Other bile acids, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, and bile itself also induced cationic currents. Bile-induced depolarization of acinar cells should have a profound effect on acinar fluid secretion and, consequently, on transport of secreted zymogens. PMID:15536077

Voronina, Svetlana G; Gryshchenko, Olexyi V; Gerasimenko, Oleg V; Green, Anne K; Petersen, Ole H; Tepikin, Alexei V

2005-01-21

324

Better-ear glimpsing in hearing-impaired listeners.  

PubMed

When competing speech sounds are spatially separated, listeners can make use of the ear with the better target-to-masker ratio. Recent studies showed that listeners with normal hearing are able to efficiently make use of this "better-ear," even when it alternates between left and right ears at different times in different frequency bands, which may contribute to the ability to listen in spatialized speech mixtures. In the present study, better-ear glimpsing in listeners with bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, who perform poorly in spatialized speech mixtures, was investigated. The results suggest that this deficit is not related to better-ear glimpsing. PMID:25698053

Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R; Kidd, Gerald; Iyer, Nandini; Brungart, Douglas S

2015-02-01

325

Arachidonate Metabolism Via lipoxygenase and 12L-hydroperoxy-5,8,10,14-icosatetraenoic Acid Peroxidase Sensitive to Anti-Inflammatory Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymes of arachidonate metabolism via the lipoxygenase pathway in human platelet cytosol have been characterized and partially purified. The lipoxygenase activity has a pH optimum of 7.3 and reaches half-maximal activity at an arachidonate concentration of 80 mu M. The oxidation of arachidonate by these enzymes is inhibited by reagents that modify sulfhydryl groups. Two separable lipoxygenase activities can

Marvin I. Siegel; Randy T. McConnell; Ned A. Porter; Pedro Cuatrecasas

1980-01-01

326

Estimation of outer-middle ear transmission using DPOAEs and fractional-order modeling of human middle ear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. Hence, the characteristics of the outer and middle ear affect sound transmission to/from the inner ear. The role of the middle and outer ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea, and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal. OAEs are used to evaluate the health and function of the cochlea; however, they are also affected by outer and middle ear characteristics. To better assess cochlear health using OAEs, it is critical to quantify the impact of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission. The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate outer-middle ear transmission using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). In addition, the role of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission was investigated by developing a physical/mathematical model, which employed fractional-order lumped elements to include the viscoelastic characteristics of biological tissues. Impedance estimations from wideband refectance measurements were used for parameter fitting of the model. The model was validated comparing its estimates of the outer-middle ear sound transmission with those given by DPOAEs. The outer-middle ear transmission by the model was defined as the sum of forward and reverse outer-middle ear transmissions. To estimate the reverse transmission by the model, the probe-microphone impedance was calculated through estimating the Thevenin-equivalent circuit of the probe-microphone. The Thevenin-equivalent circuit was calculated using measurements in a number of test cavities. Such modeling enhances our understanding of the roles of different parts of the outer and middle ear and how they work together to determine their function. In addition, the model would be potentially helpful in diagnosing pathologies of cochlear or middle ear origin.

Naghibolhosseini, Maryam

327

DIBROMOACETIC ACID-INDUCED ELEVATIONS OF ESTRADIOL IN THE CYCLING AND OVARIECTOMOZED/ESTRADIOL-IMPLANTED FEMALE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations of Estradiol in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized / Estradiol-implanted Female Rats ABSTRACT Haloacetic acids are one of the principal classes of disinfection by-products generated by the chlorination of mun...

328

Diseases of the middle ear in childhood  

PubMed Central

Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

2014-01-01

329

Analysis of OH Bolted Ear Connection  

SciTech Connect

The D0 endcap calorimeter outer hadronic (OH) modules play a major structural role in the calorimeter assembly. The disrete modules, once connected together, form a ring within which other massive calorimetry will reside. It has been proposed that the connection of the OH at the downstream end be accomplished by extending the downstream endplates in the radial direction to form 'ears', and then through-bolting between adjacent ears as shown in Fig. 1. A single 2 1/4 in. dia. bolt is used, and previous calculations have determined that the design load on this joint should be 130,000 lbs tension. The high load and serious consequences of failure make this a critical component in the calorimeter assembly. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the stresses in the connection and other mechanical characteristics which determine joint performance.

Wands, Bob; /Fermilab

1987-12-30

330

A Rare Case of Petrified Ear  

PubMed Central

Calcification or ossification of the auricle, also referred to as petrified ear, is a rare diagnosis in dermatology. In medical literature, it has most often been attributed to trauma, hypothermia and frostbite, or hypercalcemia secondary to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, such as Addison's disease. Here, we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a 79-year-old African American male whose unilateral petrified auricle was an incidental finding. He had a preceding history of hyperparathyroidism and subsequent hypercalcemia treated with a subtotal parathyroidectomy three years prior to presentation. In addition to laboratory analysis, a history and physical examination was performed which revealed no other signs of hypercalcemia. Radiologic studies demonstrated partial ossification of the external auricular cartilage on the left side. The patient was diagnosed with the rare occurrence of a petrified ear. In light of this case, we provide a discussion concerning the possible etiologies of this diagnosis including appropriate patient evaluation and possible treatment recommendations. PMID:23259082

Buikema, Kathryn E.; Adams, Erin G.

2012-01-01

331

Common ear diseases: recognition and management.  

PubMed

External otitis is directly related to patient habit patterns. It is easily treated, but the habits must be changed to effect permanent cure. Serous otitis media is the most common cause of conductive hearing loss, and its presence my predispose to development of purulent otitis media. Removal of middle ear fluid may be advisable in persistent serous otitis and is recommended in acute purulent otitis. PMID:857250

Keim, R J

1977-05-01

332

Aspect Modification of an EAR Application a  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose aspect modification of compiled Java programs for which source code and documentation are not available. Aspect oriented programming is used to trace the program execution and identify points, in which aspects implementing new functionalities should be applied. A special tool for aspect oriented program tracing was designed and implemented. A modification in an real Enterprise Application Archive (EAR), compiled, without source code and documentation is presented in this paper. Advantages and disadvantages of described concepts are pointed out.

Bluemke, Ilona; Billewicz, Konrad

333

Mechanics of the exceptional anuran ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anuran ear is frequently used for studying fundamental properties of vertebrate auditory systems. This is due to its unique\\u000a anatomical features, most prominently the lack of a basilar membrane and the presence of two dedicated acoustic end organs,\\u000a the basilar papilla and the amphibian papilla. Our current anatomical and functional knowledge implies that three distinct\\u000a regions can be identified

Richard L. M. Schoffelen; Johannes M. Segenhout; Pim van Dijk

2008-01-01

334

Acute seismic sensitivity in the bullfrog ear.  

PubMed

Single axons in the auditory/vestibular nerve of the American bullfrog exhibit by far the most exquisite sensitivity to substrate-borne vibration yet reported for a quadruped vertebrate. Earlier dye-injection studies revealed that these axons, which are relatively insensitive to airborne sound, originate at the saccular and lagenar maculae of the bullfrog inner ear. The more sensitive axons exhibited clear responses to vibratory sinusoids with peak accelerations as low as 0.005 cm/s2. PMID:6982744

Koyama, H; Lewis, E R; Leverenz, E L; Baird, R A

1982-10-28

335

The glue ear 'epidemic': a historical perspective.  

PubMed

This paper explores the historical context of the dramatic rise in surgery for glue ear in the mid-20th century, and questions the published assertion that this represented a manufactured 'epidemic'. In examining historical sources, the reader's theoretical viewpoint greatly influences their conclusions: the sustained rise in treatment for glue ear may be seen as the advance of science in a golden age or the resistance of insular professionals to reason in the light of new scientific study methods. Current views on the practice of medicine, consumerism, science and standardisation, rationing and the nature of 'truth' all affect the way that we see this period. Technological advances clearly allowed better diagnosis and more effective treatment, but these did not appear to drive an 'epidemic', rather they were developed to meet the pre-existing challenges of otological practice. The proposition that an 'epidemic' was created does not appear to have any solid grounding. Society's perception of what constitutes disease and what needs treatment may have evolved, but the prevalence of other important diseases changed dramatically over this time period, and a real change in the epidemiology of glue ear cannot be dismissed. In defining the case for and against surgical treatment, a solely positivist, quantitative worldview cannot give us a complete picture of benefit and risk to individuals, families and society at large. PMID:21653931

Alderson, David

2011-12-01

336

An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs  

PubMed Central

Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely. PMID:24155434

Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M.; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E.

2013-01-01

337

Notch signaling and the developing inner ear.  

PubMed

Sensory hair cells (HCs) and their associated nonsensory supporting cells (SCs) exhibit a typical mosaic pattern in each of the sensory patches in the inner ear. Notch signaling has been considered to conduct the formation of this mosaic pattern through one of its famous functions, known as 'lateral inhibition'. The two Notch ligands Delta-like1 and Jagged2 are believed to act synergistically at the stage of cell diversification in mammals. In addition, many current studies suggest that Notch signaling has another inductive, but not inhibiting, role in the determination of the prosensory region, which precedes the cell diversification of HCs and SCs and Jagged1 is thought to be an essential ligand in this process. Earlier in ear development, the first cell fate determination begins with the delamination of the neuroblasts from the otic epithelium. The delaminated neuroblasts migrate and coalesce to form cochleovestibular ganglion. Notch signaling pathway is thought to function during the delamination through its lateral inhibitory mechanism. Recently, many experiments examining Notch-related gene expression patterns and direct functional analyses of genes have revealed multiple important functions of Notch in inner ear development. Here, we survey a series of studies and discuss the issues that remain to be elucidated in the future. PMID:22399346

Murata, Junko; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Okano, Hideyuki

2012-01-01

338

Why Do Elephants Flap Their Ears?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is estimated that a 4200 kg elephant generates as much as 5.12 kW of heat. How the elephant dissipates its metabolic heat and regulates its body temperature has been investigated during the past seven decades. Findings and conclusions differ sharply. The high rate of metabolic heat coupled with low surface area to volume ratio and the absence of sweat glands eliminate surface convection as the primary mechanism for heat removal. Noting that the elephant ears have high surface area to volume ratio and an extensive vascular network, ear flapping is thought to be the principal thermoregulatory mechanism. A computational and experimental program is carried out to examine flow and heat transfer characteristics. The ear is modeled as a uniformly heated oscillating rectangular plate. Our computational work involves a three-dimensional time dependent CFD code with heat transfer capabilities to obtain predictions of the flow field and surface temperature distributions. This information was used to design an experimental setup with a uniformly heated plate of size 0.2m x 0.3m oscillating at 1.6 cycles per second. Results show that surface temperature increases and reaches a steady periodic oscillation after a period of transient oscillation. The role of the vortices shed off the plate in heat transfer enhancement will be discussed.

Koffi, Moise; Jiji, Latif; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

2009-11-01

339

Middle-ear velocity transfer function, cochlear input immittance, and middle-ear efficiency in chinchilla  

PubMed Central

The transfer function HV between stapes velocity VS and sound pressure near the tympanic membrane PTM is a descriptor of sound transmission through the middle ear (ME). The ME power transmission efficiency (MEE), the ratio of sound power entering the cochlea to power entering the middle ear, was computed from HV measured in seven chinchilla ears and previously reported measurements of ME input admittance YTM and ME pressure gain GMEP [Ravicz and Rosowski, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437–2454 (2012); J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208–2223 (2013)] in the same ears. The ME was open, and a pressure sensor was inserted into the cochlear vestibule for most measurements. The cochlear input admittance YC computed from HV and GMEP is controlled by a combination of mass and resistance and is consistent with a minimum-phase system up to 27?kHz. The real part Re{YC}, which relates cochlear sound power to inner-ear sound pressure, decreased gradually with frequency up to 25 kHz and more rapidly above that. MEE was about 0.5 between 0.1 and 8?kHz, higher than previous estimates in this species, and decreased sharply at higher frequencies. PMID:24116422

Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

2013-01-01

340

Multiple copies of a bile acid-inducible gene in Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708.  

PubMed Central

Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708 is an anaerobic intestinal bacterium which possesses inducible bile acid 7-dehydroxylation activity. Several new polypeptides are produced in this strain following induction with cholic acid. Genes coding for two copies of a bile acid-inducible 27,000-dalton polypeptide (baiA1 and baiA2) have been previously cloned and sequenced. We now report on a gene coding for a third copy of this 27,000-dalton polypeptide (baiA3). The baiA3 gene has been cloned in lambda DASH on an 11.2-kilobase DNA fragment from a partial Sau3A digest of the Eubacterium DNA. DNA sequence analysis of the baiA3 gene revealed 100% homology with the baiA1 gene within the coding region of the 27,000-dalton polypeptides. The baiA2 gene shares 81% sequence identity with the other two genes at the nucleotide level. The flanking nucleotide sequences associated with the baiA1 and baiA3 genes are identical for 930 bases in the 5' direction from the initiation codon and for at least 325 bases in the 3' direction from the stop codon, including the putative promoter regions for the genes. An additional open reading frame (occupying from 621 to 648 bases, depending on the correct start codon) was found in the identical 5' regions associated with the baiA1 and baiA3 clones. The 5' sequence 930 bases upstream from the baiA1 and baiA3 genes was totally divergent. The baiA2 gene, which is part of a large bile acid-inducible operon, showed no homology with the other two genes either in the 5' or 3' direction from the polypeptide coding region, except for a 15-base-pair presumed ribosome-binding site in the 5' region. These studies strongly suggest that a gene duplication (baiA1 and baiA3) has occurred and is stably maintained in this bacterium. Images PMID:2376563

Gopal-Srivastava, R; Mallonee, D H; White, W B; Hylemon, P B

1990-01-01

341

Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from several ear mushrooms.  

PubMed

Five kinds of ear mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, including black, red, jin, snow, and silver ears. Methanolic extracts were prepared from these ear mushrooms, and their antioxidant properties were studied. For all methanolic extracts from ear mushrooms, the antioxidant activities in the 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid method were moderate (38.6 approximately 74.6%) at 1.0-5.0 mg/mL. Methanolic extracts from red, jin, and snow ears showed excellent antioxidant activities in the conjugated diene method at 5.0 mg/mL. At 5.0 mg/mL, reducing powers of methanolic extracts were in the descending order of snow > black approximately red approximately jin > silver ears. The scavenging effect of methanolic extracts from ear mushrooms on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals was excellent except for that from silver ears. Ear mushroom extracts were not good scavengers for hydroxyl free radicals but were good chelators for ferrous ions. Naturally occurring antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, tocopherols, and total phenols, were found in the methanolic extracts. However, beta-carotene was not detected. Total antioxidant components were 15.69, 30.09, 27.83, 49.17, and 31.70 mg/g for black, red, jin, snow, and silver ears, respectively. PMID:11714344

Mau, J L; Chao, G R; Wu, K T

2001-11-01

342

Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase-2 Is Expressed in Spermatic Germ Cells and Incorporates Arachidonic Acid into Triacylglycerols  

PubMed Central

Background De novo glycerolipid synthesis begins with the acylation of glycerol-3 phosphate catalyzed by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). In mammals, at least four GPAT isoforms have been described, differing in their cell and tissue locations and sensitivity to sulfhydryl reagents. In this work we show that mitochondrial GPAT2 overexpression in CHO-K1 cells increased TAG content and both GPAT and AGPAT activities 2-fold with arachidonoyl-CoA as a substrate, indicating specificity for this fatty acid. Methods and Results Incubation of GPAT2-transfected CHO-K1 cells with [1-14C]arachidonate for 3 h increased incorporation of [14C]arachidonate into TAG by 40%. Consistently, arachidonic acid was present in the TAG fraction of cells that overexpressed GPAT2, but not in control cells, corroborating GPAT2's role in synthesizing TAG that is rich in arachidonic acid. In rat and mouse testis, Gpat2 mRNA was expressed only in primary spermatocytes; the protein was also detected in late stages of spermatogenesis. During rat sexual maturation, both the testicular TAG content and the arachidonic acid content in the TAG fraction peaked at 30 d, matching the highest expression of Gpat2 mRNA and protein. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that GPAT2 expression is linked to arachidonoyl-CoA incorporation into TAG in spermatogenic germ cells. PMID:22905194

Rabassa, Martin E.; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Coleman, Rosalind A.; Gonzalez-Baro, Maria R.

2012-01-01

343

Sham control methods used in ear-acupuncture/ear-acupressure randomized controlled trials: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Ear-acupuncture/ear-acupressure (EAP) has been used for a range of health conditions with numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating its efficacy and safety. However, the design of sham interventions in these RCTs varied significantly. This study systematically reviewed RCTs on EAP for all clinical conditions involving a number of sham EAPs as a control intervention. The review is guided by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0 and investigated the types and differences of sham EAP interventions. Four electronic English databases (The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL®) and two Chinese databases (CQVIP, CNKI) were searched in December 2012 and 55 published RCTs comparing real and sham EAP for any clinical condition were included. Characteristics of participants, real and sham interventions, and outcomes were extracted. Four types of sham methods were identified. Among the 55 RCTs, 25 studies involved treatment on nonspecific ear acupoints as the sham method; seven studies used nonacupoints on the ear; nine studies selected placebo needles or placebo ear-acupressure on the same ear acupoints for the real treatment; 10 studies employed pseudo-intervention; and five studies combined two of the above methods to be the sham control. Other factors of treatment such as number of points, treatment duration, and frequency also varied greatly. Risk of bias assessment suggests that 32 RCTs were "high risk" in terms of participants blinding, and 45 RCTs were "high risk" in terms of personnel blinding. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to the high clinical heterogeneity across included studies. No relationship was found between the sham designs and efficacy outcomes, or between the sham types and dropout rate. No solid conclusion of which design is the most appropriate sham control of EAP could be drawn in this review. PMID:24138333

Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Yang, Angela Weihong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian H; Xue, Charlie Changli

2014-03-01

344

Sham Control Methods Used in Ear-Acupuncture/Ear-Acupressure Randomized Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ear-acupuncture/ear-acupressure (EAP) has been used for a range of health conditions with numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating its efficacy and safety. However, the design of sham interventions in these RCTs varied significantly. This study systematically reviewed RCTs on EAP for all clinical conditions involving a number of sham EAPs as a control intervention. The review is guided by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0 and investigated the types and differences of sham EAP interventions. Four electronic English databases (The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL®) and two Chinese databases (CQVIP, CNKI) were searched in December 2012 and 55 published RCTs comparing real and sham EAP for any clinical condition were included. Characteristics of participants, real and sham interventions, and outcomes were extracted. Four types of sham methods were identified. Among the 55 RCTs, 25 studies involved treatment on nonspecific ear acupoints as the sham method; seven studies used nonacupoints on the ear; nine studies selected placebo needles or placebo ear-acupressure on the same ear acupoints for the real treatment; 10 studies employed pseudo-intervention; and five studies combined two of the above methods to be the sham control. Other factors of treatment such as number of points, treatment duration, and frequency also varied greatly. Risk of bias assessment suggests that 32 RCTs were “high risk” in terms of participants blinding, and 45 RCTs were “high risk” in terms of personnel blinding. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to the high clinical heterogeneity across included studies. No relationship was found between the sham designs and efficacy outcomes, or between the sham types and dropout rate. No solid conclusion of which design is the most appropriate sham control of EAP could be drawn in this review. PMID:24138333

Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Yang, Angela Weihong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian H.

2014-01-01

345

Mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid studied in isolated liver cells.  

PubMed

The partitioning between peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation of [1-14C]eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5(n-3] and [1-14C]arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6)) was studied. In hepatocytes from fasted rats approximately 70% of the fatty acid substrate was oxidized with oleic, linoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (22:6(n-3)) acid, even more with adrenic (22:4(n-6)) and less with arachidonic acid. When the mitochondrial oxidation was suppressed by fructose refeeding and by (+)-decanoylcarnitine, the fatty acid oxidation in per cent of that in cells from fasted rats was with 18:1(n-9) 7%, 18:2(n-6) 8%, 20:4(n-6) 12%, 20:5(n-3) 20%, 22:4(n-6) 57% and for 22:6(n-3) 29%. The fraction of 14C recovered in palmitate and other newly synthesized fatty acids after fructose refeeding decreased in the order 22:4(n-6) greater than 22:6(n-3) greater than 20:5(n-3) greater than 20:4(n-6) and was very small with 18:1(n-9) and 18:2(n-6). In cells from both fed and fructose-refed animals 20:5(n-3) was efficiently elongated to 22:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3). 20:5(n-3) and 20:4(n-6) were not elongated after fasting. The phospholipid incorporation with [1-14C]20:5(n-3) decreased during prolonged incubations while it remained stable with [1-14C]arachidonic acid. The results suggest that peroxisomes contribute more to the oxidation of 20:5(n-3) than with 20:4(n-6) although both substrates are probably oxidized mainly in the mitochondria. PMID:3022820

Christensen, E; Hagve, T A; Christophersen, B O

1986-12-01

346

Arachidonic acid-dependent carbon-eight volatile synthesis from wounded liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha).  

PubMed

Eight-carbon (C8) volatiles, such as 1-octen-3-ol, octan-3-one, and octan-3-ol, are ubiquitously found among fungi and bryophytes. In this study, it was found that the thalli of the common liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a model plant species, emitted high amounts of C8 volatiles mainly consisting of (R)-1-octen-3-ol and octan-3-one upon mechanical wounding. The induction of emission took place within 40min. In intact thalli, 1-octen-3-yl acetate was the predominant C8 volatile while tissue disruption resulted in conversion of the acetate to 1-octen-3-ol. This conversion was carried out by an esterase showing stereospecificity to (R)-1-octen-3-yl acetate. From the transgenic line of M. polymorpha (des6(KO)) lacking arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, formation of C8 volatiles was only minimally observed, which indicated that arachidonic and/or eicosapentaenoic acids were essential to form C8 volatiles in M. polymorpha. When des6(KO) thalli were exposed to the vapor of 1-octen-3-ol, they absorbed the alcohol and converted it into 1-octen-3-yl acetate and octan-3-one. Therefore, this implied that 1-octen-3-ol was the primary C8 product formed from arachidonic acid, and further metabolism involving acetylation and oxidoreduction occurred to diversify the C8 products. Octan-3-one was only minimally formed from completely disrupted thalli, while it was formed as the most abundant product in partially disrupted thalli. Therefore, it is assumed that the remaining intact tissues were involved in the conversion of 1-octen-3-ol to octan-3-one in the partially disrupted thalli. The conversion was partly promoted by addition of NAD(P)H into the completely disrupted tissues, suggesting an NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase was involved in the conversion. PMID:25174554

Kihara, Hirotomo; Tanaka, Maya; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Horibata, Akira; Yamada, Atsushi; Kita, Sayaka; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kajikawa, Masataka; Fukuzawa, Hideya; Kohchi, Takayuki; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Kenji

2014-11-01

347

Effects of ear-canal pressurization on middle-ear bone- and air-conduction responses  

PubMed Central

In extremely loud noise environments, it is important to not only protect one’s hearing against noise transmitted through the air-conduction (AC) pathway, but also through the bone-conduction (BC) pathways. Much of the energy transmitted through the BC pathways is concentrated in the mid-frequency range around 1.5–2 kHz, which is likely due to the structural resonance of the middle ear. One potential approach for mitigating this mid-frequency BC noise transmission is to introduce a positive or negative static pressure in the ear canal, which is known to reduce BC as well as AC hearing sensitivity. In the present study, middle-ear ossicular velocities at the umbo and stapes were measured using human cadaver temporal bones in response to both BC and AC excitations, while static air pressures of ±400 mm H2O were applied in the ear canal. For the maximum negative pressure of ?400 mm H2O, mean BC stapes-velocity reductions of about 5–8 dB were observed in the frequency range from 0.8 to 2.5 kHz, with a peak reduction of 8.6(± 4.7) dB at 1.6 kHz. Finite-element analysis indicates that the peak BC-response reduction tends to be in the mid-frequency range because the middle-ear BC resonance, which is typically around 1.5–2 kHz, is suppressed by the pressure-induced stiffening of the middle-ear structure. The measured data also show that the BC responses are reduced more for negative static pressures than for positive static pressures. This may be attributable to a difference in the distribution of the stiffening among the middle-ear components depending on the polarity of the static pressure. The characteristics of the BC-response reductions are found to be largely consistent with the available psychoacoustic data, and are therefore indicative of the relative importance of the middle-ear mechanism in BC hearing. PMID:19944139

Homma, Kenji; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Kim, Namkeun; Du, Yu; Puria, Sunil

2014-01-01

348

Formic acid and acetic acid induce a programmed cell death in pathogenic Candida species.  

PubMed

Cutaneous fungal infections are common and widespread. Antifungal agents used for the treatment of these infections often have undesirable side effects. Furthermore, increased resistance of the microorganisms to the antifungal drugs becomes the growing problem. Accordingly, the search for natural antifungal compounds continues to receive attention. Apoptosis is highly regulated programmed cell death. During yeast cell apoptosis, amino acids and peptides are released and can stimulate regeneration of human epithelium cells. Thus, detection of chemical compounds inducing apoptosis in yeast and nontoxic for humans is of great medical relevance. The aim of this study was to detect chemical compound inducing apoptosis in pathogenic Candida species with the lowest toxicity to the mammalian cells. Five chemical compounds--acetic acid, sodium bicarbonate, potassium carbonate, lithium acetate, and formic acid--were tested for evaluation of antifungal activity on C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae. The results showed that acetic acid and formic acid at the lowest concentrations induced yeast cells death. Apoptosis analysis revealed that cells death was accompanied by activation of caspase. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of potassium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate induced Candida cells necrosis. Toxicity test with mammalian cell cultures showed that formic acid has the lowest effect on the growth of Jurkat and NIH 3T3 cells. In conclusion, our results show that a low concentration of formic acid induces apoptosis-like programmed cell death in the Candida yeast and has a minimal effect on the survivability of mammalian cells, suggesting potential applications in the treatment of these infections. PMID:24752490

Lastauskien?, Egl?; Zinkevi?ien?, Auks?; Girkontait?, Irut?; Kaunietis, Arnoldas; Kvedarien?, Violeta

2014-09-01

349

Effects of ionizing radiation on retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors  

PubMed Central

Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors [RLRs; RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)] sense virus-derived RNA or a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] and are responsible for host defense against viruses. However, it remains unclear whether radiation affects RLRs. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on RIG-I and MDA5 expression and the response to poly(I:C) using THP1 (human monocytic cell line)-derived macrophages. Non- and X-irradiated (1–10 Gy) macrophages expressed RIG-I and MDA5 at mRNA and protein levels and there was no significant difference in the expression levels. Non- and X-irradiated macrophages expressed antiviral cytokine interferon (IFN)-? mRNA following poly(I:C)-low molecular weight/LyoVec™ and poly(I:C)-high molecular weight/LyoVec™ stimulation, the agonist of RIG-I and MDA5, respectively. In line with the results of the expression of RIG-I and MDA5, no significant difference in the expression of IFN-? mRNA was observed between non- and X-irradiation. These results indicate that ionizing radiation hardly affects RLR expression and the response to their agonist poly(I:C) in THP1-derived macrophages. PMID:25469248

YOSHINO, HIRONORI; SAITOH, TAKAHIRO; KOZAKAI, MASATAKA; KASHIWAKURA, IKUO

2015-01-01

350

Oleic acid-induced lung injury in rabbits: effect of fibrinogen depletion with Arvin  

SciTech Connect

The role of fibrinogen in the evolution of the increased permeability after oleic acid-induced lung injury was studied in New Zealand White rabbits. Animals depleted of fibrinogen by treatment with Malayan pit viper venom were compared with untreated rabbits immediately and at 1 and 24 h after injury. The increased permeability to albumin and elevated extravascular lung water (EVLW) associated with lung injury returned to control values by 24 h in untreated animals. Fibrinogen-depleted animals had a higher mortality (10/25 vs. 2/17, P less than 0.02) and showed a greater immediate increase in permeability to albumin that returned to control values at 1 and 24 h after injury, as well as trends toward elevated blood-free dry lung weight and larger increases in EVLW that persisted for 24 h. These findings indicate that fibrinogen-related proteins play an important role in controlling the microvascular injury that is produced by oleic acid. However, when these proteins are depleted, other mechanisms partially control the leak at later stages of the repair process.

Allard, M.F.; Doerschuk, C.M.; Brumwell, M.L.; Belzberg, A.; Hogg, J.C.

1988-03-01

351

Effects of ionizing radiation on retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors [RLRs; RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)] sense virus-derived RNA or a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] and are responsible for host defense against viruses. However, it remains unclear whether radiation affects RLRs. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on RIG-I and MDA5 expression and the response to poly(I:C) using THP1 (human monocytic cell line)-derived macrophages. Non- and X-irradiated (1-10 Gy) macrophages expressed RIG-I and MDA5 at mRNA and protein levels and there was no significant difference in the expression levels. Non- and X-irradiated macrophages expressed antiviral cytokine interferon (IFN)-? mRNA following poly(I:C)-low molecular weight/LyoVec™ and poly(I:C)-high molecular weight/LyoVec™ stimulation, the agonist of RIG-I and MDA5, respectively. In line with the results of the expression of RIG-I and MDA5, no significant difference in the expression of IFN-? mRNA was observed between non- and X-irradiation. These results indicate that ionizing radiation hardly affects RLR expression and the response to their agonist poly(I:C) in THP1-derived macrophages. PMID:25469248

Yoshino, Hironori; Saitoh, Takahiro; Kozakai, Masataka; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

2015-01-01

352

Phosphatidate Phosphatase Activity Plays Key Role in Protection against Fatty Acid-induced Toxicity in Yeast*  

PubMed Central

The PAH1-encoded phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a pivotal enzyme that produces diacylglycerol for the synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) and simultaneously controls the level of PA used for phospholipid synthesis. Quantitative lipid analysis showed that the pah1? mutation caused a reduction in TAG mass and an elevation in the mass of phospholipids and free fatty acids, changes that were more pronounced in the stationary phase. The levels of unsaturated fatty acids in the pah1? mutant were unaltered, although the ratio of palmitoleic acid to oleic acid was increased with a similar change in the fatty acid composition of phospholipids. The pah1? mutant exhibited classic hallmarks of apoptosis in stationary phase and a marked reduction in the quantity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Cells lacking PA phosphatase were sensitive to exogenous fatty acids in the order of toxicity palmitoleic acid > oleic acid > palmitic acid. In contrast, the growth of wild type cells was not inhibited by fatty acid supplementation. In addition, wild type cells supplemented with palmitoleic acid exhibited an induction in PA phosphatase activity and an increase in TAG synthesis. Deletion of the DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase, which counteracts PA phosphatase in controlling PA content, suppressed the defect in lipid droplet formation in the pah1? mutant. However, the sensitivity of the pah1? mutant to palmitoleic acid was not rescued by the dgk1? mutation. Overall, these findings indicate a key role of PA phosphatase in TAG synthesis for protection against fatty acid-induced toxicity. PMID:21708942

Fakas, Stylianos; Qiu, Yixuan; Dixon, Joseph L.; Han, Gil-Soo; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Garbarino, Jeanne; Sturley, Stephen L.; Carman, George M.

2011-01-01

353

Function and Regulation of Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene-I  

PubMed Central

Antiviral innate immunity is triggered by sensing viral nucleic acids. RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I) is an intracellular molecule that responds to viral nucleic acids and activates downstream signaling, resulting in the induction of members of the type I interferon (IFN) family, which are regarded among the most important effectors of the innate immune system. Although RIG-I is expressed ubiquitously in the cytoplasm, its levels are subject to transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. RIG-I belongs to the IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) family, but certain cells regulate its expression through IFN-independent mechanisms. Several lines of evidence indicate that deregulated RIG-I signaling is associated with autoimmune disorders. Further studies suggest that RIG-I has functions in addition to those directly related to its role in RNA sensing and host defense. We have much to learn and discover regarding this interesting cytoplasmic sensor so that we can capitalize on its properties for the treatment of viral infections, immune disorders, cancer, and perhaps other conditions. PMID:21175414

Matsumiya, Tomoh; Stafforini, Diana M.

2011-01-01

354

Acid-induced changes in DOC quality in an experimental whole-lake manipulation  

SciTech Connect

Fluorescence analyses of archived water samples were used to typify dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quality in experimentally acidified lakes and reference lakes at the Experimental Lakes Area, in northwestern Ontario. Carbon-specific DOC fluorescence (CSF) during peak acidification was 40--50% of that for a high-DOC reference lake and similar to a low-DOC reference lake. Reference lakes showed similar but smaller decreases in CSF during several years of prolonged drought in the late 1980s. During the 1990s, recovery from acidification resulted in increased CSF, whereas reference lakes remained unchanged during the same time period. In addition to causing decreased [DOC], acidification causes changes in fluorescence-peak geometry that indicate a switch in DOC quality from allochthonous to autochthonous-like during acidification. The acid-induced change in DOC quality was likely due to increased chemical oxidation or precipitation of the UV-absorbent aromatic portions of allochthonous DOC molecules, leaving more UV-transparent aliphatic chains. The change in the nature of DOC following acidification and drought may have an important role in physical, biological, and chemical processes within these lakes. With recovery from acidification, DOC quality has also recovered.

Donahue, W.F.; Schindler, D.W. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences] [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Page, S.J.; Stainton, M.P. [Freshwater Inst., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)] [Freshwater Inst., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

1998-10-01

355

Malabsorption of zinc in rats with acetic acid-induced enteritis and colitis.  

PubMed

Acute intestinal inflammation was established in rats by intraluminal administration of acetic acid into loops of distal ileum, proximal jejunum or ascending colon. The study included two control groups of intact (untreated) rats and sham-operated (saline-treated) rats for each intestinal segment. A third group of rats received acetic acid. Histological evaluation demonstrated that acetic acid treatment induced a mild inflammatory response. Two days after treatment, zinc absorption was measured using ligated 10-cm loops of each segment in which 65Zn was injected intraluminally. 65Zn absorption by the ileum, jejunum and colon was markedly reduced in those rats in which inflammation was induced by acetic acid. The liver showed the highest uptake of radioisotope, but the relative tissue distribution generally followed the amount of absorption. The surgical procedure itself seemed to reduce zinc absorption. No changes in [3H]leucine absorption were observed between sham-operated and acetic acid-treated controls. There was no significant serosal-->luminal secretion of intramuscularly injected 65Zn in any of the studied segments. Therefore, based upon the data obtained, we conclude that acetic acid-induced intestinal inflammation reduces absorption of zinc by the small and large intestine, and that a surgical procedure (laparotomy) also reduces zinc absorption. The mechanism of this inflammation is such that malabsorption shows some specificity. PMID:8336209

Naveh, Y; Lee-Ambrose, L M; Samuelson, D A; Cousins, R J

1993-08-01

356

Increased coupling and altered glutamate transport currents in astrocytes following kainic-acid-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Profound astrogliosis coincident with neuronal cell loss is universally described in human and animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In the kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of TLE, astrocytes in the hippocampus become reactive soon after SE and before the onset of spontaneous seizures. To determine if astrocytes in the hippocampus exhibit changes in function soon after SE, we recorded from SR101-labeled astrocytes using the whole-cell patch technique in hippocampal brain slices prepared from control and kainic-acid-treated rats. Glutamate transporter-dependent currents were found to have significantly faster decay time kinetics and in addition, dye coupling between astrocytes was substantially increased. Consistent with an increase in dye coupling in reactive astrocytes, immunoblot experiments demonstrated a significant increase in both glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and connexin 43, a major gap junction protein expressed by astrocytes. In contrast to what has been observed in resected tissue from patients with refractory epilepsy, changes in potassium currents were not observed shortly after KA-induced SE. While many changes in neuronal function have been identified during the initial period of low seizure probability in this model of TLE, the present study contributes to the growing body of literature suggesting a role for astrocytes in the process of epileptogenesis. PMID:20691786

Takahashi, D K; Vargas, J R; Wilcox, K S

2010-12-01

357

Retinoic acid induced-1 (Rai1) regulates craniofacial and brain development in Xenopus.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) is an important yet understudied histone code reader that when mutated in humans results in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a neurobehavioral disorder accompanied by signature craniofacial abnormalities. Despite previous studies in mouse and human cell models, very little is known about the function of RAI1 during embryonic development. In the present study, we have turned to the model vertebrates Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis to better understand the developmental roles of Rai1. First we demonstrate that the Rai1 protein sequence is conserved in frogs, especially in known functional domains. By in situ hybridization we revealed expression of rai1 in the developing craniofacial tissues and the nervous system. Knockdown of Rai1 using antisense morpholinos resulted in defects in the developing brain and face. In particular, Rai1 morphants display midface hypoplasia and malformed mouth shape analogous to defects in humans with SMS. These craniofacial defects were accompanied with aberrant neural crest migration and reduction in the size of facial cartilage elements. Rai1 morphants also had defects in axon patterns and decreased forebrain ventricle size. Such brain defects correlated with a decrease in the neurotrophic factor, bdnf, and increased forebrain apoptosis. Our results emphasize a critical role of Rai1 for normal neural and craniofacial development, and further the current understanding of potential mechanisms that cause SMS. PMID:24878353

Tahir, Raiha; Kennedy, Allyson; Elsea, Sarah H; Dickinson, Amanda J

2014-08-01

358

Ulcer healing activity of Mumijo aqueous extract against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: Gastric ulcer is an important clinical problem, chiefly due to extensive use of some drugs. The aim was to assess the activity of Mumijo extract (which is used in traditional medicine) against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of Mumijo was prepared. Animals were randomly (n = 10) divided into four groups: Control, sham-operated group (received 0.2 ml of acetic acid to induce gastric ulcer), Mumijo (100 mg/kg/daily) were given for 4 days postacetic acid administration, and ranitidine group (20 mg/kg). The assessed parameters were pH and pepsin levels (by Anson method) of gastric contents and gastric histopathology. Ranitidine was used as reference anti-ulcer drug. Results: The extract (100 mg/kg/daily, p.o.) inhibited acid acetic-induced gastric ulceration by elevating its pH versus sham group (P < 0.01) and decreasing the pepsin levels compared to standard drug, ranitidine (P < 0.05). The histopathology data showed that the treatment with Mumijo extract had a significant protection against all mucosal damages. Conclusion: Mumijo extract has potent antiulcer activity. Its anti-ulcer property probably acts via a reduction in gastric acid secretion and pepsin levels. The obtained results support the use of this herbal material in folk medicine. PMID:25709338

Shahrokhi, Nader; Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Khaksari, Mohammad

2015-01-01

359

Acupuncture suppresses kainic acid-induced neuronal death and inflammatory events in mouse hippocampus.  

PubMed

The administration of kainic acid (KA) causes seizures and produces neurodegeneration in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells. The present study investigated a possible role of acupuncture in reducing hippocampal cell death and inflammatory events, using a mouse model of kainic acid-induced epilepsy. Male C57BL/6 mice received acupuncture treatments at acupoint HT8 or in the tail area bilaterally once a day for 2 days and again immediately after an intraperitoneal injection of KA (30 mg/kg). HT8 is located on the palmar surface of the forelimbs, between the fourth and fifth metacarpal bones. Twenty-four hours after the KA injection, neuronal cell survival, the activations of microglia and astrocytes, and mRNA expression of two proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), were measured in the hippocampus. Acupuncture stimulation at HT8, but not in the tail area, significantly reduced the KA-induced seizure, neuron death, microglial and astrocyte activations, and IL-1? mRNA expression in the hippocampus. The acupuncture stimulation also decreased the mRNA expression of TNF-?, but it was not significant. These results indicate that acupuncture at HT8 can inhibit hippocampal cell death and suppress KA-induced inflammatory events, suggesting a possible role for acupuncture in the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:22773088

Kim, Seung-Tae; Doo, Ah-Reum; Kim, Seung-Nam; Kim, Song-Yi; Kim, Yoon Young; Kim, Jang-Hyun; Lee, Hyejung; Yin, Chang Shik; Park, Hi-Joon

2012-09-01

360

Identification of arachidonic acid and its metabolism in Gulf of Mexico shrimp  

E-print Network

identified as 20:4~6, arachidonic acid. This is curious in view of the fact that only the w3 fatty acids seem to be essential for shrimp. The positive identi- fication and physiological role of this fatty acid in shrimp have not previously been determined... demonstrated that complex unsat. ? urated oils were more effective than a single fatty acid or phospholipid. Burr and Burr hypothesized that warm- blooded animals are unable to synthesize linoleic acid as well as other unsaturated acids, including linolenic...

Lilly, Martha Lae

1980-01-01

361

Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C 20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C-H stretching mode regions around 3000 cm -1 show such significant differences as results of electronic and molecular structure alterations based on the different degree of saturation that both fatty acids can be clearly distinguished from each other.

Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Walter, Christian; Dörnenburg, Heike; Leipertz, Alfred

2010-02-01

362

Biogenesis and metabolic fate of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids in rat uterine stromal cells in culture.  

PubMed

To gain some insight into the mechanisms involved in the opposing effects of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on the growth of rat uterine stromal cells (UIII cells), the dynamics of the uptake, conversion, and incorporation of labeled 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3), 20:4(n-6), 20:5(n-3), and 22:6(n-3) into lipid pools and phospholipid subclasses were examined. A very active and time-dependent conversion of [14C]18:3(n-3) to higher homologs was observed; 64.7 +/- 0.7 and 11.5 +/- 0.4% of the [14C] radioactivity incorporated in cellular lipids was recovered as 22:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) after 72 h incubation, respectively. The distribution of labeled fatty acids obtained after 72 h incubation with [3H]20:5(n-3) was not significantly different from that observed with 18:3(n-3). Arachidonic acid was the major fatty acid formed from [14C]18:2(n-6) and only trace amounts of 22:5(n-6) were detected. When cells were incubated for 72 h with 20:4(n-6), more than 75% of the radioactivity was recovered as arachidonate and slightly higher amounts of 22:4(n-6) and 22:5(n-6) were formed compared to those obtained after incubation with 18:2(n-6). Using both [14C]- and [3H]22:6(n-3), no significant retroconversion of labeled 22:6(n-3) occurred in the cells. More than 90% of labeled 20:4(n-6) and 22:6(n-3) taken up by the cells were esterified into phospholipids, but significant differences in their distribution among phospholipid classes and subclasses were observed. Docosahexaenoic acid was more rapidly and efficiently incorporated into phosphatidylethanolamine than 20:4(n-6) and was principally recovered in plasmalogens. Arachidonic acid was mainly incorporated in the diacyl subclasses of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine and in phosphatidylinositol. The divergent profiles of these two fatty acids within the phospholipid compartments provide some information for the mechanisms of their opposite effects on UIII cell growth. PMID:8615684

Pageaux, J F; Bechoua, S; Bonnot, G; Fayard, J M; Cohen, H; Lagarde, M; Laugier, C

1996-03-01

363

Oxylipin formation in fungi: biotransformation of arachidonic acid to 3-hydroxy-5,8-tetradecadienoic acid by Mucor genevensis.  

PubMed

The soil fungus Mucor genevensis was shown to convert exogenous arachidonic acid to the oxylipin 3-hydroxy-5Z,8Z-tetradecadienoic acid (3-HTDE) as determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This metabolite was only found in the aqueous supernatant together with free linoleic acid, but not in the final fungal biomass. In contrast, the corresponding primary arachidonic acid metabolite (3R)-hydroxy-(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoic acid (3-HETE), which has been earlier shown to be produced by the yeast Dipodascopsis uninucleata, could not be detected. These observations may be plausibly explained by a retroconversion by M. genevensis of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid before the latter is metabolised to 3-HTDE. PMID:9918790

Pohl, C H; Botha, A; Kock, J L; Coetzee, D J; Botes, P J; Schewe, T; Nigam, S

1998-12-30

364

Robust Multi biometric Recognition Using Face and Ear Images  

E-print Network

This study investigates the use of ear as a biometric for authentication and shows experimental results obtained on a newly created dataset of 420 images. Images are passed to a quality module in order to reduce False Rejection Rate. The Principal Component Analysis (eigen ear) approach was used, obtaining 90.7 percent recognition rate. Improvement in recognition results is obtained when ear biometric is fused with face biometric. The fusion is done at decision level, achieving a recognition rate of 96 percent.

Boodoo, Nazmeen Bibi

2009-01-01

365

Individual differences in external-ear transfer functions of cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the direction-dependent filter characteristics of the external ears is useful for the study of spatial hearing in experimental animals. The present study examined individual differences in the directional components of external-ear transfer functions ~directional transfer functions, DTFs! among 24 anesthetized cats. Ears were fixed in a frontal position. Inter-cat differences in DTFs were quantified across a mid-frequency range

Li Xu; John C. Middlebrooks

2000-01-01

366

Expression of phospholipases A2 in primary human lung macrophages Role of cytosolic phospholipase A2-in arachidonic acid release and platelet  

E-print Network

2- in arachidonic acid release and platelet activating factor synthesis Giorgio Giannattasio: Arachidonic acid Platelet activating factor Phospholipase A2 Lung macrophage Eicosanoid Inflammation). These inhibitors also reduce by 70% the synthesis of platelet-activating factor by activated macrophages. Among

Gelb, Michael

367

Image reconstruction of the ear and face by laser scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present study, a novel method of reconstruction and fabrication of a missing external ear is developed based on laser scanning technique and CAD/CAM technologies. Using the method, the prosthesis of an ear has been fabricated and applied in clinic successfully. The precision and efficiency of rehabilitation reconstruction is improved. The results suggest that the dimensions of the contralateral ear, its position and the shape of the deficient side of the face can be reliably measured on the patient and that laser scanning is useful technique for planning and monitoring facial reconstruction of the ear and other apparatus.

Wang, Dongmei; Huang, Xuemei; Ye, Ming; Wang, Chengtao; Jiao, Ting

2003-04-01

368

A case report of meningioma extending to the middle ear.  

PubMed

Extracranial meningioma with extension into a middle ear is very uncommon. A 74-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with right ear bleeding when removing earwax. In this case, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, her past history and operative findings would consider as infiltrative growth from the right sphenoid ridge meningioma to the right middle ear via the right petrous pyramid and bilateral optic nerve. She underwent only partial extirpation with decompression for optic nerve, rather than total extirpation including middle ear and temporal bone, due to wide invasion of the middle cranial fossa and caversinus sinus. PMID:24765466

Kusunoki, Takeshi; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Miyashita, Mie

2012-05-29

369

Objective high-frequency tinnitus of middle-ear myoclonus.  

PubMed

Tinnitus produced by middle-ear myoclonus is a rare condition. In this article, a rare case of unilateral continuous high-frequency objective tinnitus caused by middle-ear myoclonus is described. This condition appears to be the second case reported in the literature. Otoscopic examination revealed visible rhythmic movements of the tympanic membrane. Weak clicking sounds were heard around the right ear by auscultation. Direct stimulation of the soft palate showed no evidence of palated myoclonus. Tympanometry confirmed rhythmic changes in the middle-ear compliance. The condition was effectively treated with a muscle relaxant (orphenadrine citrate). PMID:15068524

Abdul-Baqi, Khader J

2004-03-01

370

Empirical Evaluation of Advanced Ear Biometrics Ping Yan Kevin W. Bowyer  

E-print Network

Empirical Evaluation of Advanced Ear Biometrics Ping Yan Kevin W. Bowyer Department of Computer experimental inves- tigation of ear biometrics to date. Approaches consid- ered include a PCA ("eigen-ear the robustness and variability of ear biometrics, ear symmetry is also in- vestigated. In our experiments around

Bowyer, Kevin W.

371

Mammalian ear specializations in arid habitats: structural and functional evidence from sand cat ( Felis margarita )  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether structural specializations of sand-cat ears are adaptations to their desert habitats we measured structural and acoustic features of their ears. The area of the external ear's pinna flange is similar to that of domestic cat. The dimensions of the ear canal are about twice domestic cat's, as is the volume of the middle-ear air space. The magnitude

G. T. Huang; J. J. Rosowski; M. E. Ravicz; W. T. Peake

2002-01-01

372

Influence of middle ear pressure alteration and middle ear effusion on vibration characteristics of human tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser doppler vibrometer was used to measure the motion of a simple middle ear model and tympanic membrane vibrations of human temporal bone specimen. Different pathological conditions were simulated: Increasing or decreasing middle ear pressure to defined levels create a situation similar to a barootitis. Additionally the middle ear cavities were partially or totally filled with fluids of different viscosities. Characteristic changes of the vibration patterns were detected: With increasing pressure difference between middle ear and atmosphere the vibration amplitudes decreased. In middle ear effusions diminished amplitudes were obtained, depending on the fluid-occupied volume within the tympanic cavity. The vibration pattern was not influenced by differences in the viscosity of the effusion. Therefore a preoperative examination of a patient with middle ear effusions by laser doppler vibrometer offers no predictive aspect to the decision whether a ventilation tube should be inserted or not.

Stasche, Norbert; Hoermann, Karl; Foth, Hans-Jochen; Bernecker, Frank; Barton, Thomas G.

1995-05-01

373

Historical development of active middle ear implants.  

PubMed

Active middle ear implants (AMEIs) are sophisticated technologies designed to overcome many of the shortcomings of conventional hearing aids, including feedback, distortion, and occlusion effect. Three AMEIs are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for implantation in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. In this article, the history of AMEI technologies is reviewed, individual component development is outlined, past and current implant systems are described, and design and implementation successes and dead ends are highlighted. Past and ongoing challenges facing AMEI development are reviewed. PMID:25282038

Carlson, Matthew L; Pelosi, Stanley; Haynes, David S

2014-12-01

374

Complement activity in middle ear effusions.  

PubMed Central

Evidence for complement utilization in middle ear fluids (MEF) from patients with otitis media with effusion was sought. It was found that cleavage products of C3, C4 and Factor B could be demonstrated immunochemically in MEF, and that native C3 was present in much lower concentrations than other proteins, relative to their serum concentrations. Haemolytic assays for C1-C5 showed that early complement components are inactivated in MEF. Potential mechanisms for complement utilization in MEF are discussed. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:102478

Bernstein, J M; Schenkein, H A; Genco, R J; Bartholomew, W R

1978-01-01

375

Antidepressants enhance the antinociceptive effects of carbamazepine in the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some antidepressants, as well as antiepileptics, are effective for treating pain of varying etiology. The present study was designed to characterize the antinociceptive effects of imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, milnacipran, a serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, and carbamazepine, an antiepileptic drug, using the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Imipramine (1.25–10 mg\\/kg, i.p.), fluvoxamine (5–40 mg\\/kg, i.p.)

Mieko Aoki; Minoru Tsuji; Hiroshi Takeda; Yoichiro Harada; Jun Nohara; Teruhiko Matsumiya; Hiroshige Chiba

2006-01-01

376

Control of antiviral defenses through hepatitis C virus disruption of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human pathogen that infects 170 million people. A hallmark of HCV is its ability to establish persistent infections reflecting the evasion of host immunity and interference with \\/-IFN innate immune defenses. We demonstrate that disruption of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling by the viral NS3\\/4A protease contributes to the ability of HCV

Eileen Foy; Kui Li; Rhea Sumpter Jr.; Yueh-Ming Loo; Cynthia L. Johnson; Chunfu Wang; Penny Mar Fish; Mitsutoshi Yoneyama; Takashi Fujita; Stanley M. Lemon; Michael Gale Jr.

2005-01-01

377

Excitatory Sulfur-Containing Amino Acid-Induced Release of [ 3 H]GABA from Rat Olfactory Bulb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of L-cysteine sulfinic acid (CSA) and L-homocysteic acid (HCA) on the release of tritiated ?-amino butyric acid ([3H]GABA), from the external plexiform layer (EPL) of the rat olfactory bulb, was compared with that of glutamate. These amino acids induced release of GABA was strongly inhibited by the glutamate uptake blocker, pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (2,4,PDC) (50 µM), while it was not

E. H. Jaffe; Y. Garcia

1997-01-01

378

Physiological inhibitory effect of ocs in arachidonic acid-rich Parietochloris incisa (trebouxiophyceae, chlorophyta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parietochloris incisa is an arachidonic acid-rich snow green alga. The main physiological profiles, such as ash free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and total fatty acids (TFA), in this alga exposed to old culture supernatant (OCS) at the decline phase or its crude ethyl acetate extracts (CEAE) were investigated by using tubular photobioreactors of different diameters. Results showed that both OCS and CEAE had strong inhibitory effect on the above physiological parameters. The longer the culture was exposed to OCS and the more CEAE were added into the algal culture, the more the above physiological properties were inhibited. Arachidonic acid (AA), the dominant component of fatty acids in this alga, was also seriously inhibited with respect to total TFA, AFDW of cell mass, or culture volume, due to a probable reduction of enzymes activities catalyzing chain elongation from C18; 1?9 to AA. These results incontestably evidenced that some CEAE dissolving substances existing in OCS. like auto-inhibitors, inhibited P. incisa growth through feedback. Hence, any efficient removal of auto-inhibitors from algal culture to decrease their bioactivity could be good for maximal production of desired products like AA.

Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Cohen, Zvi; Richmond, Amos

2002-09-01

379

Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase decreases arachidonic acid mediated inflammation in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to determine the role of selective neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) inhibition on arachidonic acid (AA) mediated inflammation following liver ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Selective N-SMase inhibitor was administered via intraperitoneal injections. Liver IR injury was created by clamping blood vessels supplying the median and left lateral hepatic lobes for 60 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion. Levels of AA in liver tissue were determined by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using ultra fast-liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured in liver tissue. Arachidonic acid levels, activity of PLA2, COX and PGE2 levels were significantly increased in postischemic liver tissue compared to nonischemic controls. N-SMase inhibition significantly decreased COX activity and PGE2 levels in postischemic liver. Future studies evaluating agents blocking N-SMase activity can facilitate the development of treatment strategies to alleviate inflammation in liver I/R injury. PMID:25550821

Aslan, Mutay; Özcan, Filiz; Tuzcu, Hazal; K?raç, Ebru; Elpek, Gulsum O

2014-01-01

380

Arachidonic acid metabolism in the platelets and neutrophils of diabetic rabbit and human subjects  

SciTech Connect

An alteration of arachidonic acid metabolism to prostaglandins and leukotrienes from platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes respectively is evident in subjects with diabetes mellitus. There is evidence of altered platelet/vascular wall interactions in diabetes mellitus and evidence that polymorphonuclear leukocytes influence the vascular walls. Theories on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis include both blood cells. Platelet hypersensitivity is evident in those platelets from the alloxan-induced diabetic rabbit either suspended in plasma or buffer. Arachidonic acid- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, release of /sup 14/serotonin, and T x B/sub 2/ and 12-HETE production is enhanced when responses of diabetic platelets are compared to control platelets. Control rabbit neutrophils produce more LTB/sub 4/, LTB/sub 4/ isomers and 5-HETE than diabetic rabbits neutrophils. Decreased synthesis from diabetic rabbit neutrophils is not explained by increased catabolism of LTB/sub 4/, reesterification of 5-HETE, or increased eicosanoid formation. These experiments demonstrate both platelet and neutrophil dysfunction in diabetic subjects. Because of the involvement of these cells in regulating circulatory homeostatis, abnormal behavior could aggravate the atherosclerotic process. Platelet and neutrophil dysfunctions are noted before macroscopic vascular lesions are apparent suggesting an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

Greco, N.J.

1985-01-01

381

Endogenous biosynthesis of arachidonic acid epoxides in humans: Increased formation in pregnancy-induced hypertension  

SciTech Connect

Arachidonic acid is metabolized by means of P450 isoenzyme(s) to form epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and their corresponding dihydroxy derivatives (DHETs). In the present study, we established the presence in human urine of 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EETs and their corresponding DHETs by developing quantitative assays and using negative ion, chemical ionization GC/MS and octadeuterated internal standards. Urinary excretion of 8,9- and 11,12-DHET increased in healthy pregnant women compared with nonpregnant female volunteers. By contrast, excretion of 11,12-DHET and 14,15-DHET, but not the 8,9-DHET regioisomer, increased even further in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension. Intravenous administration of (3H)14,15-EET to three dogs markedly increased its DHET in plasma. The terminal half-life ranged from 7.9-12.3 min and the volume of distribution (3.5-5.3 liters) suggested limited distribution outside the plasma compartment. Negligible radioactivity was detected in urine; this fact infers that under physiological circumstances, urinary DHETs largely derive from the kidney. That P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid are formed in humans supports the hypothesis that these metabolites contribute to the physiological response to normal pregnancy and the pathophysiology of pregnancy-induced hypertension.

Catella, F.; Lawson, J.A.; Fitzgerald, D.J.; FitzGerald, G.A. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (USA))

1990-08-01

382

Arachidonate metabolism increases as rat alveolar type II cells differentiate in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Rat type II alveolar epithelial cells are known to undergo morphological and functional changes when maintained in culture for several days. Having previously demonstrated that these cells can deacylate free arachidonic acid (AA) and metabolize it to products of the cyclooxygenase pathway, the present study was undertaken to determine whether in vitro differentiation was accompanied by alterations in the availability and metabolism of AA. We assessed the constitutive and ionophore A23187-induced deacylation and metabolism of endogenous AA, as well as the metabolism of exogenously supplied AA, in primary cultures of rat type II cells at days 2, 4, and 7 after isolation. Levels of free endogenous AA were increased at day 4, whereas eicosanoid synthesis, predominantly prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin, increased markedly only at day 7. A similar time course of augmentation of prostanoid release was seen in response to exogenous AA. Type II cells cultured on fibronectin, intended to hasten cell flattening and spreading, demonstrated accelerated increases in available free AA in response to A23187; cells cultured on basement membrane derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm mouse sarcoma, known to maintain the type II phenotype, exhibited diminished levels of available free AA. From these findings, we conclude that alterations in arachidonate metabolism are linked to alterations in cellular phenotype. The potentiation of eicosanoid synthesis accompanying in vitro differentiation suggests a possible role for the alveolar epithelium in the modulation of inflammation and fibrosis in the distal lung.

Lipchik, R.J.; Chauncey, J.B.; Paine, R.; Simon, R.H.; Peters-Golden, M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

1990-08-01

383

Increasing dietary linoleic acid does not increase tissue arachidonic acid content in adults consuming Western-type diets: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Linoleic acid, with a DRI of 12-17 g/d, is the most highly consumed polyunsaturated fatty acid in the Western diet and is found in virtually all commonly consumed foods. The concern with dietary linoleic acid, being the metabolic precursor of arachidonic acid, is its consumption may enrich tissues with arachidonic acid and contribute to chronic and overproduction of bioactive eicosanoids. However, no systematic review of human trials regarding linoleic acid consumption and subsequent changes in tissue levels of arachidonic acid has been undertaken. Objective In this study, we reviewed the human literature that reported changes in dietary linoleic acid and its subsequent impact on changing tissue arachidonic acid in erythrocytes and plasma/serum phospholipids. Design We identified, reviewed, and evaluated all peer-reviewed published literature presenting data outlining changes in dietary linoleic acid in adult human clinical trials that reported changes in phospholipid fatty acid composition (specifically arachidonic acid) in plasma/serum and erythrocytes within the parameters of our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Decreasing dietary linoleic acid by up to 90% was not significantly correlated with changes in arachidonic acid levels in the phospholipid pool of plasma/serum (p = 0.39). Similarly, when dietary linoleic acid levels were increased up to six fold, no significant correlations with arachidonic acid levels were observed (p = 0.72). However, there was a positive relationship between dietary gamma-linolenic acid and dietary arachidonic acid on changes in arachidonic levels in plasma/serum phospholipids. Conclusions Our results do not support the concept that modifying current intakes of dietary linoleic acid has an effect on changing levels of arachidonic acid in plasma/serum or erythrocytes in adults consuming Western-type diets. PMID:21663641

2011-01-01

384

Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis.  

PubMed

Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. PMID:25636263

Woolbright, Benjamin L; Dorko, Kenneth; Antoine, Daniel J; Clarke, Joanna I; Gholami, Parviz; Li, Feng; Kumer, Sean C; Schmitt, Timothy M; Forster, Jameson; Fan, Fang; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Park, B Kevin; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Olyaee, Mojtaba; Jaeschke, Hartmut

2015-03-15

385

Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

Subcutaneous injection of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior of the back of male ddY mice elicited dose-dependent scratching of the injected site with the forepaws and hindpaws.Up to 100??g of sodium deoxycholic acid induced no significant increase in vascular permeability at the injection site as assessed by a dye leakage method.Bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonists, FR173657 and Hoe140, significantly decreased the frequency of scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid.Treatment with aprotinin to inhibit tissue kallikrein reduced the scratching behaviour induced by sodium deoxycholic acid, whereas treatment with soybean trypsin inhibitor to inhibit plasma kallikrein did not.Although injection of kininase II inhibitor, lisinopril together with sodium deoxycholic acid did not alter the scratching behaviour, phosphoramidon, a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, significantly increased the frequency of scratching.Homogenates of the skin excised from the backs of mice were subjected to gel-filtration column chromatography followed by an assay of kinin release by trypsin from each fraction separated. Less kinin release from the fractions containing kininogen of low molecular weight was observed in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than in normal skin.The frequency of scratching after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in plasma kininogen-deficient Brown Norway Katholiek rats was significantly lower than that in normal rats of the same strain, Brown Norway Kitasato rats.These results indicate that BK released from low-molecular-weight kininogen by tissue kallikrein, but not from high-molecular-weight kininogen by plasma kallikrein, may be involved in the scratching behaviour induced by the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in the rodent. PMID:10051136

Hayashi, Izumi; Majima, Masataka

1999-01-01

386

Diets Rich in Saturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Induce Morphological Alterations in the Rat Ventral Prostate  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the influence of dietary lipid quality on the body mass, carbohydrate metabolism and morphology of the rat ventral prostate. Materials and Methods Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow), HF-S (high-fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids), HF-P (high-fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids) and HF-SP (high-fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids). We analyzed body mass, fat mass deposits, plasma blood, insulin resistance and the ventral prostate structure. Results Groups that received high-fat diets were heavier and presented larger fat deposits than SC group. The HF-S and HF-SP groups had higher glucose, insulin and total cholesterol serum levels and insulin resistance compared with the SC. The acinar area, epithelium height and area density of the lumen were higher in the HF-SP than in the other groups. The epithelium area density and epithelial cell proliferation were greater in the HF-P and HF-SP than in the SC group. All of the groups that received high-fat diets had greater area density of the stroma, area density of smooth muscle cells and stromal cell proliferation compared with the SC group. Conclusion Diets rich in saturated and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids induced overweight. Independently of insulin resistance, polyunsaturated fatty acids increased prostate stromal and epithelial cell proliferation. Saturated fatty acids influenced only stromal cellular proliferation. These structural and morphometric alterations may be considered risk factors for the development of adverse remodeling process in the rat ventral prostate. PMID:25029463

Furriel, Angélica; Campos-Silva, Pamella; Silva, Paola Cariello Guedes Picarote; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Sampaio, Francisco José Barcellos; Gregório, Bianca Martins

2014-01-01

387

Valproic acid-induced changes in gene expression during neurulation in a mouse model.  

PubMed

The teratogenic potential of valproic acid has been well established both in experimental models and in human clinical studies. As with all human teratogens, there are genetically determined differences in individual susceptibility to the induction of congenital defects. Using a mouse model of valproate-induced neural tube defects, a study was undertaken to examine differential changes in gene expression for selected transcription factor (Pax-3, Emx-1, Emx-2, c-fos, c-jun, creb) and cell cycle checkpoint genes (bcl-2, p53, wee-1) during neural tube closure. In general, exposure to teratogenic concentrations of valproic acid elicited GD 9:12 control levels of transcription factor mRNA expression in GD 9:0 embryos of both strains. This accelerated developmental profile is marked by significant elevation of Emx-1, Emx-2, c-fos, c-jun, and creb expression. There was also a significant over expression of the cell cycle genes p53 and bcl-2 in the LM/Bc embryos in response to the teratogenic insult. Examination of the ratio of expression of these genes clearly favored bcl-2, which supports the hypothesis that altered neuroepithelial cell proliferation rates, rather than increased apoptosis, is the underlying mechanism by which valproic acid alters normal neural tube morphogenesis. An investigation into interactive effects of these genes on the molecular profile of GD 9:0 embryos further validated this observation. That is, the overall proliferative state among the control embryos was prematurely modified into a more differentiated state following teratogenic insult. These results suggest that alterations in the expression of multiple genes are most likely responsible for valproic acid-induced neural tube defects. PMID:9098922

Wlodarczyk, B C; Craig, J C; Bennett, G D; Calvin, J A; Finnell, R H

1996-12-01

388

Kainic acid-induced recurrent mossy fiber innervation of dentate gyrus GABAergic interneurons  

PubMed Central

Kainic acid-induced neuron loss in the hippocampal dentate gyrus may cause epileptogenic hyperexcitability by triggering the formation of recurrent excitatory connections among normally unconnected granule cells. We tested this hypothesis by assessing granule cell excitability repeatedly within the same awake rats at different stages of the synaptic reorganization process initiated by kainate-induced status epilepticus (SE). Granule cells were maximally hyperexcitable to afferent stimulation immediately after SE, and became gradually less excitable during the first month post-SE. The chronic epileptic state was characterized by granule cell hyperinhibition, i.e. abnormally increased paired-pulse suppression and an abnormally high resistance to generating epileptiform discharges in response to afferent stimulation. Focal application of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline methiodide within the dentate gyrus abolished the abnormally increased paired-pulse suppression recorded in chronically hyperinhibited rats. Combined Timm staining and parvalbumin immunocytochemistry revealed dense innervation of dentate inhibitory interneurons by newly-formed, Timm-positive, mossy fiber terminals. Ultrastructural analysis by conventional- and post-embedding GABA immunocytochemical electron microscopy confirmed that abnormal mossy fiber terminals of the dentate inner molecular layer formed frequent asymmetrical synapses with inhibitory interneurons and with GABA-immunopositive dendrites, as well as with GABA-immunonegative dendrites of presumed granule cells. These results in chronically epileptic rats demonstrate that dentate granule cells are maximally hyperexcitable immediately after SE, prior to mossy fiber sprouting, and that synaptic reorganization following kainate-induced injury is temporally associated with GABAA receptor-dependent granule cell hyperinhibition, rather than an hypothesized progressive hyperexcitability. The anatomical data provide evidence of a possible anatomical substrate for the chronically hyperinhibited state. PMID:16385488

Sloviter, Robert S.; Zappone, Colin A.; Harvey, Brian D.; Frotscher, Michael

2008-01-01

389

Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin  

PubMed Central

Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity. PMID:21949380

Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

2011-01-01

390

Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin.  

PubMed

Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity. PMID:21949380

Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

2011-10-01

391

The bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid, induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells: evidence for synergy with paclitaxel  

PubMed Central

Bisphosphonates are well established in the management of breast-cancer-induced bone disease. Recent studies have suggested that these compounds are effective in preventing the development of bone metastases. However, it is unclear whether this reflects an indirect effect via an inhibition of bone resorption or a direct anti-tumour effect. The breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of the bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid, for varying time periods, in the presence or absence of paclitaxel. The effects of zoledronic acid were determined by assessing cell number and rate of apoptosis by evaluating changes in nuclear morphology and using a fluorescence nick translation assay. Zoledronic acid caused a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cell number (P< 0.001) and a concomitant increase in tumour cell apoptosis (P< 0.005). Short-term exposure to zoledronic acid was sufficient to cause a significant reduction in cell number and increase in apoptosis (P< 0.05). These effects could be prevented by incubation with geranyl geraniol, suggesting that zoledronic acid-induced apoptosis is mediated by inhibiting the mevalonate pathway. Treatment with zoledronic acid and clinically achievable concentrations of paclitaxel resulted in a 4–5-fold increase in tumour cell apoptosis (P< 0.02). Isobologram analysis revealed synergistic effects on tumour cell number and apoptosis when zoledronic acid and paclitaxel were combined. Short-term treatment with zoledronic acid, which closely resembles the clinical setting, has a clear anti-tumour effect on breast cancer cells. Importantly, the commonly used anti-neoplastic agent, paclitaxel, potentiates the anti-tumour effects of zoledronic acid. These data suggest that, in addition to inhibiting bone resorption, zoledronic acid has a direct anti-tumour activity on breast cancer cells in vitro. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11308265

Jagdev, S P; Coleman, R E; Shipman, C M; Rostami-H, A; Croucher, P I

2001-01-01

392

Probing the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome for biological function  

PubMed Central

Background The senses of hearing and balance depend upon mechanoreception, a process that originates in the inner ear and shares features across species. Amphibians have been widely used for physiological studies of mechanotransduction by sensory hair cells. In contrast, much less is known of the genetic basis of auditory and vestibular function in this class of animals. Among amphibians, the genus Xenopus is a well-characterized genetic and developmental model that offers unique opportunities for inner ear research because of the amphibian capacity for tissue and organ regeneration. For these reasons, we implemented a functional genomics approach as a means to undertake a large-scale analysis of the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome through microarray analysis. Results Microarray analysis uncovered genes within the X. laevis inner ear transcriptome associated with inner ear function and impairment in other organisms, thereby supporting the inclusion of Xenopus in cross-species genetic studies of the inner ear. The use of gene categories (inner ear tissue; deafness; ion channels; ion transporters; transcription factors) facilitated the assignment of functional significance to probe set identifiers. We enhanced the biological relevance of our microarray data by using a variety of curation approaches to increase the annotation of the Affymetrix GeneChip® Xenopus laevis Genome array. In addition, annotation analysis revealed the prevalence of inner ear transcripts represented by probe set identifiers that lack functional characterization. Conclusions We identified an abundance of targets for genetic analysis of auditory and vestibular function. The orthologues to human genes with known inner ear function and the highly expressed transcripts that lack annotation are particularly interesting candidates for future analyses. We used informatics approaches to impart biologically relevant information to the Xenopus inner ear transcriptome, thereby addressing the impediment imposed by insufficient gene annotation. These findings heighten the relevance of Xenopus as a model organism for genetic investigations of inner ear organogenesis, morphogenesis, and regeneration. PMID:22676585

2012-01-01

393

Sp8 regulates inner ear development.  

PubMed

A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to regulate limb and brain development. Two different loss-of-function approaches using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and morpholino oligonucleotides confirmed that the ecl mutant phenotype is caused by down-regulation of sp8. Depletion of sp8 resulted in otic dysmorphogenesis, such as uncompartmentalized and enlarged otic vesicles, epithelial dilation with abnormal sensory end organs. When overexpressed, sp8 was sufficient to induce ectopic otic vesicles possessing sensory hair cells, neurofilament innervation in a thickened sensory epithelium, and otoconia, all of which are found in the endogenous otic vesicle. We propose that sp8 is an important factor for initiation and elaboration of inner ear development. PMID:24722637

Chung, Hyeyoung A; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Harland, Richard M

2014-04-29

394

Sp8 regulates inner ear development  

PubMed Central

A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to regulate limb and brain development. Two different loss-of-function approaches using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and morpholino oligonucleotides confirmed that the ecl mutant phenotype is caused by down-regulation of sp8. Depletion of sp8 resulted in otic dysmorphogenesis, such as uncompartmentalized and enlarged otic vesicles, epithelial dilation with abnormal sensory end organs. When overexpressed, sp8 was sufficient to induce ectopic otic vesicles possessing sensory hair cells, neurofilament innervation in a thickened sensory epithelium, and otoconia, all of which are found in the endogenous otic vesicle. We propose that sp8 is an important factor for initiation and elaboration of inner ear development. PMID:24722637

Chung, Hyeyoung A.; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Harland, Richard M.

2014-01-01

395

496. Phys. Lett A., (2006) A.G.Ramm, The shape of the ear canal The shape of the ear canal #+  

E-print Network

496. Phys. Lett A., (2006) A.G.Ramm, The shape of the ear canal 1 #12; The shape of the ear canal@math.ksu.edu Abstract It is proved that the measurement of the acoustic pressure on the ear membrane allows one to determine the shape of the ear canal uniquely. 1 Introduction Consider a bounded domain D # R n , n = 3

396

Within-ear and across-ear interference in a cocktail-party listening task Douglas S. Brungart1 and Brian D. Simpson2  

E-print Network

Within-ear and across-ear interference in a cocktail-party listening task Douglas S. Brungart1 talker is present in the same ear as the target speech or when a masking talker is present in a different ear than the target speech, little is known about selective auditory attention in tasks with a target

Allen, Jont

397

21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

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21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

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21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light...

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21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer...

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32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

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21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

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21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2012-04-01

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21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

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21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.  

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21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

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21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.  

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21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional  

MedlinePLUS

... Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional Past Issues / ... A feeling of fullness or fluid in the ear Ringing in your ears (called tinnitus) Causes Aging ...

414

32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

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22 CFR 120.42 - Subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 120.42 Section 120.42 Foreign Relations...Subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). Items “subject to the EAR” are those items listed on the Commerce...

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21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light...

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21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light...

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21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2011-04-01

419

21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light...

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21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

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21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer...

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32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

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...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

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21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

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78 FR 55664 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL)  

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2013-09-11

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21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

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32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

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21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

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32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

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21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

2011-04-01

430

21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

2012-04-01

431

21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

2011-04-01

432

21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

2012-04-01

433

78 FR 76741 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL) AGENCY: Bureau...the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by: Requiring exporters to file an Automated...record for all exports subject to the EAR involving a party or parties to the...

2013-12-19

434

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2013-04-01

435

21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer...

2014-04-01

436

21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light...

2010-04-01

437

21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

2012-04-01

438

The radiation impedance of the external ear of cat:Measurements and applications  

E-print Network

The radiation impedance of the external ear of cat:Measurements and applications J.J. Rosowski not be relatedto auditory performancet). Althoughmeasurementshavebeenmadeof how the external ears affect structuralvariationsprovidesa naturalopportunitytolearnhowtheacousticfunctionofthe external ear is related to structure

Allen, Jont

439

21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear,...

2013-04-01

440

21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

2010-04-01

441

21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

2014-04-01

442

21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

2012-04-01

443

CT of adenomas of the middle ear and mastoid cavity  

SciTech Connect

A case of mixed type adenoma of the middle ear and mastoid is presented in which CT showed complete opacification of the middle ear and mastoid air cells with bulging of the tympanic membrane but without ossicular or bony destruction. 7 refs., 1 figs.

Van Thong Ho [McGuire Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Richmond, VA (United States); Rao, V.J.; Mikaelian, D.O. [Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital and Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1996-03-01

444

Differential Intensity Sensitivity of the Ear for Pure Tones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ratio of the minimum perceptible increment in sound intensity to the total intensity, DeltaEE, which is called the differential sensitivity of the ear, was measured as a function of frequency and intensity. Measurements were made over practically the entire range of frequencies and intensities for which the ear is capable of sensation. The method used was that of beating

R. R. Riesz

1928-01-01

445

21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

2013-04-01

446

21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

2011-04-01

447

On the problem of barotrauma of the middle ear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure damage to the middle ear in 74 cases of pressure trauma was studied. It was found that pressure trauma can be most serious with respect to reducing work capability of personnel in flight, and that pressure trauma of the middle ear developed with acute rhinitis.

Medvezhova, R. A.

1973-01-01

448

Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

1989-01-01

449

The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

450

Identifying position, visibility, dimensions, and angulation of the ear.  

PubMed

We selected 254 subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 yr to assess the ear position, angulations of the ear in relation to the nose, visibility from the frontal view, and dimensions of the ear by using various anthropometric points of the face. Subjects were divided into four groups based on facial form. A reference plane indicator, facial topographical measurements, metal ruler, and digital photography were used. While considering the position of the ear, in all facial forms except square tapering, the most samples showed a tendency for the subaurale being in line with subnasale. Regression analysis showed a tendency to gnathion distance is the most dependent variable with length of the ear kept as a constant predictor, while both interalar distance and exocanthion to endocanthion distance correlate highly significantly to the width of the ear. In all subjects, the visibility of the ear when viewed from the front was an average of 1.5 mm. Regardless of facial form, ear angulation was generally less than nose angulation. PMID:25144173

Mohamed, Kasim; Christian, Jayanth; Jeyapalan, Karthigeyan; Natarajan, Shanmuganathan; Banu, Fathima; Veeravalli, Padmanabhan T

2014-01-01

451

Development of the vertebrate ear: insights from knockouts and mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three divisions of the ear (outer, middle and inner) each have an important role in hearing, while the inner ear is also crucial for the sense of balance. How these three major components arise and coalesce to form the peripheral elements of the senses of hearing and balance is now being studied using molecular-genetic approaches. This article summarizes data

Donna M. Fekete

1999-01-01

452

Fundamental immune mechanisms of the brain and inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the blood-brain and blood-labyrinthine barriers, the brain and inner ear were once thought to be immunoprivileged sites. Although these barriers provide protection from inflammatory damage to the delicate structures of the organs, both sites have since been shown to be capable of active immune responses when appropriately stimulated. In the inner ear, perisacular tissue around the endolymphatic sac

JEFFREY P. HARRIS; ALLEN F. RYAN

1995-01-01

453

Pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of titanium ear implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different prototypes of ear implants have been successfully produced using Nd-YAG laser welding. The prototypes differ in use and dimensions. This presentation will deal with the latest developed ear implant, i.e. a box containing special electronics inside. The implant has to be He leak tight, the weld penetration should be between 50 and 65% of the cover in order

Jan Gedopt; Erwin Delarbre

2000-01-01

454

Middle Ear Resonance and Acoustic Immittance Measures in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study established a normal middle ear resonance estimated from sweep frequency tympanometry, established normal equivalent ear canal volume, static acoustic admittance, and tympanometric peak pressure at 226 hertz in 90 children with normal hearing and 68 children with deafness, ages 6-15. No significant intergroup or age differences were…

Hanks, Wendy D.; Rose, Katie J.

1993-01-01

455

Replantation of an avulsed ear, using a single arterial anastamosis.  

PubMed

Avulsion of the ear is relatively uncommon and replantation a technical challenge. A case in which an avulsed ear was successfully replanted using a single arterial anastamosis is described. The surgical difficulties encountered, the pharmaceutical approach to postoperative care and the problems which resulted from the lack of venous drainage are discussed. PMID:18061545

O'Toole, G; Bhatti, K; Masood, S

2008-01-01

456

[Significance of the ear in the determination of age].  

PubMed

The morphology of human ear conch is said to be rather individual, but a perfect person-identification by this mean is not possible. It is demonstrated by photographs-made in a 15 years' interval-that ear conch and auricular area can be typically marked by proceeding age and specific diseases. PMID:3741048

Röhm, E; Adam, E

1986-01-01

457

Prostaglandin I2 is not a major metabolite of arachidonic acid in cultured endothelial cells from human foreskin microvessels.  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation, is a major product of arachidonic acid metabolism in endothelial cells that are derived from large blood vessels (e.g., umbilical veins). We have examined whether PGI2 is also a major product of arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured endothelial cells that are derived from dermal microvessels in human newborn foreskin. Supernatants from confluent monolayers of endothelial cells that had been incubated for 20 min with [3H]arachidonic acid and the calcium ionophore A23187 (10 microM) were assayed for prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGF1 alpha) (the stable metabolite of PGI2) by using authentic standards and high performance liquid chromatography. Whereas supernates from stimulated umbilical vein endothelial cells contained 6-keto-PGF 1 alpha much greater than PGF 2 alpha much greater than PGE2, supernates from stimulated foreskin microvessel endothelial cells contained PGF 2 alpha congruent to PGE2 much greater than 6-keto-PGF 1 alpha. Similar results were obtained when supernates from stimulated, unlabeled endothelial cells were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. These data indicate that PGI2 is not a major metabolite of arachidonic acid in cultured endothelial cells from human foreskin microvessels. Images PMID:6432852

Charo, I F; Shak, S; Karasek, M A; Davison, P M; Goldstein, I M

1984-01-01

458

CO-EXPOSURE OF HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS TO OZONE AND PARTICULATE MATTER: EFFECTS ON ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLISM  

EPA Science Inventory

Co-exposure of human airway epithelial cells to ozone and particulate matter: effects on arachidonic acid metabolism. D. Stamm1, L. Dailey2, M.C. Madden2 1 University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, School of Medicine 2 U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, HSD, Chapel Hill, NC, USA...

459

Many of the enzymes, receptors and eicosanoid metabo-lites of the arachidonate cascade (FIG. 1) are key thera-  

E-print Network

Many of the enzymes, receptors and eicosanoid metabo- lites of the arachidonate cascade (FIG. 1 of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and stroke13­16 . The epoxygenase CYP enzymes generate diminishing their beneficial cardiovascular properties20,21 . Inhibition of this enzyme is therefore

Hammock, Bruce D.

460

Synthesis and Applications of Stereospecifically 3H-Labeled Arachidonic Acids as Mechanistic Probes for Lipoxygenase and Cyclooxygenase Catalysis 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereospecifically 3H-labeled substrates are useful tools in studying the mechanism of hydrogen abstractions involved in the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we describe modified methods for the synthesis of arachidonic acids labeled with a single chiral tritium on the methylene groups at carbons 10 or 13. The appropriate starting material is a ketooctadecanoic acid which is prepared from an

Claus Schneider; William E. Boeglin; Sheng Lai; Jin K. Cha; Alan R. Brash

2000-01-01

461

Synthesis and applications of stereospecifically (3)H-labeled arachidonic acids as mechanistic probes for lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase catalysis.  

PubMed

Stereospecifically (3)H-labeled substrates are useful tools in studying the mechanism of hydrogen abstractions involved in the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we describe modified methods for the synthesis of arachidonic acids labeled with a single chiral tritium on the methylene groups at carbons 10 or 13. The appropriate starting material is a ketooctadecanoic acid which is prepared from an unsaturated C18 fatty acid precursor or by total synthesis. The (3)H label is introduced by NaB(3)H(4) reduction and the resulting tritiated hydroxy fatty acid then is tosylated, separated into the enantiomers by chiral phase HPLC, and subsequently transformed into stearic acids. A variety of stereospecifically labeled unsaturated fatty acids are obtained using literature methods of microbial transformation with the fungus Saprolegnia parasitica. Two applications are described: (i) In incubations of [10S-(3)H]- and [10R-(3)H]arachidonic acids in human psoriatic scales we show that a 12R-lipoxygenase accounts not only for synthesis of the major product 12R-HETE, but it contributes also, through subsequent isomerization, to the minor amounts of 12S-HETE. (ii) The [10R-(3)H]- and [10S-(3)H]arachidonic acids were also used to demonstrate that prostaglandin ring formation by cyclooxygenases does not involve carbocation formation at C-10 of arachidonic acid as was hypothesized recently. PMID:10933865

Schneider, C; Boeglin, W E; Lai, S; Cha, J K; Brash, A R

2000-08-15

462

Dietary n-3 PUFA deprivation alters expression of enzymes of the arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid cascades in rat frontal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymes that regulate the brain arachidonic acid (AA) cascade have been implicated in bipolar disorder and neuroinflammation. Fifteen weeks of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deprivation in rats decreases the concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and increases its half-life within the brain. Based on this, we hypothesized that such dietary deprivation would decrease expression of enzymes responsible for

J S Rao; R N Ertley; J C DeMar; S I Rapoport; R P Bazinet; H-J Lee

2007-01-01

463

Safety evaluation of sources of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid for use in infant formulas in newborn piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human milk provides small quantities of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA), usually less than 1% of total fatty acids. Vegetable oil blends commonly used in infant formulas have, until recently, provided the essential fatty acid precursors for these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), but no preformed DHA and ARA. This study evaluated the safety of ingredient sources

Russell J Merritt; Nancy Auestad; Claire Kruger; Sally Buchanan

2003-01-01

464

IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MOSS PHYSCOMITRELLA PATENS DELTA5-DESATURASE GENE INVOLVED IN ARACHIDONIC AND EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The moss Physcomitrella patens contains high levels of arachidonic acid and lesser amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid. In general, these C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids are synthesized from linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, respectively, by a series of reactions catalyzed by a delta6-desaturase, an ...

465

Plasma oxylipin profiling identifies polyunsaturated vicinal diols as responsive to arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake in growing piglets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dose-responsiveness of plasma oxylipins to incremental dietary intake of arachidonic (20:4n-6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3; DHA) acid was determined in piglets. Piglets randomly received one of six formulas (n=8 per group) from day 3 to 27 postnatally. Diets contained varying ARA and DHA l...

466

Inner ear symptoms and disease: Pathophysiological understanding and therapeutic options  

PubMed Central

In recent years, huge advances have taken place in understanding of inner ear pathophysiology causing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Advances in understanding comprise biochemical and physiological research of stimulus perception and conduction, inner ear homeostasis, and hereditary diseases with underlying genetics. This review describes and tabulates the various causes of inner ear disease and defines inner ear and non-inner ear causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The aim of this review was to comprehensively breakdown this field of otorhinolaryngology for specialists and non-specialists and to discuss current therapeutic options in distinct diseases and promising research for future therapies, especially pharmaceutic, genetic, or stem cell therapy. PMID:24362017

Ciuman, Raphael R.

2013-01-01

467

Acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity alters cardiac cytochrome P450 expression and arachidonic acid metabolism in rats  

SciTech Connect

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anti-neoplastic antibiotic used to treat a variety of malignancies; however, its use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Moreover, there is a strong correlation between cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated arachidonic acid metabolites and the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, in the current study, we have investigated the effect of acute DOX toxicity on the expression of several CYP enzymes and their associated arachidonic acid metabolites in the heart of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute DOX toxicity was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg of the drug. Our results showed that DOX treatment for 24 h caused a significant induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2C11, CYP2J3, CYP4A1, CYP4A3, CYP4F1, CYP4F4, and EPHX2 gene expression in the heart of DOX-treated rats as compared to the control. Similarly, there was a significant induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2C11, CYP2J3, CYP4A, and sEH proteins after 24 h of DOX administration. In the heart microsomes, acute DOX toxicity significantly increased the formation of 20-HETE which is consistent with the induction of the major CYP omega-hydroxylases: CYP4A1, CYP4A3, CYP4F1, and CYP4F4. On the other hand, the formation of 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) was significantly reduced, whereas the formation of their corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids was significantly increased. The decrease in the cardioprotective EETs can be attributed to the increase of sEH activity parallel to the induction of the EPHX2 gene expression in the heart of DOX-treated rats. In conclusion, acute DOX toxicity alters the expression of several CYP and sEH enzymes with a consequent alteration in arachidonic acid metabolism. These results may represent a novel mechanism by which this drug causes progressive cardiotoxicity.

Zordoky, Beshay N.M.; Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; Aboutabl, Mona E. [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3126 Dentistry/Pharmacy Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N8 (Canada); El-Kadi, Ayman O.S., E-mail: aelkadi@pharmacy.ualberta.c [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3126 Dentistry/Pharmacy Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N8 (Canada)

2010-01-01

468

Permeability and vasomotor response of cerebral vessels during exposure to arachidonic acid.  

PubMed

Release of arachidonic acid (AA) in brain tissue is found in various cerebral insults. Blood-brain barrier function and vasomotor response were studied during cerebral administration of the fatty acid to obtain further evidence on its role as mediator of secondary brain damage under pathological conditions. Na+-fluorescein or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran were i.v. administered as low- and high-molecular weight blood-brain barrier indicators. Cortical superfusion of arachidonic acid led to moderate constriction of ca. 90% of normal of pial arteries of 60-220 micron phi, whereas the venous diameters remained unaffected. On the other hand, AA caused opening of the blood-brain barrier not only for Na+-fluorescein but also for FITC-dextran (mol.wt. 62,000). Extravasation of Na+-fluorescein started at AA concentrations of 3 X 10(-5) M. Concentrations of 3 X 10(-4) to 3 X 10(-3) M always sufficed to induce barrier opening for fluorescein, whereas 3 X 10(-3) M was required for FITC-dextran. Leakage of the blood-brain barrier indicators started around venules. Pretreatment with indomethacin, or with BW 755 C, a dual inhibitor of both the cyclo- and lipoxygenase pathway did not prevent barrier opening by arachidonate for Na+-fluorescein. However, in the presence of indomethacin higher concentrations of AA were required to open the barrier for Na+-fluorescein, whereas BW 755 C did not influence the dose-effect relationship of AA and barrier opening observed in untreated animals. The latter findings imply that the pathophysiological effects induced by AA are likely to be attributed to the acid itself, rather than to its metabolites, a conclusion which might be in conflict with earlier observations reported in the literature. Electron microscopy revealed marked alterations of the venous endothelium, such as an attachment and eventual penetration of polymorphonuclear granulocytes through the endothelial barrier, while the small arteries and arterioles were unaffected. The findings may indicate that opening of the barrier by AA is mediated by granulocytes and/or their products. Taken together, our findings support the concept that release of AA in primarily damaged brain tissue enhances secondary processes, such as a failure of the blood-brain barrier function. The limited potency or even ineffectiveness, respectively, of indomethacin or BW 755 C provides evidence for a direct involvement of the fatty acid rather than of its metabolic degradation products. Therefore, therapeutic prevention of AA formation under these circumstances might be superior to mere inhibition of its metabolism. PMID:2441558

Unterberg, A; Wahl, M; Hammersen, F; Baethmann, A

1987-01-01

469

Self-Ear-Cleaning Among Educated Young Adults in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Context: Self-ear-cleaning has been reported to be common from several hospital-based studies and it has been associated with some diseases of the ear. Aims: To determine community-based prevalence of self-ear-cleaning and its sociodemographic correlates among educated young adults in Nigeria. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey conducted in a National Youth Service Corps camp in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Semistructured questionnaires were administered on a randomly selected sample of 1280 respondents. The outcome variable was self-ear-cleaning. Independent variables were sociodemographic variables, materials used and ear-cleaning habits. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 was utilized for univariate, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: There were 1012 respondents (M: F = 1.05:1). Mean age was 25.3 (standard deviation, 2.34). Prevalence of self-ear-cleaning was 93.4%. Mean age at first cleaning was 7.6 years. Cotton buds were the most frequently used objects (in 85.1%). Prevalence was high irrespective of sociodemographic class, significantly higher among females (?2 = 4.549, P = 0.033), those who believed the habit was beneficial (?2 = 114.185, P < 0.001) and those whose parents and siblings practiced the habit. Significant predictive factors were self-ear-cleaning in respondent's father [odds ratio (OR) P = 0.011) and owning cotton buds (OR = 0.192, P = 0.007). Conclusions: Self-ear-cleaning is almost universal. Most of the population is, therefore, at risk of possible harmful effects. Also, medical advice against self-ear-cleaning is not widely known. Rather, the erroneous perception that self-ear-cleaning is beneficial is common. Collaborative health education efforts targeted at families and schools and campaigns and advocacy for legislation regulating the sale of cotton buds are recommended. PMID:24791230

Olaosun, Adedayo Olugbenga

2014-01-01

470

"Play It by Ear"--Teachers' Responses to Ear-Playing Tasks during One-to-One Instrumental Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports findings from the Ear-Playing Project in relation to the teaching strategies that 15 instrumental teachers adopted during one-to-one instrumental lessons whilst helping their students to copy music by ear from a recording. Overall, the teachers used a variety of strategies including singing and humming along with or without the…

Varvarigou, Maria

2014-01-01

471

Fgf8 and Fgf3 are required for zebrafish ear placode induction, maintenance and inner ear patterning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertebrate inner ear develops from initially ‘simple’ ectodermal placode and vesicle stages into the complex three-dimensional structure which is necessary for the senses of hearing and equilibrium. Although the main morphological events in vertebrate inner ear development are known, the genetic mechanisms controlling them are scarcely understood. Previous studies have suggested that the otic placode is induced by signals

Sophie Léger; Michael Brand

2002-01-01

472

The comparative anatomy of the pig middle ear cavity: a model for middle ear inflammation in the human?  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to develop a functional model of otitis media with effusion (OME) in the pig (Sus scrofa), with the purpose of investigating the origin of lymphocytes populating the middle ear during the course of an inflammatory process. The relevance of the model to the human condition of OME is to a large extent dependent on the anatomical and physiological similarities between the middle ear cavity and the pharyngeal lymphoid tissue of the pig and man. Anatomical specimens were collected from 7 young Large White pigs to determine the gross anatomy of the middle ear cavity and the histological characteristics of the middle ear mucosa. It was found that the anatomy of the 3 parts of the middle ear cavity in man and in the pig is broadly similar, although some minor differences were observed. The porcine eustachian tube was seen to be cartilaginous throughout its length in contrast to the part osseous, part cartilaginous structure found in man; the porcine ossicles were slightly different in shape to those of man and the air cell system was situated inferior to the tympanic cavity in the pig as opposed to posteriorly in man. This paper describes the structure and morphology of the pig middle ear cavity and compares and contrasts it with that of man. The minor differences observed are of anatomical importance but do not diminish the usefulness of the pig middle ear cleft as a potential model for human middle ear disorders. PMID:9688502

PRACY, J. P.; WHITE, A.; MUSTAFA, Y.; SMITH, D.; PERRY, M. E.

1998-01-01

473

Hydration-state change of horse heart cytochrome c corresponding to trifluoroacetic-acid-induced unfolding.  

PubMed

We investigate the hydration state of horse-heart cytochrome c (hh cyt c) in the unfolding process induced by trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). The conformation of hh cyt c changes from the native (N) state (2.9 < pH < 6.0) to the acid-unfolded (U(A)) state (1.7 < pH < 2.0) to the acid-induced molten globule (A) state (pH ?1.2). Hydration properties of hh cyt c during this process are measured at 20°C by high-resolution dielectric relaxation (DR) spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Constrained water of hh cyt c is observed at every pH as an ?5-GHz Debye component (DC) (DR time, ?(D) ?30 ps) and its DR amplitude (DRA) is increased by 77% upon N-to-U(A) transition, when pH changes from 6.0 to 2.0. Even in the N state, the DRA of the constrained-water component is found to be increased by 22% with decreasing pH from 6.0 to 2.9, suggesting an increase in the accessible surface area of native hh cyt c. Moreover, hypermobile water around native hh cyt c is detected at pH 6.0 as a 19-GHz DC (?(D) ? 8.4 ps 

Miyashita, Yusuke; Wazawa, Tetsuichi; Mogami, George; Takahashi, Satoshi; Sambongi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Makoto

2013-01-01

474

Interactions between the Influenza A Virus RNA Polymerase Components and Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene I  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The influenza A virus genome possesses eight negative-strand RNA segments in the form of viral ribonucleoprotein particles (vRNPs) in association with the three viral RNA polymerase subunits (PB2, PB1, and PA) and the nucleoprotein (NP). Through interactions with multiple host factors, the RNP subunits play vital roles in replication, host adaptation, interspecies transmission, and pathogenicity. In order to gain insight into the potential roles of RNP subunits in the modulation of the host's innate immune response, the interactions of each RNP subunit with retinoic acid-inducible gene I protein (RIG-I) from mammalian and avian species were investigated. Studies using coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFc), and colocalization using confocal microscopy provided direct evidence for the RNA-independent binding of PB2, PB1, and PA with RIG-I from various hosts (human, swine, mouse, and duck). In contrast, the binding of NP with RIG-I was found to be RNA dependent. Expression of the viral NS1 protein, which interacts with RIG-I, did not interfere with the association of RNA polymerase subunits with RIG-I. The association of each individual virus polymerase component with RIG-I failed to significantly affect the interferon (IFN) induction elicited by RIG-I and 5? triphosphate (5?ppp) RNA in reporter assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and IRF3 phosphorylation tests. Taken together, these findings indicate that viral RNA polymerase components PB2, PB1, and PA directly target RIG-I, but the exact biological significance of these interactions in the replication and pathogenicity of influenza A virus needs to be further clarified. IMPORTANCE RIG-I is an important RNA sensor to elicit the innate immune response in mammals and some bird species (such as duck) upon influenza A virus infection. Although the 5?-triphosphate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) panhandle structure at the end of viral genome RNA is responsible for the binding and subsequent activation of RIG-I, this structure is supposedly wrapped by RNA polymerase complex (PB2, PB1, and PA), which may interfere with the induction of RIG-I signaling pathway. In the present study, PB2, PB1, and PA were found to individually interact with RIG-Is from multiple mammalian and avian species in an RNA-independent manner, without significantly affecting the generation of IFN. The data suggest that although RIG-I binding by RNA polymerase complex is conserved in different species, it does not appear to play crucial role in the modulation of IFN in vitro. PMID:24942585

Li, Weizhong; Chen, Hongjun; Sutton, Troy; Obadan, Adebimpe

2014-01-01

475

Analysis of Earing in Deep Drawn Cups  

SciTech Connect

The cup-drawing of a strongly anisotropic sheet metal is simulated using a commercial finite element software along with a user material subroutine. In order to accurately describe the plastic anisotropy of the material the well-known recent yield function 'Yld2004-18p' is extended. Regarding the experimental characterization of the considered material the occurrence of dynamic strain aging lead to an oscillating signal of the width change of the tensile samples, which prevented a reliable determination of plastic strain ratios (r-values). Thus, an improved measurement concept was developed that leads to a very robust and reproducible determination of r-values. Furthermore, a novel plane-strain tensile test sample is presented which is used for the characterization of the plastic anisotropy in biaxial loading states. A quantitative comparison with measured earing profiles of deep drawn cups illustrates the predictive capabilities of the numerical simulation.

Aretz, Holger; Aegerter, Johannes; Engler, Olaf [Hydro Aluminium Deutschland GmbH, Research and Development, Georg-von-Boeselager-Str. 21, D-53117 Bonn (Germany)

2010-06-15

476

3D visualization of middle ear structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The achievement of volume geometry data from middle ear structures and surrounding components performs a necessary supposition for the finite element simulation of the vibrational and transfer characteristics of the ossicular chain. So far those models base on generalized figures and size data from anatomy textbooks or particular manual and one- or two-dimensional distance measurements of single ossicles, mostly obtained by light microscopy, respectively. Therefore the goal of this study is to create a procedure for complete three-dimensional imaging of real middle ear structures (tympanic membrane, ossicles, ligaments) in vitro or even in vivo. The main problems are their microscopic size with relevant structures from 10 micrometer to 5 mm, representing various tissue properties (bone, soft tissue). Additionally, these structures are surrounded by the temporal bone, the most solid bone of the human body. Generally there exist several established diagnostic tools for medical imaging that could be used for geometry data acquisition, e.g., X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Basically they image different tissue parameters, either bony structures (ossicles), or soft tissue (tympanic membrane, ligaments). But considering this application those standard techniques allow low spatial resolution only, usually in the 0.5 - 1mm range, at least in one spatial direction. Thus particular structures of the middle ear region could even be missed completely because of their spatial location. In vitro there is a way out by collecting three complete data sets, each distinguished by 90 degree rotation of a cube-shaped temporal bone specimen. That allows high-resolution imaging in three orthogonal planes, which essentially supports the three-dimensional interpolation of the unknown elements, starting from the regularly set elements of the cubic grid with an edge extension given by the original two-dimensional matrix. A different approach represents the application of a micro- tomographic imaging device. Therefore an X-ray beam focused down to few microns passes the object in a tomographic arrangement. Subsequently the slices become reconstructed. Generally spatial resolution down to 10 micrometer may be obtained by using this procedure. But there exist few devices only, it is not available as standard equipment. The best results concerning spatial resolution should be achieved by applying conventional histologic sectioning techniques. Of course the target will become destroyed during the procedure. It is cut into sections (e.g., 10 micrometer thick), every layer is stained, and the image acquired and stored by a digital still-camera with appropriate resolution (e.g., 2024 X 3036). Three-dimensional reconstruction is done with the computer. The staining allows visual selection of bones and soft tissues, resolutions down to 10 micrometer are possible without target segmentation. But there arise some practical problems. Mainly the geometric context of the layers is affected by the cutting procedure, especially if cutting bone. Another problem performs the adjustment of the -- possibly distorted -- slices to each other. Artificial markers are necessary, which could allow automatic adjustment too. But the introduction and imaging of the markers is difficult inside the temporal bone specimen, that is interspersed by several cavities. Of course the internal target structures must not be destroyed by the marker introduction. Furthermore the embedding compound could disturb the image acquisition, e.g., by optical scattering of paraffin. A related alternative is given by layered ablation/grinding and imaging of the top layer. This saves the geometric consistency, but requires very tricky and time-consuming embedding procedures. Both approaches require considerable expenditures. The possible approaches are evaluated in detail and first results are compared. So far none of the above-mentioned procedures has been established as a standard tool for three-dimensional geometry data acquisition of the middle ear. Otherwise the establi

Vogel, Uwe; Schmitt, Thomas

1998-06-01

477

Relapsing Polychondritis: Inflamed Joints and Ears  

PubMed Central

Background: Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an episodic and progressive inflammatory disease of the cartilaginous structures, including elastic cartilage of the ear and nose, hyaline cartilage of the peripheral joints, fibrocartilage at axial sites, and cartilage of the tracheo-bronchial tree. The spectrum of its presentations may vary from intermittent mild episodes of chondritis to occasional organ involvement or even life-threatening manifestations. Case Report: We presented a 64 year-old male patient with bilaterally knee arthritis and discoloration of pinna. Conclusion: There is lack of awareness about this disease due to its rarity. With this case presentation, our goal was to draw attention to this disease, which could be delayed for the diagnosis.

Meliko?lu, Meltem Alkan; ?enel, Kaz?m

2015-01-01

478

Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla  

SciTech Connect

A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middle ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops.

Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.; Shea, D.; Schachern, P.; Paparella, M.M.; Carpenter, A.M.

1981-08-01

479

Significance of Brain Tissue Oxygenation and the Arachidonic Acid Cascade in Stroke  

PubMed Central

Abstract The significance of the hypoxia component of stroke injury is highlighted by hypermetabolic brain tissue enriched with arachidonic acid (AA), a 22:6n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. In an ischemic stroke environment in which cerebral blood flow is arrested, oxygen-starved brain tissue initiates the rapid cleavage of AA from the membrane phospholipid bilayer. Once free, AA undergoes both enzyme-independent and enzyme-mediated oxidative metabolism, resulting in the formation of number of biologically active metabolites which themselves contribute to pathological stroke outcomes. This review is intended to examine two divergent roles of molecular dioxygen in brain tissue as (1) a substrate for life-sustaining homeostatic metabolism of glucose and (2) a substrate for pathogenic metabolism of AA under conditions of stroke. Recent developments in research concerning supplemental oxygen therapy as an intervention to correct the hypoxic component of stroke injury are discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1889–1903. PMID:20673202

Rink, Cameron

2011-01-01

480

Interaction of arachidonic acid with electrogenic properties of mouse chemosensory neurons  

PubMed Central

Chemosensory neurons respond to stimulation induced by gasses, volatile and non-volatile compounds. Neuronal excitation mediated via second messengers involves typically: cGMP, cAMP, or IP3. Transduction pathways based on cyclic nucleotide have three-phosphate nucleotide as substrate, while IP3 has a membrane lipid substrate. These derivatives of cholesterol are signaling molecules with modulator-like effects on many proteins, including membrane ion channels. In the present study, spontaneous and induced activities were recorded in a whole-cell configuration, in current and voltage clamp modes, in isolated chemosensory neurons obtained from the mouse. Chemosensory neurons responded with an inward depolarizing current to application of arachidonic acid, which suggests a role for it in putative mechanisms of signal transduction. PMID:21147627

2010-01-01

481

Axonal Gradient of Arachidonic Acid-containing Phosphatidylcholine and Its Dependence on Actin Dynamics*  

PubMed Central

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant component of lipid bilayers and exists in various molecular forms, through combinations of two acylated fatty acids. Arachidonic acid (AA)-containing PC (AA-PC) can be a source of AA, which is a crucial mediator of synaptic transmission and intracellular signaling. However, the distribution of AA-PC within neurons has not been indicated. In the present study, we used imaging mass spectrometry to characterize the distribution of PC species in cultured neurons of superior cervical ganglia. Intriguingly, PC species exhibited a unique distribution that was dependent on the acyl chains at the sn-2 position. In particular, we found that AA-PC is enriched within the axon and is distributed across a proximal-to-distal gradient. Inhibitors of actin dynamics (cytochalasin D and phallacidin) disrupted this gradient. This is the first report of the gradual distribution of AA-PC along the axon and its association with actin dynamics. PMID:22207757

Yang, Hyun-Jeong; Sugiura, Yuki; Ikegami, Koji; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi

2012-01-01

482

Arachidonic acid levels in serum phospholipids of patients with angina pectoris or fatal myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

The fatty acid composition and concentrations of serum phospholipids (PL) were examined in 14 normal subjects (NS), 10 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and stable angina pectoris, and in 12 patients with acute, fatal myocardial infarction (MI). The NS and patients with CHD and stable angina pectoris were matched with respect to age, height, body weight, blood pressure and serum cholesterol. Serum PL of patients with CHD and of patients with acute, fatal MI contained significantly more arachidonic acid (20:4n6, AA) than serum PL of the NS. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3, DHA) was also increased in serum PL of patients with acute, fatal MI. AA and DHA levels in serum PL reflect changes in lipid metabolism that may relate to the cause and/or consequences of CHD. PMID:4050552

Skuladottir, G; Hardarson, T; Sigfusson, N; Oddsson, G; Gudbjarnason, S

1985-01-01

483

The Synthesis and In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of Fluorinated Arachidonic Acid: Implications for Imaging Neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Arachidonic acid (AA) is found in high concentrations in brain phospholipids and is released as a second messenger during neurotransmission and much more so during neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity. Upregulated brain AA metabolism associated with neuroinflammation has been imaged in rodents using [1-14C]AA and with PET in Alzheimer disease patients using [1-11C]AA. Radiotracer brain AA uptake is independent of cerebral blood flow, making it an ideal tracer despite altered brain functional activity. However, the 20.4-min radioactive half-life of 11C-AA and challenges of routinely synthesizing 11C fatty acids limit their translational utility as PET biomarkers. Methods As a first step to develop a clinically useful 18F-fluoroarachidonic acid (18F-FAA) with a long radioactive half-life of 109.8 min, we report here a high-yield stereoselective synthetic method of non-radioactive 20-19F-FAA. We tested its in vivo pharmacokinetics by infusing purified nonradioactive 19F-FAA intravenously for 5 min at 2 doses in unanesthetized mice and measured its plasma and brain distribution using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Incorporation coefficients of injected 19F-FAA into brain phospholipids (ratio of brain 19F-FAA concentration to plasma input function) were 3- to 29-fold higher for choline glycerophospholipid and phosphatidylinositol than for ethanolamine glycerophospholipid and phosphatidylserine at each of the 2 tested doses. The selectivities and values of incorporation coefficients were comparable to those reported after [1-14C]AA (the natural arachidonate) infusion in mice. Conclusion These results suggest that it would be worthwhile to translate our stereoselective synthetic method for 19F-FAA to synthesize positron-emitting 18F-FAA for human brain AA metabolism in neuroinflammatory disorders such as Alzheimer disease. PMID:22851635

Pichika, Rama; Taha, Ameer Y.; Gao, Fei; Kotta, Kishore; Cheon, Yewon; Chang, Lisa; Kiesewetter, Dale; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Eckelman, William C.

2012-01-01

484

Arachidonic acid metabolites do not mediate toluene diisocyanate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Arachidonic acid metabolites have previously been demonstrated to mediate the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in guinea pigs and dogs after exposure to ozone. Guinea pigs were treated with indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), U-60,257 (piriprost, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor), or BW775c (a lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and exposed to air or 3 ppm TDI. Airway responsiveness to acetylcholine aerosol was examined 2 h after exposure. In control animals, the provocative concentration of acetylcholine which caused a 200% increase in pulmonary resistance over baseline (PC200) was significantly less (p less than 0.05) after exposure to TDI (8.6 +/- 2.0 mg/ml, geometric mean + geometric SE, n = 10) than after exposure to air (23.9 + 2.5 mg/ml, n = 14). The airway responsiveness to acetylcholine in animals treated with indomethacin or piriprost and exposed to TDI was not different from that of control animals exposed to TDI. Treatment with BW755c enhanced the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in animals exposed to TDI without altering the PC200 of animals exposed to air. The PC200 of animals treated with BW755c and exposed to TDI (2.3 + 0.8 mg/ml, n = 8) was significantly lower than the PC200 of control animals exposed to TDI (p less than 0.025). These results suggest that products of arachidonic acid metabolism are not responsible for TDI-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs. BW755c, however, appears to potentiate the TDI-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to acetylcholine by an as yet unidentified mechanism. PMID:2840688

Gordon, T; Thompson, J E; Sheppard, D

1988-05-01

485

Chain elongation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by vascular endothelial cells: studies with arachidonate analogues.  

PubMed

This study has utilized radiolabeled analogues of arachidonic acid to study the substrate specificity of elongation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated for 2-72 hr in medium supplemented with 0.9-2.6 microM [14C]fatty acid, and cellular glycerolipids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography with radioactivity detection. Elongation of naturally occurring C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids occurred with eicosapentaenoate (20:5(n-3] greater than Mead acid (20:3(n-9] greater than arachidonate (20:4(n-6]. Chain length markedly influenced the extent of elongation of 5,8,11,14-tetraenoates (18:4 greater than 19:4 greater than 20:4 greater than 21:4); effects of initial double bond position were also observed (6,9,12,15-20:4 greater than 4,7,10,13-20:4. Neither 5,8,14- nor 5,11,14-20:3 was elongated to the extent of 5,8,11-20:3. Differences between polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed both in the initial rates and in the maximal percentages of elongation, suggesting that the content of cellular C20 and C22 fatty acids may represent a balance between chain elongation and retroconversion. Umbilical vein endothelial cells do not exhibit significant desaturation of either 22:4(n-6) or 22:5(n-3). By contrast, incubation with 5,8,11,14-[14C]18:4(n-4) resulted in formation of both [14C]20:5(n-4) and [14C]22:5(n-4). The respective time courses for the appearances of [14C]22:5(n-4) and [14C]20:5(n-5) suggests delta 6 desaturation of [14C]22:4(n-4) rather than delta 4 desaturation of [14C]20:4(n-4). PMID:2345494

Garcia, M C; Sprecher, H; Rosenthal, M D

1990-04-01

486

Prenatal Ultrasound Screening for External Ear Abnormality in the Fetuses  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate the best time of examination and section chosen of routine prenatal ultrasound screening for external ear abnormalities and evaluate the feasibility of examining the fetal external ear with ultrasonography. Methods. From July 2010 until August 2011, 42118 pregnant women with single fetus during 16–40 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in the study. Fetal auricles and external auditory canal in the second trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by routine color Doppler ultrasound screening and systematic screening. Ultrasound images of fetal external ears were obtained on transverse-incline view at cervical vertebra level and mandible level and on parasagittal view and coronal view at external ear level. Results. Five fetuses had anomalous ears including bilateral malformed auricles with malformed external auditory canal, unilateral deformed external ear, and unilateral microtia. The detection rate of both auricles was negatively correlated with gestational age. Of the 5843 fetuses undergoing a routine ultrasound screening, 5797 (99.21%) had bilateral auricles. Of the 4955 fetuses following systematic screening, all fetuses (100%) had bilateral auricles. The best time for fetal auricles observation with ultrasonography is 20–24 weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions. Detection of external ear abnormalities may assist in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:25050343

Wei, Jun; Ran, Suzhen; Yang, Zhengchun; Lin, Yun; Tang, Jing

2014-01-01

487

Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.  

PubMed

Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-?-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA. PMID:22652378

Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

2012-05-01

488

Attenuation of kainic acid-induced status epilepticus by inhibition of endocannabinoid transport and degradation in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency associated with a high rate of mortality if not treated promptly. Exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids have been shown to possess anticonvulsant properties both in vivo and in vitro. Here we study the influence of endocannabinoid metabolism on the development of kainic acid-induced SE in guinea pigs. For this purpose, the inhibitors of endocannabinoid transport, AM404, and enzymatic (fatty acid amide hydrolase) degradation, URB597, were applied. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251, was also tested. Animal behavior as well as local electric field potentials in four structures: medial septum, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and amygdala were analyzed when AM404 (120nmol), URB597 (4.8nmol) or AM251 (20nmol) were administrated alone or together with 0.4?g of kainic acid. All substances were injected i.c.v. AM404, URB597 or AM251 administered alone did not alter markedly local field potentials of all four studied structures in the long-term compared with their basal activity. AM404 and URB597 significantly alleviated kainic acid-induced SE, decreasing behavioral manifestations, duration of seizure events and SE in general without changing the amplitude of local field potentials. AM251 did not produce distinct effects on SE in terms of our experimental paradigm. There was no apparent change of the seizure initiation pattern when kainic acid was coadministrated with AM404, URB597 or AM251. The present study provides electrophysiologic and behavioral evidences that inhibition of endocannabinoid metabolism plays a protective role against kainic acid-induced SE and may be employed for therapeutic purposes. Further investigations of the influences of cannabinoid-related compounds on SE genesis and especially epileptogenesis are required. PMID:25769371

Shubina, Liubov; Aliev, Rubin; Kitchigina, Valentina

2015-03-01

489

Hot Pepper (Capsicum spp.) protects brain from sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in vitro.  

PubMed

One practical way through which free radical-mediated neurodegenerative diseases could be prevented is through the consumption of food rich in antioxidants. The ability of aqueous extracts of ripe and unripe Capsicum annum, Tepin (CAT) and Capsicum chinese, Habanero (CCH) to prevent lipid peroxidation induced by sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid in rat brain in vitro is assessed in this study. The aqueous extract of the peppers were prepared (1 g/20 mL). Incubating rat brain homogenates with pro-oxidant (7 microM sodium nitroprusside [222.5%] and 1 mM quinolinic acid [217.4%]) caused a significant increase (P < .05) in lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. However, the aqueous extract of the peppers (4.2-16.8 mg/mL) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in the lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. However, unripe CAT (92.5-55.2%) caused the highest inhibition of sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while unripe CCH caused the least inhibition (161.0-102.1%). Furthermore, unripe CAT and CCH peppers had a significantly higher (P < .05) inhibitory effect on quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain than the ripe pepper (CAT and CCH). Therefore, the protection of the brain tissues by hot pepper depends on the total phenol content in sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while ripening would reduce the protective properties of hot pepper against quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation. However, unripe CAT has the highest protective properties against sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain. PMID:18598179

Oboh, G; Rocha, J B T

2008-06-01

490

3D Ear Identification Based on Sparse Representation  

PubMed Central

Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person’s identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm. PMID:24740247

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

2014-01-01

491

Cells, molecules and morphogenesis: The making of the vertebrate ear  

PubMed Central

The development and evolution of mechanosensory cells and the vertebrate ear is reviewed with an emphasis on delineating the cellular, molecular and developmental basis of these changes. Outgroup comparisons suggests that mechanosensory cells are ancient features of multicellular organisms. Molecular evidence suggests that key genes involved in mechanosensory cell function and development are also conserved among metazoans. The divergent morphology of mechanosensory cells across phyla is interpreted here as ‘deep molecular homology’ that was in parallel shaped into different forms in each lineage. The vertebrate mechanosensory hair cell and its associated neuron are interpreted as uniquely derived features of vertebrates. It is proposed that the vertebrate otic placode presents a unique embryonic adaptation in which the diffusely distributed ancestral mechanosensory cells became concentrated to generate a large neurosensory precursor population. Morphogenesis of the inner ear is reviewed and shown to depend on genes expressed in and around the hindbrain that interact with the otic placode to define boundaries and polarities. These patterning genes affect downstream genes needed to maintain proliferation and to execute ear morphogenesis. We propose that fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) are a crucial central node to translate patterning into the complex morphology of the vertebrate ear. Unfortunately, the FGF and FGFR genes have not been fully analyzed in the many mutants with morphogenetic ear defects described thus far. Likewise, little information exists on the ear histogenesis and neurogenesis in many mutants. Nevertheless, a molecular mechanism is now emerging for the formation of the horizontal canal, an evolutionary novelty of the gnathostome ear. The existing general module mediating vertical canal growth and morphogenesis was modified by two sets of new genes: one set responsible for horizontal canal morphogenesis and another set for neurosensory formation of the horizontal crista and associated sensory neurons. The dramatic progress in deciphering the molecular basis of ear morphogenesis offers grounds for optimism for translational research toward intervention in human morphogenetic defects of the ear. PMID:16643865

Fritzsch, Bernd; Pauley, Sarah; Beisel, Kirk W.

2014-01-01

492

Tumors and tumorlike lesions of dog and cat ears.  

PubMed

Bacterial and fungal otitis constitutes most ear disease in companion animals. However, a wide spectrum of infectious and noninfectious disease processes involve the structures of the ear and are of primary diagnostic consideration in cases of recurrent otitis or those refractive to traditional treatments. This article discusses several common to reasonably rare neoplastic and nonneoplastic space-occupying lesions of the external, middle, and internal ear. Although some conditions present as unique entities, many present similar to or concurrent with otitis, and should be considered in cases of clinically unresponsive otitis. PMID:23122175

Sula, Mee Ja M

2012-11-01

493

Shaping sound in space: the regulation of inner ear patterning  

PubMed Central

The inner ear is one of the most morphologically elaborate tissues in vertebrates, containing a group of mechanosensitive sensory organs that mediate hearing and balance. These organs are arranged precisely in space and contain intricately patterned sensory epithelia. Here, we review recent studies of inner ear development and patterning which reveal that multiple stages of ear development – ranging from its early induction from the embryonic ectoderm to the establishment of the three cardinal axes and the fine-grained arrangement of sensory cells – are orchestrated by gradients of signaling molecules. PMID:22186725

Groves, Andrew K.; Fekete, Donna M.

2012-01-01

494

A Case of Atypical Granuloma Annulare Involving Both Ears  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of granuloma annulare (GA), affecting both ear antihelixes, in a 28-year old male patient that presented with a 1-year history of non-tender, firm, skin-colored, 1~5 mm papules on both ear antihelixes. There was no history of trauma. An excisional biopsy specimen taken from one of the lesions of the right ear revealed infiltration of histiocytes and lymphocytes around a zone of collagen alteration in the dermis. Based on the clinical and pathological findings, the patient was diagnosed with a rare case of bilateral GA of both antihelixes; this is the first report in the Korean dermatology literature. PMID:20523836

Kim, Jin Gu; Lee, Seung Hun

2009-01-01

495

Patterns of ear disease in the southwestern American Indian.  

PubMed

Native Americans are predisposed to one of the highest incidences of otitis media in mankind. The origin of otitis media in Indians remains multifaceted. However, an unusually high prevalence of congenital anomalies of the ear and oral cavity, ie, oral clefts, facial paralysis in diabetics, and the absence of otosclerosis, suggest racial inheritance as a predominant factor for their pattern or ear disease. An analysis of outpatient and operative records at the Phoenix (Ariz) Indian Medical Center substantiates this hypothesis and shows contrasts in ear disease between American Indians and white persons. PMID:454296

Wiet, R J

1979-07-01

496

NADPH oxidase NOX5-S and nuclear factor ?B1 mediate acid-induced microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 expression in Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not known. Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandin E? (PGE?) has been shown to be important in esophageal tumorigenesis. We have shown that COX-2 mediates acid-induced PGE? production. The prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) responsible for acid-induced PGE2 production in BE, however, is not known. We found that microsomal PGES1 (mPGES1), mPGES2, and cytosolic PGES (cPGES) were present in FLO EA cells. Pulsed acid treatment significantly increased mPGES1 mRNA and protein levels but had little or no effect on mPGES2 or cPGES mRNA. Knockdown of mPGES1 by mPGES1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked acid-induced increase in PGE2 production and thymidine incorporation. Knockdown of NADPH oxidase, NOX5-S, a variant lacking calcium-binding domains, by NOX5 siRNA significantly inhibited acid-induced increase in mPGES1 expression, thymidine incorporation, and PGE2 production. Overexpression of NOX5-S significantly increased the luciferase activity in FLO cells transfected with a nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in vivo activation reporter plasmid pNF-?B-Luc. Knockdown of NF-?B1 p50 by p50 siRNA significantly decreased acid-induced increase in mPGES1 expression, thymidine incorporation, and PGE? production. Two novel NF-?B binding elements, GGAGTCTCCC and CGGGACACCC, were identified in the mPGES1 gene promoter. We conclude that mPGES1 mediates acid-induced increase in PGE? production and cell proliferation. Acid-induced mPGES1 expression depends on activation of NOX5-S and NF-?B1 p50. Microsomal PGES1 may be a potential target to prevent or treat EA. PMID:23439561

Zhou, Xiaoxu; Li, Dan; Resnick, Murray B; Wands, Jack; Cao, Weibiao

2013-05-01

497

Evolution of Gravity Receptors in the Ear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general status of a grant to investigate the origins and evolution of two hair cell types in the ears of a teleost fish, Astronotus ocellatus (the oscar), is presented. First, it was demonstrated that the cells in the rostral end of the saccule of the , Carassius auratus, are type 1-like, while those at the caudal end are type 2 cells. It was demonstrated that the dichotomy of hair cell types found in the utricle of the oscar is also found in the goldfish. Second, the lateral line system of the oscar was examined using gentamicin sulphate, an ototocix drug that destroys type 1- like hair cells but does not appear to damage type 2 hair cells. It was demonstrated that the hair cells found in neuromasts of lateral line canal organs were totally destroyed within 1 day of treatment, while the hair cells in free neuromasts were undamaged after 12 days of treatment. Third, it was demonstrated that the calyx, the specialized nerve ending, is not unique to amniotes and that it is present at least in the cristae of semicirular canals in goldfish. These results have demonstrated that: (1) there are multiple hair cell types in the vestibular endorgans of the ear of fishes, (2) these hair cell types are very similar to those found in the mammalian vestibular endorgans, (3) the nerve calyx is also present in fishes, and (4) multiple hair cell types and the calyx have evolved far earlier in the course of vertebrate evolution than heretofore thought. Understanding the structure of the vestibular endorgans has important implications for being able to understand how these organs respond to gravistatic, acceleration and acoustic input. The vestibular endorgans of fishes may provide an ideal system in which to analyze functional differences in hair cells. Not only are the two hair cell types similar to those found in mammals, they are located in very discrete regions in each endorgan. Thus, it is relatively easy to gain access to cells of one or the other type. The presence of two cell types in the lateral line have equally significant implications for studies of the vestibular system.

Popper, Arthur N. (Principal Investigator)

1996-01-01

498

MODULATION OF COX I AND COX II-MEDIATED FORMATION OF VARIOUS ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLITES IN VITRO AND IN VIVO BY DIETARY POLYPHENOLS  

E-print Network

Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key enzyme required for the conversion of arachidonic acid (AA) to various prostaglandins (PGs), thromboxanes (TXs), and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), by which AA exert numerous biological ...

Bai, Hyoungwoo

2009-12-03

499

Prediction of the sound pressure at the ear drum for open fittings  

E-print Network

Prediction of the sound pressure at the ear drum for open fittings T. Sankowsky-Rothea , M. Blaua of hearing aids requires knowledge of the sound pressure generated at the ear drum. Traditionally, the sound pressure at the ear drum is estimated by the use of a model of an average ear canal (e.g. a coupler

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

500

Reflectance in ME disorders 1 Running head: REFLECTANCE IN MIDDLE-EAR DISORDERS  

E-print Network

Reflectance in ME disorders 1 Running head: REFLECTANCE IN MIDDLE-EAR DISORDERS Wideband energy reflectance measurements in adults with middle-ear disorders M. Patrick Feeney University of Washington with a variety of middle-ear disorders. The ER results from nine participants with middle-ear disorders and one

Allen, Jont